Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO)
[SJR: 1.176] [H-I: 63] [4 followers] Follow
Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0992-7689 - ISSN (Online) 1432-0576
Published by European Geosciences Union [8 journals]
- Composite analysis of a major sudden stratospheric warming
Abstract: Composite analysis of a major sudden stratospheric warming
Annales Geophysicae, 33, 783-788, 2015
Author(s): K. Hocke, M. Lainer, and A. Schanz
We present the characteristics of a major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) by using the composite analysis method and ERA Interim reanalysis data from 1979 to 2014. The anomalies of the parameters total ozone column density (TOC), temperature (T), potential vorticity (PV), eastward wind (u), northward wind (v), vertical wind (w), and geopotential height (z) are derived with respect to the ERA Interim climatology (mean seasonal behaviour 1979 to 2014). The composites are calculated by using the time series of the anomalies and the central dates of 20 major SSWs. Increases of up to 90 Dobson units are found for polar TOC after the SSW. Polar TOC remains enhanced until the summer after the major SSW. Precursors of the SSW are a negative TOC anomaly 3 months before the SSW and enhanced temperature at 10 hPa at mid-latitudes about 1 month before the SSW. Eastward wind at 1 hPa is decreased at mid-latitudes about 1 month before the SSW. The 1 hPa geopotential height level is increased by about 500 m during the month before the SSW. These features are significant at the 2σ level for the mean behaviour of the ensemble of the major SSWs. However, knowledge of these precursors may not lead to a reliable prediction of an individual SSW since the variability of the individual SSWs and the polar winter stratosphere is large.
- In situ magnetotail magnetic flux calculation
Abstract: In situ magnetotail magnetic flux calculation
Annales Geophysicae, 33, 769-781, 2015
Author(s): M. A. Shukhtina and E. Gordeev
We explore two new modifications of the magnetotail magnetic flux (F) calculation algorithm based on the Petrinec and Russell (1996) (PR96) approach of the tail radius determination. Unlike in the PR96 model, the tail radius value is calculated at each time step based on simultaneous magnetotail and solar wind observations. Our former algorithm, described in Shukhtina et al. (2009), required that the "tail approximation" requirement were fulfilled, i.e., it could be applied only tailward x ∼ −15 RE. The new modifications take into account the approximate uniformity of the magnetic field of external sources in the near and middle tail. Tests, based on magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations, show that this approach may be applied at smaller distances, up to x ∼ −3 RE. The tests also show that the algorithm fails during long periods of strong positive interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz. A new empirical formula has also been obtained for the tail radius at the terminator (at x = 0) which improves the calculations.
- Hydroxyl layer: trend of number density and intra-annual variability
Abstract: Hydroxyl layer: trend of number density and intra-annual variability
Annales Geophysicae, 33, 749-767, 2015
Author(s): G. R. Sonnemann, P. Hartogh, U. Berger, and M. Grygalashvyly
The layer of vibrationally excited hydroxyl (OH*) near the mesopause in Earth's atmosphere is widely used to derive the temperature at this height and to observe dynamical processes such as gravity waves. The concentration of OH* is controlled by the product of atomic hydrogen, with ozone creating a layer of enhanced concentration in the mesopause region. However, the basic influences on the OH* layer are atomic oxygen and temperature. The long-term monitoring of this layer provides information on a changing atmosphere. It is important to know which proportion of a trend results from anthropogenic impacts on the atmosphere and which proportion reflects natural variations. In a previous paper (Grygalashvyly et al., 2014), the trend of the height of the layer and the trend in temperature were investigated particularly in midlatitudes on the basis of our coupled dynamic and chemical transport model LIMA (Leibniz Institute Middle Atmosphere). In this paper we consider the trend for the number density between the years 1961 and 2009 and analyze the reason of the trends on a global scale. Further, we consider intra-annual variations. Temperature and wind have the strongest impacts on the trend. Surprisingly, the increase in greenhouse gases (GHGs) has no clear influence on the chemistry of OH*. The main reason for this lies in the fact that, in the production term of OH*, if atomic hydrogen increases due to increasing humidity of the middle atmosphere by methane oxidation, ozone decreases. The maximum of the OH* layer is found in the mesopause region and is very variable. The mesopause region is a very intricate domain marked by changeable dynamics and strong gradients of all chemically active minor constituents determining the OH* chemistry. The OH* concentration responds, in part, very sensitively to small changes in these parameters. The cause for this behavior is given by nonlinear reactions of the photochemical system being a nonlinear enforced chemical oscillator driven by the diurnal-periodic solar insolation. At the height of the OH* layer the system operates in the vicinity of chemical resonance. The solar cycle is mirrored in the data, but the long-term behavior due to the trend in the Lyman-α radiation is very small. The number density shows distinct hemispheric differences. The calculated OH* values show sometimes a step around a certain year. We introduce a method to find out the date of this step and discuss a possible reason for such behavior.
