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Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2041-1723
Published by Nature Publishing Group [110 journals]
- Eco-evolutionary feedbacks during experimental range expansions
Abstract: Biological range expansions and invasions can be affected by rapid evolution. Here the authors show an evolutionary increase of dispersal during range expansions and an increase of population densities from range cores to range margins in microcosm experiments with a freshwater ciliate.
- Athermally photoreduced graphene oxides for three-dimensional holographic
Abstract: Owing to its electronic and optical properties, graphene holds potential for flat display systems. Here, Li et al . write wide-angle, full-colour, three-dimensional holographic images using subwavelength, multilevel index modulation of athermally reduced graphene oxide by a single femtosecond pulse.
- Highly compressible 3D periodic graphene aerogel microlattices
Abstract: Aerogels are ultra-lightweight porous materials that possess some remarkable properties. Here, the authors use a 3D printing technique to fabricate just such a material out of graphene, exhibiting large surface area, high conductivity and supercompressibility while maintaining good structural integrity.
- Crystal structure of a mirror-image L-RNA aptamer (Spiegelmer) in complex
with the natural L-protein target CCL2
Abstract: Spiegelmers are ‘mirror image’ L -ribose oligonucleotides being developed as therapeutics. Here the authors present a crystal structure of the therapeutic L -aptamer NOX-E36 bound to the pro-inflammatory chemokine CLL2, providing insight into NOX-E36’s selectivity and mode of action.
- Evidence for photogenerated intermediate hole polarons in ZnO
Abstract: Polarons are hybrid particles comprising a charged particle coupled to lattice vibrations. Here, the authors identify a hole-based polaron of intermediate coupling strength in zinc oxide using infrared reflection–absorption spectroscopy and first-principles-based electronic structure theory calculations.
- Subcontinuum mass transport of condensed hydrocarbons in nanoporous media
Abstract: Shale gas and oil are trapped in nanoscale porous networks of ultra-low permeability. Here, the authors develop a molecular model of alkane transport through nanoporous materials, showing that the mechanisms controlling flow at the nanoscale lead to a simple scaling of permeance with hydrocarbon size and density.
- The role of random nanostructures for the omnidirectional anti-reflection
properties of the glasswing butterfly
Abstract: The transparent wings of the glasswing butterfly have a low reflectance over the visible spectrum thanks to the nanopillars distributed across them. Siddique et al . show that this behaviour still works at high angles of incidence because of the random height distribution of the pillars.
- Accelerated sintering in phase-separating nanostructured alloys
Abstract: In sintering, powders of small grains are packed together to form shapes or grain structures that cannot be achieved by melt casting. Here, the authors demonstrate the fast sintering of a nanostructured alloy at low temperatures, preserving its nanoscale grain structure.
- Tunable solid-state fluorescent materials for supramolecular encryption
Abstract: Solid-state fluorescent materials show promise for potential applications in security and anti-counterfeiting technologies. Here, the authors report a heterorotaxane which has found application in security inks with highly tunable solid-state fluorescence through supramolecular encapsulation.
- Coupled local translation and degradation regulate growth cone collapse
Abstract: Local protein translation regulates growth cone dynamics in response to guidance cues. Here the authors show that locally translated proteins are the main targets of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and that local signalling promotes the ubiquitination and degradation of RhoA, leading to growth cone collapse.
- Two-dimensional gold nanostructures with high activity for selective
oxidation of carbon–hydrogen bonds
Abstract: There is interest in the study of two-dimensional materials for catalysis. Here, the authors report the fabrication of two-dimensional gold nanostructures, using a layered double hydroxide as a stabilizing template, and evaluate the catalytic performance of the composite for solvent free selective oxidation.
- Subdiffractional focusing and guiding of polaritonic rays in a natural
Abstract: Hexagonal boron nitride has many interesting properties, including a natural hyperbolic dispersion, making it attractive for nanophotonic applications. Here, Dai et al . show that metallic disks under the material launch phonon–polaritons, turning it into a hyper-focusing lens.
