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  Subjects -> PHYSICS (Total: 793 journals)
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    - OPTICS (90 journals)
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PHYSICS (572 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Acta Acustica united with Acustica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advanced Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 199)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Structural and Chemical Imaging     Open Access  
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances In Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
AIP Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
AIP Conference Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
American Journal of Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri PoincarĂ©     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annales UMCS, Physica     Open Access  
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of West University of Timisoara - Physics     Open Access  
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Materials Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
APL Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Physics Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Physics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Physics Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Applied Radiation and Isotopes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Remote Sensing Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Applied Spectroscopy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter     Hybrid Journal  
ASTRA Proceedings     Open Access  
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astrophysical Journal Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Atoms     Open Access  
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Axioms     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biophysical Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biophysical Reviews and Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BMC Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Boson Journal of Modern Physics     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Physics     Hybrid Journal  
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Physics     Hybrid Journal  
Caderno Brasileiro de Ensino de FĂ­sica     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cells     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CERN courier. International journal of high energy physics     Free   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Physics of Solid Surfaces     Full-text available via subscription  
Chinese Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Chemical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Physics B     Full-text available via subscription  
Chinese Physics C     Full-text available via subscription  
Chinese Physics Letters     Full-text available via subscription  
Cogent Physics     Open Access  
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Colloid Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications in Computational Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Communications in Theoretical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Complex Analysis and its Synergies     Open Access  
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 124)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143)
Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology     Open Access  
Computational Condensed Matter     Open Access  
Computational Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Computational Particle Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription  
Computer Physics Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO)
  [SJR: 1.176]   [H-I: 63]   [3 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0992-7689 - ISSN (Online) 1432-0576
   Published by European Geosciences Union Homepage  [8 journals]
  • Global distribution of vertical wavenumber spectra in the
           lower stratosphere observed using high-vertical-resolution temperature
           profiles from COSMIC GPS radio occultation

    • Abstract: Global distribution of vertical wavenumber spectra in the lower stratosphere observed using high-vertical-resolution temperature profiles from COSMIC GPS radio occultation
      Noersomadi and T. Tsuda
      Ann. Geophys., 34, 203-213, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-203-2016, 2016
      We studied the characteristics of gravity waves in the lower stratosphere using high-vertical-resolution COSMIC GPS-RO temperature profiles retrieved by the FSI method. We analyzed vertical wavenumber spectrum of the normalized temperature perturbations and calculated the wave potential energy in the wavelength ranges from 0.5 to 3.5 and 0.5 to 1.75 km. We investigated the correlation between the spectral parameters with topography and the background mean zonal winds.
      PubDate: 2016-02-10T09:56:31+01:00
       
  • Impact of variational assimilation using multivariate background error
           covariances on the simulation of monsoon depressions over India

    • Abstract: Impact of variational assimilation using multivariate background error covariances on the simulation of monsoon depressions over India
      M. Dhanya and A. Chandrasekar
      Ann. Geophys., 34, 187-201, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-187-2016, 2016
      The three-dimensional variational technique (3DVar) is a popular technique used for data assimilation. Background error covariance (BEC) influences the performance of 3DVar technique. In this study, two formulations of BEC, namely the cv5 and cv6 options in the 3DVar assimilation in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, are compared. It is found that the formulation of BEC impacts the analysis. Utilising the cv6 option moderately improves the simulation of monsoon depressions.
      PubDate: 2016-02-09T09:56:31+01:00
       
  • Modeling of ion dynamics in the inner geospace during enhanced
           magnetospheric activity

