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Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2041-1723
Published by Nature Publishing Group [117 journals]
- The child brain computes and utilizes internalized maternal choices
Abstract: Mothers advocate eating healthy foods while children like to eat tasty foods. Lim and colleagues demonstrate that children incorporate their mothers' food choices while deciding what to eat as well as provide the neural correlates of this decision making process.
- Dynamic changes in neural circuitry during adolescence are associated with
persistent attenuation of fear memories
Abstract: Flexible fear-related responses may be advantageous in adolescence. Here the authors use microprisms to image prefrontal cortical spine maturation across development and report that plasticity in adolescent fear extinction responses is associated with dynamic reorganization in the amygdalahippocampal-PFC circuit.
- In vivo epidermal migration requires focal adhesion targeting of ACF7
Abstract: The spectraplakin protein ACF7 binds to actin at focal adhesions and targets microtubule plus ends to focal adhesions, promoting their disassembly. Here the authors reveal that ACF7 is phosphorylated by Src/FAK, and this regulates actin binding and focal adhesion dynamics in vitro and in vivo .
- Microscopic origins of the terahertz carrier relaxation and cooling
dynamics in graphene
Abstract: Design of high-speed graphene-based devices relies on understanding of its ultrafast carrier dynamics. Here, the authors combine time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy and microscopic modelling to unveil the interplay between the scattering mechanisms dominating the ultrafast relaxation pathways in graphene.
- Molecular evidence of functional progesterone withdrawal in human
Abstract: How human labour is initiated in the presence of high circulating progesterone is still unclear. Here, the authors show that during a reduction in myometrial nuclear progesterone levels, there is an increased transcription of the key labour gene, Cx43, mediated by unliganded progesterone receptor A.
- Cox process representation and inference for stochastic
Abstract: Stochastic reaction-diffusion systems are used for modelling spatial dynamics in many disciplines, but parameter inference and model selection remain challenging. Here the authors offer a solution enabled by a connection between reaction-diffusion and the well-studied spatio-temporal Cox processes.
- A conserved leucine occupies the empty substrate site of LeuT in the
Na+-free return state
Abstract: Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSS) perform Na + -dependent amino-acid uptake, but a full structural description of their function is lacking. Here the authors present a structure of the bacterial NSS LeuT in the outward-oriented empty state and show that a Leu residue occupies the empty substrate site and is essential for function.
- Plastic anisotropy and dislocation trajectory in BCC metals
Abstract: Low-temperature plasticity in BCC metals is atypical, marked by an anisotropic elastic limit in violation of the Schmid law. Here, the authors show that these deviations can be quantified from subatomic deviations of the screw dislocation trajectory away from its average glide plane.
- Production of fatty acid-derived oleochemicals and biofuels by synthetic
yeast cell factories
Abstract: While yeast is an attractive alternative to bacteria for the production of biofuels it currently has low production yields. Here, the authors systematically engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae for high-level production of fatty acids, alkanes and fatty alcohols, which are important fuel precursors.
- Differences in the efficacy of climate forcings explained by variations in
atmospheric boundary layer depth
Abstract: Correctly detecting surface temperature responses to a climate forcing requires consideration of their spatio-temporal variability. Here, the authors demonstrate that forcing efficacy is governed by the effective heat capacity of the atmosphere, itself a function of planetary boundary layer depth.
- NFATc1 supports imiquimod-induced skin inflammation by suppressing IL-10
synthesis in B cells
Abstract: Regulatory B cells are important for preventing skin autoimmunity. Here the authors show that NFATc1 suppresses IL-10 transcription in regulatory B cells, and inhibiting NFATc1 decreases immunopathology in a mouse model of imiquimod-induced skin inflammation.
- Stepwise phosphorylation of p65 promotes NF-κB activation and NK cell
responses during target cell recognition
Abstract: NK cell activation requires multiple signals. Here the authors show that while NKG2D, 2B4, or DNAM-1 receptor activation is insufficient to induce cytokine production, these signals synergize by Vav-1-mediated NF-κB multiphosphorylation, and this signaling checkpoint is defective in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease.
- CRISPR-dCas9 and sgRNA scaffolds enable dual-colour live imaging of
satellite sequences and repeat-enriched individual loci
Abstract: The ability to target Cas9 to specific genomic loci offers the potential for applications beyond genome editing. Here the authors use deactivated Cas9 and chimeric guide RNAs to visualise individual repetitive loci in living cells.
