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Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2041-1723
Published by Nature Publishing Group [109 journals]
- Rescue of neonatal cardiac dysfunction in mice by administration of
cardiac progenitor cells in utero
Abstract: The protein Speg is expressed in the developing mouse heart, where its absence leads to neonatal cardiac disease. Here the authors trace the cardiomyopathy of Speg KO mice back to defects in cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) and rescue it with injections of wild type CPCs into the foetal heart.
- Saturated fatty acids regulate retinoic acid signalling and suppress
tumorigenesis by targeting fatty acid-binding protein 5
Abstract: Long chain fatty acids can influence the growth of cancer cells but the mechanisms involved are unclear. Here, the authors show that both saturated and unsaturated long chain fatty acids can influence retinoic acid signalling and suppress tumour growth in mice.
- Solution-printed organic semiconductor blends exhibiting transport
properties on par with single crystals
Abstract: There continues to be interest in solution processed organic semiconductor thin films exhibiting transport properties on par with single crystals. Here, Niazi et al . combine solution-printing of a small molecule organic semiconductor with insulating polymer blending and solvent mixtures to demonstrate hole mobility up to 6.7 cm 2 V −1 s −1 .
- AF4 uses the SL1 components of RNAP1 machinery to initiate MLL fusion- and
Abstract: Protein fusions between MLL and AEP (AF4 family/ENL family/P-TEFb) constitutively activate their target genes to immortalize hematopoietic progenitors. Here, Okuda et al . show that MLL-AEP binds SL1, a component of the pre-initiation complex of RNA polymerase (RNAP) I, to initiate RNAP II dependent transcription.
- TRIM33 switches off Ifnb1 gene transcription during the late phase of
Abstract: Transcriptional regulation of the interferon-β gene ( Ifnb1 ) in macrophages is a critical immune event. Here, Ferri et al . show that, at late phases of macrophages activation, TRIM33 bound to a distal repressor element suppresses Ifnb1 transcription by preventing recruitment of CBP/p300.
- Extremely stretchable and conductive water-repellent coatings for low-cost
Abstract: The development of modern flexible electronics calls for new materials with extreme stretchability and high conductivity. Here, Mates et al . show a printable material made of commercially-available elastomers and carbon nanofibres, which exhibits low resistance and water-repellency at strain up to 500%.
- Migration and horizontal gene transfer divide microbial genomes into
Abstract: Horizontal gene transfer is central to microbial evolution. Here, the authors develop an eco-evolutionary model and show that migration can greatly promote horizontal gene transfer, which explains how ecologically-important loci can sweep through the species in a microbial community.
- Control of developmentally primed erythroid genes by combinatorial
Abstract: Conserved sets of transcription factors (TFs) regulate hematopoiesis. Here, Stadhouders et al . show that IRF2BP2 is a component of the LDB1 TF complex and together with its co-repressor ETO2, enhances transcriptional repression, which plays a crucial role at the erythroid progenitor stage.
- Magnetic anisotropy in Shiba bound states across a quantum phase
Abstract: The exchange coupling strength between magnetic adsorbates and a superconducting surface determines the nature of the system’s quantum ground state. Here, the authors use scanning tunnelling microscopy to explore the ground state and excited state properties of manganese phthalocyanine adsorbed on a Pb(111) surface.
- Scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy with reconstruction
of vertical interaction
Abstract: Conventionally, scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy does not provide information on the vertical characteristic of near-field responses. Here, Xu et al . develop a method to reconstruct the vertical interaction response between the tip and the sample using this near-field technique.
- Disinhibition of olfactory bulb granule cells accelerates odour
discrimination in mice
Abstract: How odour discrimination is influenced by granule cells in the olfactory bulb is poorly understood. Here, the authors show that disinhibition of granule cells in mice increases mitral cell inhibition and accelerates odour discrimination time, independent of odour similarity.
- Active site coupling in Plasmodium falciparum GMP synthetase is triggered
by domain rotation
Abstract: GMP synthetase, a key enzyme in purine biosynthesis, is of interest for understanding purine metabolism processes and for developing therapeutic applications. Here, the authors propose a molecular mechanism and the structural basis for the catalytic activity of this enzyme.
