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  Subjects -> PHYSICS (Total: 738 journals)
    - ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM (7 journals)
    - MECHANICS (19 journals)
    - NUCLEAR PHYSICS (44 journals)
    - OPTICS (84 journals)
    - PHYSICS (538 journals)
    - SOUND (17 journals)
    - THERMODYNAMICS (29 journals)

PHYSICS (538 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Physica B: Condensed Matter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
physica status solidi (a)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
physica status solidi (b)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
physica status solidi (c)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physica Status Solidi - Rapid Research Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physical Communication     Hybrid Journal  
Physical Review C     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Physical Review Special Topics - Physics Education Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Physical Review X     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Physical Sciences Data     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physics - spotlighting exceptional research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physics and Chemistry of Glasses - European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part B     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Physics and Chemistry of Liquids: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Physics Essays     Full-text available via subscription  
Physics in Medicine & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Physics in Perspective     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physics International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Physics Letters A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Physics Letters B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Physics of Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Physics of Life Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physics of Plasmas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Physics of the Dark Universe     Open Access  
Physics of the Solid State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Physics of Wave Phenomena     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physics Procedia     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Physics Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physics Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Physics Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Physics World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Physics-Uspekhi     Full-text available via subscription  
Physik in unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal  
Physik Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Plasma Physics Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pramana     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Preview     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 405)
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Progress in Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Progress in Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics     Open Access  
Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Quantum Measurements and Quantum Metrology     Open Access  
Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Radiation Measurements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Radiation Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Radiation Protection Dosimetry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Radiation Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Radio Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Radiological Physics and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Reflets de la physique     Full-text available via subscription  
Reports on Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Reports on Progress in Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Research in Drama Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Research Journal of Physics     Open Access  
Results in Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Reviews in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal  
Reviews of Accelerator Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Reviews of Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Reviews of Modern Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Revista Colombiana de Física     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Física     Open Access  
Revista mexicana de física E     Open Access  
Rheologica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Russian Journal of Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal  
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal  
Russian Physics Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Samuel Beckett Today/Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Science China Physics, Mechanics and Astronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Science Foundation in China     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Scientific Journal of Physical Science     Open Access  
Scientific Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Sensor Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sensors and Actuators A: Physical     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Services Computing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Shock and Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Small     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Software Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Solid State Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Solid-State Circuits Magazine, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Space Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Spectroscopy Letters: An International Journal for Rapid Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sri Lankan Journal of Physics     Open Access  
Strain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Strength of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Strength, Fracture and Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Structural Dynamics     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Nature Communications
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero [42 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Online) 2041-1723
     Published by Nature Publishing Group Homepage  [110 journals]   [SJR: 5.041]   [H-I: 34]
  • Spontaneous transmembrane helix insertion thermodynamically mimics
           translocon-guided insertion
    • Authors: Martin B. Ulmschneider, Jakob P. Ulmschneider, Nina Schiller, B. A. Wallace, Gunnar von Heijne, Stephen H. White
      Abstract: Insertion of proteins into a membrane bilayer driven by the Sec translocon is aided by the attributes of the inserted peptides. Here, Ulmschneider et al. measure the free energies of various insertion events and suggest that the membrane interface plays an important role in translocon-guided TM helix insertion.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-10|2014-09-10
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5863
       
  • Crystal structure of a common GPCR-binding interface for G protein and
           arrestin
    • Authors: Michal Szczepek, Florent Beyrière, Klaus Peter Hofmann, Matthias Elgeti, Roman Kazmin, Alexander Rose, Franz J. Bartl, David von Stetten, Martin Heck, Martha E. Sommer, Peter W. Hildebrand, Patrick Scheerer
      Abstract: G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) transmit signals through intracellular heterotrimeric G proteins and arrestins. Here, Szczepek et al. present the structure of a common binding interface for Gα and arrestin on rhodopsin to shed light on key interactions that mediate transduction of specific signals through a single GPCR.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-10|2014-09-10
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5801
       
  • Nonlinear phononics using atomically thin membranes
    • Authors: Daniel Midtvedt, Andreas Isacsson, Alexander Croy
      Abstract: Analogous to photonic crystals, phononic crystals can be used to engineer the acoustic properties of a system, however, creating nonlinear phononic crystals or nonlinear acoustic metamaterial is challenging. Here, Midtvedt et al. propose periodically pinned, atomically thin membranes as a nonlinear phononics platform.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-10|2014-09-10
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5838
       
  • Anisotropic magnetoresistance in an antiferromagnetic semiconductor
    • Authors: I. Fina, X. Marti, D. Yi, J. Liu, J. H. Chu, C. Rayan-Serrao, S. Suresha, A. B. Shick, J. Železný, T. Jungwirth, J. Fontcuberta, R. Ramesh
      Abstract: The change in the electrical properties of a ferromagnetic under the influence of a magnetic field depends strongly on field orientation. Marti et al. now show that this so-called anisotropic magnetoresistance is also evident in antiferromagnetic semiconductors, making them useful in spintronics.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-10|2014-09-10
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5671
       