- klf2a couples mechanotransduction and zebrafish valve morphogenesis
through fibronectin synthesis
Abstract: In the developing heart, blood flow transmits mechanical signals to progenitor cells that ultimately leads to valve formation. Here, the authors identify the origin of the valve progenitor cells and fibronectin1b as a transcriptional target of the mechanotransduced signals responsible for valve formation.
- TRIM31 promotes Atg5/Atg7-independent autophagy in intestinal cells
Abstract: While non-canonical, Atg5/Atg7-independent autophagy has been reported to occur, molecular details of alternative autophagy pathways remain unknown. Here, the authors report that the protein TRIM31 mediates alternative autophagy in intestinal cells, which protects against pathogenic bacteria.
- Essential structural elements in tRNAPro for EF-P-mediated alleviation of
Abstract: Ribosomes tend to stall during the translation of consecutive proline residues, which can be rescued by the co-translational factor EF-P. Here the authors identify a structural element of tRNA Pro responsible for specific recognition by EF-P and stimulation of Pro-Pro peptide bond formation.
- Functional development of mechanosensitive hair cells in stem cell-derived
organoids parallels native vestibular hair cells
Abstract: Sensory hair cells from the mammalian inner ear do not regenerate. Here, the authors induce direct hair cell formation from mouse embryonic stem cells using a three-dimensional culture system and observe differentiation of Type I and Type II vestibular hair cells and establishment of synapses with neurons.
- Conservation of uORF repressiveness and sequence features in mouse, human
Abstract: Upstream open reading frames (uORFs) can repress gene expression. Here, Guo-Liang Chew and colleagues use bioinformatics approaches to show that conservation of uORF-mediated translational repression is mediated by sequence features in human, mouse and zebrafish genomes.
- Epigenetic reprogramming of fallopian tube fimbriae in BRCA mutation
carriers defines early ovarian cancer evolution
Abstract: Women with germline variants in BRCA genes are predisposed to ovarian cancer. In this study, the authors demonstrate that fimbrial tissue from the ovary, the site of ovarian cancer, in BRCA mutant carriers contains marked DNA methylation changes compared with the proximal region of the ovary.
- A voltage-dependent chloride channel fine-tunes photosynthesis in plants
Abstract: Plants have evolved to maximize energy capture while protecting their photosynthetic machinery in response to rapid variation in light conditions. Here, the authors describe a chloroplast voltage-dependent anion channel that contributes to photoprotection by fine-tuning the ion balance across the thylakoid membrane.
- Identification of an activation site in Bak and mitochondrial Bax
triggered by antibodies
Abstract: During apoptosis, Bak and Bax are activated by BH3-only proteins binding to a specific hydrophobic groove. Here, the authors show that antibodies can also activate Bak and mitochondrial Bax by binding to the α1-α2 loop, thus identifying a potential clinical target.
- Photo-induced halide redistribution in organic–inorganic perovskite
Abstract: Visual evidence for photo-induced ionic migration in perovskite films without contacts is lacking. Here, the authors use a unique combination of confocal photoluminescence microscopy and chemical imaging to correlate the local changes in photophysics with composition in CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 films under illumination.
- Domain topology and domain switching kinetics in a hybrid improper
Abstract: Charged ferroelectric domain walls show promise for two-dimensional conduction, but their abundance within (Ca,Sr) 3 Ti 2 O 7 crystals is poorly understood. Here, Huang et al . discover topology related domain structures in such materials, which reveal the rich nature of hybrid improper ferroelectricity.
- KCNQ channel openers reverse depressive symptoms via an active resilience
Abstract: Potassium channels in the ventral tegmental area are known to regulate resilience against stress-induced depression. Here, the authors show over expression of KCNQ3 channels in VTA dopaminergic neurons or treatment with KCNQ channel openers normalizes depressive behaviours in mouse models.
- Selective dissolution of halide perovskites as a step towards recycling
Abstract: As perovskite-based solar cells are reaching high efficiency, issues of stability and end-of-life become predominant. Here, Kim et al . selectively dissolve the perovskite layer and reuse the electron transport layer to fabricate devices with efficiency and stability comparable to those of the original solar cells.
