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Zeitschrift für angewandte Mathematik und Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
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Journal Cover
Modern Physics Letters B
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.226
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 10  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0217-9849 - ISSN (Online) 1793-6640
Published by World Scientific Homepage  [118 journals]
  • A graphene-based tunable guided-mode resonance narrowband mid-infrared
    • Authors: Yan-Lin Liao, Yan Zhao, Wen Zhang, Sujuan Feng
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      We report a graphene-based tunable ultra-narrowband mid-infrared filter which can be tuned from 4.45122 [math]m to 4.44675 [math]m by tuning the Fermi level from 0.2 eV to 0.6 eV. Furthermore, the reflection bandwidth is less than 0.2 nm and the reflection rate is more than 0.55. The ultra-narrowband filter is designed based on the guided-mode resonance (GMR) effect. The shift of reflection peak is mainly caused by the change of the real part of the graphene’s permittivity. This tunable ultra-narrowband mid-infrared filter can be applied in the mid-infrared microscopy.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-06-18T09:35:22Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918502275
  • Fission and fusion interaction phenomena of the discrete kink
           multi-soliton solutions for the Chen–Lee–Liu lattice equation
    • Authors: Nan Liu, Xiao-Yong Wen, Yaqing Liu
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      Chen–Lee–Liu (CLL) lattice equation is an integrable discretization of the CLL equation which can be used to model the evolution of the self-steepening optical pulses without self-phase modulation. In this paper, the discrete N-fold Darboux transformation (DT) is used to derive the discrete kink multi-soliton solutions in terms of determinant for CLL lattice equation. Soliton fission and fusion interaction structures of such solutions are shown graphically. The details of their evolution are investigated by using numerical simulations, showing that a small noise with amplitude less than or equal to 0.01 produces a strong oscillation and instability of these kink soliton solutions. The discrete generalized perturbation [math]-fold DT is constructed to express some rational solutions in terms of the determinants of CLL lattice equation by modifying the discrete N-fold DT. Infinitely many conservation laws for CLL lattice equation are constructed based on its Lax representation. Results in this paper might be helpful for understanding the propagation of optical pulses.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-06-18T09:35:20Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918502111
  • Influence of drive current and ambient temperature on intensity and
           wavelength of RGB LEDs for displays
    • Authors: Kang Su, Jing Li, Xingdong Lu, Chang Ge, Guohong Wang
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      The optical performance of RGB LEDs used in displays is highly sensitive to the drive current and ambient temperature. The emitting intensity and dominant wavelength of RGB LEDs are investigated with the various currents and temperatures, and then the relevant mathematic models are proposed and summarized. Hence, the emitting intensity and dominant wavelength of RGB LEDs under any operating condition can be known from these models.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-06-18T09:35:19Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918502172
  • Electron acceleration by a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave
           publishing in plasma with a periodic magnetic field and an axial guide
           magnetic field
    • Authors: Mehdi Abedi-Varaki
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, we study the electron acceleration by a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave propagating through plasma in the presence of a periodic and an axial guide magnetic field. A numerical calculation in MATLAB software was developed by employing the fourth-order Runge–Kutta method for studying the electron energy and electron trajectory in plasma medium. The equations governing the electron momentum and energy which describe electron acceleration by a circularly polarized laser pulse have been obtained. It is shown that by choosing an appropriate wiggler field frequency at short distances, the electron retains an adequate amount of energy. In addition, it is found that due to the simultaneous existence of the wiggler field and field of laser pulse and their combined effects, the electron in the direction of the laser pulse propagating, turns around and subsequently, the electron transverse momentum increases and as a result the electron escapes from the laser pulse near the laser pulse peak. Furthermore, it is seen that by increasing the laser intensity, the electron energy decreases and by decreasing to an appropriate value while employing a wiggler magnetic field, a higher peak of energy is gained.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-06-18T09:35:19Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918502251
  • Effect of F-doping on temperature dependence of resistivity of vanadium
           pentoxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis
    • Authors: M. Mousavi, Gh. Khorami, A. Kompany, N. Shahtahmasebi
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      This paper reports structural and electrical characteristics of F-doped [math]V2O5 thin films of different F concentrations. The films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. It was found that F-doping in vanadium pentoxide affects the crystallinity of the samples. The SEM images have shown that by increasing the F-doping level, the size of the nanobelt increases. Electrical measurements indicated that the F-doping in [math]V2O5 makes the temperature of phase transition change from semiconductor to metallic phase.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-06-18T09:35:19Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918502299
  • Acoustics velocity of liquid argon at high pressure: A classical molecular
           dynamics study
    • Authors: Liancheng Wang, Aiping Zhou
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      The adiabatic sound velocity of liquid argon is calculated by means of classical molecular dynamics simulations via the COMPASS force field, at the temperature of 388 K and the pressure range of 0.5–2.0 GPa. The isothermal sound velocity of liquid argon is obtained from the fluctuations of the supercell volume via Fluctuation Formula. Then, the adiabatic sound velocity is calculated from isothermal sound velocity by the Landau–Placzek ratio derived from the dynamic structure factor of the system. The calculated adiabatic sound velocities of liquid argon are in good agreement with the former Brillouin scattering measurements.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-06-18T09:35:18Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918502196
