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Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2041-1723
Published by Nature Publishing Group [110 journals]
- Corrigendum: Tonic endocannabinoid-mediated modulation of GABA release is
independent of the CB1 content of axon terminals
- Chamber identity programs drive early functional partitioning of the heart
Abstract: The heart forms from combining the first with the second heart field, which in mammals creates left and right ventricle. Here transgenic zebrafish and physiology studies reveal that transcription factors controlling septation in mammals already in teleosts guide muscle coupling by controlling the relative contribution of the two fields to the heart.
- A stem acrodontan lizard in the Cretaceous of Brazil revises early lizard
evolution in Gondwana
Abstract: Iguanians are a diverse group of lizards. Here, the authors report an acrodontan iguanian from the Late Cretaceous of Brazil, which suggests that this group achieved a global distribution during the Mesozoic but was replaced by non-acrodontans in the Americas.
- Coupling of lysosomal and mitochondrial membrane permeabilization in
trypanolysis by APOL1
Abstract: The human serum protein apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) is taken up by trypanosomes where it triggers cell death, forming pores in endolysosomal membranes. Vanwalleghem et al. show that APOL1 triggers both lysosomal and mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, and that the latter is responsible for trypanolysis.
- Learning-related representational changes reveal dissociable integration
and separation signatures in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex
Abstract: Our memory system maintains flexibility by representing both specific events as well as generalizations across events, yet the brain regions supporting each remain unknown. Here the authors reveal dissociable neural signatures of memory separation and integration in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.
- Sialic acid catabolism drives intestinal inflammation and microbial
dysbiosis in mice
Abstract: Intestinal inflammation is often associated with a shift in microbiota composition but the mechanisms are unclear. Here the authors show that an increase in caecal sialidase activity occurring during intestinal inflammation promotes the expansion of Enterobacteriaceae , which can lead to exacerbated inflammatory response.
- A plasmonic nanorod that walks on DNA origami
Abstract: The controlled movement of optically active components represents a challenge for nanooptical applications. Here the authors demonstrate a gold nanorod walker that performs directional walking along a DNA origami track and where the individual nanoscale steps can be monitored by optical spectroscopy in real time.
- Atomically controlled substitutional boron-doping of graphene nanoribbons
Abstract: Incorporation of boron atoms into an aromatic carbon framework offers a wide variety of functionality. Here, the authors present boron-doped graphene nanoribbons by on-surface chemical reaction and characterize the structures and properties using scanning probe microscopy at the atomic-scale.
- Contextual modulation of value signals in reward and punishment learning
Abstract: In contrast to predictions from learning theory, humans learn to seek rewards and avoid punishments equally well. Here the authors offer an elegant solution to this problem by demonstrating that humans learn option values relative to a reference point subserved by a common neural substrate.
- Tuning of Ranvier node and internode properties in myelinated axons to
adjust action potential timing
Abstract: Action potential timing is fundamental to information processing, but its determinants are not fully understood. Here the authors demonstrate unexpected structural specializations of myelinated axons in the auditory brainstem that help to adjust action potential arrival time for sound localization.
- Dual-topology insertion of a dual-topology membrane protein
Abstract: Dual-topology membrane proteins consist of subunits that have identical sequence but reside in the membrane in two inverted orientations. Here, Woodall et al. find that the dual topology of the transporter EmrE is largely achieved by initial insertion in both topologies rather than major rearrangements after insertion.
- JAM-A regulates cortical dynein localization through Cdc42 to control
planar spindle orientation during mitosis
Abstract: Polarized epithelial cells orient their mitotic spindles in the plane of the sheet but the role of cell adhesion molecules in this process is poorly understood. Here Tuncay et al. show that JAM-A regulates spindle orientation by creating a gradient of PtdIns(3,4,5)P 3 , regulating cortical actin assembly and localizing dynactin to the cell cortex.
