Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO)
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0992-7689 - ISSN (Online) 1432-0576
Published by European Geosciences Union [8 journals] [SJR: 1.151] [H-I: 57]
- Sporadic E layer at mid-latitudes: average properties and influence of
Abstract: Sporadic E layer at mid-latitudes: average properties and influence of atmospheric tides
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1427-1440, 2014
Author(s): A. Pignalberi, M. Pezzopane, and E. Zuccheretti
This paper describes a study of the daily variability shown by the main characteristics of the sporadic E (Es) layer, that is the top frequency (ftEs) and the lowest virtual height (h'Es). The study is based on ionograms recorded by the Advanced Ionospheric Sounder by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (AIS-INGV) ionosondes installed in the ionospheric stations at Rome (41.8° N, 12.5° E) and Gibilmanna (37.9° N, 14.0° E), Italy, during the summer (June, July, August and September) of 2013, a year falling in the ascending phase of solar cycle 24. The ftEs presents a diurnal variation characterized by two maxima, the first around noon is very well defined and the second in the evening/night is much less defined; the amplitude of both maxima decreases from June to September accompanied by a general decrease of the ftEs values which is more pronounced in the daytime than in the nighttime. h'Es also presents a diurnal variation characterized by two maxima but, unlike ftEs, these present the same amplitude which is independent from the considered month. Assuming that both ftEs and h'Es trends are influenced by the atmospheric tides, the height–time–intensity (HTI) technique was applied to deeply investigate how these waves control the Es dynamics. The HTI study, along with a fast Fourier transform analysis, show that a well-defined semidiurnal periodicity characterizes the Es layer dynamics most accurately in June and July, while in August and September the daytime semidiurnal periodicity becomes weaker and the role of the diurnal periodicity is consequently highlighted.
- Deterministic prediction of surface wind speed variations
Abstract: Deterministic prediction of surface wind speed variations
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1415-1425, 2014
Author(s): G. V. Drisya, D. C. Kiplangat, K. Asokan, and K. Satheesh Kumar
Accurate prediction of wind speed is an important aspect of various tasks related to wind energy management such as wind turbine predictive control and wind power scheduling. The most typical characteristic of wind speed data is its persistent temporal variations. Most of the techniques reported in the literature for prediction of wind speed and power are based on statistical methods or probabilistic distribution of wind speed data. In this paper we demonstrate that deterministic forecasting methods can make accurate short-term predictions of wind speed using past data, at locations where the wind dynamics exhibit chaotic behaviour. The predictions are remarkably accurate up to 1 h with a normalised RMSE (root mean square error) of less than 0.02 and reasonably accurate up to 3 h with an error of less than 0.06. Repeated application of these methods at 234 different geographical locations for predicting wind speeds at 30-day intervals for 3 years reveals that the accuracy of prediction is more or less the same across all locations and time periods. Comparison of the results with f-ARIMA model predictions shows that the deterministic models with suitable parameters are capable of returning improved prediction accuracy and capturing the dynamical variations of the actual time series more faithfully. These methods are simple and computationally efficient and require only records of past data for making short-term wind speed forecasts within practically tolerable margin of errors.
- Nonlocal nonlinear coupling of kinetic sound waves
Abstract: Nonlocal nonlinear coupling of kinetic sound waves
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1407-1413, 2014
Author(s): O. Lyubchyk and Y. Voitenko
We study three-wave resonant interactions among kinetic-scale oblique sound waves in the low-frequency range below the ion cyclotron frequency. The nonlinear eigenmode equation is derived in the framework of a two-fluid plasma model. Because of dispersive modifications at small wavelengths perpendicular to the background magnetic field, these waves become a decay-type mode. We found two decay channels, one into co-propagating product waves (forward decay), and another into counter-propagating product waves (reverse decay). All wavenumbers in the forward decay are similar and hence this decay is local in wavenumber space. On the contrary, the reverse decay generates waves with wavenumbers that are much larger than in the original pump waves and is therefore intrinsically nonlocal. In general, the reverse decay is significantly faster than the forward one, suggesting a nonlocal spectral transport induced by oblique sound waves. Even with low-amplitude sound waves the nonlinear interaction rate is larger than the collisionless dissipation rate. Possible applications regarding acoustic waves observed in the solar corona, solar wind, and topside ionosphere are briefly discussed.