  • Conversion of magnetic energy in the magnetic reconnection layer of a
           laboratory plasma
    • Authors: Masaaki Yamada, Jongsoo Yoo, Jonathan Jara-Almonte, Hantao Ji, Russell M. Kulsrud, Clayton E. Myers
      Abstract: Magnetic reconnection is believed to play a key role in the acceleration and heating of particles in astrophysical plasmas but the details are unclear. Yamada et al . study reconnection in a laboratory plasma, enabling them to determine the exact mechanisms of energy flow from magnetic field to particles.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-10|2014-09-10
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5774
       
  • Uncovering many-body correlations in nanoscale nuclear spin baths by
           central spin decoherence
    • Authors: Wen-Long Ma, Gary Wolfowicz, Nan Zhao, Shu-Shen Li, John J.L. Morton, Ren-Bao Liu
      Abstract: Detecting many-body correlations is a long-standing challenge in many-body physics. By studying their effects on the decoherence of the central spin under dynamical decoupling, Ma et al. provide an experimental demonstration of detection of many-body correlations in nanoscale nuclear spin bath.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-10|2014-09-10
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5822
       
  • Self-assembly of two-dimensional DNA origami lattices using
           cation-controlled surface diffusion
    • Authors: Sungwook Woo, Paul W. K. Rothemund
      Abstract: DNA origami is useful for organizing nanoscale objects, and linear arrays of DNA origami have previously been assembled via programmable bonds based on DNA base-stacking. Here, such ‘stacking bonds’ are used to assemble large 2D lattices of DNA origami by a novel cation-controlled surface diffusion mechanism.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-10|2014-09-10
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5889
       
  • Pressure-stabilized lithium caesides with caesium anions beyond the
           −1 state
    • Authors: Jorge Botana, Mao-Sheng Miao
      Abstract: In chemical compounds, alkali metal ions typically assume a positive oxidation state where they lose an electron, and only rarely are in a charge state where they receive an electron. Here, the authors predict lithium cesides with oxidation states where caesium receives more than one electron.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-10|2014-09-10
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5861
       
  • Streptomycin potency is dependent on MscL channel expression
    • Authors: Irene Iscla, Robin Wray, Shuguang Wei, Bruce Posner, Paul Blount
      Abstract: The mechanism by which the common antibiotic streptomycin enters bacterial cells is unclear. Here, Iscla et al. show that streptomycin alters the activity of the bacterial mechanosensitive ion channel, MscL, inducing potassium efflux, and suggest that this channel may provide a route for cell entry.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-10|2014-09-10
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5891
       
  • Microwave transitions as a signature of coherent parity mixing effects in
           the Majorana-transmon qubit
    • Authors: Eran Ginossar, Eytan Grosfeld
      Abstract: The ability to support and manipulate Majorana fermion states in solid-state devices could enable the development of fault tolerant quantum information processing. Eran Ginossar and Eytan Grosfeld propose a means to detect and control Majorana fermions in a superconducting qubit.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-10|2014-09-10
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5772
       
  • Highly efficient inverted polymer light-emitting diodes using surface
           modifications of ZnO layer
    • Authors: Bo Ram Lee, Eui Dae Jung, Ji Sun Park, Yun Seok Nam, Sa Hoon Min, Byeong-Su Kim, Kyung-Min Lee, Jong-Ryul Jeong, Richard H. Friend, Ji-Seon Kim, Sang Ouk Kim, Myoung Hoon Song
      Abstract: Light trapped in the active polymeric layer limits the total efficiency of polymer light-emitting diodes. Here, Lee et al. get round this bottleneck by enhancing light extraction in waveguide optical modes via ripple-shaped nanostructures that spontaneously form on ZnO electrode surfaces.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-10|2014-09-10
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5840
       
  • A novel Plasmodium-specific prodomain fold regulates the malaria drug
           target SUB1 subtilase
    • Authors: David Giganti, Anthony Bouillon, Lina Tawk, Fabienne Robert, Mariano Martinez, Elodie Crublet, Patrick Weber, Christine Girard-Blanc, Stéphane Petres, Ahmed Haouz, Jean-François Hernandez, Odile Mercereau-Puijalon, Pedro M. Alzari, Jean-Christophe Barale
      Abstract: Subtilase SUB1, a proteolytic enzyme required for the exit of malarial parasites from host cells, represents a promising target for anti-malarial drugs. Here, Giganti et al. report the structure of Plasmodium SUB1 and identify an essential domain involved in calcium-dependent activation of the enzyme.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-10|2014-09-10
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5833
       
  • In situ nanoindentation study on plasticity and work hardening in
           aluminium with incoherent twin boundaries
    • Authors: D. Bufford, Y. Liu, J. Wang, H. Wang, X. Zhang
      Abstract: Nanotwinned metals containing a high density of coherent twin boundaries have the potential to exhibit high strength and ductility. Here, the authors study the effect that incoherent twin boundaries have on mechanical properties of nanotwinned aluminium with high stacking-fault energy, observing substantial work hardening and plasticity.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-10|2014-09-10
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5864
       
  • Duplication of a promiscuous transcription factor drives the emergence of
           a new regulatory network
    • Authors: Ksenia Pougach, Arnout Voet, Fyodor A. Kondrashov, Karin Voordeckers, Joaquin F. Christiaens, Bianka Baying, Vladimir Benes, Ryo Sakai, Jan Aerts, Bo Zhu, Patrick Van Dijck, Kevin J. Verstrepen
      Abstract: The molecular basis of transcriptional regulation evolution following gene duplication is poorly understood. Here the authors show how duplication of a promiscuous fungal transcription factor followed by concerted cis and trans mutations generates a novel regulatory network.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-10|2014-09-10
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5868
       