- LRP5/6 directly bind to Frizzled and prevent Frizzled-regulated tumour
Abstract: Wnt signalling can be transmitted both through a canonical pathway, via the co-receptors LRP5/6, and through Frz in a non-canonical pathway. Here, the authors demonstrate a direct interaction between Frz and LRP5/6, describing a new mechanism for how these receptors are primed to respond to Wnt ligands.
- Real-time observation of domain fluctuations in a two-dimensional magnetic
Abstract: The walls between domains in magnetic thin films close to a spin reorientation transition fluctuate owing to thermal excitation. Here Kronseder et al . image these fluctuations in iron/nickel/copper films using time-resolved threshold photoemission electron microscopy.
- Regulation of endogenous transmembrane receptors through optogenetic Cry2
Abstract: Signaling through transmembrane receptors regulates diverse biological processes including cell proliferation, motility and differentiation. Here, the authors demonstrate the optogenetic control of endogenous transmembrane receptor activity through clustering using a new modular strategy.
- Three-terminal heterojunction bipolar transistor solar cell for
high-efficiency photovoltaic conversion
Abstract: Multiple junction solar cells offer the means to high-efficiency photovoltaics but suffer from complicated manufacturing and packing. Here Martí et al ., propose a three-terminal heterojuntion bipolar transistor solar cell that simplifies the structure reducing the number of layers while maintaining the efficiency.
- Developmental genetic bases behind the independent origin of the tympanic
membrane in mammals and diapsids
Abstract: The evolution of the amniote middle ear remains unclear. Here, the authors show that inactivation of the Edn1-Dlx5/6 cascade during development results in loss of the tympanic membrane in mouse and duplication in chicken, which suggests independent evolution of the tympanic membrane in different amniotes.
- In vitro transport activity of the fully assembled MexAB-OprM efflux pump
from Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Abstract: Tripartite multidrug efflux pumps are important determinants of antibiotic resistance in several pathogenic bacteria. Here Verchère et al . design an in vitro assay system to study the transport properties of the MexAB-OprM efflux pump from Pseudomonas aeruginosa .
- Design of protein switches based on an ensemble model of allostery
Abstract: Protein switches have a number of potential biotechnological applications. Here, the authors present fusions of maltose-binding protein with TEM1 β-lactamase as multi-input allosteric protein switches that can be controlled by temperature and pH in the presence of the effector.
- Metallic glass nanostructures of tunable shape and composition
Abstract: The nanoscale manipulation of the shape and composition of metallic glasses is challenging. Here, the authors employ a multitarget carousel oblique angle deposition strategy to synthesize metallic glass nanoarchitectures, and demonstrate applicability to a range of glass-forming alloys.
- ASK1 restores the antiviral activity of APOBEC3G by disrupting HIV-1
Abstract: The human protein APOBEC3G (A3G) inhibits HIV-1 replication, but the viral protein Vif counteracts by inducing A3G degradation. Here Miyakawa et al . show that the antiretroviral drug AZT restores A3G function in vitro by stimulating expression of a host protein, ASK1, which interferes with the action of Vif.
- Structural basis for the targeting of complement anaphylatoxin C5a using a
mixed L-RNA/L-DNA aptamer
Abstract: Spiegelmers are mirror-image oligonucleotide aptamers designed for therapeutic use. Here the authors describe the crystal structure of the mixed L -RNA/ L -DNA Spiegelmer NOX-D20 bound to complement component C5a, a key mediator of the innate immune response and clinical target in acute and chronic inflammatory disorders.
- Radical cascade reaction of alkynes with N-fluoroarylsulfonimides and
Abstract: Cascade and multi-component reactions allow highly functionalized molecules to be built from simpler precursors. Here, the authors report a three-component coupling giving α-amino-α-aryl ketones, initiated by the regioselective addition of nitrogen radicals to alkynes.
- Ultrasensitive visual read-out of nucleic acids using electrocatalytic
Abstract: Point-of-care analytical devices are of interest for diagnostic applications where larger scale laboratory instruments are not feasible or available. Here, the authors present a direct read-out colorimetric sensor which uses catalytic gas production to visualize picomolar concentrations of DNA.
