Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO)
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0992-7689 - ISSN (Online) 1432-0576
Published by European Geosciences Union [8 journals] [SJR: 1.151] [H-I: 57]
- TID characterised using joint effort of incoherent scatter radar and GPS
Abstract: TID characterised using joint effort of incoherent scatter radar and GPS
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1511-1532, 2014
Author(s): M. van de Kamp, D. Pokhotelov, and K. Kauristie
Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs), which are caused by Atmospheric Gravity Waves (AGWs), are detected and characterised by a joint analysis of the results of two measurement techniques: incoherent scatter radar and multiple-receiver GPS measurements. Both techniques to measure TIDs are already well known, but are developed further in this study, and the strengths of the two are combined, in order to obtain semi-automatic tools for objective TID detection. The incoherent scatter radar provides a good vertical range and resolution and the GPS measurements provide a good horizontal range and resolution, while both have a good temporal resolution. Using the combination of the methods, the following parameters of the TID can be determined: the time of day when the TID occurs at one location, the period length (or frequency), the vertical phase velocity, the amplitude spectral density, the vertical wavelength, the azimuth angle of horizontal orientation, the horizontal wavelength, and the horizontal phase velocity. This technique will allow a systematic characterisation of AGW-TIDs, which can be useful, among other things, for statistical analyses.
The presented technique is demonstrated on data of 20 January 2010 using data from the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar in Tromsø and from the SWEPOS GPS network in Sweden. On this day around 07:00–12:00 UT, a medium-scale TID was observed from both data sets simultaneously. The TID had a period length of around 2 h, and its wave propagated southeastward with a horizontal phase velocity of about 67 m s−1 and a wavelength of about 500 km. The TID had its maximum amplitude in Tromsø at 10:00 UT. The period length detected from the GPS results was twice the main period length detected from the radar, indicating a different harmonic of the same wave. The horizontal wavelength and phase velocity are also estimated from the radar results using Hines' theory, using the WKB approximation to account for inhomogeneity of the atmosphere. The results of this estimate are higher than those detected from the GPS data. The most likely explanation for this is that Hines' theory overestimated the values, because the atmosphere was too inhomogeneous even for the WKB approximation to be valid.
- Correlation studies for B-spline modeled F2 Chapman parameters obtained
from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC data
Abstract: Correlation studies for B-spline modeled F2 Chapman parameters obtained from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC data
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1533-1545, 2014
Author(s): M. Limberger, W. Liang, M. Schmidt, D. Dettmering, M. Hernández-Pajares, and U. Hugentobler
The determination of ionospheric key quantities such as the maximum electron density of the F2 layer NmF2, the corresponding F2 peak height hmF2 and the F2 scale height HF2 are of high relevance in 4-D ionosphere modeling to provide information on the vertical structure of the electron density (Ne). The Ne distribution with respect to height can, for instance, be modeled by the commonly accepted F2 Chapman layer. An adequate and observation driven description of the vertical Ne variation can be obtained from electron density profiles (EDPs) derived by ionospheric radio occultation measurements between GPS and low Earth orbiter (LEO) satellites. For these purposes, the six FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (F3/C) satellites provide an excellent opportunity to collect EDPs that cover most of the ionospheric region, in particular the F2 layer. For the contents of this paper, F3/C EDPs have been exploited to determine NmF2, hmF2 and HF2 within a regional modeling approach. As mathematical base functions, endpoint-interpolating polynomial B-splines are considered to model the key parameters with respect to longitude, latitude and time. The description of deterministic processes and the verification of this modeling approach have been published previously in Limberger et al. (2013), whereas this paper should be considered as an extension dealing with related correlation studies, a topic to which less attention has been paid in the literature. Relations between the B-spline series coefficients regarding specific key parameters as well as dependencies between the three F2 Chapman key parameters are in the main focus. Dependencies are interpreted from the post-derived correlation matrices as a result of (1) a simulated scenario without data gaps by taking dense, homogenously distributed profiles into account and (2) two real data scenarios on 1 July 2008 and 1 July 2012 including sparsely, inhomogeneously distributed F3/C EDPs. Moderate correlations between hmF2 and HF2 as well as inverse correlations between NmF2 and HF2 are reflected from the simulation. By means of the real data studies, it becomes obvious that the sparse measurement distribution leads to an increased weighting of the prior information and suppresses the parameter correlations which play an important role regarding the parameter estimability. The currently implemented stochastic model is in need of improvement and does not consider stochastic correlations which consequently cannot occur.
