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Acta Acustica united with Acustica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Advanced Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 222)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances In Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
AIP Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
AIP Conference Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
American Journal of Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annales Henri PoincarĂ©     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales UMCS, Physica     Open Access  
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of West University of Timisoara - Physics     Open Access  
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Materials Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
APL Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Applied Physics Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Physics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Applied Physics Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Radiation and Isotopes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Remote Sensing Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Applied Spectroscopy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter     Hybrid Journal  
ASTRA Proceedings     Open Access  
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astrophysical Journal Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Atoms     Open Access  
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Axioms     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biomedical Imaging and Intervention Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biophysical Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biophysical Reviews and Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BMC Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Nuclear Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Brazilian Journal of Physics     Hybrid Journal  
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Physics     Hybrid Journal  
Caderno Brasileiro de Ensino de FĂ­sica     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access  
Cells     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central European Journal of Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CERN courier. International journal of high energy physics     Free   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Chemical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Physics B     Full-text available via subscription  
Chinese Physics C     Full-text available via subscription  
Chinese Physics Letters     Full-text available via subscription  
Cogent Physics     Open Access  
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Colloid Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Communications in Theoretical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 105)
Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology     Open Access  
Computational Condensed Matter     Open Access  
Computational Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Computational Particle Mechanics     Hybrid Journal  
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription  
Computer Physics Communications     Hybrid Journal  
Contemporary Concepts of Condensed Matter Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Contemporary Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover   Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO)
  [SJR: 1.176]   [H-I: 63]   [4 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0992-7689 - ISSN (Online) 1432-0576
   Published by European Geosciences Union Homepage  [8 journals]
  • An investigation of long-distance propagation of gravity waves under
           CAWSES India Phase II Programme

    • Abstract: An investigation of long-distance propagation of gravity waves under CAWSES India Phase II Programme

      Annales Geophysicae, 33, 547-560, 2015

      Author(s): N. Parihar and A. Taori

      Coordinated measurements of airglow features from the mesosphere–lower thermosphere (MLT) region were performed at Allahabad (25.5° N, 81.9° E) and Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E), India to study the propagation of gravity waves in 13–27° N latitude range during the period June 2009 to May 2010 under CAWSES (Climate And Weather of Sun Earth System) India Phase II Programme. At Allahabad, imaging observations of OH broadband emissions and OI 557.7 nm emission were made using an all-sky imager, while at Gadanki photometric measurements of OH (6, 2) Meinel band and O2 (0, 1) Atmospheric band emissions were carried out. On many occasions, the nightly observations reveal the presence of similar waves at both locations. Typically, the period of observed similar waves lay in the 2.2–4.5 h range, had large phase speeds (~ 77–331 m s−1) and large wavelengths (~ 1194–2746 km). The images of outgoing long-wave radiation activity of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the high-resolution infrared images of KALPANA-1 satellite suggest that such waves possibly originated from some nearby convective sources. An analysis of their propagation characteristics in conjunction with SABER/TIMED temperature profiles and Horizontal Wind Model (HWM 2007) wind estimates suggest that the waves propagated over long distances (~ 1200–2000 km) in atmospheric ducts.
      PubDate: 2015-05-18T00:00:00+02:00
  • Climatology of GPS phase scintillation at northern high latitudes for the
           period from 2008 to 2013

    • Abstract: Climatology of GPS phase scintillation at northern high latitudes for the period from 2008 to 2013

