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Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2041-1723
Published by NPG [123 journals]
- Ecological responses to experimental glacier-runoff reduction in alpine
Abstract: Glacier retreat due to climate change can affect the biodiversity and ecosystem function. Here, Cauvy-Fraunié and colleagues manipulated the flow of tropical glacier-fed stream in the Ecuadorian Andes, and show that benthic fauna community composition requires several months before it can recover to the pre-blockade conditions.
- Sub-micrometre accurate free-form optics by three-dimensional printing on
Abstract: Combining freeform optics with micro- and nano-optics can permit wavefront shaping, phase engineering, k -space and polarization control. Here, Gissibl et al . use femtosecond 3D printing to manufacture free-form optical elements, giving sub-micrometre accuracy so that direct manufacturing on single-mode fibres is possible.
- A key genetic factor for fucosyllactose utilization affects infant gut
Abstract: The factors shaping the development of infants' gut microbiota are poorly understood. Here, the authors show that alterations in gut microbiota development in infants are associated with the presence of bifidobacteria having a gene for utilisation of human milk oligosaccharides.
- Mapping RNA–RNA interactome and RNA structure in vivo by MARIO
Abstract: Current methods for mapping RNA-RNA interactions have to rely on an ‘anchor’ protein or RNA. Here, the authors report the MARIO (Mapping RNA interactome in vivo ) technology that can massively reveal RNA-RNA interactions and RNA structure from unperturbed cells.
- MYC/MIZ1-dependent gene repression inversely coordinates the circadian
clock with cell cycle and proliferation
Abstract: The circadian clock and the cell cycle systems coordinate global physiology. Here the authors show that MYC represses the clock genes, together with MIZ1, and induces proliferation, suggesting that MYC inversely modulates cell cycle and circadian clock genes.
- Unveiling the complexity of the maize transcriptome by single-molecule
Abstract: Zea mays is an important crop species and genetic model but uncertainties remain regarding the structure of the transcriptome. Here Wang et al . use single-molecule sequencing and size-fractionated libraries to identify novel transcripts and isoforms illustrating the complexity of maize mRNA.
- Glacial legacies on interglacial vegetation at the Pliocene-Pleistocene
transition in NE Asia
Abstract: Climate is broadly assumed to control vegetation, with vegetation lags thought to last no more than a few centuries. Here, based on the analysis of Lake El’gygytgyn pollen record, the authors show that vegetation-climate disequilibrium persisted for several millennia during the Plio-Pleistocene transition.
- Endothelial to mesenchymal transition is common in atherosclerotic lesions
and is associated with plaque instability
Abstract: Endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is a crucial developmental process that also plays a role in the pathogenesis of some diseases. Here the authors show that EndMT contributes to the development of atherosclerosis in mice and humans, and is associated with complex human plaques that may be prone to rupture.
- Multimetallic catalysed radical oxidative C(sp3)–H/C(sp)–H
cross-coupling between unactivated alkanes and terminal alkynes
Abstract: Cross coupling via the activation of two carbon-hydrogen bonds avoids the need for organometallic coupling partners and associated waste. Here, the authors report a radical process that allows selective coupling between alkynes and non-activated C(sp 3 )-H groups via a multimetallic catalytic system.
- Photon-efficient imaging with a single-photon camera
Abstract: Active optical imaging systems use their own light sources to recover scene information but typically operate with large number of photon detections. Here, the authors present a 3D imaging system that acquires depth and reflectivity information with a single photon camera operating in low-light conditions.
- A survey of the sorghum transcriptome using single-molecule long reads
Abstract: Alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation (APA) contribute to mRNA diversity but are difficult to assess using short read RNA-seq data. Here, the authors use single molecule long-read isoform sequencing and develop a computational pipeline to identify full-length splice isoforms and APA sites in sorghum.
- Circadian regulation of human cortical excitability
Abstract: Cognitive performance is impaired after prolonged wakefulness, yet the contribution of circadian rhythms for proper brain function remains unclear. Here the authors show that cortical excitability measured using TMS exhibits robust circadian dynamics which is correlated with cognitive performance.
