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PHYSICS (565 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Niels Bohr Collected Works     Full-text available via subscription  
Noise & Vibration Worldwide     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Noise Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Nuclear Engineering and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Nuclear Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Microphysics     Open Access  
Open Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Optical Communications and Networking, IEEE/OSA Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Optofluidics, Microfluidics and Nanofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Organic Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Organic Photonics and Photovoltaics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
PAJ: A Journal of Performance and Art     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Papers in Physics     Open Access  
Particle Physics Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Particuology     Hybrid Journal  
Pattern Recognition in Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pergamon Materials Series     Full-text available via subscription  
Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Philosophical Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Philosophy and Foundations of Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Physica B: Condensed Matter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
physica status solidi (a)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
physica status solidi (b)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
physica status solidi (c)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physica Status Solidi - Rapid Research Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physical Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Physical Review C     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Physical Review Special Topics - Physics Education Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Physical Review X     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Physical Sciences Data     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physics - spotlighting exceptional research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physics and Chemistry of Glasses - European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part B     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Physics and Chemistry of Liquids: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Physics and Materials Chemistry     Open Access  
Physics Essays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physics in Medicine & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Physics in Perspective     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physics International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Physics Letters A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Physics Letters B     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Physics of Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Physics of Life Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physics of Plasmas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Physics of the Dark Universe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Physics of the Solid State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Physics of Wave Phenomena     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physics Procedia     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Physics Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Physics Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Physics Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Physics World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Physics-Uspekhi     Full-text available via subscription  
Physik in unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physik Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Plasma Physics Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pramana     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Preview     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 477)
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Progress in Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Progress in Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics     Open Access  
Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Quantum Measurements and Quantum Metrology     Open Access  
Quantum Studies : Mathematics and Foundations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Radiation Measurements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Radiation Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Radiation Protection Dosimetry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Radiation Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Radio Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Radiological Physics and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Reflets de la physique     Full-text available via subscription  
Reports on Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Reports on Progress in Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Research in Drama Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Research Journal of Physics     Open Access  
Results in Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Reviews in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal  
Reviews of Accelerator Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Reviews of Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Reviews of Modern Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Revista Boliviana de Física     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Física     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Física     Open Access  
Revista mexicana de física E     Open Access  
Rheologica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Russian Journal of Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal  
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover   physica status solidi (c)
  [SJR: 0.471]   [H-I: 31]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1862-6351 - ISSN (Online) 1610-1642
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1597 journals]
  • Advanced light trapping interface for a‐Si:H thin film
    • Abstract: Surface texturing of transparent conducting oxides and plasmonic interfaces are two important techniques used separately in thin film solar cells to reduce reflection and enhance light‐trapping. In this study, we merge the effects of Al:ZnO surface texturing and Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) plasmonics in a single light‐trapping interface to investigate their combined light trapping efficiency on a‐Si:H thin film. Light scattered by this interface is optimized by placing a thin SiO2 spacer layer between AgNPs and a‐Si:H absorber layer. Our results indicate that the AgNPs embedded in SiO2 significantly enhance absorption at energies close to the band gap of a‐Si:H. Surface texturing by wet etching of Al:ZnO combined with AgNP produces the highest optical extinction of a‐Si:H thin film at the band edge. Furthermore, the measured photocurrent in a‐Si:H shows a clear increase not only at AgNPs resonance wavelength but over the entire wavelength range. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-10-06T07:20:09.843229-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510097
  • A low cost outdoor testing facility for detailed photovoltaic device
           performance characterization
    • Authors: Guvenc Ogulgonen; Talat Ozden, Ugur Yardim, Rasit Turan, Serkan Kincal
      Abstract: Long term outdoor performance monitoring is the ultimate method to capture the long term performance characteristics of PV devices. As time consuming as this process might be, it is the only way in which the local environmental condition versus PV device characteristics may be captured when making investment decisions. This data needs to be captured at least once through the seasonal cycle. It needs to be correlated to the environmental conditions, this monitoring climatic conditions is a requirement. Solar irradiation conditions must be monitored over a range of inclination angles – direct, diffuse and reflected components must be ideally captured separately. The panels must be held at maximum power generating point through the varying illumination conditions. Periodic IV traces must be captured, in addition to the power output to understand mechanisms of degradation, if present. Furthermore, the IV curves must be summarized in terms of relevant performance metrics. This work describes an outdoor testing facility that addresses all the aforementioned requirements. Reliable equipment selections coupled with adequate modelling strategies allow for the generation of a robust and accessible database of performance data. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-09-25T04:40:28.300256-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510110
  • Effect of aluminum thickness and etching time of aluminum induced
           texturing process on soda lime glass substrates for thin solar cell
