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Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2041-1723
Published by Nature Publishing Group [110 journals]
- Localization of Hippo signalling complexes and Warts activation in vivo
Abstract: Components of the Hippo signalling pathway localize to apical junctions in epithelial cells, where they regulate growth in response to mechanical and biochemical cues. Sun et al . show that these proteins are organized into distinct junctional complexes, which reorganize up on Hippo pathway activation.
- Structural basis of glycan specificity in neonate-specific bovine-human
Abstract: Rotaviruses cause life-threatening gastroenteritis in children and have been shown to have variations in glycan recognition from genetic alterations. Here, the authors use X-ray crystallography to indicate that these alterations can change the specificity of the virus from cows to infant humans.
- The DNA structure and sequence preferences of WRN underlie its function in
telomeric recombination events
Abstract: The loss of WRN helicase leads to abnormalities at chromosome ends and is associated with premature ageing phenotypes characteristic of Werner syndrome. Here the authors show that WRN acts in a structure- and sequence-specific manner on recombination intermediates relevant to telomere maintenance.
- A pain-inducing centipede toxin targets the heat activation machinery of
Abstract: The venom of the Chinese red-headed centipede causes excruciating pain. Here, Yang et al . identify a novel toxin protein from the centipede venom and find that it can activate the nociceptive TRPV1 ion channel by binding to the channel’s outer pore to potentiate the heat activation machinery.
- Limited dissemination of the wastewater treatment plant core resistome
Abstract: Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are thought to play a central role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. Here, the authors identify novel antibiotic resistance genes in WWTPs and show that only a few of the most abundant resistance genes are found outside the WWTP environment.
- Corrigendum: Enhanced role of eddies in the Arctic marine biological pump
- Enhanced light absorption by mixed source black and brown carbon particles
in UK winter
Abstract: Uncertainties in the absorptive properties of black and brown carbon particles limit our understanding of their warming potential. Following an extensive field campaign, Liu et al . report that the magnitude of warming is dependent on particle coatings, which vary due to source and photochemical aging.
- Interplay between arginine methylation and ubiquitylation regulates
KLF4-mediated genome stability and carcinogenesis
Abstract: Krüppel-like factor 4 plays an important role in regulating responses to DNA damage, cell-fate decision and apoptosis. Here the authors show that aberrant regulation by methyltransferase PRMT5 results in failure to arrest the cell cycle and genome instability, pointing to a role in carcinogenesis.
- A tunable azine covalent organic framework platform for visible
light-induced hydrogen generation
Abstract: Production of hydrogen via the photocatalytic reduction of water is an attractive source of energy, but the catalysts are often expensive and possess little room for modification. Here, the authors show that covalent organic frameworks can be tuned for optimal photocatalytic performance.
- BAP1 promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and metastasis by
Abstract: The zinc finger-containing transcription factor KLF5 drives cell proliferation and migration. Here, the authors show that the debuquitinase BAP1 directly stabilizes KLF5, thus promoting basal-like breast cancer cell-cycle progression and metastasis.
- Towards a table-top microscope for nanoscale magnetic imaging using
picosecond thermal gradients
Abstract: Table-top measurements of magnetic structures and dynamics in thin films are typically limited by temporal or spatial resolution. Here, the authors present a heat-based spatiotemporal magnetic microscopy method based on the anomalous Nernst effect, which may potentially overcome such limits.
- Ultralow-threshold multiphoton-pumped lasing from colloidal nanoplatelets
Abstract: Multiphoton-pumped lasing from semiconductor nanocrystals in solution is difficult due to Auger recombination, low volume fraction and high threshold. Here, Li et al . demonstrate photostable, ultralow threshold multi-photon pumped lasing from colloidal CdSe/CdS nanoplatelets in a Fabry-Pérot optical resonator.