- Corrigendum: Mechanical slowing-down of cytoplasmic diffusion allows in
vivo counting of proteins in individual cells
- Gelation process visualized by aggregation-induced emission fluorogens
Abstract: Chitosan hydrogel materials have unique properties, but understanding the gelation process these materials undergo has been problematic. Here, Wang and co-workers have visualised the entire gelation process of a chitosan LiOH-urea aqueous system by aggregation induced emission fluorescent imaging.
- Alix-mediated assembly of the actomyosin–tight junction polarity
complex preserves epithelial polarity and epithelial barrier
Abstract: Correct assembly of intercellular junctions is required to maintain epithelial polarity and barrier function. Here Campos et al . show that the scaffold protein Alix interacts with F-actin, the Par complex and ZO-1 to ensure the formation and maintenance of the actomyosin tight junction complex in choroid plexus epithelium.
- MAIT cells are activated during human viral infections
Abstract: Mucosal Associated Invariant T cells have been implicated in response to bacterial pathogens. Here the authors show that in human viral infections, these cells are activated by IL-18 in cooperation with other pro-inflammatory cytokines, producing interferon gamma and granzyme B.
- Arf6 controls retromer traffic and intracellular cholesterol distribution
via a phosphoinositide-based mechanism
Abstract: The small GTPase Arf6 regulates intracellular transport, phosphoinositide signalling and cholesterol homeostasis. Here, Marquer et al . show that loss of Arf6 causes cholesterol accumulation in endosomes due to defects in phosphoinositide-dependent retromer-mediated trafficking of CI-M6PR and NPC2.
- Cardiac sodium channel palmitoylation regulates channel availability and
myocyte excitability with implications for arrhythmia generation
Abstract: Cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav1.5) are crucial regulators of heart electric activity. Here the authors show that palmitoylation, a process of lipid modification of cysteine residues, modulates Nav1.5 function and affects cardiomyocyte excitability, representing a potential target in treating cardiac diseases.
- Beta 1-integrin–c-Met cooperation reveals an inside-in survival
signalling on autophagy-related endomembranes
Abstract: Cooperative signalling between receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and integrins is thought to occur at the cell surface. Here the authors show that β1 integrin influences signalling of an RTK, c-Met, from a novel intracellular compartment they call autophagy-related endomembranes.
- Programming a topologically constrained DNA nanostructure into a sensor
Abstract: DNA nanostructures with interlocked topologies will tend to display different behaviour to the linear counterparts. Here, the authors show a DNA catenane that is inactive for rolling circle amplification but is activated upon cleavage of one ring, and exploit this for the development of a biosensing system.
- Modularity and stability in ecological communities
Abstract: Modularity in food webs can be caused by spatial and temporal mismatches in interactions. Here, Jacopo Grilli, Tim Rogers and Stefano Allesina show that modularity, contrary to expectations, does not generally help stabilizing ecological communities.
- Reconfigurable optical assembly of nanostructures
Abstract: Reconfigurable materials are of interest for many photonic applications. Here, Montelongo et al . demonstrate optical elements such as Bragg diffraction gratings, volumetric photonic crystals, lenses, and holograms in a composite with dispersed nanoparticles which can be recorded and erased.
- Spontaneous incorporation of gold in palladium-based ternary nanoparticles
makes durable electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction
Abstract: Replacement of platinum is important for lowering the cost of fuel-cell electrocatalysts, but less precious alternatives such as palladium are hindered by lower durability. Here, the authors show that incorporation of trace amounts of gold improves the durability of palladium based oxygen reduction catalysts.
- Arginine demethylation is catalysed by a subset of JmjC histone lysine
Abstract: While reversal of lysine methylation on histone tails is a well-established mechanism to tune gene expression, the existence of a similar arginine demethylation process is controversial. Here, the authors show that some jumonji enzymes possess both lysine and arginine demethylase activity in vitro .