    • Abstract: Modeling of ion dynamics in the inner geospace during enhanced magnetospheric activity
      C. Tsironis, A. Anastasiadis, C. Katsavrias, and I. A. Daglis
      Ann. Geophys., 34, 171-185, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-171-2016, 2016
      We investigate the effect of magnetic disturbances on the ring current buildup and the dynamics of the current systems in the inner geospace by means of numerical simulations of ion orbits during enhanced magnetospheric activity. For this purpose, we developed a particle-tracing model that solves for the ion motion in a dynamic geomagnetic field and an electric field due to convection, corotation and Faraday induction and which mimics reconfigurations typical to such events. The kinematic data of the test particles is used for analyzing the dependence of the system on the initial conditions, as well as for mapping the different ion species to the magnetospheric currents. Furthermore, an estimation of Dst is given in terms of the ensemble-averaged ring and tail currents. The presented model may serve as a tool in a Sun-to-Earth modeling chain of major solar eruptions, providing an estimation of the inner geospace response.
      PubDate: 2016-02-03T09:56:31+01:00
       
  • Generation of a severe convective ionospheric storm under stable
           Rayleigh–Taylor conditions: triggering by meteors?

    • Abstract: Generation of a severe convective ionospheric storm under stable Rayleigh–Taylor conditions: triggering by meteors?
      M. C. Kelley and R. R. Ilma
      Ann. Geophys., 34, 165-170, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-165-2016, 2016
      This manuscript presents a novel and interesting hypothesis about the seeding of equatorial spread F irregularities by meteors. Based on radar experiments, the study postulates that the triggering of these irregularities occurs even under very stable ionospheric conditions. The article demonstrates significant work on the relationship between meteors and F region irregularities at equatorial latitudes. The novel mechanism can encourage the ionospheric community to test this hypothesis.
      PubDate: 2016-02-03T09:56:31+01:00
       
  • A statistical study over Europe of the relative locations of lightning
           and associated energetic burst of electrons from the radiation belt

    • Abstract: A statistical study over Europe of the relative locations of lightning and associated energetic burst of electrons from the radiation belt
      F. Bourriez, J.-A. Sauvaud, J.-L. Pinçon, J.-J. Berthelier, and M. Parrot
      Ann. Geophys., 34, 157-164, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-157-2016, 2016
      The purpose of our paper was to provide a statistical study of one of the interactions between lightning and particles occurring above thunderstorms. In our case, the satellite DEMETER was able to measure the energy of both particles and lightning. By correlating those measurements with lightning detection, we were able to determine the position of the causative lightning. The aim of this research was mainly to prepare the next spacecraft mission, which will study thunderstorms from space.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01T09:56:31+01:00
       
  • Physical origin of pickup currents

    • Abstract: Physical origin of pickup currents
      V. M. Vasyliūnas
      Ann. Geophys., 34, 153-156, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-153-2016, 2016
      So-called pickup electric currents, associated with the ionization of neutral particles in the presence of a flowing plasma, are conventionally described as produced directly by differential displacement of ions and electrons as the result of acceleration and gyromotion under the action of the electric field E = −V × B∕c. This is not the appropriate physical description for the case when the electron inertial length of the background plasma is small in comparison with the spatial scale of the system. The pickup process in this case does not directly produce a current, except for a small transient on the electron-gyroperiod timescale, which then decays exponentially at the ionization (momentum-loading) rate, as can be shown by an explicit solution of the equations. Rather, the plasma is first slowed down by the momentum loading; the spatially inhomogeneous velocity change then leads to a perturbation of the magnetic field, and the curl of the perturbed field is the current. The timescale for the development of the pickup current is not the ion gyroperiod (as the conventional description might suggest) but rather the Alfvén wave travel time over the spatial scale of the inhomogeneity.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01T09:56:31+01:00
       
  • A method to improve the utilization of GNSS observation for water
           vapor tomography

    • Abstract: A method to improve the utilization of GNSS observation for water vapor tomography
      Y. B. Yao, Q. Z. Zhao, and B. Zhang
      Ann. Geophys., 34, 143-152, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-143-2016, 2016
      Existing water vapor tomographic methods use Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals penetrating the entire research area while they do not consider signals passing through its sides. To solve this issue, an approach which uses GPS data with both signals that pass the side and top of a research area is proposed. The advantages of proposed approach include improving the utilization of existing GNSS observations and increasing the number of voxels crossed by satellite signals.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T13:05:29+01:00
       
