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PHYSICS (565 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Noise & Vibration Worldwide     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Noise Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Nuclear Engineering and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Nuclear Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Nuclear Receptor     Full-text available via subscription  
Open Journal of Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Microphysics     Open Access  
Open Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Optical Communications and Networking, IEEE/OSA Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Optofluidics, Microfluidics and Nanofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Organic Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Organic Photonics and Photovoltaics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
PAJ: A Journal of Performance and Art     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Papers in Physics     Open Access  
Particle Physics Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Particuology     Hybrid Journal  
Pattern Recognition in Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pergamon Materials Series     Full-text available via subscription  
Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Philosophical Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Philosophy and Foundations of Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Physica B: Condensed Matter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
physica status solidi (a)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
physica status solidi (b)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
physica status solidi (c)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physica Status Solidi - Rapid Research Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physical Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Physical Review C     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Physical Review Special Topics - Physics Education Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Physical Review X     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Physical Sciences Data     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physics - spotlighting exceptional research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physics and Chemistry of Glasses - European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part B     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Physics and Chemistry of Liquids: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Physics and Materials Chemistry     Open Access  
Physics Essays     Full-text available via subscription  
Physics in Medicine & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Physics in Perspective     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physics International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Physics Letters A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Physics Letters B     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Physics of Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Physics of Life Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physics of Plasmas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Physics of the Dark Universe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Physics of the Solid State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Physics of Wave Phenomena     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physics Procedia     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Physics Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Physics Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Physics Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Physics World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Physics-Uspekhi     Full-text available via subscription  
Physik in unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physik Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Plasma Physics Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pramana     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Preview     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 460)
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Progress in Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Progress in Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics     Open Access  
Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Quantum Measurements and Quantum Metrology     Open Access  
Quantum Studies : Mathematics and Foundations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Radiation Measurements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Radiation Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Radiation Protection Dosimetry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Radiation Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Radio Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Radiological Physics and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Reflets de la physique     Full-text available via subscription  
Reports on Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Reports on Progress in Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Research in Drama Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Research Journal of Physics     Open Access  
Results in Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Reviews in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal  
Reviews of Accelerator Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Reviews of Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Reviews of Modern Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Revista Boliviana de Física     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Física     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Física     Open Access  
Revista mexicana de física E     Open Access  
Rheologica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Russian Journal of Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal  
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover   physica status solidi (c)
  [SJR: 0.471]   [H-I: 31]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1862-6351 - ISSN (Online) 1610-1642
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1609 journals]
  • Study of the structural and magnetic properties of Fe‐doped ZnO
    • Authors: Oudjertli Salah; Bensalem Rachid, Alleg Safia, J. J. Suñol, Mohamed Bououdina, Miloud Ibrir
      Abstract: In this work we study the ZnO powder nanoparticles mechanically alloyed doped with iron to investigate the structural, microstructural and magnetic properties using X‐ray diffraction (XRD) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The ZnO starting pure powder exhibited a hexagonal crystal structure with space group P63mc of ZnO, however, with the introduction of 1% Fe in the ZnO milled powder, the hexagonal ZnO phase remained unchanged, whereas the microstructural parameters were subject to significant variations due to the introduction of Fe atoms into the ZnO hexagonal matrix to replace oxygen ones. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T02:10:17.26719-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201500007
  • Cathodoluminescence study of optical properties along the growth direction
           of ZnO films on GaN substrate
    • Authors: Jianyu Wang; Yoshitomo Harada, Masatomo Sumiya, Yi Shi, Takashi Sekiguchi
      Abstract: c‐plane ZnO films were eptiaxially grown on c‐GaN/sapphire substrate by MOCVD. Cathodoluminescence (CL) line scan was performed on the cross‐sectional ZnO/GaN films. These CL spectra shapes show a variation along the growth direction with a peak position shift, which can be divided into three stages. The study of the three stages reflects the growth mode alteration from the interface between ZnO and GaN to the surface. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T02:10:16.352358-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400224
  • Nano‐scale pattern formation on the surface of HgCdTe produced by
           ion bombardment
    • Authors: A. B. Smirnov; A. I. Gudymenko, V. P. Kladko, A. A. Korchevyi, R. K. Savkina, F. F. Sizov, R. S. Udovitska
      Abstract: Presented in this work are the results concerning formation of nano‐scale patterns on the surface of a ternary compound Hg1–xCdxTe (x ∼ 0.223). Modification of this ternary chalcogenide semiconductor compound was performed using the method of oblique‐incidence ion bombardment with silver ions, which was followed by low‐temperature treatment. The energy and dose of implanted ions were 140 keV and 4.8×1013 cm‐2, respectively. Atomic force microscopy methods were used for the surface topography characterization. The structural properties of MCT‐based structure was analyzed using double and triple crystal X‐ray diffraction to monitor the disorder and strain of the implanted region as a function of processing conditions. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T02:10:15.490593-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400302
  • Strain and carrier transport along dislocations
    • Authors: Manfred Reiche; Martin Kittler, Eckhard Pippel, Winfried Erfurth, Angelika Haehnel, Hartmut Uebensee
      Abstract: A significant increase of the drain current is verified if defined numbers and types of dislocations are present in the channel of MOSFETs. For pMOSFETs, analysed here, an enhancement by a factor of eight exists if mixed dislocations are placed in the channel. The drain current increase is caused by higher concentration and higher mobility of holes on dislocations. It is shown that cores of mixed dislocations possess uniaxial compressive strain components in the order of ε ≅ –0.1 which are significantly higher than in the strain field surrounding a dislocation. The exceptional high uniaxial strain results in dramatic alterations of the silicon band structure. Upward shifts of the upper valence bands appear forming a quantum wire. The generation of the quantum wire forces hole confinement along dislocations and generates a one‐dimensional hole gas (1DHG). Confinement and energy quantization are assumed to be most important for the increased carrier transport along dislocations. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T02:10:14.581964-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400298
  • Grain boundary recombination in semiconductors: the grain boundary
           interaction case
    • Authors: René‐Jean Tarento; Djamel‐Eddine Mekki
      Abstract: The recombination velocity and the barrier height at a grain boundary are investigated with respect to the interaction between two parallel grain boundaries. A self‐consistent calculation has been performed within the Read‐Hall‐Shockley framework. The procedure takes into account of the space‐charge region and the quasi‐neutral region assuming a rigid displacement of the bands. The grain‐boundary energy states are considered in the half‐filled‐level model. The dependence of the recombination parameters are reported versus the excitation and the semiconductor and grain‐boundary characteristics. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T02:10:13.592128-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400243
  • Properties of near‐surface layer of 64Zn+ ion hot‐implanted Si
