Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO)
[SJR: 1.176] [H-I: 63] [7 followers] Follow
Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0992-7689 - ISSN (Online) 1432-0576
Published by European Geosciences Union [8 journals]
- Secondary electron emission from meteoric smoke particles inside the polar
Abstract: Secondary electron emission from meteoric smoke particles inside the polar ionosphere
Carsten Baumann, Markus Rapp, and Antti Kero
Ann. Geophys., 34, 573-580, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-573-2016, 2016
Meteor smoke particles (MSPs), originating from evaporated meteoric matter at 60–110 km altitude, are present in the whole atmosphere including polar regions. As electron precipitation is present at high latitudes, these MSPs are bombarded by energetic electrons. The energetic electrons can enter the MSPs and excite secondary electrons. That can lead to a change of the charge state of these MSPs. The study finds that other charging processes, e.g., electron attachment, are more important.
- Calculating ultra-low-frequency wave power of the compressional magnetic
field vs. L and time: multi-spacecraft analysis using the Van Allen
probes, THEMIS and GOES
Abstract: Calculating ultra-low-frequency wave power of the compressional magnetic field vs. L and time: multi-spacecraft analysis using the Van Allen probes, THEMIS and GOES
Theodore E. Sarris and Xinlin Li
Ann. Geophys., 34, 565-571, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-565-2016, 2016
Ultra-low-frequency (ULF) pulsations are critical in radial diffusion processes of energetic particles, and the power spectral density (PSD) of these fluctuations is an integral part of the radial diffusion coefficients and of assimilative models of the radiation belts. Using simultaneous measurements from two Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) geosynchronous satellites, three satellites of the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft constellation and the two Van Allen probes during a 10-day period of intense geomagnetic activity and ULF pulsations of October 2012, we calculate the PSDs of ULF pulsations at different L shells. By following the time history of measurements at different L it is shown that, during this time, ULF wave power is not enhanced uniformly throughout the magnetosphere but instead is mostly enhanced in the outer L shells, close to the magnetopause, and to a lesser extent in the inner magnetosphere, closer to the plasmapause. Furthermore, by using phase differences between two GOES geosynchronous satellite pairs, we estimate the daily-averaged distribution of power at different azimuthal wave numbers. These results can have significant implications in better defining the effect of radial diffusion in the phase space density of energetic particles for different wave numbers or L shell distributions of ULF power.
- Generalised partition functions: inferences on phase space distributions
Abstract: Generalised partition functions: inferences on phase space distributions
Rudolf A. Treumann and Wolfgang Baumjohann
Ann. Geophys., 34, 557-564, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-557-2016, 2016
It is demonstrated that the statistical mechanical partition function can be used to construct various different forms of phase space distributions. This indicates that its structure is not restricted to the Gibbs–Boltzmann factor prescription based on counting statistics. Consequences concerning generalised Lorentzians and more general distribution functions are discussed.
- A multi-platform investigation of midlatitude sporadic E and
its ties to
E–F coupling and meteor activity
Abstract: A multi-platform investigation of midlatitude sporadic E and its ties to E–F coupling and meteor activity
Ann. Geophys., 34, 529-541, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-529-2016, 2016
This paper details observed connections between dense, transient layers within the lower ionosphere (sporadic E) and both meteor activity and irregularities higher in the ionosphere. The coupling between these layers and wavelike disturbances in the middle ionosphere seems to be shorted out when extremely dense “clouds” are present, which possible disrupt the stability of the layers.