- Increased CRF signalling in a ventral tegmental area-interpeduncular
nucleus-medial habenula circuit induces anxiety during nicotine withdrawal
Abstract: Abstinent smokers experience affective withdrawal symptoms that contribute to relapse, yet the circuitry and mechanisms underlying these symptoms are unknown. Here the authors identify a critical role for a ventral tegmental area-habenula-interpeduncular circuit in nicotine withdrawal-induced anxiety.
- Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10−18 total
Abstract: Atomic clocks are increasingly important for many applications in scientific research and technology. Here, Nicholson et al. present a series of developments allowing them to achieve a new record in atomic clock performance, with a systematic uncertainty of just 2.1 × 10 −18 for their 87 Sr atomic clock.
- Causal factors for seismicity near Azle, Texas
Abstract: Whether exploration causes earthquakes has been a matter of recent contention particularly regarding shale gas exploration. Here, the authors use hydraulic modelling and earthquake locations to show that brine production and wastewater injection in the Azle area are likely causing earthquakes.
- Live-cell imaging of actin dynamics reveals mechanisms of stereocilia
length regulation in the inner ear
Abstract: Precise control of stereocilia length by auditory hair cells is vital for normal hearing. Drummond et al . follow in real-time the incorporation of actin into these structures and show that while the actin core is remarkably stable, and actin polymerization is limited to their distal tips.
- Synthesis of tetrasubstituted 1-silyloxy-3-aminobutadienes and chemistry
beyond Diels–Alder reactions
Abstract: Electron-rich dienes have been shown to have multiple uses in synthesis by means of cycloaddition reactions. Here, the authors report a series of non-cycloaddition-based reactions of these compounds, giving access to 4-, 5-, 6- and 7-membered ring systems.
- Interactions between horizontally acquired genes create a fitness cost in
Abstract: Horizontal gene transfer is important for bacterial evolution but the molecular basis of its fitness costs remain unclear. Here the authors show that fitness costs produced by a plasmid in P. aeruginosa are alleviated by mutations in recently acquired genes encoded in mobile genetic elements.
- Designer diatom episomes delivered by bacterial conjugation
Abstract: Algae hold great promise for biofuel and chemical production but their use as model systems is hampered by the absence of suitable genetic tools. Here Karas et al . present a nuclear episomal vector for diatoms that is maintained in the absence of antibiotics, and a plasmid delivery method via conjugation with E. coli .
- Active control of all-fibre graphene devices with electrical gating
Abstract: Active control of light in optical fibres is of great interest, to this end, electric control of all-fibre graphene devices is desirable but highly challenging. Here, Lee et al . demonstrate electric control of the optical properties of a graphene sheet deposited on a side-polished fibre mediated by an ion liquid.
- Osmosensing and scaffolding functions of the oligomeric four-transmembrane
domain osmosensor Sho1
Abstract: The yeast high osmolarity glycerol pathway activates the Hog1 MAP kinase via two branches, SLN1 and SHO, but the identity of the osmosensor has only been shown for the SLN1 branch. Here the authors demonstrate that the four-TM domain protein Sho1 functions as both an osmosensor and adaptor protein necessary for Hog1 activation.
- Regulated delivery of molecular cargo to invasive tumour-derived
Abstract: Cells shed various types of vesicles differing in size and content. Here the authors show that cancer cells utilize VAMP3-mediated traffic to deliver MT1-MMP to surface microvesicles and facilitate amoeboid-like cell invasion, with VAMP3-containing vesicles also found in body fluids of cancer patients.
- Inhomogeneity of the ultrafast insulator-to-metal transition dynamics of
Abstract: The nature of the insulator-metal phase transition in VO 2 remains elusive. Using pump-probe spectroscopy and near-field imaging, O’Callahan et al . study the ultrafast dynamics of many micro-crystals and find an inhomogeneous response, highlighting the importance of microscopic perturbations to the transition.
- Seasonality in submesoscale turbulence
Abstract: Recent numerical simulations suggest that the fronts that develop along the rims of ocean eddies are stronger in winter than in summer. Here, the authors present observational confirmation, which informs how these frontal flows are formed.