    • Abstract: In this study, aluminum induced texturing (AIT) technique is used to increase light absorption in thin film by way of increasing the portion of the diffuse transmitted light (haze). For this purpose, various AIT process parameters such as starting aluminum thicknesses, annealing temperature and time, etching time, etchant's concentrations, and temperature of etching are known to affect the final texture. We have investigated the effect of aluminum thickness and etching time on AIT process while keeping the other parameters fixed. Our results show that by changing initial aluminum thickness and etching time, it is possible to control surface morphology of glass substrate and the resulting optical diffuse transmittance. In addition, diffuse transmittance is increased over the visible range of solar spectra and total absorption by a‐Si:H is increased. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-09-25T04:40:27.025127-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510125
  • Thermal recovery process of electron irradiated Si1‐xCx source/drain
    • Authors: Kenichiro Takakura; Masato Hori, Masashi Yoneoka, Isao Tsunoda, Toshiyuki Nakashima, Eddy Simoen, Cor Claeys
      Abstract: In this study, the performance degradation by electron irradiation and the thermal recovery process of Si0.99C0.01 source/drain (S/D) n‐MOSFETs are reported. The electron mobility is 15% enhanced by 1%‐C doping in the S/D stressor region. The electron mobility is degraded by 2‐MeV electron irradiation, but the relative change was the same irrespective of C doping and electron fluence. This fact indicates that tensile‐strain relaxation by displacement damage in the Si:C stressors is not significantly impacting the mobility degradation by electron irradiation. Evidence is given that increased scattering in the channel is the main cause of mobility degradation by 2‐MeV electron irradiation. In addition, it is shown that for a fluence of 5x1017 e/cm2, the electrical performance is recovered by thermal annealing. After 323 K for 15 min annealing, the mobility amounts to 95% of the pre‐irradiation value. In the case of Si0.7Ge0.3 S/D p‐MOSFETs, it has been shown before that the device performance is recovered to the same degree for the same irradiation/thermal annealing conditions of this study. CMOS circuits are fabricated by a combination of n‐MOSFETs and p‐MOSFETs, therefore, it can be confirmed that strained CMOS devices using Si:C S/D n‐MOSFETs and SiGe S/D p‐MOSFETs, respectively, can operate in the radiation environment studied here. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-09-25T04:30:40.190593-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510088
  • Investigation of the effect of diiodooctane on the morphology and
           performance of PTB7/PC71BM solar cells
    • Abstract: Organic photovoltaics have been intensively investigated in recent years for generation of affordable, clean, and renewable energy due to their low‐cost fabrication of large‐area devices, lightweight, mechanical flexibility, and easy tunability of chemical properties of the polymer materials. Thieno[3,4‐b]thiophene and benzodithiophene solar cells were fabricated, characterized and the performance of the solar cells was studied and compared with each other in the different ratios of diiodooctane. Atomic force microscopy was used to study the morphological changes in solar cells. The current density and voltage characteristics of photovoltaic cells were measured under the illumination of simulated solar light. PTB7/PC71BM solar cell enhanced the power conversion efficiency to 2.86% with 0.5% diiodooctane from 1.55% without diiodooctane. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-09-10T14:10:11.964569-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510069
  • Structure and far‐field optical properties of self‐organized
           bimetallic Aux‐Ag1–x nanoparticles embedded in alumina thin
    • Authors: S. Yazidi; A. Fafin, S. Rousselet, F. Pailloux, S. Camelio, D. Babonneau
      Abstract: Self‐organized Aux‐Ag1–x nanoparticles were produced by grazing‐angle deposition using alternating sources on alumina nanoripple patterns. Structural and far‐field optical studies showed that periodic chains of Aux‐Ag1–x alloy nanoparticles with small interparticle gaps and strong plasmonic dichroism can be successfully created after thermal annealing under vacuum between 400 °C and 700 °C. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-09-10T13:30:54.216682-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510079
  • Design of a hybrid photovoltaic‐electrolyzer‐PEM fuel cell
           system for developing solar model
    • Abstract: The world's fossil fuel energy reserves have rapidly decreased, while the energy demand has increased due to industrial growth, population growth, and technology advances, all of which affect the environment by the production of greenhouse gases. Alternative energy sources such as solar, hydrogen, etc. are attracting more attention as an alternative of fossil fuels. We present in this study hybrid photovoltaic (PV) panels/PEM electrolyzer/high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HTPEMFC) system used in off‐grid application. The purpose of a hybrid system is to produce as much energy from alternative energy sources to ensure the load demand. Solar energy is used as primary source and a fuel cell is used as backup power. The hybrid system is designed and analyzed according to the new solar radiation model. Firstly a new solar model is developed to determine solar radiation on horizontal surface. After that solar radiation on tilted surface is obtained by using solar radiation on horizontal surface model for PV panel calculations. The hybrid system is modelled and the obtained results presented and discussed. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-09-10T13:30:51.477202-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510091
  • Band structure and decay channels of thorium‐229 low‐lying
    • Authors: Petr V. Borisyuk; Oleg S. Vasilyev, Andrey V. Krasavin, Yury Yu. Lebedinskii, Victor I. Troyan, Eugene V. Tkalya
      Abstract: The results are presented on the study of the electronic structure of thorium atoms adsorbed by the liquid atomic layer deposition from aqueous solution of thorium nitrate on the surface of CaF2. The chemical state of the atoms and the change of the band structure in the surface layers of Th/CaF2 system on CaF2 substrate were investigated by XPS and REELS techniques. It was found that REELS spectra for Th/CaF2 system include peaks in the region of low energy losses (3‐7 eV) which are missing in the similar spectra for pure CaF2. It is concluded that the presence of the observed features in the REELS spectra is associated with the chemical state of thorium atoms and is caused by the presence of uncompensated chemical bonds at the Th/CaF2 interface, and, therefore, by the presence of unbound 6d‐ and 7s‐electrons of thorium atoms. Assuming the equivalence of the electronic configuration of thorium‐229 and thorium‐232 atoms, an estimate was made on the time decay of the excited state of thorium‐229 nuclei through the channel of the electron conversion. It was found that the relaxation time is about 40 μs for 6d‐electrons, and about 1 μs for 7s‐electrons. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-09-10T13:30:50.0052-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510095
  • Willemite photoluminescence in Zn‐implanted silica glasses
    • Abstract: The photoluminescence properties of α‐Zn2SiO4 nanoparticles formed in the SiO2 by means of ion implantation and subsequent 900 °C, 1 hour annealing in air atmosphere. Both X‐ray diffraction, optical and photoluminescence (PL) spectra confirm the formation of willemite phase Zn2SiO4 in SiO2 matrices. The characteristic 2.4 eV PL band observed resembles the properties of classical Zn2SiO4:Mn phosphor, though no manganese were introduced into the samples. PL excitation spectra demonstrate the contribution of willemite and silica band states, thus suggesting interphase energy transfer mechanism. Thermal quenching and lifetimes of the luminescence observed provide the clues to figure out the nature of emission centres. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-09-10T13:30:48.41804-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510099
  • Temperature‐dependent luminescence of Tb3+ and Eu3+
           single‐doped glasses for LEDapplications
    • Authors: Sebastian Loos; Franziska Steudel, Bernd Ahrens, Russell Lee Leonard, Jacqueline Anne Johnson, Stefan Schweizer
      Abstract: Tb3+ and Eu3+ single‐doped barium borate glass and ZBLAN glass are investigated for their photoluminescence (PL) and absolute PL quantum efficiency. In addition, both glass systems are characterized with respect to their color stability in the temperature range from 25 °C to 400 °C. The Tb3+ doped glass shows high color stability over the entire temperature range investigated, whereas the Eu3+ doped glass changes its color appearance with increasing temperature: Eu3+ in ZBLAN glass changes its color appearance from the orange to the red spectral range, whereas the color appearance in borate glass is shifted from the red to the orange‐red spectral range. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-09-10T13:30:46.973758-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510104
  • Study of oxidation effect on the photoluminescence in p‐type
           nanostructured silicon