- Erratum: Exposure to a youthful circulation rejuvenates bone repair
through modulation of β-catenin
- Metal-induced malformations in early Palaeozoic plankton are harbingers of
Abstract: Metal toxicity is a primary source of abnormalities in aquatic organisms, and these have been used to evaluate anthropogenic heavy metal pollution. Here, the authors suggest that abnormalities in Silurian acritarchs were caused by heavy metal pollution corresponding to Early Palaeozoic extinction events.
- A caveolin-dependent and PI3K/AKT-independent role of PTEN in
β-catenin transcriptional activity
Abstract: The mechanism by which PTEN mutation is melanomagenic is complicated by different PTEN functions in different cellular locations. Here, the authors identify an alternative to membrane PI3K–AKT signalling, a caveolin-1-dependent PTEN pathway that induces nuclear localization and activation of β-catenin.
- Transcription errors induce proteotoxic stress and shorten cellular
Abstract: Transcription, like DNA replication, is an error-prone process. Vermulst et al. show that transcription errors increase with age in yeast, and find that prematurely increasing the error rate overwhelms the proteotoxic stress response, allowing aggregation-prone proteins to escape protein quality control.
- Acoustic metamaterial for subwavelength edge detection
Abstract: Super-resolution imaging is based on the restoration of evanescent and propagative waves. Here, the authors present an acoustic metamaterial that transmits only components of the acoustic field equal to or smaller than the operating wavelength, which can be used to provide sharp images of the edge of an object.
- Generation of a synthetic GlcNAcylated nucleosome reveals regulation of
stability by H2A-Thr101 GlcNAcylation
Abstract: Post-translational modification of histones has been implicated in gene regulation. Here, Lercher et al. generate synthetic GlcNAcylated histone 2A and nucleosomes and show that this modification can cause nucleosome destabilization, suggesting histone 2A O -GlcNAcylation may promote an open chromatin state and increase transcription.
- Wet-chemical synthesis and applications of non-layer structured
Abstract: There is currently intensive research underway into the development of non-layer structured two dimensional nanomaterials. Here, Zhang et al. review the research progress on the most promising wet-chemical synthesis methods as well as a wide range of applications of this unique class of materials.
- Loss of lamin A function increases chromatin dynamics in the nuclear
Abstract: Nuclear lamins mediate interactions between chromatin and the nuclear envelope, however they are also found throughout the nucleoplasm. By measuring the dynamics of different genomic loci, Bronshtein et al. show that lamin A is also required for the stability of the nuclear interior.
- A chameleon-inspired stretchable electronic skin with interactive colour
changing controlled by tactile sensing
Abstract: Some animals and insects can change the colour of their skin, but mimicking such function in man-made materials is complex. Here, the authors demonstrate an all-solution processed chameleon-inspired stretchable e-skin capable of interactive colour changes and tactile sensing.
- Accommodating lithium into 3D current collectors with a submicron skeleton
towards long-life lithium metal anodes
Abstract: A major problem with the use of lithium metal as the battery anode is the undesired lithium dendrite formation during cycling. Here, the authors show that the problem can be mitigated with a carefully designed three-dimensional porous current collector.
- Rhomboid domain containing 1 promotes colorectal cancer growth through
activation of the EGFR signalling pathway
Abstract: Rhomboid proteins are involved in human cancer progression. Here, the authors show that RHBDD1, a rhomboid intramembrane serine protease, promotes tumor growth in colorectal cancer via cleavage and secretion of TGFα, and activation of the EGFR/Raf/MEK/ERK signalling pathway.
- Tbx15 controls skeletal muscle fibre-type determination and muscle
Abstract: The transcriptional regulator Tbx15 has a role in organ development. Here Lee et al. show that Tbx15 influences fibre-type determination in murine skeletal muscles, explaining local and systemic metabolic derangements in heterozygous Tbx15 knockout mice.
