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Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2041-1723
Published by NPG [123 journals]
- β-Catenin C-terminal signals suppress p53 and are essential for
Abstract: How p53 is restrained in arterial maturation during embryonic development is unclear. Here, the authors show that β-catenin C-terminal interactions inhibit CREB binding protein-mediated acetylation and activation of p53 in smooth muscle cells, and that this function is essential for artery formation.
- Crystal structure of the plant receptor-like kinase TDR in complex with
the TDIF peptide
Abstract: The TDF peptide interacts with the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase TDR to regulate meristem differentiation in plants. Here, the authors solve the structure of the extracellular domain of TDR in complex with TDIF and propose a mechanism for TDIF recognition.
- Iridium-based double perovskites for efficient water oxidation in acid
Abstract: Iridium oxide is an active and stable catalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction, however Ir is very rare, making it unsuitable for large-scale application. Here the authors develop a class of Ir double perovskites containing less Ir than iridium oxide, but exhibiting 3-fold higher activity in acidic media.
- Electronically tunable extraordinary optical transmission in graphene
plasmonic ribbons coupled to subwavelength metallic slit arrays
Abstract: Graphene-plasmon optical modulators with broadly tunable operating frequencies are sought for photonic applications. Here, Kim et al. demonstrate tunable mid-infrared transmission that utilizes resonant absorption in graphene ribbons to modulate the extraordinary optical transmission effect in metallic slit arrays.
- Synthetic viability by BRCA2 and PARP1/ARTD1 deficiencies
Abstract: The PARP inhibitor olaparib is an approved treatment method for women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation associated cancers. Here the authors show that olaparib can contribute to synthetic viability of cells if PARP1 is inhibited before BRCA2 loss.
- Structural basis of metallo-β-lactamase, serine-β-lactamase and
penicillin-binding protein inhibition by cyclic boronates
Abstract: Bacterial beta-lactamases are responsible for resistance to beta-lactams, the most important family of antibiotics. Here, the authors reveal cyclic boronate inhibitors that are active against both serine- and metallo-beta-lactamases and represent a promising strategy for combined antimicrobial treatments.
- ATP-dependent substrate transport by the ABC transporter MsbA is
Abstract: ABC exporters mediate the translocation of cytotoxic compounds to the cell exterior via ATP hydrolysis. Here, the authors show that the bacterial transporter MsbA requires additional energy from the transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient to facilitate drug transport.
- Disorder engineering and conductivity dome in ReS2 with electrolyte gating
Abstract: Rhenium disulphide, ReS 2 , is a member of the two-dimensional dichalcogenide family. Here, the authors find a suppression of conductivity at high charge density levels in devices with polymer electrolyte gates. The effects of doping and disorder are explored theoretically and experimentally.
- Interdependent IL-7 and IFN-γ signalling in T-cell controls tumour
eradication by combined α-CTLA-4+α-PD-1 therapy
Abstract: Combination therapy with α-CTLA-4 and α-PD-1 is showing improved therapeutic effects in clinical trials. Here, the authors report that mechanistically in bladder cancer such effect depends upon an upregulation of T cell activity mediated by the IL-7/IL-7R and IFN-γ/IFN-γR signalling pathways.
- Widespread adaptive evolution during repeated evolutionary radiations in
New World lupins
Abstract: Species radiations can be driven by both adaptive and non-adaptive processes, but the relative importance of these drivers is unknown. Here, Nevado et al . show that multiple radiations in the New World lupins were associated with genome-wide accelerations in both coding and regulatory evolution, suggesting a strong influence of adaptive processes.
- Self-organized centripetal movement of corneal epithelium in the absence
of external cues
Abstract: The cornea is formed of cells that originate from the outer circle of stem cells and that move towards its centre. Here, the authors show that the movement pattern is self-organised, requiring no cues, and that stem cell leakage may account for the presence of stem cells at the centre of the cornea.
- Mechanistic stratification in electroactive biofilms of Geobacter
sulfurreducens mediated by pilus nanowires
Abstract: The roles played by cytochromes and conductive filamentous appendages (pili) in the electrical conductivity of Geobacter bacterial biofilms are controversial. Here, Steidl et al . present evidence that both mechanisms cooperate in thin biofilms, while pili are important for conductivity across thicker biofilms.