      Annales Geophysicae, 33, 531-545, 2015

      Author(s): P. Prikryl, P. T. Jayachandran, R. Chadwick, and T. D. Kelly

      Global positioning system scintillation and total electron content (TEC) data have been collected by ten specialized GPS Ionospheric Scintillation and TEC Monitors (GISTMs) of the Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Network (CHAIN). The phase scintillation index σΦ is obtained from the phase of the L1 signal sampled at 50 Hz. Maps of phase scintillation occurrence as a function of the altitude-adjusted corrected geomagnetic (AACGM) latitude and magnetic local time (MLT) are computed for the period from 2008 to 2013. Enhanced phase scintillation is collocated with regions that are known as ionospheric signatures of the coupling between the solar wind and magnetosphere. The phase scintillation mainly occurs on the dayside in the cusp where ionospheric irregularities convect at high speed, in the nightside auroral oval where energetic particle precipitation causes field-aligned irregularities with steep electron density gradients and in the polar cap where electron density patches that are formed from a tongue of ionization. Dependences of scintillation occurrence on season, solar and geomagnetic activity, and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation are investigated. The auroral phase scintillation shows semiannual variation with equinoctial maxima known to be associated with auroras, while in the cusp and polar cap the scintillation occurrence is highest in the autumn and winter months and lowest in summer. With rising solar and geomagnetic activity from the solar minimum to solar maximum, yearly maps of mean phase scintillation occurrence show gradual increase and expansion of enhanced scintillation regions both poleward and equatorward from the statistical auroral oval. The dependence of scintillation occurrence on the IMF orientation is dominated by increased scintillation in the cusp, expanded auroral oval and at subauroral latitudes for strongly southward IMF. In the polar cap, the IMF BY polarity controls dawn–dusk asymmetries in scintillation occurrence collocated with a tongue of ionization for southward IMF and with sun-aligned arcs for northward IMF. In investigating the shape of scintillation-causing irregularities, the distributions of scintillation occurrence as a function of "off-meridian" and "off-shell" angles that are computed for the receiver–satellite ray at the ionospheric pierce point are found to suggest predominantly field-aligned irregularities in the auroral oval and L-shell-aligned irregularities in the cusp.
      PubDate: 2015-05-13T00:00:00+02:00
  • Direct observations of blob deformation during a substorm

    • Abstract: Direct observations of blob deformation during a substorm

      Annales Geophysicae, 33, 525-530, 2015

      Author(s): T. Ishida, Y. Ogawa, A. Kadokura, K. Hosokawa, and Y. Otsuka

      Ionospheric blobs are localized plasma density enhancements, which are mainly produced by the transportation process of plasma. To understand the deformation process of a blob, observations of plasma parameters with good spatial–temporal resolution are desirable. Thus, we conducted the European Incoherent Scatter radar observations with high-speed meridional scans (60–80 s) during October and December 2013, and observed the temporal evolution of a blob during a substorm on 4 December 2013. This paper is the first report of direct observations of blob deformation during a substorm. The blob deformation arose from an enhanced plasma flow shear during the substorm expansion phase, and then the blob split into two smaller-scale blobs, whose scale sizes were more than ~100 km in latitude. Our analysis indicates that the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability and dissociative recombination could have deformed the blob structure.
      PubDate: 2015-05-06T00:00:00+02:00
  • Extremely intense (SML ≤–2500 nT) substorms: isolated
           events that are externally triggered?

    • Abstract: Extremely intense (SML ≤–2500 nT) substorms: isolated events that are externally triggered?

      Annales Geophysicae, 33, 519-524, 2015

      Author(s): B. T. Tsurutani, R. Hajra, E. Echer, and J. W. Gjerloev

      We examine particularly intense substorms (SML ≤–2500 nT), hereafter called "supersubstorms" or SSS events, to identify their nature and their magnetic storm dependences. It is found that these intense substorms are typically isolated events and are only loosely related to magnetic storms. SSS events can occur during super (Dst ≤–250 nT) and intense (−100 nT ≥ Dst >–250) magnetic storms. SSS events can also occur during nonstorm (Dst ≥–50 nT) intervals. SSSs are important because the strongest ionospheric currents will flow during these events, potentially causing power outages on Earth. Several SSS examples are shown. SSS events appear to be externally triggered by small regions of very high density (~30 to 50 cm−3) solar wind plasma parcels (PPs) impinging upon the magnetosphere. Precursor southward interplanetary magnetic fields are detected prior to the PPs hitting the magnetosphere. Our hypothesis is that these southward fields input energy into the magnetosphere/magnetotail and the PPs trigger the release of the stored energy.
      PubDate: 2015-05-06T00:00:00+02:00
  • Driving of the SAO by gravity waves as observed from satellite

