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PHYSICS (563 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Noise & Vibration Worldwide     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Noise Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Nuclear Engineering and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Nuclear Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Nuclear Receptor     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Microphysics     Open Access  
Optical Communications and Networking, IEEE/OSA Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Optofluidics, Microfluidics and Nanofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Organic Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Organic Photonics and Photovoltaics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
PAJ: A Journal of Performance and Art     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Particle Physics Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Particuology     Hybrid Journal  
Pattern Recognition in Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pergamon Materials Series     Full-text available via subscription  
Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Philosophical Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Philosophy and Foundations of Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Physica B: Condensed Matter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
physica status solidi (a)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
physica status solidi (b)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
physica status solidi (c)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physica Status Solidi - Rapid Research Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physical Communication     Hybrid Journal  
Physical Review C     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Physical Review Special Topics - Physics Education Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Physical Review X     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Physical Sciences Data     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physics - spotlighting exceptional research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physics and Chemistry of Glasses - European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part B     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Physics and Chemistry of Liquids: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Physics and Materials Chemistry     Open Access  
Physics Essays     Full-text available via subscription  
Physics in Medicine & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Physics in Perspective     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physics International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Physics Letters A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Physics Letters B     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Physics of Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Physics of Life Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physics of Plasmas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Physics of the Dark Universe     Open Access  
Physics of the Solid State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Physics of Wave Phenomena     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physics Procedia     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Physics Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Physics Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Physics Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Physics World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Physics-Uspekhi     Full-text available via subscription  
Physik in unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal  
Physik Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Plasma Physics Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pramana     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Preview     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 539)
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Progress in Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Progress in Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics     Open Access  
Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Quantum Measurements and Quantum Metrology     Open Access  
Quantum Studies : Mathematics and Foundations     Hybrid Journal  
Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Radiation Measurements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Radiation Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Radiation Protection Dosimetry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Radiation Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Radio Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Radiological Physics and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Reflets de la physique     Full-text available via subscription  
Reports on Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Reports on Progress in Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Research in Drama Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Research Journal of Physics     Open Access  
Results in Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Reviews in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal  
Reviews of Accelerator Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Reviews of Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Reviews of Modern Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Revista Colombiana de Física     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Física     Open Access  
Revista mexicana de física E     Open Access  
Rheologica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Russian Journal of Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal  
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Russian Physics Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Samuel Beckett Today/Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover   physica status solidi (c)
  [SJR: 0.471]   [H-I: 31]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1862-6351 - ISSN (Online) 1610-1642
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1611 journals]