- MicroRNA-125b-5p mimic inhibits acute liver failure
Abstract: miR125b-5p has been associated with acute liver failure. Here the authors show that this miRNA targets Keap1 and activates Nrf2 to inhibit liver cell death after APAP or FAS toxicity, plus they show that a miR125b-5p mimic can inhibit ALF in mice.
- Activation of D2 dopamine receptor-expressing neurons in the nucleus
accumbens increases motivation
Abstract: Striatal D1 and D2-receptor expressing neurons have been shown to have opposing effects on reward-related behaviours. Here the authors reveal that specific activation of both D1 and D2 neurons in the nucleus accumbens leads to increase in motivational drive in rodents.
- Corrigendum: The child brain computes and utilizes internalized maternal
- Electrically driven optical metamaterials
Abstract: Active metamaterials are largely controlled by light, preventing integration in electronic systems. Here, the authors introduce electroluminescent metamaterials based on metal nano-inclusions hybridized with colloidal quantum dots and use this approach to weave intricate light-emitting surfaces.
- Whole-genome plasma sequencing reveals focal amplifications as a driving
force in metastatic prostate cancer
Abstract: The genomic features of metastatic prostate cancer are beginning to be understood. Here, the authors performed whole genome sequencing of plasma samples from these patients and found a high plasticity of the cancer genomes with newly occurring focal amplifications as a driving force in progression.
- The role of MscL amphipathic N terminus indicates a blueprint for
bilayer-mediated gating of mechanosensitive channels
Abstract: The activation of bacterial mechanosensitive channels is still not fully understood. Here, Bavi et al . show that the N-terminal helix of MscL dynamically couples membrane tension to channel gating, suggesting a conserved mechanism underlying the mechanosensitivity of ion channels of higher organisms.
- Demographic routes to variability and regulation in bird populations
Abstract: Why does population variability differ' Sæther et al . show that the magnitude of temporal variation of avian population fluctuations is mainly determined by environmental fluctuations affecting recruitment, whereas regulation of mean population size occurs through density-dependent mortality.
- The biogeography of red snow microbiomes and their role in melting arctic
Abstract: The Arctic is melting at an unprecedented rate and key drivers are changes in snow and ice albedo. Here, the authors show that red pigmented snow algae play a crucial role in decreasing surface albedo and their patterns for diversity, pigmentation, and consequently albedo, are ubiquitous across the Arctic.
- Integrated genetic and pharmacologic interrogation of rare cancers
Abstract: Identifying therapeutic targets in rare cancers is challenging due to the lack of relevant pre-clinical models. Here, the authors generate a cancer cell line from a paediatric patient with a rare undifferentiated sarcoma and through functional genomics and chemical screens identified CDK4 and XPO1 as potential therapeutic targets in this cancer.
- Correlation and anti-correlation of the East Asian summer and winter
monsoons during the last 21,000 years
Abstract: Future projection of changes in the East Asia Summer and Winter Monsoon are hindered by a lack of understanding of past variability. Here, using longterm transient simulations, the authors show that the monsoons respond in phase to precessional forcing, yet out of phase millennial-scale North Atlantic forcing.
- Influence of orbital symmetry on diffraction imaging with rescattering
electron wave packets
Abstract: Laser-induced electron diffraction possesses sufficient resolution to resolve nuclear dynamics in molecules, but imaging was thought to depend on the orbital symmetries for the backscattering electrons. Here, the authors image the structure of randomly oriented O 2 and C 2 H 2 molecules and prove the contrary.
- Polycomb repressive complex 2 regulates skeletal growth by suppressing Wnt
and TGF-β signalling
Abstract: Eed is a polycomb repressive complex 2 component involved in stem cell lineage determination, but little is known about its role in lineage committed cells. Here the authors show that chondrocyte-specific Eed KO mice have skeletal growth defects related to induction of Wnt and TGF-β signalling.