    • Abstract: Driving of the SAO by gravity waves as observed from satellite

      Annales Geophysicae, 33, 483-504, 2015

      Author(s): M. Ern, P. Preusse, and M. Riese

      It is known that atmospheric dynamics in the tropical stratosphere have an influence on higher altitudes and latitudes as well as on surface weather and climate. In the tropics, the dynamics are governed by an interplay of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and semiannual oscillation (SAO) of the zonal wind. The QBO is dominant in the lower and middle stratosphere, and the SAO in the upper stratosphere/lower mesosphere. For both QBO and SAO the driving by atmospheric waves plays an important role. In particular, the role of gravity waves is still not well understood. In our study we use observations of the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) satellite instrument to derive gravity wave momentum fluxes and gravity wave drag in order to investigate the interaction of gravity waves with the SAO. These observations are compared with the ERA-Interim reanalysis. Usually, QBO westward winds are much stronger than QBO eastward winds. Therefore, mainly gravity waves with westward-directed phase speeds are filtered out through critical-level filtering already below the stratopause region. Accordingly, HIRDLS observations show that gravity waves contribute to the SAO momentum budget mainly during eastward wind shear, and not much during westward wind shear. These findings confirm theoretical expectations and are qualitatively in good agreement with ERA-Interim and other modeling studies. In ERA-Interim most of the westward SAO driving is due to planetary waves, likely of extratropical origin. Still, we find in both observations and ERA-Interim that sometimes westward-propagating gravity waves may contribute to the westward driving of the SAO. Four characteristic cases of atmospheric background conditions are identified. The forcings of the SAO in these cases are discussed in detail, supported by gravity wave spectra observed by HIRDLS. In particular, we find that the gravity wave forcing of the SAO cannot be explained by critical-level filtering alone; gravity wave saturation without critical levels being reached is also important.
      PubDate: 2015-04-29T00:00:00+02:00
  • A quantitative study of magnetospheric magnetic field line deformation by
           a two-loop substorm current wedge

    • Abstract: A quantitative study of magnetospheric magnetic field line deformation by a two-loop substorm current wedge

      Annales Geophysicae, 33, 505-517, 2015

      Author(s): A. V. Nikolaev, V. A. Sergeev, N. A. Tsyganenko, M. V. Kubyshkina, H. Opgenoorth, H. Singer, and V. Angelopoulos

      Substorm current wedge (SCW) formation is associated with global magnetic field reconfiguration during substorm expansion. We combine a two-loop model SCW (SCW2L) with a background magnetic field model to investigate distortion of the ionospheric footpoint pattern in response to changes of different SCW2L parameters. The SCW-related plasma sheet footprint shift results in formation of a pattern resembling an auroral bulge, the poleward expansion of which is controlled primarily by the total current in the region 1 sense current loop (I1). The magnitude of the footprint latitudinal shift may reach ∼ 10° corrected geomagnetic latitude (CGLat) during strong substorms (I1= 2 MA). A strong helical magnetic field around the field-aligned current generates a surge-like region with embedded spiral structures, associated with a westward traveling surge (WTS) at the western end of the SCW. The helical field may also contribute to rotation of the ionospheric projection of narrow plasma streams (auroral streamers). Other parameters, including the total current in the second (region 2 sense) loop, were found to be of secondary importance. Analyzing two consecutive dipolarizations on 17 March 2010, we used magnetic variation data obtained from a dense midlatitude ground network and several magnetospheric spacecraft, as well as the adaptive AM03 model, to specify SCW2L parameters, which allowed us to predict the magnitude of poleward auroral expansion. Auroral observations made during the two substorm activations demonstrate that the SCW2L combined with the AM03 model nicely describes the azimuthal progression and the observed magnitude of the auroral expansion. This finding indicates that the SCW-related distortions are responsible for much of the observed global development of bright auroras.
      PubDate: 2015-04-29T00:00:00+02:00
  • Electrostatic double layers as auroral particle accelerators – a

    • Abstract: Electrostatic double layers as auroral particle accelerators – a problem

      Annales Geophysicae, 33, 481-482, 2015

      Author(s): D. A. Bryant and G. M. Courtier

      A search of the Annales Geophysicae database shows that double layers and other quasi-static electric potential structures have been invoked hundreds of times since the year 2000 as being the agents of auroral electron acceleration. This is despite the fact that energy transfer by conservative fields has been known for some 200 years to be impossible. Attention is drawn to a long-standing interpretation of the acceleration process in terms of the dynamic fields of electrostatic waves.
      PubDate: 2015-04-24T00:00:00+02:00
  • Analysis of the enhanced negative correlation between electron density and
           electron temperature related to earthquakes

    • Abstract: Analysis of the enhanced negative correlation between electron density and electron temperature related to earthquakes