- Long-term lidar observations of wintertime gravity wave activity over
Abstract: Long-term lidar observations of wintertime gravity wave activity over northern Sweden
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1395-1405, 2014
Author(s): B. Ehard, P. Achtert, and J. Gumbel
This paper presents an analysis of gravity wave activity over northern Sweden as deduced from 18 years of wintertime lidar measurements at Esrange (68° N, 21° E). Gravity wave potential energy density (GWPED) was used to characterize the strength of gravity waves in the altitude regions 30–40 km and 40–50 km. The obtained values exceed previous observations reported in the literature. This is suggested to be due to Esrange's location downwind of the Scandinavian mountain range and due to differences in the various methods that are currently used to retrieve gravity wave parameters. The analysis method restricted the identification of the dominating vertical wavelengths to a range from 2 to 13 km. No preference was found for any wavelength in this window. Monthly mean values of GWPED show that most of the gravity waves' energy dissipates well below the stratopause and that higher altitude regions show only small dissipation rates of GWPED. Our analysis does not reproduce the previously reported negative trend in gravity wave activity over Esrange. The observed inter-annual variability of GWPED is connected to the occurrence of stratospheric warmings with generally lower wintertime mean GWPED during years with major stratospheric warmings. A bimodal GWPED occurrence frequency indicates that gravity wave activity at Esrange is affected by both ubiquitous wave sources and orographic forcing.
- Sea surface temperature as a proxy for convective gravity wave excitation:
a study based on global gravity wave observations in the middle atmosphere
Abstract: Sea surface temperature as a proxy for convective gravity wave excitation: a study based on global gravity wave observations in the middle atmosphere
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1373-1394, 2014
Author(s): J. Y. Jia, P. Preusse, M. Ern, H.-Y. Chun, J. C. Gille, S. D. Eckermann, and M. Riese
Absolute values of gravity wave momentum flux (GWMF) deduced from satellite measurements by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) are correlated with sea surface temperature (SST) with the aim of identifying those oceanic regions for which convection is a major source of gravity waves (GWs). Our study identifies those latitude bands where high correlation coefficients indicate convective excitation with confidence. This is based on a global ray-tracing simulation, which is used to delineate the source and wind-filtering effects. Convective GWs are identified at the eastern coasts of the continents and over the warm water regions formed by the warm ocean currents, in particular the Gulf Stream and the Kuroshio. Potential contributions of tropical cyclones to the excitation of the GWs are discussed. Convective excitation can be identified well into the mid-mesosphere. In propagating upward, the centers of GWMF formed by convection shift poleward. Some indications of the main forcing regions are even shown for the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT).
- Thin current sheets with strong bell-shape guide field: Cluster
observations and models with beams
Abstract: Thin current sheets with strong bell-shape guide field: Cluster observations and models with beams
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1349-1360, 2014
Author(s): I. Y. Vasko, A. V. Artemyev, A. A. Petrukovich, and H. V. Malova
We study the kinetic structure of intense ion-scale current sheets with strong electron currents and the guide field having a bell-shape profile. We consider four crossings of the Earth magnetotail current sheet by the Cluster mission in 2003. The thickness of these current sheets is about the ion inertial length and significantly smaller than the characteristic ion gyroradius. We analyze the asymmetry of the electron velocity distribution functions and show that the electron current is provided by the small electron subpopulation interpreted as an electron beam or two counter-streaming electron beams. The beam (counter-streaming beams) has a bulk velocity of the order of the electron thermal velocity and a density (difference of beam densities) of about 1–5% of the plasma density. To describe the observed current sheets we develop a kinetic model with particle beams. The model predicts different thickness of the current sheet for different types of current carriers (one electron beam or two counter-streaming electron beams). The observed ion-scale current sheets can be explained assuming that the current is carried by one electron beam and a co-streaming ion beam. Although the ion beam does not carry a significant current, this beam is required to balance the electron current perpendicular to the current sheet neutral plane. The developed model explains the dominance of the electron current and the ion scales of the current sheets.