    • Authors: Vladimir Privezentsev; Vaclav Kulikauskas, Eduard Steinman, Alexey Tereshchenko, Anatoly Bazhenov, Nataliya Tabachkova, Alexander Batrakov
      Abstract: We have investigated nanoparticles (NPs) formation in Si by 64Zn+ ion implantation at substrate temperature of 350 °C. Hot implantation was chosen to avoid amorphization of Si near‐surface layer. In as‐implanted samples the Zn crystal NPs were created. Then the samples were subsequently subjected to isochronous annealing in oxygen at elevated temperatures. The depth profile of implanted Zn was analyzed by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. The dependence of photo‐luminescence spectra on annealing temperatures was observed. In these spectra the peak at 370 nm attributable to ZnO phase and wide peak at 430 nm due to defects were revealed. The visualization and identification of NPs were obtained by transmission electron microscopy and transmission electron diffraction of cross‐section samples. From these study it follows, that after annealing at temperature of 700 °C and higher the NPs with structure of Zn(core)/ZnO · Zn2SiO4(shell) were formed. Auger electron spectroscopy investigation followed the phase content in depth profile was varied from ZnO Zn2SiO4 at a substrate surface to metal Zn in a substrate body. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T02:10:12.78557-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400234
  • Thermal activation and temperature dependent PL and CL of Tb doped
           amorphous AlN and SiN thin films
    • Authors: J. Andres Guerra; Liz Montañez, Albrecht Winnacker, Francisco De Zela, Roland Weingärtner
      Abstract: The effect of terbium (Tb) doping on the photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra of amorphous aluminum nitride (a ‐AlN) and amorphous silicon nitride (a ‐SiN) thin films has been investigated for different temperature conditions. The samples were prepared by RF dual magnetron reactive sputtering technique with a Tb concentration of about ∼1 at% An enhancement of the light emission is obtained after thermal annealing treatments following the activation of luminescent centers. Furthermore, the Tb related integrated light emission intensity is reported exhibiting a continuous increase with the samples temperature well below thermal quenching for both materials. This behavior suggests a phonon assisted energy migration mechanism which contributes to the effective energy transfer from the matrix to the Tb ions. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T02:10:11.771988-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400226
  • Nanoscopic studies of 2D‐extended defects in silicon that cause
           shunting of Si‐solar cells
    • Authors: Volker Naumann; Dominik Lausch, Angelika Hähnel, Otwin Breitenstein, Christian Hagendorf
      Abstract: Potential‐induced degradation (PID) can cause massive power losses in photovoltaic power plants with serially connected modules when high electrical potential between solar cells and the module front glass surface leads to shunting of Si solar cells. The shunting is reversible to a large extend through elevated temperatures and/or by application of reversed voltages. It was previously shown that PID‐related shunting (PID‐s) of the p‐n junction occurs due to Na‐decorated stacking faults in {111} planes. Defects at former PID‐shunt positions that have been thermally ‘healed' (recovered) do not show a Na decoration anymore. In this contribution we investigate stacking faults with Na decoration and with vanished Na decoration after thermal recovery. HAADF STEM imaging is used for principal investigation of the atomic structure of PID‐s defects. The Na decorated stacking fault appears as a dark region in the HAADF STEM image. By contrast, the atomic structure of the recovered stacking fault can be clearly imaged. The orientation of Si dumbbells indicates an extrinsic stacking fault that remains after recovery by Na out‐diffusion. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T02:10:10.903646-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400225
  • Hydrogen induced growth and coalescence of helium‐based defects
    • Authors: Maxime Vallet; Jean‐François Barbot, Steve Donnelly, Jonathan Hinks, Marie‐France Beaufort1
      Abstract: The first stages of growth of He‐based planar defects under H supply have been investigated in (001)‐oriented Si. The H atoms were introduced by implantation using the MIAMI facility. Implantations at different temperatures were conducted in the microscope chamber and thus the evolution of He‐plates under H implantation was observed in real‐time. In situ transmission electron microscopy during the subsequent annealing was also performed. Results show that the growth phenomena are governed by diffusion mechanisms. The kinetic model of Johnson‐Mehl‐Avrami‐Kolmogorov was successfully applied to model the evolution of the diameters of the He‐plates either as function of the temperature of annealing or of the fluence. Isotropic coalescence of close defects occurs when the out‐of plane tensile stress reaches the yield strength. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-15T06:20:10.787521-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400361
  • On the dislocation core structures associated to point defect cluster
           formation in diamond and silicon
    • Authors: Jacques Rabier; Frédéric Pailloux, Laurent Pizzagalli
      Abstract: This paper focuses on the dislocation configurations that show up during the annihilation of a perfect dislocation vacancy dipole. Indeed unexpected transient dislocation core structures can be evidenced out of the atomistic structures computed during this annihilation process. Using the Geometric Phase Analysis these dislocation configurations can be analysed as partial dislocations, resulting from the dissociation of a perfect dislocation with ½[110] Burgers vector, bounding a nano crack (or a point defect cluster) along a (111) shuffle plane. Those partial dislocations appear as to be associated with an incipient dissociation/crack present in the core of perfect shuffle dislocations. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-15T06:20:09.709924-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400370
  • Retraction: Poly(3‐hexylthiophene) films by electrospray deposition
           for crystalline silicon/organic hybrid junction solar cells
    • Authors: Taiga Hiate; Naoto Miyauchi, Zeguo Tang, Ryo Ishikawa, Keiji Ueno, Hajime Shirai
      Abstract: The above article, published online on 25 July 2015 in Wiley Online Library (, has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor‐in‐Chief, Stefan Hildebrandt, and Wiley‐VCH GmbH & Co. KGaA. The retraction has been agreed since the contents of the article have already been published by the corresponding author in Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 061602 (2015) on 4 June 2015. The manuscript submitted to physica status solidi (c) was part of the E‐MRS 2015 Spring Meeting, Symposium A, Proceedings. The authors regret the dual publication and express their sincere apologies to readers.
      PubDate: 2015-07-07T06:20:34.214521-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201570094
  • Cover Picture: Phys. Status Solidi C 7/2015
    • Abstract: Min Ling and Chris Blackman have investigated in their paper on pp. 869–877 the morphology of an as‐deposited tungsten oxide thin film, deposited via chemical vapour deposition (CVD), and find it varies from planar to nanorod (NR) according to distance from the inlet. To understand what controls this change in morphology they have used simple equations to describe the growth rate (perpendicular to substrate) and nucleation rate (parallel to substrate) as a function of the deposition conditions, e.g. the actual temperature on the substrate surface and concentration of precursor, at particular points on the substrate. They find, by comparison of experimental findings with these equations, that when the ratio of 'perpendicular growth rate/growth rate contributed by nucleation' is higher than a critical value (7.1) the as‐deposited tungsten oxide thin film forms as NR. This understanding provides parameters to allow targeted deposition of tungsten oxide with specific morphologies.
      PubDate: 2015-07-06T03:26:26.296101-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201570090
  • Issue Information: Phys. Status Solidi C 7/2015
    • PubDate: 2015-07-06T03:26:24.324171-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201570091
  • Thermal decomposition of tungsten hexacarbonyl: CVD of W‐containing
           films under Pd codeposition and VUV assistance
    • Authors: Vladislav V. Krisyuk; Tatyana P. Koretskaya, Asiya E. Turgambaeva, Sergey V. Trubin, Ilya V. Korolkov, Olivier Debieu, Thomas Duguet, Igor K. Igumenov, Constantin Vahlas
      Abstract: Experiments on chemical vapor deposition of W(CO)6‐derived films on silicon substrates were carried out at total pressure of 5‐10 Torr within the temperature range of 250‐350 °C; in Ar or H2 flow. Metallic, carbide and oxide phases composed the obtained films. Deposition in presence of hydrogen results in the increase of the metal content in the film. Sublimed palladium hexafluoracetylacetonate Pd(hfa)2 was used for Pd catalytic promotion of the deposition process. Codeposition with Pd(hfa)2 in hydrogen increases W‐metal fraction and oxygen content while the Pd content is up to 10 at.%. Influence of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation from Xe excimer lamp (λ ∼172 nm) on the quality of the obtained films was investigated. It was found that VUV irradiation can reduce the oxygen‐content in the film while W‐metal fraction slightly increases. In all films, oxygen was in the form of WO3 and carbon was mainly incorporated as a graphite metastable phase. The influence of other chemical additives is discussed. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T06:10:11.457133-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510020
  • Iron deposition on multi‐walled carbon nanotubes by fluidized bed
           MOCVD for aeronautic applications
    • Authors: Pierre Lassègue; Laure Noé, Marc Monthioux, Brigitte Caussat
      Abstract: The fluidized bed MOCVD process has been studied in order to uniformly deposit iron nanoparticles on the outer surface of multi‐walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) tangled in balls of 388 µm in diameter. Using ferrocene as organometallic precursor at atmospheric pressure, various reactive atmospheres of deposition (under N2, air and H2) and an ozone O3 surface pre‐treatment of MWCNTs were tested. Around 10 g Fe/100 g MWNCTs were deposited during each run. Under N2 at 650 °C on the raw MWCNTs, nanoparticles formed of Fe and Fe3C were deposited which have catalyzed the formation of carbon nanofibers (CNFs). 20 h of ozone (O3) pre‐treatment improved the number and distribution of iron nanoparticles but without increasing the surface coverage of nanotubes. A more intense amorphous carbon deposit also appeared. Under H2 at 550 °C, the amorphous carbon was partly eliminated but fewer iron nanoparticles were present. Under air at 450 °C, a part of the MWCNTs was lost and a Fe2O3 shell covered each remaining MWCNTs ball. New works are in progress to increase more markedly the surface reactivity of MWCNTs and to deposit pure iron. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T06:10:10.320753-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510036