      Annales Geophysicae, 33, 471-479, 2015

      Author(s): X. H. Shen, X. Zhang, J. Liu, S. F. Zhao, and G. P. Yuan

      Ionospheric perturbations in plasma parameters have been observed before large earthquakes, but the correlation between different parameters has been less studied in previous research. The present study is focused on the relationship between electron density (Ne) and temperature (Te) observed by the DEMETER (Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions) satellite during local nighttime, in which a positive correlation has been revealed near the equator and a weak correlation at mid- and low latitudes over both hemispheres. Based on this normal background analysis, the negative correlation with the lowest percent in all Ne and Te points is studied before and after large earthquakes at mid- and low latitudes. The multiparameter observations exhibited typical synchronous disturbances before the Chile M8.8 earthquake in 2010 and the Pu'er M6.4 in 2007, and Te varied inversely with Ne over the epicentral areas. Moreover, statistical analysis has been done by selecting the orbits at a distance of 1000 km and ±7 days before and after the global earthquakes. Enhanced negative correlation coefficients lower than −0.5 between Ne and Te are found in 42% of points to be connected with earthquakes. The correlation median values at different seismic levels show a clear decrease with earthquakes larger than 7. Finally, the electric-field-coupling model is discussed; furthermore, a digital simulation has been carried out by SAMI2 (Sami2 is Another Model of the Ionosphere), which illustrates that the external electric field in the ionosphere can strengthen the negative correlation in Ne and Te at a lower latitude relative to the disturbed source due to the effects of the geomagnetic field. Although seismic activity is not the only source to cause the inverse Ne–Te variations, the present results demonstrate one possibly useful tool in seismo-electromagnetic anomaly differentiation, and a comprehensive analysis with multiple parameters helps to further understand the seismo–ionospheric coupling mechanism. \keywords{Ionosphere (plasma temperature and density)}
      PubDate: 2015-04-20T00:00:00+02:00
  • Additional acceleration of solar-wind particles in current sheets of the

    • Abstract: Additional acceleration of solar-wind particles in current sheets of the heliosphere

      Annales Geophysicae, 33, 457-470, 2015

      Author(s): V. Zharkova and O. Khabarova

      Particles of fast solar wind in the vicinity of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) or in a front of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) often reveal very peculiar energy or velocity profiles, density distributions with double or triple peaks, and well-defined streams of electrons occurring around or far away from these events. In order to interpret the parameters of energetic particles (both ions and electrons) measured by the WIND spacecraft during the HCS crossings, a comparison of the data was carried out with 3-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations for the relevant magnetic topology (Zharkova and Khabarova, 2012). The simulations showed that all the observed particle-energy distributions, densities, ion peak velocities, electron pitch angles and directivities can be fitted with the same model if the heliospheric current sheet is in a status of continuous magnetic reconnection. In this paper we present further observations of the solar-wind particles being accelerated to rather higher energies while passing through the HCS and the evidence that this acceleration happens well before the appearance of the corotating interacting region (CIR), which passes through the spacecraft position hours later. We show that the measured particle characteristics (ion velocity, electron pitch angles and the distance at which electrons are turned from the HCS) are in agreement with the simulations of additional particle acceleration in a reconnecting HCS with a strong guiding field as measured by WIND. A few examples are also presented showing additional acceleration of solar-wind particles during their passage through current sheets formed in a front of ICMEs. This additional acceleration at the ICME current sheets can explain the anticorrelation of ion and electron fluxes frequently observed around the ICME's leading front. Furthermore, it may provide a plausible explanation of the appearance of bidirectional "strahls" (field-aligned most energetic suprathermal electrons) at the leading edge of ICMEs as energetic electrons generated during a magnetic reconnection at the ICME-front current sheet.
      PubDate: 2015-04-09T00:00:00+02:00
  • Global variation in the long-term seasonal changes observed in ionospheric
           F region data

    • Abstract: Global variation in the long-term seasonal changes observed in ionospheric F region data

