Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO)
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0992-7689 - ISSN (Online) 1432-0576
Published by European Geosciences Union [8 journals] [SJR: 1.151] [H-I: 57]
[5 followers] Follow
Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0992-7689 - ISSN (Online) 1432-0576
Published by European Geosciences Union [8 journals] [SJR: 1.151] [H-I: 57]
- Extreme ion heating in the dayside ionosphere in response to the arrival
of a coronal mass ejection on 12 March 2012
Abstract: Extreme ion heating in the dayside ionosphere in response to the arrival of a coronal mass ejection on 12 March 2012
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 831-839, 2014
Author(s): H. Fujiwara, S. Nozawa, Y. Ogawa, R. Kataoka, Y. Miyoshi, H. Jin, and H. Shinagawa
Simultaneous measurements of the polar ionosphere with the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) ultra high frequency (UHF) radar at Tromsø and the EISCAT Svalbard radar (ESR) at Longyearbyen were made during 07:00–12:00 UT on 12 March 2012. During the period, the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft observed changes in the solar wind which were due to the arrival of coronal mass ejection (CME) effects associated with the 10 March M8.4 X-ray event. The solar wind showed two-step variations which caused strong ionospheric heating. First, the arrival of shock structures in the solar wind with enhancements of density and velocity, and a negative interplanetary magnetic field (IMF)-Bz component caused strong ionospheric heating around Longyearbyen; the ion temperature at about 300 km increased from about 1100 to 3400 K over Longyearbyen while that over Tromsø increased from about 1050 to 1200 K. After the passage of the shock structures, the IMF-Bz component showed positive values and the solar wind speed and density also decreased. The second strong ionospheric heating occurred after the IMF-Bz component showed negative values again; the negative values lasted for more than 1.5 h. This solar wind variation caused stronger heating of the ionosphere in the lower latitudes than higher latitudes, suggesting expansion of the auroral oval/heating region to the lower latitude region. This study shows an example of the CME-induced dayside ionospheric heating: a short-duration and very large rise in the ion temperature which was closely related to the polar cap size and polar cap potential variations as a result of interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere.
- Meteorological impacts of sea-surface temperature associated with the
humid airflow from Tropical Cyclone Talas (2011)
Abstract: Meteorological impacts of sea-surface temperature associated with the humid airflow from Tropical Cyclone Talas (2011)
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 841-857, 2014
Author(s): M. Yamamoto
This paper examines meteorological impacts of sea-surface temperature (SST) in the presence of the humid airflow from Tropical Cyclone Talas (2011). To investigate the influence of the SST on the severe weather in and around Japan, sensitivity simulations were conducted using six SST data products covering a period of 7 days. The upward sea-surface latent heat flux that accumulated over the 7-day period was high around the Kuroshio during the slow passage of the tropical cyclone. Large differences were found among the individual SST products around the southern coast of Japan. The coastal warm SST anomaly of ~ 1.5 °C enhanced the surface upward latent heat fluxes (by 60 to 80%), surface southeasterly winds (by 6 to 8%), and surface water mixing ratios (by 4%) over the coastal sea area. The enhanced latent heat flux resulting from the coastal SST anomaly contributed to the further enhancement of the latent heat flux itself via a positive feedback with the amplified surface horizontal wind. The SST anomalies produced an anomaly in 7-day precipitation (ca. 40 mm) along the mountainsides and over a coastal area where the surface wind anomaly was locally large. Thus, coastal SST error is important in the atmospheric simulation of accumulated evaporation and precipitation associated with tropical cyclones making landfall.