- Properties of inertia-gravity waves in the lowermost stratosphere
as observed by the PANSY radar over Syowa Station in the Antarctic
Abstract: Properties of inertia-gravity waves in the lowermost stratosphere as observed by the PANSY radar over Syowa Station in the Antarctic
Maria Mihalikova, Kaoru Sato, Masaki Tsutsumi, and Toru Sato
Ann. Geophys., 34, 543-555, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-543-2016, 2016
Inertia-gravity waves (IGWs) are an important component for the dynamics of the middle atmosphere. However, observational studies needed to constrain their forcing are still insufficient especially in the remote areas of the Antarctic region. One year of observational data (January to December 2013) by the PANSY radar of the wind components (vertical resolution of 150 m and temporal resolution of 30 min) are used to derive statistical analysis of the properties of IGWs with short vertical wavelengths ( ≤ 4 km) and ground-based periods longer than 4 h in the lowermost stratosphere (height range 10 to 12 km) with the help of the hodograph method. The annual change of the IGWs parameters are inspected but no pronounced year cycle is found. The year is divided into two seasons (summer and winter) based on the most prominent difference in the ratio of Coriolis parameter (f) to intrinsic frequency (ω^) distribution. Average of f∕ω^ for the winter season is 0.40 and for the summer season 0.45 and the average horizontal wavelengths are 140 and 160 km respectively. Vertical wavelengths have an average of 1.85 km through the year. For both seasons the properties of IGWs with upward and downward propagation of the energy are also derived and compared. The percentage of downward propagating waves is 10.7 and 18.4 % in the summer and winter season respectively. This seasonal change is more than the one previously reported in the studies from mid-latitudes and model-based studies. It is in agreement with the findings of past radiosonde data-based studies from the Antarctic region. In addition, using the so-called dual-beam technique, vertical momentum flux and the variance of the horizontal perturbation velocities of IGWs are examined. Tropospheric disturbances of synoptic-scale are suggested as a source of episodes of IGWs with large variance of horizontal perturbation velocities, and this is shown in a number of cases.
- The dawn–dusk asymmetry of ion density in the dayside magnetosheath
and its annual variability measured by THEMIS
Abstract: The dawn–dusk asymmetry of ion density in the dayside magnetosheath and its annual variability measured by THEMIS
Andrew P. Dimmock, Tuija I. Pulkkinen, Adnane Osmane, and Katariina Nykyri
Ann. Geophys., 34, 511-528, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-511-2016, 2016
Ion densities measured on the dawn-side magnetosheath flank were higher than the dusk-flank. The asymmetry was measured close to the magnetopause, but it became more ambiguous in the central magnetosheath. We show that the asymmetry was at its maximum at the 2009 solar minimum (~ 20 %), but then decreased in the rising stage of the next solar cycle (
- Multi-satellite simultaneous observations of magnetopause and
atmospheric losses of radiation belt electrons during an intense solar
wind dynamic pressure pulse
Abstract: Multi-satellite simultaneous observations of magnetopause and atmospheric losses of radiation belt electrons during an intense solar wind dynamic pressure pulse
Zheng Xiang, Binbin Ni, Chen Zhou, Zhengyang Zou, Xudong Gu, Zhengyu Zhao, Xianguo Zhang, Xiaoxin Zhang, Shenyi Zhang, Xinlin Li, Pingbing Zuo, Harlan Spence, and Geoffrey Reeves
Ann. Geophys., 34, 493-509, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-493-2016, 2016
We used 14 satellites(GOES, POES, THEMIS, RBSP, FENGYUN, REPTile) measurement to investigate the loss mechanisms of a electron dropout event during a intense solar wind dynamic pressure pulse. The observations demonstrated that magnetopause shadowing and atmospheric loss both play important roles in electron flux dropout. Moreover, substrom injections and convection strongly enhanced the energetic electron fluxes, which may delay other than avoid the occurrence of electron flux dropout.
- Extreme value analysis of the time derivative of the horizontal magnetic
field and computed electric field
Abstract: Extreme value analysis of the time derivative of the horizontal magnetic field and computed electric field
Peter Wintoft, Ari Viljanen, and Magnus Wik
Ann. Geophys., 34, 485-491, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-485-2016, 2016
Extreme value analysis has been applied to 1-minute-resolution magnetic fields and computed electric fields over Europe. We find that on average the largest disturbances of the fields are observed close to the auroral oval, as expected. However, the analysis indicates that as we move south from Scandinavia to northern continental Europe the distribution becomes more extreme. This could be due to that strong storms regularly occur at high latitudes, while the extreme storms push the oval south.
- Hydromagnetic waves in a compressed-dipole field via field-aligned
Abstract: Hydromagnetic waves in a compressed-dipole field via field-aligned Klein–Gordon equations
Jinlei Zheng, Qiang Hu, Gary M. Webb, and James F. McKenzie
Ann. Geophys., 34, 473-484, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-473-2016, 2016
This work provides an alternative approach to examine one commonly occurring type of electromagnetic waves in Earth's inner magnetosphere. In certain wave modes, the waves propagate along individual field lines of Earth's magnetic field. Governed by the coupled system between the magnetic field and ionized gas of low temperature, the waves show certain characteristics similar to standing waves along an elastic string. We present solutions in agreement with spacecraft observations.