- Structural basis of suppression of host translation termination by Moloney
Murine Leukemia Virus
Abstract: Retroviral reverse transcriptase from Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MoMLV) requires interaction with peptidyl release factor 1. Here, the authors report the crystal structure of this complex, and provide insights into how MoMLV uses the host translation machinery to synthesize its own proteins.
- ASC filament formation serves as a signal amplification mechanism for
Abstract: Inflammasomes regulate IL-1β family maturation and pyroptosis. Here the authors show that ASC oligomerization and the formation of ASC specks are needed for IL-1β processing, but are not required for pyroptosis, indicating distinct inflammasome regulatory pathways.
- Strain-engineered diffusive atomic switching in two-dimensional crystals
Abstract: Strain engineering allows design of materials with tailored properties. Here, the authors show that strain can be used to control atomic diffusion in Sb 2 Te 3 -GeTe superlattices, and they propose general design rules to enable atomic switching functionalities in van der Waals heterostructures.
- Experimental demonstration of the microscopic origin of circular dichroism
in two-dimensional metamaterials
Abstract: The effect of Ohmic dissipation in two-dimensional chiral materials has never been experimentally verified. Here, Khanikaev et al . demonstrate that the circular dichroism in a nanostructured metasurface occurs due to handedness-dependent Ohmic heating.
- Rare disruptive mutations and their contribution to the heritable risk of
Abstract: The genetic factors that predispose individuals to familial colorectal cancer are poorly understood. In this study, the authors use whole exome sequencing of 1,006 patients and 1,609 healthy controls and show it is unlikely that further major high-penetrance susceptibility genes exist.
- Genome-wide analysis of chromosomal import patterns after natural
transformation of Helicobacter pylori
Abstract: Uptake and integration of exogenous DNA into the bacterial genome play an important role in the evolution of the pathogen Helicobacter pylori . Here, the authors describe a bimodal pattern of chromosomal integration and show how restriction-modification systems limit the import of heterologous DNA.
- Corrigendum: Mutations in CDCA7 and HELLS cause
immunodeficiency–centromeric instability–facial anomalies
- Auditory experience-dependent cortical circuit shaping for memory
formation in bird song learning
Abstract: Juvenile zebra finches learn to sing by memorizing and imitating their tutor's song, yet neural correlates of the tutor song have not been shown. Here the authors show a small subset of higher-level auditory cortex neurons are sharply tuned to the tutor's song and modulated by inhibition and arousal state.
- Activated desorption at heterogeneous interfaces and long-time kinetics of
hydrocarbon recovery from nanoporous media
Abstract: Hydrocarbon recovery from gas shale challenges existing frameworks for fluid transport due to the nanoporous nature of the shale. Here, the authors use molecular simulation and statistical models to show that gas recovery is thermally activated due to interfacial effects at the nanoporous surface.
- Early role of vascular dysregulation on late-onset Alzheimer’s
disease based on multifactorial data-driven analysis
Abstract: Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) is a complex multi-factorial disorder. Here, the authors perform a data-driven analysis of LOAD progression, including multimodal brain imaging, plasma and CSF biomarkers, and find vascular dysfunction is among the earliest and strongest altered events.
- Redox-freezing and nucleation of diamond via magnetite formation in the
Abstract: Diamonds provide a window into deep Earth processes and can be used to understand the deep carbon cycle. Here, Jacob et al . show that diamond precipitation can be triggered by the oxidation of pyrrhotite to magnetite at the base of a cratonic lithosphere, providing insight into diamond formation.
- Loss of the RNA-binding protein TACO1 causes late-onset mitochondrial
dysfunction in mice
Abstract: Mutations in the translational activator of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (TACO1) causes cytochrome c oxidase deficiency and Leigh Syndrome in patients. Here, the authors characterize mice with a mutation that causes lack of TACO1 expression, identifying a mouse model that could be useful for preclinical trials.