- A RIAM/lamellipodin–talin–integrin complex forms the tip of
sticky fingers that guide cell migration
Abstract: The leading edge of migrating cells contains activated integrins associated with growing actin filaments that form ‘sticky fingers’ to guide cell migration. Here, the authors detect a complex of MRL proteins, talin and activated integrins in lamellipodia and filopodia in living cells, comprising the tips of the ‘sticky fingers’.
- Bio-inspired electron-delivering system for reductive activation of
dioxygen at metal centres towards artificial flavoenzymes
Abstract: Activated atmospheric dioxygen is potentially an environmentally friendly oxidant. Here, the authors incorporate a flavin mononucleotide into a water soluble polymer, demonstrating single electron reduction of a metalloporphyrin centre, and subsequent activation of dioxygen for the oxidation of organic substrates.
- Cognitive tutoring induces widespread neuroplasticity and remediates brain
function in children with mathematical learning disabilities
Abstract: Mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) affect up to 20% of children and are linked to poorer socioeconomic and health outcomes in adulthood. Here, Iuculano et al . show that tutoring induced functional changes in multiple brain systems underlie remediation of poor maths skills in children with MLD.
- PBX3 is targeted by multiple miRNAs and is essential for liver
Abstract: α2δ1 is a marker of liver tumour-initiating cells. Here the authors show that PBX3 is necessary and sufficient for tumour initiation by α2δ1+ cells by regulating transcription of stemness genes, and that PBX3 is targeted by four miRNAs downregulated in α2δ1+ cells.
- Subducting seamounts control interplate coupling and seismic rupture in
the 2014 Iquique earthquake area
Abstract: On 1 April 2014 the Mw 8.1 Iquique earthquake seemed to close the well-recognized northern Chile seismic gap, producing only a small rupture. Here, the authors present seismic reflection and multibeam bathymetry data from the area suggesting that seamount subduction played a role in halting the rupture.
- A recursive vesicle-based model protocell with a primitive model cell
Abstract: The synthetic production of model protocells, which represent potential intermediates between nonliving material and living cells, may help to explain the origin of cellular life. Here, Kurihara et al . develop a giant vesicle-based model protocell that is able to self-proliferate recursively in response to external stimuli.
- Ablation of hippocampal neurogenesis in mice impairs the response to
stress during the dark cycle
Abstract: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is involved in the response to stress but whether it exerts a positive or negative effect remains unclear. Here the authors ablate hippocampal neurogenesis in mice and find that the effects on anxiety behaviour depend on the time of day, and that neurogenesis specifically impairs the response to stress during the dark cycle.
- Genomic analyses reveal recurrent mutations in epigenetic modifiers and
the JAK–STAT pathway in Sézary syndrome
Abstract: Sézary syndrome is a T cell malignancy that has been poorly characterized at the genome level. In this study, Kiel et al . perform whole-genome analyses and identify mutations in the JAK–STAT pathway and show that primary cells are sensitive to JAK inhibitors.
- Ultrahigh volumetric capacitance and cyclic stability of fluorine and
nitrogen co-doped carbon microspheres
Abstract: Carbon-based supercapacitors often suffer from poor volumetric capacitance due to the low packing density which arises from attempts to increase the electrode surface area. Here, in contrast, the authors fabricate N and F co-doped non-porous solid carbon spheres and achieve exceptional performances.
- A resilient formin-derived cortical actin meshwork in the rear drives
actomyosin-based motility in 2D confinement
Abstract: Amoeboid motility is driven by actomyosin-based contraction and exploits differences in the mechanical properties of the cortical cytoskeleton. Here the authors discover that mDia1-like formin A is responsible for generating a subset of actin filaments at the rear of Dictyostelium that suppresses lateral protrusions and blebbing during 2D-confined migration.
- Entropy-stabilized oxides
Abstract: The composition of oxide compounds controls many of their properties and electronic phases. Here, the authors show that entropy and configurational disorder can stabilize new phases of oxides, potentially enabling a better engineering of their properties.