  • The landscape of kinase fusions in cancer
    • Authors: Nicolas Stransky, Ethan Cerami, Stefanie Schalm, Joseph L. Kim, Christoph Lengauer
      Abstract: Kinases activated by gene fusions represent potentially important targets for the development of cancer drugs. Here, the authors develop a method for detecting gene fusion events in RNA sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and identify several novel recurrent fusions involving kinases.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-10|2014-09-10
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5846
       
  • Energy-filtered cold electron transport at room temperature
    • Authors: Pradeep Bhadrachalam, Ramkumar Subramanian, Vishva Ray, Liang-Chieh Ma, Weichao Wang, Jiyoung Kim, Kyeongjae Cho, Seong Jin Koh
      Abstract: Electrons can behave as if they are at a temperature different from that of the solid in which they are embedded. Here, the authors demonstrate a room temperature device that can generate electrons with an effective temperature of 45 K by using quantum wells to filter out energetic particles.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-10|2014-09-10
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5745
       
  • Kinetic inductance magnetometer
    • Authors: Juho Luomahaara, Visa Vesterinen, Leif Grönberg, Juha Hassel
      Abstract: The ability to measure extremely weak magnetic fields is important to many applications, from brain imaging to mineral prospecting. Luomahaara et al. demonstrate a sensor for measuring ultra-low magnetic fields that is simpler and has a wider dynamic range than conventional SQUID-based magnetometers.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-10|2014-09-10
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5872
       
  • Ecological succession of a Jurassic shallow-water ichthyosaur fall
    • Authors: Silvia Danise, Richard J. Twitchett, Katie Matts
      Abstract: Little is known about Mesozoic marine reptile dead-falls. Here, the authors reconstruct the ecological succession of a Late Jurassic shallow-water ichthyosaur fall community and show that it fulfilled ecological roles similar to shallow whale falls and did not support specialized chemosynthetic communities.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-10|2014-09-10
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5789
       
  • Phosphorescent dye-based supramolecules for high-efficiency organic
           light-emitting diodes
    • Authors: Kwon-Hyeon Kim, Sunghun Lee, Chang-Ki Moon, Sei-Yong Kim, Young-Seo Park, Jeong-Hwan Lee, Jin Woo Lee, June Huh, Youngmin You, Jang-Joo Kim
      Abstract: The limit external quantum efficiency of organic LEDs based on isotropically oriented iridium complexes is believed to be around 30%. But Kim et al . show that the emission from these complexes is in fact anisotropic, enabling them to increase the external quantum efficiency of these devices to 36%.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-10|2014-09-10
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5769
       
  • Magnetic antibody-linked nanomatchmakers for therapeutic cell targeting
    • Authors: Ke Cheng, Deliang Shen, M. Taylor Hensley, Ryan Middleton, Baiming Sun, Weixin Liu, Geoffrey De Couto, Eduardo Marbán
      Abstract: Cell therapy requires sufficient amounts of therapeutic cells to be delivered to the injured tissue. Here the authors use magnetic iron nanoparticles conjugated with antibodies that bind therapeutic cells and cardiomyocytes to treat myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats and show that targeting to the heart is enhanced upon local application of a magnetic field.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-10|2014-09-10
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5880
       
  • Activation of G-protein-coupled receptors correlates with the formation of
           a continuous internal water pathway
    • Authors: Shuguang Yuan, Slawomir Filipek, Krzysztof Palczewski, Horst Vogel
      Abstract: The crystal structure of the A2A GPCR suggested that water molecules might form a continuous pathway that becomes disrupted during receptor activation. Here Yuan et al. instead show that a conserved layer of hydrophobic residues forms a gate that opens to form a continuous water channel upon receptor activation.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-09|2014-09-09
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5733
       
  • Unconventional molecule-resolved current rectification in
           diamondoid–fullerene hybrids
    • Authors: Jason C. Randel, Francis C. Niestemski, Andrés R. Botello-Mendez, Warren Mar, Georges Ndabashimiye, Sorin Melinte, Jeremy E. P. Dahl, Robert M. K. Carlson, Ekaterina D. Butova, Andrey A. Fokin, Peter R. Schreiner, Jean-Christophe Charlier, Hari C. Manoharan
      Abstract: Diamondoids are building blocks for nanostructured materials that can be used in molecular devices. Here, Randel et al. demonstrate an all-hydrocarbon single-molecule rectifier composed of a buckyball cage fused to a diamondoid, which outperforms either of its separate molecular constituents.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-09|2014-09-09
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5877
       
  • Dislocation motion and grain boundary migration in two-dimensional
           tungsten disulphide
    • Authors: Amin Azizi, Xiaolong Zou, Peter Ercius, Zhuhua Zhang, Ana Laura Elías, Néstor Perea-López, Greg Stone, Mauricio Terrones, Boris I. Yakobson, Nasim Alem
      Abstract: Two-dimensional (2D) crystals offer exciting opportunities to study dislocations, including their migration dynamics. Here, the authors show the local strain field at the dislocation core and dislocation motion leading to grain boundary migration in a monolayer of tungsten disulphide.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-09|2014-09-09
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5867
       