  • Research on electronic structures and optical properties of zinc-blende
           aluminum nitride doped with transition metals from first-principles
    • Authors: Xuefeng Lu, Tingting Zhao, Junqiang Ren, Xin Guo, Xiaobin Yan, Peiqing La
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      Electronic structures and optical properties of zinc-blende aluminum nitride doped with transition metals are investigated. Lu-doped system possesses the most considerate stability with the lowest formation energy of −9.033 eV compared to others. Band structures of systems are introduced to investigate a more excellent semiconductor capacity for Re-doped system with a band gap [math] of 0.689 eV, with others having band gaps of 2.120, 2.159, 1.806, 1.837 and 0.879 eV, respectively, much smaller than that of pristine one, 3.113 eV. Moreover, absorption spectra curve reaches the lowest peak of [math] for Os-doped system; simultaneously, the system exhibits a relatively negative reflectivity spectra and dielectric loss of 5.620 eV that are extensively expected in solar cell industry, predicting its broad scope of application prospects in photoelectric and microelectronic devices.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-06-18T09:35:17Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918502202
  • Interaction of the localized states near nonlinear repulsive media border
    • Authors: S. E. Savotchenko
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, the new type of coupled states localized near the nonlinear boundary media and propagating along it are considered. The boundary of nonlinear media with different parameters of anharmonicity of interatomic interaction creates a disturbance of medium characteristic. It is expected that the particle has a complex linear law of dispersion with several branches of different parameters in a model proposed in this paper. The problem is reduced to the solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with boundary conditions for a special kind. Explicit solutions of nonlinear Schrödinger equations satisfying the boundary conditions were found. It is shown that the existence of nonlinear localized excitations of several types is possible. They have a soliton-like profile in the direction perpendicular to the boundary. The structure and shape of the localized states is determined by the anharmonicity parameters and the intensity of interaction of the excitations with the plane defect. The equations determining the energy of the wave localized along the media boundary for a fixed direction of its wave vector are derived. Dependences of the wave numbers from the parameters of the system for localized states in various private cases are explicitly expressed.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-06-18T09:35:17Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918502226
  • Preparation and properties of CNT reinforced Fe–Ni–P composites
           fabricated by liquid phase sintering
    • Authors: Luyao Mao, Guodong Cui, Runjian Jiang, Qingxiang Wang, Chengsong Zhang, Renchu Wei, Shen Wang
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      The Fe–Ni–P matrix composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared by means of liquid phase sintering at 950[math]C. The effects of the mass fraction of CNTs on the microstructures and properties of the composites were investigated. It is noteworthy that the structures of CNTs were hardly damaged during the sintering process via evaluation of microstructures on as-sintered composites. The strength and ductility increased gradually with the increase of CNT content while the saturation magnetization decreased gradually. The sample containing 1 wt.% CNTs showed a good combination of a compression ratio of 60% and a compressive strength of approximately 3800 MPa, which indicated its potential application in modern power generation systems.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-06-18T09:35:17Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918502263
  • Performance evaluation of 2D face recognition techniques under image
           processing attacks
    • Authors: Sahil Sharma, Vijay Kumar
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      Face recognition is a vastly researched topic in the field of computer vision. A lot of work have been done for facial recognition in two dimensions and three dimensions. The amount of work done with face recognition invariant of image processing attacks is very limited. This paper presents a total of three classes of image processing attacks on face recognition system, namely image enhancement attacks, geometric attacks and the image noise attacks. The well-known machine learning techniques have been used to train and test the face recognition system using two different databases namely Bosphorus Database and University of Milano Bicocca three-dimensional (3D) Face Database (UMBDB). Three classes of classification models, namely discriminant analysis, support vector machine and k-nearest neighbor along with ensemble techniques have been implemented. The significance of machine learning techniques has been mentioned. The visual verification has been done with multiple image processing attacks.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-06-18T09:35:16Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918502123
  • A dynamic weighted TOPSIS method for identifying influential nodes in
           complex networks
    • Authors: Pingle Yang, Xin Liu, Guiqiong Xu
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      Identifying the influential nodes in complex networks is a challenging and significant research topic. Though various centrality measures of complex networks have been developed for addressing the problem, they all have some disadvantages and limitations. To make use of the advantages of different centrality measures, one can regard influential node identification as a multi-attribute decision-making problem. In this paper, a dynamic weighted Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) is developed. The key idea is to assign the appropriate weight to each attribute dynamically, based on the grey relational analysis method and the Susceptible–Infected–Recovered (SIR) model. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by applications to three actual networks, which indicates that our method has better performance than single indicator methods and the original weighted TOPSIS method.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-06-18T09:35:15Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918502160
  • Variable speed limit control scheme for vehicle in the vicinity of
           signalized intersection
    • Authors: Liang-Yi Yang, Min Zhao, Di-Hua Sun, Hui Liu