  • PEALD AlN: Controlling growth and film crystallinity
    • Authors: Sourish Banerjee; Antonius A. I. Aarnink, Robbert van de Kruijs, Alexey Y. Kovalgin, Jurriaan Schmitz
      Abstract: We report on the growth kinetics and material properties of aluminium nitride (AlN) films deposited on Si(111), with plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). Tri‐methyl aluminium (TMA) and NH3‐plasma were used as the precursors. The ALD window was identified in terms of the process parameters, and it showed that a 0.1 s of TMA pulse, 8 s of NH3‐plasma pulse, and 350 °C were the optimal conditions for ALD to occur. In‐situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), using a Cauchy optical model, was used to monitor the film growth in real time. The composition of the as‐grown AlN films were determined by X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which revealed Al/N compositions of approximately 46% and 53%, also with low impurity (O, C) levels. The film crystallinity, measured with grazing incidence X‐ray diffraction (GIXRD), showed polycrystalline hexagonal (wurtzitic) crystalline planes. Finally, several techniques were employed to influence the film crystallinity. These included: ALD at different plasma powers and temperatures, in‐situ treatment of the Si(111) wafer with different plasma parameters (composition, power, duration) prior to deposition, and ALD on Si(100) and SiO2 substrates. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T06:10:09.20925-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510039
  • Problems of hydrogen high‐temperature activation by chemical vapor
           deposition of diamond films
    • Authors: Alexey Rebrov; Ivan Yudin
      Abstract: The presented study is the original analysis of hydrogen flow in channels with heterogeneous physical‐chemical reactions. It provides the possibility to evaluate, calculate and predict unknown constants of heterogeneous reactions, using experimental data on dissociation at low pressures. It can be the base of conclusive data for computational modelling of CVD, using high velocity gas mixture flows. Till now there was no way to calculate the flow of hydrogen in tungsten channels in regimes of diamond deposition. The presented research allows formulate the problem of studies the heterogeneous reactions not only for diamond deposition. In the result of precise measurements of fragment fluxes behind heat‐resistant capillaries from refractory metals or ceramics at low pressure and direct statistical simulation of gas mixture flows one can determine collisional constants for simple molecules. Such approach is more preferential than expensive and sophisticated molecular beam methods. So possibilities of CVD can be extended. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T06:10:08.319473-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510042
  • A computational view on vapour phase coagulation of nanoparticles
           synthesized by atmospheric pressure PECVD
    • Authors: Maxim V. Mishin; Kirill Y. Zamotin, Vera S. Protopopova, Andrey A. Uvarov, Leonid A. Filatov, Marina V. Baryshnikova, Irina K. Boricheva, Sergey E. Alexandrov
      Abstract: The article covers the computational framework providing an insight on vapour phase coagulation of nanoparticles synthesized by atmospheric pressure PECVD in an RF capacitive discharge. The proposed model is based on the solution of motion equations for neutral and charged nanoparticles in the plasma downstream area featuring a nonuniform distribution of electric potential. Within the model particles collisions are accounted by an O'Rourke derived stochastic method, reduction of computational time is attained by division of the nanoparticle stack into parcels. We argue that nanoparticles are mainly synthesized in the plasma downstream area. Size distribution of the particles is governed by their uneven motion in the nonuniform electric field. We demonstrate that particles of tens of nanometer in diameter result from coagulation of neutral nanoparticles, whereas the larger nanoparticles result from coagulation of charged particles. The model shows that charged particles trapped in the potential well in the vicinity of the discharge electrode grow up to micron size. The proposed model is validated by the experimental results of silicon dioxide nanoparticles synthesis; it may be extended to a vast range of materials provided certain modifications of the particles motion equations are done. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T06:10:07.19109-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510044
  • AACVD synthesis of catalytic gold nanoparticle‐modified cerium(IV)
           oxide thin films
    • Authors: Meghan Evans; Francesco Di Maggio, Chris Blackman, Gopinathan Sankar
      Abstract: Co‐deposition of Ce(dbm)4 and NH4AuCl4 precursors in acetone at 500 °C via AACVD results in deposition of crystalline CeO2 thin films containing/decorated with metallic gold. These particles are estimated to be ∼ 70 nm in size via optical methods. Preliminary testing of catalytic activity showed the materials were surprisingly catalytically active given the very small amounts of gold present and the large estimated particle size, although the presence of smaller catalytically active particles could not be discounted. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T06:10:06.081978-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510055
  • Atomic redistribution of implanted Fe and associated defects around moving
           SiO2/Si interfaces
    • Authors: Anthony De Luca; Nelly Burle, Alain Portavoce, Catherine Grosjean, Stéphane Morata, Michaël Texier
      Abstract: The behaviour of Fe atoms at the Si/SiO2 interface, as a modelisation of an involuntary Fe contamination before or during the oxidation process has been studied in Fe‐implanted wafers. As‐implanted and oxidized wafers were characterized by SIMS, APT, HR‐TEM and STEM‐HAADF. Successive steps of Fe segregation, iron‐silicide precipitation and dissolution were identified. As expected for such a temperature range, the iron‐silicide precipitates adopt the FeSi2 structure. Fe enriched phases were also identified in an advanced step of precipitation. Dynamic mechanisms are proposed, taking into account the competitive oxidizing of precipitates and silicon matrix, to understand the different steps and precipitation phases observed in the samples during the non‐equilibrium conditions due to the oxide layer growth. The correlation between the formation of characteristic pyramidal defects at the SiO2/Si interface and the presence of the Fe‐rich precipitates is explained. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:50:47.512159-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400233
  • Oxygen‐related defects: minority carrier lifetime killers in
           n‐type Czochralski silicon wafers for solar cell application
    • Authors: I. Kolevatov; V. Osinniy, M. Herms, A. Loshachenko, I. Shlyakhov, V. Kveder, O. Vyvenko
      Abstract: Many authors (Haunschild et al., Phys. Status Solidi RRL 5, 199–201 (2012) [1]) reported about areas in Cz‐Si with an extremely low lifetime of minority carriers after high temperature stages of solar cell manufacture. In such regions the minority carrier lifetime may be fallen 100 times after annealing, what leads to a considerable drop in the solar cell efficiency. In present work the electrical and structural properties of phosphorus doped Bosch Cz‐Si wafers with degrading areas were studied by means of photoluminescence, deep level transient spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Based on these data it is concluded that the dominant recombination channel in the degrading areas is related to strained oxygen precipitates. We found electronic states of traps which may cause their formation. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:50:44.594012-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400293
  • Effects of surface nature of different semiconductor substrates on the
           plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition growth of Al2O3 gate dielectric
           thin films
    • Authors: Emanuela Schilirò; Giuseppe Greco, Patrick Fiorenza, Cristina Tudisco, Guglielmo Guido Condorelli, Salvatore Di Franco, Fabrizio Roccaforte, Raffaella Lo Nigro
      Abstract: In this work, we present a systematic study on the effects of surface nature of two different substrates such as Si(100) and AlGaN/GaN (0001) before atomic layer deposition (ALD) growth of Al2O3 thin films. The Si and AlGaN/GaN surfaces were treated either with: H2O2:H2SO4 (1:3 piranha solution) for 10 minutes and H2O:HF (10:1) for 5 minutes. After surface pretreatment, Al2O3 was immediately deposited at 250 °C by Plasma Enhanced ALD from trimethylaluminum precursor. The film thicknesses were measured to be 28 nm using transmission electron microscopy and different structural evolution has been observed under electron beam analysis, rearraging from amorphous as‐deposited films to epitaxial films depending on the substrate type. Surface morphology obtained by atomic force microscopy in tapping mode shows scattered three‐dimensional nucleation of Al2O3 thin films on Si(001) substrate, while deposition on AlGaN/GaN(0001) resulted in smooth Al2O3 layers. Moreover, X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigation demonstrated a different interfacial interaction between the Al2O3 films and the two different substrates. However, analogous dielectric properties have been evaluated for both films deposited on the two Si(100) and AlGaN/GaN (0001) substrates. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:50:39.365014-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510016
  • Enhanced optical performance of APCVD zinc oxide via post growth plasma
           treatment at atmospheric pressure
    • Authors: John L. Hodgkinson; Heather M. Yates, David W. Sheel
      Abstract: The use of atmospheric pressure (AP) CVD to produce highly developed Transparent Conducting oxides (TCO) for thin film photovoltaic systems has significant potential to reduce manufacturing costs and increase the product scope via in‐line processing compared to off‐line, low pressure techniques. A further advantage of APCVD is the ability control surface morphology via growth parameters, a key factor in controlling the distribution of scattered light at the TCO/absorber interface. The nano‐scale features may be further optimised via post growth etching, for example, to round sharp vertices or induce or exaggerate texture in a film material that is intrinsically smooth. This is normally achieved via low pressure plasma treatments or wet chemical processes, hence the presented novel AP plasma approach here offers reduced capital costs combined with ease of scalability and process integration. In this work we describe the multi‐scale manipulation of an APCVD grown ZnO via surface morphological modification, achieved by the application of an atmospheric pressure plasma etch system. The modified surfaces are evaluated for optical and morphological properties. Initial research has shown that under the correct plasma etch conditions, optical haze can be increased by as much as 20%, with the crucial additional ability to also tailor the film surface features. The use of audio frequency and sub‐microsecond pulsed plasmas for etching are compared in terms of activity and control. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:50:38.398108-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510011