  • Electron/positron measurements obtained with the Mars Science Laboratory
           Radiation Assessment Detector on the surface of Mars

    • Abstract: Electron/positron measurements obtained with the Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector on the surface of Mars
      J. Köhler, R. F. Wimmer-Schweingruber, J. Appel, B. Ehresmann, C. Zeitlin, D. M. Hassler, G. Reitz, D. E. Brinza, S. Böttcher, E. Böhm, S. Burmeister, J. Guo, A.-M. Harri, H. Kahanpää, J. Krauss, H. Lohf, C. Martin, D. Matthiä, A. Posner, and S. Rafkin
      Ann. Geophys., 34, 133-141, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-133-2016, 2016
      The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity, measures the energetic charged and neutral particles and the radiation dose rate on the surface of Mars. In this work we compare predicted electron/positron spectra with the signal measured by RAD. We find that the RAD electron/positron measurements agree well with the spectra predicted by Planetocosmics.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T13:05:29+01:00
       
  • Modulation of surface meteorological parameters by extratropical
           planetary-scale Rossby waves

    • Abstract: Modulation of surface meteorological parameters by extratropical planetary-scale Rossby waves
      K. Niranjan Kumar, D. V. Phanikumar, T. B. M. J. Ouarda, M. Rajeevan, M. Naja, and K. K. Shukla
      Ann. Geophys., 34, 123-132, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-123-2016, 2016
      The link between upper-tropospheric planetary-scale Rossby waves and surface meteorological parameters is examined. The propagating Rossby waves along with undulations in the subtropical jet create convergence and divergence regions in the mid-troposphere. The surface relative humidity, wind speeds, and temperature are synchronized with the phase of the propagating Rossby waves. The present study finds important implications for medium-range forecasting through Rossby wave propagation.
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T16:27:15+01:00
       
  • The formation of multiple layers of ice particles in the polar
           summer mesopause region

    • Abstract: The formation of multiple layers of ice particles in the polar summer mesopause region
      H. Li, J. Wu, and Z. Zhou
      Ann. Geophys., 34, 117-122, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-117-2016, 2016
      This paper presents a two-dimensional theoretical model to study the formation process of multiple layers of small ice particles in the polar summer mesosphere as measured by rockets and associated with polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE). The proposed mechanism primarily takes into account the transport processes induced by gravity waves through collision coupling between the neutral atmosphere and the ice particles. Numerical solutions of the model indicate that the dynamic influence of wind variation induced by gravity waves can make a significant contribution to the vertical and horizontal transport of ice particles and ultimately transform them into thin multiple layers. Additionally, the pattern of the multiple layers at least partially depends on the vertical wavelength of the gravity wave, the ice particle size and the wind velocity. The results presented in this paper will be helpful to better understand the occurrence of multiple layers of PMSE as well as its variation process.
      PubDate: 2016-01-25T16:27:15+01:00
       
  • Simultaneous multiplicative column-normalized method (SMART) for
           3-D ionosphere tomography in comparison to other algebraic methods

    • Abstract: Simultaneous multiplicative column-normalized method (SMART) for 3-D ionosphere tomography in comparison to other algebraic methods
      T. Gerzen and D. Minkwitz
      Ann. Geophys., 34, 97-115, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-97-2016, 2016
      The accuracy and availability of satellite-based applications like GNSS positioning and remote sensing crucially depends on the knowledge of the ionospheric electron density distribution. The 3-D reconstruction of the ionosphere is one of the major tools to provide ionospheric corrections and to study physical processes in the ionosphere. In this paper, we introduce two reconstruction methods SMART and SMART+, and compare them to well-known reconstruction techniques ART and SART.
      PubDate: 2016-01-22T16:27:15+01:00
       