  • Massive outbreaks of Noctiluca scintillans blooms in the Arabian Sea due
           to spread of hypoxia
    • Authors: Helga do Rosário Gomes, Joaquim I. Goes, S. G. P. Matondkar, Edward J. Buskey, Subhajit Basu, Sushma Parab, Prasad Thoppil
      Abstract: Phytoplankton blooms in the northern Arabian Sea have shifted from diatoms to green dinoflagellates in the last decade. Here, the authors show that influx of oxygen deficient waters, together with the ability of dinoflagellates’ endosymbionts to fix carbon under such conditions, facilitated the bloom shift.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-09|2014-09-09
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5862
       
  • Impurity-band transport in organic spin valves
    • Authors: Z. G. Yu
      Abstract: The device resistance of organic spin valves is closely related to their large magnetoresistance, but the origin of this phenomenon is still unclear. Here, Yu provides an explanation in terms of electrons tunneling into a broad impurity band located between occupied and unoccupied molecular orbitals.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-09|2014-09-09
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5842
       
  • Insights into mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis from the structure of
           heterotetrameric 3-ketoacyl-ACP reductase/3R-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase
           
    • Authors: Rajaram Venkatesan, Shiv K. Sah-Teli, Luqman O. Awoniyi, Guangyu Jiang, Piotr Prus, Alexander J. Kastaniotis, J. Kalervo Hiltunen, Rik K. Wierenga, Zhijun Chen
      Abstract: 3-Ketoacyl-ACP reductase is required for mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis. Venkatesan et al. present structures of this enzyme, show that the β-subunit is involved in fatty acid synthesis and propose a role for the α-subunit in routing unsaturated fatty acids into β-oxidation.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-09|2014-09-09
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5805
       
  • STV11 encodes a sulphotransferase and confers durable resistance to rice
           stripe virus
    • Authors: Qi Wang, Yuqiang Liu, Jun He, Xiaoming Zheng, Jinlong Hu, Yanling Liu, Huimin Dai, Yingxin Zhang, Baoxiang Wang, Weixun Wu, He Gao, Yunhui Zhang, Xiaorong Tao, Huafeng Deng, Dingyang Yuan, Ling Jiang, Xin Zhang, Xiuping Guo, Xianian Cheng, Chuanyin Wu, Haiyang Wang, Longping Yuan, Jianmin Wan
      Abstract: Rice stripe virus (RSV) causes a disease in rice with significant economic consequences. Here, the authors clone an RSV-resistant gene in rice and suggest that this gene encodes a sulphotransferase that catalyses the conversion of salicylic acid (SA) into sulphonated salicylic acid, leading to increased SA accumulation in RSV-infected plants and inhibition of viral replication.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-09|2014-09-09
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5768
       
  • Sequencing an Ashkenazi reference panel supports population-targeted
           personal genomics and illuminates Jewish and European origins
    • Authors: Shai Carmi, Ken Y. Hui, Ethan Kochav, Xinmin Liu, James Xue, Fillan Grady, Saurav Guha, Kinnari Upadhyay, Dan Ben-Avraham, Semanti Mukherjee, B. Monica Bowen, Tinu Thomas, Joseph Vijai, Marc Cruts, Guy Froyen, Diether Lambrechts, Stéphane Plaisance, Christine Van Broeckhoven, Philip Van Damme, Herwig Van Marck, Nir Barzilai, Ariel Darvasi, Kenneth Offit, Susan Bressman, Laurie J. Ozelius, Inga Peter, Judy H. Cho, Harry Ostrer, Gil Atzmon, Lorraine N. Clark, Todd Lencz, Itsik Pe’er
      Abstract: Ashkenazi Jews are a genetically isolated population with distinct patterns of genetic diversity. Here, the authors sequence the genomes of 128 Ashkenazi Jewish individuals and use the sequence information to provide insight into the population's European and Middle Eastern origins.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-09|2014-09-09
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5835
       
  • Genome sequencing of chimpanzee malaria parasites reveals possible
           pathways of adaptation to human hosts
    • Authors: Thomas D. Otto, Julian C. Rayner, Ulrike Böhme, Arnab Pain, Natasha Spottiswoode, Mandy Sanders, Michael Quail, Benjamin Ollomo, François Renaud, Alan W. Thomas, Franck Prugnolle, David J. Conway, Chris Newbold, Matthew Berriman
      Abstract: Plasmodium falciparum , known to cause malaria in humans, evolved from parasites of African Great Apes. Here, the authors compare the genome of the human parasite, P. falciparum , with those of two related chimpanzee parasites, P. reichenowi and P. gaboni , and provide insight into the genetic basis of P. falciparum adaptation to human hosts.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-09|2014-09-09
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5754
       
  • High-resolution eye tracking using V1 neuron activity
    • Authors: James M. McFarland, Adrian G. Bondy, Bruce G. Cumming, Daniel A. Butts
      Abstract: Studies of high-acuity foveal neurons in the retina have been limited by an inability to accurately track eye position. Here, McFarland et al . present a method that accurately estimates eye position, allowing for detailed analyses of foveal and parafoveal stimulus processing.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-08|2014-09-08
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5605
       