- The formation and growth of ultrafine particles in two contrasting
environments: a case study
Abstract: The formation and growth of ultrafine particles in two contrasting environments: a case study
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 817-830, 2014
Author(s): Sobhan Kumar Kompalli, S. Suresh Babu, K. Krishna Moorthy, Mukunda M Gogoi, Vijayakumar S Nair, and Jai Prakash Chaubey
Formation of ultrafine particles and their subsequent growth have been examined during new particle formation (NPF) events in two contrasting environments under varying ambient conditions, one for a tropical semi-urban coastal station, Trivandrum, and the other for a high-altitude free-tropospheric Himalayan location, Hanle. At Trivandrum, NPF bursts took place in the late evening/night hours, whereas at Hanle the burst was a daytime event. During the nucleation period, the total number concentration reached levels as high as ~ 15 900 cm−3 at Trivandrum, whereas at Hanle, the total number concentration was ~ 2700 cm−3, indicating the abundant availability of precursors at Trivandrum and the pristine nature of Hanle. A sharp decrease was associated with NPF for the geometric mean diameter of the size distribution, and a large increase in the concentration of the particles in the nucleation regime (Dp < 25 nm). Once formed, these (secondary) aerosols grew from nucleation (diameter Dp < 25 nm) to Aitken (25 ≤ Dp ≤ 100 nm) regime and beyond, to the accumulation size regimes (100 ≤ Dp ≤ 1000 nm), with varying growth rates (GR) for the different size regimes at both the locations. A more rapid growth ~ 50 nm h−1 was observed at Trivandrum, in contrast to Hanle where the growth rate ranged from 0.1 to 20 nm h−1 for the transformation from the nucleation to accumulation – a size regime that can potentially act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The faster coagulation led to lifetimes of < 1 h for nucleation mode particles.
- Weak ionization of the global ionosphere in solar cycle 24
Abstract: Weak ionization of the global ionosphere in solar cycle 24
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 809-816, 2014
Author(s): Y. Q. Hao, H. Shi, Z. Xiao, and D. H. Zhang
Following prolonged and extremely quiet solar activity from 2008 to 2009, the 24th solar cycle started slowly. It has been almost 5 years since then. The measurement of ionospheric critical frequency (foF2) shows the fact that solar activity has been significantly lower in the first half of cycle 24, compared to the average levels of cycles 19 to 23; the data of global average total electron content (TEC) confirm that the global ionosphere around the cycle 24 peak is much more weakly ionized, in contrast to cycle 23. The weak ionization has been more notable since the year 2012, when both the ionosphere and solar activity were expected to be approaching their maximum level. The undersupply of solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance somewhat continues after the 2008–2009 minimum, and is considered to be the main cause of the weak ionization. It further implies that the thermosphere and ionosphere in the first solar cycle of this millennium would probably differ from what we have learned from the previous cycles of the space age.
- Cloud radiative forcing intercomparison between fully coupled CMIP5 models
and CERES satellite data
Abstract: Cloud radiative forcing intercomparison between fully coupled CMIP5 models and CERES satellite data
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 793-807, 2014
Author(s): M. Calisto, D. Folini, M. Wild, and L. Bengtsson
In this paper, radiative fluxes for 10 years from 11 models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and from CERES satellite observations have been analyzed and compared. Under present-day conditions, the majority of the investigated CMIP5 models show a tendency towards a too-negative global mean net cloud radiative forcing (NetCRF) as compared to CERES. A separate inspection of the long-wave and shortwave contribution (LWCRF and SWCRF) as well as cloud cover points to different shortcomings in different models. Models with a similar NetCRF still differ in their SWCRF and LWCRF and/or cloud cover. Zonal means mostly show excessive SWCRF (too much cooling) in the tropics between 20° S and 20° N and in the midlatitudes between 40 to 60° S. Most of the models show a too-small/too-weak LWCRF (too little warming) in the subtropics (20 to 40° S and N). Difference maps between CERES and the models identify the tropical Pacific Ocean as an area of major discrepancies in both SWCRF and LWCRF. The summer hemisphere is found to pose a bigger challenge for the SWCRF than the winter hemisphere. The results suggest error compensation to occur between LWCRF and SWCRF, but also when taking zonal and/or annual means. Uncertainties in the cloud radiative forcing are thus still present in current models used in CMIP5.
