Abstract: International Journal of Quantum Information, Volume 15, Issue 02, March 2017. To evade the well-known impossibility of unconditionally secure quantum two-party computations, previous quantum private comparison protocols have to adopt a third party. Here, we study how far we can go with two parties only. We propose a very feasible and efficient protocol. Intriguingly, although the average amount of information leaked cannot be made arbitrarily small, we find that this average will not exceed 14 bits for any length of the bit-string being compared. Citation: International Journal of Quantum Information PubDate: 2017-03-03T02:59:30Z DOI: 10.1142/S0219749917500149

Abstract: International Journal of Quantum Information, Ahead of Print. In this paper, we address the tripartite quantum discord for the Heisenberg XY chain with the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya (DM) interaction using the quantum renormalization-group (QRG) method. In thermodynamic limit, like the entanglement, the tripartite discord exhibits the quantum phase transition (QPT) between the spin-fluid and the Neel phases. The effect of the DM interaction and the anisotropy on the features of the tripartite quantum discord has been probed. It is noted that the DM interaction brings the critical point earlier and affects heavily with the size of the system. Moreover, the system requires a larger number of the iterations to achieve the QPT for the tripartite quantum discord as compared to the entanglement. Citation: International Journal of Quantum Information PubDate: 2017-04-17T08:15:46Z DOI: 10.1142/S0219749917500216

Abstract: International Journal of Quantum Information, Ahead of Print. Local quantum uncertainty is defined as the minimum amount of uncertainty in measuring a local observable for a bipartite state. It provides a well-defined measure of pairwise quantum correlations in quantum systems and has operational significance in quantum metrology. In this work, we analytically derive the expression of local quantum uncertainty for two-qubit [math] states which are of paramount importance in various fields of quantum information. As an illustration, we consider two-qubit states extracted from even and odd spin coherent states. Citation: International Journal of Quantum Information PubDate: 2017-04-04T04:03:08Z DOI: 10.1142/S0219749917500204

Abstract: International Journal of Quantum Information, Ahead of Print. In this review, we present an overview of the advances made in quantum image processing (QIP) comprising of the image representations, the operations realizable on them, and the likely protocols and algorithms for their applications. In particular, we focus on recent progresses on QIP-based security technologies including quantum watermarking, quantum image encryption, and quantum image steganography. This review is aimed at providing readers with a succinct, yet adequate compendium of the progresses made in the QIP sub-area. Hopefully, this effort will stimulate further interest aimed at the pursuit of more advanced algorithms and experimental validations for available technologies and extensions to other domains. Citation: International Journal of Quantum Information PubDate: 2017-04-03T06:27:43Z DOI: 10.1142/S0219749917300017

Abstract: International Journal of Quantum Information, Ahead of Print. Entanglement distillation is a fundamental task in quantum information processing. It not only extracts entanglement out of corrupted systems but also leads to protecting systems of interest against intervention with environment. In this work, we consider a realistic scenario of entanglement distillation where noisy quantum operations are applied. In particular, the two-way distillation protocol that tolerates the highest error rate is considered. We show that among all types of noise there are only four equivalence classes according to the distillability condition. Since the four classes are connected by local unitary transformations, our results can be used to improve entanglement distillability in practice when entanglement distillation is performed in a realistic setting. Citation: International Journal of Quantum Information PubDate: 2017-03-29T03:07:32Z DOI: 10.1142/S0219749917500198

Abstract: International Journal of Quantum Information, Ahead of Print. Maximal-entanglement entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes (EAQE-CCs) can achieve the EA-hashing bound asymptotically and a higher rate and/or better noise suppression capability may be achieved by exploiting maximal entanglement. In this paper, we discussed the construction of quaternary zero radical (ZR) codes of dimension five with length [math]. Using the obtained quaternary ZR codes, we construct many maximal-entanglement EAQECCs with very good parameters. Almost all of these EAQECCs are better than those obtained in the literature, and some of these EAQECCs are optimal codes. Citation: International Journal of Quantum Information PubDate: 2017-03-08T06:24:51Z DOI: 10.1142/S0219749917500174