- The numerical simulation on ionospheric perturbations in electric field
before large earthquakes
Abstract: The numerical simulation on ionospheric perturbations in electric field before large earthquakes
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1487-1493, 2014
Author(s): S. F. Zhao, X. M. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhao, and X. H. Shen
Many observational results have shown electromagnetic abnormality in the ionosphere before large earthquakes. The theoretical simulation can help us to understand the internal mechanism of these anomalous electromagnetic signals resulted from seismic regions. In this paper, the horizontal and vertical components of electric and magnetic field at the topside ionosphere are simulated by using the full wave method that is based on an improved transfer matrix method in the lossy anisotropic horizontally stratified ionosphere. Taken account into two earthquakes with electric field perturbations recorded by the DEMETER satellite, the numerical results reveal that the propagation and penetration of ULF (ultra-low-frequency) electromagnetic waves into the ionosphere is related to the spatial distribution of electron and ion densities at different time and locations, in which the ion density has less effect than electron density on the field intensity. Compared with different frequency signals, the minimum values of electric and magnetic field excited by earthquakes can be detected by satellite in current detection capability have also been calculated, and the lower frequency wave can be detected easier.
- Energy exchange and wave action conservation for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)
waves in a general, slowly varying medium
Abstract: Energy exchange and wave action conservation for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in a general, slowly varying medium
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1495-1510, 2014
Author(s): A. D. M. Walker
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in the solar wind and magnetosphere are propagated in a medium whose velocity is comparable to or greater than the wave velocity and which varies in both space and time. In the approximation where the scales of the time and space variation are long compared with the period and wavelength, the ray-tracing equations can be generalized and then include an additional first-order differential equation that determines the variation of frequency. In such circumstances the wave can exchange energy with the background: wave energy is not conserved. In such processes the wave action theorem shows that the wave action, defined as the ratio of the wave energy to the frequency in the local rest frame, is conserved. In this paper we discuss ray-tracing techniques and the energy exchange relation for MHD waves. We then provide a unified account of how to deal with energy transport by MHD waves in non-uniform media. The wave action theorem is derived directly from the basic MHD equations for sound waves, transverse Alfvén waves, and the fast and slow magnetosonic waves. The techniques described are applied to a number of illustrative cases. These include a sound wave in a medium undergoing a uniform compression, an isotropic Alfvén wave in a steady-state shear layer, and a transverse Alfvén wave in a simple model of the magnetotail undergoing compression. In each case the nature and magnitude of the energy exchange between wave and background is found.
- On the origin of falling-tone chorus elements in Earth's inner
Abstract: On the origin of falling-tone chorus elements in Earth's inner magnetosphere
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1477-1485, 2014
Author(s): H. Breuillard, O. Agapitov, A. Artemyev, V. Krasnoselskikh, O. Le Contel, C. M. Cully, V. Angelopoulos, Y. Zaliznyak, and G. Rolland
Generation of extremely/very low frequency (ELF/VLF) chorus waves in Earth's inner magnetosphere has received increased attention recently because of their significance for radiation belt dynamics. Though past theoretical and numerical models have demonstrated how rising-tone chorus elements are produced, falling-tone chorus element generation has yet to be explained. Our new model proposes that weak-amplitude falling-tone chorus elements can be generated by magnetospheric reflection of rising-tone elements. Using ray tracing in a realistic plasma model of the inner magnetosphere, we demonstrate that rising-tone elements originating at the magnetic equator propagate to higher latitudes. Upon reflection there, they propagate to lower L-shells and turn into oblique falling tones of reduced power, frequency, and bandwidth relative to their progenitor rising tones. Our results are in good agreement with comprehensive statistical studies of such waves, notably using magnetic field measurements from THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) spacecraft. Thus, we conclude that the proposed mechanism can be responsible for the generation of weak-amplitude falling-tone chorus emissions.
