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PHYSICS (574 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Nature Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 80)
Nature Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
Nature Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
NDT & E International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
NEUTRINO     Open Access  
Neutron News     Hybrid Journal  
New Journal of Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Niels Bohr Collected Works     Full-text available via subscription  
Noise & Vibration Worldwide     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Noise Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Nuclear Engineering and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Nuclear Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Microphysics     Open Access  
Open Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Optical Communications and Networking, IEEE/OSA Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Optofluidics, Microfluidics and Nanofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Organic Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Organic Photonics and Photovoltaics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
PAJ: A Journal of Performance and Art     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Papers in Physics     Open Access  
Particle Physics Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Particuology     Hybrid Journal  
Pattern Recognition in Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pergamon Materials Series     Full-text available via subscription  
Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Philosophical Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Philosophy and Foundations of Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Physica B: Condensed Matter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
physica status solidi (a)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
physica status solidi (b)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
physica status solidi (c)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physica Status Solidi - Rapid Research Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physical Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Physical Review C     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Physical Review Special Topics - Physics Education Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Physical Review X     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Physical Sciences Data     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physics - spotlighting exceptional research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physics and Chemistry of Glasses - European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part B     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Physics and Chemistry of Liquids: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Physics and Materials Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Physics Essays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physics in Medicine & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Physics in Perspective     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physics International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Physics Letters A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Physics Letters B     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Physics of Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Physics of Life Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physics of Plasmas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Physics of the Dark Universe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Physics of the Solid State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Physics of Wave Phenomena     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physics Procedia     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Physics Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Physics Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Physics Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Physics World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Physics-Uspekhi     Full-text available via subscription  
Physik in unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physik Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Plasma Physics Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pramana     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Preview     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 528)
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Progress in Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Progress in Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics     Open Access  
Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Quantum Measurements and Quantum Metrology     Open Access  
Quantum Studies : Mathematics and Foundations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Radiation Measurements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Radiation Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Radiation Protection Dosimetry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Radiation Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Radio Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Radiological Physics and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Reflets de la physique     Full-text available via subscription  
Reports on Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Reports on Progress in Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Research in Drama Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Research Journal of Physics     Open Access  
Results in Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Reviews in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal  
Reviews of Accelerator Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Reviews of Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Reviews of Modern Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Revista Boliviana de Física     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover   physica status solidi (c)
  [SJR: 0.471]   [H-I: 31]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1862-6351 - ISSN (Online) 1610-1642
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1597 journals]
  • Gas phase silanization for silicon nanowire sensors and other
           lab‐on‐a‐chip systems
    • Authors: Annina M. Steinbach; Tanja Sandner, Boris Mizaikoff, Steffen Strehle
      Abstract: Designing a microfabrication process for lab‐on‐a‐chip systems can at times be challenging, and the need to integrate a chemical surface modification reaction into this process can limit the options. Therefore, a robust set‐up and protocol for the gas phase modification has been developed that can be variably integrated into microfabrication processes. The main improvement compared to similar methods is, besides easy and versatile sample handling, the integration of a continuous argon flow percolating through the liquid organosilane, and impinging directly the surface tobe modified. This measure reduces the argon consumption drastically compared to current reaction schemes, while keeping short reaction periods. Silicon substrates were modified using 3‐mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) and 3‐aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS), thoroughly studied for different reaction stages, and compared to surfaces modified via a common solvent‐based procedure from isopropanolic solution. Water contact angle measurements, infrared spectroscopy, X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy verified the successful deposition of the alkylsilane. Additionally, silicon nanowires were assembled, exemplary for a lab‐on‐a‐chip system, in a liquid gate field‐effect‐transistor configuration, and electrically characterized. The devices showed the expected response to applied liquid gate potentials before and after the modification and exhibited characteristic changes in the transconductance curve. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-11-19T06:50:22.672789-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510211
  • The zero phonon line revisited
    • Authors: Mark C. A. York
      Abstract: We treat the exciton–thermal acoustic phonon interaction as a coupling to a (not necessarily classical) stochastic background, in turn applying a Luttinger–Ward style of resummation to self–energy diagrams and leading to a non–perturbative resolution of the exciton spectral density. Such an approach is useful in settings where higher order corrections are not small, e.g. finite temperature and certain processes involving optical phonons. Our main observations lend a promising outlook for applications with quantum wires, quantum dots and localized states as well as a similar non–perturbative description of optical phonon relaxation/emission processes. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-11-19T06:50:21.492144-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510073
  • A low cost, large area light soaking and testing station
    • Authors: Guvenc Ogulgonen; Serkan Kincal
      Abstract: Test stations for accelerated aging tests are crucial in the development of commercial solar panel manufacturing technologies. Such test‐beds must provide a reasonably uniform flux whose spectral distribution is an acceptable match to the solar spectrum. This work outlines the detailed design on a low cost test system based on metal‐ halide lamps that can deliver a simulated solar flux of up to 3 suns on a 100 cm by 100 cm square area with an intensity variation of around 15%. A total of 9 metal‐halide lamps, each rated at 1000 W, is placed on top an enclosure which has a sample holding table whose distance to the lamps can be adjusted anywhere between 10 cm and 70 cm. A series of fans, blow ambient air over the panels being tested in order to maintain surface temperatures. The system is complemented by the necessary instrumentation to capture IV curves simultaneously for up to 8 solar devices. A model based design strategy is adopted during the construction of the test station in order to predict and optimize the light distribution as well as the thermal behaviour. Sample IV data from commercial thin film Si solar cells are reported to demonstrate the stability of operation. The cost of the entire system is below $ 20,000, with most of the budget going towards the data acquisition hardware. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-11-12T03:52:19.280514-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510111
  • Evidence for formation of self‐trapped excitons in a
           β‐Ga2O3 single crystal
    • Authors: Suguru Yamaoka; Masaaki Nakayama
      Abstract: We have investigated photoluminescence (PL) and absorption properties of a β‐Ga2O3single crystal from the viewpoint of the stability of self‐trapped excitons (STEs). A broad PL band with a large Stokes shift, which is conventionally assigned to the STE, was observed. To reveal the stability of the STE, we precisely measured the temperature dependence of the Urbach tails in absorption spectra. It was confirmed that the Urbach tails at all temperatures converge into a specific point, which verifies the validity of the treatment of the Urbach tail. We analysed the temperature dependence of the exponential slope, the so‐called steepness constant, of the Urbach tail and evaluated the exciton‐phonon coupling constant g, which defines the stability of the STE, to be g = 5.4. Based on a previously reported theory for exciton‐phonon interactions, g > 1 generally results in that the STE is a stable state relative to a free exciton. Consequently, the above large g factor demonstrates that the STE formation is stable in β‐Ga2O3. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-11-12T03:52:17.799699-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510124
  • Tailoring the ultrafast control of quantum dot excitons using optical
           pulse shaping
    • Authors: Reuble Mathew; Kimberley C. Hall
      Abstract: Femtosecond pulse shaping provides a means to tailor the interaction of light with matter, enabling the optimization of optical control processes and the achievement of a target final quantum state of the matter system. While this approach has found widespread application in the control of atomic and molecular systems, its use for solid state quantum systems remains in its infancy. This review covers our application of this approach to the manipulation of the quantum states of excitons in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). The achievement of simultaneous π, 2π rotations on excitons in two different QDs using a single engineered infrared pulse illustrates the flexibility of the pulse shaping approach for solid state quantum systems. This versatility is further explored through simulations that show the feasibility of arbitrary SU(2) control of several quantum dots. Shaping of femtosecond infrared control pulses enables the demonstration of adiabatic rapid passage in a single QD on a subpicosecond time scale, representing a substantial speedup and an important step towards the realization of dynamical decoupling. The dependence of the exciton inversion efficiency on the sign of pulse chirp confirms the role of (and ability to control) phonon‐related dephasing. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-11-09T05:10:07.86105-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510152
  • Crystallization and phase separation mechanism of silicon oxide thin films
           fabricated via e‐beam evaporation of silicon monoxide
    • Authors: Deniz Cihan Gunduz; Aydin Tankut, Salar Sedani, Mehmet Karaman, Rasit Turan
      Abstract: In this work, silicon oxide thin films were synthesized via e‐beam evaporation of silicon monoxide. Subsequent annealing experiments were carried out to induce Si nanocrystals (Si NCs) formation. A broad range of annealing durations and temperatures were studied. Raman spectroscopy, X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed to study the mechanism of phase separation in silicon oxide films and crystallization of Si. Raman spectroscopy results show that SiO cannot be considered as a composite mixture of Si and SiO2. Results suggest that phase separation and crystallization are two separate processes even at relatively high temperatures. Amorphous Si formation was observed at annealing temperatures as low as 800 °C. A minimum annealing temperature of between 800 and 900 °C is required to form Si NCs. XPS results show a strong phase separation at annealing temperature of 1100 °C. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-11-09T04:50:25.892632-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510114
  • Polarization angle insensitive dual‐band perfect metamaterial
           absorber for solar cell applications
    • Authors: Patrick Rufangura; Cumali Sabah
      Abstract: A metamaterial absorber that effectively harvests solar energy is being proposed in this paper using a simple and high flexible structure. The proposed structure unit cell comprises of three vital layers. The ground metallic plane, an intermediate dielectric spacer while patches are wisely prepared on the top of a dielectric spacer. Geometrical parameters of the proposed metamaterial is studied in order to get insight on their impact for the absorption behaviour of the structure. The results from simulation provides two excellent absorption resonance (99.96% and 99.37%) in the visible spectrum range of electromagnetic wave. Due to the excellent symmetry of the proposed metamaterial design, its absorption coefficient is polarisation insensitive for a wide range of incident angles of electromagnetic radiations. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-11-09T04:50:24.535483-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510085