- Statistical analysis of C/NOFS planar Langmuir probe data
Abstract: Statistical analysis of C/NOFS planar Langmuir probe data
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 773-791, 2014
Author(s): E. Costa, P. A. Roddy, and J. O. Ballenthin
The planar Langmuir probe (PLP) onboard the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite has been monitoring ionospheric plasma densities and their irregularities with high resolution almost seamlessly since May 2008. Considering the recent changes in status of the C/NOFS mission, it may be interesting to summarize some statistical results from these measurements. PLP data from 2 different years (1 October 2008–30 September 2009 and 1 January 2012–31 December 2012) were selected for analysis. The first data set corresponds to solar minimum conditions and the second one is as close to solar maximum conditions of solar cycle 24 as possible at the time of the analysis. The results from the analysis show how the values of the standard deviation of the ion density which are greater than specified thresholds are statistically distributed as functions of several combinations of the following geophysical parameters: (i) solar activity, (ii) altitude range, (iii) longitude sector, (iv) local time interval, (v) geomagnetic latitude interval, and (vi) season.
- First report of sporadic Na layers at Qingdao (36° N, 120° E),
Abstract: First report of sporadic Na layers at Qingdao (36° N, 120° E), China
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 739-748, 2014
Author(s): Z. Ma, X. Wang, L. Chen, and J. Wu
This paper reports, for the first time, observational results of mesopause sporadic Na (Nas) layers by a ground-based lidar at Qingdao (36° N, 120° E), China. Based on ~ 430 h of observational data on 95 nights from December 2007 to June 2012, we have selected a total of 53 Nas layer events. It is found that characteristics of Nas layers over Qingdao have general similarity with those over nearby sites, Wuhan (30° N, 114° E) and Hefei (32° N, 117° E), but not those over the site Hachioji (35° N, 139° E) at nearly the same latitude as Qingdao. At the same time, parameters of sporadic E (Es) layers were recorded by an ionosonde. The fact that Es layer occurrence probabilities of 19, 22, and 18% in time intervals before, during, and after the Nas layers are very close to the average occurrence ratio of the nocturnal Es layer (21%), may reveal a general independence between Nas and Es layers over Qingdao. Only those strong Nas layers above the peak altitude of the main Na layer might have a significant correlation with Es layers. In addition, a total of 11 high-altitude (above 105 km) Nas layer events have been surveyed specially. It is found that these high-altitude Nas layers were usually weak. And they possessed long-duration (> 147 min) and broad-layer width (4.0 km) compared with Nas layers below 105 km (> 96 min and 2.4 km). These characteristics are in accord with observational results at Wuhan. It is suggested that there is little correlation between this kind of Nas layers and Es layers. Finally, the summer topside enhancement phenomenon of Na atoms observed at Qingdao is in accord with several earlier observational results at different sites (18, 30, and 54° N) in the Northern Hemisphere.
- Temperature and precipitation in Northeast China during the last 150
years: relationship to large-scale climatic variability
Abstract: Temperature and precipitation in Northeast China during the last 150 years: relationship to large-scale climatic variability
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 749-760, 2014
Author(s): S. Alessio, C. Taricco, S. Rubinetti, G. Vivaldo, and S. Mancuso
The analysis of two historical time series of temperature and precipitation in Northeast China, spanning, respectively, 1870–2004 and 1841–2004, performed by continuous wavelet transform and other classical and advanced spectral methods, is presented here. Both variables show a particular trend and oscillations of about 85, 60, 35 and 20 years that are highly significant, with a phase opposition at the centennial scale and at the 20-year scale. The analysis of the four temperature series relative to single seasons shows that the 20-year cycle is typical of the summer monsoon season, while the 35-year cycle is most evident in winter. The cycles of ~ 60 years and longer are present in all seasons. The centennial variation of temperature and precipitation describes well the 1970–1980 transition between a period of relatively strong East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM), corresponding to high precipitation and relatively cool temperatures in Northeast China, and a conditions of weak EASM (low precipitation and warm temperatures). The connection of the detected local variations with large-scale climatic variability is deduced from the comparison with different climatic records (Northern Hemisphere temperature, Pacific Decadal Oscillation and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation indexes).