- Optical focusing inside scattering media with time-reversed ultrasound
microbubble encoded light
Abstract: Focusing light inside biological tissue is challenging due to its strong scattering nature. Here, the authors develop a technique that uses ultrasonically destroyed microbubbles to assist in the computation of a wavefront solution which forms optical foci at the microbubble destruction sites.
- Extinction risk of soil biota
Abstract: Belowground soil biota play key roles in maintaining proper ecosystem functioning, but studies on their extinction ecology are sparse. Here, Veresoglou et al . review the risks to soil biota posed by global change, and highlight the technical challenges involved in identifying extinction events.
- Structure and substrate selectivity of the 750-kDa α6β6
holoenzyme of geranyl-CoA carboxylase
Abstract: The structures of the biotin-dependent carboxylases have revealed details of their function. Here, the authors describe the first structure of Pseudomonas geranyl-CoA carboxylase, and compare it with the previously characterised homologous 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase.
- Tuning magnetotransport in a compensated semimetal at the atomic scale
Abstract: Semimetallic WTe 2 possesses very high magnetoresistance however conflicting pictures of the band structure responsible have emerged. Here, the authors find behaviour consistent with a model of two compensated electron and hold bands in exfoliated WTe 2 films with thicknesses down to the atomic scale.
- Three-dimensional magnetic cloak working from d.c. to 250 kHz
Abstract: The development of invisibility cloaks which function at low frequencies are of practical importance, especially for magnetic fields involved in modern technologies. Here, Zhu et al . develop the bilayer approach to create a three-dimensional magnetic cloak able to work in both static and dynamic fields.
- Integrative genomic mining for enzyme function to enable engineering of a
non-natural biosynthetic pathway
Abstract: The modification of enzymes to generate desired compounds by non-natural pathways is a useful route for the production of commodity chemicals. Here, the authors show two approaches—genome mining and computational enzyme design—to generate higher alcohols from sugar.
- PH motifs in PAR1&2 endow breast cancer growth
Abstract: Protease-activated-receptor 1 and 2 (PAR1 and PAR2) are key players in tumor growth. In this study, the authors identify PAR1 and PAR2 domains that bind oncogenic signalling proteins driving breast cancer progression in vivo and placental extravillous trophoblast invasion in vitro .
- Two-photon interference at telecom wavelengths for time-bin-encoded single
photons from quantum-dot spin qubits
Abstract: Quantum communication requires quantum correlations between the information processing units and the information carrying units. Here, the authors use time-bin encoding and frequency downconversion to telecom wavelengths to achieve kilometre-scale spin-photon correlations.
- Episodic entrainment of deep primordial mantle material into ocean island
Abstract: It is unclear why some ocean island basalts at ‘hotspots’ have low 3 He/ 4 He ratios similar to mid-ocean ridge basalts. Here, the authors perform convection calculations and show that these isotopic ratios can be reproduced by the episodic entrainment of deep isolated mantle reservoirs into thermal plumes.
- Giant elastic tunability in strained BiFeO3 near an electrically induced
Abstract: Ferroelectric materials possess spontaneous electrical polarization coupled to their underlying lattice structure, which may be utilized technologically. Here, the authors use band-excitation piezoresponse/elastic spectroscopy to study the sub-megahertz dynamics of a structural phase transition in BiFeO 3 .
- Carbon-depleted outer core revealed by sound velocity measurements of
liquid iron–carbon alloy
Abstract: The composition of the Earth's core, particularly the light elements present, is not well constrained. Here, the authors report sound velocities of liquid iron-carbon alloy as measured at very high pressures using inelastic X-ray scattering and suggest that carbon cannot be predominant in the outer core.
- Gekko japonicus genome reveals evolution of adhesive toe pads and tail
Abstract: Geckos are small, agile reptiles with nocturnal habits. Here, the authors sequence the genome of the Schlegel’s Japanese Gecko and reveal gene family expansions and reductions associated with formation of adhesive setae, nocturnal vision, tail regeneration, and diversification of olfactory sensation.