- Selective directed self-assembly of coexisting morphologies using block
Abstract: There is a limited range of structures available in nanolithography using directed self-assembled block copolymers. Here, Black and co-workers expand directed self-assembly chemical patterning by using a blend of lamellar and cylinder forming block copolymers on surface chemical line gratings.
- Crystal structures of APOBEC3G N-domain alone and its complex with DNA
Abstract: The N-terminal domain of APOBEC3G (A3G) is required for anti-HIV activity, HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) binds to this domain of A3G to mediate its degradation. Here, the authors use their crystal structures of this A3G domain alone and bound to single-stranded DNA to investigate the molecular details of this interaction.
- A critical role for NF2 and the Hippo pathway in branching morphogenesis
Abstract: Branching morphogenesis is essential for the formation of most epithelial organs. Here, the authors show that Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2), the Hippo pathway kinases LATS1 and LATS2, and the transcriptional co-activators YAP and TAZ control tip identity, RET signalling and branching morphogenesis in the mouse kidney.
- Spectral descriptors for bulk metallic glasses based on the thermodynamics
of competing crystalline phases
Abstract: It is crucial yet challenging to predict good glass formers in search of new metallic materials for industrial use. Here, Perim et al . develop computational descriptors based on the density of local crystalline metastable phases to predict glass forming ability and find more promising materials.
- Notch signalling mediates reproductive constraint in the adult worker
Abstract: In honeybees, pheromones produced by the queen inhibit reproduction by workers and enforce a eusocial division of labour. Here, Duncan, Hyink and Dearden show that this inhibition is mediated by the Notch signalling pathway in the workers' ovaries.
- Erratum: Finite particle size drives defect-mediated domain structures in
strongly confined colloidal liquid crystals
- Cingulin and actin mediate midbody-dependent apical lumen formation during
polarization of epithelial cells
Abstract: Polarisation of epithelial cells causes lumen formation, which is mediated by apical membrane initiation site (AMIS) and FIP5, but how this is regulated is unclear. Here, the authors identify cingulin as a FIP-5 interacting protein, recruiting the Rac1-WAVE/Scar complex to the AMIS and branched actin formation.
- Whole-animal genome-wide RNAi screen identifies networks regulating male
germline stem cells in Drosophila
Abstract: Both intrinsic and external signals regulate stem cell fate. Here, the authors perform a genome-wide RNAi screen to identify regulators of testis germline stem cells (GSC) in Drosophila , finding more than half of the genes were external regulators and heterochromatin/cytokinesis proteins mediated GSC fate.
- Observed vulnerability of Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf to wind-driven inflow
of warm deep water
Abstract: Recent modelling studies have indicated that the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf in Antarctica might be susceptible to the influx of warmer waters, yet observations evidence is lacking. Here, the authors present observations from the ice shelf, and show that warm water pulses already bathe the shelf.
- High-order species interactions shape ecosystem diversity
Abstract: A major challenge of theoretical ecology is explaining the stable coexistence of diverse multi-species communities. Here, the authors show that when the interactions among two species depend on the presence of other species, the diversity of the community becomes a necessity rather than an obstacle for its stability.
- Corrigendum: NFATc1 supports imiquimod-induced skin inflammation by
suppressing IL-10 synthesis in B cells
- Non-equilibrium 8π Josephson effect in atomic Kitaev wires
Abstract: Detecting Majorana quasi-particles requires unambiguous and experimentally accessible fingerprints. Here, the authors demonstrate the existence of a 8 π -periodic fractional Josephson effect in a Kitaev wire as a signature for Majorana quasi-particles, and propose a cold atom experiment for its detection.
- Spatial clustering of tuning in mouse primary visual cortex
Abstract: The preference of cells in mouse primary visual cortex are thought to be randomly distributed in a salt-and-pepper map, in contrast to the smooth cortical maps observed in higher mammals. Here the authors show that excitatory cells in mouse primary visual cortex are spatially clustered, resembling a degraded version of the organization seen in higher mammals.
- Total synthesis of teixobactin
Abstract: Teixobactin is a recently identified antibiotic that shows activity against drug resistant strains of bacteria. Here, the authors report a highly convergent total synthesis of this natural product, with sufficient flexibility to also allow the synthesis of a number of analogues.