  • Twin mesospheric bores observed over Brazilian equatorial region

    • Abstract: Twin mesospheric bores observed over Brazilian equatorial region
      A. F. Medeiros, I. Paulino, M. J. Taylor, J. Fechine, H. Takahashi, R. A. Buriti, L. M. Lima, and C. M. Wrasse
      Ann. Geophys., 34, 91-96, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-91-2016, 2016
      This paper reports two consecutive mesospheric bores observed in the airglow emissions (OH and OI5577). Both bores propagated to the east and showed similar spectral characteristics. However, the first one exhibited a dark leading front with several trailing waves behind and progressed into a brighter airglow region. However, the second bore, observed in the OH layer, was comprised of several bright waves propagating into a darker airglow region.
      PubDate: 2016-01-22T16:27:15+01:00
       
  • The effects of the big storm events in the first half of 2015 on
           the radiation belts observed by EPT/PROBA-V

    • Abstract: The effects of the big storm events in the first half of 2015 on the radiation belts observed by EPT/PROBA-V
      V. Pierrard and G. Lopez Rosson
      Ann. Geophys., 34, 75-84, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-75-2016, 2016
      With the Energetic Particle Telescope (EPT) on board the ESA satellite PROBA-V, we analyze the high-resolution flux measurements of the charged particle radiation environment at 820 km of altitude for the year 2015. On 17 March 2015, a big geomagnetic storm event injected unusual electron fluxes up to low radial distances in the radiation belts. Two other major events appeared in January and June 2015, again with injections of electrons in the inner belt, contrary to what was observed in 2013.
      PubDate: 2016-01-21T13:16:19+01:00
       
  • Ion Bernstein waves in the magnetic reconnection region

    • Abstract: Ion Bernstein waves in the magnetic reconnection region
      Y. Narita, R. Nakamura, W. Baumjohann, K.-H. Glassmeier, U. Motschmann, and H. Comişel
      Ann. Geophys., 34, 85-89, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-85-2016, 2016
      Four-spacecraft Cluster observations of turbulent fluctuations in the magnetic reconnection region in the geomagnetic tail show for the first time an indication of ion Bernstein waves, electromagnetic waves that propagate nearly perpendicular to the mean magnetic field and are in resonance with ions. Bernstein waves may influence current sheet dynamics in the reconnection outflow such as a bifurcation of the current sheet.
      PubDate: 2016-01-21T13:16:19+01:00
       
  • Mapping of steady-state electric fields and convective drifts
           in geomagnetic fields – Part 1: Elementary models

    • Abstract: Mapping of steady-state electric fields and convective drifts in geomagnetic fields – Part 1: Elementary models
      A. D. M. Walker and G. J. Sofko
      Ann. Geophys., 34, 55-65, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-55-2016, 2016
      This paper introduces a new method for mapping electric fields in the magnetosphere along geomagnetic field lines. This is important for conjugate studies of electric fields measured in the ionosphere by SuperDARN radars, and at spacecraft carrying electric field probes. First elementary methods in a dipole field are reviewed and then the theory of of a new method described for general magnetic field models. The method is tested in a dipole model with a Harris magnetotail field.
      PubDate: 2016-01-19T13:16:19+01:00
       
  • Mapping of steady-state electric fields and convective drifts
           in geomagnetic fields – Part 2: The IGRF

    • Abstract: Mapping of steady-state electric fields and convective drifts in geomagnetic fields – Part 2: The IGRF
      A. D. M. Walker
      Ann. Geophys., 34, 67-73, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-67-2016, 2016
      The method of electric field mapping along geomagnetic field lines, derived in an accompanying paper, is applied to the International Geomagnetic Reference Field. Formulae for the geomagnetic field gradient tensor are derived and these are used in a software package developed to map the electric field. A number of examples are presented illustrating the method. The method will be of importance in conjugate studies of ionospheric convection when the external magnetic field can be neglected.
      PubDate: 2016-01-19T13:16:19+01:00
       