- APOBEC3A cytidine deaminase induces RNA editing in monocytes and
Abstract: Aberrant RNA editing is linked to a range of neuropsychiatric and chronic diseases. Here Sharma et al . show that APOBEC3A can function as an RNA editing protein in response to physiological stimuli, significantly expanding our understanding of RNA editing and the role this may play in diseases.
- Dynamic caveolae exclude bulk membrane proteins and are required for
sorting of excess glycosphingolipids
Abstract: Recent data question the long-assumed link between caveolae and endocytosis of membrane proteins. Shvets et al . use genome editing to tag and trace endogenous caveolar proteins, providing evidence that these structures exclude membrane proteins and are instead required for proper sorting of excess membrane lipids.
- Skilful multi-year predictions of tropical trans-basin climate variability
Abstract: Sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical Pacific can influence global atmospheric circulation, yet prediction of this atmospheric signal is limited to less than 1 year. Here, the authors present observational and modelling evidence for multi-year predictability.
- GPI-anchored proteins do not reside in ordered domains in the live cell
Abstract: The existence of membrane rafts of higher lipid order in living cells is subject to ongoing debate. Here, Sevcsik et al . use a micropatterning approach to show that glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, typical raft constituents, do not influence their membrane nanoenvironment to promote raft phase formation.
- Diverse synaptic plasticity mechanisms orchestrated to form and retrieve
memories in spiking neural networks
Abstract: The brain exhibits a diversity of plasticity mechanisms across different timecales that constitute the putative basis for learning and memory. Here, the authors demonstrate how these different plasticity mechanisms are orchestrated to support the formation of robust and stable neural cell assemblies.
- Mouse oocytes depend on BubR1 for proper chromosome segregation but not
for prophase I arrest
Abstract: Mammalian female meiosis is error prone, with error rates increasing with age. Here Touati et al . show that the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) protein BubR1, which decreases with age, has multiple roles in meiosis I by controlling SAC, stabilizing the mitotic spindle and timing the onset of anaphase I.
- Length regulation of mechanosensitive stereocilia depends on very slow
actin dynamics and filament-severing proteins
Abstract: Auditory sensory hair cells detect sounds by deflection of their actin-based stereocilia, which vary in length. By inducing expression of GFP-actin in mouse hair cells in vivo , Narayanan et al . demonstrate that stereocilia length is regulated by very slow actin turnover, which is restricted to the tips.
- Patterning two-dimensional chalcogenide crystals of Bi2Se3 and In2Se3 and
Abstract: Two-dimensional chalcogenides offer great potential in electronics, but accurate control of their growth is difficult. Here, the authors combine microintaglio printing and van der Waals epitaxy to pattern various large-area arrays of single-crystal chalcogenides with remarkable properties.
- Supramolecular-jack-like guest in ultramicroporous crystal for exceptional
thermal expansion behaviour
Abstract: While host–guest interplay has been well studied, there has been less work on utilizing the bulk property of guest. Here, the authors show that the jack-like motion of guest supramolecular aggregations can drastically modulate the thermal expansion properties of a three-dimensional hinge-like framework.
- Direct observation of liquid nucleus growth in homogeneous melting of
Abstract: Monitoring crystal melting at a single-atom level is challenging because of the small spatial and temporal scales involved, especially for a bulk process. Wang et al . report the melting dynamics of a colloidal crystal with emphasis on the growth of critical nuclei upon different degrees of superheating.
- Phase nucleation in curved space
Abstract: Nucleation is the fundamental relaxation mechanism that leads to the emergence of a new phase or structure via first-order phase transitions. Here, the authors study nucleation and growth of two-dimensional phases on curved surfaces, and show how the curvature influences its inhomogeneity and speed.
- Tracing the evolutionary origins of insect renal function
Abstract: The evolution of neuropeptide signalling in insects is poorly understood. Here the authors map renal tissue architecture in the major insect Orders, and show that while the ancient neuropeptide families are involved in signalling in nearly all species, there is functional variation in the cell types that mediate the signal.