- Exciton dynamics of C60-based single-photon emitters explored by Hanbury
Brown–Twiss scanning tunnelling microscopy
Abstract: Electrons and holes trapped in a molecular crystal couple to form excitons. Here, the authors use scanning tunnelling microscopy to inject current with submolecular precision into structural defects in solid C 60 and demonstrate single photon emission from the excitons trapped there.
- Macroscopic ordering of helical pores for arraying guest molecules
Abstract: Helical nanostructures often exhibit intriguing physical phenomena. Here, the authors fabricate a helical porous material exhibiting both controlled handedness and macroscopic orientation, which promises applications in a wide array of disciplines.
- Carbon-bridged oligo(p-phenylenevinylene)s for photostable and broadly
tunable, solution-processable thin film organic lasers
Abstract: Thin film organic solid-state lasers are low-cost flexible devices which require efficient, stable, colour-tunable, solution-processable materials. Here, the authors show that oligo(p-phenylenevinylene)s simultaneously possess all such properties, as demonstrated by their use in laser devices.
- Atomic-level characterization of transport cycle thermodynamics in the
Abstract: Membrane transporters transition between inward- and outward-facing conformations to translocate substrates across membranes but mechanistic details of this process remain scarce. Here Moradi et al . use an advanced molecular simulation approach to describe the complete thermodynamic cycle of the GlpT transporter at atomic-level detail.
- Expanding the biotechnology potential of lactobacilli through comparative
genomics of 213 strains and associated genera
Abstract: Lactobacillus is a lactic acid bacteria and has a wide range of application from use in probiotic food production to biotherapeutics. Here, the authors sequence and compare the genomes of 213 different Lactobacillus strains and related genera, and provide new insight into phylogenomic organization and adaptive immunity elements in this bacteria family.
- Maternal bile acid transporter deficiency promotes neonatal demise
Abstract: The mechanisms underlying perinatal mortality due to intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy are not fully understood. Here, the authors show that absence of the nuclear receptor and bile acid regulator Nrli2 and the biliary transporter Abcb11 strongly reduces maternal serum bile acid levels, improving neonatal survival.
- Dose–response curve slope helps predict therapeutic potency and
breadth of HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies
Abstract: Potencies of HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies are usually defined by their in vitro IC 50 and IC 80 values, but much higher levels will be required for successful immunotherapies. Here, Webb et al . predict antibody potency at therapeutic levels by analyzing dose–response curve slopes, which correlate with epitope class.
- Coordinating activation strategy for C(sp3)–H/C(sp3)–H
cross-coupling to access β-aromatic α-amino acids
Abstract: Oxidative coupling of two C(sp3)-H groups is an attractive approach for the formation of carbon-carbon bonds, building structural complexity while avoiding the formation of waste salts. Here, the authors report such a transformation, using a nickel catalyst to functionalise amino acids with benzylic radicals.
- Lower glycolysis carries a higher flux than any biochemically possible
Abstract: The biochemical pathways of central carbon metabolism are highly conserved across all domains of life. Here, Court et al . use a computational approach to test all possible pathways of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis and find that the existing trunk pathways may represent a maximal flux solution selected for during evolution.
- Flexible coherent control of plasmonic spin-Hall effect
Abstract: Conventional methods to control surface plasmon polaritons with light offer limited tunability or complex design parameters. Here, Xiao et al . demonstrate coherent and independent control of surface plasmon polariton orbitals for two opposite spins using multiple rings of nano-slots on a metasurface
- Transcriptomes of parents identify parenting strategies and sexual
conflict in a subsocial beetle
Abstract: The burying beetle shows flexible parenting behaviour. Here, the authors show that offspring fare equally well regardless of the sex or number of parents present and find similar gene expression profiles in uniparental and biparental females and in uniparental males, which suggests no specialization in parenting.