Abstract: International Journal of Quantum Information, Ahead of Print. A two-party quantum key agreement protocol is proposed with five-particle entangled states and the delayed measurement technique. According to the measurement correlation property of five-particle entangled states, two participants can deduce the measurement results of each other’s initial quantum states. As a result, two parties can extract the secret keys of each other by using the publicly announced value or by performing the delayed measurement, respectively. Thus, a shared key is fairly established. Since each particle is transmitted only once in quantum channel, the protocol is congenitally free from the Trojan horse attacks. It is shown that the protocol not only is secure against both participant and outsider attacks but also has no information leakage problem. Moreover, it has high qubit efficiency. Citation: International Journal of Quantum Information PubDate: 2017-03-02T09:40:21Z DOI: 10.1142/S0219749917500186

Abstract: International Journal of Quantum Information, Ahead of Print. We analyze the dynamics of both entanglement and quantum discord (QD) in a system of two non-interacting flux-qubits initially prepared in a Bell’s state and subjected to either static or random telegraph noises (RTNs). Both independent and common sources of system-environment coupling are considered either in the Markovian or non-Markovian regime and the results are compared to those of ordinary qubits. Under suitable conditions, both entanglement and QD are more robust in flux-qubit systems than classical ones. In the Markovian regime where the decay is monotonic, they are both stronger in different environment coupling than in common coupling, while the opposite is found in the non-Markovian regime where the dynamics is stressed by sudden death and revival phenomena, more robust in qubits than in flux-qubits under dynamical RTN. Weakness of revival amplitudes is interpreted as a noise spectrum-related induced interaction affecting quantum features of the system, while energy level non-degeneracy (at zero-splitting) of flux-qubits induces a phase factor that set conditions under which entangled states can be experimentally witnessed in flux-qubit systems. Note that the energy levels non-degeneracy has no particular effect on other entanglement measures apart from entanglement witnesses. Citation: International Journal of Quantum Information PubDate: 2017-02-23T03:31:53Z DOI: 10.1142/S0219749917500150

Authors:Linghang Kong, Elizabeth Crosson Abstract: International Journal of Quantum Information, Ahead of Print. Spike Hamiltonians arise from optimization instances for which the adiabatic algorithm provably out performs classical simulated annealing. In this work, we study the efficiency of the adiabatic algorithm for solving the “the Hamming weight with a spike” problem by analyzing the scaling of the spectral gap at the critical point for various sizes of the barrier. Our main result is a rigorous lower bound on the minimum spectral gap for the adiabatic evolution when the bit-symmetric cost function has a thin but polynomially high barrier, which is based on a comparison argument and an improved variational ansatz for the ground state. We also adapt the discrete WKB method for the case of abruptly changing potentials and compare it with the predictions of the spin coherent instanton method which was previously used by Farhi, Goldstone and Gutmann. Finally, our improved ansatz for the ground state leads to a method for predicting the location of avoided crossings in the excited energy states of the thin spike Hamiltonian, and we use a recursion relation to understand the ordering of some of these avoided crossings as a step towards analyzing the previously observed diabatic cascade phenomenon. Citation: International Journal of Quantum Information PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:54:41Z DOI: 10.1142/S0219749917500113

Authors:Cai Zhang, Haozhen Situ, Qiong Huang, Pingle Yang Abstract: International Journal of Quantum Information, Ahead of Print. We propose multi-party quantum summation protocols based on single particles, in which participants are allowed to compute the summation of their inputs without the help of a trusted third party and preserve the privacy of their inputs. Only one participant who generates the source particles needs to perform unitary operations and only single particles are needed in the beginning of the protocols. Citation: International Journal of Quantum Information PubDate: 2017-02-03T09:11:37Z DOI: 10.1142/S0219749917500101