- Increased activity in frontal motor cortex compensates impaired speech
perception in older adults
Abstract: Seniors have difficulties understanding speech in noisy environments and it is known that their brains compensate reduced sensory processing in auditory cortex by engaging prefrontal areas. Here the authors find that phoneme specificity and increased activity in speech motor regions provide a means of compensation for decoding impoverished speech in older adults.
- SALM4 suppresses excitatory synapse development by cis-inhibiting
trans-synaptic SALM3–LAR adhesion
Abstract: Synaptic adhesion molecules regulate synapse development and function by both cis and trans -interactions. Here, Lie et al . show that postsynaptic SALM4 regulates excitatory synapse numbers by cis inhibition of the SALM3-LAR transynaptic interaction.
- Regulation of B-cell development and tolerance by different members of the
miR-17∼92 family microRNAs
Abstract: MicroRNA cluster 17∼92 plays a critical role in B-cell differentiation. Here the authors show that miR-19 regulates B-cell tolerance via suppressing the expression of PTEN , whereas miR- 17 is essential for early B-cell development independently of Pten, Phlpp2, or Bim.
- Drosophila melanogaster females restore their attractiveness after mating
by removing male anti-aphrodisiac pheromones
Abstract: Male pheromones cis -vaccenyl acetate (cVA) and (Z)-7-Tricosene (7-T) mediate chemical mate-guarding in female D. melanogaster . Here, Laturney and Billeter show that females actively eject cVA from their reproductive tract post-copulation, and that cVA in concert with 7-T can reduce female attractiveness post-mating.
- Functional screening implicates miR-371-3p and peroxiredoxin 6 in
reversible tolerance to cancer drugs
Abstract: Acquired resistance significantly limits the efficacy of cancer drug therapies. Here, the authors identify miR-371-3p as a suppressor of drug tolerance in cancer cell lines by its target gene PRDX6, which in turn regulates PLA2/PKCα signalling and ROS levels.
- Evidence that birds sleep in mid-flight
Abstract: Whether and how birds sleep during long-distance flights has remained a mystery. Here, Rattenborg and colleagues show for the first time that frigatebirds can sleep during flight, but do so in remarkably small amounts.
- PKM2 dephosphorylation by Cdc25A promotes the Warburg effect and
Abstract: Protein phosphatase Cdc25 controls cell cycle transitions by dephosphorylating CDK substrates. Here, the authors show that the Cdc25A isoform regulates glycolysis through dephosphorylation of pyruvate kinase PKM2, resulting in β-catenin activation and consequent upregulation of the transcription of glycolytic genes.
- Quantum electromechanics on silicon nitride nanomembranes
Abstract: Preparation and detection of mechanical objects at the quantum zero-point level has been achieved in both the optical and microwave regimes. Here, the authors develop silicon nitride nanomembranes that are suitable for integrating nanophotonic, nanomechanical and superconducting microwave circuits together.
- MRF4 negatively regulates adult skeletal muscle growth by repressing MEF2
Abstract: Mrf4 is a transcription factor important for muscle development, but despite high expression its function in adults is unknown. Here the authors show that interfering with Mrf4 in adult mice leads to muscle hypertrophy by activating MEF2-dependent transcription and promoting protein synthesis.
- Ionic imbalance induced self-propulsion of liquid metals
Abstract: The control over the motion and deformation of liquid droplets is essential to many microfluidic and actuation systems. Zavabeti et al . demonstrate that applying a pH or ionic gradient across a droplet of liquid metal alloy of gallium results in its motion due to a breaking of the surface charge symmetry.
- Intrinsic limits to gene regulation by global crosstalk
Abstract: Limited specificity of transcription factor-DNA interactions leads to crosstalk in gene regulation. Here the authors consider global crosstalk in regulatory networks of growing size and complexity, and show that it imposes constraints on gene regulation and on the evolution of regulatory networks.
- Evolution of a G protein-coupled receptor response by mutations in
regulatory network interactions
Abstract: Co-evolution of a new receptor-ligand pair will affect the downstream signal transduction network. Here, the authors use experimental evolution of yeast mating receptor Ste2 to show the effect of enhanced binding affinity and weakened interactions with the network's negative regulators on protein evolution.