- Raman spectroscopy as probe of nanometre-scale strain variations in
Abstract: Raman spectroscopy has become an invaluable tool for graphene characterisation, yet the nature of the broadening of the Raman 2D line remains unclear. Here, Stampfer et al . show that the Raman 2D line width is a measure of nanometre-scale strain variations in graphene on insulating substrates.
- Antibiotics in neonatal life increase murine susceptibility to
Abstract: Commensal microbes are necessary for proper development of the immune system. Here Zanvit et al . show that neonatal antibiotics treatment causes long-term changes in the gut and skin microbiomes, and exacerbates immune-mediated skin pathology at adult age in mouse experimental models of psoriasis.
- Causal mechanisms and balancing selection inferred from genetic
associations with polycystic ovary syndrome
Abstract: This paper describes the largest genome-wide association study to date on polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common reproductive disorder in women. Six genetic loci—including known targets of cancer chemotherapy—were identified, and the authors infer causal and balancing selection mechanisms involved in PCOS risk and susceptibility.
- Genome-wide association meta-analysis identifies five modifier loci of
lung disease severity in cystic fibrosis
Abstract: Cystic fibrosis imposes a decline in quality of life but new treatments are being developed that target specific CFTR variants. Here the authors identify five genome loci significantly associated with variation in disease severity in a meta-analysis, which may provide targets for individualized treatment of cystic fibrosis.
- NACA deficiency reveals the crucial role of somite-derived stromal cells
in haematopoietic niche formation
Abstract: How do stromal cells contribute to the haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche' In zebrafish, Murayama et al . identify somite-derived stromal cells in the first niche where HSCs home, and depletion of the nascent polypeptide-associated complex alpha subunit in these cells prevents HSC maturation.
- An automated Genomes-to-Natural Products platform (GNP) for the discovery
of modular natural products
Abstract: Microbial natural products represent a large reservoir of potential pharmaceutical agents. Here, Johnston et al . describe a computer-automated programme for connecting genome sequences with identified and isolated natural products.
- The structural origin of the hard-sphere glass transition in granular
Abstract: Glass transition shows dramatic dynamic slowdown, but its origin remains unclear. Here, Xia et al . observe in granular systems the rapid growth of a geometrically frustrated polytetrahedral order with packing fraction, which is spatially correlated with the slow dynamics.
- Multiplex lithography for multilevel multiscale architectures and its
application to polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell
Abstract: Multiplex lithography is a technique that can be used to fabricate complex soft materials. Here, the authors develop a method to prepare multilevel multiscale structures and demonstrate its application on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells which display decreased membrane resistance and increased electrochemical active surface area.
- Structure of the native Sec61 protein-conducting channel
Abstract: The protein-conducting channel Sec61 is responsible for protein transport and membrane insertion at the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, the authors determine the structure of ribosome-bound Sec61 in a native context, in which it adopts a laterally open conformation, irrespective of its functional state.
- Combining genomic and network characteristics for extended capability in
predicting synergistic drugs for cancer
Abstract: Predicting combinations of chemotherapeutic drugs that act synergistically is challenging. Here the authors take a computational approach to predict synergistic pairs, validate novel pairs using several cancer cell lines, and assess toxicity in a zebrafish xenograft model.
- CPI motif interaction is necessary for capping protein function in cells
Abstract: Capping protein regulates actin filament dynamics by binding to barbed ends and preventing their growth. Edwards et al . show that capping protein also requires interactions with proteins containing a capping protein interaction motif to promote its proper localization and regulation of actin dynamics.
- Optodynamic simulation of β-adrenergic receptor signalling
Abstract: Optogenetic activation of β2-adrenergic receptors (β2-AR) has been achieved, but not characterized in detail. Here, Siuda et al . show that light-controlled opto-β2AR mimics endogenous β2AR activity in vitro and in vivo , and develop novel, optically active, functionally selective receptors to bias β2AR intracellular signaling mechanisms.