  • Fano resonances and all-optical switching in a resonantly coupled
           plasmonic–atomic system
    • Authors: Liron Stern, Meir Grajower, Uriel Levy
      Abstract: Through light–matter interactions, the combination of atomic and plasmonic systems provides new spectral resonances that offer tunable spectral responses. Stern et al. show that the coupling of a plasmonic metal film with rubidium vapour leads to Fano resonances that can be all-optically controlled.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-08|2014-09-08
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5865
       
  • Evidence of Stranski–Krastanov growth at the initial stage of
           atmospheric water condensation
    • Authors: Jie Song, Qiang Li, Xiaofeng Wang, Jingyuan Li, Shuai Zhang, Jørgen Kjems, Flemming Besenbacher, Mingdong Dong
      Abstract: Water condensation on surfaces occurs in nature everywhere, but the study of its initial stage at ambient conditions is very challenging. Here, Song et al. address this issue using thermal controlled atomic force microscopy and identify a mixture of layer-by-layer and island-like modes.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-08|2014-09-08
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5837
       
  • The ubiquitin ligase PDZRN3 is required for vascular morphogenesis through
           Wnt/planar cell polarity signalling
    • Authors: Raj N. Sewduth, Béatrice Jaspard-Vinassa, Claire Peghaire, Aude Guillabert, Nathalie Franzl, Frederic Larrieu-Lahargue, Catherine Moreau, Marcus Fruttiger, Pascale Dufourcq, Thierry Couffinhal, Cécile Duplàa
      Abstract: Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) signalling regulates angiogenesis in vertebrates. Here the authors show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase PDZRN3 ubiquitinates the PCP-signalling protein Dishevelled 3 to promote Wnt/PCP signalling, directing embryonic and postnatal remodelling of the vasculature in mouse.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-08|2014-09-08
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5832
       
  • Ancient homology underlies adaptive mimetic diversity across butterflies
    • Authors: Jason R. Gallant, Vance E. Imhoff, Arnaud Martin, Wesley K. Savage, Nicola L. Chamberlain, Ben L. Pote, Chelsea Peterson, Gabriella E. Smith, Benjamin Evans, Robert D. Reed, Marcus R. Kronforst, Sean P. Mullen
      Abstract: Little is known about the genetic basis of convergent evolution in deeply diverged species. Here, the authors show that variation in the WntA gene is associated with parallel wing pattern variation in two butterflies that diverged more than 65 million years ago.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-08|2014-09-08
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5817
       
  • A female gametocyte-specific ABC transporter plays a role in lipid
           metabolism in the malaria parasite
    • Authors: Phuong N. Tran, Simon H. J. Brown, Todd W. Mitchell, Kai Matuschewski, Paul J. McMillan, Kiaran Kirk, Matthew W. A. Dixon, Alexander G. Maier
      Abstract: Production of male and female forms of the malaria parasite in an infected person is crucial for transmission of the disease. Here, Tran et al. show that an ABC transporter protein of the parasite, expressed in the female cells, modulates lipid accumulation and formation of sexual cells.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-08|2014-09-08
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5773
       
  • A toolbox of oligopeptide-modified polymers for tailored elastomers
    • Authors: Emmanuel Croisier, Su Liang, Thomas Schweizer, Sandor Balog, Marijana Mionić, Ruben Snellings, Joël Cugnoni, Véronique Michaud, Holger Frauenrath
      Abstract: Biological systems are capable of building diverse structures starting from a limited number of chemical building blocks. Here, the authors show that polymers terminated with oligopeptides display assembly behaviour dependent on peptide length, and blends allow tailoring of a variety of material properties.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-08|2014-09-08
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5728
       
  • Immunochip SNP array identifies novel genetic variants conferring
           susceptibility to candidaemia
    • Authors: Vinod Kumar, Shih-Chin Cheng, Melissa D. Johnson, Sanne P Smeekens, Agnieszka Wojtowicz, Evangelos Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Juha Karjalainen, Lude Franke, Sebo Withoff, Theo S Plantinga, Frank L. van de Veerdonk, Jos W.M. van der Meer, Leo A.B. Joosten, Harry Sokol, Hermann Bauer, Bernhard G. Herrmann, Pierre-Yves Bochud, Oscar Marchetti, John R. Perfect, Ramnik J. Xavier, Bart Jan Kullberg, Cisca Wijmenga, Mihai G. Netea
      Abstract: Candidaemia is a common cause of bloodstream infection, but the genetic basis of Candida infection is poorly understood. Here, the authors identify genetic variation at three loci that increase risk of candidaemia, and show that genes at these loci have a role in antifungal host defence.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-08|2014-09-08
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5675
       
  • Protein co-translocational unfolding depends on the direction of pulling
    • Authors: David Rodriguez-Larrea, Hagan Bayley
      Abstract: Protein unfolding and translocation through membrane pores occurs in several biological processes and has implications in nanopore technologies. Here, the authors show that the kinetics of unfolding differ depending on which end of the chain enters the pore first.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-08|2014-09-08
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5841
       
  • Topological excitations in a kagome magnet
    • Authors: Manuel Pereiro, Dmitry Yudin, Jonathan Chico, Corina Etz, Olle Eriksson, Anders Bergman
      Abstract: Topological excitations in insulating magnets have recently attracted great interest from a fundamental and applied perspective. Here, Pereiro et al. report on the conditions to generate, stabilize and control skyrmions, even at room temperature, in a kagome magnet.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-08|2014-09-08
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5815
       