- Aerosol black carbon characteristics over a high-altitude Western Ghats
location in Southern India
Abstract: Aerosol black carbon characteristics over a high-altitude Western Ghats location in Southern India
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1361-1371, 2014
Author(s): C. Udayasoorian, R. M. Jayabalakrishnan, A. R. Suguna, Mukunda M. Gogoi, and S. Suresh Babu
Aerosol black carbon (BC) mass concentrations were continuously monitored over a period of 2 years (April 2010 to May 2012) from a high-altitude location Ooty in the Nilgiris Mountain range in southern India to characterize the distinct nature of absorbing aerosols and their seasonality. Despite being remote and sparsely inhabited, BC concentrations showed significant seasonality with higher values (~ 0.96 ± 0.35 μg m−3) in summer (March to May), attributed to increased vertical transport of effluents in the upwind valley regions, which might have been confined to the surrounding valley regions within the very shallow winter boundary layer. The local atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) influence in summer was further modulated by the long-range transported aerosols from the eastern locations of Ooty. During monsoon (June–August), the concentrations were far reduced (~ 0.23 ± 0.06 μg m−3) due to intense precipitation. Diurnal variations were found conspicuous mainly during summer season associated with local ABL. The spectral absorption coefficients (αabs) depicted, in general, flatter distribution (mostly < 1.0 for more than 85% of daily mean values), suggesting the relative dominance of fossil fuel combustion, though showed marginal seasonal change with higher values of αabs in summer.
- Meteor trail characteristics observed by high time resolution lidar
Abstract: Meteor trail characteristics observed by high time resolution lidar
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1321-1332, 2014
Author(s): Y. J. Liu, J. M. C. Plane, B. R. Clemesha, J. H. Wang, and X. W. Cheng
We report and analyse the characteristics of 1382 meteor trails based on a sodium data set of ~ 680 h. The observations were made at Yanqing (115.97° E, 40.47° N), China by a ground-based Na fluorescence lidar. The temporal resolution of the raw profiles is 1.5 s and the altitude resolution is 96 m. We discover some characteristics of meteor trails different from those presented in previous reports. The occurrence heights of the trails follow a double-peak distribution with the peaks at ~ 83.5 km and at ~ 95.5 km, away from the peak height of the regular Na layer. 4.7% of the trails occur below 80 km, and 3.25% above 100 km. 75% of the trails are observed in only one 1.5 s profile, suggesting that the dwell time in the laser beam is not greater than 1.5 s. The peak density of the trails as a function of height is similar to that of the background sodium layer. The raw occurrence height distribution is corrected taking account of three factors which affect the relative lifetime of a trail as a function of height: the meteoroid velocity (which controls the ratio of Na/Na+ ablated); diffusional spreading of the trail; and chemical removal of Na. As a result, the bi-modal distribution is more pronounced. Modelling results show that the higher peak corresponds to a meteoroid population with speeds between 20 and 30 km s−1, whereas the lower peak should arise from much slower particles in a near-prograde orbit. It is inferred that most meteoroids in this data set have masses of ~ 1 mg, in order for ablation to produce sufficient Na atoms to be detected by lidar. Finally, the evolution of longer-duration meteor trails is investigated. Signals at each altitude channel consist of density enhancement bursts with the growth process usually faster than the decay process, and there exists a progressive phase shift among these altitude channels.