  • High-speed stereoscopy of aurora

    • Abstract: High-speed stereoscopy of aurora
      R. Kataoka, Y. Fukuda, H. A. Uchida, H. Yamada, Y. Miyoshi, Y. Ebihara, H. Dahlgren, and D. Hampton
      Ann. Geophys., 34, 41-44, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-41-2016, 2016
      Stereoscopy of aurora was performed at the record fast sampling rate of 100 fps to measure the emission altitude of rapidly varying fine-scale structures. The new method unveiled that very different types of aurora appear in the same direction at different altitudes.
      PubDate: 2016-01-18T13:16:19+01:00
       
  • The geomagnetic cutoff rigidities at high latitudes for different
           solar wind and geomagnetic conditions

    • Abstract: The geomagnetic cutoff rigidities at high latitudes for different solar wind and geomagnetic conditions
      W. Chu and G. Qin
      Ann. Geophys., 34, 45-53, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-45-2016, 2016
      To study the coupling between the magnetosphere and the solar wind at high latitudes, the cosmic rays window (CRW) is defined. The area of the CRW is related to the solar wind-magnetospheric conditions, such as the z component of Interplanetary Magnetic Field, the solar wind dynamic pressure, AE index and Dst index. This result on the CRW may be used to help forecasting the variation of the cosmic rays during the geomagnetic storms.
      PubDate: 2016-01-18T13:16:19+01:00
       
  • Mass-loading, pile-up, and mirror-mode waves at comet
           67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    • Abstract: Mass-loading, pile-up, and mirror-mode waves at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
      M. Volwerk, I. Richter, B. Tsurutani, C. Götz, K. Altwegg, T. Broiles, J. Burch, C. Carr, E. Cupido, M. Delva, M. Dósa, N. J. T. Edberg, A. Eriksson, P. Henri, C. Koenders, J.-P. Lebreton, K. E. Mandt, H. Nilsson, A. Opitz, M. Rubin, K. Schwingenschuh, G. Stenberg Wieser, K. Szegö, C. Vallat, X. Vallieres, and K.-H. Glassmeier
      Ann. Geophys., 34, 1-15, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-1-2016, 2016
      The solar wind magnetic field drapes around the active nucleus of comet 67P/CG, creating a magnetosphere. The solar wind density increases and with that the pressure, which compresses the magnetosphere, increasing the magnetic field strength near Rosetta. The higher solar wind density also creates more ionization through collisions with the gas from the comet. The new ions are picked-up by the magnetic field and generate mirror-mode waves, creating low-field high-density "bottles" near 67P/CG.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T13:16:19+01:00
       
  • Radial dependence of ionization losses of protons of the
           Earth's radiation belts

    • Abstract: Radial dependence of ionization losses of protons of the Earth's radiation belts
      A. S. Kovtyukh
      Ann. Geophys., 34, 17-28, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-17-2016, 2016
      Coulomb losses and charge exchange of protons are considered in detail. On the basis of modern models of the plasmasphere and the exosphere, the radial dependences of the rates of ionization losses of protons, with μ from 0.3 to 10 keV nT−1, of the Earth's radiation belts near the equatorial plane are calculated for quiet periods. For calculation of Coulomb losses of protons we used data of ISEE-1 satellite (protons with energy from 24 to 2081 keV) on L from 3 to 9, data of Explorer-45 satellite (protons with energy from 78.6 to 872 keV) on L from 3 to 5 and data of CRRES satellite (protons with energy from 1 to 100 MeV) on L ≤  3 (L is the McIlwain parameter). It is shown that with decreasing L the rate of ionization losses of protons of the radiation belts is reduced; for protons with μ > 1.2 keV nT−1 in a narrow region (ΔL ∼  0.5) in the district of plasmapause in this dependence may form a local minimum of the rate. We found that the dependence from μ of the boundary on L between Coulomb losses and charge exchange of the trapped protons with hydrogen atoms is well approximated by the function Lb = 4.71μ0.32, where [μ]  =  keV nT−1. Coulomb losses dominate at L < Lb(μ), and at L > Lb(μ) dominates charge exchange of protons. We found the effect of subtracting the Coulomb losses from the charge exchange of protons of the radiation belts at low μ and L, which can simulate a local source of particles.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T13:16:19+01:00
       
 
 
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