- Electrical detection of ortho–para conversion in
Abstract: Water molecules can exist in one of two nuclear spin states— ortho or para . Here, the authors look at the bulk dielectric constant of water molecules enclosed in fullerenes (capable of rotating even at cryogenic temperatures) and show that it changes as the water molecules convert from ortho to para .
- Regional and global forcing of glacier retreat during the last
Abstract: The extent to which greenhouse gases forced glacier retreat during the last deglaciation remains unclear. Here, the authors recalculate cosmogenic nuclide ages for 195 glacier moraines and show that deglacial glacier retreat was broadly globally synchronous with rising levels of atmospheric CO 2 .
- Automated adaptive inference of phenomenological dynamical models
Abstract: Mechanistic modelling of dynamical phenomena with many degrees of freedom runs the risk of overfitting and making faulty predictions, whereas ad hoc models may miss defining features. Here the authors develop an approach to construct dynamical models that adapt their complexity to the amount of available data.
- Ubiquitination switches EphA2 vesicular traffic from a continuous
safeguard to a finite signalling mode
Abstract: Receptor tyrosine kinases can be auto-activated independent of ligand. Sabet et al. show that on ligand stimulation, ephrin receptor EphA2 switches from auto-activation suppression by vesicular recycling to ligand-dependent signalling limited by directional trafficking to late endosomes/lysosomes.
- Calorimetric determination of the magnetic phase diagram of underdoped
ortho II YBa2Cu3O6.54 single crystals
Abstract: The presence of a charge order state in underdoped YBCO raises the question of the interplay between this phase and the superconducting one. Here, the authors characterize this material’s phase diagram through specific heat and magnetic measurements, providing strong constrains to theoretical models.
- Plk1 relieves centriole block to reduplication by promoting daughter
Abstract: The orthogonal orientation between centrioles is thought to prevent their reduplication. Shukla et al. show that Polo-like kinase 1-dependent daughter centriole maturation, reflected in increasing inter-centriolar distance, allows centriole reduplication prior to loss of orthogonal orientation.
- Corrigendum: Processing of visually evoked innate fear by a non-canonical
- Moisture dipole over the Tibetan Plateau during the past five and a half
Abstract: Controls on the Tibetan Plateau fresh water resources are poorly understood. Here, the authors develop juniper tree-ring chronologies representing over 500 years and show that northern and southern subsets exist due to variations in hydroclimate over this time period.
- Corrigendum: Revealing the planar chemistry of two-dimensional
heterostructures at the atomic level
- Corrigendum: miR-218 is essential to establish motor neuron fate as a
downstream effector of Isl1–Lhx3
- Catalysis on singly dispersed bimetallic sites
Abstract: Singly dispersed bimetallic catalysts should exhibit different behaviour and activity to bulk bimetallic species. Here, the authors fabricate isolated Rh 1 Co 3 bimetallic catalytic sites and demonstrate their high activity and selectivity for nitric oxide reduction.
- Rare variant discovery by deep whole-genome sequencing of 1,070 Japanese
Abstract: The Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization establishes a biobank with detailed patient health care and genome information. Here the authors analyse whole-genome sequences of 1,070 Japanese individuals, allowing them to catalogue 21 million single-nucleotide variants including 12 million novel ones.
- Ultrastructural and functional fate of recycled vesicles in hippocampal
Abstract: Synaptic vesicles are efficiently retrieved after transmission but the contribution they make to future signalling remains unclear. Rey et al. find that only a subset of vesicles—typically those retrieved recently in the stimulus train—remain near the active zone and exhibit privileged use.
- Limiting replication stress during somatic cell reprogramming reduces
genomic instability in induced pluripotent stem cells
Abstract: The expression of reprogramming factors can induce replication stress in induced pluripotent stem cells. In this study, to reduce such genomic instability, Ruiz et al. increase CHK1 kinase levels and nucleoside supplementation during reprogramming.