- Characteristics of Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) naturally
enhanced ion-acoustic lines (NEIALs) in relation to auroral forms
Abstract: Characteristics of Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) naturally enhanced ion-acoustic lines (NEIALs) in relation to auroral forms
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1333-1347, 2014
Author(s): R. G. Michell, T. Grydeland, and M. Samara
Naturally enhanced ion-acoustic lines (NEIALs) have been observed with the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) ever since it began operating in 2006. The nearly continuous operation of PFISR since then has led to a large number of NEIAL observations from there, where common-volume, high-resolution auroral imaging data are available. We aim to systematically distinguish the different types of auroral forms that are associated with different NEIAL features, including spectral shape and altitude extent. We believe that NEIALs occur with a continuum of morphological characteristics, although we find that most NEIALs observed with PFISR fall into two general categories. The first group occurs at fairly low altitudes – F region or below – and have power at, and spread between, the ion-acoustic peaks. The second group contains the type of NEIALs that have previously been observed with the EISCAT radars, those that extend to high altitudes (600 km or more) and often have large asymmetries in the power enhancements between the two ion-acoustic shoulders. We find that there is a correlation between the auroral structures and the type of NEIALs observed, and that the auroral structures present during NEIAL events are consistent with the likely NEIAL generation mechanisms inferred in each case. The first type of NEIAL – low altitude – is the most commonly observed with PFISR and is most often associated with active, structured auroral arcs, such as substorm growth phase, and onset arcs and are likely generated by Langmuir turbulence. The second type of NEIAL – high altitude – occurs less frequently in the PFISR radar and is associated with aurora that contains large fluxes of low-energy electrons, as can happen in poleward boundary intensifications as well as at substorm onset and is likely the result of current-driven instabilities and in some cases Langmuir turbulence as well. In addition, a preliminary auroral photometry analysis revealed that there is an anticorrelation between the altitude of the NEIALs and the calculated energy of the electrons, which is consistent with the hypotheses presented here regarding generation mechanisms.
- Satellite-based analysis of thermosphere response to extreme solar flares
Abstract: Satellite-based analysis of thermosphere response to extreme solar flares
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1305-1309, 2014
Author(s): S. Krauss, M. Pfleger, and H. Lammer
We present a refined algorithm to calculate pseudo solar indices, which enable the reproduction of a solar flare impact on the upper Earth's atmosphere for the empirical thermosphere model Jacchia-Bowman 2008. In a first step we compare the estimates of the new algorithm with those from a previous study by analysing an extreme X17.2 flare in 2003 using TIMED/SEE EUV observations. In a second step we adapt the method to use SOHO/SEM measurements within the algorithm and compare the findings with the previous results. Furthermore, the latter procedure is validated by means of GRACE density measurements during a X2.0 solar flare in November 2004. In each of the cases also a comparison with theoretical thermosphere models is performed, which shows a good agreement and suggests that the algorithm can support theoretical evolution studies in case no in situ density measurements during extreme solar events are available.
- Validation of COSMIC ionospheric peak parameters by the measurements of an
ionosonde chain in China
Abstract: Validation of COSMIC ionospheric peak parameters by the measurements of an ionosonde chain in China
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1311-1319, 2014
Author(s): L. Hu, B. Ning, L. Liu, B. Zhao, G. Li, B. Wu, Z. Huang, X. Hao, S. Chang, and Z. Wu
Although the electron density profiles (EDPs) from Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) measurement have been validated by ionosonde data at a number of locations during the solar minimum period, the performance of COSMIC measurements at different latitudes has not been well evaluated, particularly during the solar maximum period. In this paper the COSMIC ionospheric peak parameters (peak electron density of the F region – NmF2; peak height of the F region – hmF2) are validated by the ionosonde data from an observation chain in China during the solar maximum period of 2011–2013. The validations show that the COSMIC measurement generally agrees well with the ionosonde observation. The error in NmF2 from COSMIC and ionosonde measurements varies with latitude. At midlatitude stations, the differences between COSMIC NmF2s and those of ionosondes are very slight. However, COSMIC NmF2 overestimates (underestimates) that of the ionosonde at the north (south) of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) crest. The relative errors of hmF2s are much lower than those of NmF2s at all stations, which indicates the EDP retrieval algorithm of the COSMIC measurement has a better performance in determining the ionospheric peak height. The root mean square errors (RMSEs) of NmF2s (hmF2s) are higher (lower) during the daytime than during the nighttime at all stations. Correlation analysis shows that the correlations for both NmF2s and hmF2s are comparably good (correlation coefficients > 0.9) at midlatitude stations, while correlations of NmF2 (correlation coefficients > 0.9) are higher than those of hmF2 (correlation coefficients > 0.8) at low-latitude stations.