- A comparison of overshoot modelling with observations of polar mesospheric
summer echoes at radar frequencies of 56 and 224 MHz
Abstract: A comparison of overshoot modelling with observations of polar mesospheric summer echoes at radar frequencies of 56 and 224 MHz
Annales Geophysicae, 33, 737-747, 2015
Author(s): O. Havnes, H. Pinedo, C. La Hoz, A. Senior, T. W. Hartquist, M. T. Rietveld, and M. J. Kosch
We have compared radar observations of polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSEs) modulated by artificial electron heating, at frequencies of 224 MHz (EISCAT VHF) and 56 MHz (MORRO). We have concentrated on 1 day of observation, lasting ~ 3.8 h. The MORRO radar, with its much wider beam, observes one or more PMSE layers all the time while the VHF radar observes PMSEs in 69% of the time. Statistically there is a clear difference between how the MORRO and the VHF radar backscatter reacts to the heater cycling (48 s heater on and 168 s heater off). While MORRO often reacts by having its backscatter level increased when the heater is switched on, as predicted by Scales and Chen (2008), the VHF radar nearly always sees the "normal" VHF overshoot behaviour with an initial rapid reduction of backscatter. However, in some heater cycles we do see a substantial recovery of the VHF backscatter after its initial reduction to levels several times above that just before the heater was switched on. For the MORRO radar a recovery during the heater-on phase is much more common. The reaction when the heater was switched off was a clear overshoot for nearly all VHF cases but less so for MORRO. A comparison of individual curves for the backscatter values as a function of time shows, at least for this particular day, that in high layers above ~ 85 km height, both radars see a reduction of the backscatter as the heater is switched on, with little recovery during the heater-on time. These variations are well described by present models. On the other hand, the backscatter in low layers at 81–82 km can be quite different, with modest or no reduction in backscatter as the heater is switched on, followed by a strong recovery for both radars to levels several times above that of the undisturbed PMSEs. This simultaneous, nearly identical behaviour at the two very different radar frequencies is not well described by present modelling.
- The MAGIC of CINEMA: first in-flight science results from a miniaturised
anisotropic magnetoresistive magnetometer
Abstract: The MAGIC of CINEMA: first in-flight science results from a miniaturised anisotropic magnetoresistive magnetometer
Annales Geophysicae, 33, 725-735, 2015
Author(s): M. O. Archer, T. S. Horbury, P. Brown, J. P. Eastwood, T. M. Oddy, B. J. Whiteside, and J. G. Sample
We present the first in-flight results from a novel miniaturised anisotropic magnetoresistive space magnetometer, MAGIC (MAGnetometer from Imperial College), aboard the first CINEMA (CubeSat for Ions, Neutrals, Electrons and MAgnetic fields) spacecraft in low Earth orbit. An attitude-independent calibration technique is detailed using the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF), which is temperature dependent in the case of the outboard sensor. We show that the sensors accurately measure the expected absolute field to within 2% in attitude mode and 1% in science mode. Using a simple method we are able to estimate the spacecraft's attitude using the magnetometer only, thus characterising CINEMA's spin, precession and nutation. Finally, we show that the outboard sensor is capable of detecting transient physical signals with amplitudes of ~ 20–60 nT. These include field-aligned currents at the auroral oval, qualitatively similar to previous observations, which agree in location with measurements from the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) and POES (Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites) spacecraft. Thus, we demonstrate and discuss the potential science capabilities of the MAGIC instrument onboard a CubeSat platform.