      Annales Geophysicae, 33, 449-455, 2015

      Author(s): C. J. Scott and R. Stamper

      Long-term variability has previously been observed in the relative magnitude of annual and semi-annual variations in the critical frequency (related to the peak electron concentration) of the ionospheric F2 layer (foF2). In this paper we investigate the global patterns in such variability by calculating the time varying power ratio of semi-annual to annual components seen in ionospheric foF2 data sequences from 77 ionospheric monitoring stations around the world. The temporal variation in power ratios observed at each station was then correlated with the same parameter calculated from similar epochs for the Slough/Chilton data set (for which there exists the longest continuous sequence of ionospheric data). This technique reveals strong regional variation in the data, which bears a striking similarity to the regional variation observed in long-term changes to the height of the ionospheric F2 layer. We argue that since both the height and peak density of the ionospheric F2 region are influenced by changes to thermospheric circulation and composition, the observed long-term and regional variability can be explained by such changes. In the absence of long-term measurements of thermospheric composition, detailed modelling work is required to investigate these processes.
      PubDate: 2015-04-08T00:00:00+02:00
  • The dayside magnetopause location during radial interplanetary magnetic
           field periods: Cluster observation and model comparison

    • Abstract: The dayside magnetopause location during radial interplanetary magnetic field periods: Cluster observation and model comparison

      Annales Geophysicae, 33, 437-448, 2015

      Author(s): T. Huang, H. Wang, J.-H. Shue, L. Cai, and G. Pi

      The present work has investigated the midlatitudinal magnetopause locations under radial interplanetary field (RIMF) conditions. Among 262 (256) earthward (sunward) RIMF events from years of 2001 to 2009, Cluster satellites have crossed the magnetopause 22(12) times, with 10 (7) events occurring at midlatitudes. The observed midlatitudinal magnetopause positions are compared with two empirical magnetopause models (Shue et al., 1998; Boardsen et al., 2000) (hereafter referred to as the Shue98 model and the Boardsen00 model). The observation–model differences exhibit local time asymmetry. For earthward RIMF cases, the Shue98 model underestimates the magnetopause positions in the postnoon sector, while it overestimates the magnetopause positions in the dawn and dusk sectors. The Boardsen00 model generally underestimates the magnetopause after 6 MLT (magnetic local time), with larger deviations in the postnoon sector as compared to those in the prenoon. For sunward RIMF cases, the selected events are mainly clustered around the dawn and dusk sectors. The comparison with the Shue98 model indicates contractions in the dawn and expansions in the dusk sector, while the comparison with Boardsen00 indicates general expansions, with larger expansions in the later local time sectors. The local time variations in the differences between observations and the Shue98 and the Boardsen00 models indicate that the real magnetopause could be asymmetrically shaped during radial IMF periods, which should be considered by magnetopause models. The observation–model differences in the magnetopause positions (Δ RMP) during RIMF periods correlate well with the solar wind dynamic pressure, with larger Δ RMP for larger Pd. The southern magnetopause expands further outward relative to the model prediction when the dipole tilt angle is more negative (local summer in the Southern Hemisphere). For earthward RIMF cases, the generally good correlations between Δ RMP and the IMF cone angle are consistent with the previous hypothesis (Dušík et al., 2010) that, with more radial IMF, the subsolar magnetopause will expand further outward, owever, this is not the case for the comparison with Boardsen00 during sunward IMF periods, as it shows less dependence on the IMF cone angle.
      PubDate: 2015-04-02T00:00:00+02:00
  • Transitions between states of magnetotail–ionosphere coupling and
           the role of solar wind dynamic pressure: the 25 July 2004 interplanetary
           CME case

    • Abstract: Transitions between states of magnetotail–ionosphere coupling and the role of solar wind dynamic pressure: the 25 July 2004 interplanetary CME case