    • Abstract: Porous silicon samples containing crystallites in the nanometer scale are produced and treated with an oxidizing solution. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra, attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and contact angle (CA) measurements on these samples are recorded. ATR and CA results are compared to extract information concerning the oxidation degree of the surfaces. PL spectra are deconvolved into nanocrystal structures and surface states contributions by the use of the stochastic quantum confinement model (SQCM). A correlation between nanocrystals sizes and oxidation layer presence is obtained. This result could be important for eventual PL device development based on this semiconductor material. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-09-10T13:30:44.968809-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510132
  • Electron transport through a metallic nanoparticle assembly embedded in
           SiO2 and SiNx by low energy ion implantation
    • Authors: M. Bayle; J. Grisolia, G. Ben Assayag, B. Pecassou, C. Bonafos, P. Benzo, F. Gourbilleau, R. Carles
      Abstract: Original substrates have been developed to offer a new approach to modulate and analyse simultaneously electro‐optical and transport properties through an assembly of metallic nanoparticles (NPs). Using low energy ion implantation, silver NPs have been synthesized at the vicinity of the free surface of a SiO2 or SiNx matrix. Varying the parameters of the process allows us to modify the density of NPs and their distance to the surface. While Ag NPs surface fraction in SiO2 cannot exceed 20%, it reaches 30% in SiNx. In the latter case, NPs with mean diameter is about 2.1 nm have an interdistance compatible with tunnel effect. We then developed devices that electrically address the embedded assembly of NPs for I‐V characterization. The transport measurements on these devices show that an exploitable conduction is possible within the Ag NPs assembly in SiNx. The Arrhenius‐type temperature dependence model was successfully applied demonstrating that electron transport follows a simple thermally activated behaviour with the occurrence of a strongly localized regime. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-09-10T13:30:41.874432-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510147
  • Optimization of THz response of strained‐Si MODFETs
    • Abstract: This paper reports on the study of strained‐Si n‐channel MODFETs as detectors of sub‐THz radiation. Simulations based on a bi‐dimensional hydrodynamic model for the charge transport coupled to a Poisson equation solver were performed. A charge boundary condition for the floating drain contact was implemented to obtain the photovoltaic response of the device. Time‐domain simulations were performed to generate the stationary time series needed to obtain the photovoltaic response. A non‐resonant THz photo‐response was obtained in agreement with experimental results and theoretical works on plasma waves devices. It was found that the photovoltaic response of s‐Si MODFETs with non self‐aligned gates is strongly influenced by both gate's length and topology. In particular, it was demonstrated that at frequencies around 0.3 THz a double‐finger gate delivers a stronger PV response than a conventional single‐finger gate structure. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-08-31T06:10:19.624669-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510136
  • Pyrolytically grown indium sulfide sensitized zinc oxide nanowires for
           solar water splitting
    • Authors: Pelin Komurcu; Emre Kaan Can, Erkan Aydin, Levent Semiz, Alp Eren Gurol, Fatma Merve Alkan, Mehmet Sankir, Nurdan Demirci Sankir
      Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires, sensitized with spray pyrolyzed indium sulfide, were obtained by chemical bath deposition. The XRD analysis indicated dominant evolution of hexagonal ZnO phase. Significant gain in photoelectrochemical current using ZnO nanowires is largely accountable to enhancement of the visible light absorption and the formation of heterostructure. The maximum photoconversion efficiency of 2.77% was calculated for the indium sulfide sensitized ZnO nanowire photoelectrodes. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-08-31T06:10:17.950761-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510113
  • Local structure and photoluminescence properties of nanostructured
           Zn1‐xMnxS material
    • Abstract: Zinc sulfide (ZnS) pure or doped has received remarkable attention because of fundamental properties, versatility and potential for several technological applications as luminescent material. In this study, the local structure and photoluminescence properties of nanostructured Zn1‐xMnxS samples have been characterized. X‐ray diffraction results show that ZnS:Mn samples crystallized completely without the presence of secondary phases and the diffraction patterns correspond to the cubic zinc blende. Theoretical and experimental XANES (X‐ray absorption near edge structure) spectra at Zn K‐edge suggest the incorporation of Mn atoms into the ZnS host and indicate the occurrence of Zn and S vacancies, which are confirmed by EXAFS (extended X‐ray absorption fine structure) fit results. These vacancies can be related to a red‐shift observed in the peak emission of photoluminescence spectrum for ZnS sample, which is centered at ∼ 504 nm. As the Mn content increases, a yellow‐orange emission centered at ∼ 590 nm can be observed besides the blue‐green emission, which is associated with the 4T1–6A1 transition within the 3d shell of Mn2+. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-08-31T05:40:19.777527-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510135
  • High structural quality InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells
    • Authors: Ezgi Dogmus; Malek Zegaoui, Ludovic Largeau, Maria Tchernycheva, Vladimir Neplokh, Saskia Weiszer, Fabian Schuster, Martin Stutzmann, Martin Foldyna, Farid Medjdoub
      Abstract: In this paper, we report on high structural quality of above 15% indium content InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures with high equivalent thickness for solar cell applications. The structural and optical characterizations revealed fully strained 25 pairs of InGaN/GaN MQW solar cells with 24% indium content which shows extended spectral response up to 530 nm. In particular, defect density of the active region of In0.15 Ga0.85N/GaN MQW solar cell has been assessed in top view electron beam induced current (EBIC) analysis. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-08-31T05:40:17.245026-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510137
  • VIS/NIR wavelength selector based on a multilayer pi'n/pin a‐SiC:H
           optical filter
    • Authors: M. Vieira; M. A. Vieira, V. Silva, P. Louro, I. Rodrigues, A. Fantoni
      Abstract: In this paper, we present a tandem visible/nearinfrared (VIS/NIR) wavelength selector based on a multilayer a‐SiC:H optical filter that requires appropriate near‐ultraviolet steady states optical switches to select the desired wavelengths in the VIS/NIR ranges. Spectral response measurements are presented and show the feasibility of tailoring the wavelength and bandwidth of a polychromatic mixture of different wavelengths. The selector filter is realized by using a two terminal double pi'n/pin a‐SiC:H photodetector. Five visible/infrared communication channels are transmitted together, each one with a specific bit sequence. The combined optical signal is analysed by reading out the photocurrent, under near‐UV steady state background. Results show that the background side and intensity works as a selector in the infrared/visible regions, shifting the sensor sensitivity. This nonlinearity allows the identification and decoding of the different input channels in the visible/infrared ranges. This concept is extended to implement a 1 by 5 wavelength division multiplexer with channel separation in the VIS/NIR range and a transmission capability of 30 Kbps. The relationship between the optical inputs and the output signal is established and an algorithm to decode the Multiplexed (MUX) signal presented. An optoeletronic model gives insight on the system physics. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-08-31T05:40:15.439022-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510138
  • Optical signal processing for data error detection and correction using
           a‐SiCH technology
    • Authors: M. A. Vieira; M. Vieira, V. Silva, P. Louro, J. Costa
      Abstract: In this paper, we explore the nonlinear properties of SiC multilayer devices under UV irradiation to design an optical processor for error detection and correction, that enables reliable delivery of spectral data of four‐wave mixing over unreliable communication channels. The SiC optical processor for error detection and correction is realized by using a SiC pin/pin photodetector with UV biased optical gating elements. The relationship between the optical inputs and the corresponding digital output levels is established. Data shows that the optical bias act as a selector that picks one or more states by splitting portions of the input multi optical signals across the front and back photodiodes. Boolean operations are demonstrated optically, additional parity logic operations are performed and checked for errors together. As an example we describe an all‐optical processor for error detection and correction and then, provide an experimental demonstration of this fault tolerant reversible system. An intuitive representation with a 4 bit original string coloured message and the transmitted 7 bit string, the parity matrix, the encoding and decoding processes and the design of SiC syndrome generators are presented. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-08-31T05:40:13.594505-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510139