- Measurements of continuum lowering in solid-density plasmas created from
elements and compounds
Abstract: The effect of dense plasma environment on the energy levels of an ion is usually described in terms of a lowering of its continuum level. Here the authors present an isochoric-heating experiment to measure and compare continuum lowering in single-species and mixture plasmas to provide insights for models.
- Spin–valley locking in the normal state of a transition-metal
Abstract: The origin of intertwined electronic orders in transition-metal dichalcogenides has long been debated. Here, Bawden et al . report that the normal state, from which these phases emerge, is unexpectedly spin-polarized, with spins locked to both valley and layer pseudospins.
- CXXC finger protein 1 is critical for T-cell intrathymic development
through regulating H3K4 trimethylation
Abstract: T cell development has been a classical model for understanding cell fate regulation by epigenetics. Here the authors show that Cxxc1 controls thymocyte development mainly through regulating several key genes, such as Rorc , Zap70 and Cd8 , which requires its H3K4me3 but not DNA methylation function.
- Potent social synchronization can override photic entrainment of circadian
Abstract: Circadian rhythms synchronize important biological processes, and are thought to primarily be entrained by environmental cycles in light and temperature, with little or no role for social interactions. Here, Fuchikawa et al . show that social cues among honeybees can entrain these rhythms even in the presence of conflicting light-dark cycles.
- Relative rate and location of intra-host HIV evolution to evade cellular
immunity are predictable
Abstract: HIV evolves within infected persons to escape being destroyed by the immune system. Here, Barton et al . combine evolutionary dynamics and statistical physics to simulate this process, successfully predicting the relative rate and location of escape mutations in viral sequences for a cohort of HIV-infected persons.
- Hetero-site-specific X-ray pump-probe spectroscopy for femtosecond
Abstract: Two-color X-ray pulses with controlled time delay allow exciting one site of a molecule and then probing a different site of the same molecule with femtosecond resolution. Here, the authors use this hetero-site pump-probe technique to study charge redistribution and dissociation of the xenon difluoride molecule.
- A wearable chemical–electrophysiological hybrid biosensing system
for real-time health and fitness monitoring
Abstract: Wearable sensors can provide continuous, convenient feedback for users but typically focus on a small number of physiological parameters. Here, the authors report a skin-worn sensing system that combines a biosensor for lactate detection with an electrocardiogram in one patch, with applications for exercise monitoring.
- Direct evidence for charge stripes in a layered cobalt oxide
Abstract: The nature of the magnetic ground state giving rise to the hourglass-shaped magnetic spectrum common among high- T c superconductors is a matter of debate. Here, Babkevich et al . detect the presence of stripe charge order accompanied by quasi-one-dimensional antiferromagnetic order in La 5/3 Sr 1/3 CoO 4 , providing a natural explanation for this characteristic spectrum.
- Nrf2 suppresses macrophage inflammatory response by blocking
proinflammatory cytokine transcription
Abstract: Nrf2 is a transcriptional activator of oxidative stress response genes. Here the authors show that Nrf2 binds to promoters of proinflammatory genes and interferes with their transcriptional upregulation in LPS-stimulated macrophages independently of its role in regulation of reactive oxygen species.
- Electrostatic control over temperature-dependent tunnelling across a
Abstract: The effect of temperature on charge transport mechanisms in molecular tunnel junctions is not fully understood. Here, charge transport studies of a redox-active molecule unveil multiple mechanistic regimes which may be explained by thermal broadening of the Fermi distributions of electrons in the leads.
- The fin-to-limb transition as the re-organization of a Turing pattern
Abstract: Mouse digit patterning is controlled by a Turing network of Bmp, Sox9, and Wnt. Here, Onimaru et al . show that fin patterning in the catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula , is controlled by the same network with a different spatial organization; thus, the Turing network is deeply conserved in limb development.
- Probing topological protection using a designer surface plasmon structure
Abstract: The limits of topological protection in photonic systems remain unclear. Here, Gao et al . construct photonic topological edge states and probe their robustness against a variety of defect classes, including some common time-reversal-invariant photonic defects that can break the topological protection.
- Adaptive evolution of complex innovations through stepwise metabolic niche
Abstract: A fundamental question in evolutionary biology is how complex innovations requiring multiple genetic changes arise. Here the authors provide lines of evidence that changing environments facilitate the adaptive evolution of complex metabolic innovations via stepwise acquisition of single reactions.