  • Synthesis and characterization of CZTSSe nanoparticle inks for
           photovoltaic devices
    • Authors: Ridvan Ergun; Cagdas Calli, Elif Arici
      Abstract: Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) is one of the promising materials as absorber layers in thin film solar cells. It contains earth abundant and non‐toxic elements. With a broad optical band gap at 1.5 eV as well as a high absorbance coefficient of 10–4 cm–1, CZTS is also a good light harvesting material. The aim of this study is to investigate the synthesis of kesterite rich CZTSSe using hot injection method in oleylamine. The material properties such as crystallinity, stoichiometry, and absorbance were studied depending on the synthesis and post‐treatment conditions by thin‐film X‐ray diffraction (XRD), energy, dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy (EDS) and UV‐Vis absorption spectra. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-11-09T04:50:23.460063-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510066
  • Spray pyrolysed thin films of copper antimony sulfide as photovoltaic
    • Authors: Jose Agustin Ramos Aquino; Dorian Leonardo Rodriguez Vela, Sadasivan Shaji, David Avellaneda Avellaneda, Bindu Krishnan
      Abstract: Copper antimony sulfide (CuSbS2) thin films have been gained interest recently as an emerging light absorbing material for photovoltaic applications. In this work we report synthesis and characterization of spray pyrolised CuSbS2 thin films. The precursor solution consisted of SbCl3, CuCl2 and NH2CSNH2 dissolved ethanol. The substrate temperature was kept at 200 °C. Samples were prepared at different molar ratios of Cu:Sb:S. These thin films were characterized using X‐ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, UV‐visible spectroscopy, photocurrent and Hall effect measurements. P‐type CuSbS2 thin films of orthorhombic structure were formed and the films showed photocurrent response. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-11-09T04:50:21.695263-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510102
  • Optoelectronic properties of OLEDs based on CdSe/ZnS quantum dots and F8BT
    • Authors: C. Borriello; C. T. Prontera, Sh. A. Mansour, S. Aprano, M. G. Maglione, A. Bruno, T. Di Luccio, C. Minarini
      Abstract: We report our work about OLED devices where the emissive layer is based on CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) combined with poly[(9,9‐di‐n‐octylfluorenyl‐2,7‐diyl)‐alt‐(benzo[2,1,3]thiadiazol‐4,8‐diyl)] (F8BT) in two different ways: blends at various QDs concentrations and sequential deposition of QDs and F8BT layers. The fluorescence of the blends presents a wide emission in the range (500‐700) nm due to the combination of fluorescence by the polymer (maximum at 540 nm) and QDs (maximum at 634 nm). Among the layered structures, the fluorescence emission by the QDs substantially contributes to the spectrum only for the F8BT/QDs bilayer. The OLEDs devices realized with the blend at 15 wt% of QDs show the highest luminance respect to all the devices, and threshold voltage values similar to the neat polymer device. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-10-29T03:20:12.072602-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510162
  • Investigation of optical parameters of thermally evaporated ZnSe thin
    • Abstract: In this work, zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin films were deposited by thermal evaporation method using pure elemental (Zn and Se) sources. The physical properties of the films have been investigated in terms of the structural and optical characterizations depending on the post‐annealing process under nitrogen atmosphere in the temperature between 300 and 500 °C for 30 min. The structural and compositional analyses were carried out by means of X‐ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy (EDS). The compositional ana‐ lysis indicated that the deposited films were nearly stoichiometric whereas there was a decrease in Se and increase in the Zn contents. This implies the segregation and/or re‐evaporation of Se atoms from the thin film structure. The optical characteristics were studied by using the room temperature transmission measurements. The analysis of transmission values showed that the band gap values changed in between 2.38 and 2.62 eV depending on the annealing temperatures. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-10-29T03:10:18.569616-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510064
  • Outdoor efficiency analyses and comparison of on‐grid CdTe and
           µc‐Si/a‐Si thin‐film PV systems for three years in
           Ankara – Turkey
    • Abstract: The present paper is mainly a comparison of the performances of two PV systems under outdoor conditions in Ankara. The systems are grid connected and consist of two PV arrays. The types of these PV arrays are CdTe thin film and amorphous silicon/micro‐crystalline‐based (µc‐Si/a‐Si) arrays. They are operated for 3 years; 2012‐2014. Yearly averages of monthly efficiencies of these two systems working under the same ambient conditions are 6.88%, 6.65%, 6.80% and 6.64%, 5.86%, 5.25% for µc‐Si/a‐Si and CdTe, respectively. Using these values, simple calculation results for the degradation rates per year are about 0.39%/year and 6.98%/year, respectively for these two types of systems. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-10-29T03:10:17.635614-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510077
  • Comparative study of SnS recrystallization in molten CdI2, SnCl2and KI
    • Abstract: In the present study, the recrystallization of polycrystalline SnS in different molten salts CdI2, SnCl2 and KI as flux materials are presented. The recrystallization and growth of polycrystalline material in molten salts produces unique SnS monograin powders usable in monograin layer solar cells. XRD and Raman analysis revealed that single phase SnS powder can be obtained in KI at 740 °C and in SnCl2 at 500 °C. Long time heating of SnS in molten CdI2 was accompanied by chemical interaction between SnS and CdI2 that resulted in a mixture of CdS and Sn2S3 crystals. SEM images showed that morphology of crystals can be controlled by the nature of the flux materials: needle‐like Sn2S3 together with round edged crystals of CdS in CdI2, flat crystals of SnS with smooth surfaces in SnCl2 and well‐formed SnS crystals with rounded edges in KI had been formed. The temperatures of phase transitions and/or the interactions of SnS and flux materials were determined by differential thermal analysis. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-10-29T03:10:16.694713-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510082
  • Predicting the energy yield of a photovoltaic system from an individual
           photovoltaic module
    • Abstract: In this study, energy yield of a photovoltaic (PV) system is predicted from the output peak power of an individual PV module. Measured energy yield of an individual back contact single crystalline silicon PV module is scaled with total number of PV module within the PV array to calculate the energy yield. Regarding the conversion efficiency of the inverter in the PV system, calculated and measured energy yield of PV system were compared for selected dates. To confirm the accuracy of the proposed model, days with clear and cloudy irradiation profile were selected from August and November. The difference between calculated and measured energy yield of PV array were found to be insignificant. Thus, current method which is straightforward, feasible and reliable to predict the energy yield of PV array using just an individual PV module. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-10-29T03:10:15.787595-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510087
  • Tin sulfide films by spray pyrolysis technique using L‐cysteine as a
           novel sulfur source
    • Authors: Svetlana Polivtseva; Ilona Oja Acik, Atanas Katerski, Arvo Mere, Valdek Mikli, Malle Krunks
      Abstract: Tin sulfide films were deposited by spray pyrolysis method using aqueous solutions containing tin chloride (SnCl2) and L‐cysteine (HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH) as a novel source of sulfur instead of commonly used thiourea. L‐cysteine prevents SnCl2 from hydrolysis due to a complex formation as confirmed by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy studies. The solution that contained SnCl2 (Sn) and L‐cysteine (S) at molar ratios of Sn:S=1:1, 1:2 and 1:4 was sprayed onto glass substrates at varied temperatures between 200 °C and 370 °C. Films were characterized by X‐ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and UV‐Vis spectroscopy. Accord‐ ing to XRD, spray of the 1:1 solution results in films that are composed of SnS as a main crystalline phase. An unidentified crystalline phase was present independent of the growth temperature. Single phase SnS films with bandgap value of 1.7 eV could be grown using the 1:2 solution at deposition temperature of 370 °C. Films grown from 1:4 solutions are amorphous using deposition temperatures below 370 °C, and composed of a mixture of SnS and Sn2S3 phases when grown at 370 °C. EDX study shows that SnS films contain high amount of carbon and oxygen containing residues independent of the deposition temperature and precursors' molar ratio in the spray solution. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-10-29T03:10:14.910578-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510098
  • Assessment of solar data estimation models for four cities in Iran
    • Authors: Elham Jahani; S. M. Sajed Sadati, Moslem Yousefzadeh
      Abstract: The estimated solar resources are important for designing renewable energy systems since measured data are not always available. The estimation models have been introduced in several studies. These models are mainly dependent on local meteorological data and need to be assessed for different locations and times. The current study compares the results of Angstrom's model and a neural network (NN) model developed for this study with measured data for four cities in Iran. The time resolution for the estimated global horizontal insolation is monthly. The results show that the developed NN model has promising performance and considering the calibration process for Angstrom's model it can be used as an alternative. The NN model uses climatic data to estimate the solar insolation which makes it more flexible in terms of being applicable for different regions. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-10-29T03:10:13.92867-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510105
  • Synthesis of MAPbBr3‐iYi (Y=I, Cl and i=0, 1, 2, 3) thin film
    • Abstract: Methylammonium lead halide perovskites with different halides (iodide, bromide and chloride) have been synthetized from methylamine, lead nitrate and the corresponding hydroX acid (X = I, Br, Cl) precursors. Subsequently MAPbBr3‐iYi (Y = I, Cl; i=0, 1, 2, 3) perovskites were deposited as thin films onto FTO substrates by spin coating or dipping. Thin film perovskites were then characterized by X‐Ray Diffraction, elemental analysis and optical spectrometry. Crystallites' sizes are between 100‐600 nm depending on the synthesis temperature. All synthetized MAPbX3‐iYi perovskites crystallized in the same cubic phase irrespective of the X and Y components and a unique phase is observed. Elemental analysis shows that in all cases the atomic components meet the expected stoichiometric formulae. The bandgap of thin film MAPbX3‐iYi perovskites were inferred from transmittance and reflectance spectral measurements. It is found that the onset of the absorption edge for thin film MAPbX3 perovskites is about 1.66, 2.55 and 3.37 eV for X= I, Br, Cl, respectively and it reaches intermediate values for mixed MAPbX3‐iYi perovskites. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-10-29T03:10:12.97447-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510107
  • Energy transfer between Tl+‐type impurities in NaCl crystals
    • Authors: Akitoshi Iguchi; Taketoshi Kawai, Kohji Mizoguchi
      Abstract: We have investigated the energy transfer from Tl+ centers to In+ centers at RT in co‐doped NaCl:Tl+, In+ crystals by measuring absorption, photo‐excitation, luminescence and time‐resolved spectra. The A' luminescence band of the In+ centers is observed under excitation at the absorption band of the Tl+ centers. The A' luminescence band of the Tl+ centers measured at a forward configuration exhibits a dent structure at 4.2 eV corresponding to the A absorption band of the In+ centers. The facts indicate the existence of the energy transfer from the Tl+ to In+ centers through the emission‐reabsorption mechanism. On the other hand, the A' luminescence of the Tl+ centers shows a non‐exponential decay profile. As the concentration of the In+ centers increases, the non‐exponential decay profile becomes faster. The resonance energy transfer giving the non‐exponential decay profile is discussed on the basis of the dipole‐dipole interaction. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-10-29T03:10:12.032028-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510149
  • Study of intersystem crossing mechanism in organic materials
    • Authors: David Ompong; Jai Singh
      Abstract: Intersystem crossing rate from singlet excited state to triplet excited state of an organic molecule has been derived using exciton‐spin‐orbit‐molecular vibration interaction as a perturbation operator. Incorporation of heavy metal atom enhances the spin‐orbit interaction and hence the intersystem crossing rate because it depends on the square of the heaviest atomic number. We found that in the presence of heavy atom the singlet‐triplet energy difference still plays an influential role in the intersystem crossing process. The derived exciton‐spin‐orbit‐molecular vibration interaction operator flips the spin of the singlet exciton to triplet exciton after photoexcitaion from the singlet ground state with the assistance of molecular vibrational energy. From this operator an expression for the intersystem crossing rate is derived and calculated in some organic solids. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-10-29T03:10:10.966785-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510128
  • Cu2SnS3 based solar cell with 3% efficiency
    • Authors: R. Chierchia; F. Pigna, M. Valentini, C. Malerba, E. Salza, P. Mangiapane, T. Polichetti, A. Mittiga
      Abstract: Cu2SnS3 is an earth abundant material suitable for photovoltaic applications. Unfortunately, the material still suffers of a low diffusion length of the carriers due to the presence of spurious phases, voids, defects and small grain size. In order to improve the quality of our samples, the influence of the deposition parameters on its structural properties has been studied. The solar cell obtained with the optimized Cu2SnS3 has shown an external quantum yield larger than 80% around 500 nm a conversion efficiency in the order of 3%, a Jsc of 26 mA and a Voc of 240 mV, one of the world best result obtained with a Cu2SnS3 based solar cell. Furthermore the external quantum yield at wavelength larger than 1200 nm is still around 30% making this material interesting for IR detectors also. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-10-29T03:10:10.116056-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510115
  • PV outdoor tests and 12 years of Muğla experiences
    • Authors: Rustu Eke