- Preface C/NOFS results and equatorial ionospheric dynamics
Abstract: Preface C/NOFS results and equatorial ionospheric dynamics
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1303-1303, 2014
Author(s): J. Klenzing, O. de La Beaujardière, L. C. Gentile, J. Retterer, F. S. Rodrigues, and R. A. Stoneback
- Analysis of double-step response to an interplanetary shock in the dayside
Abstract: Analysis of double-step response to an interplanetary shock in the dayside magnetosphere
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1293-1302, 2014
Author(s): K. Andréeová, L. Juusola, E. K. J. Kilpua, and H. E. J. Koskinen
We present an analysis of double-step magnetic field enhancement caused by interplanetary (IP) shock impacts on the Earth's magnetosphere. The structures were observed by the GOES-8, 10, 11, and 12 spacecraft in the dayside geostationary orbit, particularly during northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. The double-step structures, similar to what is observed in the ground horizontal magnetic field (H) component at low and mid latitudes, were observed preferentially on the dayside. Structures observed around 12–15 magnetic local time (MLT) displayed the steepest initial enhancement step, followed by a magnetic field strength decrease before the second enhancement step. At other dayside MLTs of the geostationary orbit, the initial response was smoother, and no decrease was observed before the second step. We suggest that this MLT asymmetry in the decrease of the total magnetic field is caused by the pushing of the plasmaspheric ions over the geostationary orbit due to the magnetospheric compression.
- Aspects of magnetosphere–ionosphere coupling in sawtooth substorms:
a case study
Abstract: Aspects of magnetosphere–ionosphere coupling in sawtooth substorms: a case study
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1277-1291, 2014
Author(s): P. E. Sandholt and C. J. Farrugia
In a case study we report on repetitive substorm activity during storm time which was excited during Earth passage of an interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) on 18 August 2003. Applying a combination of magnetosphere and ground observations during a favourable multi-spacecraft configuration in the plasma sheet (GOES-10 at geostationary altitude) and in the tail lobes (Geotail and Cluster-1), we monitor the temporal–spatial evolution of basic elements of the substorm current system. Emphasis is placed on activations of the large-scale substorm current wedge (SCW), spanning the 21:00–03:00 MLT sector of the near-Earth plasma sheet (GOES-10 data during the interval 06:00–12:00 UT), and magnetic perturbations in the tail lobes in relation to ground observations of auroral electrojets and convection in the polar cap ionosphere. The joint ground–satellite observations are interpreted in terms of sequential intensifications and expansions of the outer and inner current loops of the SCW and their respective associations with the westward electrojet centred near midnight (24:00 MLT) and the eastward electrojet observed at 14:00–15:00 MLT. Combined magnetic field observations across the tail lobe from Cluster and Geotail allow us to make estimates of enhancements of the cross-polar-cap potential (CPCP) amounting to ≈ 30–60 kV (lower limits), corresponding to monotonic increases of the PCN index by 1.5 to 3 mV m−1 from inductive electric field coupling in the magnetosphere–ionosphere (M–I) system during the initial transient phase of the substorm expansion.