- Electron-scale nested quadrupole Hall field in Cluster observations of
Abstract: Electron-scale nested quadrupole Hall field in Cluster observations of magnetic reconnection
Annales Geophysicae, 33, 719-724, 2015
Author(s): N. Jain and A. S. Sharma
This paper presents the first evidence of a new and unique feature of spontaneous reconnection at multiple sites in electron current sheet, viz. a "nested quadrupole" structure of the Hall field at electron scales, in Cluster observations. The new nested quadrupole is a consequence of electron-scale processes in reconnection. Whistler response of the upstream plasma to the interaction of electron flows from neighboring reconnection sites produces a large-scale quadrupole Hall field enclosing the quadrupole fields of the multiple sites, thus forming a nested structure. Electron-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of an electron current sheet yields a mechanism of the formation of a nested quadrupole.
- Dusk-to-nighttime enhancement of mid-latitude NmF2 in
local summer: inter-hemispheric asymmetry and solar activity dependence
Abstract: Dusk-to-nighttime enhancement of mid-latitude NmF2 in local summer: inter-hemispheric asymmetry and solar activity dependence
Annales Geophysicae, 33, 711-718, 2015
Author(s): Y. Chen, L. Liu, H. Le, W. Wan, and H. Zhang
In this paper ionosonde observations in the East Asia–Australia sector were collected to investigate dusk-to-nighttime enhancement of mid-latitude summer NmF2 (maximum electron density of the F2 layer) within the framework of NmF2 diurnal variation. NmF2 were normalized to two solar activity levels to investigate the dependence of the dusk-to-nighttime enhancement on solar activity. The dusk-to-nighttime enhancement of NmF2 is more evident at Northern Hemisphere stations than at Southern Hemisphere stations, with a remarkable latitudinal dependence. The dusk-to-nighttime enhancement shows both increasing and declining trends with solar activity increasing, which is somewhat different from previous conclusions. The difference in the dusk-to-nighttime enhancement between Southern Hemisphere and Northern Hemisphere stations is possibly related to the offset of the geomagnetic axis from the geographic axis. hmF2 (peak height of the F2 layer) diurnal variations show that daytime hmF2 begins to increase much earlier at low solar activity level than at high solar activity level at northern Akita and Wakkanai stations where the dusk-to-nighttime enhancement is more prominent at low solar activity level than at high solar activity level. That implies neutral wind phase is possibly also important for nighttime enhancement.
- Equation of state for solar near-surface convection
Abstract: Equation of state for solar near-surface convection
Annales Geophysicae, 33, 703-709, 2015
Author(s): N. Vitas and E. Khomenko
Numerical 3-D radiative hydrodynamical simulations are the main tool for the analysis of the interface between the solar convection zone and the photosphere. The equation of state is one of the necessary ingredients of these simulations. We compare two equations of state that are commonly used, one ideal and one nonideal, and quantify their differences. Using a numerical code we explore how these differences propagate with time in a 2-D convection simulation. We show that the runs with different equations of state (EOSs) and everything else identical relax to statistically steady states in which the mean temperature (in the range of the continuum optical depths typical for the solar photosphere) differs by less than 0.2%. For most applications this difference may be considered insignificant.