- Translation control during prolonged mTORC1 inhibition mediated by 4E-BP3
Abstract: The eIF4E-binding proteins (4E-BPs) are critical repressors of cap-dependent translation via mTOR, a pathway frequently hyperactivated in cancer. Here the authors show that 4E-BP3 specifically mediates the cap-dependent translation repression and antiproliferative effects of prolonged pharmacological mTOR inhibition.
- CRF-like receptor SEB-3 in sex-common interneurons potentiates stress
handling and reproductive drive in C. elegans
Abstract: Innate animal behaviours can be negatively regulated by environmental stressors. Jee et al. show that suppression of male C. elegans copulation behaviour by noxious light can be overcome by activation of SEB-3, a homologue of the stress-associated mammalian corticotropin-releasing factor receptor family.
- Nanoreporter PET predicts the efficacy of anti-cancer nanotherapy
Abstract: Nanoparticle drug formulations are currently used as cancer treatment but the response in patients is highly variable. Here, the authors developed a Zirconium-89 nanoreporter able to predict using PET, therapeutic accumulation and efficacy of anti-cancer nanoparticle drug formulations when co-injected in a murine breast cancer model.
- KRT14 marks a subpopulation of bladder basal cells with pivotal role in
regeneration and tumorigenesis
Abstract: It is unclear whether there is a progenitor/stem cell in the basal layer of the urothelium in the bladder. Here, the authors identify Keratin14 positive cells that can regenerate the bladder in both a natural and injury-induced manner, and following neoplastic transformation, can give rise to tumours.
- Structural insights of ZIP4 extracellular domain critical for optimal zinc
Abstract: Mutations in the extracellular domain of zinc transporter ZIP4 result in a lethal disorder. Here, the authors report the first crystal structure of ZIP4 extracellular domain, unveiling its unprecedented dimerization and two structural independent subdomains that have crucial roles in zinc transport.
- Specific frontal neural dynamics contribute to decisions to check
Abstract: Information seeking is thought to rely on the brain's frontal cortex but which regions specifically control this drive remains unknown. Here the authors show that monkeys deciding to seek information on the current state of the environment showed specific neural dynamics in the lateral prefrontal cortex and midcingulate cortex.
- Development of background-free tame fluorescent probes for intracellular
live cell imaging
Abstract: The success of a fluorescent dye as a molecular probe to monitor the intracellular activity of biomolecules depends on its physicochemical characteristics. Here, the authors use a predictive model to identify key features that allow them to design cell permeable, background-free fluorescent probes.
- One-dimensional Magnus-type platinum double salts
Abstract: Mixed-valent one-dimensional platinum chains are interesting inorganic compounds with potential applications in molecular electronics. Here, the authors report a series of platinum dimer-based chains with controllable oxidation state and conductivity behaviour.
- Water-mediated cation intercalation of open-framework indium
hexacyanoferrate with high voltage and fast kinetics
Abstract: Rechargeable aqueous metal-ion batteries are promising for large-scale applications, but performance and stability issues still remain. Here the authors utilize open-framework indium hexacyanoferrate cathodes to improve performance, showing that water-mediated cation intercalation occurs at the cathode.
- Microfluidic single-cell transcriptional analysis rationally identifies
novel surface marker profiles to enhance cell-based therapies
Abstract: Unrecognized progenitor cell perturbations underlying a disease state may limit the efficacy of cell therapies. Here, the authors use high-throughput, single-cell transcriptional analysis to identify disease-specific cellular alterations and prospectively isolate restorative cell subpopulations.
- On-chip coherent conversion of photonic quantum entanglement between
different degrees of freedom
Abstract: Harnessing multiple degrees of freedom of quantum states on chip could improve quantum information processing. Here, the authors demonstrate coherent conversion of quantum states between path, polarization and transverse waveguide-mode degrees of freedom in a quantum photonic integrated circuit.
- The power of a critical heat engine
Abstract: The second law of thermodynamics says that the efficiency of a heat engine is limited by the Carnot efficiency. Here, the authors use finite-size-scaling theory to investigate whether this ultimate limit can be achieved at finite power using quantum Otto engines.