  • Cover Picture: Phys. Status Solidi C 3/2015
    • Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Measuring the areal density of solute atoms contained within a narrow planar fault, boundary or quantum well by standard analytical electron microscopy is possible but often yields a significant systematic underestimate. Improvements of detectors and/or aberration correction will improve resolution and counting statistics but not these systematic errors. Over the years, a new way to analyse series of analytical spectra by linear least‐squares fitting approaches has been developed that eliminates this problem. The new method, presented by Walther on pp. 310–313, is more precise and reliable. The method has been shown to yield reliable segregation values down to a few percent of equivalent full monolayers, typically corresponding to
      PubDate: 2015-03-09T05:46:20.271576-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201570075
  • Issue Information: Phys. Status Solidi C 3/2015
    • Pages: n/a - n/a
      PubDate: 2015-03-09T05:46:20.169624-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201570076
  • STEM‐CL investigations on the influence of stacking faults on the
           optical emission of cubic GaN epilayers and cubic GaN/AlN
           multi‐quantum wells
    • Authors: R. M. Kemper; P. Veit, C. Mietze, A. Dempewolf, T. Wecker, F. Bertram, J. Christen, J. K. N. Lindner, D. J. As
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: We report the influence of {111} stacking faults on the cathodoluminescence (CL) emission characteristics of cubic GaN (c‐GaN) films and cubic GaN/AlN multi‐quantum wells. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements indicate that stacking faults (SFs) on the {111} planes are the predominant crystallographic defects in epitaxial films, which were grown on 3C‐SiC/Si (001) substrates by plasma‐assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The correlation of the SFs and the luminescence output is evidenced with a CL setup integrated in a scanning TEM (STEM). By comparing the STEM images and the simultaneously measured CL signals it is demonstrated that SFs in these films lead to a reduced CL emission intensity. Furthermore, the CL emission intensity is shown to increase with increasing film thickness and decreasing SF density. This correlation can be connected to the reduction of the full width at half maximum of X‐ray diffraction rocking curves with increasing film thickness of c‐GaN films. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-02-27T06:10:12.359989-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400154
  • Computational model of 2DEG mobility in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures
    • Authors: Karine Abgaryan; Ilya Mutigullin, Dmitry Reviznikov
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The computational scheme of multiscale modeling of semiconductor heterostructures is presented. Three scale levels are taken into account. On the atomic level the system is described using crystallographic information and quantum‐mechanical model. Ab initio modeling allows to determine the electronic structure, define polarization effects and calculate charge densities on the interfaces between layers. Obtained information is used in the nanoscale level model for the calculation of the charge carrier distribution in the heterostructure. At this level mathematical model contains the system of conjugated Schrödinger and Poisson equations. The carrier density distributions over the lateral direction of the multilayered structure and 2DEG localization are of the most interest at this point. This data is used in the next scale level model where electron mobility is calculated. A wide range of electron scattering mechanisms are taken into account during this calculation. This approach was applied to model 2DEG in AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures. The good agreement between calculated values of interface charge density, 2DEG electron concentration, electron mobility and known experimental data was achieved. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-02-27T05:50:54.13433-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400200
  • The temperature dependence of the luminescence of
           rare‐earth‐doped semiconductors: 25 years after Favennec
    • Authors: K. P. O'Donnell
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Twentyfive years after the publication of P. N. Favennec's seminal paper on luminescence from rare‐earth‐doped semiconductors (Electron. Lett. 25, 718–719 (1989), with 390+ citations to date) we examine the long shadow it has cast on recent studies of europium‐doped GaN, aimed at substituting for InN‐rich InGaN in red‐light‐emitting devices (LEDs). According to Favennec's principle, wider band gap semiconductors should show weaker thermal quenching, thus favouring the III‐nitrides hugely. The conventional approach to fitting temperature dependences of light emission, based on competition between radiative and non‐radiative transitions, is presented here in simplified form and an alternative fitting equation proposed. The original data of Favennec (op. cit.) is re‐examined in the light of these fitting models. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-02-27T05:50:52.467273-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400133
  • Dimensional and defectivity nanometrology of directed self‐assembly
    • Authors: C. Simão; D. Tuchapsky, W. Khunsin, A. Amann, M. A. Morris, C. M. Sotomayor Torres
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Defectivity and dimensional metrology are two main challenges in lithography due to the increasing miniaturisation of circuits. Particularly, bottom‐up alternative lithographic masks from directed self‐assembly systems have been extending the limits of critical dimensions in a cost‐effective manner although great challenges in controlling defectivity remain open. To gain insights about the percentage of alignment, defectivity and order quantification, block copolymer fingerprints were investigated via an image analysis methodology. Here we present the analysis of hexagonal phase of polystyrene‐b‐polydimethylsiloxane (PS‐b‐PDMS) forming linear patterns in topological substrates. From our methodology, we have performed dimensional metrology estimating pitch size and error, and the linewidth of the lines was estimated. In parallel, the methodology allowed us identification and quantification of typical defects observable in self‐assembly, such as turning points, disclination or branching points, break or lone points and end points. The methodology presented here represents a step forward in dimensional metrology and defect analysis of self‐ and directed assembly systems. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-02-25T05:30:08.841375-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400211