- The influence of solar wind variability on magnetospheric ULF wave power
Abstract: The influence of solar wind variability on magnetospheric ULF wave power
Annales Geophysicae, 33, 697-701, 2015
Author(s): D. Pokhotelov, I. J. Rae, K. R. Murphy, and I. R. Mann
Magnetospheric ultra-low frequency (ULF) oscillations in the Pc 4–5 frequency range play an important role in the dynamics of Earth's radiation belts, both by enhancing the radial diffusion through incoherent interactions and through the coherent drift-resonant interactions with trapped radiation belt electrons. The statistical distributions of magnetospheric ULF wave power are known to be strongly dependent on solar wind parameters such as solar wind speed and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation. Statistical characterisation of ULF wave power in the magnetosphere traditionally relies on average solar wind–IMF conditions over a specific time period. In this brief report, we perform an alternative characterisation of the solar wind influence on magnetospheric ULF wave activity through the characterisation of the solar wind driver by its variability using the standard deviation of solar wind parameters rather than a simple time average. We present a statistical study of nearly one solar cycle (1996–2004) of geosynchronous observations of magnetic ULF wave power and find that there is significant variation in ULF wave powers as a function of the dynamic properties of the solar wind. In particular, we find that the variability in IMF vector, rather than variabilities in other parameters (solar wind density, bulk velocity and ion temperature), plays the strongest role in controlling geosynchronous ULF power. We conclude that, although time-averaged bulk properties of the solar wind are a key factor in driving ULF powers in the magnetosphere, the solar wind variability can be an important contributor as well. This highlights the potential importance of including solar wind variability especially in studies of ULF wave dynamics in order to assess the efficiency of solar wind–magnetosphere coupling.
- Is there any difference in local time variation in ionospheric F2-layer
disturbances between earthquake-induced and Q-disturbance events?
Abstract: Is there any difference in local time variation in ionospheric F2-layer disturbances between earthquake-induced and Q-disturbance events?
Annales Geophysicae, 33, 687-695, 2015
Author(s): T. Xu, Y. L. Hu, F. F. Wang, Z. Chen, and J. Wu
Ionospheric anomalies before earthquakes have become the subject of one of the most intensive studies in the area of ionospheric variation. The ionosphere has a large class of disturbances under quiet geomagnetic conditions, i.e., quiet time disturbances (Q disturbances). Hence, the characteristics of seismo-ionospheric anomalies obtained by statistical analysis should be compared with those of Q-disturbance events. Using the data of foF2 (F2-layer critical frequency) during the whole interval of 1978–2008 (~3 solar cycles), the local time (LT) variation in Q disturbances is investigated. The results showed that a well-pronounced nighttime peak took place for positive disturbances induced by Q-disturbance events, while positive disturbances related to earthquakes predominately occurred in the daytime, especially in the afternoon LT sector. This remarkable difference in local time variation in foF2 between the earthquake-triggered and Q-disturbance events is of great significance for the identification of ionospheric precursors.
- Observation- and numerical-analysis-based dynamics of the Uttarkashi
Abstract: Observation- and numerical-analysis-based dynamics of the Uttarkashi cloudburst
Annales Geophysicae, 33, 671-686, 2015
Author(s): C. Chaudhuri, S. Tripathi, R. Srivastava, and A. Misra
A Himalayan cloudburst event, which occurred on 3 August 2012 in the Uttarkashi (30.73° N, 78.45° E) region of Uttarakhand, India, was analyzed. The near-surface atmospheric variables were analyzed to study the formation, evolution, and triggering mechanisms of this cloudburst. In order to improve upon the understanding provided by the observations, numerical simulations were performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, configured with a single domain at 18 km resolution. The model was tuned using variation of different parameterizations (convective, microphysical, boundary layer, radiation, and land surface), and different model options (number of vertical levels, and spin-up time), which resulted in a combination of parameters and options that best reproduced the observed diurnal characteristics of the near-surface atmospheric variables. Our study demonstrates the ability of WRF in forecasting precipitation, and resolving synoptic-scale and mesoscale interactions. In order to better understand the cloudburst, we configured WRF with multiply nested two-way-interacting domains (18, 6, 2 km) centered on the location of interest, and simulated the event with the best configuration derived earlier. The results indicate that two mesoscale convective systems originating from Madhya Pradesh and Tibet interacted over Uttarkashi and, under orographic uplifting and in the presence of favorable moisture condition, resulted in this cloudburst event.