      Abstract: In this paper, the electricity yield of photovoltaic power plant applications in the main campus of Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Turkey is presented. There are four small scale grid connected photovoltaic power plants installed in the main campus. They are installed on the top of Menteşe Library of Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, on the roof of Turkevi Student Cafeteria, on the façade and on the east and west towers of Staff's Block of the Building of Education Faculty and two double axis tracking systems. The systems are installed in 2001, 2003, 2008 and 2009 with rated powers between 10 kWp and 40 kWp. There are also several lamp‐posts at the campus in various locations. All power plants are monitored from the start up and the collected data are analysed in several conference proceedings and papers individually. This paper summarizes the electricity yield and the performance of photovoltaic power plants by the way that indicator of system quality which is called performance ratio (PR) and efficiency for each photovoltaic power plants, after their installation and also their presentation is itemized. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-10-29T03:10:09.161497-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510112
  • Dependence of plasmonic enhancement of photocurrent in a‐Si:H on the
           position and thickness of SiNx spacer layers
    • Abstract: Plasmonic interfaces integrated to the front, back and both surfaces of photovoltaic thin films show different degrees of enhancement of light trapping. Enhancements in the spectral dependence of photocurrent normalized to the power of excitation light are used as an indicator of enhanced light trapping. In a previous study, we obtained enhancement in the spectral range of 600‐700 nm by integrating 100‐nm Ag nanoparticles to the back surface of a‐Si:H with a critical dependence on the SiNx spacer layer thickness. In this study, we compare the enhancement in photocurrent due to plasmonic interfaces integrated to the front, back and both front and back surfaces of the a‐Si:H absorber. Interfaces integrated to the back result in the largest enhancement in photocurrent while those integrated to the front give the lowest. The marginal enhancements due to two interfaces appear to be mainly due to the back interface. While plasmonics effects may not account for the total enhancement in photocurrent, it explains the relative enhancement in the spectral range of 550‐700 rather well. For all configurations, the enhancement in the spectral dependence of photocurrent is accompanied by broadening into the red of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-10-29T03:10:08.009693-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510109
  • Theoretical investigation of 2DEG concentration and mobility in the
           AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with various Al concentrations
    • Authors: Karine Abgaryan; Ilya Mutigullin, Dmitry Reviznikov
      Abstract: Three‐scale model for the calculation of 2DEG mobility in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures developed by our group earlier was used for the investigation of the dependence of 2DEG concentration and mobility on the Al concentration in AlGaN layer. The model allows to calculate following 2DEG properties: energy levels, corresponding wavefunctions, potential energy distribution, charge carriers concentration distribution over the heterostructure. It is also possible to calculate electron mobility in 2DEG taking into account various scattering mechanisms. In the framework of this model the values of 2DEG concentration and mobility were calculated for various Al concentrations x in AlxGa1‐xN barrier (0.15 ≤ x ≤ 1). It is also taken into consideration that maximum barrier width should decrease with increasing Al concentration in order to allow pseudomorphic growth of barrier layer. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-10-26T06:10:35.140027-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510159
  • Synthesis, characterization and testing of Cr(III)‐doped aluminum
           oxide/molybdate nanocomposites as luminescent probes for scanning thermal
    • Authors: Yu. Hizhnyi; S. Nedilko, V. Chornii, K. Terebilenko, N. Slobodyanik, L. Aigouy
      Abstract: The conditions of synthesis and luminescence characteristics of composites Al2O3:Cr3+/NaAl(MoO4)2:Cr3+obtained from molybdate high‐temperature solutions have been studied. The composite formation has been achieved by rapid cooling of a Na‐Al‐Cr‐Mo‐O molten solution in the range of 1173‐820 K. The sizes of the alumina inclusions in the molybdate host range from sub‐microns to tenth of microns. The composite material is transparent for light in the visible spectral region, it allows effective excitation of the Cr3+ luminescence in Cr3+‐ related absorption bands in both NaAl(MoO4)2hosts and Al2O3inclusions. At liquid helium temperature, the Al2O3:Cr3+/NaAl(MoO4)2:Cr3+composite materials simultaneously reveal luminescence of Cr3+ ions in NaAl(MoO4)2(the R‐line near 741 nm) and in Al2O3(the R1 line near 693 nm). At room temperature, the Al2O3:Cr3+ inclusions reveal Cr3+‐related R1 and R2 lines at 694.2 and 692.8 nm, respectively, whereas the luminescence of Cr3+ ions in the molybdate host is quenched. Testing of Al2O3:Cr3+ fluorescent particles in a scanning thermal microscope reveals potential of using the Cr‐doped Al2O3:Cr/NaAl(MoO4)2 nanocomposites for high‐resolution mapping of the surface temperature in 300‐380 K temperature range. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-10-26T06:10:33.865672-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510148
  • Fabrication and characterizations of films made of Te/TeO2 nanopowder
           consolidated by poly(methyl methacrylate)
    • Authors: M. Palomba; U. Coscia, G. Carotenuto, S. De Nicola, G. Ambrosone
      Abstract: Tellurium based material was obtained by binding nanosized tellurium grains, produced by dry vibration milling technique, with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The morphology, structural and electrical properties of Te/PMMA films were investigated. The photoelectrical properties of the films were studied under white light illumination varying the optical power density from 2 to 170mW/cm2 and turning on and off the light cyclically. In order to determine the effects of milling technique two sets of Te/PMMA samples were produced by binding the “as received” and milled Te powders with PMMA. A quite prompt and evident photoresponse was observed for the material prepared with Te nanopowder, while not significant variations of the conductivity were detected in a reference sample fabricated with the as received coarse Te powder and illuminated in the same optical power density range. The origin of the photoconduction can be attributed to the enhancement of the ratio between TeO2 and Te phases in the nanopowder occurring during the milling stage. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-10-26T06:10:32.121565-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510134
  • Comparative contributions of singlet and triplet excitons in the
           performance of organic devices
    • Authors: Jai Singh; Monishka R. Narayan, David Ompong
      Abstract: The properties of singlet and triplet excitons are compared in organic materials for applications in optoelectronic organic solar cells (OSCs) and organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). It is found that by managing the organic material designs both singlet and triplet excitons can be beneficially used in OSCs and OLEDs equally well. A model of dissociation of excitons excited in the acceptor material of the bulk heterojunction organic solar cells is presented. It is shown that the dissociation of acceptor excitons also can contribute to the photovoltaic performance of OSCs. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-10-26T06:10:31.014892-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510127
  • Static response and stiction analysis of MEMS micromembranes for optical
    • Authors: Marius Pustan; Cristian Dudescu, Corina Birleanu
      Abstract: The scope of this paper is to investigate the designing, manufacturing and testing of MEMS micromembranes with high mobility. The implementation field of micromembranes is in the optical applications. The mobility of MEMS membranes is provided by the geometry of hinges and their reliability depends on geometrical dimensions and the material behavior. Deformation in different planes of a micromembrane gives the rise to the occurrence of complex efforts that can reduce the operation time especially if one takes into account that, in optical applications, an additional stress state is also given by the thermal effects. Experimental investigations to determine the response of the micromembranes fabricated from gold and with different geometric dimensions are performed by atomic force microscope and nanoindentation. The study of the micromembranes behavior under a mechanical force and different thermal gradients are performed. The temperature is increases from 20 °C to 100 °C. The thermal effect on bending stiffness is observed. Tribological investigations are orientated to adhesion force measurement when the micromembrane is directly deflected to substrate. The results in terms of stiffness agreed with numerical simulation. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-10-26T06:10:29.992078-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510096
  • Atomic scale investigation of Si and Ce‐rich nanoclusters in
           Ce‐doped SiO1.5 thin films
    • Abstract: The optical properties and the nanoscale structure of Ce‐doped SiO1.5 thin films elaborated by evaporation were investigated by photoluminescence and atom probe tomography. Strong Ce‐related blue luminescence is observed on the 1100 °C annealed sample. Atom probe tomography experiments give evidence of the formation of a cerium silicate having a stoichiometry compatible with Ce2Si2O7. Moreover, we further observe the formation of pure Si nanocrystals (Si‐ncs) which results from the phase separation of the SiO1.5 film. No optical signal from Si‐ncs was observed at least for the 3% Ce‐doped SiO1.5 film considered in this study. We analyze the size distribution of both Si‐ncs and Ce2Si2O7 particles. Finally, the Si and Ce diffusion coefficients were estimated based on atom probe tomography characterizations. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-10-26T06:10:28.967666-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510081
  • Visible range plasmonic effect produced by aluminium nanoparticles
           embedded in amorphous silicon
    • Authors: Alessandro Fantoni; Miguel Fernandes, Yury Vygranenko, Paula Louro, Manuela Vieira
      Abstract: We present results, obtained by means of an analytic study and a numerical simulation, about the resonant condition necessary to produce a Localized Surface Plasmonic Resonance (LSPR) effect at the surface of metal nanospheres embedded in an amorphous silicon matrix. The study is based on a Lorentz dispersive model for a‐Si:H permittivity and a Drude model for the metals. Considering the absorption spectra of a‐Si:H, the best choice for the metal nanoparticles appears to be aluminium, indium or magnesium. No difference has been observed when considering a‐SiC:H. Finite‐difference time‐domain (FDTD) simulation of an Al nanosphere embedded into an amorphous silicon matrix shows an increased scattering radius and the presence of LSPR induced by the metal/semiconductor interaction under green light (560 nm) illumination. Further results include the effect of the nanoparticles shape (nano‐ellipsoids) in controlling the wavelength suitable to produce LSPR. It has been shown that is possible to produce LSPR in the red part of the visible spectrum (the most critical for a‐Si:H solar cells applications in terms of light absorption enhancement) with aluminium nano‐ellipsoids. As an additional results we may conclude that the double Lorentz‐Lorenz model for the optical functions of a‐Si:H is numerically stable in 3D simulations and can be used safely in the FDTD algorithm. A further simulation study is directed to determine an optimal spatial distribution of Al nanoparticles, with variable shapes, capable to enhance light absorption in the red part of the visible spectrum, exploiting light trapping and plasmonic effects. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-10-26T06:10:27.823026-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510080
  • Polariton dispersion relations under condensation in a CuBr microcavity
    • Authors: Masaaki Nakayama; Katsuya Murakami, DaeGwi Kim
      Abstract: We have investigated the exciton‐polariton condensation in a CuBr microcavity with HfO2/SiO2 distributed Bragg reflectors, focusing on condensation effects on polariton dispersion relations. The polariton distribution as a function of in‐plane wave vector k// under illumination was measured with angle‐resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. In addition, we characterized the intrinsic polariton dispersion relations as reference data from analysis of the results obtained using angle‐resolved reflectance spectroscopy. It was found that the polariton condensation causes a large blueshift of the lower polariton branch (LPB) and a flat dispersion relation around the ground state at k//=0. The renormalized dispersion relation of the LPB under the polariton condensation was quantitatively analysed using a theory for a diffusive Goldstone mode peculiar to nonequilibrium condensation. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-10-26T06:10:25.553577-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510076
  • Low temperature aluminum doped zinc oxide thin film deposition on
           ultra‐thin flexible glass and PET substrates by RF magnetron
    • Abstract: Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films are prepared on ultra‐thin flexible glass and flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates at room temperature by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. Optimization of films has been achieved by varying process parameters to reach the demands of proper conductive layer for thin silicon solar cell applications. Structural analysis of the films was done by X‐ray diffraction spectroscopy. Optical and electrical properties of the films were carried out by means of UV‐Visible spectroscopy, and four point probe measurements. Thickness of the films was obtained by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Transmission measurements clearly show that by decreasing pressure transmission of the AZO film is improved in the UV region. Our results show that by varying the deposition parameters, low resistivity films of 1.1×10–3 Ωcm and 1×10–3 Ωcm were obtained on PET and on ultra‐thin flexible substrates, respectively. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-10-19T11:10:05.887787-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510144
  • Growth and characterization of CdTe absorbers on GaAs by MBE for high
           concentration PV solar cells
    • Abstract: CdTe based II‐VI absorbers are promising candidates for high concentration PV solar cells with an ideal band gap for AM1.5 solar radiation. In this study, we propose single crystal CdTe absorbers grown on GaAs substrates with a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) which is a clean deposition technology. We show that high quality CdTe absorber layers can be grown with full width half maximum of X‐ray diffraction rocking curves (XRD RC) as low as 227 arc‐seconds with 0.5 % thickness uniformity that a 2 µm layer is capable of absorbing 99% of AM1.5 solar radiation. Bandgap of the CdTe absorber is found as 1.483 eV from spetroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements. Also, high absorption coefficient is calculated from the results, which is ∼5 x 105 cm‐1 in solar radiation spectrum.