- Oncogenic PIK3CA mutations reprogram glutamine metabolism in colorectal
Abstract: Cancer cells rely on glutamine to replenish the TCA cycle. Here, the authors show that oncogenic PIK3CA mutations drive this metabolic rewiring in colorectal cancer cells by up-regulating glutamate pyruvate transaminase expression, thus increasing sensitivity to glutamine starvation.
- Crystallization of spin superlattices with pressure and field in the
layered magnet SrCu2(BO3)2
Abstract: Spin 1/2 dimer systems in an external magnetic field behave as a lattice gas of hard-core bosons, and can undergo condensation. Here the authors show in SrCu 2 (BO 3 ) 2 that new fractionally crystallized states are not only possible, but also tuneable with hydrostatic pressure.
- Faecal bile acids are natural ligands of the mouse accessory olfactory
Abstract: The accessory olfactory system (AOS) processes social chemosensory information and guides behaviors that are important for survival and reproduction in mammals. Here the authors report that mouse feces are a source of AOS neuronal activity and identify unconjugated bile acids in feces as a class of natural AOS ligands.
- Tumour-initiating cell-specific miR-1246 and miR-1290 expression converge
to promote non-small cell lung cancer progression
Abstract: miRNAs can function either as proto-oncogenes or tumour suppressors in several cancers; however their function in tumour initiating cells is unclear. Here, Zhang et al . show that tumour initiating cell-specific miR-1246 and miR-1290 promote lung cancer initiation and metastasis and could serve as prognostic markers.
- The necroptosis-inducing kinase RIPK3 dampens adipose tissue inflammation
and glucose intolerance
Abstract: The kinase RIPK3 initiates necroptosis, which has been reported to promote inflammation in various pathological conditions. Here, the authors show that genetic ablation of Ripk3 results in adipocyte apoptosis and white adipose tissue inflammation in obese mice, which promotes glucose intolerance.
- A dynamic pathway analysis approach reveals a limiting futile cycle in
N-acetylglucosamine overproducing Bacillus subtilis
Abstract: Rate-limiting steps in synthetic metabolic pathways are difficult to identify. Here, the authors monitor metabolite dynamics and apply kinetic modelling during the start-up phase of the Bacillus subtilis GlcNAc pathway to discover a futile cycle, allowing them to identify a more productive strain.
- Treg engage lymphotoxin beta receptor for afferent lymphatic
Abstract: Lymphotoxin regulates lymphoid organ architecture and adhesion molecules involved in lymphocyte trafficking. Here the authors show that lymphotoxin produced by regulatory T cells promotes their migration to the draining lymph nodes by engaging its cognate receptor on lymphatic endothelial cells.
- Operating organic light-emitting diodes imaged by super-resolution
Abstract: There is a need to characterize devices during operation in real-time and at nanoscopic length scales. Here, King et al . perform electroluminescence-STED imaging with a polymer based light-emitting diode, revealing nanoscopic defects that would be unresolvable with traditional optical microscopy.
- Thermoelectric materials by using two-dimensional materials with negative
correlation between electrical and thermal conductivity
Abstract: The improvement of the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT has been hindered by the challenges associated with the independent control of the electrical and thermal conductivity. Here the authors show that SnS 2 nanosheets can lead to an increased ZT via negative correlation between electrical and thermal conductivity.
- Coupling of Higgs and Leggett modes in non-equilibrium superconductors
Abstract: Collective modes of amplitude and phase are decoupled in equilibrium systems, limiting the understanding of competing orders in correlated material. Here, Krull et al . report that a non-adiabatic pump pulse can induce an intricate coupling between Leggett and Higgs modes, providing a way to couple collective modes in non-equilibrium condition.
- Mnemonic convergence in the human hippocampus
Abstract: The ability to form associations between events is the hallmark of episodic memory and is thought to involve the hippocampus. Here the authors use a combination of multivariate pattern and graph theoretical network analyses of functional imaging data in humans, and show conjunctive coding and hub-like network attributes in the hippocampus.