- Restoration of skilled locomotion by sprouting corticospinal axons induced
by co-deletion of PTEN and SOCS3
Abstract: A key pathological alteration after brain and spinal cord injury is the disruption of the corticospinal tract (CST) axons that control the voluntary movements. Here the authors show that activating the intrinsic regenerative ability by inhibiting PTEN and SOCS3 expression promotes robust sprouting growth and recovery of skilled locomotion after injury.
- Eukaryotic opportunists dominate the deep-subsurface biosphere in South
Abstract: The extent of diversity in deep subsurface mines is not well documented. Here, Borgonie et al. report the discovery of Protozoa, Fungi, Platyhelminthes, Rotifera, Annelida and Arthropoda from 1.4 km below ground, and conclude that their population growth is limited by food rather than oxygen availability.
- Mitotic cells contract actomyosin cortex and generate pressure to round
against or escape epithelial confinement
Abstract: In epithelial layers cells must round up prior to division. Here the authors use micropillar arrays to mimic epithelial confinement and show that MDCK cells generate force to create space to divide; if unable to generate sufficient force they escape the micropillars to divide and return to confinement.
- Obliquity pacing of the western Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zone
over the past 282,000 years
Abstract: Predicting future migrations in the Intertropical Convergence Zone—Earth's heaviest rain belt—is limited by a lack of long-term records. Here, the authors present a 282 kyr precipitation record from the Papua New Guinea coast and show that obliquity forcing plays a more important role than previously recognized.
- Tracing the fate of carbon and the atmospheric evolution of Mars
Abstract: Mars likely evolved from a warmer, wetter early state to the cold, arid current climate, but this evolution is not reflected in recent observations and measurements. Here, the authors derive quantitative constraints on the atmospheric pressure through time, identifying a mechanism that explains the carbon data.
- SENP1-mediated NEMO deSUMOylation in adipocytes limits inflammatory
responses and type-1 diabetes progression
Abstract: Pro-inflammatory NF-κB signalling is regulated by protein sumoylation. Here the authors show that lack of the desumoylating protease SENP1 in fat tissue induces NF-κB activity and inflammation in peri-pancreatic adipocytes, leading to symptoms of type 1 diabetes in mice.
- miRNA–target chimeras reveal miRNA 3′-end pairing as a major
determinant of Argonaute target specificity
Abstract: microRNAs (miRNAs) act as sequence-specific guides for Argonaute (AGO) proteins. By using a modified AGO HITS-CLIP strategy that enriches miRNAs ligated to their endogenous mRNA targets, here the authors show that miRNA 3' end pairing is a general determinant of AGO binding specificity.
- STAT5-regulated microRNA-193b controls haematopoietic stem and progenitor
cell expansion by modulating cytokine receptor signalling
Abstract: MicroRNAs regulate haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) development to ensure the correct generation of blood cells. Haetscher et al . show in mice that miR-193b controls the life-long self-renewal ability of HSCs via AKT and STAT5 pathways, with loss of miR-193b accelerating HSC expansion and reducing differentiation.
- Highly active and durable methanol oxidation electrocatalyst based on the
synergy of platinum–nickel hydroxide–graphene
Abstract: Efficient electrocatalysts are critical for the development of methanol fuel cell technology but most catalysts reported to date suffer from low durability. Here, the authors report platinum-nickel hydroxide-graphene ternary hybrid catalysts with durability extended by two to three orders of magnitude.
- Optically initialized robust valley-polarized holes in monolayer WSe2
Abstract: The long associated lifetimes required to exploit valley polarization in electronic devices, along with charge and spin, have yet to be observed. Here, the authors demonstrate the photoexcitation of long-lived valley-polarized holes in WSe 2 .
- Wnt/β-catenin pathway regulates MGMT gene expression in cancer and
inhibition of Wnt signalling prevents chemoresistance
Abstract: The high expression of the DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) often confers resistance to chemotherapy in several cancers. In this study, the authors propose the inhibition of the Wnt signalling pathway as an alternative strategy to modulate MGMT expression and sensitize tumours to chemotherapy.