      PubDate: 2015-10-19T11:10:04.535025-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510068
  • Modeling of transient photocurrent in X‐ray detectors: application
           to a‐Se
    • Authors: Sinchita Siddiquee; M. Z. Kabir
      Abstract: A mathematical model for transient photocurrent in X‐ray imaging detectors has been developed by considering charge carrier trapping under exponentially distributed carrier generation across the photoconductor. The model for the transient and steady‐state carrier distributions and hence the photocurrent has been developed by solving the carrier continuity equation for both holes and electrons. The model is applied to amorphous selenium (a‐Se) detectors for both chest radiography and mammography. We analyze the transient rise and decay of the photocurrent profile as a function of time. The quick rise and decay parts, and then the slow rise and decay parts of the photocurrent profile are due to the hole and electron transports, respectively. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-10-12T08:41:30.41137-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510129
  • Advanced light trapping interface for a‐Si:H thin film
    • Abstract: Surface texturing of transparent conducting oxides and plasmonic interfaces are two important techniques used separately in thin film solar cells to reduce reflection and enhance light‐trapping. In this study, we merge the effects of Al:ZnO surface texturing and Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) plasmonics in a single light‐trapping interface to investigate their combined light trapping efficiency on a‐Si:H thin film. Light scattered by this interface is optimized by placing a thin SiO2 spacer layer between AgNPs and a‐Si:H absorber layer. Our results indicate that the AgNPs embedded in SiO2 significantly enhance absorption at energies close to the band gap of a‐Si:H. Surface texturing by wet etching of Al:ZnO combined with AgNP produces the highest optical extinction of a‐Si:H thin film at the band edge. Furthermore, the measured photocurrent in a‐Si:H shows a clear increase not only at AgNPs resonance wavelength but over the entire wavelength range. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-10-06T07:20:09.843229-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510097
  • A low cost outdoor testing facility for detailed photovoltaic device
           performance characterization
    • Authors: Guvenc Ogulgonen; Talat Ozden, Ugur Yardim, Rasit Turan, Serkan Kincal
      Abstract: Long term outdoor performance monitoring is the ultimate method to capture the long term performance characteristics of PV devices. As time consuming as this process might be, it is the only way in which the local environmental condition versus PV device characteristics may be captured when making investment decisions. This data needs to be captured at least once through the seasonal cycle. It needs to be correlated to the environmental conditions, this monitoring climatic conditions is a requirement. Solar irradiation conditions must be monitored over a range of inclination angles – direct, diffuse and reflected components must be ideally captured separately. The panels must be held at maximum power generating point through the varying illumination conditions. Periodic IV traces must be captured, in addition to the power output to understand mechanisms of degradation, if present. Furthermore, the IV curves must be summarized in terms of relevant performance metrics. This work describes an outdoor testing facility that addresses all the aforementioned requirements. Reliable equipment selections coupled with adequate modelling strategies allow for the generation of a robust and accessible database of performance data. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-09-25T04:40:28.300256-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510110
  • Effect of aluminum thickness and etching time of aluminum induced
           texturing process on soda lime glass substrates for thin solar cell
    • Abstract: In this study, aluminum induced texturing (AIT) technique is used to increase light absorption in thin film by way of increasing the portion of the diffuse transmitted light (haze). For this purpose, various AIT process parameters such as starting aluminum thicknesses, annealing temperature and time, etching time, etchant's concentrations, and temperature of etching are known to affect the final texture. We have investigated the effect of aluminum thickness and etching time on AIT process while keeping the other parameters fixed. Our results show that by changing initial aluminum thickness and etching time, it is possible to control surface morphology of glass substrate and the resulting optical diffuse transmittance. In addition, diffuse transmittance is increased over the visible range of solar spectra and total absorption by a‐Si:H is increased. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-09-25T04:40:27.025127-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510125
  • Thermal recovery process of electron irradiated Si1‐xCx source/drain
    • Authors: Kenichiro Takakura; Masato Hori, Masashi Yoneoka, Isao Tsunoda, Toshiyuki Nakashima, Eddy Simoen, Cor Claeys
      Abstract: In this study, the performance degradation by electron irradiation and the thermal recovery process of Si0.99C0.01 source/drain (S/D) n‐MOSFETs are reported. The electron mobility is 15% enhanced by 1%‐C doping in the S/D stressor region. The electron mobility is degraded by 2‐MeV electron irradiation, but the relative change was the same irrespective of C doping and electron fluence. This fact indicates that tensile‐strain relaxation by displacement damage in the Si:C stressors is not significantly impacting the mobility degradation by electron irradiation. Evidence is given that increased scattering in the channel is the main cause of mobility degradation by 2‐MeV electron irradiation. In addition, it is shown that for a fluence of 5x1017 e/cm2, the electrical performance is recovered by thermal annealing. After 323 K for 15 min annealing, the mobility amounts to 95% of the pre‐irradiation value. In the case of Si0.7Ge0.3 S/D p‐MOSFETs, it has been shown before that the device performance is recovered to the same degree for the same irradiation/thermal annealing conditions of this study. CMOS circuits are fabricated by a combination of n‐MOSFETs and p‐MOSFETs, therefore, it can be confirmed that strained CMOS devices using Si:C S/D n‐MOSFETs and SiGe S/D p‐MOSFETs, respectively, can operate in the radiation environment studied here. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-09-25T04:30:40.190593-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510088
  • Investigation of the effect of diiodooctane on the morphology and
           performance of PTB7/PC71BM solar cells
    • Abstract: Organic photovoltaics have been intensively investigated in recent years for generation of affordable, clean, and renewable energy due to their low‐cost fabrication of large‐area devices, lightweight, mechanical flexibility, and easy tunability of chemical properties of the polymer materials. Thieno[3,4‐b]thiophene and benzodithiophene solar cells were fabricated, characterized and the performance of the solar cells was studied and compared with each other in the different ratios of diiodooctane. Atomic force microscopy was used to study the morphological changes in solar cells. The current density and voltage characteristics of photovoltaic cells were measured under the illumination of simulated solar light. PTB7/PC71BM solar cell enhanced the power conversion efficiency to 2.86% with 0.5% diiodooctane from 1.55% without diiodooctane. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-09-10T14:10:11.964569-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510069
  • Structure and far‐field optical properties of self‐organized
           bimetallic Aux‐Ag1–x nanoparticles embedded in alumina thin
    • Authors: S. Yazidi; A. Fafin, S. Rousselet, F. Pailloux, S. Camelio, D. Babonneau
      Abstract: Self‐organized Aux‐Ag1–x nanoparticles were produced by grazing‐angle deposition using alternating sources on alumina nanoripple patterns. Structural and far‐field optical studies showed that periodic chains of Aux‐Ag1–x alloy nanoparticles with small interparticle gaps and strong plasmonic dichroism can be successfully created after thermal annealing under vacuum between 400 °C and 700 °C. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-09-10T13:30:54.216682-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510079
  • Design of a hybrid photovoltaic‐electrolyzer‐PEM fuel cell
           system for developing solar model
    • Abstract: The world's fossil fuel energy reserves have rapidly decreased, while the energy demand has increased due to industrial growth, population growth, and technology advances, all of which affect the environment by the production of greenhouse gases. Alternative energy sources such as solar, hydrogen, etc. are attracting more attention as an alternative of fossil fuels. We present in this study hybrid photovoltaic (PV) panels/PEM electrolyzer/high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HTPEMFC) system used in off‐grid application. The purpose of a hybrid system is to produce as much energy from alternative energy sources to ensure the load demand. Solar energy is used as primary source and a fuel cell is used as backup power. The hybrid system is designed and analyzed according to the new solar radiation model. Firstly a new solar model is developed to determine solar radiation on horizontal surface. After that solar radiation on tilted surface is obtained by using solar radiation on horizontal surface model for PV panel calculations. The hybrid system is modelled and the obtained results presented and discussed. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-09-10T13:30:51.477202-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510091
  • Band structure and decay channels of thorium‐229 low‐lying
    • Authors: Petr V. Borisyuk; Oleg S. Vasilyev, Andrey V. Krasavin, Yury Yu. Lebedinskii, Victor I. Troyan, Eugene V. Tkalya
      Abstract: The results are presented on the study of the electronic structure of thorium atoms adsorbed by the liquid atomic layer deposition from aqueous solution of thorium nitrate on the surface of CaF2. The chemical state of the atoms and the change of the band structure in the surface layers of Th/CaF2 system on CaF2 substrate were investigated by XPS and REELS techniques. It was found that REELS spectra for Th/CaF2 system include peaks in the region of low energy losses (3‐7 eV) which are missing in the similar spectra for pure CaF2. It is concluded that the presence of the observed features in the REELS spectra is associated with the chemical state of thorium atoms and is caused by the presence of uncompensated chemical bonds at the Th/CaF2 interface, and, therefore, by the presence of unbound 6d‐ and 7s‐electrons of thorium atoms. Assuming the equivalence of the electronic configuration of thorium‐229 and thorium‐232 atoms, an estimate was made on the time decay of the excited state of thorium‐229 nuclei through the channel of the electron conversion. It was found that the relaxation time is about 40 μs for 6d‐electrons, and about 1 μs for 7s‐electrons. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-09-10T13:30:50.0052-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510095
  • Willemite photoluminescence in Zn‐implanted silica glasses
    • Abstract: The photoluminescence properties of α‐Zn2SiO4 nanoparticles formed in the SiO2 by means of ion implantation and subsequent 900 °C, 1 hour annealing in air atmosphere. Both X‐ray diffraction, optical and photoluminescence (PL) spectra confirm the formation of willemite phase Zn2SiO4 in SiO2 matrices. The characteristic 2.4 eV PL band observed resembles the properties of classical Zn2SiO4:Mn phosphor, though no manganese were introduced into the samples. PL excitation spectra demonstrate the contribution of willemite and silica band states, thus suggesting interphase energy transfer mechanism. Thermal quenching and lifetimes of the luminescence observed provide the clues to figure out the nature of emission centres. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-09-10T13:30:48.41804-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510099
  • Temperature‐dependent luminescence of Tb3+ and Eu3+
           single‐doped glasses for LEDapplications
    • Authors: Sebastian Loos; Franziska Steudel, Bernd Ahrens, Russell Lee Leonard, Jacqueline Anne Johnson, Stefan Schweizer
      Abstract: Tb3+ and Eu3+ single‐doped barium borate glass and ZBLAN glass are investigated for their photoluminescence (PL) and absolute PL quantum efficiency. In addition, both glass systems are characterized with respect to their color stability in the temperature range from 25 °C to 400 °C. The Tb3+ doped glass shows high color stability over the entire temperature range investigated, whereas the Eu3+ doped glass changes its color appearance with increasing temperature: Eu3+ in ZBLAN glass changes its color appearance from the orange to the red spectral range, whereas the color appearance in borate glass is shifted from the red to the orange‐red spectral range. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-09-10T13:30:46.973758-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510104
  • Study of oxidation effect on the photoluminescence in p‐type
           nanostructured silicon
    • Abstract: Porous silicon samples containing crystallites in the nanometer scale are produced and treated with an oxidizing solution. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra, attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and contact angle (CA) measurements on these samples are recorded. ATR and CA results are compared to extract information concerning the oxidation degree of the surfaces. PL spectra are deconvolved into nanocrystal structures and surface states contributions by the use of the stochastic quantum confinement model (SQCM). A correlation between nanocrystals sizes and oxidation layer presence is obtained. This result could be important for eventual PL device development based on this semiconductor material. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-09-10T13:30:44.968809-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510132
  • Electron transport through a metallic nanoparticle assembly embedded in
           SiO2 and SiNx by low energy ion implantation
    • Authors: M. Bayle; J. Grisolia, G. Ben Assayag, B. Pecassou, C. Bonafos, P. Benzo, F. Gourbilleau, R. Carles
      Abstract: Original substrates have been developed to offer a new approach to modulate and analyse simultaneously electro‐optical and transport properties through an assembly of metallic nanoparticles (NPs). Using low energy ion implantation, silver NPs have been synthesized at the vicinity of the free surface of a SiO2 or SiNx matrix. Varying the parameters of the process allows us to modify the density of NPs and their distance to the surface. While Ag NPs surface fraction in SiO2 cannot exceed 20%, it reaches 30% in SiNx. In the latter case, NPs with mean diameter is about 2.1 nm have an interdistance compatible with tunnel effect. We then developed devices that electrically address the embedded assembly of NPs for I‐V characterization. The transport measurements on these devices show that an exploitable conduction is possible within the Ag NPs assembly in SiNx. The Arrhenius‐type temperature dependence model was successfully applied demonstrating that electron transport follows a simple thermally activated behaviour with the occurrence of a strongly localized regime. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-09-10T13:30:41.874432-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510147