  • Towards a standardised metrology for multi‐scale characterisation of
           nanostructured durable hydrophobic coatings
    • Authors: Damaso M. De Bono; Alan Taylor, Geraldine Durand
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Nanostructured coatings are gaining an increasing importance in critical applications such as anti‐fouling, low friction and boundary layer control applications, due to their ability to tailor roughness levels and to modify the energy of the underlying surface. The sustainability of a coating is linked to its lifetime and limited durability is one of the main drawbacks for nanostructured coatings. To improve performance and durability of nanostructured coatings a greater understanding of the structure at the nano‐scale and the influence of this on the macro‐scale behaviour is needed. As confirmation of this need, international bodies dealing with metrology standardisation have recognised that one of the main barrier limiting a larger scale exploitation of nanostructured coatings is the lack of understanding and testing methodologies able to link the nanostructure features of the coating with the final macro‐scale performance of the coating itself. This paper will offer an overview on the potential of nanostructured coatings to provide engineering surfaces with durable hydrophobic/super‐hydrophobic properties. The advancements achieved and the work carried out by TWI in this field will be illustrated. The project activities proposing the development and establishment of metrology methodologies for nanostructured coatings will be also mentioned. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-02-25T05:30:07.905163-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400118
  • Multi‐angle spectroscopic extreme ultraviolet reflectometry for
           analysis of thin films and interfaces
    • Authors: Serhiy Danylyuk; Stefan Herbert, Peter Loosen, Rainer Lebert, Anna Schäfer, Jürgen Schubert, Maksym Tryus, Larissa Juschkin
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Modern nanotechnology is constantly raising demands to quality and purity of thin films and interlayer interfaces. As thicknesses of employed layers decrease to single nanometers, traditional characterization tools are no longer able to satisfy throughput, precision or non‐destructibility requirements. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X‐ray reflectometry has not only demonstrated the ability to detect sub‐nm thickness variations but also was shown to be very sensitive to chemical composition changes. Since the laboratory radiation sources in this wavelength range often emit in a relatively broad spectral range, a spectroscopic EUV reflectometry has been developed with the added benefit of a rapid measuring time on the order of milliseconds to seconds. In this paper, the extension of the method to multi‐angle measurements will be presented. It allows to reduce a number of fit parameters in the analysis model, making the method suitable for complex samples of unknown composition. First experimental examples for Si‐based layer systems measured under grazing incidence angles between 2° and 15° will be demonstrated and discussed. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-02-25T05:30:06.84131-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400117
  • Near ambient pressure photoemission spectroscopy of metal and
           semiconductor surfaces
    • Authors: Iain D. Baikie; Angela Grain, James Sutherland, Jamie Law
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: We describe a novel photoemission technique utilizing a traditional Kelvin probe as a detector of electrons/atmospheric ions ejected from metal and semiconductor surfaces (Al, Ag, Au, Si) illuminated by a Deep Ultra‐Violet (DUV) source at ambient pressure. In Constant Final State Yield Spectroscopy (CFSYS) the incident photon energy is rastered rather than applying a variable retarding electric field as in conventional UPS. For both ambient‐ and near ambient pressure‐photoemission spectroscopy (NAP‐PES) the CFSYS configuration overcomes the limitation of inelastic electron scattering in air. This arrangement can be applied in several operational modes: using the DUV source to determine the absolute work function (ϕ) of the metal with 50‐100 meV resolution and also the Kelvin probe, under dark conditions, to measure Contact Potential Difference (CPD) with an accuracy of 1‐3 meV. We show that the metal photoresponse agrees with Fowler theory. We have used CPD and linear extrapolated photoemission measurements to produce an energy level diagram for the native‐oxide covered Si. We propose a model of photoemission in air involving atmospheric ions. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-02-25T05:30:05.838694-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400086
  • Designing InGaN/GaN nano‐LED arrays for étendue‐limited
    • Authors: Sophia Fox; Simon O'Kane, Szymon Lis, Duncan Allsopp
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This paper presents the far field results of a study by simulation using the finite‐difference time‐domain (FDTD) method of vertical light emitting diode structures with an incorporated ordered nanorod array in place of the typical surface roughened region. For a dipole placed directly below the centre nanorod in the FDTD model, highly collimated light is achieved by changing the radii of the nanorods, for a fixed array pitch, which we attribute mainly to Bragg diffraction. By changing the pitch only, higher diffraction orders are observed in the far field emission as the pitch is increased and a relative increase in the directionality of emission is predicted. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-02-12T07:40:19.018773-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400240