- GPS phase scintillation at high latitudes during geomagnetic storms of
7–17 March 2012 – Part 1: The North American sector
Abstract: GPS phase scintillation at high latitudes during geomagnetic storms of 7–17 March 2012 – Part 1: The North American sector
Annales Geophysicae, 33, 637-656, 2015
Author(s): P. Prikryl, R. Ghoddousi-Fard, E. G. Thomas, J. M. Ruohoniemi, S. G. Shepherd, P. T. Jayachandran, D. W. Danskin, E. Spanswick, Y. Zhang, Y. Jiao, and Y. T. Morton
The interval of geomagnetic storms of 7–17 March 2012 was selected at the Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System (CAWSES) II Workshop for group study of space weather effects during the ascending phase of solar cycle 24 (Tsurutani et al., 2014). The high-latitude ionospheric response to a series of storms is studied using arrays of GPS receivers, HF radars, ionosondes, riometers, magnetometers, and auroral imagers focusing on GPS phase scintillation. Four geomagnetic storms showed varied responses to solar wind conditions characterized by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and solar wind dynamic pressure. As a function of magnetic latitude and magnetic local time, regions of enhanced scintillation are identified in the context of coupling processes between the solar wind and the magnetosphere–ionosphere system. Large southward IMF and high solar wind dynamic pressure resulted in the strongest scintillation in the nightside auroral oval. Scintillation occurrence was correlated with ground magnetic field perturbations and riometer absorption enhancements, and collocated with mapped auroral emission. During periods of southward IMF, scintillation was also collocated with ionospheric convection in the expanded dawn and dusk cells, with the antisunward convection in the polar cap and with a tongue of ionization fractured into patches. In contrast, large northward IMF combined with a strong solar wind dynamic pressure pulse was followed by scintillation caused by transpolar arcs in the polar cap.
- GPS phase scintillation at high latitudes during geomagnetic storms of
7–17 March 2012 – Part 2: Interhemispheric comparison
Abstract: GPS phase scintillation at high latitudes during geomagnetic storms of 7–17 March 2012 – Part 2: Interhemispheric comparison
Annales Geophysicae, 33, 657-670, 2015
Author(s): P. Prikryl, R. Ghoddousi-Fard, L. Spogli, C. N. Mitchell, G. Li, B. Ning, P. J. Cilliers, V. Sreeja, M. Aquino, M. Terkildsen, P. T. Jayachandran, Y. Jiao, Y. T. Morton, J. M. Ruohoniemi, E. G. Thomas, Y. Zhang, A. T. Weatherwax, L. Alfonsi, G. De Franceschi, and V. Romano
During the ascending phase of solar cycle 24, a series of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) in the period 7–17 March 2012 caused geomagnetic storms that strongly affected high-latitude ionosphere in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. GPS phase scintillation was observed at northern and southern high latitudes by arrays of GPS ionospheric scintillation and TEC monitors (GISTMs) and geodetic-quality GPS receivers sampling at 1 Hz. Mapped as a function of magnetic latitude and magnetic local time (MLT), the scintillation was observed in the ionospheric cusp, the tongue of ionization fragmented into patches, sun-aligned arcs in the polar cap, and nightside auroral oval and subauroral latitudes. Complementing a companion paper (Prikryl et al., 2015a) that focuses on the high-latitude ionospheric response to variable solar wind in the North American sector, interhemispheric comparison reveals commonalities as well as differences and asymmetries between the northern and southern high latitudes, as a consequence of the coupling between the solar wind and magnetosphere. The interhemispheric asymmetries are caused by the dawn–dusk component of the interplanetary magnetic field controlling the MLT of the cusp entry of the storm-enhanced density plasma into the polar cap and the orientation relative to the noon–midnight meridian of the tongue of ionization.