- The solar activity dependence of nonmigrating tides in electron density
at low and middle latitudes observed by CHAMP and GRACE
Abstract: The solar activity dependence of nonmigrating tides in electron density at low and middle latitudes observed by CHAMP and GRACE
Yun-Liang Zhou, Li Wang, Chao Xiong, Hermann Lühr, and Shu-Ying Ma
Ann. Geophys., 34, 463-472, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-463-2016, 2016
The solar activity dependence of nonmigrating tides in electron density at low and middle latitudes observed by CHAMP and GRACE are investigated. The absolute amplitudes of DE3 at low latitudes as well as DE1, D0 and DW2 at middle latitudes are highly related to the solar activity, while their relative amplitudes show little dependence on the solar activity. A clear modulation by the QBO is found in the relative amplitudes of DE3 at low latitudes.
- Effect of data gaps: comparison of different spectral analysis methods
Abstract: Effect of data gaps: comparison of different spectral analysis methods
Costel Munteanu, Catalin Negrea, Marius Echim, and Kalevi Mursula
Ann. Geophys., 34, 437-449, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-437-2016, 2016
We investigate the effect of data gaps for various methods of estimating the amplitude spectrum of a time series. We probe the effects of a single data gap of varying size and of numerous small gaps distributed within the time series. We use synthetic data sets and magnetic field measurements from the Venus Express spacecraft. For multiple gaps and turbulent magnetic data, we show that some advanced methods overestimate the high frequencies, while FFT slightly underestimates them.
- An alternative way to identify local geomagnetically quiet days: a case
study using wavelet analysis
Abstract: An alternative way to identify local geomagnetically quiet days: a case study using wavelet analysis
Virginia Klausner, Andrés Reinaldo Rodriguez Papa, Cláudia Maria Nicole Cândido, Margarete Oliveira Domingues, and Odim Mendes
Ann. Geophys., 34, 451-462, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-451-2016, 2016
This paper proposes a new method to evaluate geomagnetic activity based on wavelet analysis during the solar minimum activity (2007). In order to accomplish this task, a newly developed algorithm called effectiveness wavelet coefficient (EWC) was applied. Furthermore, a comparison between the 5 geomagnetically quiet days determined by the Kp-based method and by wavelet-based method was performed. This paper provides a new insight since the geomagnetic activity indexes are mostly designed to quantify the extent of disturbance rather than the quietness. The results suggest that the EWC can be used as an alternative tool to accurately detect quiet days, and consequently, it can also be used as an alternative to determine the Sq baseline to the current Kp-based 5 quietest days method. Another important aspect of this paper is that most of the quietest local wavelet candidate days occurred in an interval 2 days prior to the high-speed-stream-driven storm events. In other words, the EWC algorithm may potentially be used to detect the quietest magnetic activity that tends to occur just before the arrival of high-speed-stream-driven storms.
- Modelling natural electromagnetic interference in man-made conductors
for space weather applications
Abstract: Modelling natural electromagnetic interference in man-made conductors for space weather applications
Ann. Geophys., 34, 427-436, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-427-2016, 2016
Power transmission lines above the ground, cables and pipelines, and, in general, all man-made long grounded conductors are exposed to the variations of natural electromagnetic field of wide frequency range. This interference often can compromise the systems operations. Paper offers frequency dependent approach in modelling the response of these systems to the geomagnetic variations. The formulas were proposed, analysed, verified and recommended for use in space weather applications.
- The influence of resistivity gradients on shock conditions for a Petschek
Abstract: The influence of resistivity gradients on shock conditions for a Petschek reconnection geometry
Christian Nabert and Karl-Heinz Glassmeier
Ann. Geophys., 34, 421-425, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-421-2016, 2016
Electrical resistivity can influence the occurrence of shock waves. We derive analytically necessary conditions for shocks in a nonuniform resistive magnetohydrodynamic plasma. The nonuniform resistivity significantly modifies the characteristic velocity of wave propagation. A sufficient gradient of the resistivity in a diffusion region can satisfy the necessary condition for the occurrence of slow shocks, which is related to Petschek reconnection.