- Discovery of earth-abundant nitride semiconductors by computational
screening and high-pressure synthesis
Abstract: Nitride semiconductors are attractive for various applications. Here a computational screening study identifies a number of possible ternary nitrides as promising candidates, including a phase that the authors synthesize for the first time via a high-pressure route.
- Unassisted photoelectrochemical water splitting exceeding 7%
solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency using photon recycling
Abstract: Unassisted water splitting by tandem photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic devices requires optimization of the absorbance and transmittance properties of the front photoelectrode. Here, Shi et al . use a conductive distributed Brag reflector to harvest photons of different wavelengths in the two subcells.
- Activation of STING requires palmitoylation at the Golgi
Abstract: STING is essential for the type I interferon immune response to foreign DNA. Here, the authors show that palmitoylation of STING at the Golgi is required for activating downstream signalling, and increased Golgi localization of certain STING variants may cause autoimmune disease in some cases.
- Structural basis for the recognition of guide RNA and target DNA
heteroduplex by Argonaute
Abstract: Argonaute proteins are important in the silencing machinery with some regulatory RNAs. Here, the authors solve the structure of an argonaute protein in complex with both the guide RNA and target DNA and propose a mechanism for their recognition.
- Slower carriers limit charge generation in organic semiconductor
Abstract: In organic solar cells, the photogeneration of free charge carriers is limited by the dissociation of interfacial charge transfer states. Here, the authors study the impact of charge carrier mobilities in operational devices and show that the slowest charge carriers limit the dissociation of charge transfer states.
- Two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide
Abstract: When reducing the size of shape memory materials to the nanoscale regime, the memory effect tends to diminish. Here, the authors report a theoretical proposal of a shape memory graphene oxide with ordered epoxy groups retaining excellent programmability and actuation capabilities.
- Ultrasensitive photodetectors exploiting electrostatic trapping and
Abstract: Photodetector sensitivity is limited by charge carrier recombination. Here, Zhang et al . use nanocrystal ligand engineering and sintering to provide separate pathways for electron and holes, and to fabricate photodetectors with a high detectivity, especially promising for applications in low-light imaging.
- Uncertainty in soil data can outweigh climate impact signals in global
crop yield simulations
Abstract: Global gridded crop models are increasingly used to assess climate change impacts on food production. Here, the authors assess crop yield uncertainty associated with soil data input, reporting that soil type strongly influences yield estimates, and may either buffer or amplify climate-related impacts.
- Counteracting H3K4 methylation modulators Set1 and Jhd2 co-regulate
chromatin dynamics and gene transcription
Abstract: Histone H3K4 methylation affects gene transcription from yeast to humans. Here, the authors show that Set1 and Jhd2, the only H3K4 methyltransferase and H3K4 demethylase, respectively, in budding yeast, co-regulate both positive and negative transcription mediated by nucleosomal turnover and occupancy.
- Loss-tolerant state engineering for quantum-enhanced metrology via the
reverse Hong–Ou–Mandel effect
Abstract: N00N states are promising for quantum communications and metrology, but are vulnerable to losses. Here the authors develop a technique for preparing high-fidelity two-photon N00N states in a loss-free fashion, and demonstrate enhanced phase sensitivity without requiring recombination.
- Aviation effects on already-existing cirrus clouds
Abstract: The extent to which air traffic affects the optical thickness of existing cirrus clouds in the upper atmosphere remains unknown. Here, the authors compare cirrus cloud properties inside and outside of real flight tracks and show that optical thickness is significantly increased within the flight path.
- Merging rhodium-catalysed C–H activation and hydroamination in a
highly selective [4+2] imine/alkyne annulation
Abstract: C–H activations and hydroaminations are useful synthetic procedures for building up complex, functional molecules. Here, the authors report a single catalyst capable of performing tandem C–H activation and hydroamination, giving access to N-heterocycles via the [4+2] annulation of aromatic imines and alkynes.
- Correspondence: On the enzymology and significance of HSPA1 lysine