- Carrier separation and transport in perovskite solar cells studied by
nanometre-scale profiling of electrical potential
Abstract: Carrier separation and transport in solar cells need to be understood to improve efficiency. Here, Jiang et al . study the junction structure in perovskite solar cells using Kelvin probe force microscopy, showing that solar cells have a p–n junction and carrier mobility is a limiting factor for device efficiency improvement.
- Sunlight-powered kHz rotation of a hemithioindigo-based molecular motor
Abstract: Although photodriven molecular motors—capable of converting light into unidirectional motion—hold promise for many applications, these typically require ultraviolet light. Here, the authors design and analyse a motor that can operate at high speeds (kHz) under visible light at ambient temperature.
- Multiple-exciton generation in lead selenide nanorod solar cells with
external quantum efficiencies exceeding 120%
Abstract: One-dimensional nanostructures have been shown to increase multiple-exciton generation, offering a pathway to breaking the Shockley–Queisser limit. Here, Davis et al . have fabricated working photovoltaic devices based on high-quality PbSe nanorods and a maximum external quantum efficiency of 122 % was demonstrated.
- All-passive nonreciprocal metastructure
Abstract: The design of all-passive nonreciprocal metastructures is a challenging task as there are trade-offs between the nonreciprocal transmission ratio and insertion loss. Here, Mahmoud et al . propose a concept for all-passive, high-throughput metastructures that exhibit nonreciprocal properties and wave-flow isolation.
- Electronic cooling via interlayer Coulomb coupling in multilayer epitaxial
Abstract: The coupling between layers plays an important role in the properties of stacked two-dimensional materials. Here, the authors show that Coulomb interactions between electrons in different layers of graphene induce thermal transport even though all electronic states are confined to individual layers.
- Adaptive rewiring aggravates the effects of species loss in ecosystems
Abstract: The formation of new feeding links by consumers adapting to the loss of prey is thought to buffer food webs against cascading extinctions. However, Ebenman et al. show that adaptive rewiring can still cause extinction cascades if predators are efficient at capturing rare prey, leading to overexploitation of resources.
- High charge mobility in two-dimensional percolative networks of PbSe
quantum dots connected by atomic bonds
Abstract: The effect of nanocrystal structure on electronic properties is of considerable interest for optoelectronic devices. Here, Evers et al . study the charge transport in two-dimensional percolative networks of PbSe and find excellent terahertz mobility of charge carriers.
- Wnt signalling tunes neurotransmitter release by directly targeting
Abstract: The mechanisms by which signalling proteins dynamically modulate neurotransmitter release remain poorly understood. Here, Ciani et al . show Wnt signalling influences vesicle pool availability in an activity-dependent manner via direct interactions with Dishevelled-1 and the synaptic vesicle calcium sensor Synaptotagmin-1.
- Matrikines are key regulators in modulating the amplitude of lung
inflammation in acute pulmonary infection
Abstract: Proteases degrade extracellular matrix during inflammation, releasing peptides that can recruit neutrophils. Here the authors show that degradation of such bioactive peptide by the enzyme leukotriene A4 hydrolase is critical to limit pulmonary inflammation during bacterial infection in mice.
- Trophic network architecture of root-associated bacterial communities
determines pathogen invasion and plant health
Abstract: Species-rich communities are thought to be more resistant to pathogen invasion. Here, Wei et al. show that the resource competition network architecture of root-associated bacterial communities are better predictors of plant pathogen invasion resistance than measures of community diversity.
- Diffusional spread and confinement of newly exocytosed synaptic vesicle
Abstract: Neurotransmission is mediated by synaptic vesicles (SVs) fusion with the plasma membrane near active zones. Here, Gimber et al. observe that rapid diffusional spread and confinement is followed by slow reclustering of SV proteins at the periactive endocytic zone through SV protein association with the clathrin-based machinery.