  • Optimization of THz response of strained‐Si MODFETs
    • Abstract: This paper reports on the study of strained‐Si n‐channel MODFETs as detectors of sub‐THz radiation. Simulations based on a bi‐dimensional hydrodynamic model for the charge transport coupled to a Poisson equation solver were performed. A charge boundary condition for the floating drain contact was implemented to obtain the photovoltaic response of the device. Time‐domain simulations were performed to generate the stationary time series needed to obtain the photovoltaic response. A non‐resonant THz photo‐response was obtained in agreement with experimental results and theoretical works on plasma waves devices. It was found that the photovoltaic response of s‐Si MODFETs with non self‐aligned gates is strongly influenced by both gate's length and topology. In particular, it was demonstrated that at frequencies around 0.3 THz a double‐finger gate delivers a stronger PV response than a conventional single‐finger gate structure. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-08-31T06:10:19.624669-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510136
  • Pyrolytically grown indium sulfide sensitized zinc oxide nanowires for
           solar water splitting
    • Authors: Pelin Komurcu; Emre Kaan Can, Erkan Aydin, Levent Semiz, Alp Eren Gurol, Fatma Merve Alkan, Mehmet Sankir, Nurdan Demirci Sankir
      Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires, sensitized with spray pyrolyzed indium sulfide, were obtained by chemical bath deposition. The XRD analysis indicated dominant evolution of hexagonal ZnO phase. Significant gain in photoelectrochemical current using ZnO nanowires is largely accountable to enhancement of the visible light absorption and the formation of heterostructure. The maximum photoconversion efficiency of 2.77% was calculated for the indium sulfide sensitized ZnO nanowire photoelectrodes. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-08-31T06:10:17.950761-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510113
  • Local structure and photoluminescence properties of nanostructured
           Zn1‐xMnxS material
    • Abstract: Zinc sulfide (ZnS) pure or doped has received remarkable attention because of fundamental properties, versatility and potential for several technological applications as luminescent material. In this study, the local structure and photoluminescence properties of nanostructured Zn1‐xMnxS samples have been characterized. X‐ray diffraction results show that ZnS:Mn samples crystallized completely without the presence of secondary phases and the diffraction patterns correspond to the cubic zinc blende. Theoretical and experimental XANES (X‐ray absorption near edge structure) spectra at Zn K‐edge suggest the incorporation of Mn atoms into the ZnS host and indicate the occurrence of Zn and S vacancies, which are confirmed by EXAFS (extended X‐ray absorption fine structure) fit results. These vacancies can be related to a red‐shift observed in the peak emission of photoluminescence spectrum for ZnS sample, which is centered at ∼ 504 nm. As the Mn content increases, a yellow‐orange emission centered at ∼ 590 nm can be observed besides the blue‐green emission, which is associated with the 4T1–6A1 transition within the 3d shell of Mn2+. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-08-31T05:40:19.777527-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510135
  • High structural quality InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells
    • Authors: Ezgi Dogmus; Malek Zegaoui, Ludovic Largeau, Maria Tchernycheva, Vladimir Neplokh, Saskia Weiszer, Fabian Schuster, Martin Stutzmann, Martin Foldyna, Farid Medjdoub
      Abstract: In this paper, we report on high structural quality of above 15% indium content InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures with high equivalent thickness for solar cell applications. The structural and optical characterizations revealed fully strained 25 pairs of InGaN/GaN MQW solar cells with 24% indium content which shows extended spectral response up to 530 nm. In particular, defect density of the active region of In0.15 Ga0.85N/GaN MQW solar cell has been assessed in top view electron beam induced current (EBIC) analysis. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-08-31T05:40:17.245026-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510137
  • VIS/NIR wavelength selector based on a multilayer pi'n/pin a‐SiC:H
           optical filter
    • Authors: M. Vieira; M. A. Vieira, V. Silva, P. Louro, I. Rodrigues, A. Fantoni
      Abstract: In this paper, we present a tandem visible/nearinfrared (VIS/NIR) wavelength selector based on a multilayer a‐SiC:H optical filter that requires appropriate near‐ultraviolet steady states optical switches to select the desired wavelengths in the VIS/NIR ranges. Spectral response measurements are presented and show the feasibility of tailoring the wavelength and bandwidth of a polychromatic mixture of different wavelengths. The selector filter is realized by using a two terminal double pi'n/pin a‐SiC:H photodetector. Five visible/infrared communication channels are transmitted together, each one with a specific bit sequence. The combined optical signal is analysed by reading out the photocurrent, under near‐UV steady state background. Results show that the background side and intensity works as a selector in the infrared/visible regions, shifting the sensor sensitivity. This nonlinearity allows the identification and decoding of the different input channels in the visible/infrared ranges. This concept is extended to implement a 1 by 5 wavelength division multiplexer with channel separation in the VIS/NIR range and a transmission capability of 30 Kbps. The relationship between the optical inputs and the output signal is established and an algorithm to decode the Multiplexed (MUX) signal presented. An optoeletronic model gives insight on the system physics. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-08-31T05:40:15.439022-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510138
  • Optical signal processing for data error detection and correction using
           a‐SiCH technology
    • Authors: M. A. Vieira; M. Vieira, V. Silva, P. Louro, J. Costa
      Abstract: In this paper, we explore the nonlinear properties of SiC multilayer devices under UV irradiation to design an optical processor for error detection and correction, that enables reliable delivery of spectral data of four‐wave mixing over unreliable communication channels. The SiC optical processor for error detection and correction is realized by using a SiC pin/pin photodetector with UV biased optical gating elements. The relationship between the optical inputs and the corresponding digital output levels is established. Data shows that the optical bias act as a selector that picks one or more states by splitting portions of the input multi optical signals across the front and back photodiodes. Boolean operations are demonstrated optically, additional parity logic operations are performed and checked for errors together. As an example we describe an all‐optical processor for error detection and correction and then, provide an experimental demonstration of this fault tolerant reversible system. An intuitive representation with a 4 bit original string coloured message and the transmitted 7 bit string, the parity matrix, the encoding and decoding processes and the design of SiC syndrome generators are presented. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-08-31T05:40:13.594505-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510139
  • A kinetic Monte Carlo study of defect assisted transport in silicon
           heterojunction solar cells
    • Authors: Pradyumna Muralidharan; Dragica Vasileska, Stephen M. Goodnick, Stuart Bowden
      Abstract: The device performance of an amorphous silicon (a‐Si)/crystalline silicon (c‐Si) solar cell depends strongly on the interfacial transport properties of the device. The energy of the photogenerated carriers at the barrier strongly depends on the strength of the inversion at the heterointerface and their collection requires interaction with the defects present in the intrinsic amorphous silicon buffer layer. In this work we present a theoretical model to study the defect assisted transport of photogenerated carriers through the intrinsic amorphous silicon barrier. We implement the kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method which allows us to simulate the interaction of discrete carriers with discrete defects. This method allows us to study defect transport which takes place on a time scale which is too long for traditional ensemble Monte Carlo's to analyze. We analyze the injection and extraction of carriers via defects by calculating transition rates, i.e. probability of transition to defect states within the intrinsic amorphous silicon barrier. The KMC results allow us to quantitatively study the properties of the heterointerface barrier in terms of how it affects transport. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-08-31T05:10:43.351302-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510071
  • New view on InxGa1‐xNyAs1‐yalloys
    • Authors: Vyacheslav A. Elyukhin
      Abstract: Semiconductors with isoelectronic centers are actively studied to fabricate arrays of identical single photon emitters. Self‐assembling of 4N10In and 1N4In clusters in GaAs‐rich InxGa1‐xNyAs1‐y is represented. All or almost all In atoms are in 4N10In clusters from 0 to 800 °C in InxGa1‐xNyAs1‐y with x = 1×10‐4, y = 1×10‐4 and x = 1×10‐5, y = 1×10‐5. All or almost all nitrogen atoms are in 1N4In clusters if x = 0.01, y = 1×10‐4 and x = 1×10‐3, y = 1×10‐6. There are both types of clusters in alloys with x = 5×10‐5, y = 5×10‐7; x = 2×10‐4, y = 2×10‐6; x = 1×10‐4, y = 1×10‐5 and x = 2×10‐3, y = 2×10‐4 and portions of nitrogen atoms in clusters depend on the composition and temperature. Thus, InxGa1‐xNyAs1‐y are promising semiconductors to obtain arrays of identical isoelectronic clusters with the desirable density. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-08-31T05:10:41.780056-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510075
  • Surface plasmon resonance in ZnO nanorod arrays caused by gold
           nanoparticles for solar cell application
    • Authors: Inga Gromyko; Ilona Oja Acik, Malle Krunks, Tatjana Dedova, Atanas Katerski, Arvo Mere, Valdek Mikli, Risto Vessart
      Abstract: In this paper, we study the growth of gold nanoparticles (Au‐NPs) onto ZnO nanorod arrays (ZnO‐NRAs) and the surface plasmon resonance effect caused by them. ZnO‐NRAs were deposited by the chemical spray pyrolysis method. Au‐NPs were obtained by spin‐coating of HAuCl4 in ethanol solution over the nanorod samples. According to XRD, the average size of Au‐NPs on ZnO‐NRAs increases from 27 nm to 72 nm by increasing the HAuCl4 concentration in solution from 0.01 to 0.1 mol/L. There are no visible changes in ZnO‐NRAs morphology using the solutions with 0.0004‐0.03 mol/L, partial dissolution of nanorods occurs when using HAuCl4 solution with the concentration of 0.05 mol/L or higher. ZnO‐NRAs covered with Au‐NPs show the red shift of the surface plasmon resonance band from 545 to 555 nm with increasing the HAuCl4 solution concentration from 0.002 to 0.05 mol/L. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-08-31T05:10:40.440211-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510103
  • Si‐nanoparticle synthesis using ion implantation and MeV ion
    • Abstract: A dielectric matrix with embedded Si‐nanoparticles may show strong luminescence depending on nanoparticles size, surface properties, Si‐excess concentration and matrix type. Ion implantation of Si ions with energies of a few tens to hundreds of keV in a SiO2 matrix followed by thermal annealing was identified as a powerful method to form such nanoparticles. The aim of the present work is to optimize the synthesis of Si‐nanoparticles produced by ion implantation in SiO2 by employing MeV ion irradiation as an additional annealing process. The luminescence properties are measured by spectrally resolved photoluminescence including PL lifetime measurement, while X‐ray reflectometry, atomic force microscopy and ion beam analysis are used to characterize the nanoparticle formation process. The results show that the samples implanted at 20%‐Si excess atomic concentration display the highest luminescence and that irradiation of 36 MeV 127I ions affects the luminosity in terms of wavelength and intensity. It is also demonstrated that the nanoparticle luminescence lifetime decreases as a function of irradiation fluence. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-08-21T03:30:17.951744-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510101
  • Production of flexible polymeric photoanodes using binder‐free
           electrophoretic deposition and compression for dye‐sensitized solar
    • Authors: Bahadir Can Kocaoglu; Macit Ozenbas
      Abstract: Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of titania nanoparticles have been utilized in order to form the nanoporous photoanodes of dye‐sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) on flexible polymeric (PEN/PET) substrates. Highly uniform, adherent nanoporous thick films were produced by uniformly dispersing the titania nanoparticles in alcoholic suspensions without any binders. Suspension performances of each type of isopropanol based mixtures have been examined. Additionally, the effect of acetylacetone addition in suspensions on zeta potential and effective particle size of the colloids is investigated. EPD process has been conducted in single step while the uniformity of the morphology and the thickness of the films were maintained preventing the damage on ITO layer due to excessive voltage exposure. Subsequently, the mechanical compression is applied via cold isostatic pressing (CIP) with a pressure profile in order to obtain 12‐14 µm film thickness and photon to current conversion efficiency of 2.16 % was obtained under AM1.5 conditions. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-08-21T03:30:16.208628-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510090
  • Back Cover: Phys. Status Solidi C 8/2015
    • Abstract: The layout of electronic systems of the next generation will be mainly three‐dimensional. For vertical interconnections so‐called TSVs (through silicon vias) are used. These are vertical holes filled with metal, e.g. copper. Resulting stress can affect the functionality of electronic devices and, a keep‐out zone has to be defined. The integrity of TSV structures has to be tested by non‐destructive analytical tools (see the paper of Martin Herms and coworkers on pp. 1085–1089). The figure shows a map of optical birefringence of a group of 6 × 6 single TSVs (ca. 500 μm × 500 μm) recorded with a photo‐elastic microscope SIREX (Scanning Infrared Explorer). SIREX is a reflection‐based plane polarimeter specially developed for the high‐resolution stress state visualization in silicon‐based electronic and mechanic devices. The diameter of a single TSV shown in the figure is 5 μm. Optical birefringence does occur if the silicon crystal matrix around the single TSV is optically anisotropic. The anisotropy revealed is caused by a radial stress field which is typical for point‐like stress sources. The visualized “butterflies” represent the in‐plane shear stress which can be converted into stress units in the order of a few kPa. The color sequence indicates the stress direction. Here, the TSVs generate a radial tensile stress component in the silicon matrix. Generally, magnitude, direction and lateral distribution of stress are determined by size and shape of a TSV but also by the presence of defects like voids.