- Confocal multiview light-sheet microscopy
Abstract: Multiview light-sheet microscopy is a powerful tool for imaging relatively large biological samples over long periods of time, but scattering can limit image quality. Here, the authors combine multiview light-sheet imaging with electronic confocal slit detection to improve image quality, double acquisition speed and streamline data fusion.
- Symmetry breaking in drop bouncing on curved surfaces
Abstract: Designing superhydrophobic surfaces that water does not wet is crucial for many applications ranging from water harvesting to self-cleaning. Here, Liu et al. show how to minimize the contact of liquid drops impacting on solid surfaces with convex and concave macrotextures comparable to the size of drops.
- Evolution and control of the phase competition morphology in a manganite
Abstract: Perovskite manganites possess a number of competing coexisting phases of charge, spin, orbital, and lattice order. Here, the authors use magnetic force microscopy to image the transition from ferromagnetic metal to charge-ordered insulator in a strained phase-separated manganite film.
- Experimental fault-tolerant universal quantum gates with solid-state spins
under ambient conditions
Abstract: High fidelity manipulation of diamond-based spin qubits is difficult at room temperature because of decoherence. Here, the authors show a universal set of logic gates in nitrogen-vacancy centres with average single-qubit and two-qubit gate fidelities of 0.999952 and 0.992, respectively.
- Combining Spinach-tagged RNA and gene localization to image gene
expression in live yeast
Abstract: Measuring single-cell mRNA dynamics is critical to understand gene expression. Here, using RNA Spinach technique to detect very low abundant mRNAs, Guet et al . report an analysis of the osmotic shock response in live yeast by localizing induced transcription factors, target gene loci and corresponding transcripts.
- A deuterostome origin of the Spemann organiser suggested by Nodal and
ADMPs functions in Echinoderms
- SUMOylation of TARBP2 regulates miRNA/siRNA efficiency
Abstract: As part of the miRNA-generating machinery, TARBP2 stabilizes the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) loading complex (RLC). Here, Chen et al. show that sumoylation of TARBP2 regulates RNAi efficiency by increasing precursor miRNAs loaded on RLC.
- TRPC6 specifically interacts with APP to inhibit its cleavage by
γ-secretase and reduce Aβ production
Abstract: Attempts to treat Alzheimer's disease by targeting γ-secretase cleavage of APP into Aß have been unsuccessful, partially due to off-target effects. Here, the authors identify TRPC6 as a novel γ-secretase modulator, showing that it interacts with APP to regulate Aß levels while sparing Notch cleavage.
- Two-dimensional membrane as elastic shell with proof on the folds revealed
by three-dimensional atomic mapping
Abstract: The out-of-plane bending of 2D materials is an important factor to consider for applications, but is challenging to probe experimentally. Here, the authors map the out-of-plane bending in graphene and other 2D materials using high resolution electron microscopy.
- Genetic control of morphometric diversity in the maize shoot apical
Abstract: In plants, the shoot apical meristem generates all of the above ground organs and meristem morphology may predict important agricultural traits. Here Leiboff et al . use high throughput phenotyping and a genome-wide association study to uncover genes associated with variation in maize meristem size.
- Single-cell analysis and stochastic modelling unveil large cell-to-cell
variability in influenza A virus infection
Abstract: Cell-to-cell variability in viral infection means that cell population measurements may not be an accurate representation of the process. Using both experimental and modelling approaches the authors confirm this notion showing that influenza virus infections are variable processes affected by intrinsic and extrinsic noise.
- Corrigendum: IRAK1 is a therapeutic target that drives breast cancer
metastasis and resistance to paclitaxel
- ASPM regulates symmetric stem cell division by tuning Cyclin E
Abstract: Mutation of ASPM is associated with spindle orientation defects and microcephaly in humans. Capecchi and Pozner reveal that mice expressing truncated ASPM also display impaired neural stem cell maintenance as a result of a previously unknown requirement for ASPM in cell cycle progression.
- Topology-generating interfacial pattern formation during liquid metal
Abstract: Liquid metal dealloying produces topologically complex nanoporous structures, however little is known about how they form. Here, the authors use mesoscale phase-field modeling and experiments to show that structure formation is governed by both interfacial spinodal decomposition and diffusion-coupled growth.