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, a variable speed limit control approach for improving the efficiency of signalized intersection is proposed from the cyber-physical view. In the proposed control scheme, vehicle-to-vehicle communication is being utilized fully such that the preceding vehicle’s optimal information is exploited for optimizing the motion of the current vehicle. To prepare the control scheme for dynamical optimization, nonlinear model predictive control technique is used to optimally control vehicle speed limit and a new traffic model is constructed by considering vehicle dynamics. Moreover, this paper evaluates the influence of communication distance on the traffic. The results show that extending communication distance in the vicinity of signalized intersection can improve vehicles’ average fuel economy.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-06-18T09:35:15Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918502184
  • Study of the characteristics of 976 nm Bragg grating external cavity
           semiconductor lasers
    • Authors: Zhong-Hua Yan, Shuai Zhou
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      976 nm fiber Bragg grating (FBG) external cavity laser is the core component in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA). In this paper, the theory model of FBG is modeled by transfer matrix method (TMM). The effects of Bragg grating length and modulation depth on the reflectivity, grating spectrum width and wavelength have been investigated. Then 976 nm laser modules with different grating reflectivity, i.e. 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% have been fabricated. By improving the reflectivity of FBG, the side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) has been optimized to above 40 dB, and the threshold current decreases. The temperature cycling test indicates that the peak wavelength has a change rate [math]0.0095 nm/[math]C.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-06-13T09:56:15Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918502147
  • Fractional order car-following model and its simulation
    • Authors: Yong Zhang, Jie-Mei Zhao
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      In order to depict the effect of driver’s memory on car-following behavior, a new kind of car-following model is proposed by using fractional order differential equation in this paper. Its dynamic equation is defined by Caputo fractional order derivative. And the order of derivative is the measurement of driver’s memory. In addition, discrete formulas of the position and velocity of the new model are given. The Optimal Velocity (OV) model is taken as an example to introduce how to get the fractional order car-following model from an ordinary model. The simulation results show that the Fractional Order Optimal Velocity (FOOV) model is more stable, and it can avoid unrealistic acceleration values of the OV model in the cases of starting and braking processes. Moreover, magnitudes of the speed and headway fluctuation of the FOOV model with a suitable order are smaller than those of the OV model. This indicates that the memory characteristic of drivers increases the stability of traffic flow.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-06-13T09:56:14Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918502135
  • Study of the effect of surfactants on hydroxyl radicals in
           Ag–Ce–ZnO nanocomposites
    • Authors: Yu-Shan Qin, Qi Shi, Yu-Guang Lv, Chen-Xi Shi, Ya-Xin Zhao, Zi-Ran Zhou, Peng Lin
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, Ag–Ce–ZnO nanocomposites with average particle size of about 50 nm were prepared by direct precipitation method. In order to solve the problem of agglomeration, the nanocomposites with the average particle size of about 30 nm were obtained by treating the nanocomposites with surfactant sodium polyacrylate (PAAS). The effect of surfactant PAAS on the content of hydroxyl radicals produced by nanocomposites was determined by UV spectrophotometry and fluorescence spectrophotometry, and the effect of PAAS on the dispersion effect was obtained indirectly. The experimental results showed that the addition of surfactants’ PAAS effectively reduced the average particle size of nanocomposites, increased the content of hydroxyl radicals, and made the nanocomposites have good dispersing effect.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-06-13T09:56:13Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918502159
  • A macroscopic model for VOC emissions process complemented by real data
    • Authors: Yu-Qing Wang, Chao-Fan Zhou, Zi-Ang Zhu, Jia-Wei Wang, Zi-Meng Wang, Chen-Hao Fang, Bin Jia
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      Based on tremendous real data, a macroscopic model is established, which can depict the process of volatile organic compound (namely, VOC) emissions. Different from previous work, a complete set of sources is taken into account rather than only an isolated source. These data have been processed to support the sample set in order to prove the validity of the theoretical analyses. Besides, the relationship between the industrial production and VOC emissions of industrial source is discussed and depicted. Furthermore, the relationship between the electronic industrial production and VOC emissions is emphasized and calculated. VOC emissions per unit production is investigated. Additionally, the relationship between the number of sample points in the sample set and VOC emissions is illustrated. Then, the control strategy of VOC emissions is proposed by calculating the optimal solutions of each sample set. It is found that the lower the slope of optimal solutions, the lower the average VOC emissions, the better the VOC emissions control effect.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-06-11T07:33:13Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918502093
  • On the classification of conservation laws and soliton solutions of the
           long short-wave interaction system
    • Authors: Mustafa Inc, Aliyu Isa Aliyu, Abdullahi Yusuf, Dumitru Baleanu
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, the classification of conservation laws (Cls) of the long short-wave interaction system (LSWS) which appears in fluid mechanics as well as plasma physics is implemented using two Cls theorems, namely, the multipliers approach and the new conservation theorem. The LSWS describes the interaction between one long longitudinal wave and one short transverse wave propagating in a generalized elastic medium. The zeroth-order multipliers and the nonlinear self-adjoint substitutions of the model are derived. Considering the fact that the new conservation theorem needs Lie point symmetries in constructing Cls, we derive the point symmetries of a system of nonlinear partial differential equations (NPDEs) acquired by transforming the model into real and imaginary components. Moreover, we derive some kink-type, bell-shaped, singular and combined soliton solutions to the model using the powerful sine-Gordon expansion method (SGEM). Some figures are presented to show the physical interpretations of the acquired results.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-06-11T07:33:12Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918502020