- A STIM2 splice variant negatively regulates store-operated calcium entry
Abstract: STIM proteins sense calcium depletion in the endoplasmic reticulum and in response activate calcium influx through Orai1 channels located at the plasma membrane. Here, Miederer et al . identify a novel splice variant of STIM2 that fails to interact with and activate Orai1 and may act to fine-tune cellular calcium homeostasis by negatively regulating calcium influx.
- Modelling breast cancer requires identification and correction of a
critical cell lineage-dependent transduction bias
Abstract: Clinical breast cancers predominantly present luminal features, but experimental models are essentially basal. Here the authors show that luminal cells are significantly less susceptible to viral transduction, and present methods to analyse and overcome the bias in heterogeneous populations.
- Combinatorial code governing cellular responses to complex stimuli
Abstract: Cells constantly integrate information from multiple stimuli. By considering every possible means by which two stimuli can interact, Cappuccio et al . define 10 interaction modes and demonstrate their preferential use by dendritic cells responding to different combinations of microbial and host inflammatory cues.
- Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment for temporal investigation of single-electron
Abstract: A charge injected into the edge of a correlated one-dimensional system can split into separate charge packages. Freulon et al . now study this electron fractionalization on the picosecond timescale using Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometry.
- Real-time tunable lasing from plasmonic nanocavity arrays
Abstract: Plasmonic lasers offer ultrasmall mode confinement via nanoscale structures, but their reliance on solid-state gain media makes tunability difficult. Yang et al , present a laser based on gold nanoparticle arrays in a microfluidic channel, whose liquid gain media enable dynamic tuning of the lasing wavelength.
- Epigenomic evolution in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas
Abstract: The contribution of epigenomic alterations to tumour progression and relapse is not well characterized. Here the authors characterize epigenetic evolution in aggressive B-cell lymphoma and find that epigenomic heterogeneity may not only support and drive the relapse phenotype but also be used to predict lymphoma relapse.
- Evidence for carrier localization in the pseudogap state of cuprate
superconductors from coherent quench experiments
Abstract: Understanding the nature of the pseudogap phase is an important challenge for high-temperature superconductivity. Madan et al . present a series of ultrafast spectroscopy experiments on the pseudogap phase of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ and find evidence of carrier localization into a textured polaronic state.
- Extracellular MRP8/14 is a regulator of β2 integrin-dependent
neutrophil slow rolling and adhesion
Abstract: MRP8/14 are actively secreted by myeloid cells during inflammation. Here the authors show that MRP8/14 play an important role in leukocyte recruitment to the inflammatory site, triggering an autocrine cascade that promotes neutrophil adhesion to the endothelium.
- Amplification of oxidative stress by a dual stimuli-responsive hybrid drug
enhances cancer cell death
Abstract: Cancer cells have elevated levels of reactive oxygen species. Here the authors show that cancer cells can be selectively killed in vitro and in vivo by an oxidative stress-activated drug, which amplifies the generation of reactive oxygen species while blocking the cells’ antioxidant defense.
- Universal structure of transmission eigenchannels inside opaque media
Abstract: The transmission of light through opaque media is a complex process, owing to the many scattering processes of light. Here, the authors develop a method to determine the transmission eigenchannels through an opaque medium as a solution of diffusion equations.
- Radixin regulates synaptic GABAA receptor density and is essential for
reversal learning and short-term memory
Abstract: Lateral diffusion of receptors between synaptic and extrasynaptic sites is known to mediate plasticity. Hausrat et al . show that diffusion of α5-containing GABA A receptors is controlled by phosphorylation of the extrasynaptic anchoring protein Radixin, and reveal a role for Radixin in learning and memory.
- Visualization of electrochemically driven solid-state phase
transformations using operando hard X-ray spectro-imaging
Abstract: Hard X-ray spectro-imaging using synchrotron radiation can be used to monitor electrochemical reactions. Here, the authors present X-ray absorption data and resolve phase evolution for the conversion of iron fluoride, a high-capacity Li-ion battery conversion cathode, with nanoscale resolution.
- Real-time observation of epitaxial graphene domain reorientation
Abstract: Understanding the factors that control island orientation in the growth of two-dimensional materials is likely to improve their quality. Here, using low-energy electron microscopy, the authors show that post-nucleation annealing of 2D materials can improve rotational order.