      Annales Geophysicae, 33, 427-436, 2015

      Author(s): P. E. Sandholt, C. J. Farrugia, and W. F. Denig

      In a case study, we investigate transitions between fundamental magnetosphere–ionosphere (M-I) coupling modes during storm-time conditions (SYM-H between −100 and −160 nT) driven by an interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME). We combine observations from the near tail, at geostationary altitude (GOES-10), and electrojet activities across the auroral oval at postnoon-to-dusk and midnight. After an interval of strong westward electrojet (WEJ) activity, a 3 h long state of attenuated/quenched WEJ activity was initiated by abrupt drops in the solar wind density and dynamic pressure. The attenuated substorm activity consisted of brief phases of magnetic field perturbation and electron flux decrease at GOES-10 near midnight and moderately strong conjugate events of WEJ enhancements at the southern boundary of the oval, as well as a series of very strong eastward electrojet (EEJ) events at dusk, during a phase of enhanced ring current evolution, i.e., enhanced SYM-H deflection within −120 to −150 nT. Each of these M-I coupling events was preceded by poleward boundary intensifications and auroral streamers at higher oval latitudes. We identify this mode of attenuated substorm activity as being due to a magnetotail state characterized by bursty reconnection and bursty bulk flows/dipolarization fronts (multiple current wedgelets) with associated injection dynamo in the near tail, in their braking phase. The latter process is associated with activations of the Bostrøm type II (meridional) current system. A transition to the next state of M-I coupling, when a full substorm expansion took place, was triggered by an abrupt increase of the ICME dynamic pressure from 1 to 5 nPa. The brief field deflection events at GOES-10 were then replaced by a 20 min long interval of extreme field stretching (Bz approaching 5 nT and Bx ≈ 100 nT) followed by a major dipolarization (Δ Bz ≈ 100 nT). In the ionosphere the latter stage appeared as a "full-size" stepwise poleward expansion of the WEJ. It thus appears that the ICME passage led to fundamentally different M-I coupling states corresponding to different levels of dynamic pressure (Pdyn) under otherwise very similar ICME conditions. Full WEJ activity, covering a wide latitude range across the auroral oval in the midnight sector, was attenuated by the abrupt dynamic pressure decrease and resumed after the subsequent abrupt increase.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01T00:00:00+02:00
  • Terrestrial exospheric hydrogen density distributions under solar minimum
           and solar maximum conditions observed by the TWINS stereo mission

    • Abstract: Terrestrial exospheric hydrogen density distributions under solar minimum and solar maximum conditions observed by the TWINS stereo mission

      Annales Geophysicae, 33, 413-426, 2015

      Author(s): J. H. Zoennchen, U. Nass, and H. J. Fahr

      Circumterrestrial Lyman-α column brightness observations above 3 Earth radii (Re) have been used to derive separate 3-D neutral hydrogen density models of the Earth's exosphere for solar minimum (2008, 2010) and near-solar-maximum (2012) conditions. The data used were measured by Lyman-α detectors (LAD1/2) onboard each of the TWINS satellites from very different orbital positions with respect to the exosphere. Exospheric H atoms resonantly scatter the near-line-center solar Lyman-α flux at 121.6 nm. Assuming optically thin conditions above 3Re along a line of sight (LOS), the scattered LOS-column intensity is proportional to the LOS H-column density. We found significant differences in the density distribution of the terrestrial exosphere under different solar conditions. Under solar maximum conditions we found higher H densities and a larger spatial extension compared to solar minimum. After a continuous, 2-month decrease in (27 day averaged) solar activity, significantly lower densities were found. Differences in shape and orientation of the exosphere under different solar conditions exist. Above 3 Re, independent of solar activity, increased H densities appear on the Earth's nightside shifted towards dawn. With increasing distance (as measured at 8Re) this feature is shifted westward/duskward by between −4 and −5° with respect to midnight. Thus, at larger geocentric distance the exosphere seems to be aligned with the aberrated Earth–solar-wind line, defined by the solar wind velocity and the orbital velocity of the Earth. The results presented in this paper are valid for geocentric distances between 3 and 8Re.
      PubDate: 2015-03-27T00:00:00+01:00
  • Online NARMAX model for electron fluxes at GEO

    • Abstract: Online NARMAX model for electron fluxes at GEO

      Annales Geophysicae, 33, 405-411, 2015

      Author(s): R. J. Boynton, M. A. Balikhin, and S. A. Billings

      Multi-input single-output (MISO) nonlinear autoregressive moving average with exogenous inputs (NARMAX) models have been derived to forecast the > 0.8 MeV and > 2 MeV electron fluxes at geostationary Earth orbit (GEO). The NARMAX algorithm is able to identify mathematical model for a wide class of nonlinear systems from input–output data. The models employ solar wind parameters as inputs to provide an estimate of the average electron flux for the following day, i.e. the 1-day forecast. The identified models are shown to provide a reliable forecast for both > 0.8 and > 2 MeV electron fluxes and are capable of providing real-time warnings of when the electron fluxes will be dangerously high for satellite systems. These models, named SNB3GEO > 0.8 and > 2 MeV electron flux models, have been implemented online at
      PubDate: 2015-03-27T00:00:00+01:00
  • Are dayside long-period pulsations related to the cusp?