- Herbivory increases diversification across insect clades
Abstract: Insects include most living species, yet the causes of this remarkable diversity remain unclear. Here, the authors show a positive relationship between herbivory and diversification among insect orders, which suggests that herbivory helps explain insect diversity.
- Current-driven dynamics of skyrmions stabilized in MnSi nanowires revealed
by topological Hall effect
Abstract: Magnetic skyrmions are topologically protected magnetization textures which can arise in helical magnets and present promise for low-power nanoscale magnetic storage device applications. Here, the authors demonstrate extended phase stability and current-driven dynamics of skyrmions in nanowires of MnSi.
- Climate constrains the evolutionary history and biodiversity of
Abstract: Crocodylians and their relatives have a rich evolutionary history. Here the authors show long-term decline of terrestrial crocodylians driven by decreasing temperatures but no relationship between temperature and biodiversity for marine crocodylians over their 250 million year history.
- O-GlcNAcylation of G6PD promotes the pentose phosphate pathway and tumor
Abstract: The pentose phosphate pathway is aberrantly activated in cancer cells but the mechanism is unclear. Here, the authors show that G6PD, the rate-limiting enzyme in the pathway, is post-translationally modified with a sugar moiety under hypoxic conditions leading to increased production of precursors for macromolecular synthesis and antioxidants.
- STIM1 dimers undergo unimolecular coupling to activate Orai1 channels
Abstract: STIM1, the endoplasmic reticulum calcium sensor, is activated in response to calcium store depletion and translocates to the ER–plasma membrane junctions to activate Orai1 channels. Here the authors present a new model of unimolecular coupling between STIM1 and Orai1 whereby STIM1 dimers may be involved in crosslinking Orai1 channels.
- Acute DNA damage activates the tumour suppressor p53 to promote
Abstract: p53 can be activated by oncogenic stress to suppress tumourigenesis, but its role in radiation carcinogenesis has not been studied in p53 wild-type mice. Here, Lee et al . show that knocking down p53 during total-body irradiation not only reduces acute toxicity, but prevents the formation of radiation-induced lymphoma.
- CTRP6 is an endogenous complement regulator that can effectively treat
Abstract: The complement system contributes to chronic inflammatory diseases. Here the authors show that CRTP6 suppresses the alternative complement pathway and reverses rheumatoid arthritis in a mouse model of the disease.
- Swarming bacteria migrate by Lévy Walk
Abstract: Lévy walks have been found in the motion of large animals such as birds and fish in search of sparsely and randomly distributed food. Here, Ariel et al . observe, by tracking long-duration trajectories of fluorescently labelled bacteria, similar walks in bacterial swarms for the first time.
- Macroscopic and high-throughput printing of aligned nanostructured polymer
semiconductors for MHz large-area electronics
Abstract: Semiconducting polymers with high mobility are essential for the development of high-frequency flexible electronics, whose fabrications rely on robust printing techniques. Bucella et al . report the fabrication of n -type polymer field-effect transistors, with mobility up to 6.4 cm 2 V −1 s operated at 3.3 MHz, by room temperature bar-coating technique.
- Sub-10-fs population inversion in N2+ in air lasing through multiple state
Abstract: Remote generation of population-inverted gain media in air is a step towards the realization of bright and coherent atmospheric lasers. Here, the authors verify population inversion in N 2 + and demonstrate the generation of air lasing by acting on it as the gain medium.
- PTEN regulates cilia through Dishevelled
Abstract: The formation of motile cilia is regulated by Dishevelled (DVL), a central component in WNT signalling and planar cell polarity (PCP). Here the authors identify DVL as a novel substrate of the phosphatase PTEN, coupling PTEN to cilia dynamics and PCP.
- The foundations of the human cultural niche
Abstract: Our understanding of how humans produce complex technologies is limited. Here, the authors use a computer-based experiment to show that the production of complex innovations results from a population process that relies on efficient social learning mechanisms and specific population structures.