- Rotation of the Earth, solar activity and cosmic ray intensity
Abstract: Rotation of the Earth, solar activity and cosmic ray intensity
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 761-771, 2014
Author(s): T. Barlyaeva, E. Bard, and R. Abarca-del-Rio
We analyse phase lags between the 11-year variations of three records: the semi-annual oscillation of the length of day (LOD), the solar activity (SA) and the cosmic ray intensity (CRI). The analysis was done for solar cycles 20–23. Observed relationships between LOD, CRI and SA are discussed separately for even and odd solar cycles. Phase lags were calculated using different methods (comparison of maximal points of cycles, maximal correlation coefficient, line of synchronization of cross-recurrence plots). We have found different phase lags between SA and CRI for even and odd solar cycles, confirming previous studies. The evolution of phase lags between SA and LOD as well as between CRI and LOD shows a positive trend with additional variations of phase lag values. For solar cycle 20, phase lags between SA and CRI, between SA and LOD, and between CRI and LOD were found to be negative. Overall, our study suggests that, if anything, the length of day could be influenced by solar irradiance rather than by cosmic rays.
- Dawn–dusk asymmetries in the coupled solar
wind–magnetosphere–ionosphere system: a review
Abstract: Dawn–dusk asymmetries in the coupled solar wind–magnetosphere–ionosphere system: a review
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 705-737, 2014
Author(s): A. P. Walsh, S. Haaland, C. Forsyth, A. M. Keesee, J. Kissinger, K. Li, A. Runov, J. Soucek, B. M. Walsh, S. Wing, and M. G. G. T. Taylor
Dawn–dusk asymmetries are ubiquitous features of the coupled solar-wind–magnetosphere–ionosphere system. During the last decades, increasing availability of satellite and ground-based measurements has made it possible to study these phenomena in more detail. Numerous publications have documented the existence of persistent asymmetries in processes, properties and topology of plasma structures in various regions of geospace. In this paper, we present a review of our present knowledge of some of the most pronounced dawn–dusk asymmetries. We focus on four key aspects: (1) the role of external influences such as the solar wind and its interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere; (2) properties of the magnetosphere itself; (3) the role of the ionosphere and (4) feedback and coupling between regions. We have also identified potential inconsistencies and gaps in our understanding of dawn–dusk asymmetries in the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere.
- Magnetospheric magnetic field modelling for the 2011 and 2012 HST Saturn
aurora campaigns – implications for auroral source regions
Abstract: Magnetospheric magnetic field modelling for the 2011 and 2012 HST Saturn aurora campaigns – implications for auroral source regions
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 689-704, 2014
Author(s): E. S. Belenkaya, S. W. H. Cowley, C. J. Meredith, J. D. Nichols, V. V. Kalegaev, I. I. Alexeev, O. G. Barinov, W. O. Barinova, and M. S. Blokhina
A unique set of images of Saturn's northern polar UV aurora was obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope in 2011 and 2012 at times when the Cassini spacecraft was located in the solar wind just upstream of Saturn's bow shock. This rare situation provides an opportunity to use the Kronian paraboloid magnetic field model to examine source locations of the bright auroral features by mapping them along field lines into the magnetosphere, taking account of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) measured near simultaneously by Cassini. It is found that the persistent dawn arc maps to closed field lines in the dawn to noon sector, with an equatorward edge generally located in the inner part of the ring current, typically at ~ 7 Saturn radii (RS) near dawn, and a poleward edge that maps variously between the centre of the ring current and beyond its outer edge at ~ 15 RS, depending on the latitudinal width of the arc. This location, together with a lack of response in properties to the concurrent IMF, suggests a principal connection with ring-current and nightside processes. The higher-latitude patchy auroras observed intermittently near to noon and at later local times extending towards dusk are instead found to straddle the model open–closed field boundary, thus mapping along field lines to the dayside outer magnetosphere and magnetopause. These emissions, which occur preferentially for northward IMF directions, are thus likely associated with reconnection and open-flux production at the magnetopause. One image for southward IMF also exhibits a prominent patch of very high latitude emissions extending poleward of patchy dawn arc emissions in the pre-noon sector. This is found to lie centrally within the region of open model field lines, suggesting an origin in the current system associated with lobe reconnection, similar to that observed in the terrestrial magnetosphere for northward IMF.