  • Loss of Wdfy3 in mice alters cerebral cortical neurogenesis reflecting
           aspects of the autism pathology
    • Authors: Lori A. Orosco, Adam P. Ross, Staci L. Cates, Sean E. Scott, Dennis Wu, Jiho Sohn, David Pleasure, Samuel J. Pleasure, Iannis E. Adamopoulos, Konstantinos S Zarbalis
      Abstract: The Wdfy3 gene has been associated with autism spectrum disorders in children. Here, the authors examine two separate mutant alleles of this gene in mice and identify its role in cortical neurogenesis, reproducing pathological changes characteristic of the disorder.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-08|2014-09-08
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5692
       
  • Aneuploidy induces profound changes in gene expression, proliferation and
           tumorigenicity of human pluripotent stem cells
    • Authors: Uri Ben-David, Gal Arad, Uri Weissbein, Berhan Mandefro, Adva Maimon, Tamar Golan-Lev, Kavita Narwani, Amander T. Clark, Peter W. Andrews, Nissim Benvenisty, Juan Carlos Biancotti
      Abstract: Trisomy 12 is the most frequent chromosomal abnormality detected in cultures of human pluripotent stem cells. Here the authors show that human pluripotent stem cells carrying this abnormality exhibit gene expression profiles more similar to those of germ cell tumours, and give rise to more aggressive teratomas.
      Citation: Nature Communications
      PubDate: 2014-09-08|2014-09-08
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5825
       
  • Large indentation strain-stiffening in nanotwinned cubic boron nitride
    • Abstract: It has previously been shown experimentally that nanotwins in cubic boron nitride can lead to significant strengthening. Here, the authors perform simulations to understand the mechanism behind this, reporting a twin-boundary dominated indentation strain-stiffening phenomena.
       
  • Comparative genome sequencing reveals genomic signature of extreme
           desiccation tolerance in the anhydrobiotic midge
    • Abstract: The African chironomid midge, Polypedilum vanderplanki , is able to withstand extreme desiccation. Here the authors sequence the genomes of a desiccation-tolerant and desiccation-sensitive species of chironomid midge and pinpoint genes that may have a role in conferring resistance to desiccation.
       
  • Loss of IP3R-dependent Ca2+ signalling in thymocytes leads to aberrant
           development and acute lymphoblastic leukemia
    • Abstract: Ca 2+ signalling pathways are known to influence T-cell development and T-cell leukemia progression. Here the authors show that deletion of all three inositol triphosphate receptor homologues in mice severely impairs T-cell development in the thymus and causes spontaneous T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
       
  • Giant spin-driven ferroelectric polarization in TbMnO3 under high pressure
    • Abstract: Multiferroics are promising for their simultaneous ferroelectricity and magnetism, although in some of the most promising compounds the ferroelectric polarization remains small. Here, the authors show that applying external pressure to the multiferroic TbMnO 3 leads to a high ferroelectric polarization.
       
  • Effect of the size-selective silver clusters on lithium peroxide
           morphology in lithium–oxygen batteries
    • Abstract: Insights into active sites on cathode surfaces are important in developing lithium–oxygen batteries. Here, Lu et al. present a cathode architecture deposited with precisely controlled small metal clusters, and report a cluster size-dependence of the battery discharge product morphology.
       
  • Angular momentum-induced circular dichroism in non-chiral nanostructures
    • Abstract: The differential absorption of left and right handed light, circular dichroism, is typically observed only in chiral objects. Here, the authors demonstrate that giant circular dichroism can be induced in non-chiral objects when the left and right handed circularly polarized modes used are vortex beams.
       
  • Polymer collapse in miscible good solvents is a generic phenomenon driven
           by preferential adsorption
    • Abstract: Smart polymers exhibit a swelling–collapse–swelling transition in mixed (co)solvents and the underlined mechanism remains a matter of debate. Mukherji et al . explain this transition using a generic model based purely on a thermodynamic treatment of preferential polymer–cosolvent interaction.
       
  • Full-length TDP-43 forms toxic amyloid oligomers that are present in
           frontotemporal lobar dementia-TDP patients
    • Abstract: TDP-43 proteinopathies are characterized by TDP-43 aggregates but the relationship of these aggregates to the pathogenesis is still not well defined. Here, the authors show that the recombinant full-length human TDP-43 forms oligomers that are neurotoxic, can promote the formation of A-beta amyloid oligomers in vitro and can be detected in postmortem brain of patients.
       
  • An assay to image neuronal microtubule dynamics in mice
    • Abstract: Microtubule dynamics in neurons play critical roles in physiology, injury and disease. Here the authors develop a transgenic mouse line expressing a fluorescently tagged version of the microtubule binding protein EB3, and using a range of imaging techniques, study microtubule dynamics under normal and injury conditions in living mice.
       
  • Hydrotrifluoromethylation and iodotrifluoromethylation of alkenes and
           alkynes using an inorganic electride as a radical generator
    • Abstract: Addition of trifluoromethyl groups to molecules dramatically alters the physical and chemical properties, and is important for example in pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries. Here, the authors use an inorganic electride as a radical generator to add trifluoromethyl groups across double and triple bonds.
       