      PubDate: 2015-08-20T06:38:47.815635-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201570096
  • Issue Information: Phys. Status Solidi C 8/2015
    • PubDate: 2015-08-20T06:38:43.946085-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201570097
  • Cover Picture: Phys. Status Solidi C 8/2015
    • Abstract: Multicrystalline silicon (mc‐Si) grown by cast method has been most widely used for solar cell application. The improvement of mc‐Si quality is the crucial issue for photovoltaics. There exist two directions for this purpose. One is the seed cast technique which can grow mono Si ingot free from GBs. The other is the controlled mc‐Si growth, which is called high performance mc‐Si. However, it is still not clear how the grain structure in mc‐Si evolves and to which extent GBs can be controlled. In this study of Takashi Sekiguchi and coworkers (pp. 1094–1098), the authors have grown mc‐Si from microcrystalline template. The grain evolution (low left) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) pattern (low right) are analyzed and a three‐step mechanism of grain growth was proposed.
      PubDate: 2015-08-20T06:38:43.649869-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201570095
  • Electromagnetic absorption of quasi‐1D Majorana nanowires
    • Abstract: We calculate the electromagnetic absorption cross section of long and narrow nanowires, in the so‐called quasi‐1D limit. We consider only two transverse bands and compute the dipole absorption cross section taking into account quasiparticle transitions from negative to positive energy eigenstates of the Bogoliubov‐de Gennes Hamiltonian. The presence of the zero energy (Majorana) state manifests in the different absorption spectra for x (parallel) and y (transverse) polarizations of the electromagnetic field. In the y ‐polarized case, the Majorana state causes a low energy absorption plateau extending from mid‐gap up to full‐gap energy. Increasing further the energy, the plateau is followed by a region of enhanced absorption due to transitions across the full gap. For x polarization the low energy absorption plateau is not observed. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-29T09:40:04.669424-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510131
  • The photoresponse of crystalline silicon strained via ultrasonic
           cavitation processing
    • Authors: R. K. Savkina; A. B. Smirnov
      Abstract: (100)‐oriented p ‐type silicon grown by the liquid‐encapsulated Czochralski method was exposed to cavitation impacts to induce changes of the physical and structural properties of semiconductor. Optical and atomic force microscopy methods as well as X‐ray diffraction, ellipsometry and photovoltage spectroscopy were used. By applying a high‐intensity (15 W/cm2) and high‐frequency (1 ÷ 6 MHz) sonication technique we successfully formed a dendrite‐like micron‐scale array on a silicon surface. It was found also a surprising improvement in the photoelectric properties of silicon samples exposed to the megasonic processing. Significant rise in value and expansion of the spectral range of photosensitivity take place after cavitation treatment. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-28T07:30:20.414009-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400249
  • Surface damage and mechanical strength of silicon wafers
    • Abstract: The fracture strength of silicon wafers used for photovoltaic and microelectronic applications mainly depends on the damage structure, which is introduced on the surface during processing of the wafers. The present paper investigates the formation and development of the damage structure by scratching, which occurs during grinding processes or when sawing with diamond coated wires. The basic scratching process has been studied with a newly developed scratch technique, where test parameters comparable to a real process could be used. Single scratch tests have been performed with diamond particles on monocrystalline silicon wafers with a defined surface orientation and under different applied forces. The resulting microcrack structure, which develops under the surface, has been investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscope and Raman spectroscopy. Details of the shape, depth and distance of the cracks have been obtained by high quality sample cross sections. The orientations of the main microcrack planes are determined. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-28T07:20:08.411673-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400227
  • Study of the structural and magnetic properties of Fe‐doped ZnO
    • Abstract: In this work we study the ZnO powder nanoparticles mechanically alloyed doped with iron to investigate the structural, microstructural and magnetic properties using X‐ray diffraction (XRD) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The ZnO starting pure powder exhibited a hexagonal crystal structure with space group P63mc of ZnO, however, with the introduction of 1% Fe in the ZnO milled powder, the hexagonal ZnO phase remained unchanged, whereas the microstructural parameters were subject to significant variations due to the introduction of Fe atoms into the ZnO hexagonal matrix to replace oxygen ones. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T02:10:17.26719-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201500007
  • Cathodoluminescence study of optical properties along the growth direction
           of ZnO films on GaN substrate
    • Authors: Jianyu Wang; Yoshitomo Harada, Masatomo Sumiya, Yi Shi, Takashi Sekiguchi
      Abstract: c‐plane ZnO films were eptiaxially grown on c‐GaN/sapphire substrate by MOCVD. Cathodoluminescence (CL) line scan was performed on the cross‐sectional ZnO/GaN films. These CL spectra shapes show a variation along the growth direction with a peak position shift, which can be divided into three stages. The study of the three stages reflects the growth mode alteration from the interface between ZnO and GaN to the surface. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T02:10:16.352358-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400224
  • Nano‐scale pattern formation on the surface of HgCdTe produced by
           ion bombardment
    • Authors: A. B. Smirnov; A. I. Gudymenko, V. P. Kladko, A. A. Korchevyi, R. K. Savkina, F. F. Sizov, R. S. Udovitska
      Abstract: Presented in this work are the results concerning formation of nano‐scale patterns on the surface of a ternary compound Hg1–xCdxTe (x ∼ 0.223). Modification of this ternary chalcogenide semiconductor compound was performed using the method of oblique‐incidence ion bombardment with silver ions, which was followed by low‐temperature treatment. The energy and dose of implanted ions were 140 keV and 4.8×1013 cm‐2, respectively. Atomic force microscopy methods were used for the surface topography characterization. The structural properties of MCT‐based structure was analyzed using double and triple crystal X‐ray diffraction to monitor the disorder and strain of the implanted region as a function of processing conditions. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T02:10:15.490593-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400302
  • Strain and carrier transport along dislocations
    • Authors: Manfred Reiche; Martin Kittler, Eckhard Pippel, Winfried Erfurth, Angelika Haehnel, Hartmut Uebensee
      Abstract: A significant increase of the drain current is verified if defined numbers and types of dislocations are present in the channel of MOSFETs. For pMOSFETs, analysed here, an enhancement by a factor of eight exists if mixed dislocations are placed in the channel. The drain current increase is caused by higher concentration and higher mobility of holes on dislocations. It is shown that cores of mixed dislocations possess uniaxial compressive strain components in the order of ε ≅ –0.1 which are significantly higher than in the strain field surrounding a dislocation. The exceptional high uniaxial strain results in dramatic alterations of the silicon band structure. Upward shifts of the upper valence bands appear forming a quantum wire. The generation of the quantum wire forces hole confinement along dislocations and generates a one‐dimensional hole gas (1DHG). Confinement and energy quantization are assumed to be most important for the increased carrier transport along dislocations. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T02:10:14.581964-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400298
  • Grain boundary recombination in semiconductors: the grain boundary
           interaction case
    • Abstract: The recombination velocity and the barrier height at a grain boundary are investigated with respect to the interaction between two parallel grain boundaries. A self‐consistent calculation has been performed within the Read‐Hall‐Shockley framework. The procedure takes into account of the space‐charge region and the quasi‐neutral region assuming a rigid displacement of the bands. The grain‐boundary energy states are considered in the half‐filled‐level model. The dependence of the recombination parameters are reported versus the excitation and the semiconductor and grain‐boundary characteristics. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T02:10:13.592128-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400243
  • Properties of near‐surface layer of 64Zn+ ion hot‐implanted Si
    • Authors: Vladimir Privezentsev; Vaclav Kulikauskas, Eduard Steinman, Alexey Tereshchenko, Anatoly Bazhenov, Nataliya Tabachkova, Alexander Batrakov
      Abstract: We have investigated nanoparticles (NPs) formation in Si by 64Zn+ ion implantation at substrate temperature of 350 °C. Hot implantation was chosen to avoid amorphization of Si near‐surface layer. In as‐implanted samples the Zn crystal NPs were created. Then the samples were subsequently subjected to isochronous annealing in oxygen at elevated temperatures. The depth profile of implanted Zn was analyzed by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. The dependence of photo‐luminescence spectra on annealing temperatures was observed. In these spectra the peak at 370 nm attributable to ZnO phase and wide peak at 430 nm due to defects were revealed. The visualization and identification of NPs were obtained by transmission electron microscopy and transmission electron diffraction of cross‐section samples. From these study it follows, that after annealing at temperature of 700 °C and higher the NPs with structure of Zn(core)/ZnO · Zn2SiO4(shell) were formed. Auger electron spectroscopy investigation followed the phase content in depth profile was varied from ZnO Zn2SiO4 at a substrate surface to metal Zn in a substrate body. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T02:10:12.78557-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400234
  • Thermal activation and temperature dependent PL and CL of Tb doped
           amorphous AlN and SiN thin films
    • Abstract: The effect of terbium (Tb) doping on the photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra of amorphous aluminum nitride (a ‐AlN) and amorphous silicon nitride (a ‐SiN) thin films has been investigated for different temperature conditions. The samples were prepared by RF dual magnetron reactive sputtering technique with a Tb concentration of about ∼1 at% An enhancement of the light emission is obtained after thermal annealing treatments following the activation of luminescent centers. Furthermore, the Tb related integrated light emission intensity is reported exhibiting a continuous increase with the samples temperature well below thermal quenching for both materials. This behavior suggests a phonon assisted energy migration mechanism which contributes to the effective energy transfer from the matrix to the Tb ions. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T02:10:11.771988-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400226
  • Nanoscopic studies of 2D‐extended defects in silicon that cause
           shunting of Si‐solar cells
    • Abstract: Potential‐induced degradation (PID) can cause massive power losses in photovoltaic power plants with serially connected modules when high electrical potential between solar cells and the module front glass surface leads to shunting of Si solar cells. The shunting is reversible to a large extend through elevated temperatures and/or by application of reversed voltages. It was previously shown that PID‐related shunting (PID‐s) of the p‐n junction occurs due to Na‐decorated stacking faults in {111} planes. Defects at former PID‐shunt positions that have been thermally ‘healed' (recovered) do not show a Na decoration anymore. In this contribution we investigate stacking faults with Na decoration and with vanished Na decoration after thermal recovery. HAADF STEM imaging is used for principal investigation of the atomic structure of PID‐s defects. The Na decorated stacking fault appears as a dark region in the HAADF STEM image. By contrast, the atomic structure of the recovered stacking fault can be clearly imaged. The orientation of Si dumbbells indicates an extrinsic stacking fault that remains after recovery by Na out‐diffusion. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T02:10:10.903646-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400225
  • Hydrogen induced growth and coalescence of helium‐based defects
    • Abstract: The first stages of growth of He‐based planar defects under H supply have been investigated in (001)‐oriented Si. The H atoms were introduced by implantation using the MIAMI facility. Implantations at different temperatures were conducted in the microscope chamber and thus the evolution of He‐plates under H implantation was observed in real‐time. In situ transmission electron microscopy during the subsequent annealing was also performed. Results show that the growth phenomena are governed by diffusion mechanisms. The kinetic model of Johnson‐Mehl‐Avrami‐Kolmogorov was successfully applied to model the evolution of the diameters of the He‐plates either as function of the temperature of annealing or of the fluence. Isotropic coalescence of close defects occurs when the out‐of plane tensile stress reaches the yield strength. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-15T06:20:10.787521-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400361
  • On the dislocation core structures associated to point defect cluster
           formation in diamond and silicon
    • Abstract: This paper focuses on the dislocation configurations that show up during the annihilation of a perfect dislocation vacancy dipole. Indeed unexpected transient dislocation core structures can be evidenced out of the atomistic structures computed during this annihilation process. Using the Geometric Phase Analysis these dislocation configurations can be analysed as partial dislocations, resulting from the dissociation of a perfect dislocation with ½[110] Burgers vector, bounding a nano crack (or a point defect cluster) along a (111) shuffle plane. Those partial dislocations appear as to be associated with an incipient dissociation/crack present in the core of perfect shuffle dislocations. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-15T06:20:09.709924-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400370
  • Retraction: Poly(3‐hexylthiophene) films by electrospray deposition
           for crystalline silicon/organic hybrid junction solar cells
    • Authors: Taiga Hiate; Naoto Miyauchi, Zeguo Tang, Ryo Ishikawa, Keiji Ueno, Hajime Shirai
      Abstract: The above article, published online on 25 July 2015 in Wiley Online Library (, has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor‐in‐Chief, Stefan Hildebrandt, and Wiley‐VCH GmbH & Co. KGaA. The retraction has been agreed since the contents of the article have already been published by the corresponding author in Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 061602 (2015) on 4 June 2015. The manuscript submitted to physica status solidi (c) was part of the E‐MRS 2015 Spring Meeting, Symposium A, Proceedings. The authors regret the dual publication and express their sincere apologies to readers.