- Gut environment-induced intraepithelial autoreactive CD4+ T cells suppress
central nervous system autoimmunity via LAG-3
Abstract: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) involves inflammatory cell infiltration into the central nervous system (CNS) and models the human disease multiple sclerosis. Here the authors show that transferred CD4+ gut intraepithelial lymphocytes can migrate into the CNS and inhibit inflammation in recipient mice with EAE.
- Size quantization of Dirac fermions in graphene constrictions
Abstract: Quantum point contacts are narrow electrical connections of a width comparable to the wavelength of the conducting electrons. Here, the authors create such contacts in graphene by etching constrictions and use them to identify ballistic transport and quantized conductance of size-confined Dirac fermions.
- Implementation of dispersion-free slow acoustic wave propagation and phase
engineering with helical-structured metamaterials
Abstract: There is great interest in slow wave propagation for a variety of applications. Here, Zhu et al . present a dispersion-free helical-structured metamaterial that implements acoustic wave deceleration at broad bandwidth and demonstrates specially designed phase modulation to incident sound through helicity tuning.
- Numerical approach for unstructured quantum key distribution
Abstract: Calculating the secret key rate for a given quantum key distribution protocol is challenging. Here the authors develop a numerical approach for calculating the key rate for arbitrary discrete-variable QKD protocols, which could lead to automated security analysis of realistic systems.
- Multifunctional hydrogel nano-probes for atomic force microscopy
Abstract: Atomic force microscopy typically employs hard tips to map the surface topology of a sample, with sub-nanometre resolution. Here, the authors instead develop softer hydrogel probes, which show potential for multifunctional measurement capabilities beyond that of conventional systems.
- Separating hydrogen and oxygen evolution in alkaline water electrolysis
using nickel hydroxide
Abstract: Alkaline water electrolyzers are promising devices for hydrogen generation, although hydrogen/oxygen mixing can be problematic. Here, the authors use nickel hydroxide as a redox mediator to decouple the hydrogen and oxygen production, overcoming the gas-mixing issue.
- Live single-cell laser tag
Abstract: Cell labelling in a non-invasive and genetic engineering-free manner is crucial to cell biology applications. Here the authors develop cell labelling via photobleaching (CLaP), that uses laser illumination to label individual cells for genomics, cell-tracking, flow cytometry or ultra-microscopy.
- Clonal evolution in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia developing
resistance to BTK inhibition
Abstract: The BTK inhibitor ibrutinib is used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, however some patients develop resistance to the drug. Here, the authors use genomic analyses to examine the clonal evolution of 5 patients that develop resistance to ibrutinib.
- A two-step approach to achieve secondary amide transamidation enabled by
Abstract: Transamidation reactions are kinetically and thermodynamically challenging because of the stability of the amide starting materials. Here, the authors show a two-step process—activation of a secondary amide, followed by nickel-catalysed C–N bond cleavage—that allows mild and high yielding transamidation.
- The effect of acid–base clustering and ions on the growth of
Abstract: The growth rates of freshly formed aerosol particles influence what fraction of these can reach sizes large enough to affect cloud formation and climate. Here, the authors show that the nano-particle growth in a sulphuric acid containing system can be enhanced by the presence of ions or small acid-base clusters.
- Splicing factors control C. elegans behavioural learning in a single
neuron by producing DAF-2c receptor
Abstract: Little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating neuron-specific alternative splicing. Here, the authors identify a combination of RNA-binding proteins regulating neuron-specific expression of the C. elegans insulin receptor isoform DAF-2c and find disrupting these factors leads to learning deficits.
- Geometric spin echo under zero field
Abstract: The sensitivity of single spins to their local environment makes them promising components for future quantum information and sensing technology. Here, the authors use geometric spin echo to demonstrate the control of nitrogen-vacancies via the crystal field in diamond under zero applied fields.
- A global meta-analysis on the ecological drivers of forest restoration
Abstract: Restoration of degraded ecosystems is known to enhance biodiversity and vegetation structure. Using a global meta-analysis, Crouzeilles et al . identify the drivers of restoration success in forest ecosystems at both the local and landscape scales.
- Therapeutic surfactant-stripped frozen micelles
Abstract: The excipients used to solubilise hydrophobic drugs sometimes interfere with drug behaviour or induce adverse side effects once injected. Here, the authors use a low-temperature process to obtain surfactant-stripped micelles with high drug concentration for delivery of a wide range of hydrophobic cargoes.