  • Structural studies of Al thin layer on misoriented GaAs(100) substrate by
           transmission electron microscopy
    • Authors: M. V. Lovygin; N. I. Borgardt, I. P. Kazakov, M. Seibt
      Abstract: A thin Al layer has been grown on a misoriented GaAs(100) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy and its structure has been studied by means of transmission electron microscopy. The metal layer is formed as grains of three orientations Al(100), Al(110) and Al(110)R. Digital analysis of dark‐field micrographs made it possible to obtain their grain sizes and relative coverage areas. By comparison with an Al layer grown on an exactly oriented GaAs(100) substrate it has been found that on the vicinal surface the relative coverage area and grain size of the Al(110)R orientation increase and the Al(100) relative coverage area decreases. This is attributed to surface atomic steps, which have been visualized in high‐resolution micrographs. The edge misfit dislocation system at the Al/GaAs interface has been revealed, which is insensitive to the substrate misorientation. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:50:37.390678-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400357
  • Turbostratic pyrocarbon structure study by means of exit wave
           reconstruction from high‐resolution transmission electron microscopy
    • Authors: A. S. Prikhodko; N. I. Borgardt, M. Seibt
      Abstract: This paper reports results of turbostratic pyrolytic carbon structure study using high‐resolution electron microscopy techniques. We obtained a through‐focus series of images and noted that domain‐like contrast features were varied depending on defocus of the objective lens. Since these features are commonly explained in terms of the domain model of pyrocarbon structure we carried out exit wave reconstruction to obtain the phase map. The visual appearance of the map indicates that the ribbon‐like model more appropriately describes the pyrocarbon structure in comparison to the domain model. In the context of the ribbon‐like model we constructed a test carbon structure using the recovered phase map and molecular dynamics modeling. After determination of atomic positions we simulated high‐resolution images of the structure. Our calculations demonstrated that high‐resolution micrographs showing domain‐like image features can be obtained without carbon domains presented in the actual structure. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:50:36.385021-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400363
  • Two‐energy‐scale model for description of the thermal
           quenching of photoluminescence in disordered Ga(As,Bi)
    • Authors: M. K. Shakfa; M. Wiemer, P. Ludewig, K. Jandieri, K. Volz, W. Stolz, S. D. Baranovskii, M. Koch
      Abstract: The thermal quenching of the photoluminescence (PL) intensity in Ga(As,Bi)/GaAs heterostructures is studied experimentally and theoretically. We observed an anomalous plateau in the PL thermal quenching at intermediate temperatures under low excitation conditions. Our theoretical analysis based on a well‐approved theoretical approach shows that this peculiar behavior of the temperature‐dependent PL intensity cannot be interpreted assuming a single‐scale monotonously energy‐dependent density of localized states (DOS). Experimental data clearly point at a non‐monotonous DOS with at least two energy scales. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:50:35.334395-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400369
  • In‐situ observation of chemical vapor deposition using SiHCl3 and
           BCl3 gases
    • Authors: Ayumi Saito; Kento Miyazaki, Misako Matsui, Hitoshi Habuka
      Abstract: The lowest temperature for initiating the film deposition was evaluated by in situ monitoring using a highly sensitive langasite crystal microbalance (LCM) in order to produce a thin boron doped silicon film using trichlorosilane gas and boron trichloride gas at low temperatures. The thin films of silicon, boron and boron‐doped silicon were individually formed from the trichlorosilane gas, boron trichloride gas and their gas mixture, respectively, on the LCM. The silicon film deposition occurred between 570 and 600 °C, while the boron film deposition occurred between 470 and 530 °C. The film deposition from both gases occurred at temperatures higher than 530 °C. Based on secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements, the boron‐doped silicon film was determined to be formed on the silicon substrate at 570 °C. Thus, the LCM could be useful for developing a thin film formation process including that for doping. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:50:34.349122-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510002
  • Alumina thin films prepared by direct liquid injection chemical vapor
           deposition of dimethylaluminum isopropoxide: a process‐structure
    • Authors: Loïc Baggetto; Jérôme Esvan, Cédric Charvillat, Diane Samélor, Hugues Vergnes, Brigitte Caussat, Alain Gleizes, Constantin Vahlas
      Abstract: The development of a new process to obtain amorphous alumina thin films is presented. We show for the first time the direct liquid injection chemical vapor deposition (DLI CVD) of alumina thin films using dimethylaluminum isopropoxide (DMAI) precursor in two oxidizing atmospheres. At high process temperature (500‐700 °C), the film growth takes place in the presence of O2 whereas at low temperature (150‐300 °C) H2O vapor is used. The materials characteristics, such as the surface morphology and roughness (SEM and AFM), crystal structure (XRD), composition (EPMA) and chemistry (XPS) are discussed in detail. Very smooth films, with typical roughness values lower than 2.0 nm are obtained. The thin films are all composed of an amorphous material with varying composition. Supported by both EPMA and XPS results, film composition evolves from a partial oxyhydroxide to a stoichiometric oxide at low deposition temperature (150‐300 °C) in the presence of H2O. At higher growth temperature (500‐700 °C) in the presence of O2, the composition changes from that of a stoichiometric oxide to a mixture of an oxide with aluminum carbide. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:50:33.183598-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510009
  • Structural, electrical and luminescent properties of ZnO:Li films
           fabricated by screen‐printing method on sapphire substrate
    • Authors: L. Khomenkova; V. I. Kushnirenko, M. M. Osipyonok, O. F. Syngaivsky, T. V. Zashivailo, G. S. Pekar, Yu. O. Polishchuk, V. P. Kladko, L. V. Borkovska
      Abstract: Undoped and Li‐doped ZnO thick films were fabricated by a screen‐printing technique on sapphire substrate. The effect of sintering temperature (TS = 800, 900 and 1000 °C) and Li content ([Li] = 0.003, 0.03 and 0.3 wt%) on the photoluminescence (PL), electrical and structural properties of the films was investigated. The X‐ray diffraction shows that all the films are polycrystalline with a wurtzite structure. It is found that both high sintering temperature and low Li content favour formation of the low‐resistive films with an enhanced UV emission. The high Li content stimulates an appearance of semi‐insulating behaviour of the films and deteriorated PL properties. It is shown that the effect of Li‐doping on light‐emitting properties of the films consists mainly in the modification of the film crystallinity and the engineering of the concentration of intrinsic defects. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:40:18.406098-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400232
  • Control of extended defects in cast and seed cast Si ingots for
           photovoltaic application
    • Authors: Takashi Sekiguchi; Karolin Jiptner, Ronit R. Prakash, Jun Chen, Yoshiji Miyamura, Hirofumi Harada, S. Nakano, Bin Gao, Koichi Kakimoto
      Abstract: We discuss the defect evolution in conventional cast and seed cast Si ingot growths for photovoltaic application. Three different cast Si ingots were grown in one directional solidification furnace. The two extremes are the seed cast ingots (mono‐Si), where growth starts from monocrystalline silicon seeds, and the multicrystalline silicon grown from small randomly oriented grains. The conventional multicrystalline (mc‐) cast Si ingots are grown without any seeds and have grain structures in between the two extremes. It was found that in mc‐Si the evolution of grain boundaries take place in several steps. On the other hand, the major defects in mono‐Si are dislocations and are generated by stress due to thermal gradient in the ingot. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:40:17.44391-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400230
  • EBIC and LBIC investigations of dislocation trails in Si
    • Authors: O. V. Feklisova; V. I. Orlov, E. B. Yakimov
      Abstract: The recombination properties of dislocation trails formed behind moving dislocations in plastically deformed Si have been investigated by the electron beam induced current and laser beam induced current methods. It is found that for dislocations moving with a velocity lower than 10–5cm/s the contrast of dislocation trails does not noticeably depend on the velocity value. It is shown that the dislocation type is not unique parameter determining the recombination activity of defects in the dislocation trails. A dislocation bending in near surface layers is found also to affect the defect formation in the dislocation trails. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:40:16.185628-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400223
  • Impact of bismuth incorporation into (Ga,Mn)As thin films on their
           structural and magnetic properties
    • Authors: K. Levchenko; T. Andrearczyk, J. Z. Domagala, T. Wosinski, T. Figielski, J. Sadowski
      Abstract: Structural and magnetic properties of thin films of the (Ga,Mn)(Bi,As) quaternary diluted magnetic semiconductor grown by the low‐temperature molecular‐beam epitaxy technique on GaAs substrates have been investigated. High‐resolution X‐ray diffraction has been applied to characterize the structural quality and misfit strain in the films. Ferromagnetic Curie temperature and magneto‐crystalline anisotropy of the films have been examined by using SQUID magnetometry and low‐temperature magneto‐transport measurements. Post‐growth annealing treatment of the films has been shown to reduce the strain in the films and to enhance their Curie temperature. Significant increase in the magnitude of magneto‐transport effects caused by incorporation of a small amount of Bi into the films is interpreted as a result of enhanced spin‐orbit coupling in the (Ga,Mn)(Bi,As) films. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:40:14.989456-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400219
  • Extended defects in MBE‐grown CdTe‐based solar cells
    • Authors: Karolina Wichrowska; Tadeusz Wosinski, Sławomir Kret, Michał Rawski, Oksana Yastrubchak, Sergij Chusnutdinow, Grzegorz Karczewski