- Radiation in the neighbourhood of a double layer
Abstract: Radiation in the neighbourhood of a double layer
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 677-687, 2014
Author(s): R. Pottelette, M. Berthomier, and J. Pickett
In the auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) source region, acceleration layers narrow in altitude and associated with parallel field-aligned potential drops of several kV can be identified by using both particles and wave-field high time-resolution measurements from the Fast Auroral SnapshoT explorer spacecraft (FAST). These so-called double layers (DLs) are recorded around density enhancements in the auroral cavity, where the enhancement can be at the edge of the cavity or even within the cavity at a small scale. Once immersed in the plasma, DLs necessarily accelerate particles along the magnetic field lines, thereby generating locally strong turbulent processes leading to the formation of nonlinear phase space holes. The FAST data reveal the asymmetric character of the turbulence: the regions located on the high-potential side of the DLs are characterized by the presence of electron holes, while on the low-potential side, ion holes are recorded. The existence of these nonlinear phase space holes may affect the AKR radiation pattern in the neighbourhood of a DL where the electron distribution function is drastically different from a horseshoe shape. We present some observations which illustrate the systematic generation of elementary radiation events occurring significantly above the local electron gyrofrequency in the presence of electron holes. These fine-scale AKR radiators are associated with a local electron distribution which presents a pronounced beam-like shape.
- Assessment of a surface-layer parameterization scheme in an atmospheric
model for varying meteorological conditions
Abstract: Assessment of a surface-layer parameterization scheme in an atmospheric model for varying meteorological conditions
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 669-675, 2014
Author(s): T. J. Anurose and D. Bala Subrahamanyam
The performance of a surface-layer parameterization scheme in a high-resolution regional model (HRM) is carried out by comparing the model-simulated sensible heat flux (H) with the concurrent in situ measurements recorded at Thiruvananthapuram (8.5° N, 76.9° E), a coastal station in India. With a view to examining the role of atmospheric stability in conjunction with the roughness lengths in the determination of heat exchange coefficient (CH) and H for varying meteorological conditions, the model simulations are repeated by assigning different values to the ratio of momentum and thermal roughness lengths (i.e. z0m/z0h) in three distinct configurations of the surface-layer scheme designed for the present study. These three configurations resulted in differential behaviour for the varying meteorological conditions, which is attributed to the sensitivity of CH to the bulk Richardson number (RiB) under extremely unstable, near-neutral and stable stratification of the atmosphere.
- Mirror mode structures near Venus and Comet P/Halley
Abstract: Mirror mode structures near Venus and Comet P/Halley
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 651-657, 2014
Author(s): D. Schmid, M. Volwerk, F. Plaschke, Z. Vörös, T. L. Zhang, W. Baumjohann, and Y. Narita
In this paper, we study where mirror mode structures are generated near unmagnetized solar system bodies (Venus and comet P/Halley measured in situ by Venus Express and Giotto). To estimate the location of the mirror mode source region at Venus, we apply a turbulent diffusion model of mirror mode structures, which has already been successfully tested in planetary magnetosheaths (Earth, Jupiter, Saturn). It enables us to estimate the distance between the measured location of the mirror mode and the origin of the mirror mode structure through the mirror mode size. We find that the scenario of mirror mode excitation at the bow shock with subsequent convection and diffusion downstream to the magnetopause is valid for Venus. In the cometary case, however, we find that the size of the mirror mode structure is comparable to the gyroradius of water group ions. This suggests local production of mirror mode structures in the cometary magnetosheath, most likely through fresh ion pickup, as opposed to the convection and diffusion mechanism at Venus.