  • A kinetic Monte Carlo study of defect assisted transport in silicon
           heterojunction solar cells
    • Authors: Pradyumna Muralidharan; Dragica Vasileska, Stephen M. Goodnick, Stuart Bowden
      Abstract: The device performance of an amorphous silicon (a‐Si)/crystalline silicon (c‐Si) solar cell depends strongly on the interfacial transport properties of the device. The energy of the photogenerated carriers at the barrier strongly depends on the strength of the inversion at the heterointerface and their collection requires interaction with the defects present in the intrinsic amorphous silicon buffer layer. In this work we present a theoretical model to study the defect assisted transport of photogenerated carriers through the intrinsic amorphous silicon barrier. We implement the kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method which allows us to simulate the interaction of discrete carriers with discrete defects. This method allows us to study defect transport which takes place on a time scale which is too long for traditional ensemble Monte Carlo's to analyze. We analyze the injection and extraction of carriers via defects by calculating transition rates, i.e. probability of transition to defect states within the intrinsic amorphous silicon barrier. The KMC results allow us to quantitatively study the properties of the heterointerface barrier in terms of how it affects transport. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-08-31T05:10:43.351302-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510071
  • New view on InxGa1‐xNyAs1‐yalloys
    • Authors: Vyacheslav A. Elyukhin
      Abstract: Semiconductors with isoelectronic centers are actively studied to fabricate arrays of identical single photon emitters. Self‐assembling of 4N10In and 1N4In clusters in GaAs‐rich InxGa1‐xNyAs1‐y is represented. All or almost all In atoms are in 4N10In clusters from 0 to 800 °C in InxGa1‐xNyAs1‐y with x = 1×10‐4, y = 1×10‐4 and x = 1×10‐5, y = 1×10‐5. All or almost all nitrogen atoms are in 1N4In clusters if x = 0.01, y = 1×10‐4 and x = 1×10‐3, y = 1×10‐6. There are both types of clusters in alloys with x = 5×10‐5, y = 5×10‐7; x = 2×10‐4, y = 2×10‐6; x = 1×10‐4, y = 1×10‐5 and x = 2×10‐3, y = 2×10‐4 and portions of nitrogen atoms in clusters depend on the composition and temperature. Thus, InxGa1‐xNyAs1‐y are promising semiconductors to obtain arrays of identical isoelectronic clusters with the desirable density. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-08-31T05:10:41.780056-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510075
  • Surface plasmon resonance in ZnO nanorod arrays caused by gold
           nanoparticles for solar cell application
    • Authors: Inga Gromyko; Ilona Oja Acik, Malle Krunks, Tatjana Dedova, Atanas Katerski, Arvo Mere, Valdek Mikli, Risto Vessart
      Abstract: In this paper, we study the growth of gold nanoparticles (Au‐NPs) onto ZnO nanorod arrays (ZnO‐NRAs) and the surface plasmon resonance effect caused by them. ZnO‐NRAs were deposited by the chemical spray pyrolysis method. Au‐NPs were obtained by spin‐coating of HAuCl4 in ethanol solution over the nanorod samples. According to XRD, the average size of Au‐NPs on ZnO‐NRAs increases from 27 nm to 72 nm by increasing the HAuCl4 concentration in solution from 0.01 to 0.1 mol/L. There are no visible changes in ZnO‐NRAs morphology using the solutions with 0.0004‐0.03 mol/L, partial dissolution of nanorods occurs when using HAuCl4 solution with the concentration of 0.05 mol/L or higher. ZnO‐NRAs covered with Au‐NPs show the red shift of the surface plasmon resonance band from 545 to 555 nm with increasing the HAuCl4 solution concentration from 0.002 to 0.05 mol/L. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-08-31T05:10:40.440211-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510103
  • Si‐nanoparticle synthesis using ion implantation and MeV ion
    • Abstract: A dielectric matrix with embedded Si‐nanoparticles may show strong luminescence depending on nanoparticles size, surface properties, Si‐excess concentration and matrix type. Ion implantation of Si ions with energies of a few tens to hundreds of keV in a SiO2 matrix followed by thermal annealing was identified as a powerful method to form such nanoparticles. The aim of the present work is to optimize the synthesis of Si‐nanoparticles produced by ion implantation in SiO2 by employing MeV ion irradiation as an additional annealing process. The luminescence properties are measured by spectrally resolved photoluminescence including PL lifetime measurement, while X‐ray reflectometry, atomic force microscopy and ion beam analysis are used to characterize the nanoparticle formation process. The results show that the samples implanted at 20%‐Si excess atomic concentration display the highest luminescence and that irradiation of 36 MeV 127I ions affects the luminosity in terms of wavelength and intensity. It is also demonstrated that the nanoparticle luminescence lifetime decreases as a function of irradiation fluence. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-08-21T03:30:17.951744-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510101
  • Production of flexible polymeric photoanodes using binder‐free
           electrophoretic deposition and compression for dye‐sensitized solar
    • Authors: Bahadir Can Kocaoglu; Macit Ozenbas
      Abstract: Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of titania nanoparticles have been utilized in order to form the nanoporous photoanodes of dye‐sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) on flexible polymeric (PEN/PET) substrates. Highly uniform, adherent nanoporous thick films were produced by uniformly dispersing the titania nanoparticles in alcoholic suspensions without any binders. Suspension performances of each type of isopropanol based mixtures have been examined. Additionally, the effect of acetylacetone addition in suspensions on zeta potential and effective particle size of the colloids is investigated. EPD process has been conducted in single step while the uniformity of the morphology and the thickness of the films were maintained preventing the damage on ITO layer due to excessive voltage exposure. Subsequently, the mechanical compression is applied via cold isostatic pressing (CIP) with a pressure profile in order to obtain 12‐14 µm film thickness and photon to current conversion efficiency of 2.16 % was obtained under AM1.5 conditions. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-08-21T03:30:16.208628-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510090
  • Back Cover: Phys. Status Solidi C 8/2015
    • Abstract: The layout of electronic systems of the next generation will be mainly three‐dimensional. For vertical interconnections so‐called TSVs (through silicon vias) are used. These are vertical holes filled with metal, e.g. copper. Resulting stress can affect the functionality of electronic devices and, a keep‐out zone has to be defined. The integrity of TSV structures has to be tested by non‐destructive analytical tools (see the paper of Martin Herms and coworkers on pp. 1085–1089). The figure shows a map of optical birefringence of a group of 6 × 6 single TSVs (ca. 500 μm × 500 μm) recorded with a photo‐elastic microscope SIREX (Scanning Infrared Explorer). SIREX is a reflection‐based plane polarimeter specially developed for the high‐resolution stress state visualization in silicon‐based electronic and mechanic devices. The diameter of a single TSV shown in the figure is 5 μm. Optical birefringence does occur if the silicon crystal matrix around the single TSV is optically anisotropic. The anisotropy revealed is caused by a radial stress field which is typical for point‐like stress sources. The visualized “butterflies” represent the in‐plane shear stress which can be converted into stress units in the order of a few kPa. The color sequence indicates the stress direction. Here, the TSVs generate a radial tensile stress component in the silicon matrix. Generally, magnitude, direction and lateral distribution of stress are determined by size and shape of a TSV but also by the presence of defects like voids.
      PubDate: 2015-08-20T06:38:47.815635-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201570096
  • Issue Information: Phys. Status Solidi C 8/2015
    • PubDate: 2015-08-20T06:38:43.946085-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201570097
  • Cover Picture: Phys. Status Solidi C 8/2015
    • Abstract: Multicrystalline silicon (mc‐Si) grown by cast method has been most widely used for solar cell application. The improvement of mc‐Si quality is the crucial issue for photovoltaics. There exist two directions for this purpose. One is the seed cast technique which can grow mono Si ingot free from GBs. The other is the controlled mc‐Si growth, which is called high performance mc‐Si. However, it is still not clear how the grain structure in mc‐Si evolves and to which extent GBs can be controlled. In this study of Takashi Sekiguchi and coworkers (pp. 1094–1098), the authors have grown mc‐Si from microcrystalline template. The grain evolution (low left) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) pattern (low right) are analyzed and a three‐step mechanism of grain growth was proposed.