- High-speed solar wind streams and polar mesosphere winter echoes at Troll,
Abstract: High-speed solar wind streams and polar mesosphere winter echoes at Troll, Antarctica
Annales Geophysicae, 33, 609-622, 2015
Author(s): S. Kirkwood, A. Osepian, E. Belova, and Y.-S. Lee
A small, 54 MHz wind-profiler radar, MARA, was operated at Troll, Antarctica (72° S, 2.5° E), continuously from November 2011 to January 2014, covering two complete Antarctic winters. Despite very low power, MARA observed echoes from heights of 55–80 km (polar mesosphere winter echoes, PMWE) on 60% of all winter days (from March to October). This contrasts with previous reports from radars at high northern latitudes, where PWME have been reported only by very high power radars or during rare periods of unusually high electron density at PMWE heights, such as during solar proton events. Analysis shows that PWME at Troll were not related to solar proton events but were often closely related to the arrival of high-speed solar wind streams (HSS) at the Earth, with PWME appearing at heights as low as 56 km and persisting for up to 15 days following HSS arrival. This demonstrates that HSS effects penetrate directly to below 60 km height in the polar atmosphere. Using local observations of cosmic-noise absorption (CNA), a theoretical ionization/ion-chemistry model and a statistical model of precipitating energetic electrons associated with HSS, the electron density conditions during the HSS events are estimated. We find that PMWE detectability cannot be explained by these variations in electron density and molecular-ion chemistry alone. PWME become detectable at different thresholds depending on solar illumination and height. In darkness, PWME are detected only when the modelled electron density is above a threshold of about 1000 cm−3, and only above 75 km height, where negative ions are few. In daylight, the electron density threshold falls by at least 2 orders of magnitude and PWME are found primarily below 75 km height, even in conditions when a large proportion of negative ions is expected. There is also a strong dawn–dusk asymmetry with PWME detected very rarely during morning twilight but often during evening twilight. This behaviour cannot be explained if PMWE are caused by small-scale structure in the neutral/molecular-ion gas alone but may be explained by the presence of charged meteoric dust.
- Investigation of energy transport and thermospheric upwelling during quiet
magnetospheric and ionospheric conditions from the studies of low- and
Abstract: Investigation of energy transport and thermospheric upwelling during quiet magnetospheric and ionospheric conditions from the studies of low- and middle-altitude cusp
Annales Geophysicae, 33, 623-635, 2015
Author(s): T. Živković, S. Buchert, P. Ritter, L. Palin, and H. Opgenoorth
We investigate energy fluxes and small, kilometre-scale Birkeland currents in the magnetospheric cusp at a 1–3 Earth radii altitude and in the ionosphere using satellites when they were, according to the Tsyganenko model, in magnetic conjunction within 50–60 km and up to 15 min apart. We use Cluster and CHAMP satellites, and study three conjunction events that occurred in 2008 and 2009, when the Cluster spacecraft were crossing the cusps at only a few Earth radii altitude. Our goal is to understand better the influence of processes in the magnetospheric cusp on the upper thermosphere and its upwelling which was usually observed by the CHAMP satellite passing the cusp. Three studied events occurred under relatively quiet and steady magnetospheric and ionospheric conditions, which explains why observed thermospheric density enhancements were rather low. Our findings point out that for each studied event soft electron precipitation influences thermospheric density enhancements in a way that stronger electron precipitation produces stronger thermospheric upwelling. Therefore, in the case of these weak events, soft electron precipitation seems to be more important cause of the observed, thermospheric density enhancements than is the Joule heating.
- A case study of formation and maintenance of a lower stratospheric cirrus
cloud over the tropics
Abstract: A case study of formation and maintenance of a lower stratospheric cirrus cloud over the tropics
Annales Geophysicae, 33, 599-608, 2015
Author(s): M. Sandhya, S. Sridharan, M. Indira Devi, K. Niranjan, and A. Jayaraman
A rare occurrence of stratospheric cirrus at 18.6 km height persisting for about 5 days during 3–7 March 2014 is inferred from the ground-based Mie lidar observations over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E) and spaceborne observations. Due to the vertical transport by large updrafts on 3 March in the troposphere, triggered by a potential vorticity intrusion, the water vapour mixing ratio shows an increase around the height of 18.6 km. Relative humidity with respect to ice is ~ 150%, indicating that the cirrus cloud may be formed though homogeneous nucleation of sulfuric acid. The cirrus cloud persists due to the cold anomaly associated with the presence of a 4-day wave.