  • Stability analysis of memristive multidirectional associative memory
           neural networks and applications in information storage
    • Authors: Weiping Wang, Xin Yu, Xiong Luo, Lixiang Li
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      Traditional biological neural networks lack the capability of reflecting variable synaptic weights when simulating associative memory of human brains. In this paper, we investigate the existence and exponential stability of a novel memristive multidirectional associative memory neural networks (MAMNNs) model, which includes the time-varying delays. In the proposed approach, the time-varying delays are set to be bounded, and it is not necessary for their derivative to be differentiable. With removal of certain conditions, less conservative results are generated. Sufficient criteria guaranteeing the stability of the memristive MAMNNs are derived based on the Lyapunov function and some inequality techniques. To illustrate the performance of the proposed criteria, a procedure is designed to realize information storage. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of the proposed theories is validated with numerical experiments.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-06-11T07:33:12Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S021798491850207X
  • Non-Markovian effect of the fractional damping environment and
           Newton’s second law of motion
    • Authors: Chun-Yang Wang, Zhao-Peng Sun, Ming Qin, Yu-Qing Xu, Shu-Qin Lv, Ming Yi
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      We report, in this paper, a recent study on the dynamical mechanism of Brownian particles diffusing in the fractional damping environment, where several important quantities such as the mean square displacement (MSD) and mean square velocity are calculated for dynamical analysis. A particular type of backward motion is found in the diffusion process. The reason of it is analyzed intrinsically by comparing with the diffusion in various dissipative environments. Results show that the diffusion in the fractional damping environment obeys the Langevin dynamics which is quite different form what is expected.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-06-11T07:33:11Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S021798491850210X
  • The characteristics and mechanism of microbubble drag reduction on the
           axisymmetric body
    • Authors: Wuchao Song, Cong Wang, Yingjie Wei, Lirui Lu, Hao Xu
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      To investigate the characteristics and mechanism of microbubble drag reduction on the axisymmetric body, both experiments and the numerical simulation of microbubble drag reduction have been conducted in this paper. Based on the experiments, the morphology of microbubble flow and the characteristics of microbubble drag reduction were analyzed. The size distribution of microbubbles and the influence of microbubble size on the drag reduction efficiency were quantitatively investigated. Based on the numerical simulation, the influences of microbubbles on the turbulence intensity and vorticity were analyzed to investigate the mechanism of microbubble drag reduction. The results indicate that the diameters of microbubbles basically obey the normal distribution at various conditions, and the microbubble flow presents the uniform microbubble, roll-up and cavity. As the air injection rate increases, the drag reduction respectively shows microbubble drag reduction, mixture drag reduction and air-layer drag reduction. Besides, the drag reduction ratio correspondingly presents the increasing stage, rapidly increasing stage and stable stage. At the same void ratio, the smaller microbubbles show the higher efficiency in drag reduction. The microbubbles injected into the boundary layer can reduce the turbulence intensity and the frequency of the bursting events in the flow field, which results in the drag reduction.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-06-08T08:27:35Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918502068
  • Three-party quantum secret sharing based on phase shift operation
    • Authors: Huawang Qin, Raylin Tso, Yuewei Dai
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      An efficient three-party quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed. The dealer uses the phase shift operation to encode the secret information into some EPR pairs. The members use the phase shift operation to decode the EPR pairs, and measure the EPR pairs to reconstruct the secret. Our scheme does not need the BB84 protocol or the decoy particles to protect the transmitted particles, and can use the phase shift operation to prevent the attacker from stealing secret information from the transmitted particles. So all the particles can be used to bring the secret information, and the utilization efficiency of the particles of 100% can be achieved. With the prevent technology, our scheme is more practical than the existing schemes.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-06-08T08:27:34Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S021798491850197X
  • Fabrication and characteristic of force sensor based on piezoelectric
           effect of Li-doped ZnO thin films
    • Authors: Chunpeng Ai, Xiaofeng Zhao, Yinan Bai, Yi Li, Dianzhong Wen
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, a force sensor based on piezoelectric effect of Li-doped ZnO (LZO) thin films was presented, which constituted by Pt/LZO/Pt/Ti functional layers and Si cantilever beam. The chips were designed and fabricated by micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology on silicon wafer with [math] orientation. In this sandwich structure, the top electrode (TE) was Pt and bottom electrode (BE) was Pt/Ti, LZO piezoelectric thin films were prepared by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method. The microstructure and morphology were analyzed through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), analysis results shows that the LZO thin films with highly c-axis orientation and uniform grain size distribution under sputtering power of 220 W. The experimental results show, when external force loaded on the tip of the beam, the output voltage [math] was 280.3 mV at external force of 5 N, the sensitivity of the proposed sensor was 46.1 mV/N in the range of 1–5 N.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-06-08T08:27:34Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918502081
  • Josephson phase transition modified by the super-strong Coulomb
    • Authors: Xiao-Qi Wang, Cui Jiang, Guang-Yu Yi