- Bub1 autophosphorylation feeds back to regulate kinetochore docking and
promote localized substrate phosphorylation
Abstract: Bub1 kinase phosphorylates histone H2A-T120 at the centromere to recruit shugoshin proteins and promote sister chromatid cohesion during mitosis. Here the authors show that Bub1 autophosphorylation on T589 influences Bub1 dynamics at the kinetochore and restricts H2A-T120 phosphorylation to centromeres.
- Functional classification of memory CD8+ T cells by CX3CR1 expression
Abstract: The function of memory CD8 + T cells is often believed to be directly correlated with their localization in tissues. Here the authors show that CD8 + T cells with different proliferative and cytotoxic properties can be distinguished based on their expression of CX3CR1, independently of their tissue localization.
- EZH2-mediated loss of miR-622 determines CXCR4 activation in
Abstract: Chemokines and their receptors have key roles in tumorigenesis. Here, the authors demonstrate that CXRC4 is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma and is associated with poor prognosis and, mechanistically CXCR4 is increased in expression via EZH2 repression of microRNA-622.
- Antibodies to a conformational epitope on gp41 neutralize HIV-1 by
destabilizing the Env spike
Abstract: The envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer is the only antigenic target for broadly neutralizing antibodies on the surface of the HIV-1 virus. Here the authors show that two related monoclonal antibodies bind between gp41 protomers and neutralize HIV-1 by accelerating Env trimer decay.
- Standards and figure-of-merits for quantifying the performance of
Abstract: Triboelectric nanogenerators are a technology for converting mechanical energy into electricity, but standards for quantifying their performance is lacking. Here, the authors present figure-of-merits to quantitatively evaluate the performance of triboelectric nanogenerators and establish a foundation for further development.
- TET2 repression by androgen hormone regulates global hydroxymethylation
status and prostate cancer progression
Abstract: The epigenetic mark 5-hmC alters gene expression and is known to be regulated by TET proteins. Here, the authors show that 5-hmC and TET2 are reduced in prostate cancer via androgen receptor-dependent miRNA expression and are inversely correlated with prognosis.
- An Arabidopsis PWI and RRM motif-containing protein is critical for
pre-mRNA splicing and ABA responses
Abstract: The phytohormone ABA plays a critical role in plant stress responses. Here, using a forward-genetic screen, Zhan et al . discover a splicing factor that plays an important role in splicing HAB1 phosphatase and fine-tuning ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis .
- ABA signalling is fine-tuned by antagonistic HAB1 variants
Abstract: Protein phosphatases are central regulators of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and stress responses in plants. Here, Wang et al. show that different splice variants of the phosphatase HAB1 antagonistically influence ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis and propose that alternative splicing fine tunes ABA signalling.
- Local and bulk 13C hyperpolarization in nitrogen-vacancy-centred diamonds
at variable fields and orientations
Abstract: Hyperpolarization of nuclear spins for enhancing the sensitivity of magnetic resonance can typically be achieved at low temperatures. Here, the authors demonstrate room-temperature polarization of 13 C derived from optically pumped electrons of nitrogen vacancies in diamonds with arbitrary orientations.
- Light-induced pyroelectric effect as an effective approach for ultrafast
Abstract: Zinc oxide is potentially a useful material for ultraviolet detectors, but a relatively long response time hinders practical implementation. Here, the authors demonstrate a zinc oxide nanowire/perovskite heterostructure detector with a five orders of magnitude improvement in both rising and falling edge time.
- Femtosecond structural transformation of phase-change materials far from
equilibrium monitored by coherent phonons
Abstract: Chalcogenide-based phase-change materials such as Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 could be useful for optical data storage, but the mechanism that ultimately limits their switching speed is unclear. Here, the authors use coherent phonon spectroscopy to better understand the non-thermal pathways between the two different phases.