      Abstract: Extended defects in the p ‐ZnTe/n ‐CdTe heterojunctions grown by the molecular‐beam epitaxy technique on two different substrates, GaAs and CdTe, have been investigated by deep‐level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Four hole traps, called H1 to H4, and one electron trap, called E3, have been revealed in the DLTS spectra measured for the heterojunctions grown on the GaAs substrates. The H1, H3, H4 and E3 traps have been attributed to the electronic states of dislocations on the ground of their logarithmic capture kinetics. The DLTS peaks associated with the H1 and E3 traps were not observed in the DLTS spectra measured for the heterojunction grown on the CdTe substrate. They are most likely associated with threading dislocations generated at the mismatched interface with the GaAs substrate. Cross‐sectional TEM images point out that they are dislocations of the 60°‐type. In both the types of heterojunctions the H4 trap was observed only under forward‐bias filling pulse, suggesting that this trap is associated with the CdTe/ZnTe interface. In addition, TEM images revealed also the presence of intrinsic and extrinsic stacking faults in the CdTe layers, which may considerably affect their electronic properties. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:40:09.253278-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400217
  • Process‐structure‐properties relationship in direct liquid
           injection chemical vapor deposition of amorphous alumina from aluminum
    • Authors: Pierre‐Luc Etchepare; Loïc Baggetto, Hugues Vergnes, Diane Samélor, Daniel Sadowski, Brigitte Caussat, Constantin Vahlas
      Abstract: We propose a method to apply amorphous alumina films on the inner surface of glass containers aiming to improve their hydrothermal barrier property. We have carried out alumina deposition on Si substrates as a function of deposition temperature to determine the physico‐chemical properties of the thin film materials, and on glass containers to evaluate the influence of post‐deposition hydrothermal ageing on the films properties. Film preparation has been achieved by metal‐organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), using tri‐isopropoxide aluminum (ATI) dissolved in anhydrous cyclohexane as precursor, in a temperature range between 360 °C and 600 °C. A direct liquid injection technology is used to feed the reactor in a controlled and reproducible way. The amorphous alumina films have been characterized by several techniques such as XRD, EPMA, XPS, SEM, AFM and scratch‐test method. Films are amorphous and hydroxylated at 360 and 420 °C and close to stoichiometric at 490 and 560 °C. Hydrothermal ageing simulated by a standard sterilization cycle modifies the adhesion and surface morphology of the alumina film on glass containers to a rough, porous and non‐adhesive layer. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-26T12:51:45.89562-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510037
  • MOCVD growth of Pt films using a novel Pt(IV) compound as a precursor
    • Authors: Svetlana I. Dorovskikh; Galina I. Zharkova, Ludmila N. Zelenina, Igor P. Asanov, Danila B. Kal'nii, Vasily V. Kokovkin, Yuri V. Shubin, Tamara V. Basova, Natalia B. Morozova
      Abstract: The Me3Pt(acac)Py compound, trimethyl(pentane‐2,4‐dionato)platinum(IV)pyridine, is synthesized and, for the first time, characterized by physico‐chemical methods to determine its chemical composition (elemental analysis, IR‐spectroscopy) and thermal behavior (thermogravimetric (TG), differential thermal analyses (DTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensometric flow method). Due to its good volatility ln(p/p°) = 16.47–9699/T(K) at moderate temperatures (393–414 K) the compound is offered as a promising precursor for growth of Pt films by metal‐organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The Pt films deposited on various substrates including Si(100), Ta, Ti substrates, cathodes and anodes of the electrodes for pacemakers are investigated by X‐ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The electrochemical characteristics of Pt films are also determined. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-26T05:40:14.053394-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510045
  • Titania‐based photocatalytic coatings on stainless steel hospital
    • Authors: S. Krumdieck; S. S. Miya, D. Lee, S. Davies‐Talwar, C. M. Bishop
      Abstract: A scaled‐up pulsed‐pressure MOCVD system was used to deposit TiO2 coatings from tetra‐isopropoxide precursor solution on stainless steel substrates and on 3‐D objects. The objective of the work is the production of antimicrobial coatings for handles in health care facilities. Antimicrobial coatings are sought to manage the transmission of hospital acquired infections (HAI's), which are reported to cost around one million pounds per annum in the UK alone. Titania is a promising material for this application due to the photocatalytic production of reactive oxygen species that are crucial for the destruction of organic pathogens. TiO2 coatings of 0.2 to 13 µm thickness were deposited at temperatures between 375 °C and 475 °C. The crystallite size and photocatalytic activity are influenced by deposition temperature. No dependence of stoichiometry on the deposition temperature has been observed. The films on stainless steel exhibit reasonably good photocatalytic performance. The photocatalytic performance and the stoichiometry improve with the film thickness. A three dimensional object (door handle) was coated with good conformity. The reactor scale‐up for coating production on door handles is proposed for future wear and hygiene performance testing. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-26T05:40:12.974158-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510040
  • Electrical characteristics of vapor deposited amorphous MoS2
           two‐terminal structures and back gate thin film transistors with Al,
           Au, Cu and Ni‐Au contacts
    • Authors: Dimitrios N. Kouvatsos; George Papadimitropoulos, Thanassis Spiliotis, Maria Vasilopoulou, Davide Barreca, Alberto Gasparotto, Dimitris Davazoglou
      Abstract: Amorphous molybdenum sulphide (a‐MoS2) thin films were deposited at near room temperature on oxidized silicon substrates and were electrically characterized with the use of two‐terminal structures and of back‐gated thin film transistors utilizing the substrate silicon as gate. Current‐voltage characteristics were extracted for various metals used as pads, showing significant current variations attributable to different metal‐sulphide interface properties and contact resistances, while the effect of a forming gas anneal was determined. With the use of heavily doped silicon substrates and aluminum backside deposition, thin film transistor (TFT) structures with the a‐MoS2 film as active layer were fabricated and characterized. Transfer characteristics showing a gate field effect, despite a leakage often present, were extracted for these devices, indicating that high mobility devices can be fabricated. SEM and EDXA measurements were also performed in an attempt to clarify issues related to material properties and fabrication procedures, so as to achieve a reliable and optimized a‐MoS2 TFT fabrication process. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-26T05:40:11.900312-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510025
  • Formation of hydroxylapatite on CVD deposited titania layers
    • Authors: Marina Baryshnikova; Leonid Filatov, Maxim Mishin, Anastasia Kondrateva, Sergey Alexandrov
      Abstract: Bioactive coatings on medical implants can be prepared from titanium dioxide due to its ability to induce the formation of hydroxylapatite (HA) from physiological solutions. In this study TiO2 layers were formed by chemical vapor deposition at different substrate temperatures in order to controllably change their structure from amorphous to consisting of preferentially oriented anatase crystallites. To evaluate the influence of phase composition and surface morphology of the deposited layers on their ability to form HA titania samples were immersed in Dulbecco's phosphate‐buffered saline (DPBS). The obtained results showed that structure of TiO2 layers determines the structure of HA formed on their surface. Polycrystalline titania layers with random orientation of anatase crystallites are the most favorable for intensive nucleation and formation of continuous HA coatings in DPBS solution. The textured TiO2 layers with smooth surface enhanced formation of HA deposits which consisted of sparsely distributed large separate grains. On the basis of the experimental results it was proposed that formation of hydroxylapatite nuclei on the surface of titania layers occurs by a mechanism of epitaxial growth. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-26T05:40:10.483646-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510015
  • Chemical vapor deposition and analysis of thermally insulating ZrO2 layers
           on injection molds
    • Authors: Burak Atakan; Victoria Khlopyanova, Simon Mausberg, Frank Mumme, Adrian Kandzia, Christian Pflitsch
      Abstract: High quality injection molding requires a precise control of cooling rates. Thermal barrier coating (TBC) of zirconia with a thickness of 20‐40 µm on polished stainless steel molds could provide the necessary insulating effect. This paper presents results of zirconia deposition on stainless steel substrates using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) aiming to provide the process parameters for the deposition of uniform zirconia films with such a thickness. The deposition was performed with zirconium (IV) acetylacetonate (Zr(C5H7O2)4) as precursor and synthetic air as co‐reactant, which allows deposition at temperatures below 600 °C. The experiments were carried out in a hot‐wall reactor at pressures between 7.5 mbar and 500 mbar and in a temperature range from 450 °C to 600 °C. Important growth parameters were characterized and growth rates between 1 and 2.5 µm/h were achieved. Thick and well adhering zirconia layers of 38 µm could be produced on steel within 40 h. The transient heat transfer rate upon contact with a hot surface was also evaluated experimentally with the thickest coatings. These exhibit a good TBC performance. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T05:30:13.425646-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510033
  • Investigation of structural, morphological and electrical properties of
           APCVD vanadium oxide thin films
    • Authors: Georgios Papadimitropoulos; Ioannis Kostis, Stelios Trantalidis, Athanasios Tsiatouras, Maria Vasilopoulou, Dimitris Davazoglou