- Applying inversion techniques to derive source currents and geoelectric
fields for geomagnetically induced current calculations
Abstract: Applying inversion techniques to derive source currents and geoelectric fields for geomagnetically induced current calculations
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1263-1275, 2014
Author(s): J. S. de Villiers and P. J. Cilliers
This research focuses on the inversion of geomagnetic variation field measurement to obtain source currents in the ionosphere. During a geomagnetic disturbance, the ionospheric currents create magnetic field variations that induce geoelectric fields, which drive geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in power systems. These GIC may disturb the operation of power systems and cause damage to grounded power transformers. The geoelectric fields at any location of interest can be determined from the source currents in the ionosphere through a solution of the forward problem. Line currents running east–west along given surface position are postulated to exist at a certain height above the Earth's surface. This physical arrangement results in the fields on the ground having the magnetic north and down components, and the electric east component. Ionospheric currents are modelled by inverting Fourier integrals (over the wavenumber) of elementary geomagnetic fields using the Levenberg–Marquardt technique. The output parameters of the inversion model are the current strength, height and surface position of the ionospheric current system. A ground conductivity structure with five layers from Quebec, Canada, based on the Layered-Earth model is used to obtain the complex skin depth at a given angular frequency. This paper presents preliminary and inversion results based on these structures and simulated geomagnetic fields. The results show some interesting features in the frequency domain. Model parameters obtained through inversion are within 2% of simulated values. This technique has applications for modelling the currents of electrojets at the equator and auroral regions, as well as currents in the magnetosphere.
- Magnetic clouds' structure in the magnetosheath as observed by Cluster and
Geotail: four case studies
Abstract: Magnetic clouds' structure in the magnetosheath as observed by Cluster and Geotail: four case studies
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1247-1261, 2014
Author(s): L. Turc, D. Fontaine, P. Savoini, and E. K. J. Kilpua
Magnetic clouds (MCs) are large-scale magnetic flux ropes ejected from the Sun into the interplanetary space. They play a central role in solar–terrestrial relations as they can efficiently drive magnetic activity in the near-Earth environment. Their impact on the Earth's magnetosphere is often attributed to the presence of southward magnetic fields inside the MC, as observed in the upstream solar wind. However, when they arrive in the vicinity of the Earth, MCs first encounter the bow shock, which is expected to modify their properties, including their magnetic field strength and direction. If these changes are significant, they can in turn affect the interaction of the MC with the magnetosphere. In this paper, we use data from the Cluster and Geotail spacecraft inside the magnetosheath and from the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) upstream of the Earth's environment to investigate the impact of the bow shock's crossing on the magnetic structure of MCs. Through four example MCs, we show that the evolution of the MC's structure from the solar wind to the magnetosheath differs largely from one event to another. The smooth rotation of the MC can either be preserved inside the magnetosheath, be modified, i.e. the magnetic field still rotates slowly but at different angles, or even disappear. The alteration of the magnetic field orientation across the bow shock can vary with time during the MC's passage and with the location inside the magnetosheath. We examine the conditions encountered at the bow shock from direct observations, when Cluster or Geotail cross it, or indirectly by applying a magnetosheath model. We obtain a good agreement between the observed and modelled magnetic field direction and shock configuration, which varies from quasi-perpendicular to quasi-parallel in our study. We find that the variations in the angle between the magnetic fields in the solar wind and in the magnetosheath are anti-correlated with the variations in the shock obliquity. When the shock is in a quasi-parallel regime, the magnetic field direction varies significantly from the solar wind to the magnetosheath. In such cases, the magnetic field reaching the magnetopause cannot be approximated by the upstream magnetic field. Therefore, it is important to take into account the conditions at the bow shock when estimating the impact of an MC with the Earth's environment because these conditions are crucial in determining the magnetosheath magnetic field, which then interacts with the magnetosphere.