    • Abstract: Are dayside long-period pulsations related to the cusp?

      Annales Geophysicae, 33, 395-404, 2015

      Author(s): V. Pilipenko, V. Belakhovsky, M. J. Engebretson, A. Kozlovsky, and T. Yeoman

      We compare simultaneous observations of long-period ultra-low-frequency (ULF) wave activity from a Svalbard/IMAGE fluxgate magnetometer latitudinal profile covering the expected cusp geomagnetic latitudes. Irregular Pulsations at Cusp Latitudes (IPCL) and narrowband Pc5 waves are found to be a ubiquitous element of ULF activity in the dayside high-latitude region. To identify the ionospheric projections of the cusp, we use the width of return signal of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar covering the Svalbard archipelago, predictions of empirical cusp models, augmented whenever possible by Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) identification of magnetospheric boundary domains. The meridional spatial structure of broadband dayside Pc5–6 pulsation spectral power has been found to have a localized latitudinal peak, not under the cusp proper as was previously thought, but several degrees southward from the equatorward cusp boundary. The earlier claims of the dayside monochromatic Pc5 wave association with the open–closed boundary also seems doubtful. Transient currents producing broadband Pc5–6 probably originate at the low-latitude boundary layer/central plasma sheet (LLBL/CPS) interface, though such identification with available DMSP data is not very precise. The occurrence of broadband Pc5–6 pulsations in the dayside boundary layers is a challenge to modelers because so far their mechanism has not been firmly identified.
      PubDate: 2015-03-24T00:00:00+01:00
  • Contribution of proton and electron precipitation to the observed electron
           concentration in October–November 2003 and September 2005

    • Abstract: Contribution of proton and electron precipitation to the observed electron concentration in October–November 2003 and September 2005

      Annales Geophysicae, 33, 381-394, 2015

      Author(s): P. T. Verronen, M. E. Andersson, A. Kero, C.-F. Enell, J. M. Wissing, E. R. Talaat, K. Kauristie, M. Palmroth, T. E. Sarris, and E. Armandillo

      Understanding the altitude distribution of particle precipitation forcing is vital for the assessment of its atmospheric and climate impacts. However, the proportion of electron and proton forcing around the mesopause region during solar proton events is not always clear due to uncertainties in satellite-based flux observations. Here we use electron concentration observations of the European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association (EISCAT) incoherent scatter radars located at Tromsø (69.58° N, 19.23° E) to investigate the contribution of proton and electron precipitation to the changes taking place during two solar proton events. The EISCAT measurements are compared to the results from the Sodankylä Ion and Neutral Chemistry Model (SIC). The proton ionization rates are calculated by two different methods – a simple energy deposition calculation and the Atmospheric Ionization Model Osnabrück (AIMOS v1.2), the latter providing also the electron ionization rates. Our results show that in general the combination of AIMOS and SIC is able to reproduce the observed electron concentration within ± 50% when both electron and proton forcing is included. Electron contribution is dominant above 90 km, and can contribute significantly also in the upper mesosphere especially during low or moderate proton forcing. In the case of strong proton forcing, the AIMOS electron ionization rates seem to suffer from proton contamination of satellite-based flux data. This leads to overestimation of modelled electron concentrations by up to 90% between 75–90 km and up to 100–150% at 70–75 km. Above 90 km, the model bias varies significantly between the events. Although we cannot completely rule out EISCAT data issues, the difference is most likely a result of the spatio-temporal fine structure of electron precipitation during individual events that cannot be fully captured by sparse in situ flux (point) measurements, nor by the statistical AIMOS model which is based upon these observations.
      PubDate: 2015-03-23T00:00:00+01:00
  • Observation of electron biteout regions below sporadic E layers at polar

    • Abstract: Observation of electron biteout regions below sporadic E layers at polar latitudes