  • Investigation of cubic GaN quantum dots grown by the
           Stranski‐Krastanov process
    • Authors: M. Bürger; J. K. N. Lindner, D. Reuter, D. J. As
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: We investigate the formation of cubic GaN quantum dots (QDs) on pseudomorphic strained cubic AlN layers on 3C‐SiC (001) substrates grown by means of molecular beam epitaxy. Surface morphologies of various QD sizes and densities were obtained from uncapped samples by atomic force microscopy. These results were correlated with similar but capped samples by photoluminescence experiments. The QD density varies by one order of magnitude from ∼1x1010 cm‐2 to ∼1x1011 cm‐2 as a function of the GaN coverage on the surface. The initial layer thickness for the creation of cubic GaN QDs on cubic AlN was obtained to 1.95 monolayers by a comparison between the experimental results and an analytical model. Our results reveal the strain‐driven Stranski‐Krastanov growth mode as the main formation process of the cubic GaN QDs. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-02-12T07:40:17.990154-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400132
  • Control current stress technique for the investigation of gate dielectrics
           of MIS devices
    • Authors: Vladimir V. Andreev; Gennady G. Bondarenko, Vladimir M. Maslovsky, Alexander A. Stolyarov, Dmitry V. Andreev
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: In this study, a modified technique of control current stress to investigation thin gate dielectric of MIS structures is proposed. This technique allows to monitor charge trapping in gate dielectric of MIS structures under high‐field and another stress situations (irradiation, plasma, hot carriers, etc.). The technique also may be used for testing thin gate dielectric defects. Unlike simple techniques, for example constant current stress and J‐ramp current stress, the proposed method uses a sequence of stress current and measuring current pulses. At the same time, the processes of charging and discharging of the MIS structure capacitance as well as the charge trapping in the gate dielectric are taken into account. Charging of MIS structure from inversion to accumulation modes or back way allows one to retrieve a low frequency capacitive‐voltage characteristic. Account charging capacitance of MIS structure and charge trapping in gate dielectric at injective mode lets considerably increase metrological characteristics of this technique and reduce inaccuracies. The models describing the change in the charge state of MIS structures, both in the charge capacity, and in the mode of injection of charge carriers were developed. Using these models let to choose optimal algorithm of current stress and increase measurement accuracy. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-02-09T06:14:52.100241-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400119
  • Micro‐Raman spectroscopy as a complementary technique to high
           resolution X‐ray diffraction for the characterization of
           Si1‐xGex thin layers
    • Authors: Aurèle Durand; Denis Rouchon, Delphine Le‐Cunff, Patrice Gergaud
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: In advanced transistor technology, Silicon‐Germanium alloy (SiGe) is being used as a replacement for Si channels to achieve higher mobility. Among the various characterization techniques μ‐Raman spectroscopy is a promising candidate due to a good spatial resolution and low detection threshold. This study presents the evaluation of the technique for the measurement of Ge concentration and comparison to other metrology techniques. As a first step to evaluate the μ‐Raman capability, we considered a simple case of thin SiGe films from 12nm down to 4 nm thickness. Assuming an epitaxial pseudomorphic structure, the Ge content has been extracted for all samples with an average 0.3% stability and at least 1% accuracy as confirmed by high resolution X‐ray diffraction (HRXRD) and secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis (SIMS). We then studied a more complex structure of SiGe on fully depleted‐silicon on insulator (FD‐SOI) as being critical for the development of condensation process of advanced transistor technology. Since μ‐Raman requires prior knowledge of the structural state of the layer, we discuss the interest to combine μ‐Raman measurements with X‐rays diffraction in order to extract the Ge composition on such stacks. μ‐Raman shows a real potential for thin SiGe film characterization and it does not suffers of the lack of precision for very thin films as HRXRD does, however there are still some developments to be made before using it as a metrology technique. Moreover, it could be interesting to couple the technique with HRXRD measurement. The approach to control SiGe condensation process on FD‐SOI might suggest interesting experiment. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-02-09T06:14:50.483456-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400113
  • Boron doped cubic silicon probed by high resolution X‐ray
    • Authors: Tatjana Ulyanenkova; Maksym Myronov, Alex Ulyanenkov
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Highly boron doped epitaxial silicon, with boron concentrations well above 1x1020 cm‐3, is of great interest for applications in large variety of electronic and photonic devices where it is used as a low resistivity contact. The Bragg peak position of a homogeneous solid solution epitaxial film is directly related to the solid solution concentration, film strain and, consequently residual stress. The peak shape contains information about defects present in an epilayer. Here we report structural experiments performed at room temperature and atmospheric pressure on a set of boron doped Si thin epilayers grown on a Si(001) substrate. We analyzed the BSi epilayers using high resolution X‐ray rocking curve, reflectivity measurements and high resolution reciprocal space mapping (HR‐RSM). The measurements were carried out by Rigaku SmartLab diffractometer. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-02-09T06:14:49.11475-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400102