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      With the help of the exact diagonalization approach, the Josephson phase transition in a T-shaped double quantum-dot (QD) junction is theoretically investigated. It is found that when the intradot Coulomb interaction in one dot is super-strong, new Josephson phase-transition manner comes into being, in comparison with the case of two identical dots. Besides, owing to the different positions of the two dots, the super-strong Coulomb repulsions in them induce two phase-transition results, respectively. We believe that this work can be helpful in understanding how the super-strong Coulomb interaction influences the phase transition in the Josephson junction with embedded dots.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-06-04T11:50:19Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918502032
  • Dopant occupancy and Judd–Ofelt analysis of spectroscopic property
           of Sc:Yb:Nd:LiNbO3 crystal
    • Authors: Luping Wang, Li Dai, Chao Tan, Xianbo Han, Yu Shao, Yuheng Xu
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      A series of Sc:Yb:Nd:LiNbO3 crystals with various [Li]/[Nb] ratios (0.946, 1.05, 1.20 and 1.38) were grown by Czochralski method. The structure of Sc:Yb:Nd:LiNbO3 crystal was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). With the increase of [Li]/[Nb] ratio, the intensity of the UV-Vis-NIR absorption peak increases. J–O intensity parameters of Sc:Yb:Nd:LiNbO3 crystals were calculated using J–O theory. The spectral quality factor X (X = 1.77) of ScYbNd[math] is higher than other samples in this paper and other Nd-doped crystals reported, which is of great significance for laser materials.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-06-04T11:50:19Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918502056
  • Influence of impurity concentration, atomic number, temperature and
           tempering time on microstructure and phase transformation of
           Ni[math]Fe[math] (x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) nanoparticles
    • Authors: Nguyen Trong Dung
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      The influence of the concentration of impurity Fe in nanoparticles Ni[math]Fe[math] with x = 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 at T = 300 K; 4000 atoms, 5324 atoms, 6912 atoms and 8788 atoms at T = 300 K; 6912 atoms at T = 1500 K, 1300 K, 1100 K, 900 K, 700 K, 600 K, 500 K and 300 K and tempering time t = 500 ps at 6912 atoms on microstructure, phase transition temperature of Ni[math]Fe[math] nanoparticles is studied by molecular dynamics method with the Sutton–Chen embedded interaction potential and liberal boundary conditions. The structural properties are analyzed through the radial distribution function, the energy, the size, the phase transition temperature (determined by the relationship between total energy and temperature) and combined with the common neighbor analysis (CNA) method. The obtained first peak positions of the radial distribution function for the lengths of atomic pair Fe–Fe, Fe–Ni and Ni–Ni are consistent with the experimental data. In Ni[math]Fe[math] nanoparticles always exist in three types of structures (FCC, HCP, Amor) and phase transition temperatures range from 500 K to 700 K. When the concentration of impurity Fe in Ni[math]Fe[math] nanoparticles increases, then nanoparticles move from crystalline to amorphous state. When Ni[math]Fe[math] nanoparticles are at amorphous state, then the influence of factors such as the atomic number, the temperature and the tempering time on structure and transition temperature is negligible.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-06-04T11:50:18Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918502044
  • Molecular dynamics simulation of cell membrane penetration by atomic force
           microscopy tip
    • Authors: Guocheng Zhang, Hai Jiang, Na Fan, Longxiang Yang, Jian Guo, Bei Peng
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, a delivery system based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been developed to transport nucleic acids, proteins and drugs to single adherent cell by controlling the indentation process. However, the transportation efficiency is limited by the low penetration rate of the common commercial AFM probe. The tip of commercial AFM probe is blunt and it is hard for blunt tip to insert into the soft cell membrane. In this study, dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations were applied to investigate the penetration process of the AFM probe into the cell membrane subjected to different strain states. It was observed that the AFM tip moved down a shorter distance to penetrate the stretched lipid membrane compared with unstretched membrane. Moreover, the threshold value of penetrating force decreased as cell membrane extended. The short indentation time and small force can reduce the probability of cell membrane collapse, therefore it is easier for the AFM tip to penetrate the cell. We also performed the AFM indentation experiments via AFM to investigate the relationship between penetrating force and indentation speed. This work provides a potential way to improve the efficiency of cell transfection by using the AFM delivery system.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-06-04T11:50:17Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918501981
  • Electronic structure and density of states in hexagonal BaMnO3
    • Authors: R. F. Hashimov, N. A. Ismayilova, F. A. Mikailzade, A. O. Dashdemirov, A. V. Trukhanov, S. V. Trukhanov, Y. I. Aliyev, E. B. Asgerov, S. H. Jabarov, N. T. Dang
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      The electronic structure and density of states (DOS) of BaMnO3 compound are studied in the framework of density functional theory (DFT) using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and local density approximation (LDA). A number of different exchange-correlation functionals including hybrid (PBE, PZ and BLYP) exchange techniques have been used. The results show that in ambient conditions, the compound has metallic structure. It has been found from DOS calculations that the overlapping of bands near the Fermi energy are mainly due to the 3d state of Mn atoms.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-06-01T09:29:35Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918501865
  • Tunable magnetic properties of the nanoporous hybrid multilayer arrays
    • Authors: Qingkun Tian, Weiwei Zhang, Vladimir Belotelov, Yujun Song
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      Hybrid multilayer films system permits a lot of realization methods of tailoring of the magnetic properties. In this work, nanoporous hybrid multilayer system Ag was fabricated from anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) by a magnetron sputtering methods of room temperature. It is demonstrated that the magnetic properties can be flexibly manipulated by the substrate, noble metal (i.e. silver), the thickness of the ferromagnetic magnetic material (CoFeB) and the indium tin oxide (ITO).