- Corrigendum: Cidea improves the metabolic profile through expansion of
- Corrigendum: Generation of stem cell-derived β-cells from patients
with type 1 diabetes
- Mass production of shaped particles through vortex ring freezing
Abstract: The evolution of vortex flow exhibits a rich spectrum of complicated geometries. Here, An et al . utilize these features to control and mass produce inorganic and organic particles via an electrospraying process, whereby the shape of vortex rings translates into particles during a freezing process.
- An O2-sensing stressosome from a Gram-negative bacterium
Abstract: The stressosome is a multiprotein complex that regulates the expression of stress response genes in Gram-positive bacteria. Here the authors characterize a stressosome from a Gram-negative bacterium, showing that one of the protein components senses oxygen through a bound haem.
- Load-induced enhancement of Dynein force production by LIS1–NudE in
vivo and in vitro
Abstract: Transport of large cargo through the cytoplasm can encounter physical impediments which should be overcome. Here the authors show that lipid droplets constrained by an optical trap respond with an increase in dynein-mediated force that is dependent on dynein regulators LIS1 and NudE/L, but not on p150 glued .
- Chromatin remodelling and antisense-mediated up-regulation of the
developmental switch gene eud-1 control predatory feeding plasticity
Abstract: In the nematode Pristionchus pacificus , a developmental switch, the sulfatase eud-1 , controls mouth-form plasticity. Here, the authors show that mutations in two conserved histone modifying enzymes mimic the eud-1 phenotype, in part mediated by an antisense eud-1 RNA, resulting in the absence of one mouth-form
- Resilience of the Asian atmospheric circulation shown by Paleogene dust
Abstract: The onset of modern central Asian atmospheric circulation is often linked to the interplay of late Cenozoic paleogeographic changes and global cooling. Here the authors present sedimentary provenance data from early Cenozoic dust deposits, which indicate long-term stability of the central Asian high pressure system.
- Dectin-1-activated dendritic cells trigger potent antitumour immunity
through the induction of Th9 cells
Abstract: Dendritic cells instruct different types of T cell responses depending on the types of microbial ligands sensed. Here the authors show that dendritic cells stimulated via Dectin-1 receptor upregulate TNFSF15 and OX40L and induce T helper 9 response and efficient antitumour immunity in mouse models.
- Enhanced hydrogenation activity and diastereomeric interactions of methyl
pyruvate co-adsorbed with R-1-(1-naphthyl)ethylamine on Pd(111)
Abstract: Achiral sites on a catalyst can result in formation of racemic product, though this can be avoided where the chiral sites lead to enhanced reaction rates. Here, the authors report that for the hydrogenation of methyl pyruvate the chiral modifier enhances the hydrogenation reactivity by favouring the more reactive enol tautomer.
- DNA hydroxymethylation controls cardiomyocyte gene expression in
development and hypertrophy
Abstract: 5-hydroxymethylation of cysteine (5-hmC) plays a role in epigenetic regulation. Here the authors analyse the hydroxymethylome in embryonic, neonatal, adult and hypertrophic mouse cardiomyocytes and show that the dynamic modulation of hydroxymethylated DNA is important for cardiomyocyte gene expression programming in heart development and failure.
- Corrigendum: Observation of a topological crystalline insulator phase and
topological phase transition in Pb1−xSnxTe
- Normal stroma suppresses cancer cell proliferation via mechanosensitive
regulation of JMJD1a-mediated transcription
Abstract: The tumour stroma has altered stiffness and matrix architecture compared to normal tissue, which favours proliferation, and invasion. Here, the authors find that the extracellular matrix produced by normal fibroblasts inhibits cancer cell proliferation through mechanosensitive downregulation of JMJD1a.
- Zero-temperature quantum annealing bottlenecks in the spin-glass phase
Abstract: Quantum annealing can solve hard optimization problems, but it is limited by computational bottlenecks. Here, the author obtains the scaling of spin-glass bottlenecks with the problem size and explains a crossover to exponential complexity for large sizes.