  • Characterization and simulation of optical absorption in Si nanocrystals
    • Authors: Xuguang Jia; Lingfeng Wu, Ziyun Lin, Tian Zhang, Terry Chien‐Jen Yang, Hongze Xia, Binesh Puthen‐Veettil, Gavin Conibeer, Ivan Perez‐Wurfl
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The application of silicon quantum dot (Si QD) based material is regarded as a promising approach for the realization of high efficiency solar cells. When silicon nanocrystals are made very small (within the vicinity of the exciton Bohr radius of bulk Si), they behave as quantum dots due to the three‐dimensional quantum confinement, which could cause the material's effective optical band gap to increase. The optical band gap can be deduced from the absorption coefficient. In this paper, we analyze optical absorption and emission processes in Si QD and attempt to simulate the band‐edge absorption features based on the photoluminescence spectrum. We also investigate the application of ellipsometry in the study of optical properties of Si QD thin films. Based on WVASE32 modeling tool, a homogeneous mixture model is developed to extract the absorption coefficient of this material. From these results, we extract the effective optical band gap and analyze optical properties of Si QDs materials. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-02-09T06:14:48.190386-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400089
  • Synthesis and utilization of LaVO4:Eu3+ nanoparticles as fluorescent
           near‐field optical sensors
    • Authors: S. G. Nedilko; O. Chukova, Yu. Hizhnyi, S. A. Nedilko, T. Voitenko, L. Billot, L. Aigouy
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: We report the use of fluorescent La1‐xEuxVO4 (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.3) nanoparticles as near‐field optical sensors. A single particle was glued at the end of a sharp atomic force microscope tip and scanned on the surface of a test sample made of sub‐micron sized holes in a thin silver film. Illumination of the sample was performed at λ = 532 nm in a transmission configuration. The light transmitted through the apertures induced the fluorescence of europium ions. The collection of the fluorescence light as a function of the tip position above the surface allowed to map the near‐field distribution in the vicinity of the holes, at different heights above the surface showing the beam divergence in free space above the sample. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-02-09T06:14:47.241731-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400090
  • XPS study of MoO3 and WO3 oxide surface modification by low‐energy
           Ar+ ion bombardment
    • Authors: Nikolai V. Alov
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The surface modification of oxides MoO3and WO3 under irradiation by Ar+ ions with an energy of 3 keV in high vacuum is investigated by X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is shown that under irradiation by Ar+ ions lower and intermediate oxides and unoxidized metals are formed in the surface layers of higher oxides. It is found that the process of ion‐beam reduction of the surface of oxides MoO3and WO3 substantially depends on the irradiation dose and difference in energy of the metal–oxygen bond in oxides. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-02-09T06:14:46.704362-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400108
  • Ga+ implantation in a PZT film during focused ion beam
    • Authors: Nicole Wollschläger; Werner Österle, Ines Häusler, Mark Stewart
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The objective of the present work was to study the impact of Focused Ion Beam (FIB) machining parameters on the thickness of the damaged layer within a thin film PZT. Therefore, different Ga+‐ ion doses and ion energies were applied to a standard PZT film (80/20 lead zirconium titanate) under two beam incidence angles (90° and 1°). The thicknesses of the corresponding Ga+‐implanted layers were then determined by cross‐sectional TEM in combination with energy dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) line‐scans and correlated with polarisation hysteresis loops. The results show a decrease of Ga+‐implanted layer thickness with decreasing inclination angle, whereas ion energy and ion dose could be correlated with gallium concentration in the implanted layers.. Under the most unfavorable conditions the depth of the affected zone was 26 nm, it was only 2 nm for the most favorable conditions. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-02-09T06:14:45.90314-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400096
  • In situ UHVEM irradiation study of intrinsic point defect behavior in Si
           nanowire structures
    • Authors: J. Vanhellemont; S. Anada, T. Nagase, H. Yasuda, H. Bender, R. Rooyackers, A. Vandooren
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Si nanowire‐based Tunnel‐Field Effect Transistor (TFET) characteristics are intensively studied as function of nanowire diameter and doping. A significant reduction of B diffusion with decreasing nanowire diameter is e.g. observed and attributed to reduced transient enhanced diffusion close to the nanowire surface caused by the recombination and out‐diffusion of excess self‐interstitials. In an Ultra High Voltage Electron Microscope (UHVEM), the formation of self‐interstitial clusters can be studied in situ while varying e‐beam flux, irradiation temperature, impurity concentration and capping layers surrounding the nanowires. Results are presented on {113}‐defect formation in Si nanowires with diameters between 40 and 500 nm. The Si nanowires are embedded in SiO2 and are etched into an epitaxial Si stack on a heavily As doped Si substrate. The top layer of the epitaxial stack is in situ B doped or B implanted. In situ UHVEM studies are performed on focused ion beam prepared cross‐section samples, irradiating with different fluxes of 2 MeV electrons between room temperature and 375 °C. A strong dependence of {113}‐defect formation on nanowire radius and doping is observed. The observations are compared with simulations based on quasi‐chemical reaction rate theory. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-02-09T06:14:45.389196-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400100