- Field-aligned chorus wave spectral power in Earth's outer radiation belt
Abstract: Field-aligned chorus wave spectral power in Earth's outer radiation belt
Annales Geophysicae, 33, 583-597, 2015
Author(s): H. Breuillard, O. Agapitov, A. Artemyev, E. A. Kronberg, S. E. Haaland, P. W. Daly, V. V. Krasnoselskikh, D. Boscher, S. Bourdarie, Y. Zaliznyak, and G. Rolland
Chorus-type whistler waves are one of the most intense electromagnetic waves generated naturally in the magnetosphere. These waves have a substantial impact on the radiation belt dynamics as they are thought to contribute to electron acceleration and losses into the ionosphere through resonant wave–particle interaction. Our study is devoted to the determination of chorus wave power distribution on frequency in a wide range of magnetic latitudes, from 0 to 40°. We use 10 years of magnetic and electric field wave power measured by STAFF-SA onboard Cluster spacecraft to model the initial (equatorial) chorus wave spectral power, as well as PEACE and RAPID measurements to model the properties of energetic electrons (~ 0.1–100 keV) in the outer radiation belt. The dependence of this distribution upon latitude obtained from Cluster STAFF-SA is then consistently reproduced along a certain L-shell range (4 ≤ L ≤ 6.5), employing WHAMP-based ray tracing simulations in hot plasma within a realistic inner magnetospheric model. We show here that, as latitude increases, the chorus peak frequency is globally shifted towards lower frequencies. Making use of our simulations, the peak frequency variations can be explained mostly in terms of wave damping and amplification, but also cross-L propagation. These results are in good agreement with previous studies of chorus wave spectral extent using data from different spacecraft (Cluster, POLAR and THEMIS). The chorus peak frequency variations are then employed to calculate the pitch angle and energy diffusion rates, resulting in more effective pitch angle electron scattering (electron lifetime is halved) but less effective acceleration. These peak frequency parameters can thus be used to improve the accuracy of diffusion coefficient calculations.
- Latitude dependence of long-term geomagnetic activity and its solar wind
Abstract: Latitude dependence of long-term geomagnetic activity and its solar wind drivers
Annales Geophysicae, 33, 573-581, 2015
Author(s): M. Myllys, N. Partamies, and L. Juusola
To validate the usage of global indices in studies of geomagnetic activity, we have examined the latitude dependence of geomagnetic variations in Fennoscandia and Svalbard from 1994 to 2010. Daily standard deviation (SD) values of the horizontal magnetic field have been used as a measure of the ground magnetic disturbance level. We found that the timing of the geomagnetic minimum depends on the latitude region: corresponding to the minimum of sunspot cycle 22 (in 1996), the geomagnetic minimum occurred between the geomagnetic latitudes 57–61° in 1996 and at the latitudes 64–67° in 1997, which are the average auroral oval latitudes. During sunspot cycle 23, all latitude regions experienced the minimum in 2009, a year after the sunspot minimum. These timing differences are due to the latitude dependence of the 10 s daily SD on the different solar wind drivers. In the latitude region of 64–67°, the impact of the high-speed solar wind streams (HSSs) on the geomagnetic activity is the most pronounced compared to the other latitude groups, while in the latitude region of 57–61°, the importance of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) dominates. The geomagnetic activity maxima during ascending solar cycle phases are typically caused by CME activity and occur especially in the oval and sub-auroral regions. The strongest geomagnetic activity occurs during the descending solar cycle phases due to a mixture of CME and HSS activity. Closer to the solar minimum, less severe geomagnetic activity is driven by HSSs and mainly visible in the poleward part of the auroral region. According to our study, however, the timing of the geomagnetic activity minima (and maxima) in different latitude bands is different, due to the relative importance of different solar wind drivers at different latitudes.