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-05-28T11:29:05Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918501919
  • Unrelated BCS-like pairing pseudogap and critical superconducting
           transition temperature in various cuprate compounds
    • Authors: S. Dzhumanov, E. X. Karimboev, Sh. S. Djumanov
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      The smooth evolution of the energy gap observed in the tunneling and angle-resolved photoemission spectra (ARPES) of high-[math] cuprates with lowering the temperature from a pseudogap state above the critical temperature [math] to a superconducting state below [math], has been poorly interpreted as the evidence that the pseudogap must have the same origin as the superconducting order parameter, and therefore, must be related to [math]. We argue that such an explanation of the tunneling gap and ARPES data is misleading. We show that the BCS-like energy gap (or pseudogap) opening in the electronic excitation spectrum of underdoped-to-overdoped cuprates at a characteristic temperature [math] and the true superconducting order parameter appearing only at [math] are unrelated. The superconducting phenomenon in unconventional cuprate superconductors is fundamentally different from the BCS-like pairing of fermionic quasiparticles, and the superconducting transition temperature [math] is not determined by the BCS-like gap formation. The unusual superconducting order parameter in these high-[math] materials appears at [math] and coexists with the BCS-like gap (or pseudogap) below [math].
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-05-28T11:29:04Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918501956
  • Semi-Dirac point and its transport properties in two-dimensional deformed
           hexagonal lattice
    • Authors: Pei-Pei Ye, Lei Xu, Jun Zhang
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      We investigate the effect of uniaxial tensile stress on the electronic structure and transport properties of hexagonal lattice via a tight-binding approach. We find two Dirac points merging into a single point to generate a semi-Dirac cone as the tensile stress increases. The semi-Dirac cone is anisotropic with linear and parabolic dispersions at distinct directions. For a larger tensile stress, a band gap can be opened which indicates a phase transition from metallic phase to insulator phase. In the presence of magnetic field, the degeneracies of all Landau levels are lifted only partially yielding an unconventional Hall conductance with a step size of [math] at each non-equidistant Landau level.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-05-28T11:29:03Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918501932
  • Prediction of mechanical properties of MWCNT-reinforced composites using
           the RVE model
    • Authors: Seung-Hyun Park, Hong-Kyu Jang, Yunjeong Park, Sung-Yong Hong, Jae-Boong Choi, Nam-Su Huh, Jonghwan Suhr, Kyunghoon Kim
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      Carbon nanotube (CNT) composites have mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties superior to those of conventional polymer resin materials. In particular, multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composites have higher mechanical strength than single-walled carbon nanotube composites. This work investigates the methods for analytically evaluating and predicting the mechanical properties of MWCNT-reinforced nanocomposites to enable their effective mechanical design. First, the correlation between the thickness of the interphase region (between the carbon nanotubes and the polymer matrix) and the mechanical properties of the MWCNT-reinforced composite was studied. Next, the effect of the relative distribution of carbon nanotubes in the matrix on the mechanical properties of nanocomposites fabricated by injection molding was evaluated. Finally, the effect of agglomerate size on the mechanical properties of nanocomposites was investigated, and a critical size for carbon nanotube agglomerates was analytically proposed.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-05-28T11:29:02Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918501968
  • A coupled nonlinear Schrödinger-type equation and its Darboux
    • Authors: Xianguo Geng, Jiao Wei, Bo Xue
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      A new coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS)-type equation is proposed by means of the negative power flow of a spectral problem. Resorting to the gauge transformation of the spectral problem and the reduction technique, Darboux transformations for the coupled NLS-type equation and its reduction are constructed, by which explicit solutions of the two coupled NLS-type equations can be engendered from their known solutions. This process can be done continually and will usually yield a series of solutions including multi-soliton solutions. As an illustrate example, one- and two-soliton solutions of the latter coupled NLS-type equation are obtained from a trivial solution.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-05-28T11:29:01Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918501920
  • Investigation on high-frequency performance of spiral-shaped trapezoidal
           piezoelectric cantilever
    • Authors: Fang Sheng Huang, Zhi Hua Feng, Yu Ting Ma, Qiao Sheng Pan
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      Trapezoidal structure has been proposed for construction of piezoelectric cantilever to increase inherent frequency. To further break through the limitation on frequency value, trapezoidal piezoelectric cantilever is rolled into spiral-shaped piezoelectric cantilever with identical effective length in this study, which is verified in COMSOL simulations and experiments. A prototype shows that after rolling the straight shape into a spiral shape for the trapezoidal piezoelectric cantilever, the first inherent frequency promotes 4.5 times from 98100 Hz to 441,900 Hz, which is consistent with theoretic analysis. The spiral-shaped trapezoidal piezoelectric cantilever is suitable for working as an actuator in micro flapping-wing aircraft.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-05-25T06:51:10Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918501877
  • First-principles study on the mechanism of lithium intercalation in cubic
    • Authors: Haibo Wang, Xiaolan Song, Yue Xu, Zhenhua Yang