- A mutation in the POT1 gene is responsible for cardiac angiosarcoma in
TP53-negative Li–Fraumeni-like families
Abstract: Genetic factors that cause cardiac angiosarcoma are unknown. Calvete et al . show that a missense mutation in protection of telomeres 1 (POT1) gene causes cardiac angiosarcoma by affecting the POT1 function and, consequently, telomere length and stability.
- Ultra-low-power hybrid light–matter solitons
Abstract: Harnessing nonlinear optics in optoelectronic devices requires a platform that exhibits both giant optical nonlinearity and is compatible with photonic-circuit fabrication. Here, the authors demonstrate such a system that uses strong light–matter coupling between waveguide photons and quantum-well excitons.
- Highly multiplexed imaging of single cells using a high-throughput cyclic
Abstract: Multiplexed single cell measurements provide insight into connections between cell state and phenotype. Here Lin et al. present CycIF, a high throughput, public domain immunofluorescence method for multiplexed single-cell analysis of adherent cells following live-cell imaging.
- Convergent capture of retroviral superantigens by mammalian herpesviruses
Abstract: Horizontal gene transfer from retroviruses to mammals is rare between unrelated viruses. Here the authors show the convergent acquisition by herpesviruses of a virulence gene of ancient retroviruses, which occurred at least twice from different donor lineages, to distinct herpesviruses that infect mammals.
- Oscillation of p38 activity controls efficient pro-inflammatory gene
Abstract: The prolonged presence of cytokines is necessary to produce a robust pro-inflammatory response through the activation of p38 MAPK. Here, Tomida et al . show that asynchronous oscillatory activation of p38 MAPK occurs at the single-cell level and is necessary for the proper expression of pro-inflammatory genes.
- HIV–tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory
syndrome is characterized by Toll-like receptor and inflammasome
Abstract: Some patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis develop an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) in response to antiretroviral therapy. Here the authors identify genes differentially expressed in patients likely to progress to TB-IRIS and find activation of Toll-like receptor and inflammasome pathways.
- Rapid biotic homogenization of marine fish assemblages
Abstract: The response of marine fish assemblages to global change is not fully understood. Analysing a 29-year time-series, Magurran et al. show that despite little change in species richness, high species turnover is leading to North Atlantic groundfish assemblages becoming spatially homogenized, likely as a result of climatic change.
- High damage tolerance of electrochemically lithiated silicon
Abstract: Mechanical degradation is an undesired behaviour for battery electrode materials such as lithiated silicon. Here, the authors perform in situ nanomechanical experiments and atomistic modelling to reveal the damage tolerance of electrochemically lithiated silicon.
- Hot-carrier cooling and photoinduced refractive index changes in
organic–inorganic lead halide perovskites
Abstract: The use of organic–inorganic metal-halide perovskites in hot-carrier devices depends on deepening the understanding of photoexcitations in these materials. Here, Price et al. use transient absorption spectroscopy to study hot-carrier distributions in CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 and quantify key semiconductors parameters.
- Evolutionarily conserved intercalated disc protein Tmem65 regulates
cardiac conduction and connexin 43 function
Abstract: Mechanical and electrical activity in the heart is propagated through unique cardiomyocyte membrane structures, the intercalated discs (ID). Sharma et al. identify a novel ID protein, Tmem65, that controls Ca2+ signalling and electrical coupling by interacting with and functionally regulating the gap junction protein Cx43.
- Metal oxide-resistive memory using graphene-edge electrodes
Abstract: Increasing memory performance and density will require new breakthroughs in atomic-scale technology and three-dimensional device architectures. Here, the authors demonstrate a memory just 3 Å thick that can be stacked by exploiting the atomically thin edge of monolayer graphene.
- TrkB/BDNF signalling patterns the sympathetic nervous system
Abstract: The signals that pattern the sympathetic nervous system are not fully understood. Here the authors show that the dorsal migration of the primary sympathetic ganglia in chick embryos is orchestrated by BDNF/TrkB signalling and requires contact with preganglionic axons.