      PubDate: 2015-08-20T06:38:43.649869-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201570095
  • Electromagnetic absorption of quasi‐1D Majorana nanowires
    • Abstract: We calculate the electromagnetic absorption cross section of long and narrow nanowires, in the so‐called quasi‐1D limit. We consider only two transverse bands and compute the dipole absorption cross section taking into account quasiparticle transitions from negative to positive energy eigenstates of the Bogoliubov‐de Gennes Hamiltonian. The presence of the zero energy (Majorana) state manifests in the different absorption spectra for x (parallel) and y (transverse) polarizations of the electromagnetic field. In the y ‐polarized case, the Majorana state causes a low energy absorption plateau extending from mid‐gap up to full‐gap energy. Increasing further the energy, the plateau is followed by a region of enhanced absorption due to transitions across the full gap. For x polarization the low energy absorption plateau is not observed. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-29T09:40:04.669424-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201510131
  • The photoresponse of crystalline silicon strained via ultrasonic
           cavitation processing
    • Authors: R. K. Savkina; A. B. Smirnov
      Abstract: (100)‐oriented p ‐type silicon grown by the liquid‐encapsulated Czochralski method was exposed to cavitation impacts to induce changes of the physical and structural properties of semiconductor. Optical and atomic force microscopy methods as well as X‐ray diffraction, ellipsometry and photovoltage spectroscopy were used. By applying a high‐intensity (15 W/cm2) and high‐frequency (1 ÷ 6 MHz) sonication technique we successfully formed a dendrite‐like micron‐scale array on a silicon surface. It was found also a surprising improvement in the photoelectric properties of silicon samples exposed to the megasonic processing. Significant rise in value and expansion of the spectral range of photosensitivity take place after cavitation treatment. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-28T07:30:20.414009-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400249
  • Surface damage and mechanical strength of silicon wafers
    • Abstract: The fracture strength of silicon wafers used for photovoltaic and microelectronic applications mainly depends on the damage structure, which is introduced on the surface during processing of the wafers. The present paper investigates the formation and development of the damage structure by scratching, which occurs during grinding processes or when sawing with diamond coated wires. The basic scratching process has been studied with a newly developed scratch technique, where test parameters comparable to a real process could be used. Single scratch tests have been performed with diamond particles on monocrystalline silicon wafers with a defined surface orientation and under different applied forces. The resulting microcrack structure, which develops under the surface, has been investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscope and Raman spectroscopy. Details of the shape, depth and distance of the cracks have been obtained by high quality sample cross sections. The orientations of the main microcrack planes are determined. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-28T07:20:08.411673-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400227
  • Study of the structural and magnetic properties of Fe‐doped ZnO
    • Abstract: In this work we study the ZnO powder nanoparticles mechanically alloyed doped with iron to investigate the structural, microstructural and magnetic properties using X‐ray diffraction (XRD) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The ZnO starting pure powder exhibited a hexagonal crystal structure with space group P63mc of ZnO, however, with the introduction of 1% Fe in the ZnO milled powder, the hexagonal ZnO phase remained unchanged, whereas the microstructural parameters were subject to significant variations due to the introduction of Fe atoms into the ZnO hexagonal matrix to replace oxygen ones. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T02:10:17.26719-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201500007
  • Cathodoluminescence study of optical properties along the growth direction
           of ZnO films on GaN substrate
    • Authors: Jianyu Wang; Yoshitomo Harada, Masatomo Sumiya, Yi Shi, Takashi Sekiguchi
      Abstract: c‐plane ZnO films were eptiaxially grown on c‐GaN/sapphire substrate by MOCVD. Cathodoluminescence (CL) line scan was performed on the cross‐sectional ZnO/GaN films. These CL spectra shapes show a variation along the growth direction with a peak position shift, which can be divided into three stages. The study of the three stages reflects the growth mode alteration from the interface between ZnO and GaN to the surface. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T02:10:16.352358-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400224
  • Nano‐scale pattern formation on the surface of HgCdTe produced by
           ion bombardment
    • Authors: A. B. Smirnov; A. I. Gudymenko, V. P. Kladko, A. A. Korchevyi, R. K. Savkina, F. F. Sizov, R. S. Udovitska
      Abstract: Presented in this work are the results concerning formation of nano‐scale patterns on the surface of a ternary compound Hg1–xCdxTe (x ∼ 0.223). Modification of this ternary chalcogenide semiconductor compound was performed using the method of oblique‐incidence ion bombardment with silver ions, which was followed by low‐temperature treatment. The energy and dose of implanted ions were 140 keV and 4.8×1013 cm‐2, respectively. Atomic force microscopy methods were used for the surface topography characterization. The structural properties of MCT‐based structure was analyzed using double and triple crystal X‐ray diffraction to monitor the disorder and strain of the implanted region as a function of processing conditions. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T02:10:15.490593-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400302
  • Strain and carrier transport along dislocations
    • Authors: Manfred Reiche; Martin Kittler, Eckhard Pippel, Winfried Erfurth, Angelika Haehnel, Hartmut Uebensee
      Abstract: A significant increase of the drain current is verified if defined numbers and types of dislocations are present in the channel of MOSFETs. For pMOSFETs, analysed here, an enhancement by a factor of eight exists if mixed dislocations are placed in the channel. The drain current increase is caused by higher concentration and higher mobility of holes on dislocations. It is shown that cores of mixed dislocations possess uniaxial compressive strain components in the order of ε ≅ –0.1 which are significantly higher than in the strain field surrounding a dislocation. The exceptional high uniaxial strain results in dramatic alterations of the silicon band structure. Upward shifts of the upper valence bands appear forming a quantum wire. The generation of the quantum wire forces hole confinement along dislocations and generates a one‐dimensional hole gas (1DHG). Confinement and energy quantization are assumed to be most important for the increased carrier transport along dislocations. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T02:10:14.581964-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400298
  • Grain boundary recombination in semiconductors: the grain boundary
           interaction case
    • Abstract: The recombination velocity and the barrier height at a grain boundary are investigated with respect to the interaction between two parallel grain boundaries. A self‐consistent calculation has been performed within the Read‐Hall‐Shockley framework. The procedure takes into account of the space‐charge region and the quasi‐neutral region assuming a rigid displacement of the bands. The grain‐boundary energy states are considered in the half‐filled‐level model. The dependence of the recombination parameters are reported versus the excitation and the semiconductor and grain‐boundary characteristics. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T02:10:13.592128-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400243
  • Properties of near‐surface layer of 64Zn+ ion hot‐implanted Si
    • Authors: Vladimir Privezentsev; Vaclav Kulikauskas, Eduard Steinman, Alexey Tereshchenko, Anatoly Bazhenov, Nataliya Tabachkova, Alexander Batrakov
      Abstract: We have investigated nanoparticles (NPs) formation in Si by 64Zn+ ion implantation at substrate temperature of 350 °C. Hot implantation was chosen to avoid amorphization of Si near‐surface layer. In as‐implanted samples the Zn crystal NPs were created. Then the samples were subsequently subjected to isochronous annealing in oxygen at elevated temperatures. The depth profile of implanted Zn was analyzed by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. The dependence of photo‐luminescence spectra on annealing temperatures was observed. In these spectra the peak at 370 nm attributable to ZnO phase and wide peak at 430 nm due to defects were revealed. The visualization and identification of NPs were obtained by transmission electron microscopy and transmission electron diffraction of cross‐section samples. From these study it follows, that after annealing at temperature of 700 °C and higher the NPs with structure of Zn(core)/ZnO · Zn2SiO4(shell) were formed. Auger electron spectroscopy investigation followed the phase content in depth profile was varied from ZnO Zn2SiO4 at a substrate surface to metal Zn in a substrate body. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T02:10:12.78557-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400234
  • Thermal activation and temperature dependent PL and CL of Tb doped
           amorphous AlN and SiN thin films