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      Intercalation mechanism of Li into cubic [math] has been investigated by the first-principles calculations. Lattice constants, ratio of volume expansion, and formation energies of [math] (x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4) were calculated. Results indicate that Li prefers to fill the octahedral interstitial site [math] rather than the tetrahedral interstitial site [math]. With the increase in intercalation Li, the ratio of volume expansion increases from 8.29% (x = 1) to 31.58% (x = 4). Ternary phase [math] has the most stability with the negative intercalation energy, and the corresponding theoretical specific capacity reaches 367 mA/g. Furthermore, the analysis of density of states, valence electron density distribution maps, and electron localization function (ELF) of [math] and [math] indicates that Li intercalation enhances the electrical conductivity of [math] and weakens the bonding of Co and N. Finally, Li-ion migration dynamics in the [math] bulk were investigated with nudged elastic band (NEB) methods. Results show that the migration path of Li-ion is along [math] with the energy barrier of 0.44 eV.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-05-25T06:51:08Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918501841
  • An ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber based on split rings
           array and island-shape structures
    • Authors: Zong-De Ju, Guo-Qing Xu, Zhi-Hua Wei, Jing Li, Qian Zhao, Jie Huang
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      An ultra-broadband absorber is achieved by constructing novel island-shape structures on a single-layered broadband absorber. The single-layered absorber contains four same sized metallic split rings with different heights of the base. Its absorption goes beyond 98% from 1.82 THz to 3.70 THz and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) is 102.3% (from 1.47 THz to 4.55 THz), much better than these achieved by assembling multiple nested resonators. Then, by stacking novel island-shape structures over the single-layered absorber, we can excite 1-order magnetic response to precisely add a new peak near the broadband and enhance the bandwidth. The multi-layered absorber covers a bandwidth of 3.51 THz (the absorption over 90% from 1.23 THz to 4.74 THz) and the FWHM is up to 139.7%, far larger than previous reported results. It also performs well at considerably large oblique incident angles. Moreover, the island-shape structures have the potential to be applied in some other single-layered absorbers to widen their bandwidth.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-05-23T07:31:43Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918501890
  • In situ SEM analysis for deformation mechanism of micro/nanostructured 304
           stainless steel with high strength and good plasticity
    • Authors: Jie Sheng, Peiqing La, Jiaqiang Su, Junqiang Ren, Jiqiang Ma, Yu Shi, Zhengning Li, Jiao Wang
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      Bulk micro/nanostructured 304 austenitic stainless-steel plates with bimodal grain size distributions were prepared by Alumina Thermite Reaction at various temperatures and extents of rolling deformation. Rolling cogging of the sheet was performed with a rolling reduction of 40% at 1000[math]C followed by rolling reduction of 80% at 700[math]C. The strength and plasticity of the resulting micro/nanostructured 304 stainless steels with bimodal grain size distribution achieved the best matching, with tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation of 1410 MPa, 723 MPa and 15.3%, respectively. To better understand the deformation mechanism of this micro/nanostructured stainless steel sample, an in situ scanning electron microscopy technique was adopted. The crack initiation, propagation, and fracture were dynamically observed and recorded during the tensile deformation. Our results revealed that a stress concentration near the preset notch served as the initiation source and that microcracks were formed in the grain boundaries between micro- and nano-grains and then spread to the microcrystalline region until passing through the microcrystalline region or until passivation occurred in the microcrystalline region. The microcracks not only caused serious damage to the specimen but also generated back stress, which could lead to hardening of material, thereby enhancing the global ductility. Finally, the mechanism responsible for the enhanced plasticity and strength of the micro/nanostructured 304 stainless steel with a bimodal grain size distribution was analyzed and combined with the fracture morphology.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-05-23T07:31:41Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918501828
  • Bäcklund transformation of Frobenius Painlevé equations
    • Authors: Haifeng Wang, Chuanzhong Li
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, in order to generalize the Painlevé equations, we give a [math]-Painlevé IV equation which can apply Bäcklund transformations to explore. And these Bäcklund transformations can generate new solutions from seed solutions. Similarly, we also introduce a Frobenius Painlevé I equation and Frobenius Painlevé III equation. Then, we find the connection between the Frobenius KP hierarchy and Frobenius Painlevé I equation by the Virasoro constraint. Further, in order to seek different aspects of Painlevé equations, we introduce the Lax pair, Hirota bilinear equation and [math] functions. Moreover, some Frobenius Okamoto-like equations and Frobenius Toda-like equations can also help us to explore these equations.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-05-21T09:32:48Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918501816
  • Enhanced visible-active photocatalytic behaviors observed in Mn-doped
    • Authors: Yun-Hui Si, Yu Xia, Ya-Yun Li, Shao-Ke Shang, Xin-Bo Xiong, Xie-Rong Zeng, Ji Zhou
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      A series of BiFeO3 and BiFe[math]Mn[math]O3 (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10) were synthesized by a hydrothermal method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and their photocatalytic activity was studied by photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The band gap of BiFeO3 was significantly decreased from 2.26 eV to 1.90 eV with the doping of Mn. Furthermore, the 6% Mn-doped BiFeO3 photocatalyst exhibited the best activity with a degradation rate of 94% after irradiation for 100 min. The enhanced photocatalytic activity with Mn doping could be attributed to the enhanced optical absorption, increment of surface reactive sites and reduction of electron–hole recombination. Our results may be conducive to design more efficient photocatalysts responsive to visible light among narrow band gap semiconductors.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-05-21T09:32:47Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918501853
  • Impact of the thermal motion of silicon atoms on the viscosity of
           nanoconfined aqueous NaCl solution
    • Authors: Jiapeng Li, Haochen Wang, Yusheng Li
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      The properties of nanoconfined fluid are critical for the design and precise control of nanofluidic devices. To understand the fundamental details of the viscosity of nanoconfined aqueous NaCl solution, we investigated the impact of the thermal motion of silicon atoms on the viscosity of nanoconfined aqueous NaCl solution using molecular dynamic simulations. The results show that thermal motion of silicon atoms can decrease the viscosity of NaCl solution, and this impact is significant when the shear rate is small.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-05-21T09:32:47Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918502007