      Abstract: Vanadium oxide films were chemically vapor deposited (CVD) on oxidized Si substrates covered with CVD tungsten (W) thin films and on glass substrates covered with indium tin oxide (ITO) films, using vanadium(V) oxy‐tri‐isopropoxide (C9H21O4V) vapors. X‐ray diffraction (XRD) measurements showed that the deposited films were composed of a mixture of vanadium oxides; the composition was determined mainly by the deposition temperature and less by the precursor temperature. At temperatures up to 450 °C the films were mostly composed by monoclinic VO2. Other peaks corresponding to various vanadium oxides were also observed. X‐ray microanalysis confirmed the composition of the films. The surface morphology was studied with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These measurements revealed that the morphology strongly depends on the used substrate and the deposition conditions. The well‐known metal‐insulator transition was observed near 75 °C for films mostly composed by monoclinic VO2. Films deposited at 450 °C exhibited two transitions one near 50 °C and the other near 60 °C possibly related to the presence of other vanadium phases or of important stresses in them. Finally, the vanadium oxide thin films exhibited significant sensory capabilities decreasing their resistance in the presence of hydrogen gas with response times in the order of a few seconds and working temperature at 40 °C. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T05:30:12.049143-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510029
  • Growth mechanism of planar or nanorod structured tungsten oxide thin films
           deposited via aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD)
    • Authors: Min Ling; Chris Blackman
      Abstract: Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) is used to deposit tungsten oxide thin films from tungsten hexacarbonyl (W(CO)6) at 339 to 358 °C on quartz substrate. The morphologies of as‐deposited thin films, which are comprised of two phases (W25O73 and W17O47), vary from planar to nanorod (NR) structures as the distance from the inlet towards the outlet of the reactor is traversed. This is related to variation of the actual temperature on the substrate surface (ΔT = 19 °C), which result in a change in growth mode due to competition between growth rate (perpendicular to substrate) and nucleation rate (parallel to substrate). When the ratio of perpendicular growth rate to growth rate contributed by nucleation is higher than 7.1, the as‐deposited tungsten oxide thin film forms as NR. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-13T04:40:11.242767-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510047
  • Intermolecular interaction between rare earth and manganese precursors in
           metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of perovskite manganite films
    • Authors: Toshihiro Nakamura
      Abstract: The gas‐phase reaction mechanism was investigated in liquid delivery metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of praseodymium and lanthanum manganite films. We studied the gas‐phase behavior of praseodymium, lanthanum, and manganese precursors under actual CVD conditions by in situ infrared absorption spectroscopy. The rate of the decrease of the infrared absorbance due to Pr(DPM)3 was almost constant even if Mn(DPM)3 was added, indicating that the intermolecular interaction between Pr and Mn precursors in the gas phase is relatively weak in MOCVD of praseodymium manganite films. On the other hand, the temperature dependence of the infrared absorption indicates that the thermal decomposition of La(DPM)3 was promoted in the presence of Mn(DPM)3. The significant intermolecular interaction occurs between La and Mn precursors in the gas phase in MOCVD of lanthanum manganite films. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-13T04:40:07.260177-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510030
  • Hot‐wire vapor deposition of amorphous MoS2 thin films
    • Authors: Georgios Papadimitropoulos; Nikolaos Vourdas, A. Kontos, Maria Vasilopoulou, Dimitrios N. Kouvatsos, Nicolas Boukos, Alberto Gasparotto, Davide Barreca, Dimitrios Davazoglou
      Abstract: Amorphous, as shown by X‐ray diffraction measurements, MoS2 films (a‐MoS2) were deposited by heating a molybdenum wire at temperatures between 500 and 700 °C in H2S at 1 Torr. As shown by Scanning Electron Microscopy measurements, the morphology of samples depends significantly on the filament temperature; at low temperature samples are homogeneous and smooth, at intermediate temperatures they exhibit a granular microstructure and at high temperatures a columnar one. X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements have shown S/Mo ratios in films varying between 2.5 and 1.5 dependent on filament temperature. Films also contain oxygen at atomic contents of 8 to 12 %. As shown by XPS and Raman spectroscopy, at a filament temperature of 600 °C films are mainly composed of MoS2 also containing oxygen at an atomic ratio of 8%. Spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements made on a‐MoS2 films have shown that their band gap is of the order of 1.4 eV, slightly higher than that for the bulk crystalline material. Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements have shown that samples exhibit a doublet of peaks at 2.8 and 3 eV blue shifted relatively to MoS2 samples composed of one or two mono‐layers. The above indicate that the electronic structure of crystalline atomic‐layer thick MoS2 is preserved in a‐MoS2 films. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-13T04:40:06.027588-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510031
  • Diamond crystals deposited from interacting jets
    • Authors: Aleksey Rebrov; Aleksey Emelyanov, Sergey Kosolobov, Ivan Yudin
      Abstract: This paper describes the advancement of hot wire or hot filament CVD methods of diamond synthesis through the use high velocity gas flow activation by multiple collisions with a lengthy hot surface instead of activation by single collisions with hot wires. The possibility of synthesis of diamond crystals from a neutral gas with a high growth rate and a future solution of engineering scaling problems promise that this method will become competitive with others. Interacting jets of hydrogen and mixture of hydrogen with methane were used to synthesize diamond crystals on a molybdenum substrate. The growth rate of crystals about 20 μm/h was attained, which is much higher than in the case of a hot filament CVD. The increase of CH4 concentration essentially increases the diamond crystal growth rate. Depending on local conditions of the interaction of jets with substrates in different points, a completely different morphology of deposit is observed: from a compact film to isolated coarse crystals mostly icosahedral form. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-13T04:40:04.666374-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510043
  • Electronic structure of threading dislocations in wurtzite GaN
    • Authors: I. Belabbas; J. Chen, G. Nouet
      Abstract: We have carried out atomistic simulations, based on density functional theory, to investigate the atomic and electronic structures of the three types of prismatic threading dislocations in hexagonal gallium nitride. Screw and mixed threading dislocations were demonstrated to introduce both deep and shallow gap states, while most of core configurations of the edge dislocation introduce solely shallow states. The higher electrical activity of both screw and mixed dislocations, compared to the edge one, is correlated with the high dispersion of their energy levels, within the GaN bandgap. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-13T04:30:13.232276-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400215
  • Impact of dopants and silicon structure dimensions on {113}‐defect
           formation during 2 MeV electron irradiation in an UHVEM
    • Authors: J. Vanhellemont; S. Anada, T. Nagase, H. Yasuda, A. Schulze, H. Bender, R. Rooyackers, A. Vandooren
      Abstract: When processing Si nanowire based Tunnel Field Effect Transistors (TFETS's), a significant reduction of B diffusion with decreasing nanowire diameter is observed and attributed to reduced transient enhanced diffusion close to the nanowire surface caused by the recombination and out‐diffusion of excess self‐interstitials. In this study, Ultra High Voltage Electron Microscopy (UHVEM) is used to study in situ the formation of self‐interstitial clusters in nanowire based TFET containing samples prepared by Focused Ion Beam (FIB) thinning. Si nanowires with diameters ranging from 40 to 500 nm are irradiated in an UHVEM using different fluxes of 2 MeV electrons at temperatures between room temperature and 375 °C. A strong dependence of defect formation on nanowire radius and on dopant concentration and type is observed. The UHVEM observations are compared with simulations based on quasi‐chemical reaction rate theory and with two dimensional dopant concentration distributions determined with high‐vacuum Scanning Spreading Resistance Microscopy (SSRM). (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-13T04:30:12.095424-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400222
  • Effect of O2 flow rate on the electrochromic response of WO3 grown by
    • Authors: Konstantinos Psifis; Dimitris Louloudakis, Dimitra Vernardou, Emmanuel Spanakis, George Papadimitropoulos, Dimitris Davazoglou, Nikolaos Katsarakis, Emmanuel Koudoumas
      Abstract: Tungsten trioxide coatings were grown on fluorine doped tin dioxide glass substrate at 465 oC by low pressure chemical vapor deposition. Monoclinic tungsten oxide with low crystallinity containing agglomeration of grains was obtained irrespective of the O2 flow rate utilized. It was only observed an increase of grain size to 75 from 25 nm as the O2 raised to 100 from 25 sccm. In addition, the current density was similar among the samples irrespective of the growth conditions performed. Finally, the coloration efficiency was estimated to be 83 cm2 C‐1 at 670 nm, which is higher than other grown samples using greater deposition temperatures. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-13T04:30:11.06208-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510004
  • Effect of O2 flow rate on the thermochromic performance of VO2 coatings
           grown by atmospheric pressure CVD
    • Authors: Dimitris Louloudakis; Dimitra Vernardou, Emmanouel Spanakis, Spyros Dokianakis, Marianthi Panagopoulou, Giannis Raptis, Elias Aperathitis, George Kiriakidis, Nikolaos Katsarakis, Emmanouel Koudoumas
      Abstract: This paper reports the atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of vanadium oxide coatings using vanadyl (IV) acetylacetonate at 500 oC. The as‐grown samples for 0.8 L min‐1 O2 flow rate showed an (022)‐oriented single vanadium dioxide monoclinic phase of low crystallinity. The narrowest hysteresis width is observed for the particular flow rate indicating a dependency on the shape of the grown crystallites. Regarding the difference in transmittance is determined by the enhanced presence of short‐ and long‐range bond ordering of the samples. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-13T04:30:09.955649-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510005
  • Investigation of the kinetics of the chemical vapor deposition of aluminum
           from dimethylethylamine alane: experiments and computations
    • Authors: Ioannis G. Aviziotis; Thomas Duguet, Khaled Soussi, George Kokkoris, Nikolaos Cheimarios, Constantin Vahlas, Andreas G. Boudouvis