    • Abstract: The effect of terbium (Tb) doping on the photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra of amorphous aluminum nitride (a ‐AlN) and amorphous silicon nitride (a ‐SiN) thin films has been investigated for different temperature conditions. The samples were prepared by RF dual magnetron reactive sputtering technique with a Tb concentration of about ∼1 at% An enhancement of the light emission is obtained after thermal annealing treatments following the activation of luminescent centers. Furthermore, the Tb related integrated light emission intensity is reported exhibiting a continuous increase with the samples temperature well below thermal quenching for both materials. This behavior suggests a phonon assisted energy migration mechanism which contributes to the effective energy transfer from the matrix to the Tb ions. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T02:10:11.771988-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400226
  • Nanoscopic studies of 2D‐extended defects in silicon that cause
           shunting of Si‐solar cells
    • Abstract: Potential‐induced degradation (PID) can cause massive power losses in photovoltaic power plants with serially connected modules when high electrical potential between solar cells and the module front glass surface leads to shunting of Si solar cells. The shunting is reversible to a large extend through elevated temperatures and/or by application of reversed voltages. It was previously shown that PID‐related shunting (PID‐s) of the p‐n junction occurs due to Na‐decorated stacking faults in {111} planes. Defects at former PID‐shunt positions that have been thermally ‘healed' (recovered) do not show a Na decoration anymore. In this contribution we investigate stacking faults with Na decoration and with vanished Na decoration after thermal recovery. HAADF STEM imaging is used for principal investigation of the atomic structure of PID‐s defects. The Na decorated stacking fault appears as a dark region in the HAADF STEM image. By contrast, the atomic structure of the recovered stacking fault can be clearly imaged. The orientation of Si dumbbells indicates an extrinsic stacking fault that remains after recovery by Na out‐diffusion. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T02:10:10.903646-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400225
  • Hydrogen induced growth and coalescence of helium‐based defects
    • Abstract: The first stages of growth of He‐based planar defects under H supply have been investigated in (001)‐oriented Si. The H atoms were introduced by implantation using the MIAMI facility. Implantations at different temperatures were conducted in the microscope chamber and thus the evolution of He‐plates under H implantation was observed in real‐time. In situ transmission electron microscopy during the subsequent annealing was also performed. Results show that the growth phenomena are governed by diffusion mechanisms. The kinetic model of Johnson‐Mehl‐Avrami‐Kolmogorov was successfully applied to model the evolution of the diameters of the He‐plates either as function of the temperature of annealing or of the fluence. Isotropic coalescence of close defects occurs when the out‐of plane tensile stress reaches the yield strength. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-15T06:20:10.787521-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400361
  • On the dislocation core structures associated to point defect cluster
           formation in diamond and silicon
    • Abstract: This paper focuses on the dislocation configurations that show up during the annihilation of a perfect dislocation vacancy dipole. Indeed unexpected transient dislocation core structures can be evidenced out of the atomistic structures computed during this annihilation process. Using the Geometric Phase Analysis these dislocation configurations can be analysed as partial dislocations, resulting from the dissociation of a perfect dislocation with ½[110] Burgers vector, bounding a nano crack (or a point defect cluster) along a (111) shuffle plane. Those partial dislocations appear as to be associated with an incipient dissociation/crack present in the core of perfect shuffle dislocations. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-07-15T06:20:09.709924-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400370
  • Retraction: Poly(3‐hexylthiophene) films by electrospray deposition
           for crystalline silicon/organic hybrid junction solar cells
    • Authors: Taiga Hiate; Naoto Miyauchi, Zeguo Tang, Ryo Ishikawa, Keiji Ueno, Hajime Shirai
      Abstract: The above article, published online on 25 July 2015 in Wiley Online Library (, has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor‐in‐Chief, Stefan Hildebrandt, and Wiley‐VCH GmbH & Co. KGaA. The retraction has been agreed since the contents of the article have already been published by the corresponding author in Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 061602 (2015) on 4 June 2015. The manuscript submitted to physica status solidi (c) was part of the E‐MRS 2015 Spring Meeting, Symposium A, Proceedings. The authors regret the dual publication and express their sincere apologies to readers.
      PubDate: 2015-07-07T06:20:34.214521-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201570094
  • Atomic redistribution of implanted Fe and associated defects around moving
           SiO2/Si interfaces
    • Abstract: The behaviour of Fe atoms at the Si/SiO2 interface, as a modelisation of an involuntary Fe contamination before or during the oxidation process has been studied in Fe‐implanted wafers. As‐implanted and oxidized wafers were characterized by SIMS, APT, HR‐TEM and STEM‐HAADF. Successive steps of Fe segregation, iron‐silicide precipitation and dissolution were identified. As expected for such a temperature range, the iron‐silicide precipitates adopt the FeSi2 structure. Fe enriched phases were also identified in an advanced step of precipitation. Dynamic mechanisms are proposed, taking into account the competitive oxidizing of precipitates and silicon matrix, to understand the different steps and precipitation phases observed in the samples during the non‐equilibrium conditions due to the oxide layer growth. The correlation between the formation of characteristic pyramidal defects at the SiO2/Si interface and the presence of the Fe‐rich precipitates is explained. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:50:47.512159-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400233
  • Oxygen‐related defects: minority carrier lifetime killers in
           n‐type Czochralski silicon wafers for solar cell application
    • Authors: I. Kolevatov; V. Osinniy, M. Herms, A. Loshachenko, I. Shlyakhov, V. Kveder, O. Vyvenko
      Abstract: Many authors (Haunschild et al., Phys. Status Solidi RRL 5, 199–201 (2012) [1]) reported about areas in Cz‐Si with an extremely low lifetime of minority carriers after high temperature stages of solar cell manufacture. In such regions the minority carrier lifetime may be fallen 100 times after annealing, what leads to a considerable drop in the solar cell efficiency. In present work the electrical and structural properties of phosphorus doped Bosch Cz‐Si wafers with degrading areas were studied by means of photoluminescence, deep level transient spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Based on these data it is concluded that the dominant recombination channel in the degrading areas is related to strained oxygen precipitates. We found electronic states of traps which may cause their formation. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:50:44.594012-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400293
  • Structural studies of Al thin layer on misoriented GaAs(100) substrate by
           transmission electron microscopy
    • Authors: M. V. Lovygin; N. I. Borgardt, I. P. Kazakov, M. Seibt
      Abstract: A thin Al layer has been grown on a misoriented GaAs(100) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy and its structure has been studied by means of transmission electron microscopy. The metal layer is formed as grains of three orientations Al(100), Al(110) and Al(110)R. Digital analysis of dark‐field micrographs made it possible to obtain their grain sizes and relative coverage areas. By comparison with an Al layer grown on an exactly oriented GaAs(100) substrate it has been found that on the vicinal surface the relative coverage area and grain size of the Al(110)R orientation increase and the Al(100) relative coverage area decreases. This is attributed to surface atomic steps, which have been visualized in high‐resolution micrographs. The edge misfit dislocation system at the Al/GaAs interface has been revealed, which is insensitive to the substrate misorientation. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:50:37.390678-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400357
  • Turbostratic pyrocarbon structure study by means of exit wave
           reconstruction from high‐resolution transmission electron microscopy
    • Authors: A. S. Prikhodko; N. I. Borgardt, M. Seibt
      Abstract: This paper reports results of turbostratic pyrolytic carbon structure study using high‐resolution electron microscopy techniques. We obtained a through‐focus series of images and noted that domain‐like contrast features were varied depending on defocus of the objective lens. Since these features are commonly explained in terms of the domain model of pyrocarbon structure we carried out exit wave reconstruction to obtain the phase map. The visual appearance of the map indicates that the ribbon‐like model more appropriately describes the pyrocarbon structure in comparison to the domain model. In the context of the ribbon‐like model we constructed a test carbon structure using the recovered phase map and molecular dynamics modeling. After determination of atomic positions we simulated high‐resolution images of the structure. Our calculations demonstrated that high‐resolution micrographs showing domain‐like image features can be obtained without carbon domains presented in the actual structure. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:50:36.385021-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400363