  • Towards single‐trap spectroscopy: Generation‐recombination
           noise in UTBOX SOI nMOSFETs
    • Authors: Eddy Simoen; Bogdan Cretu, Wen Fang, Marc Aoulaiche, Jean‐Marc Routoure, Regis Carin, Sara dos Santos, Jun Luo, Chao Zhao, Joao Antonio Martino, Cor Claeys
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: An overview is given on the possibilities of using generation‐recombination (GR) noise as a tool for defect spectroscopy in semiconductor materials and devices. The method is illustrated by n‐channel MOSFETs fabricated on silicon‐on‐insulator (SOI) substrates with an ultra‐thin buried oxide (UTBOX). As will be shown, the use of fully depleted (FD) UTBOX devices offers some unique opportunities and challenges. In the first instance, one can apply the standard GR noise spectroscopy in function of the temperature to derive the relevant deep‐level parameters like the activation energy, the capture cross section and the concentration. In addition, some new type of spectroscopy can be applied to defects in the silicon film by exploiting the front‐ and/or back‐gate bias dependence of the Lorentzian noise parameters. Finally, it is shown that for small geometry transistors the GR noise is generated by one or only a few centres. This becomes obvious in the time domain, where the channel current exhibits random telegraph signal (RTS) fluctuations. The up and down time constants and the relative RTS amplitude can be used to derive the GR centre parameters and, moreover, its spatial location, when combined with numerical device simulations. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T08:10:50.318829-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400075
  • Plasma‐assisted molecular beam epitaxy of strain‐compensated
           a‐plane InGaN/AlGaN superlattices
    • Authors: Ryan W. Enck; N. Woodward, C. Gallinat, G. Metcalfe, A. V. Sampath, H. Shen, M. Wraback
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Strain‐compensated InGaN/AlGaN structures can enable the growth of thick layers of InGaN epitaxial films far beyond the critical thickness for InGaN grown pseudomorphically to GaN. In this paper, we demonstrate the epitaxial growth of high‐quality strain‐compensated a‐plane In0.12Ga0.88N/Al0.19Ga0.81N superlattices up to 5 times thicker than the critical thickness on free‐standing a‐plane GaN substrates by plasma‐assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA‐MBE). The superlattices consist of 50 to 200 periods of 10 nm thick In0.12Ga0.88N and 6 nm thick Al0.19Ga0.81N layers. The structures are characterized using a double crystal X‐ray diffractometer, asymmetric reciprocal space mapping, and atomic force microscopy. We use X‐ray diffraction to determine the strain, composition, degree of relaxation, and superlattice period of our samples. The structural characteristics of periodic structures containing from 50 to 200 periods are compared to single layer, uncompensated In0.12Ga0.88N films. A 100 period structure exhibited only 15% relaxation compared to 69% relaxation for the bulk In0.12Ga0.88N film grown with the same total InGaN thickness but without strain‐compensating layers. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T08:10:49.21007-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400208
  • HVPE homoepitaxy on freestanding AlN substrate with trench pattern
    • Authors: Yoshinobu Watanabe; Hideto Miyake, Kazumasa Hiramatsu, Yosuke Iwasaki, Shunro Nagata
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Conditions on chemical surface treatment and thermal treatment of sublimation‐freestanding AlN substrates were investigated to remove damage layers on surfaces for high‐quality and crack‐free AlN films grown by hydride vapour phase epitaxy (HVPE). By wet etching, the residue on the surface was removed and the polishing scratches were reduced. Atomic steps were formed on the surface by the subsequent thermal treatment at 1450 °C for 10 min, and surface layer of 220 nm in thickness was removed, Homoepitaxial growth on freestanding AlN substrate with trench pattern was also performed. A crack‐free AlN film with atomic steps was obtained on the trench‐patterned bulk AlN substrate, and the emission at the band edge near 206.9 nm was dominant. The wavelength of luminescence from cross‐sectional and surface of the HVPE‐AlN layer was maintained. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T08:10:48.179394-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400202
  • Time‐resolved photoluminescence characterization of 2 eV band in AlN
    • Authors: Ivan A. Aleksandrov; Vladimir G. Mansurov, Victor F. Plyusnin, Konstantin S. Zhuravlev
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: We report time‐resolved and temperature‐dependent photoluminescence investigations of 2 eV photoluminescence band in AlN with below bandgap excitation. Series of the samples grown by molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire substrates with varying growth conditions have been studied. Intensity of the 2 eV photoluminescence band has been found to increase with increasing III/V flux ratio. The 2 eV photoluminescence band has been described in one‐dimensional configuration coordinate model. A possible origin of this orange emission has been discussed. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T08:10:47.139747-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400175
  • Degradation of external quantum efficiency of AlGaN UV LEDs grown by
           hydride vapor phase epitaxy
    • Authors: Natalia Shmidt; Alexander Usikov, Eugenia Shabunina, Anton Chernyakov, Alexey Sakharov, Sergey Kurin, Andrei Antipov, Iosif Barash, Alexander Roenkov, Heikki Helava, Yuri Makarov
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A comparative study of the degradation of HVPE‐grown 360 nm AlGaN/GaN UV and commercially available InGaN/GaN blue LED chips was performed. The common feature of the degradation of these two types of LEDs was found to be the increase of the conductivity of shunt paths under current injection. The paths (shunts) are localized in the extended defects system (EDS). It is proposed that the conductivity increase is due to defect formation under multiphonon carriers recombination in a part of the EDS enriched by Ga or In atoms. This process is accompanied by a local overheating and migration of Ga or In atoms. To increase the lifetime of the AlGaN/GaN UV LEDs to more than 2000 h it is necessary to improve their nano‐structural and nanoscale AlGaN composition ordering. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T08:10:46.189625-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400172