- Redistribution of Kv1 and Kv7 enhances neuronal excitability during
structural axon initial segment plasticity
Abstract: Sensory deprivation in the avian brain can lead to structural changes in the axon initial segment. Here, the authors build on their previous work by showing that such homeostatic AIS plasticity also involves changes in Kv channel expression, which contributes to enhanced neuronal excitability.
- Histone H1-mediated epigenetic regulation controls germline stem cell
self-renewal by modulating H4K16 acetylation
Abstract: Epigenetics plays critical roles in controlling stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Here, Sun et al. show that H1 is intrinsically required in the regulation of germline stem cells in the Drosophila ovary by antagonizing MOF, a histone acetyltransferase specific for H4K16.
- Lateral forces on circularly polarizable particles near a surface
Abstract: Some optical forces can direct particles, but only in the direction of light propagation. Here, the authors show theoretically that when the spin of the incident circularly polarized light is converted into lateral electromagnetic momentum, it leads to a lateral optical force associated with a recoil mechanical force.
- Carrier-mediated ferromagnetism in the magnetic topological insulator
Abstract: Magnetically doped topological insulators may exhibit exotic transport phenomena such as the quantum anomalous Hall effect, however the underlying mechanisms of ferromagnetic order are currently debated. Here, the authors reveal stabilized ferromagnetism in Cr-doped (Sb,Bi) 2 Te 3 mediated by Te and Sb p -hole carriers.
- Highly tunable hybrid metamaterials employing split-ring resonators
strongly coupled to graphene surface plasmons
Abstract: Realizing tunable metamaterials across a broad spectral range is of great interest. Here, Liu et al . introduce hybrid structures comprising graphene plasmonic resonators strongly coupled to conventional split-ring resonators and reach 60% transmission modulation with an operating speed above 40 MHz.
- Novel RNA- and FMRP-binding protein TRF2-S regulates axonal mRNA transport
and presynaptic plasticity
Abstract: The molecular mechanisms regulating axonal mRNA transport are only partially understood. Here, Zhang et al . show a nontelomeric TRF2 splice variant interacts with FMRP to regulate the transport of several axonal mRNAs involved in axonal elongation and neurotransmitter release.
- Imaging thermal conductivity with nanoscale resolution using a scanning
Abstract: Many aspects of energy flow in nanostructures are not well understood due to difficulties associated with resolution. Here, Laraoui et al . use a diamond-nanocrystal-hosted nitrogen vacancy centre as a nanoscale probe with atomic force microscopy to image thermal conductivity.
- Soluble LR11/SorLA represses thermogenesis in adipose tissue and
correlates with BMI in humans
Abstract: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is an important determinant of organismal energy expenditure in mammals. Here, Whittle et al . report that the protein sLR11 is a negative regulator of BAT activity in mice, repressing thermogenesis by inhibiting BMP/Smad signalling in brown adipocytes.
- C. elegans maximum velocity correlates with healthspan and is maintained
in worms with an insulin receptor mutation
Abstract: Increases in lifespan do not necessarily translate into prolonged healthspan. Here, the authors devise a simple metric, maximum velocity, to study ageing in C. elegans and, using this metric, show that reduced insulin signalling improves physical healthspan as well as worm lifespan.
- Robust self-cleaning and micromanipulation capabilities of gecko spatulae
and their bio-mimics
Abstract: A running gecko can adhere to any surfaces at wet or dry conditions, whilst it keeps its toe pads clean. Here, Xu et al . attribute this self-cleaning mechanism to the rate-independent adhesion response between dirt particles and the gecko’s foot and use synthetic microfibers to reproduce the effect.
- Superfluidity in topologically nontrivial flat bands
Abstract: The critical temperature of superconductors is proportional to the particle coupling energy, but this is different to conventional superfluids where this coupling is small. Here, the authors establish a relation between superconductivity and superfluidity and the topological properties of their band structures.
- Photoreactive helical nanoaggregates exhibiting morphology transition on
Abstract: The ability to switch structure or function in response to an external stimulus is highly desirable for many applications. Here, the authors report the guidable supramolecular assembly of photocross-linkable molecules into different complex superstructures, dependant on their exposure to UV light.