      Abstract: Experiments and computations are performed for the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of aluminum (Al) from dimethylethylamine alane (DMEAA). The deposition rate as a function of the substrate temperature and the evolution of the deposition rate along the radius of the susceptor are experimentally determined, in a vertical, warm wall MOCVD reactor operating at 10 Torr, in the temperature range 139 °C‐240 °C. Following previously published mechanism for the decomposition of DMEAA, a predictive 3D model of the process is built, based on the mass, momentum, energy and species transport equations with the aim to simulate the process. Taking into account experimental results it is demonstrated that a volumetric and a surface reaction are responsible for the deposition of Al from DMEAA. For both reactions, first order Arrhenius kinetics are implemented and the kinetic parameters are determined through fitting to the experimental data. The results show satisfactory agreement between experiments and computations for almost the whole temperature range examined. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-13T04:30:08.887113-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510023
  • Peculiarities of defect generation under injection current in LEDs based
           on A3N nanostructures
    • Authors: Natalia Shmidt; Evgeniia Shabunina, Alexander Usikov, Anton Chernyakov, Sergey Kurin, Hikki Helava, Yuri Makarov
      Abstract: It has been demonstrated that, along with well‐known mechanisms of defect generation (DG) under injection current in fabricated UV‐ and commercial blue‐LED chips based on A3N nanostructures, other defect generation mechanisms are possible in local regions. Aging experiments performed simultaneously with analysis of evolution of I‐V characteristics at U < 2 V and spectral noise density dependences on current density, revealed DG with participation of multi‐phonon recombination of carriers in an extended defect system and local regions of random alloy fluctuations enriched by metallic atoms (Ga or In). (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-11T06:10:32.205478-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400218
  • EBIC investigations of dislocations in ELOG GaN
    • Authors: E. B. Yakimov; A. Y. Polyakov
      Abstract: Dislocations in the ELOG n‐GaN films have been studied by the Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC) method. The effect of dopant concentration and diffusion length values on the dislocation EBIC profile is revealed. It is shown that the width of dislocation image in the EBIC mode decreases with a diffusion length decrease and the dopant concentration increase. In the crystals with the submicron diffusion length the individual dislocations can be separated in the EBIC images up to the dislocation densities higher that 109cm‐2. The radius of dislocation related defect cylinder was found to increase with the dopant concentration decreasing that could be explained under an assumption that dislocations in GaN are charged. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-11T06:10:31.257827-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400220
  • About dislocation and oxygen related luminescence of Si around 0.8 eV
    • Authors: M. Kittler; T. Arguirov, M. Reiche, C. Krause, D. Mankovics
      Abstract: In conjunction with the two‐level model the temperature behaviour of the dislocation‐related D1‐peak follows the T‐behaviour of the band gap. Based on luminescence observations in our laboratory and on literature data we propose a ∼30 meV wide domain of the D1 peak. Altogether, the D1‐peak position ranges between about 0.76 eV at 300 K and nearly 0.84 eV at a few K. It was shown that the energetic shift for a certain temperature is caused by external electric fields, by excitation level, that affects the intrinsic dislocation field, and by elastic stress. The luminescence of oxygen‐related defects / precipitates might be described by a line at ∼ 0.77 eV (P‐line) that does not depend on temperature. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-11T06:10:30.379016-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400231
  • Materials characterization and device analysis for evaluation of
           semiconductor processes by highly‐sophisticated photoelastic stress
           measurement technique
    • Authors: Martin Herms; Matthias Wagner, Alexander Molchanov, Pinyen Lin, Ingrid De Wolf, Ming Zhao
      Abstract: SIRD (Scanning Infrared Depolarization Imager) and SIREX (Scanning Infrared Stress Explorer) are measurement systems to evaluate and visualize the stress distribution in semiconductor materials and devices. Some main fields of application are crystal growth, high temperature processing of silicon wafers as well as the 3D‐structuring of silicon‐based microelectronic devices. The used strategies of measurement are different. SIRD and SIREX are equipped with versatile software packages that allow to separate defect‐related stress states of interest, for instance slip‐lines in GaN‐overgrown silicon. Micro‐holes fabricated for wafer marking and 3D TSV (through silicon vias) structures have been analyzed with micrometer resolution. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-11T06:10:29.508895-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400356
  • A calculation method of deposition profiles in chemical vapor deposition
           reactors using bio‐inspired algorithms
    • Authors: Takahiro Takahashi; Taeka Inagaki, Shingo Nariai, Junichi Kodama, Masamoto Arakawa, Yoshinori Ema
      Abstract: Estimating the predicted results of experimental data by a simulator is one of the most important processes in deciding the performance of the automatic modeling system of reaction mechanisms in chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Therefore, we developed a novel calculation method, in which robust and accurate calculations along with reduced computing cost were achieved, to reproduce deposition profiles in the specific types of reactors. In order to improve the performance of the calculation method, we developed the method by use of the novel optimization algorithms, which are biologically inspired. We adopted real‐coded genetic algorithms (GAs) and artificial bee colony (ABC) as the bio‐inspired algorithms (BIAs). Boundary value problems for estimating diffusion‐reaction equations by iterations of numerical integrations were changed into problems of finding the linear combinations consisted of a few “basis functions”, which are ideally inherent in the reactors. The coefficients of the linear combinations were optimized by the BIAs. We demonstrate the improved performance of the simulator by the BIAs using the batch‐type reactor with round‐shaped substrates. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-07T03:23:55.696331-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510056
  • Gaseous ternary chromium‐aluminium complexes as precursor for
           chemical vapour deposition
    • Authors: Mario Lessiak; Roland Haubner, Reinhard Pitonak, Arno Köpf, Ronald Weissenbacher
      Abstract: Research on high‐performance CVD coatings follows the target to increased hardness and oxidation resistance. Such coatings and coating systems are required for machining tools to optimize the manufacturing parameters for new materials and new processes. The use of chromium‐containing coatings is requested because of its feature to increase the corrosion resistance. The production of various chromium‐containing coatings is already shown by PVD, but for industrial scale CVD processes there are problems with the chromium precursors. Especially the chromium chlorides have a low vapour pressure and therefore high temperatures are needed for evaporation. To overcome the disadvantages of CrCl3 the relatively good evaporation of halide complexes was reported, showing potential for new CVD processes. Numerous metal compounds form gaseous complexes with Aluminium chloride but also Cr. Based on this characteristic the transport reaction of CrCl2/Al2Cl6 as chromium tetrachloraluminate is investigated. The focus of this work lies in the preparation of the chromium precursors as well as in the optimization of the transport reaction which required various changes in the conventional experimental CVD‐setup. To measure the amount of transported chromium the gas phase was condensed and their Cr‐content was analyzed. For the CVD deposition of Cr containing coatings, this precursor gas flow can be used directly. Further the interaction between aluminum chloride and the chromium precursor, different process parameters, as well as existing difficulties regarding the transport reaction are discussed. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-07T03:13:37.004106-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510007
  • Kinetic study of MOCVD of NiO films from bis‐(ethylcyclopentadienyl)
    • Authors: A. S. Kondrateva; M. Mishin, A. Shakhmin, M. Baryshnikova, S. E. Alexandrov
      Abstract: NiO films were grown by metal‐organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using bis‐(ethylcyclopentadienyl) nickel [(EtCp)2Ni] and oxygen or ozone as precursors. The kinetic regularities of MOCVD processes were experimentally studied in the deposition temperature range 600‐820 K for the reaction systems: (EtCp)2Ni–O2–Ar and (EtCp)2Ni–O3–O2–Ar. The results obtained show that the deposition processes in the temperature range 600‐700 K are controlled by kinetics and the value of activation energy of the processes is 80±5 kJ·mol−1 in both cases. The growth process in the temperature region 700–840 K is controlled by mass transport. An introduction of ozone in the reaction gas phase led to nearly twofold decrease of deposition rate probably because of homogeneous reactions with (EtCp)2Ni. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-07T03:13:35.98742-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510014
  • CVD synthesis and catalytic combustion application of chromium oxide films
    • Authors: Jing Liang; Guan‐Fu Pan, Shi‐Bin Fan, Wei‐Liang Cheng, Zhen‐Yu Tian
      Abstract: Chromiumoxide (Cr2O3) thin films were controllably synthesized by pulsed‐spray evaporation chemical vapor deposition (PSE‐CVD) for deep oxidation of propene. The effect of substrate temperature on the growth kinetics and morphology of the films was investigated. The prepared samples were comprehensively characterized with respect to structure, morphology and surface composition with XRD, SEM and XPS, respectively. An in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was involved to reveal the surface mechanism occurred on Cr2O3. The growth rate exhibited a linear behavior when the temperature increase from 300 to 450 °C. The structural analysis indicated that a pure phase of Cr2O3 was obtained at 425 °C. The catalytic tests showed that Cr2O3 films prepared on flexible substrates exhibited advantages for the catalytic oxidation of C3H6. Based on the DRIFTS observations, the Langmuir‐Hinshelwood (L‐H) mechanism was proposed for C3H6 over Cr2O3 films. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-07T03:13:35.103864-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510019
  • CVD nanographite films covered by ALD metal oxides: structural and field
           emission properties
    • Authors: Rinat R. Ismagilov; Feruza T. Tuyakova, Victor I. Kleshch, Ekaterina A. Obraztsova, Alexander N. Obraztsov