  • Unusual phonon mode behaviour in zinc‐blende BN/GaN superlattices
    • Authors: Devki N. Talwar; Andrew F. Zhou, Tzuen‐Rong Yang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Comprehensive calculations of the long‐wavelength optical phonons are reported for zinc‐blende BN films by exploiting a linear response theory to simulate far‐infrared reflectivity and transmission spectra at oblique incidence. A rigid‐ion‐model is used to study the lattice dynamics of the unconventional BN/GaN short‐period superlattices (SLs). Besides empathizing, the anisotropic mode behaviour of optical phonons, the study has offered evidence of acoustic‐mode anti‐crossing, mini‐gap formation, confinement, as well as BN‐like modes falling between the gap regions separating the optical phonons of the two bulk (BN, GaN) semiconductor materials. A bond‐polarizability approach within the second‐nearest‐neighbour linear‐chain model is also employed to visualize the Raman intensity profiles of the short‐period BN/GaN SLs, revealing major trends of the phonon characteristics noted in many conventional SLs, while eliciting some interesting contrasts. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T08:10:45.055269-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400157
  • Accurate measurement of atomic segregation to grain boundaries or to
           planar faults by analytical transmission electron microscopy
    • Authors: Thomas Walther
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A method of analytical transmission electron microscopy is described that has been successfully applied to study dopant segregation to inversion domain boundaries in zinc oxide, to quantify the thicknesses of sub‐nanometre thin epitaxial layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy of indium arsenide (InAs) on gallium arsenide (GaAs) or silicon/germanium on silicon and proved the absence of any gettering of As or Ga dopants at Sigma=3 {111} grain boundaries in silicon, with a precision of
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T08:10:43.66336-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400121
  • Characterization of TiO2 antireflection coatings elaborated by APCVD for
           monocrystalline silicon solar cells
    • Authors: D. Hocine; M. S. Belkaid, M. Pasquinelli, L. Escoubas, P. Torchio, A. Moreau
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: In this work, high quality titanium dioxide thin films were grown by an efficient, less expensive and rapid method of Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (APCVD) from TiCl4 precursor for application as antireflection coatings on monocrystalline silicon solar cells with the aim to reduce the front surface reflection losses. The microstructural, electrical and optical properties of the produced coatings were successfully characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Four Point Probe (FPP) and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE). The produced coatings were uniform, homogenous and relatively smooth. The density of the deposited TiO2 films is found to be ρ ′ = 3.11 g/cm3. The porosity of these films is estimated to ϕ = 24 %. A perfect agreement between the AFM results and the ellipsometric results was confirmed. The refractive index of our TiO2 thin films was found to be n = 2.25 at the wavelength λ = 550 nm, with a thickness of 56.2 nm. Our results show the possibility to fabricate TiO2 layers with the optimal optical qualities required for antireflection coating, using the APCVD technique. An excellent agreement is reached between our experimental results and calculated results for TiO2 single‐layer antireflection coating on monocrystalline silicon solar cells. The electrical resistivity of the deposited TiO2 films at 450°C annealed at 450°C for 1 hr, was found to be ρ = 1.7 × 10‐3 Ω.cm. The sheet resistance of our TiO2 films was equal to R□ = 303 Ω/□. The obtained results demonstrate the real opportunity of the APCVD technique to prepare high quality antireflection coatings for high efficiency silicon solar cells. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T08:10:42.468015-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400085
  • Reflectance analysis on the MOCVD growth of AlN on Si(111) by the virtual
           interface model
    • Authors: Tuoh‐Bin Ng; David A. Ewoldt, Debra A. Shepherd, Mark J. Loboda
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The reflectance‐time profile of AlN‐on‐Si(111) growth by MOCVD as acquired through an in‐situ optical reflectance monitor is analyzed. It is found that, similar to the case of GaN‐on‐sapphire nucleation and growth through the low temperature GaN or AlN buffer layer techniques, the reflectance profile for AlN‐on‐Si also contains information that relate to the growth mechanism, which can then be correlated to the as‐grown material quality. Based on the equations for the Virtual Interface model, a set of 6 parameters can be used to curve‐fit the reflectance traces of AlN growth as acquired by the in‐situ optical monitor. By analyzing a range of 405 nm AlN reflectance‐time data from single layer AlN growth to multilayer AlN/AlGaN/GaN stack grown on Si(111), the “goodness of fit” statistics are found to correlate with material quality metrics such as the XRD (002) rocking curve FWHM for AlN, microscopic morphological roughness of the AlN surface, as well as the resultant wafer bow and curvature for GaN/AlGaN grown on the AlN/Si(111) substrate. The correlations provide useful insight into the desirable mechanism and growth mode for the high temperature MOCVD growth of AlN and GaN on Si(111). When fully established, the technique has the potential of being used as an in‐situ pass/fail screen for the MOCVD growth of GaN‐on‐Si. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T08:10:41.27289-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400159
  • Contents: Phys. Status Solidi C 3/2015