- Crystal structure of the Alcanivorax borkumensis YdaH transporter reveals
an unusual topology
Abstract: AbgT family of transporters have previously been implicated in the uptake of folate catabolites but remain poorly understood. Here the authors present a structural and functional characterization of Alcanivorax borkumensis YdaH, an AbgT-type transporter, revealing a unique topology and possible function as a drug efflux pump.
- A single cyclin–CDK complex is sufficient for both mitotic and
meiotic progression in fission yeast
Abstract: It was recently shown that a single cyclin–CDK complex is sufficient to drive mitosis in fission yeast. Here, the authors show that this complex is also sufficient for meiotic progression, suggesting that specialized complexes are not required for the more intricate transitions of meiosis.
- The desensitization gate of inhibitory Cys-loop receptors
Abstract: Following activation, Cys-loop neurotransmitter-gated ion channels gradually desensitize and conductance shuts down. Here Gielen et al. present a mechanism for desensitization in which the interface between transmembrane domains is remodelled to constrict the channel pore at the intracellular end.
- Quantum Hall resistance standards from graphene grown by chemical vapour
deposition on silicon carbide
Abstract: The quantum Hall effect in GaAs-based devices defines resistance standards accurate to within one part in 10 −9 at magnetic fields close to 10 T. Here, Lafont et al . demonstrate such accuracies over an extended magnetic field range at 1.4 K in chemically vapour-deposited graphene on silicon carbide.
- Association of CLEC16A with human common variable immunodeficiency
disorder and role in murine B cells
Abstract: Common variable immunodeficiency disorder (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency with autoimmune comorbidity. Here, Li et al . show shared genetic susceptibility with autoimmune diseases, identifying the first non HLA risk locus at CLEC16A in the largest CVID genetic study to date.
- Tonic endocannabinoid-mediated modulation of GABA release is independent
of the CB1 content of axon terminals
Abstract: A simple model for receptor number–function relationships dictates a positive correlation between receptor content and ligand effect. Here, the authors demonstrate that the degree of type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB 1 )-modulated GABA release cannot be predicted from CB 1 content of axon terminals.
- A novel liquid organic hydrogen carrier system based on catalytic peptide
formation and hydrogenation
Abstract: Hydrogen is a potential fuel source, but its low energy density when stored under pressure and potential safety issues present problems. Here, the authors report a cheap, abundant organic liquid which can generate hydrogen by formation of a cyclic peptide and be catalytically regenerated upon hydrogenation.
- Did diamond-bearing orangeites originate from MARID-veined peridotites in
the lithospheric mantle'
Abstract: Due to entrainment of mantle and crustal fragments, orangeites provide information about the deep Earth; however, the nature of the source of orangeites remains uncertain. Here, the authors suggest that mica-amphibole-rutile-ilmenite-diopside (MARID) enriched mantle produces the orangeite magmas.
- Single-molecule chemo-mechanical unfolding reveals multiple transition
state barriers in a small single-domain protein
Abstract: Although most protein folding experiments can be explained by a single pathway, theoretical evidence suggests the presence of multiple pathways. Here, the authors resolve this using a combination of force, chemical denaturation and mutagenesis to modulate the flux between parallel pathways.
- Dietary sugar promotes systemic TOR activation in Drosophila through
AKH-dependent selective secretion of Dilp3
Abstract: Fruit flies have eight insulin-like peptides (Dilps), whose regulation and function is largely unexplored. Here the authors show that, whereas dietary amino acids promote secretion of Dilp2, sugar-dependent release of the glucagon-related hormone AKH drives Dilp3 secretion.
- Protein-pyridinol thioester precursor for biosynthesis of the
organometallic acyl-iron ligand in [Fe]-hydrogenase cofactor
Abstract: The iron-guanylylpyridinol cofactor of [Fe]-hydrogenase is the only stable acyl-organometallic cofactor compound found in nature. Here, the authors perform a combined structural genomics and crystallography biochemical study to determine its biosynthetic origins.