  • Dynamic catch of a Thy-1–α5β1+syndecan-4 trimolecular
           complex
    • Abstract: Molecular details of the synergy between integrins and syndecans are poorly understood. Here, Fiore et al . show that syndecan-4 and α 5 β 1 integrin form a trimolecular complex with Thy-1 that exhibits ‘dynamic catch’ behaviour, in which force strengthens the synergistic binding and modulates signalling at the focal adhesion level.
       
  • Mutually beneficial host exploitation and ultra-biased sex ratios in
           quasisocial parasitoids
    • Abstract: The evolution of social behaviour is usually explained by kin selection. Here, the authors show that mutual host exploitation by a parasitoid wasp maximizes the average reproductive success of individual females, which suggests that cooperative brood care does not rely on kin selection in these wasps.
       
  • Room temperature high-fidelity holonomic single-qubit gate on a
           solid-state spin
    • Abstract: Quantum gates based on geometric phase shifts offer a promising approach for the realization of fault-tolerant quantum computing. Using nitrogen-vacancy centre qubits in diamond, this study experimentally realises a high-fidelty, non-adiabatic, non-Abelian holonomic single-qubit gate at room temperature.
       
  • Shh-mediated degradation of Hhip allows cell autonomous and non-cell
           autonomous Shh signalling
    • Abstract: Hhip is a secreted inhibitor of the morphogen Sonic Hedgehog; however, cells expressing Hhip are themselves resistant to inhibition. Kwong et al . show that Hedgehog signalling in Hhip-expressing cells promotes this resistance by enhancing Hhip internalization.
       
  • Forest stand growth dynamics in Central Europe have accelerated since 1870
    • Abstract: The growth dynamics of forest ecosystems undergoing climatic change are not well understood. Here Pretzsch et al . show that two of the dominant tree species of Central Europe have undergone significantly accelerated growth dynamics during the past century.
       
  • Spatial-temporal model for silencing of the mitotic spindle assembly
           checkpoint
    • Abstract: During cell division, a single chromosome that lacks attachment to microtubules is sufficient to delay chromosome segregation. Chen and Liu construct a model demonstrating that the transport of regulators along microtubules may explain the remarkable sensitivity and robustness of this checkpoint.
       
  • Basal foot MTOC organizes pillar MTs required for coordination of beating
           cilia
    • Abstract: Coordinated beating of motile cilia is important to clear mucus from the airway. Here, Clare et al . show that galectin-3 at the base of motile cilia in the trachea is important for connecting cortical microtubules to the basal body, and subsequent organization and coordination of beating cilia.
       
  • Vibrational coherence probes the mechanism of ultrafast electron transfer
           in polymer–fullerene blends
    • Abstract: Dissociation of excitons at the donor/acceptor interface in organic solar cells occurs on fast timescales. Here, the authors apply two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy to study the electron transfer process in a polymer blend, reporting dynamic maps for the charge-transfer pathways.
       
  • In situ liquid-cell electron microscopy of silver–palladium galvanic
           replacement reactions on silver nanoparticles
    • Abstract: Galvanic replacement reactions are a useful route to transform nanoparticles into complex hollow structures. Here, the authors use liquid-cell electron microscopy to investigate the process in situ and probe the effects of the electron beam on the galvanic-type processes.
       
  • Mechanistic insight into GPCR-mediated activation of the
           microtubule-associated RhoA exchange factor GEF-H1
    • Abstract: The RhoGEF GEF-H1 is normally sequestered on microtubules via binding dynein light-chain Tctex-1, and is activated by microtubule depolymerization. Here, Meiri et al . describe a new model of GEF-H1 activation by GPCRs, whereby both the Gα and Gβγ subunits bind to GEF-H1 and Tctex-1, respectively, to displace GEF-H1 from intact microtubules.
       
  • Integrin-linked kinase mediates force transduction in cardiomyocytes by
           modulating SERCA2a/PLN function
    • Abstract: The transduction of mechanical forces into signals that alter cardiac contractility is important for heart function. Here the authors show that integrin-linked kinase acts as a mechanosensor in cardiomyocytes, and affects cardiac contractility by regulating SERCA-2a and phospholamban.
       
  • Spatial control of the GEN1 Holliday junction resolvase ensures genome
           stability
    • Abstract: The human Holliday junction resolvase GEN1 functions during anaphase to eliminate recombination intermediates that block proper chromosome segregation. Here, the authors demonstrate that GEN1 activity is regulated independently of its phosphorylation status and relies on its active exclusion from the nucleus.
       
  • Chemo-mechanics of salt damage in stone
    • Abstract: Growth of salt crystals in pores is one of the most damaging weathering mechanisms for stone in ornamental structures and historical buildings. Here, the authors present a simple yet powerful treatment for predicting when salt damage will occur, quantifying this susceptibility to salt crystallization.
       
  • Synergistic geometric and electronic effects for electrochemical reduction
           of carbon dioxide using gold–copper bimetallic nanoparticles
    • Abstract: The efficient and selective reduction of carbon dioxide is a major challenge in artificial photosynthesis. Here, the authors study gold–copper bimetallic nanoparticles and attempt to resolve the electronic and geometric factors that lead to high activity carbon dioxide reduction catalysis.
       