Authors:Ming-Ming Wang, Zhi-Guo Qu, Wei Wang, Jin-Guang Chen Abstract: International Journal of Quantum Information, Ahead of Print. Quantum noise severely affects the security and reliability of quantum communication system. In this paper, we study the effect of quantum noise on quantum multiparty communication protocols. Taking a two-qubit joint remote state preparation (JRSP) scheme as an example, we point out that there are some calculation mistakes in a former JRSP scheme [X.W. Guan, X.B. Chen, L.C. Wang and Y.X. Yang, Int. J. Theor. Phys. 53(4) (2014) 2236.]. The revised output states and fidelities in two types of noise are presented, respectively. More importantly, we present a more general form for describing the effect of noise on multi-qubit system, which is fit for the case where different types of noise act on the system consecutively. The process of the JRSP scheme in two types of noise is discussed, respectively. It is shown that the noisy effect in the general case is much stronger than the former one for the most part. Our study will be helpful for analyzing the effect of quantum noise on quantum multiparty communication system. Citation: International Journal of Quantum Information PubDate: 2017-02-01T09:28:00Z DOI: 10.1142/S0219749917500125

Authors:Jupinder Parmar, Saarim Rahman, Jaskaran Thiara Abstract: International Journal of Quantum Information, Ahead of Print. One specific subset of quantum algorithms is Grovers Ordered Search Problem (OSP), the quantum counterpart of the classical binary search algorithm, which utilizes oracle functions to produce a specified value within an ordered database. Classically, the optimal algorithm is known to have a [math] complexity; however, Grovers algorithm has been found to have an optimal complexity between the lower bound of [math] and the upper bound of [math]. We sought to lower the known upper bound of the OSP. With Farhi et al. MITCTP 2815 (1999), arXiv:quant-ph/9901059], we see that the OSP can be resolved into a translational invariant algorithm to create quantum query algorithm restraints. With these restraints, one can find Laurent polynomials for various [math] — queries — and [math] — database sizes — thus finding larger recursive sets to solve the OSP and effectively reducing the upper bound. These polynomials are found to be convex functions, allowing one to make use of convex optimization to find an improvement on the known bounds. According to Childs et al. [Phys. Rev. A 75 (2007) 032335], semidefinite programming, a subset of convex optimization, can solve the particular problem represented by the constraints. We were able to implement a program abiding to their formulation of a semidefinite program (SDP), leading us to find that it takes an immense amount of storage and time to compute. To combat this setback, we then formulated an approach to improve results of the SDP using matrix sparsity. Through the development of this approach, along with an implementation of a rudimentary solver, we demonstrate how matrix sparsity reduces the amount of time and storage required to compute the SDP — overall ensuring further improvements will likely be made to reach the theorized lower bound. Citation: International Journal of Quantum Information PubDate: 2017-01-13T09:17:34Z DOI: 10.1142/S0219749917500137

Authors:Apoorva Patel, Anjani Priyadarsini Abstract: International Journal of Quantum Information, Ahead of Print. Given a quantum Hamiltonian and its evolution time, the corresponding unitary evolution operator can be constructed in many different ways, corresponding to different trajectories between the desired end-points and different series expansions. A choice among these possibilities can then be made to obtain the best computational complexity and control over errors. It is shown how a construction based on Grover’s algorithm scales linearly in time and logarithmically in the error bound, and is exponentially superior in error complexity to the scheme based on the straightforward application of the Lie–Trotter formula. The strategy is then extended first to simulation of any Hamiltonian that is a linear combination of two projection operators, and then to any local efficiently computable Hamiltonian. The key feature is to construct an evolution in terms of the largest possible steps instead of taking small time steps. Reflection operations and Chebyshev expansions are used to efficiently control the total error on the overall evolution, without worrying about discretization errors for individual steps. We also use a digital implementation of quantum states that makes linear algebra operations rather simple to perform. Citation: International Journal of Quantum Information PubDate: 2016-09-14T01:52:34Z DOI: 10.1142/S0219749916500271