      PubDate: 2015-07-07T06:20:34.214521-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201570094
  • Atomic redistribution of implanted Fe and associated defects around moving
           SiO2/Si interfaces
    • Abstract: The behaviour of Fe atoms at the Si/SiO2 interface, as a modelisation of an involuntary Fe contamination before or during the oxidation process has been studied in Fe‐implanted wafers. As‐implanted and oxidized wafers were characterized by SIMS, APT, HR‐TEM and STEM‐HAADF. Successive steps of Fe segregation, iron‐silicide precipitation and dissolution were identified. As expected for such a temperature range, the iron‐silicide precipitates adopt the FeSi2 structure. Fe enriched phases were also identified in an advanced step of precipitation. Dynamic mechanisms are proposed, taking into account the competitive oxidizing of precipitates and silicon matrix, to understand the different steps and precipitation phases observed in the samples during the non‐equilibrium conditions due to the oxide layer growth. The correlation between the formation of characteristic pyramidal defects at the SiO2/Si interface and the presence of the Fe‐rich precipitates is explained. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:50:47.512159-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400233
  • Oxygen‐related defects: minority carrier lifetime killers in
           n‐type Czochralski silicon wafers for solar cell application
    • Authors: I. Kolevatov; V. Osinniy, M. Herms, A. Loshachenko, I. Shlyakhov, V. Kveder, O. Vyvenko
      Abstract: Many authors (Haunschild et al., Phys. Status Solidi RRL 5, 199–201 (2012) [1]) reported about areas in Cz‐Si with an extremely low lifetime of minority carriers after high temperature stages of solar cell manufacture. In such regions the minority carrier lifetime may be fallen 100 times after annealing, what leads to a considerable drop in the solar cell efficiency. In present work the electrical and structural properties of phosphorus doped Bosch Cz‐Si wafers with degrading areas were studied by means of photoluminescence, deep level transient spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Based on these data it is concluded that the dominant recombination channel in the degrading areas is related to strained oxygen precipitates. We found electronic states of traps which may cause their formation. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:50:44.594012-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400293
  • Structural studies of Al thin layer on misoriented GaAs(100) substrate by
           transmission electron microscopy
    • Authors: M. V. Lovygin; N. I. Borgardt, I. P. Kazakov, M. Seibt
      Abstract: A thin Al layer has been grown on a misoriented GaAs(100) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy and its structure has been studied by means of transmission electron microscopy. The metal layer is formed as grains of three orientations Al(100), Al(110) and Al(110)R. Digital analysis of dark‐field micrographs made it possible to obtain their grain sizes and relative coverage areas. By comparison with an Al layer grown on an exactly oriented GaAs(100) substrate it has been found that on the vicinal surface the relative coverage area and grain size of the Al(110)R orientation increase and the Al(100) relative coverage area decreases. This is attributed to surface atomic steps, which have been visualized in high‐resolution micrographs. The edge misfit dislocation system at the Al/GaAs interface has been revealed, which is insensitive to the substrate misorientation. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:50:37.390678-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400357
  • Turbostratic pyrocarbon structure study by means of exit wave
           reconstruction from high‐resolution transmission electron microscopy
    • Authors: A. S. Prikhodko; N. I. Borgardt, M. Seibt
      Abstract: This paper reports results of turbostratic pyrolytic carbon structure study using high‐resolution electron microscopy techniques. We obtained a through‐focus series of images and noted that domain‐like contrast features were varied depending on defocus of the objective lens. Since these features are commonly explained in terms of the domain model of pyrocarbon structure we carried out exit wave reconstruction to obtain the phase map. The visual appearance of the map indicates that the ribbon‐like model more appropriately describes the pyrocarbon structure in comparison to the domain model. In the context of the ribbon‐like model we constructed a test carbon structure using the recovered phase map and molecular dynamics modeling. After determination of atomic positions we simulated high‐resolution images of the structure. Our calculations demonstrated that high‐resolution micrographs showing domain‐like image features can be obtained without carbon domains presented in the actual structure. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:50:36.385021-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400363
  • Two‐energy‐scale model for description of the thermal
           quenching of photoluminescence in disordered Ga(As,Bi)
    • Authors: M. K. Shakfa; M. Wiemer, P. Ludewig, K. Jandieri, K. Volz, W. Stolz, S. D. Baranovskii, M. Koch
      Abstract: The thermal quenching of the photoluminescence (PL) intensity in Ga(As,Bi)/GaAs heterostructures is studied experimentally and theoretically. We observed an anomalous plateau in the PL thermal quenching at intermediate temperatures under low excitation conditions. Our theoretical analysis based on a well‐approved theoretical approach shows that this peculiar behavior of the temperature‐dependent PL intensity cannot be interpreted assuming a single‐scale monotonously energy‐dependent density of localized states (DOS). Experimental data clearly point at a non‐monotonous DOS with at least two energy scales. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:50:35.334395-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400369
  • Structural, electrical and luminescent properties of ZnO:Li films
           fabricated by screen‐printing method on sapphire substrate
    • Authors: L. Khomenkova; V. I. Kushnirenko, M. M. Osipyonok, O. F. Syngaivsky, T. V. Zashivailo, G. S. Pekar, Yu. O. Polishchuk, V. P. Kladko, L. V. Borkovska
      Abstract: Undoped and Li‐doped ZnO thick films were fabricated by a screen‐printing technique on sapphire substrate. The effect of sintering temperature (TS = 800, 900 and 1000 °C) and Li content ([Li] = 0.003, 0.03 and 0.3 wt%) on the photoluminescence (PL), electrical and structural properties of the films was investigated. The X‐ray diffraction shows that all the films are polycrystalline with a wurtzite structure. It is found that both high sintering temperature and low Li content favour formation of the low‐resistive films with an enhanced UV emission. The high Li content stimulates an appearance of semi‐insulating behaviour of the films and deteriorated PL properties. It is shown that the effect of Li‐doping on light‐emitting properties of the films consists mainly in the modification of the film crystallinity and the engineering of the concentration of intrinsic defects. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:40:18.406098-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400232
  • Control of extended defects in cast and seed cast Si ingots for
           photovoltaic application
    • Authors: Takashi Sekiguchi; Karolin Jiptner, Ronit R. Prakash, Jun Chen, Yoshiji Miyamura, Hirofumi Harada, S. Nakano, Bin Gao, Koichi Kakimoto
      Abstract: We discuss the defect evolution in conventional cast and seed cast Si ingot growths for photovoltaic application. Three different cast Si ingots were grown in one directional solidification furnace. The two extremes are the seed cast ingots (mono‐Si), where growth starts from monocrystalline silicon seeds, and the multicrystalline silicon grown from small randomly oriented grains. The conventional multicrystalline (mc‐) cast Si ingots are grown without any seeds and have grain structures in between the two extremes. It was found that in mc‐Si the evolution of grain boundaries take place in several steps. On the other hand, the major defects in mono‐Si are dislocations and are generated by stress due to thermal gradient in the ingot. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:40:17.44391-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400230
  • EBIC and LBIC investigations of dislocation trails in Si
    • Authors: O. V. Feklisova; V. I. Orlov, E. B. Yakimov
      Abstract: The recombination properties of dislocation trails formed behind moving dislocations in plastically deformed Si have been investigated by the electron beam induced current and laser beam induced current methods. It is found that for dislocations moving with a velocity lower than 10–5cm/s the contrast of dislocation trails does not noticeably depend on the velocity value. It is shown that the dislocation type is not unique parameter determining the recombination activity of defects in the dislocation trails. A dislocation bending in near surface layers is found also to affect the defect formation in the dislocation trails. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:40:16.185628-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400223
  • Impact of bismuth incorporation into (Ga,Mn)As thin films on their
           structural and magnetic properties
    • Authors: K. Levchenko; T. Andrearczyk, J. Z. Domagala, T. Wosinski, T. Figielski, J. Sadowski
      Abstract: Structural and magnetic properties of thin films of the (Ga,Mn)(Bi,As) quaternary diluted magnetic semiconductor grown by the low‐temperature molecular‐beam epitaxy technique on GaAs substrates have been investigated. High‐resolution X‐ray diffraction has been applied to characterize the structural quality and misfit strain in the films. Ferromagnetic Curie temperature and magneto‐crystalline anisotropy of the films have been examined by using SQUID magnetometry and low‐temperature magneto‐transport measurements. Post‐growth annealing treatment of the films has been shown to reduce the strain in the films and to enhance their Curie temperature. Significant increase in the magnitude of magneto‐transport effects caused by incorporation of a small amount of Bi into the films is interpreted as a result of enhanced spin‐orbit coupling in the (Ga,Mn)(Bi,As) films. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:40:14.989456-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400219
  • Extended defects in MBE‐grown CdTe‐based solar cells
    • Abstract: Extended defects in the p ‐ZnTe/n ‐CdTe heterojunctions grown by the molecular‐beam epitaxy technique on two different substrates, GaAs and CdTe, have been investigated by deep‐level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Four hole traps, called H1 to H4, and one electron trap, called E3, have been revealed in the DLTS spectra measured for the heterojunctions grown on the GaAs substrates. The H1, H3, H4 and E3 traps have been attributed to the electronic states of dislocations on the ground of their logarithmic capture kinetics. The DLTS peaks associated with the H1 and E3 traps were not observed in the DLTS spectra measured for the heterojunction grown on the CdTe substrate. They are most likely associated with threading dislocations generated at the mismatched interface with the GaAs substrate. Cross‐sectional TEM images point out that they are dislocations of the 60°‐type. In both the types of heterojunctions the H4 trap was observed only under forward‐bias filling pulse, suggesting that this trap is associated with the CdTe/ZnTe interface. In addition, TEM images revealed also the presence of intrinsic and extrinsic stacking faults in the CdTe layers, which may considerably affect their electronic properties. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:40:09.253278-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400217
  • Electronic structure of threading dislocations in wurtzite GaN
    • Authors: I. Belabbas; J. Chen, G. Nouet
      Abstract: We have carried out atomistic simulations, based on density functional theory, to investigate the atomic and electronic structures of the three types of prismatic threading dislocations in hexagonal gallium nitride. Screw and mixed threading dislocations were demonstrated to introduce both deep and shallow gap states, while most of core configurations of the edge dislocation introduce solely shallow states. The higher electrical activity of both screw and mixed dislocations, compared to the edge one, is correlated with the high dispersion of their energy levels, within the GaN bandgap. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-13T04:30:13.232276-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400215