- Storm-time meridional flows: a comparison of CINDI observations and model
Abstract: Storm-time meridional flows: a comparison of CINDI observations and model results
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 659-668, 2014
Author(s): M. Hairston, N. Maruyama, W. R. Coley, and R. Stoneback
During a large geomagnetic storm, the electric field from the polar ionosphere can expand far enough to affect the mid-latitude and equatorial electric fields. These changes in the equatorial zonal electric field, called the penetration field, will cause changes in the meridional ion flows that can be observed by radars and spacecraft. In general this E × B ion flow near the equator caused by the penetration field during undershielding conditions will be upward on the dayside and downward on the nightside of the Earth. Previous analysis of the equatorial meridional flows observed by CINDI instrument on the C/NOFS spacecraft during the 26 September 2011 storm showed that all of the response flows on the dayside were excess downward flows instead of the expected upward flows. These observed storm-time responses are compared to a prediction from a physics-based coupled model of thermosphere–ionosphere–inner-magnetosphere in an effort to explain these observations. The model results suggest that the equatorial downward flow could be attributed to a combined effect of the overshielding and disturbance dynamo processes. However, some discrepancy between the model and observation indicates a need for improving our understanding of how sensitive the equatorial electric field is to various model input parameters that describe the magnetosphere–ionosphere coupling processes.
- Superdiffusion revisited in view of collisionless reconnection
Abstract: Superdiffusion revisited in view of collisionless reconnection
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 643-650, 2014
Author(s): R. A. Treumann and W. Baumjohann
The concept of diffusion in collisionless space plasmas like those near the magnetopause and in the geomagnetic tail during reconnection is reexamined making use of the division of particle orbits into waiting orbits and break-outs into ballistic motion lying at the bottom, for instance, of Lévy flights. The rms average displacement in this case increases with time, describing superdiffusion, though faster than classical, is still a weak process, being however strong enough to support fast reconnection. Referring to two kinds of numerical particle-in-cell simulations we determine the anomalous diffusion coefficient, the anomalous collision frequency on which the diffusion process is based, and construct a relation between the diffusion coefficients and the resistive scale. The anomalous collision frequency from electron pseudo-viscosity in reconnection turns out to be of the order of the lower-hybrid frequency with the latter providing a lower limit, thus making similar assumptions physically meaningful. Tentative though not completely justified use of the κ distribution yields κ ≈ 6 in the reconnection diffusion region and, for the anomalous diffusion coefficient, the order of several times Bohm diffusivity.
- Correction of errors in scale values for magnetic elements for Helsinki
Abstract: Correction of errors in scale values for magnetic elements for Helsinki
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 633-641, 2014
Author(s): L. Svalgaard
Using several lines of evidence we show that the scale values of the geomagnetic variometers operating in Helsinki in the 19th century were not constant throughout the years of operation 1844–1897. Specifically, the adopted scale value of the horizontal force variometer appears to be too low by ~ 30% during the years 1866–1874.5 and the adopted scale value of the declination variometer appears to be too low by a factor of ~ 2 during the interval 1885.8–1887.5. Reconstructing the heliospheric magnetic field strength from geomagnetic data has reached a stage where a reliable reconstruction is possible using even just a single geomagnetic data set of hourly or daily values. Before such reconstructions can be accepted as reliable, the underlying data must be calibrated correctly. It is thus mandatory that the Helsinki data be corrected. Such correction has been satisfactorily carried out and the HMF strength is now well constrained back to 1845.