- Unconventional transformation of spin Dirac phase across a topological
quantum phase transition
Abstract: In topological insulators, topology imposes a quantum phase transition between the trivial and nontrivial phases. Here, Xu et al. demonstrate how properties of the topological surface states emerge in the trivial phase of BiTl(S 1-δ Se δ ) 2 when close to its chemically tuned phase transition.
- Erratum: Toll-like receptor ligands sensitize B-cell receptor signalling
by reducing actin-dependent spatial confinement of the receptor
- Reconstitution and structure of a bacterial Pnkp1–Rnl–Hen1 RNA
Abstract: Bacterial ribotoxins target and cleave RNAs involved in translation, with target organism resistance being mediated by RNA repair systems. Here, Wang et al. identify, report the crystal structure, and characterize the activity of Pnkp1–Rnl–Hen1, a novel RNA repair complex from Capnocytophaga gingivalis .
- Erratum: Mitochondrial SSBP1 protects cells from proteotoxic stresses by
potentiating stress-induced HSF1 transcriptional activity
- Radially aligned hierarchical columnar structure as a cathode material for
high energy density sodium-ion batteries
Abstract: There are intensive efforts in developing cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries. Here, the authors present a spherical particle with a radially aligned hierarchical columnar structure as a cathode material which leads to good performance of capacity, retention, rate capability and thermal stability.
- FTO influences adipogenesis by regulating mitotic clonal expansion
Abstract: Mutations in the FTO gene have been linked to obesity. Here, Merkestein et al. provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that FTO directly regulates adipogenesis in mice at the stage of mitotic clonal expansion, likely by modulating the expression of the transcription factor RUNX1T1.
- A Time-Encoded Technique for fibre-based hyperspectral broadband
stimulated Raman microscopy
Abstract: Raman microscopes suffer from the compromise between speed and spectral information and are often unsuited for fibre beam delivery. Karpf et al. overcome these limitations using continuous-wave rapidly wavelength-swept probe lasers and a short-duty-cycle actively modulated pump laser in an all-fibre setup.
- Mir-17–92 regulates bone marrow homing of plasma cells and
production of immunoglobulin G2c
Abstract: After activation and selection, plasma cells home to the bone marrow where they persist and continue to make antibodies. Here the authors show that the mir-17–92 cluster coordinates the process by regulating the homing receptor S1PR1 and the transcription factor IKAROS that controls IgG2c production.
- Wip1 deficiency impairs haematopoietic stem cell function via p53 and
Abstract: Aging leads to impaired differentiation and increased pool size of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Here, the authors show that wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (Wip1), a negative regulator of DNA damage response pathways, regulates aging-associated HSC differentiation and expansion via p53 and mTORC1 pathways, respectively.
- High-resolution genetic mapping of maize pan-genome sequence anchors
Abstract: Structural variations in crop genomes are thought to be responsible for significant differences in phenotype and they can be well-represented by a ‘pan-genome’. Here, Lu et al. develop an approach to genetically map pan-genome sequence anchors using 14,129 inbred lines of maize, showing structural variation is a significant source of adaptive variation.
- ATM kinase sustains HER2 tumorigenicity in breast cancer
Abstract: ATM is a tumour suppressor activated in response to DNA damage. Here, the authors unveil a new tumour-promoting role for ATM in HER2-driven breast cancers, and show that ATM stimulates the interaction between HER2 and HSP90, therefore preventing HER2 from degradation.
- Separation and conversion dynamics of nuclear-spin isomers of gaseous
Abstract: The conversion dynamics of nuclear-spin isomers has only been observed for a small number of molecules, generally with rotational symmetry. Here, the authors observe the separation of nuclear-spin isomers of gaseous methanol and show a decreased interconversion at higher pressures.
- Demonstration of relativistic electron beam focusing by a laser-plasma
Abstract: Laser-driven plasmas can accelerate electrons in set-ups far smaller than conventional particle accelerators, but beam divergence is a problem. Here, the authors demonstrate a laser-plasma lens that can focus the beam thanks to field gradients five order of magnitude larger than using traditional optics.