  • Impact of dopants and silicon structure dimensions on {113}‐defect
           formation during 2 MeV electron irradiation in an UHVEM
    • Authors: J. Vanhellemont; S. Anada, T. Nagase, H. Yasuda, A. Schulze, H. Bender, R. Rooyackers, A. Vandooren
      Abstract: When processing Si nanowire based Tunnel Field Effect Transistors (TFETS's), a significant reduction of B diffusion with decreasing nanowire diameter is observed and attributed to reduced transient enhanced diffusion close to the nanowire surface caused by the recombination and out‐diffusion of excess self‐interstitials. In this study, Ultra High Voltage Electron Microscopy (UHVEM) is used to study in situ the formation of self‐interstitial clusters in nanowire based TFET containing samples prepared by Focused Ion Beam (FIB) thinning. Si nanowires with diameters ranging from 40 to 500 nm are irradiated in an UHVEM using different fluxes of 2 MeV electrons at temperatures between room temperature and 375 °C. A strong dependence of defect formation on nanowire radius and on dopant concentration and type is observed. The UHVEM observations are compared with simulations based on quasi‐chemical reaction rate theory and with two dimensional dopant concentration distributions determined with high‐vacuum Scanning Spreading Resistance Microscopy (SSRM). (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-13T04:30:12.095424-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400222
  • Peculiarities of defect generation under injection current in LEDs based
           on A3N nanostructures
    • Authors: Natalia Shmidt; Evgeniia Shabunina, Alexander Usikov, Anton Chernyakov, Sergey Kurin, Hikki Helava, Yuri Makarov
      Abstract: It has been demonstrated that, along with well‐known mechanisms of defect generation (DG) under injection current in fabricated UV‐ and commercial blue‐LED chips based on A3N nanostructures, other defect generation mechanisms are possible in local regions. Aging experiments performed simultaneously with analysis of evolution of I‐V characteristics at U < 2 V and spectral noise density dependences on current density, revealed DG with participation of multi‐phonon recombination of carriers in an extended defect system and local regions of random alloy fluctuations enriched by metallic atoms (Ga or In). (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-11T06:10:32.205478-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400218
  • EBIC investigations of dislocations in ELOG GaN
    • Authors: E. B. Yakimov; A. Y. Polyakov
      Abstract: Dislocations in the ELOG n‐GaN films have been studied by the Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC) method. The effect of dopant concentration and diffusion length values on the dislocation EBIC profile is revealed. It is shown that the width of dislocation image in the EBIC mode decreases with a diffusion length decrease and the dopant concentration increase. In the crystals with the submicron diffusion length the individual dislocations can be separated in the EBIC images up to the dislocation densities higher that 109cm‐2. The radius of dislocation related defect cylinder was found to increase with the dopant concentration decreasing that could be explained under an assumption that dislocations in GaN are charged. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-11T06:10:31.257827-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400220
  • About dislocation and oxygen related luminescence of Si around 0.8 eV
    • Authors: M. Kittler; T. Arguirov, M. Reiche, C. Krause, D. Mankovics
      Abstract: In conjunction with the two‐level model the temperature behaviour of the dislocation‐related D1‐peak follows the T‐behaviour of the band gap. Based on luminescence observations in our laboratory and on literature data we propose a ∼30 meV wide domain of the D1 peak. Altogether, the D1‐peak position ranges between about 0.76 eV at 300 K and nearly 0.84 eV at a few K. It was shown that the energetic shift for a certain temperature is caused by external electric fields, by excitation level, that affects the intrinsic dislocation field, and by elastic stress. The luminescence of oxygen‐related defects / precipitates might be described by a line at ∼ 0.77 eV (P‐line) that does not depend on temperature. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-11T06:10:30.379016-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400231
  • Materials characterization and device analysis for evaluation of
           semiconductor processes by highly‐sophisticated photoelastic stress
           measurement technique
    • Authors: Martin Herms; Matthias Wagner, Alexander Molchanov, Pinyen Lin, Ingrid De Wolf, Ming Zhao
      Abstract: SIRD (Scanning Infrared Depolarization Imager) and SIREX (Scanning Infrared Stress Explorer) are measurement systems to evaluate and visualize the stress distribution in semiconductor materials and devices. Some main fields of application are crystal growth, high temperature processing of silicon wafers as well as the 3D‐structuring of silicon‐based microelectronic devices. The used strategies of measurement are different. SIRD and SIREX are equipped with versatile software packages that allow to separate defect‐related stress states of interest, for instance slip‐lines in GaN‐overgrown silicon. Micro‐holes fabricated for wafer marking and 3D TSV (through silicon vias) structures have been analyzed with micrometer resolution. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-11T06:10:29.508895-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400356
  • Control of extended defects in cast multicrystalline silicon using
           polycrystalline template
    • Authors: Ronit R. Prakash; Karolin Jiptner, Jun Chen, Yoshiji Miyamura, Hirofumi Harada, Takashi Sekiguchi
      Abstract: Extended defects were controlled using polycrystalline silicon as a template for cast‐growth of multicrystalline silicon. At the initial stage of growth, small randomly oriented grains with a high density of random type grain boundaries were obtained. With growth, the grain size increased and the fraction of random grain boundaries decreased. Electrical activity of defects was investigated and it was found that with growth, network of small angle grain boundaries became the most electrically active defects. This network of small angle grain boundaries were found to have a tilt angle less than 3° and were mainly found in elongating grains. The density of these highly electrically active grain boundaries increased with growth. This can be attributed to propagation and agglomeration of dislocations into small angle grain boundaries. The high density of random grain boundaries in this ingot may suppress dislocation propagation between grains, however they do not intersect elongating grains enabling dislocation propagation in elongated grains. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-04-24T03:30:05.844509-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400299
  • Modeling micromechanical response to thermal history in bulk grown
           aluminum nitride
    • Authors: Payman Karvani; Antoinette M. Maniatty
      Abstract: A thermal‐elastic‐viscoplastic model suitable for modeling aluminum nitride (AlN) during crystal growth is presented. A crystal plasticity model that considers slip along crystallographic slip systems and the evolution of mobile and immobile dislocations on the prismatic and basal slip systems is developed. The model has been implemented into a finite element framework, and a sublimation growth process is modeled to demonstrate the model capability. The dislocation density, which characterizes the crystal quality, and the maximum tensile stress on the cleavage planes (m ‐planes), which leads to cracking, are computed. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18T08:10:22.937267-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201100189
  • Contents: Phys. Status Solidi C 8/2015
    • Pages: 1061 - 1064
      PubDate: 2015-08-20T06:38:45.434078-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201570098
  • Extended Defects in Semiconductors
    • Authors: Michael Seibt; Martin Kittler
      Pages: 1065 - 1066
      Abstract: This proceedings volume of physica status solidi contains papers presented at the 17th International Conference on Extended Defects in Semiconductors (EDS 2014). They have been selected during a peer‐review process. The conference was organized by the Georg‐August‐University Göttingen and was held at the Physics Faculty as part of the university's North Campus in Göttingen from September 14 to 19, 2014. The biennial conference series on Extended Defects in Semiconductors started with a meeting in Hünfeld, Germany, in 1978. Subsequent meetings took place in France, Great Britain, Germany, Italy, Poland, Russia and the preceding EDS 2012 in Thessaloniki (Greece). EDS 2014 was a conference following the tradition of previous conferences of this series, i.e. it brought together experts in fundamental and applied research on structural defects in current and future semiconducting material systems, their nanostructures and devices. For the first time, carbon‐related materials had been included. It provided a forum for excellent presentations and lively discussions in a stimulating scientific atmosphere. Topics of the conference included – Thin films and heterostructures – Low‐dimensional systems and related defects: semiconductor nanocrystals, quantum wells, quantum dots, nanowires – Extended defects in C‐related materials (incl. graphen) – Interface structures and defect interaction – Doping‐, irradiation‐, and implantation‐induced defects – Electronic structure of defects – Defect engineering, strain engineering – Mechanical properties and dislocation dynamics – Role of defects in optoelectronic and magnetic properties – Degradation mechanisms in semiconductor devices – Atomistic and multiscale simulations, modeling approaches of defects, interfaces and nanostructures – Advanced characterisation techniques and methods for the investigation of semiconductor materials, in‐situ imaging and analysis – Interaction of point and extended defects, point defect agglomeration – Materials for solar energy conversion and energy storage. The organizers want to express their gratitude to all members of the EDS Scientific Committee as well as to the members of the EDS 2014 Program Committee and all referees for their invaluable work. Support by the Georg‐August‐University and the CRC1073 is also gratefully acknowledged. Last but not least, we thank all participants of EDS 2014 whose excellent contributions built the base for a fruitful and stimulating conference. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-08-20T06:38:45.549282-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201570099
  • Numerical analysis of light elements transport in a unidirectional
           solidification furnace
    • Authors: Koichi Kakimoto; Bing Gao, Satoshi Nakano
      Abstract: Quantitative study of light elements such as carbon and oxygen in multi‐crystalline silicon for solar cells is required to grow crystals with high quality. The transport of both carbon and oxygen is one of the critical issues to increase efficiency of solar cells made of silicon materials. Concentrations of carbon and oxygen in a furnace affect each others, therefore it is important to control mass transfer of carbon and oxygen in a furnace. Numerical calculation with a chemical reaction between carbon and oxygen was carried out to study how both light impurities are incorporated into crystals through the melt and gas during solidification process. The effects of flow rate and pressure on the impurities were examined. An increase in the flow rate can reduce both carbon and oxygen impurities in the crystal, though the reduction of carbon is more obvious. An increase in gas pressure can also obviously reduce the oxygen impurity but has only a small effect on the carbon impurity (© 2010 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2010-11-15T04:22:05.648279-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.200900117
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