- Enhanced spin–orbit coupling in core/shell nanowires
Abstract: Spin-orbit coupling underlies many important spintronic concepts, and is strongly influenced by crystal symmetry. Here, the authors demonstrate a strong enhancement of spin-orbit coupling in core/shell semiconductor nanowires induced by the large interfacial surface areas
- LTβR controls thymic portal endothelial cells for haematopoietic
progenitor cell homing and T-cell regeneration
Abstract: Lymphoid progenitors migrate from the bone marrow into the thymus to give rise to T and NK cell lineages. Here the authors characterize a lymphotoxin receptor beta-dependent population of thymic endothelial cells that guide lymphoid progenitor homing in the thymus.
- Stromal Hedgehog signalling is downregulated in colon cancer and its
restoration restrains tumour growth
Abstract: The Hedgehog signalling pathway can drive tumorigenesis. Here, the authors show that in a colitis-associated colon cancer model downstream Hedgehog signalling is restricted to the stroma and its over-activation can inhibit tumorigenesis, associated with activation of BMP signaling.
- Integrated plasmonic circuitry on a vertical-cavity surface-emitting
semiconductor laser platform
Abstract: Integrated plasmonic sources are crucial in the development of plasmonic circuitry. Here, McPolin et al . show that vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers can be employed as an on-chip, electrically pumped source or detector of plasmonic signals and also demonstrate waveguiding and frequency conversion on this platform.
- Self-assembled oxide films with tailored nanoscale ionic and electronic
channels for controlled resistive switching
Abstract: Metal oxide resistive switches rely on the migration of oxygen vacancies and electrons under applied voltage. Here, Cho et al . use nanocomposites to control the electronic and ionic conductivities in spatially distinct channels, and fabricate memristors with high on/off ratios and reproducibility.
- Endothelial PDGF-CC regulates angiogenesis-dependent thermogenesis in
Abstract: Cold-induced activation of thermogenesis in white adipose tissue (WAT), or ‘beiging’, is associated with WAT angiogenesis. Here the authors show that PDGF-CC is secreted from endothelial cells in the context of WAT angiogenesis and its paracrine action on adipocytes contributes to cold-induced beiging.
- Long-range movement of large mechanically interlocked DNA nanostructures
Abstract: Rotaxanes are interlocked molecules that can undergo sliding and rotational movements and can be used in artificial molecular machines and motors. Here, Simmel and co-workers show a rigid rotaxane structures consisting of DNA origami subunits that can slide over several hundreds of nanometres.
- Sec16 alternative splicing dynamically controls COPII transport efficiency
Abstract: The transport of secretory proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi depends on COPII-coated vesicles. Here, the authors show that activation-induced alternative splicing of Sec16 controls adaptation of COPII transport to increased secretory cargo upon T cell activation.
- Ultrafast acousto-optic mode conversion in optically birefringent
Abstract: Electrically driven acousto-optic light modulators are limited to frequencies of a few hundred megahertz and are typically no smaller than a few micrometres. Here, the authors demonstrate gigahertz acousto-optic conversion of light polarization in a region of a few nanometres using pulsed laser stimulation of a ferroelectric.
- Oblique rift opening revealed by reoccurring magma injection in central
Abstract: Deformation at divergent plate boundaries during rifting events is rarely observed and therefore poorly constrained. Ruch et al . show evidence of an oblique rift opening at the Bárðarbunga caldera, Iceland, which was one of the largest basaltic eruptions observed in the last 200 years
- Electron–hole doping asymmetry of Fermi surface reconstructed in a
simple Mott insulator
Abstract: Electron or hole doping in a Mott insulator leads to superconductivity, with the mechanism obscured by multi-orbital Fermi surface reconstructions. Here, Kawasugi et al . report doping dependent Hall coefficients and resistivity anisotropy of an organic Mott insulator, revealing doping asymmetry of reconstructed Fermi surface of a single electronic orbital.
- PTEN regulates EG5 to control spindle architecture and chromosome
congression during mitosis
Abstract: One of the cellular functions of the tumour suppressor PTEN is to maintain genome stability. Here, the authors show that PTEN depletion leads to mitotic spindle shortening and chromosome misalignment due to aberrant EG5 activation.
- Single-electron induced surface plasmons on a topological nanoparticle
Abstract: The surface states in topological insulators are delocalised and immune to imperfections. Here, the authors show that single electrons in topologically protected surface states on a nanoparticle can create a surface charge layer that screens the particle, mediating interaction between bulk phonons and light, giving an additional absorption peak.