- Corrigendum: Programmed cell death 5 mediates HDAC3 decay to promote
genotoxic stress response
- Transcriptional regulation of Annexin A2 promotes starvation-induced
Abstract: Starvation triggers autophagy by inhibiting mTOR signalling. Here, Moreau et al. identify an alternative, transcriptional activation pathway: starvation-induced JNK signalling upregulates Annexin A2 transcription, which in turn enhances actin-dependent transport of Atg9 vesicles from endosomes to autophagosomes.
- Sparsity-based Ankylography for Recovering 3D molecular structures from
single-shot 2D scattered light intensity
Abstract: X-ray laser holds promise for deciphering three-dimensional structures of organic molecules, which constitutes a major goal in structural biology. Mutzafi et al. propose an algorithm to overcome the issue of laser-induced sample damage based on prior knowledge of the atoms that comprise the molecules.
- Structural mechanism for signal transduction in RXR nuclear receptor
Abstract: Some nuclear receptors dimerize with retinoid X receptor to allow ligand-dependent signalling. Here, Kojetin et al. use structural and biophysical techniques to identify structural changes that guide these complex signalling networks.
- Nek2 activation of Kif24 ensures cilium disassembly during the cell cycle
Abstract: Most differentiated mammalian cells assemble a primary cilium, which serves as a cellular ‘antenna’ for sensing and responding to the extracellular environment. Here the authors show that Nek2-mediated phosphorylation of Kif24 further promotes the loss of primary cilia, triggered by Aurora A and HDAC6 on cell cycle re-entry.
- Integration of carbohydrate metabolism and redox state controls dauer
larva formation in Caenorhabditis elegans
Abstract: When facing environmental stress, the roundworm C. elegans forms so-called dauer larvae. Here, the authors show that dauer formation is influenced by cellular levels of the cofactor NADPH, which can be elevated by increasing biosynthesis of the disaccharide trehalose.
- Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from colloidal
nanocrystals of caesium lead halide perovskites
Abstract: Lead halide perovskite colloidal nanocrystals have promising optoelectronic properties, such as high photoluminescence quantum yields and narrow emission linewidths. Here, the authors report low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission and two kinds of lasing in nanostructured caesium lead halide perovskites.
- Seismic monitoring in the oceans by autonomous floats
Abstract: Our understanding of the internal dynamics of the Earth is limited by the lack of seismic data available from oceanic domains. Here, the authors use observations from floating submarine seismographs to show that this technique may provide seismic data to fill the gaps in our knowledge.
- Single-shot spectro-temporal characterization of XUV pulses from a seeded
Abstract: X-ray free-electron laser is a power probe for materials, but it is challenging to measure the spectro-temporal characters of individual pulses. Here, De Ninno et al. implement an interferometric method allowing one to characterize and control the ultrashort XUV pulses seeded by a femtosecond laser.
- Dipeptide species regulate p38MAPK–Smad3 signalling to maintain
chronic myelogenous leukaemia stem cells
Abstract: Chronic myelogenous leukaemia contains a stem cell fraction and targeting this population of cells is an attractive therapeutic strategy. Here, the authors demonstrate that the stem cells take up dipeptides and that inhibiting the dipeptide transporter could reduce the number of these stem cells in mice.
- Plasticity and ductility in graphene oxide through a mechanochemically
induced damage tolerance mechanism
Abstract: Biasing chemical reaction pathways in a particular molecule may lead to new material properties. Here, the authors report mechanochemical covalent epoxide-to-ether functional group transformations, deviating from classical epoxide ring-opening reactions, in suspended graphene oxide membranes.
- The precision of value-based choices depends causally on fronto-parietal
Abstract: Recent studies suggest that value-based choices involve communication between parietal and prefrontal cortices. Here the authors use a novel, non-invasive cortical manipulation technique to demonstrate a causal role for such communication in mediating accurate value-based, but not perceptual, choices.