    • Pages: 251 - 252
      PubDate: 2015-03-09T05:46:21.128447-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201570077
  • Analytical techniques for precise characterization of nanomaterials
    • Authors: Andreas Nutsch; Fernando Araujo de Castro, Christoph Adelmann, Blanka Adelmann
      Pages: 253 - 254
      Abstract: This special edition contains the proceedings of ALTECH 2014 – Analytical Techniques for Precise Characterisation of Nanomaterials, Symposium H of the European Materials Research Society (E‐MRS) Spring Meeting 2014 that was held in Lille, France, from 26th–30th May. ALTECH is a series of conferences initiated in 1989. The conference was offered as a satellite of symposium of semiconductor conferences in Europe or, on occasion, in the U.S., with a strong focus on analytical techniques for microelectronics manufacturing and research. In 2012, the German metrology institute PTB joined the executive board of the ALTECH and proposing a broadening of the ALTECH scope towards the characterization of nanomaterials. While imec has ensured the organizational continuity, further European metrology institutes adhered to the organizational board which made ALTECH to an important European metrology event on nanomaterials characterisation. Our conference covered recent and innovative developments in analytical techniques that can provide precise characterization of surfaces and materials, characterization of nanostructures and study of thin films with nanoscale and/or atomic resolution. In total, 167 contributions were presented, including 11 invited presentations, 87 contributed oral presentations and 69 poster presentations. The event also included significant contributions from the European Metrology Research Program projects 'Metrology for the manufacturing of thin films', 'Traceable characterization of nanostructured devices', 'Novel electronic devices based on control of strain at the nanoscale', and 'Chemical metrology tools for manufacture of advanced biomaterials in the medical device industry' including related tutorial sessions. Nanomaterials have unique properties associated with their small dimensionality. Functional nanomaterials are rapidly finding wider use in modern technological products in many areas, for example, displays, energy conversion, energy storage, sensors and biosensors. The accurate characterization of nanoscale materials is essential for the development of such innovative products. Conversely, properly engineered nanomaterials are currently seen as one of the most promising tools for high resolution optical microscopy. The objective of ALTECH was to highlight metrology capabilities for both the determination of the key structural and material property parameters in view of a better understanding of the related functional properties. One major focus was the application of these techniques to new and complex material systems with high potential of industrial impact, including nanoscale objects (nanowires, quantum dots), nanostructured thin films of organic, hybrid, or inorganic semiconductors, and functionalized surfaces. A special focus was given to complementary metrology in terms of using different analytical techniques with the aim of ensuring accuracy and traceability, i.e. the inclusion of a well‐described uncertainty budget. As many of these techniques depend on modelling to achieve reliable results, effective material analysis and computational analysis of materials and thin layers were also a key topic. These proceedings contain a selection of 23 manuscripts published in pss (a) and pss (c). pss (c) is organized in three sections: – Analysis of surfaces and materials – Characterization of nanostructures – Study of thin films. We would like to thank all invited speakers, contributors and attendees for their high‐quality contributions and excellent discussions which made ALTECH a very successful meeting. We are grateful to the scientific committee and external colleagues who supported the symposium and the organisation of these proceedings as well as acted as session chairs and reviewers. We thank the E‐MRS headquarter staff for their assistance in organising the symposium as well as Wiley‐VCH for helping with the publication of these proceedings. We also would like to acknowledge the sponsorship of several companies and institutions (NPL, Berlin Partner, Rigaku, Elexience, EXSA, INRIM, AXO Dresden, Sentech), as well as the support of the European Union through the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), projects IND07 ThinFilms and NEW01 TReND, IND54 Nanostrain, and IND56 Q‐AIMDS. The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union. Andreas Nutsch, PTB, Germany Fernando Araujo de Castro, NPL, U.K. Christoph Adelmann, Imec, Belgium Blanka Detlefs, CEA‐Leti, France Guest Editors
      PubDate: 2015-03-09T05:46:18.401211-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201570078
  • Numerical analysis of light elements transport in a unidirectional
           solidification furnace
    • Authors: Koichi Kakimoto; Bing Gao, Satoshi Nakano
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Quantitative study of light elements such as carbon and oxygen in multi‐crystalline silicon for solar cells is required to grow crystals with high quality. The transport of both carbon and oxygen is one of the critical issues to increase efficiency of solar cells made of silicon materials. Concentrations of carbon and oxygen in a furnace affect each others, therefore it is important to control mass transfer of carbon and oxygen in a furnace. Numerical calculation with a chemical reaction between carbon and oxygen was carried out to study how both light impurities are incorporated into crystals through the melt and gas during solidification process. The effects of flow rate and pressure on the impurities were examined. An increase in the flow rate can reduce both carbon and oxygen impurities in the crystal, though the reduction of carbon is more obvious. An increase in gas pressure can also obviously reduce the oxygen impurity but has only a small effect on the carbon impurity (© 2010 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2010-11-15T04:22:05.648279-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.200900117
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