- Formation of the high-energy ion population in the earth's magnetotail:
spacecraft observations and theoretical models
Abstract: Formation of the high-energy ion population in the earth's magnetotail: spacecraft observations and theoretical models
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1233-1246, 2014
Author(s): A. V. Artemyev, I. Y. Vasko, V. N. Lutsenko, and A. A. Petrukovich
We investigate the formation of the high-energy (E ∈ [20,600] keV) ion population in the earth's magnetotail. We collect statistics of 4 years of Interball / Tail observations (1995–1998) in the vicinity of the neutral plane in the magnetotail region (X
- E layer dominated ionosphere observed by EISCAT/ESR radars during solar
Abstract: E layer dominated ionosphere observed by EISCAT/ESR radars during solar minimum
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1223-1231, 2014
Author(s): Hongtao Cai, Fei Li, Ge Shen, Weijia Zhan, Kangjun Zhou, Ian Willian McCrea, and Shuying Ma
According to the study by Mayer and Jakowski (2009), periods of E layer dominated ionosphere (ELDI) are defined as being characterized by vertical electron density profiles having a maximum density at E layer altitudes. In this paper, characteristics of ELDI intervals have been investigated, focusing on their temporal variations, using field-aligned measurements from the EISCAT and ESR radars during the interval 2009–2011. ELDI events were identified using simple but reasonable criteria, in which a minimal duration was required to exclude possible "fake" events induced by random errors in measurements. It was found that ELDIs were observed more often in winter and earlier spring than other seasons, especially in the auroral zone. The occurrence of ELDI intervals peaks around geomagnetic midnight at auroral latitudes, while it reaches a maximum around geomagnetic local noon at the latitude of the ESR. Our results imply that ELDI intervals appear to be a sporadic rather than a regular phenomenon, in disagreement with previous results inferred from radio occultation measurements. The discrepancy between the typical durations of ELDI events observed by the two radars is remarkable, being 30 min on average at Tromsø but about a half of this at Svalbard. During intervals of ELDI, the mean thicknesses of the E layer are quite close at the two sites, as are the values of HmE and the ratio of NmE / NmF2. Case studies confirm that either extra E layer ionization or F layer density depletion alone could lead to the presence of ELDIs. Based on a careful check on ELDI intervals of various types, however, we suggest that both of them play a critical role in ELDI formation.
- Identification of the propagation mode of a solar wind wave associated
with Pc5 pulsations in the magnetosphere
Abstract: Identification of the propagation mode of a solar wind wave associated with Pc5 pulsations in the magnetosphere
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1217-1221, 2014
Author(s): A. D. M. Walker and J. A. E. Stephenson
A case study of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave in the solar wind that is strongly correlated with a magnetospheric field line resonance observed by the SuperDARN (Super Dual Auroral Radar Network) radar at Sanae, Antarctica is presented. The data from the ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) satellite at the solar libration point are analysed. The data time series are bandpass filtered at the pulsation frequency and the analytic signal deduced. From these data the partition of energy between the field components is computed. It is shown that energy is equally partitioned between the kinetic energy and transverse magnetic potential energy densities. The energy flux vector is closely aligned with the background magnetic field. The transverse magnetic and velocity components are in antiphase. This is the first identification of the triggering wave as a transverse Alfvén wave which originates upstream from the space craft and is propagated to the magnetosphere to trigger the pulsation.
- Simulation study of the plasma-brake effect
Abstract: Simulation study of the plasma-brake effect
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1207-1216, 2014
Author(s): P. Janhunen
Plasma brake is a thin, negatively biased tether that has been proposed as an efficient concept for deorbiting satellites and debris objects from low Earth orbit. We simulate the interaction with the ionospheric plasma ram flow with the plasma-brake tether by a high-performance electrostatic particle in cell code to evaluate the thrust. The tether is assumed to be perpendicular to the flow. We perform runs for different tether voltage, magnetic-field orientation and plasma-ion mass. We show that a simple analytical thrust formula reproduces most of the simulation results well. The interaction with the tether and the plasma flow is laminar (i.e. smooth and not turbulent) when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the tether and the flow. If the magnetic field is parallel to the tether, the behaviour is unstable and thrust is reduced by a modest factor. The case in which the magnetic field is aligned with the flow can also be unstable, but does not result in notable thrust reduction. We also correct an error in an earlier reference. According to the simulations, the predicted thrust of the plasma brake is large enough to make the method promising for low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellite deorbiting. As a numerical example, we estimate that a 5 km long plasma-brake tether weighing 0.055 kg could produce 0.43 mN breaking force, which is enough to reduce the orbital altitude of a 260 kg object mass by 100 km over 1 year.