  • Spatial control of Cdc42 signalling by a GM130–RasGRF complex
           regulates polarity and tumorigenesis
    • Abstract: The small GTPase Cdc42 is an important regulator of cell polarity that localizes to both the plasma membrane and to the Golgi. Baschieri et al. show that the Golgi pool of Cdc42 is regulated by GM130–RasGRF, and that deregulation of this pathway is associated with loss of polarity and tumorigenesis.
       
  • Circadian rhythm reprogramming during lung inflammation
    • Abstract: Whether circadian rhythms occur in settings where clock gene expression is suppressed, such as systemic inflammation, is unclear. Here, the authors examine gene expression and metabolites in the lungs of endotoxemic mice and show that inflammation causes changes in circadian rhythms at the cellular and molecular level.
       
  • Persistence of pressure patterns over North America and the North Pacific
           since AD 1500
    • Abstract: Synoptic-scale atmospheric pressure patterns control moisture delivery and thus drought occurrence across western North America, yet long-term records are lacking. Here, the authors use a novel combination of tree-ring data and self-organizing maps to reconstruct and analyse pressure patterns since AD 1500.
       
  • Human Tra2 proteins jointly control a CHEK1 splicing switch among
           alternative and constitutive target exons
    • Abstract: RNA binding proteins are key regulators of alternative splicing. Here, Best et al . show that the human Tra2α and Tra2ß RNA binding proteins jointly contribute to the control of constitutive and alternative splicing events to regulate essential biological processes including the response to DNA damage.
       
  • Bone remodelling in humans is load-driven but not lazy
    • Abstract: Mechanical strain causes bone remodelling when it exceeds threshold levels of a proposed ‘lazy zone’, in which bone density is unresponsive to mechanical strain. Here the authors show that human bone remodeling is entirely load-driven, suggesting that no such ‘lazy’ state exists for human bones.
       
  • OsAAP6 functions as an important regulator of grain protein content and
           nutritional quality in rice
    • Abstract: Grain protein content (GPC) contributes to the nutritional quality of cereals. Here, the authors show that the OsAAP6 quantitative trait locus in rice controls GPC by regulating the synthesis and accumulation of several grain storage proteins and starch.
       
  • The subcortical maternal complex controls symmetric division of mouse
           zygotes by regulating F-actin dynamics
    • Abstract: The mammalian subcortical maternal complex is composed of maternally expressed proteins and required for mouse early embryonic cell division. Here the authors show that the complex functions to control spindle positioning through regulation of the actin cytoskeleton.
       
  • Validation of climate model-inferred regional temperature change for
           late-glacial Europe
    • Abstract: Comparison of climate model hindcasts with proxy data is essential to improve model reliability, yet standardized palaeoclimate data sets are lacking. Here, Heiri et al . compare chironomid-based palaeotemperature records with the ECHAM-4 atmospheric general circulation model, showing excellent agreement.
       
  • Steroid hormone signalling links reproduction to lifespan in
           dietary-restricted Caenorhabditis elegans
    • Abstract: Dietary restriction increases the lifespan of many species, but often at the cost of reduced fertility. Here, Thondamal et al . show that the dietary restriction-mediated increase in lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans depends on the production of a steroid hormone and its inhibition of germline plasticity.
       
  • Impermeable barrier films and protective coatings based on reduced
           graphene oxide
    • Abstract: Although defect-free graphene is a promising membrane that is impermeable to all gases and liquids, it is difficult to produce large area films for practical applications. Su et al. show that multilayer graphitic films based on reduced graphene oxide can achieve the same goal but on larger scales.
       
  • Ribosomal DNA copy number is coupled with gene expression variation and
           mitochondrial abundance in humans
    • Abstract: The functional consequences of naturally occurring variation in ribosomal DNA (rDNA) copy number are poorly understood. Here the authors estimate rDNA copy number and mitochondrial DNA abundance in humans using whole-genome short-read DNA sequencing and characterize global regulatory mechanisms for cellular homeostasis and adaptation.
       
  • Principle of direct van der Waals epitaxy of single-crystalline films on
           epitaxial graphene
    • Abstract: Large-scale growth of single crystals on graphene can be useful for the development of 3D/2D or 2D/2D heterostructures. Here, through careful control of growth kinetics, the authors perform multiple cycles of direct growth/transfer of high-quality single-crystal GaN, using a single graphene/SiC substrate.
       
  • RNase ZS1 processes UbL40 mRNAs and controls thermosensitive genic male
           sterility in rice
    • Abstract: Hybrid rice varieties are bred using male-sterile maternal lines, which are unable to self-pollinate. Here, the authors show that mutations of the tms5 gene, which codes for RNase Z S1 , result in the accumulation of ubiquitin fusion ribosomal protein mRNAs at high temperature to confer genic male sterility.
       
  • A prominent and conserved role for YY1 in Xist transcriptional activation
    • Abstract: X-chromosome inactivation is a tightly regulated mechanism, which silences one of the two female X chromosomes. Here Makhlouf et al . show that the autosomal transcription factor YY1 directly promotes expression of the Xist RNA—a master regulator of X-chromosome inactivation—at the onset of the inactivation process.
       
 
 
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