  • Two‐energy‐scale model for description of the thermal
           quenching of photoluminescence in disordered Ga(As,Bi)
    • Authors: M. K. Shakfa; M. Wiemer, P. Ludewig, K. Jandieri, K. Volz, W. Stolz, S. D. Baranovskii, M. Koch
      Abstract: The thermal quenching of the photoluminescence (PL) intensity in Ga(As,Bi)/GaAs heterostructures is studied experimentally and theoretically. We observed an anomalous plateau in the PL thermal quenching at intermediate temperatures under low excitation conditions. Our theoretical analysis based on a well‐approved theoretical approach shows that this peculiar behavior of the temperature‐dependent PL intensity cannot be interpreted assuming a single‐scale monotonously energy‐dependent density of localized states (DOS). Experimental data clearly point at a non‐monotonous DOS with at least two energy scales. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:50:35.334395-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400369
  • Structural, electrical and luminescent properties of ZnO:Li films
           fabricated by screen‐printing method on sapphire substrate
    • Authors: L. Khomenkova; V. I. Kushnirenko, M. M. Osipyonok, O. F. Syngaivsky, T. V. Zashivailo, G. S. Pekar, Yu. O. Polishchuk, V. P. Kladko, L. V. Borkovska
      Abstract: Undoped and Li‐doped ZnO thick films were fabricated by a screen‐printing technique on sapphire substrate. The effect of sintering temperature (TS = 800, 900 and 1000 °C) and Li content ([Li] = 0.003, 0.03 and 0.3 wt%) on the photoluminescence (PL), electrical and structural properties of the films was investigated. The X‐ray diffraction shows that all the films are polycrystalline with a wurtzite structure. It is found that both high sintering temperature and low Li content favour formation of the low‐resistive films with an enhanced UV emission. The high Li content stimulates an appearance of semi‐insulating behaviour of the films and deteriorated PL properties. It is shown that the effect of Li‐doping on light‐emitting properties of the films consists mainly in the modification of the film crystallinity and the engineering of the concentration of intrinsic defects. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:40:18.406098-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400232
  • Control of extended defects in cast and seed cast Si ingots for
           photovoltaic application
    • Authors: Takashi Sekiguchi; Karolin Jiptner, Ronit R. Prakash, Jun Chen, Yoshiji Miyamura, Hirofumi Harada, S. Nakano, Bin Gao, Koichi Kakimoto
      Abstract: We discuss the defect evolution in conventional cast and seed cast Si ingot growths for photovoltaic application. Three different cast Si ingots were grown in one directional solidification furnace. The two extremes are the seed cast ingots (mono‐Si), where growth starts from monocrystalline silicon seeds, and the multicrystalline silicon grown from small randomly oriented grains. The conventional multicrystalline (mc‐) cast Si ingots are grown without any seeds and have grain structures in between the two extremes. It was found that in mc‐Si the evolution of grain boundaries take place in several steps. On the other hand, the major defects in mono‐Si are dislocations and are generated by stress due to thermal gradient in the ingot. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:40:17.44391-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400230
  • EBIC and LBIC investigations of dislocation trails in Si
    • Authors: O. V. Feklisova; V. I. Orlov, E. B. Yakimov
      Abstract: The recombination properties of dislocation trails formed behind moving dislocations in plastically deformed Si have been investigated by the electron beam induced current and laser beam induced current methods. It is found that for dislocations moving with a velocity lower than 10–5cm/s the contrast of dislocation trails does not noticeably depend on the velocity value. It is shown that the dislocation type is not unique parameter determining the recombination activity of defects in the dislocation trails. A dislocation bending in near surface layers is found also to affect the defect formation in the dislocation trails. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:40:16.185628-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400223
  • Impact of bismuth incorporation into (Ga,Mn)As thin films on their
           structural and magnetic properties
    • Authors: K. Levchenko; T. Andrearczyk, J. Z. Domagala, T. Wosinski, T. Figielski, J. Sadowski
      Abstract: Structural and magnetic properties of thin films of the (Ga,Mn)(Bi,As) quaternary diluted magnetic semiconductor grown by the low‐temperature molecular‐beam epitaxy technique on GaAs substrates have been investigated. High‐resolution X‐ray diffraction has been applied to characterize the structural quality and misfit strain in the films. Ferromagnetic Curie temperature and magneto‐crystalline anisotropy of the films have been examined by using SQUID magnetometry and low‐temperature magneto‐transport measurements. Post‐growth annealing treatment of the films has been shown to reduce the strain in the films and to enhance their Curie temperature. Significant increase in the magnitude of magneto‐transport effects caused by incorporation of a small amount of Bi into the films is interpreted as a result of enhanced spin‐orbit coupling in the (Ga,Mn)(Bi,As) films. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:40:14.989456-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400219
  • Extended defects in MBE‐grown CdTe‐based solar cells
    • Abstract: Extended defects in the p ‐ZnTe/n ‐CdTe heterojunctions grown by the molecular‐beam epitaxy technique on two different substrates, GaAs and CdTe, have been investigated by deep‐level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Four hole traps, called H1 to H4, and one electron trap, called E3, have been revealed in the DLTS spectra measured for the heterojunctions grown on the GaAs substrates. The H1, H3, H4 and E3 traps have been attributed to the electronic states of dislocations on the ground of their logarithmic capture kinetics. The DLTS peaks associated with the H1 and E3 traps were not observed in the DLTS spectra measured for the heterojunction grown on the CdTe substrate. They are most likely associated with threading dislocations generated at the mismatched interface with the GaAs substrate. Cross‐sectional TEM images point out that they are dislocations of the 60°‐type. In both the types of heterojunctions the H4 trap was observed only under forward‐bias filling pulse, suggesting that this trap is associated with the CdTe/ZnTe interface. In addition, TEM images revealed also the presence of intrinsic and extrinsic stacking faults in the CdTe layers, which may considerably affect their electronic properties. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-06-05T05:40:09.253278-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400217
  • Electronic structure of threading dislocations in wurtzite GaN
    • Authors: I. Belabbas; J. Chen, G. Nouet
      Abstract: We have carried out atomistic simulations, based on density functional theory, to investigate the atomic and electronic structures of the three types of prismatic threading dislocations in hexagonal gallium nitride. Screw and mixed threading dislocations were demonstrated to introduce both deep and shallow gap states, while most of core configurations of the edge dislocation introduce solely shallow states. The higher electrical activity of both screw and mixed dislocations, compared to the edge one, is correlated with the high dispersion of their energy levels, within the GaN bandgap. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-13T04:30:13.232276-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400215
  • Impact of dopants and silicon structure dimensions on {113}‐defect
           formation during 2 MeV electron irradiation in an UHVEM
    • Authors: J. Vanhellemont; S. Anada, T. Nagase, H. Yasuda, A. Schulze, H. Bender, R. Rooyackers, A. Vandooren
      Abstract: When processing Si nanowire based Tunnel Field Effect Transistors (TFETS's), a significant reduction of B diffusion with decreasing nanowire diameter is observed and attributed to reduced transient enhanced diffusion close to the nanowire surface caused by the recombination and out‐diffusion of excess self‐interstitials. In this study, Ultra High Voltage Electron Microscopy (UHVEM) is used to study in situ the formation of self‐interstitial clusters in nanowire based TFET containing samples prepared by Focused Ion Beam (FIB) thinning. Si nanowires with diameters ranging from 40 to 500 nm are irradiated in an UHVEM using different fluxes of 2 MeV electrons at temperatures between room temperature and 375 °C. A strong dependence of defect formation on nanowire radius and on dopant concentration and type is observed. The UHVEM observations are compared with simulations based on quasi‐chemical reaction rate theory and with two dimensional dopant concentration distributions determined with high‐vacuum Scanning Spreading Resistance Microscopy (SSRM). (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-13T04:30:12.095424-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400222
  • Peculiarities of defect generation under injection current in LEDs based
           on A3N nanostructures
    • Authors: Natalia Shmidt; Evgeniia Shabunina, Alexander Usikov, Anton Chernyakov, Sergey Kurin, Hikki Helava, Yuri Makarov
      Abstract: It has been demonstrated that, along with well‐known mechanisms of defect generation (DG) under injection current in fabricated UV‐ and commercial blue‐LED chips based on A3N nanostructures, other defect generation mechanisms are possible in local regions. Aging experiments performed simultaneously with analysis of evolution of I‐V characteristics at U < 2 V and spectral noise density dependences on current density, revealed DG with participation of multi‐phonon recombination of carriers in an extended defect system and local regions of random alloy fluctuations enriched by metallic atoms (Ga or In). (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-11T06:10:32.205478-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400218