      Annales Geophysicae, 33, 371-380, 2015

      Author(s): G. A. Lehmacher, M. F. Larsen, and C. L. Croskey

      The descent of a narrow sporadic E layer near 95 km altitude over Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska was observed with electron probes on two consecutive sounding rockets and with incoherent scatter radar during a 2 h period near magnetic midnight. A series of four trimethyl aluminum chemical releases demonstrated that the Es layer remained just slightly above the zonal wind node, which was slowly descending due to propagating long-period gravity waves. The location of the layer is consistent with the equilibrium position due to combined action of the wind shear and electric fields. Although the horizontal electric field could not be measured directly, we estimate that it was ~ 2 mV m−1 southward, consistent with modeling the vertical ion drift, and compatible with extremely quiet conditions. Both electron probes observed deep biteout regions just below the Es enhancements, which also descended with the sporadic layers. We discuss several possibilities for the cause of these depletions; one possibility is the presence of negatively charged, nanometer-sized mesospheric smoke particles. Such particles have recently been detected in the upper mesosphere, but not yet in immediate connection with sporadic E. Our observations of electron depletions suggest a new process associated with sporadic E.
      PubDate: 2015-03-20T00:00:00+01:00
  • Long-term midlatitude mesopause region temperature trend deduced from
           quarter century (1990–2014) Na lidar observations

    • Abstract: Long-term midlatitude mesopause region temperature trend deduced from quarter century (1990–2014) Na lidar observations

      Annales Geophysicae, 33, 363-369, 2015

      Author(s): C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and T. Yuan

      The long-term midlatitude temperature trend between 85 and 105 km is deduced from 25 years (March 1990–December 2014) of Na Lidar observations. With a strong warming episode in the 1990s, the time series was least-square fitted to an 11-parameter nonlinear function. This yields a cooling trend starting from an insignificant value of 0.64 ± 0.99 K decade−1 at 85 km, increasing to a maximum of 2.8 ± 0.58 K decade−1 between 91 and 93 km, and then decreasing to a warming trend above 103 km. The geographic altitude dependence of the trend is in general agreement with model predictions. To shed light on the nature of the warming episode, we show that the recently reported prolonged global surface temperature cooling after the Mt Pinatubo eruption can also be very well represented by the same response function.
      PubDate: 2015-03-19T00:00:00+01:00
  • Comparison of aerosol extinction between lidar and SAGE II over Gadanki, a
           tropical station in India

    • Abstract: Comparison of aerosol extinction between lidar and SAGE II over Gadanki, a tropical station in India

      Annales Geophysicae, 33, 351-362, 2015

      Author(s): P. Kulkarni and S. Ramachandran

      An extensive comparison of aerosol extinction has been performed using lidar and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II data over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E), a tropical station in India, following coincident criteria during volcanically quiescent conditions from 1998 to 2005. The aerosol extinctions derived from lidar are higher than SAGE II during all seasons in the upper troposphere (UT), while in the lower-stratosphere (LS) values are closer. The seasonal mean percent differences between lidar and SAGE II aerosol extinctions are > 100% in the UT and < 50% above 25 km. Different techniques (point and limb observations) played the major role in producing the observed differences. SAGE II aerosol extinction in the UT increases as the longitudinal coverage is increased as the spatial aerosol extent increases, while similar extinction values in LS confirm the zonal homogeneity of LS aerosols. The study strongly emphasized that the best meteorological parameters close to the lidar measurement site in terms of space and time and Ba (sr−1), the ratio between aerosol backscattering and extinction, are needed for the tropics for a more accurate derivation of aerosol extinction.
      PubDate: 2015-03-18T00:00:00+01:00
  • Adaptation of the de Hoffmann–Teller frame for quasi-perpendicular
           collisionless shocks

    • Abstract: Adaptation of the de Hoffmann–Teller frame for quasi-perpendicular collisionless shocks

      Annales Geophysicae, 33, 345-350, 2015

      Author(s): H. Comişel, Y. Narita, and U. Motschmann

      The concept of the de Hoffmann–Teller frame is revisited for a high Mach-number quasi-perpendicular collisionless shock wave. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that the local magnetic field oscillations in the shock layer introduce a residual motional electric field in the de Hoffmann–Teller frame, which is misleading in that one may interpret that electrons were not accelerated but decelerated in the shock layer. We propose the concept of the adaptive de Hoffmann–Teller (AHT) frame in which the residual convective field is canceled by modulating the sliding velocity of the de Hoffmann–Teller frame. The electrostatic potential evaluated by Liouville mapping supports the potential profile obtained by electric field in this adaptive frame, offering a wide variety of applications in shock wave studies.
      PubDate: 2015-03-17T00:00:00+01:00
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