  • The study of Eu [math] autoionizing states with RIS and VMI techniques
    • Authors: Ya-Wei Xu, Li Shen, Chang-Jian Dai
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      The spectra and dynamic properties of Eu [math] autoionizing states are studied systematically with the resonance-ionization spectroscopy (RIS) and the velocity-map imaging (VMI) techniques. The RIS technique is utilized to obtain the spectra of Eu [math] autoionizing states with the three-step excitation, while the VMI technique is used to detect the dynamic process of autoionization, from which the branching ratio (BR) of ions and the angular distribution (AD) of ejected electrons from Eu [math] autoionizing states are achieved. Not only the energy levels, line width and line shape are obtained, but also the q-reversal phenomenon is observed in the autoionization spectra. The BR represents energy distribution (ED) of ions by observing the radical information of the VMI image, while the AD, characterized by anisotropy parameters, reveals the differential cross-section of autoionization extracted from the angular information of the VMI image. Furthermore, the variation of BR and AD are analyzed within the entire region of autoionization resonance. Based on the results of BR between [math] and [math] ionic states, the possibility of the population inversion is discussed.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-05-21T09:32:46Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918501907
  • Microfabricated metal oxide array sensor based on nanosized SnO–SnO2
           sensitive material
    • Authors: Jianhai Sun, Jinhua Liu, Chunxiu Liu, Wen Wang, Junhong Li, Yanni Zhang, Xiaofeng Zhu, Zhanwu Ning, Ning Xue
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      In this work, a microfabricated metal oxide (MOX) array sensor based on nanosized SnO–SnO2 sensitive material was proposed. To maximize detection response and reduce power consumption, sensitive units supported by a multi-layer beam were suspended in center of micro reaction cell which could greatly improve thermal isolation. The sensitive units were fabricated with nanosized SnO–SnO2 sensitive material, and Au-doped sensitive material was proposed which was able to greatly increase selectivity and sensitivity of sensitive film. The results demonstrate that the sensitive unit has good specificity of benzene, and the MOX array sensor was able to detect benzene with an extremely low concentration, in which the lowest detectable concentration was less than 5 ppb.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-05-21T09:32:46Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918501993
  • Systemic financial risk prediction using least squares support vector
    • Authors: Dandan Zhao, Jianchen Ding, Senchun Chai
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      The systemic financial risk prediction problem has become a focus in the field of finance. This work applies a novel machine learning technique, that is, least squares support vector machines (LSSVM), to predict the systemic financial risk. To serve this purpose, the paper selects financial risk indicators of China from January 2006 to December 2016, and utilizes unit root test, principal component analysis (PCA) and self-exciting threshold autoregressive (SETAR) methods for data preprocessing. Furthermore, particle swarm optimization (PSO) has been used for parameters optimization of LSSVM by comparison with grid search (GS), and genetic algorithm (GA). The experimental results show that a better prediction performance and generalization can be achieved with the proposed LSSVM compared to the traditional strategies such as SVM, BP neural networks, and logistic regression. As a result, we can conclude that the LSSVM is more suitable for the practical use in systemic financial risk predicting.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-05-21T09:32:45Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S021798491850183X
  • Robust tracking control with discrete-time LQR control for
    • Authors: Liu Yang, Dongjie Li, Donghao Xu
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents a robust tracking control with discrete-time linear quadratic regulation (LQR) method for micromanipulators. The micromanipulator is composed of three piezoelectric actuators (PEAs), which results in achieving three-degree-of-freedom motion. PEAs have been widely used in micromanipulation for biomedicine because of the advantages of its infinitely small displacement resolution and precision. However, owning to the nonlinear effects of PEAs, mainly hysteresis, can drastically degrade the tracking control accuracy. Therefore, it is desirable to develop advanced controllers to compensate hysteresis effect for improving the trajectory tracking performance. Before the controller design, a compensation for motion coupling error in vertical plane is concerned. Then, a controller consisting of three parts which are a nominal feedforward control input, a LQR control input and a control input based on system uncertainties compensation is designed. At last, the robust stability of the designed controller is proved through a Lyapunov stability analysis. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed controller is effective in tracking applications, which can provide a high resolution performance.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-05-21T09:32:45Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918502019
  • Work function of (0[math]0[math]1) and (0[math]0[math]−1) surface of
    • Authors: Chunshan He
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      The hematite surface will affect the field emission of the iron materials. This work is to investigate the work functions of (0[math]0[math]1) and (0[math]0[math]−1) surfaces of [math]-Fe2O3 by using the density functional theory. In order to avoid the polarization effect, a symmetric slab model is constructed in the calculation. Their work functions are 6.10 eV and 5.49 eV, respectively.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-05-21T09:32:43Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918501889
  • Bose–Einstein condensation at different temperatures below the
           critical temperature
    • Authors: Abhishek Das
      Abstract: Modern Physics Letters B, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, we endeavor to show that the phenomenon of Bose–Einstein condensation can take place at discrete temperatures lower than the known critical temperature value.
      Citation: Modern Physics Letters B
      PubDate: 2018-05-21T09:32:43Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S0217984918501944
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