  • EBIC investigations of dislocations in ELOG GaN
    • Authors: E. B. Yakimov; A. Y. Polyakov
      Abstract: Dislocations in the ELOG n‐GaN films have been studied by the Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC) method. The effect of dopant concentration and diffusion length values on the dislocation EBIC profile is revealed. It is shown that the width of dislocation image in the EBIC mode decreases with a diffusion length decrease and the dopant concentration increase. In the crystals with the submicron diffusion length the individual dislocations can be separated in the EBIC images up to the dislocation densities higher that 109cm‐2. The radius of dislocation related defect cylinder was found to increase with the dopant concentration decreasing that could be explained under an assumption that dislocations in GaN are charged. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-11T06:10:31.257827-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400220
  • About dislocation and oxygen related luminescence of Si around 0.8 eV
    • Authors: M. Kittler; T. Arguirov, M. Reiche, C. Krause, D. Mankovics
      Abstract: In conjunction with the two‐level model the temperature behaviour of the dislocation‐related D1‐peak follows the T‐behaviour of the band gap. Based on luminescence observations in our laboratory and on literature data we propose a ∼30 meV wide domain of the D1 peak. Altogether, the D1‐peak position ranges between about 0.76 eV at 300 K and nearly 0.84 eV at a few K. It was shown that the energetic shift for a certain temperature is caused by external electric fields, by excitation level, that affects the intrinsic dislocation field, and by elastic stress. The luminescence of oxygen‐related defects / precipitates might be described by a line at ∼ 0.77 eV (P‐line) that does not depend on temperature. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-11T06:10:30.379016-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400231
  • Materials characterization and device analysis for evaluation of
           semiconductor processes by highly‐sophisticated photoelastic stress
           measurement technique
    • Authors: Martin Herms; Matthias Wagner, Alexander Molchanov, Pinyen Lin, Ingrid De Wolf, Ming Zhao
      Abstract: SIRD (Scanning Infrared Depolarization Imager) and SIREX (Scanning Infrared Stress Explorer) are measurement systems to evaluate and visualize the stress distribution in semiconductor materials and devices. Some main fields of application are crystal growth, high temperature processing of silicon wafers as well as the 3D‐structuring of silicon‐based microelectronic devices. The used strategies of measurement are different. SIRD and SIREX are equipped with versatile software packages that allow to separate defect‐related stress states of interest, for instance slip‐lines in GaN‐overgrown silicon. Micro‐holes fabricated for wafer marking and 3D TSV (through silicon vias) structures have been analyzed with micrometer resolution. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-05-11T06:10:29.508895-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400356
  • Control of extended defects in cast multicrystalline silicon using
           polycrystalline template
    • Authors: Ronit R. Prakash; Karolin Jiptner, Jun Chen, Yoshiji Miyamura, Hirofumi Harada, Takashi Sekiguchi
      Abstract: Extended defects were controlled using polycrystalline silicon as a template for cast‐growth of multicrystalline silicon. At the initial stage of growth, small randomly oriented grains with a high density of random type grain boundaries were obtained. With growth, the grain size increased and the fraction of random grain boundaries decreased. Electrical activity of defects was investigated and it was found that with growth, network of small angle grain boundaries became the most electrically active defects. This network of small angle grain boundaries were found to have a tilt angle less than 3° and were mainly found in elongating grains. The density of these highly electrically active grain boundaries increased with growth. This can be attributed to propagation and agglomeration of dislocations into small angle grain boundaries. The high density of random grain boundaries in this ingot may suppress dislocation propagation between grains, however they do not intersect elongating grains enabling dislocation propagation in elongated grains. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-04-24T03:30:05.844509-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201400299
  • Modeling micromechanical response to thermal history in bulk grown
           aluminum nitride
    • Authors: Payman Karvani; Antoinette M. Maniatty
      Abstract: A thermal‐elastic‐viscoplastic model suitable for modeling aluminum nitride (AlN) during crystal growth is presented. A crystal plasticity model that considers slip along crystallographic slip systems and the evolution of mobile and immobile dislocations on the prismatic and basal slip systems is developed. The model has been implemented into a finite element framework, and a sublimation growth process is modeled to demonstrate the model capability. The dislocation density, which characterizes the crystal quality, and the maximum tensile stress on the cleavage planes (m ‐planes), which leads to cracking, are computed. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-03-18T08:10:22.937267-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201100189
  • Contents: Phys. Status Solidi C 8/2015
    • Pages: 1061 - 1064
      PubDate: 2015-08-20T06:38:45.434078-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201570098
  • Extended Defects in Semiconductors
    • Authors: Michael Seibt; Martin Kittler
      Pages: 1065 - 1066
      Abstract: This proceedings volume of physica status solidi contains papers presented at the 17th International Conference on Extended Defects in Semiconductors (EDS 2014). They have been selected during a peer‐review process. The conference was organized by the Georg‐August‐University Göttingen and was held at the Physics Faculty as part of the university's North Campus in Göttingen from September 14 to 19, 2014. The biennial conference series on Extended Defects in Semiconductors started with a meeting in Hünfeld, Germany, in 1978. Subsequent meetings took place in France, Great Britain, Germany, Italy, Poland, Russia and the preceding EDS 2012 in Thessaloniki (Greece). EDS 2014 was a conference following the tradition of previous conferences of this series, i.e. it brought together experts in fundamental and applied research on structural defects in current and future semiconducting material systems, their nanostructures and devices. For the first time, carbon‐related materials had been included. It provided a forum for excellent presentations and lively discussions in a stimulating scientific atmosphere. Topics of the conference included – Thin films and heterostructures – Low‐dimensional systems and related defects: semiconductor nanocrystals, quantum wells, quantum dots, nanowires – Extended defects in C‐related materials (incl. graphen) – Interface structures and defect interaction – Doping‐, irradiation‐, and implantation‐induced defects – Electronic structure of defects – Defect engineering, strain engineering – Mechanical properties and dislocation dynamics – Role of defects in optoelectronic and magnetic properties – Degradation mechanisms in semiconductor devices – Atomistic and multiscale simulations, modeling approaches of defects, interfaces and nanostructures – Advanced characterisation techniques and methods for the investigation of semiconductor materials, in‐situ imaging and analysis – Interaction of point and extended defects, point defect agglomeration – Materials for solar energy conversion and energy storage. The organizers want to express their gratitude to all members of the EDS Scientific Committee as well as to the members of the EDS 2014 Program Committee and all referees for their invaluable work. Support by the Georg‐August‐University and the CRC1073 is also gratefully acknowledged. Last but not least, we thank all participants of EDS 2014 whose excellent contributions built the base for a fruitful and stimulating conference. (© 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2015-08-20T06:38:45.549282-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201570099
  • Numerical analysis of light elements transport in a unidirectional
           solidification furnace
    • Authors: Koichi Kakimoto; Bing Gao, Satoshi Nakano
      Abstract: Quantitative study of light elements such as carbon and oxygen in multi‐crystalline silicon for solar cells is required to grow crystals with high quality. The transport of both carbon and oxygen is one of the critical issues to increase efficiency of solar cells made of silicon materials. Concentrations of carbon and oxygen in a furnace affect each others, therefore it is important to control mass transfer of carbon and oxygen in a furnace. Numerical calculation with a chemical reaction between carbon and oxygen was carried out to study how both light impurities are incorporated into crystals through the melt and gas during solidification process. The effects of flow rate and pressure on the impurities were examined. An increase in the flow rate can reduce both carbon and oxygen impurities in the crystal, though the reduction of carbon is more obvious. An increase in gas pressure can also obviously reduce the oxygen impurity but has only a small effect on the carbon impurity (© 2010 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
      PubDate: 2010-11-15T04:22:05.648279-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/pssc.200900117
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