      Abstract: Nanographite films produced by direct current plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition technique were covered by metal oxides TiO2 and Al2O3 using atomic layer deposition. Nanographite films are composed of few‐layer graphene nanowalls and nanoscrolls, which are mostly oriented perpendicular to the silicon substrate surface. The nanographite and nanographite‐metal oxide composite film materials, with oxide layer thickness between 50 nm and 250 nm, were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X‐ray analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis, and Raman spectroscopy. We demonstrate that the metal oxide deposit homogenously covers graphene nanowalls and forms individual spherical particles on the surface of needle‐like nanoscrolls. Field emission properties of the samples were measured in a flat vacuum diode configuration. It was found that the metal oxide layers thinner than 200 nm do not significantly affect the field emission characteristics of the nanographite. At the same time, metal oxides form a passivation shell which may improve the nanographite film performance as cold cathode in vacuum electronic devices. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-07T03:13:34.09799-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510022
  • Effect of substrate temperature on initiated plasma enhanced chemical
           vapor deposition of PHEMA thin films
    • Authors: Mehmet Gürsoy; Mustafa Karaman
      Abstract: Poly(2‐hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) thin films were deposited on silicon wafers by initiated plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (i‐PECVD) method at different substrate temperatures. Di tert‐butyl peroxide (TBPO) was used as an initiator, and all deposition experiments were performed at 3:1 monomer to initiator flow ratio. Deposition rates up to 44 nm/min were observed at relatively low plasma power depending on the deposition conditions. The high deposition rates at low plasma powers were attributed to the usage of the initiator. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses of the deposits indicated very high retention of hydroxyl and carbonyl functionalities especially for the polymers deposited at low plasma powers. Water contact angle measurements were carried out to determine the wettability of as‐deposited PHEMA surfaces. This study indicated that the substrate temperature is an important parameter determining the polymerization rate. Being a dry, low‐cost, reliable and environmentally friendly process, the i‐PECVD technique developed in this study can be used to deposit other functional polymers. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-07T03:13:33.227986-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510034
  • Time‐scale analysis of atomic layer deposition processes: Predicting
           the transition from mass‐transfer to kinetically limited regimes
    • Authors: Raymond A. Adomaitis
      Abstract: The relative rates of adsorption and irreversible reaction are modeled for a prototypical atomic layer deposition (ALD) system. Surface species balance modeling equations are processed through a reaction factorization procedure to eliminate redundant dynamic modes. The resulting singular perturbation problem then is used to develop a criterion that distinguishes between mass‐transfer and kinetically‐limited deposition regimes for this dynamic process. Detailed simulations of a TMA/water alumina ALD process are used to evaluate our analysis approach and to demonstrate the dominance of mass‐transfer limitations for this system during both precursor exposure periods. Our analysis shows the increasing likelihood of encountering mass‐transfer limitations at reduced temperatures, a finding opposite of what might be expected. We find that the ALD dynamics evolve on a manifold defined by the balancing of adsorption and irreversible reaction rates, further reducing the dynamic dimension of the deposition dynamics. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-07T03:13:32.139295-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510048
  • The automatic experimental design for modeling the reaction mechanisms of
           chemical vapor deposition processes
    • Authors: Takahiro Takahashi; Yoshinori Ema
      Abstract: The identification of an appropriate reaction model (reaction mechanism) that indicates the reaction paths from source gases to films is one of the most important facets for developing chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes. Previously, we developed a system that automatically identifies the kinetic models of reaction mechanisms involved in experimental results by the CVD processes using genetic algorithms (GAs). However, in order to automate the entire process of CVD development, it is necessary to automate the other processes associated with the reaction‐modeling process. Therefore, in this study, we proposed the method to automate the experimental design to determine more appropriate the reaction models. In addition, we developed the automatic system to design the experiments for the models. We demonstrated the feasibility and validity of the method using a simplified and synthetic CVD process. The system automatically and appropriately designed the experiments from the information of the reaction model candidates without using the knowledge of reaction engineering directly. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-07T03:13:31.242865-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510052
  • Growth of β‐gallium oxide films and nanostructures by
           atmospheric‐ pressure CVD using gallium and water as source
    • Authors: Tomoaki Terasako; Hikaru Ichinotani, Masakazu Yagi
      Abstract: Films and nanostructures of β‐Ga2O3 were successfully grown by atmospheric‐pressure CVD (AP‐CVD) using metal Ga and H2O as source materials. It was confirmed that highly (‐201) oriented polycrystalline β‐Ga2O3 films can be obtained on c ‐plane sapphire (c ‐Al2O3) substrates by optimizing growth temperature (Tg) and source supply ratio of H2O to Ga. The optical gap energy of the β‐Ga2O3 film with a relatively flat surface was estimated to be ∼4.9 eV. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements for the β‐Ga2O3 films revealed the existence of at least three emission bands with their peaks at ∼370 nm, ∼440 nm and ∼520 nm. Various shapes of quasi 1D nanostructures, such as nanowires (NWs), nanorods (NRs), tapered NRs and nanobelts (NBs), were obtained on the c ‐Al2O3 substrates coated with the Au films by utilizing vapour‐liquid‐solid (VLS) growth mechanism. The diversity of the quasi 1D nanostructures is probably due to the contribution of vapour‐solid (VS) growth mechanism and/or the coalescence between the neighbouring Au metal particles before initiating the NW (or NR) growth. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-07T03:13:27.86977-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510012
  • Control of extended defects in cast multicrystalline silicon using
           polycrystalline template
    • Authors: Ronit R. Prakash; Karolin Jiptner, Jun Chen, Yoshiji Miyamura, Hirofumi Harada, Takashi Sekiguchi
      Abstract: Extended defects were controlled using polycrystalline silicon as a template for cast‐growth of multicrystalline silicon. At the initial stage of growth, small randomly oriented grains with a high density of random type grain boundaries were obtained. With growth, the grain size increased and the fraction of random grain boundaries decreased. Electrical activity of defects was investigated and it was found that with growth, network of small angle grain boundaries became the most electrically active defects. This network of small angle grain boundaries were found to have a tilt angle less than 3° and were mainly found in elongating grains. The density of these highly electrically active grain boundaries increased with growth. This can be attributed to propagation and agglomeration of dislocations into small angle grain boundaries. The high density of random grain boundaries in this ingot may suppress dislocation propagation between grains, however they do not intersect elongating grains enabling dislocation propagation in elongated grains. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-04-24T03:30:05.844509-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400299
  • Modeling micromechanical response to thermal history in bulk grown
           aluminum nitride
    • Authors: Payman Karvani; Antoinette M. Maniatty
      Abstract: A thermal‐elastic‐viscoplastic model suitable for modeling aluminum nitride (AlN) during crystal growth is presented. A crystal plasticity model that considers slip along crystallographic slip systems and the evolution of mobile and immobile dislocations on the prismatic and basal slip systems is developed. The model has been implemented into a finite element framework, and a sublimation growth process is modeled to demonstrate the model capability. The dislocation density, which characterizes the crystal quality, and the maximum tensile stress on the cleavage planes (m ‐planes), which leads to cracking, are computed. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18T08:10:22.937267-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201100189
  • Contents: Phys. Status Solidi C 7/2015
    • Pages: 849 - 852
      PubDate: 2015-07-06T03:26:21.279252-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201570092
  • Preface: physica status solidi (c) 7/2015
    • Authors: Sergei Alexandrov; Patrik Hoffmann, Mato Knez, Constantin Vahlas
      Pages: 853 - 855
      Abstract: Dear participants of EuroCVD20, with pleasure we address you some words about the present conference proceedings of EuroCVD20. We faced a big challenge organizing a conference to which the full paper peer reviewed contributions will be available already with the launch of the conference! Clearly, the advantage of this procedure is the highest quality of the conference proceedings, namely peer reviewed scientific publications. Already before listening to the presentation or discussing the poster with the author, the participant of the conference will get exposed to the scientific topic, which makes him/her able to better understand the background. This opportunity opens the doors for scientific exchange with the author at its best. The educational aspects of top notch scientific discussions are based on understanding of the topics and competence in communicating the questions and answers. As time slots for oral or poster presentations at conferences are very limited the message transfer has to be well prepared between the peers, i.e. the author of the contribution and the reader of the manuscript. We are aware that some aspects speak against this procedure. The most important argument is that the latest results will not be reported in the paper. We, however, trust that none of the conference participants will be unhappy seeing latest results of a research work in the conference presentation only. Moreover, a scientifically founded discussion might even trigger optimization of the latest results and publication in a follow‐up communication. Therefore we are happy to put at disposition to all participants of the EuroCVD20 conference 49 peer reviewed full papers that have been published either in pss(a) or pss(c). We, the co‐editors of the EuroCVD20 conference proceedings, wish all readers of the collected papers insight, understanding, fun and pride. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-06T03:26:26.353136-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201570093
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