- An empirical model of the auroral oval derived from CHAMP field-aligned
current signatures – Part 2
Abstract: An empirical model of the auroral oval derived from CHAMP field-aligned current signatures – Part 2
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 623-631, 2014
Author(s): C. Xiong and H. Lühr
In this paper we introduce a new model for the location of the auroral oval. The auroral boundaries are derived from small- and medium-scale field-aligned current (FAC) based on the high-resolution CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload) magnetic field observations during the years 2000–2010. The basic shape of the auroral oval is controlled by the dayside merging electric field, Em, and can be fitted well by ellipses at all levels of activity. All five ellipse parameters show a dependence on Em which can be described by quadratic functions. Optimal delay times for the merging electric field at the bow shock are 30 and 15 min for the equatorward and poleward boundaries, respectively. A comparison between our model and the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) auroral model derived from IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration) optical observations has been performed. There is good agreement between the two models regarding both boundaries, and the differences show a Gaussian distribution with a width of ±2° in latitude. The difference of the equatorward boundary shows a local-time dependence, which is 1° in latitude poleward in the morning sector and 1° equatorward in the afternoon sector of the BAS model. We think the difference between the two models is caused by the appearance of auroral forms in connection with upward FACs. All information required for applying our auroral oval model (CH-Aurora-2014) is provided.
- Determining the boundaries of the auroral oval from CHAMP field-aligned
current signatures – Part 1
Abstract: Determining the boundaries of the auroral oval from CHAMP field-aligned current signatures – Part 1
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 609-622, 2014
Author(s): C. Xiong, H. Lühr, H. Wang, and M. G. Johnsen
In this paper we present the first statistical study on auroral oval boundaries derived from small- and medium-scale field-aligned currents (FACs, < 150 km). The dynamics of both the equatorward and poleward boundaries is deduced from 10 years of CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload) magnetic field data (August 2000–August 2010). The approach for detecting the boundaries from FACs works well under dark conditions. For a given activity level the boundaries form well-defined ellipses around the magnetic pole. The latitudes of the equatorward and poleward boundaries both depend, but in different ways, on magnetic activity. With increasing magnetic activity the equatorward boundary expands everywhere, while the poleward boundary shows on average no dependence on activity around midnight, which seems to be stationary at a value of about 72° Mlat. Functional relations between the latitudes of the boundaries and different magnetic activity indices have been tested. Best results for a linear dependence are derived for both boundaries with the dayside merging electric field. The other indices, like the auroral electrojet (AE) and disturbance storm time (Dst) index, also provide good linear relations but with some caveats. Toward high activity a saturation of equatorwards expansion seems to set in. The locations of the auroral boundaries are practically independent of the level of the solar EUV flux and show no dependence on season.
- Stratospheric warming influence on the mesosphere/lower thermosphere as
seen by the extended CMAM
Abstract: Stratospheric warming influence on the mesosphere/lower thermosphere as seen by the extended CMAM
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 589-608, 2014
Author(s): M. G. Shepherd, S. R. Beagley, and V. I. Fomichev
The response of the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere region to major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) is examined employing temperature, winds, NOX and CO constituents from the extended Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM) with continuous incremental nudging below 10 hPa (~ 30 km). The model results considered cover high latitudes (60–85° N) from 10 to 150 km height for the December–March period of 2003/2004, 2005/2006 and 2008/2009, when some of the strongest SSWs in recent years were observed. NOX and CO are used as proxies for examining transport. Comparisons with ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment–Fourier Transform Spectrometer) satellite observations show that the model represents well the dynamics of the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere region, the coupling of the stratosphere–mesosphere, and the NOX and CO transport. New information is obtained on the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere up to 150 km showing that the NOX volume mixing ratio in the 2003/2004 winter was very perturbed indicating transport from the lower atmosphere and intense mixing with large NOX influx from the thermosphere compared to 2006 and 2009. These results, together with those from other models and observations, clearly show the impact of stratospheric warmings on the thermosphere.