- Ionization and NO production in the polar mesosphere during high-speed
solar wind streams: model validation and comparison with NO enhancements
observed by Odin-SMR
Abstract: Ionization and NO production in the polar mesosphere during high-speed solar wind streams: model validation and comparison with NO enhancements observed by Odin-SMR
Annales Geophysicae, 33, 561-572, 2015
Author(s): S. Kirkwood, A. Osepian, E. Belova, J. Urban, K. Pérot, and A. K. Sinha
Precipitation of high-energy electrons (EEP) into the polar middle atmosphere is a potential source of significant production of odd nitrogen, which may play a role in stratospheric ozone destruction and in perturbing large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns. High-speed streams of solar wind (HSS) are a major source of energization and precipitation of electrons from the Earth's radiation belts, but it remains to be determined whether these electrons make a significant contribution to the odd-nitrogen budget in the middle atmosphere when compared to production by solar protons or by lower-energy (auroral) electrons at higher altitudes, with subsequent downward transport. Satellite observations of EEP are available, but their accuracy is not well established. Studies of the ionization of the atmosphere in response to EEP, in terms of cosmic-noise absorption (CNA), have indicated an unexplained seasonal variation in HSS-related effects and have suggested possible order-of-magnitude underestimates of the EEP fluxes by the satellite observations in some circumstances. Here we use a model of ionization by EEP coupled with an ion chemistry model to show that published average EEP fluxes, during HSS events, from satellite measurements (Meredith et al., 2011), are fully consistent with the published average CNA response (Kavanagh et al., 2012). The seasonal variation of CNA response can be explained by ion chemistry with no need for any seasonal variation in EEP. Average EEP fluxes are used to estimate production rate profiles of nitric oxide between 60 and 100 km heights over Antarctica for a series of unusually well separated HSS events in austral winter 2010. These are compared to observations of changes in nitric oxide during the events, made by the sub-millimetre microwave radiometer on the Odin spacecraft. The observations show strong increases of nitric oxide amounts between 75 and 90 km heights, at all latitudes poleward of 60° S, about 10 days after the arrival of the HSS. These are of the same order of magnitude but generally larger than would be expected from direct production by HSS-associated EEP, indicating that downward transport likely contributes in addition to direct production.
- An investigation of long-distance propagation of gravity waves under
CAWSES India Phase II Programme
Abstract: An investigation of long-distance propagation of gravity waves under CAWSES India Phase II Programme
Annales Geophysicae, 33, 547-560, 2015
Author(s): N. Parihar and A. Taori
Coordinated measurements of airglow features from the mesosphere–lower thermosphere (MLT) region were performed at Allahabad (25.5° N, 81.9° E) and Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E), India to study the propagation of gravity waves in 13–27° N latitude range during the period June 2009 to May 2010 under CAWSES (Climate And Weather of Sun Earth System) India Phase II Programme. At Allahabad, imaging observations of OH broadband emissions and OI 557.7 nm emission were made using an all-sky imager, while at Gadanki photometric measurements of OH (6, 2) Meinel band and O2 (0, 1) Atmospheric band emissions were carried out. On many occasions, the nightly observations reveal the presence of similar waves at both locations. Typically, the period of observed similar waves lay in the 2.2–4.5 h range, had large phase speeds (~ 77–331 m s−1) and large wavelengths (~ 1194–2746 km). The images of outgoing long-wave radiation activity of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the high-resolution infrared images of KALPANA-1 satellite suggest that such waves possibly originated from some nearby convective sources. An analysis of their propagation characteristics in conjunction with SABER/TIMED temperature profiles and Horizontal Wind Model (HWM 2007) wind estimates suggest that the waves propagated over long distances (~ 1200–2000 km) in atmospheric ducts.