- Dissociation of Bak α1 helix from the core and latch domains is
required for apoptosis
Abstract: During apoptosis, Bak undergoes major conformational changes that lead to mitochondrial permeabilization. Here, the authors characterize changes that occur within the Bak N-terminus using a series of antibodies and a novel tethering approach, demonstrating that dissociation of the α1 helix is a key early step in the unfolding of Bak.
- Optical aperture synthesis with electronically connected telescopes
Abstract: In astronomy, interferometry between telescopes enables high-resolution imaging but optical links are limited by atmospheric turbulence. Here, the authors show how this can be circumvented, producing diffraction-limited images using an array of electronically connected optical telescopes.
- Parent–offspring conflict and the genetic trade-offs shaping
Abstract: Sexual reproduction introduces genetic conflict between family members, but direct empirical evidence is lacking. Here, the authors show, in an insect with maternal care, that genetic trade-offs that differ in shape across offspring stages affect the scope for parent–offspring conflict.
- Cytosolic targeting factor AKR2A captures chloroplast outer
membrane-localized client proteins at the ribosome during translation
Abstract: Post-translational import of nuclear-encoded proteins shapes the proteome of organelles. Here, Kim et al. show that AKR2A, a critical targeting factor for chloroplast outer membrane proteins, binds to client proteins co-translationally as they exit the ribosome.
- Emergence of californium as the second transitional element in the
Abstract: The chemistry of the post-plutonium actinides is thought to resemble lanthanides in that bonding is primarily ionic. Here, the authors show that a californium(III) complex displays significantly different properties to those predicted for the free ion owing to a second break in actinide periodicity.
- Rheb activation disrupts spine synapse formation through accumulation of
syntenin in tuberous sclerosis complex
Abstract: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) arises from mutations in an activator of the small GTPase Rheb. Here the authors show that syntenin binds to GDP-bound Rheb, and loss of this interaction in TSC leads to increased syntenin expression and downstream signalling defects leading to aberrant spine synapse morphogenesis.
- Regulated degradation of Chk1 by chaperone-mediated autophagy in response
to DNA damage
Abstract: Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) helps maintain protein quality during cellular stress. Here the authors show that CMA is also activated in response to DNA damage and regulates degradation of the cell cycle regulator Chk1—the first nuclear protein shown to be a substrate of CMA.
- Calibrating genomic and allelic coverage bias in single-cell sequencing
Abstract: Artifacts caused by whole-genome amplification bias are a recurrent challenge in single-cell sequencing analysis. Here, the authors develop statistical models and demonstrate an efficient strategy for controlling amplification errors by a joint analysis of single cell genomes.
- NFκB1 is a suppressor of neutrophil-driven hepatocellular carcinoma
Abstract: The role of neutrophils in cancer development is not widely appreciated. Here, the authors show that NF-κB-deficient hepatocytes overproduce chemokines, leading to hepatocellular carcinoma due to excessive neutrophil recruitment, and that neutrophil depletion prevents liver cancer in these mice.
- Nedd4-induced monoubiquitination of IRS-2 enhances IGF signalling and
Abstract: Phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1/2 by insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I receptor tyrosine kinase is essential for IGF signalling. Here, the authors show that monoubiquitination of IRS-2 by the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 recruits IRS-2 to the cell membrane and increases IRS-2 phosphorylation and IGF signalling.
- Neural organization of spoken language revealed by lesion–symptom
Abstract: Contemporary neuroimaging techniques are enabling precise analysis of structure–function relations in the brain. This study combines large-scale structural neuroimaging and behavioural analyses in patients with acquired aphasia to elucidate the neural organization of spoken language processing.
- The DNA repair endonuclease Mus81 facilitates fast DNA replication in the
absence of exogenous damage
Abstract: Several mechanisms are in place to ensure the accurate and timely replication of the genome as cells progress through S-phase. Here, the authors show that Mus81, an endonuclease involved in the response to DNA damage during replicative stress, also regulates the rate of DNA replication during normal growth.
- Polarization screening-induced magnetic phase gradients at complex oxide
Abstract: The interface between magnetic and ferroelectric thin-film materials offers the opportunity to couple these important properties. Here, the authors combine experimental and theoretical studies into a model interface to investigate the details of how electron charges and spins evolve across this interface.