- Vascular control of the Drosophila haematopoietic microenvironment by
Abstract: The posterior signalling centre (PSC) in Drosophila larva regulates blood cell differentiation but it is unclear how this is controlled. Here, the authors show that Slit/Robo signalling from the vascular system regulates PSC morphology and function, in turn, regulating blood cell differentiation.
- Decoupling optical function and geometrical form using conformal flexible
Abstract: Realizing components with decoupled geometrical form and optical function are of interest for various applications. Here, Kamali et al . introduce flexible metasurfaces based on a transmitarray platform that can be conformed to a non-planar arbitrarily shaped object to modify its optical properties at will.
- T-bet is a key modulator of IL-23-driven pathogenic CD4+ T cell responses
in the intestine
Abstract: How transcription factor T-bet and Th17 cells contribute to colitis remains incompletely understood. Here the authors identify T-bet as a negative regulator of IL-23R pathway activation and show that T-bet deficient T cells drive colitogenic Th17 responses dependent on the cytokines IL-17A and IL-22.
- A genome-wide association scan implicates DCHS2, RUNX2, GLI3, PAX1 and
EDAR in human facial variation
Abstract: Humans show great diversity in facial appearance and this variation is highly heritable. Here, Andres Ruiz-Linares and colleagues examined facial features in admixed Latin Americans and identify genome-wide associations for 14 facial traits, including four gene loci ( RUNX2 , GLI3 , DCHS2 and PAX1 ) influencing nose morphology.
- Large reversible caloric effect in FeRh thin films via a dual-stimulus
Abstract: Refrigeration devices based on giant magnetocaloric materials are hampered by an irreversible caloric effect associated with large magnetic hysteresis. Here, Liu et al . report a multicaloric refrigeration cycle in FeRh thin films coupled to a ferroelectric BaTiO 3 substrate, demonstrating reversibility and conversion of hysteretic losses.
- The calcium sensor Copine-6 regulates spine structural plasticity and
learning and memory
Abstract: Learning and memory depend on the structural and functional plasticity of synapses. Reinhard et al . show that the calcium sensor Copine-6 is required for memory, controls spine structure by regulating Rac signalling, and through its modulation of actin, supports hippocampal LTP.
- Inhibition of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway promotes
castration-resistant prostate cancer
Abstract: The molecular alterations driving anti-androgen resistance in prostate cancer are unclear. Here, the authors show, using a network-based approach, that inhibition of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway is necessary to develop resistance and that increasing the activity of the pathway enhances the anti-androgen response.
- Structural basis of omalizumab therapy and omalizumab-mediated IgE
Abstract: Omalizumab is an antibody against IgE that is used to treat patients with asthma and chronic idiopathic urticaria. Here, the authors report the structure of omalizumab in complex with an IgE fragment and develop an approach to exchange rather than deplete IgE on human basophils to block their activation.
- Super-resolution microscopy reveals structural diversity in molecular
exchange among peptide amphiphile nanofibres
Abstract: Dynamic behaviour in supramolecular systems is an important aspect of their functionality. Here, the authors use stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy to unveil structural diversity in self-assembled peptide amphiphile nanofibres, with potential relevance to biomedical applications.
- ISPD produces CDP-ribitol used by FKTN and FKRP to transfer ribitol
phosphate onto α-dystroglycan
Abstract: Mutations in genes required for the glycosylation of α-dystroglycan lead to dystroglycanopathies. Here, the authors show that three of these enzymes (ISPD, FKTN and FKRP) work together to attach ribitol phosphate to α-dystroglycan.
- ISG15 deficiency and increased viral resistance in humans but not mice
Abstract: ISG15 is a ubiquitin-like protein which has important immune-related functions in mice and humans. Here the authors demonstrate that, unlike in mice, human ISG15 stabilizes UPS18 and that ISG15-deficient human cells are more resistant to viral infection.
- Suppression of KRas-mutant cancer through the combined inhibition of KRAS
with PLK1 and ROCK
Abstract: KRas is frequently mutated in multiple cancer types; identifying drugs to treat such cancers is a good therapeutic strategy. Here, the authors perform a synthetic lethal screen in mice and show that inhibiting Plk1 and ROCK results in the inhibition of tumour growth by increasing expression of the tumour suppressor p21.