- Statistical analysis of magnetotail fast flows and related magnetic
Abstract: Statistical analysis of magnetotail fast flows and related magnetic disturbances
Dennis Frühauff and Karl-Heinz Glassmeier
Ann. Geophys., 34, 399-409, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-399-2016, 2016
This study presents an investigation on the occurrence of fast flows in the magnetotail using the complete available data set of the THEMIS spacecraft for the years 2007 to 2015. First, basic statistical findings concerning velocity distributions, occurrence rates, group structures and key features of 16 000 events are presented using Superposed Epoch and Minimum Variance Analysis techniques.
- Latitudinal variability of the quasi-16-day wave in the middle
atmosphere over Brazilian stations
Abstract: Latitudinal variability of the quasi-16-day wave in the middle atmosphere over Brazilian stations
Amitava Guharay, Paulo Prado Batista, Barclay Robert Clemesha, Ricardo Arlen Buriti, and Nelson Jorge Schuch
Ann. Geophys., 34, 411-419, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-411-2016, 2016
A comparative study of the quasi-16-day wave in the middle from three Brazilian stations, indicates multiple modes of the concerned wave component. The wave amplitude shows maxima in summer and winter. A potential coupling of the concerned wave with other short period planetary waves is found. The dominant wave components vary from the westward to eastward from the tropical to mid-latitude in the stratosphere. The prevailing westerly wind may favor the wave filtering of westward waves.
- Wave–particle resonance condition test for ion-kinetic waves in the
Abstract: Wave–particle resonance condition test for ion-kinetic waves in the solar wind
Y. Narita, E. Marsch, C. Perschke, K.-H. Glassmeier, U. Motschmann, and H. Comişel
Ann. Geophys., 34, 393-398, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-393-2016, 2016
Conditions for the Landau and cyclotron resonances are tested for 543 waves (identified as local peaks in the energy spectra) in the magnetic field fluctuations of the solar wind measured by the Cluster spacecraft on a tetrahedral scale of 100 km. The resonance parameters are evaluated using the frequencies in the plasma rest frame, the parallel components of the wavevectors, the ion cyclotron frequency, and the ion thermal speed. The observed waves show a character of the sideband waves associated with the ion Bernstein mode, and are in a weak agreement with the fundamental electron cyclotron resonance in spite of the ion-kinetic scales. The electron cyclotron resonance is likely taking place in solar wind turbulence near 1 AU (astronomical unit).
- Equivalent currents associated with morning-sector geomagnetic
Pc5 pulsations during auroral substorms
Abstract: Equivalent currents associated with morning-sector geomagnetic Pc5 pulsations during auroral substorms
K. Kauristie, M. V. Uspensky, N. G. Kleimenova, O. V. Kozyreva, M. M. J. L. Van De Kamp, S. V. Dubyagin, and S. Massetti
Ann. Geophys., 34, 379-392, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-379-2016, 2016
This study presents some example events in which sudden changes in the auroral activity at midnight sector seem to have an impact on the intensity of morning-sector magnetic pulsations. Mechanisms which could link these two separate regions are discussed in the paper. Sudden changes in the solar wind properties and fast westward-propagating electrons are suggested to explain the coupling between midnight-sector and morning-sector phenomena.
- Measurement of momentum flux using two meteor radars in Indonesia
Abstract: Measurement of momentum flux using two meteor radars in Indonesia
Naoki Matsumoto, Atsuki Shinbori, Dennis M. Riggin, and Toshitaka Tsuda
Ann. Geophys., 34, 369-377, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-369-2016, 2016
We investigated the zonal and meridional momentum flux at 86–94 km using two nearly identical sets of meteor radar observation data at Koto Tabang and Biak in Indonesia (both at the Equator) by applying a method proposed by Hocking (2005). The observed zonal momentum flux at the two sites agreed reasonably well at 86, 90, and 94 km during the observation periods when the data acquisition rate was large enough. Our results suggest the usefulness of the Hocking method.
- Spatial dimensions of the electron diffusion region in anti-parallel
Abstract: Spatial dimensions of the electron diffusion region in anti-parallel magnetic reconnection
Takuma Nakamura, Rumi Nakamura, and Hiroshi Haseagwa
Ann. Geophys., 34, 357-367, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-357-2016, 2016
Magnetic reconnection is a key process in space and laboratory plasmas which transfers energies through the magnetic field topology change. The topology change in this process takes place in a small scale region called the electron diffusion region (EDR). In this paper, using high-resolution fully kinetic simulations, we successfully obtained the firm scaling laws of spatial dimensions of the EDR. The obtained scalings allow us to precisely predict observable dimensions of the EDR in real space.