- Correlation of very low and low frequency signal variations at
mid-latitudes with magnetic activity and outer-zone particles
Abstract: Correlation of very low and low frequency signal variations at mid-latitudes with magnetic activity and outer-zone particles
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1455-1462, 2014
Author(s): A. Rozhnoi, M. Solovieva, V. Fedun, M. Hayakawa, K. Schwingenschuh, and B. Levin
The disturbances of very low and low frequency signals in the lower mid-latitude ionosphere caused by magnetic storms, proton bursts and relativistic electron fluxes are investigated on the basis of VLF–LF measurements obtained in the Far East and European networks. We have found that magnetic storm (−150 < Dst < −100 nT) influence is not strong on variations of VLF–LF signals. The anomalies with negative amplitude were registered during the main and recovery phases for several magnetic storms (mainly for three northernmost paths). The correlation between VLF–LF signals and geomagnetic activity is rather weak even for these paths (≈ 12–18%). Also, the correlation between magnetic activity and VLF signal variations recorded onboard the DEMETER satellite is not found. The significant influence of outer-zone particles (energetic particle sensor on board/Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) measurements) on the VLF–LF signal variations is found for almost half of the sub-ionospheric paths.
- A possible influence of the Great White Spot on Saturn kilometric
Abstract: A possible influence of the Great White Spot on Saturn kilometric radiation periodicity
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1463-1476, 2014
Author(s): G. Fischer, S.-Y. Ye, J. B. Groene, A. P. Ingersoll, K. M. Sayanagi, J. D. Menietti, W. S. Kurth, and D. A. Gurnett
The periodicity of Saturn kilometric radiation (SKR) varies with time, and its two periods during the first 5 years of the Cassini mission have been attributed to SKR from the northern and southern hemisphere. After Saturn equinox in August 2009, there were long intervals of time (March 2010 to February 2011 and September 2011 to June 2012) with similar northern and southern SKR periods and locked SKR phases. However, from March to August 2011 the SKR periods were split up again, and the phases were unlocked. In this time interval, the southern SKR period slowed down by ~ 0.5% on average, and there was a large jump back to a faster period in August 2011. The northern SKR period speeded up and coalesced again with the southern period in September 2011. We argue that this unusual behavior could be related to the so-called Great White Spot (GWS), a giant thunderstorm that raged in Saturn's atmosphere around that time. For several months in 2011, the visible head of the GWS had the same period of ~ 10.69 h as the main southern SKR modulation signal. The GWS was most likely a source of intense gravity waves that may have caused a global change in Saturn's thermospheric winds via energy and momentum deposition. This would support the theory that Saturn's magnetospheric periodicities are driven by the upper atmosphere. Since the GWS with simultaneous SKR periodicity measurements have only been made once, it is difficult to prove a physical connection between these two phenomena, but we provide plausible mechanisms by which the GWS might modify the SKR periods.
- A comparison between VEGA 1, 2 and Giotto flybys of comet 1P/Halley:
implications for Rosetta
Abstract: A comparison between VEGA 1, 2 and Giotto flybys of comet 1P/Halley: implications for Rosetta
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1441-1453, 2014
Author(s): M. Volwerk, K.-H. Glassmeier, M. Delva, D. Schmid, C. Koenders, I. Richter, and K. Szegö
Three flybys of comet 1P/Halley, by VEGA 1, 2 and Giotto, are investigated with respect to the occurrence of mirror mode waves in the cometosheath and field line draping in the magnetic pile-up region around the nucleus. The time interval covered by these flybys is approximately 8 days, which is also the approximate length of an orbit or flyby of Rosetta around comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Thus any significant changes observed around Halley are changes that might occur for Rosetta during one pass of 67P/CG. It is found that the occurrence of mirror mode waves in the cometosheath is strongly influenced by the dynamical pressure of the solar wind and the outgassing rate of the comet. Field line draping happens in the magnetic pile-up region. Changes in nested draping regions (i.e. regions with different Bx directions) can occur within a few days, possibly influenced by changes in the outgassing rate of the comet and thereby the conductivity of the cometary ionosphere.
- Sporadic E layer at mid-latitudes: average properties and influence of
Abstract: Sporadic E layer at mid-latitudes: average properties and influence of atmospheric tides
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1427-1440, 2014
Author(s): A. Pignalberi, M. Pezzopane, and E. Zuccheretti
This paper describes a study of the daily variability shown by the main characteristics of the sporadic E (Es) layer, that is the top frequency (ftEs) and the lowest virtual height (h'Es). The study is based on ionograms recorded by the Advanced Ionospheric Sounder by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (AIS-INGV) ionosondes installed in the ionospheric stations at Rome (41.8° N, 12.5° E) and Gibilmanna (37.9° N, 14.0° E), Italy, during the summer (June, July, August and September) of 2013, a year falling in the ascending phase of solar cycle 24. The ftEs presents a diurnal variation characterized by two maxima, the first around noon is very well defined and the second in the evening/night is much less defined; the amplitude of both maxima decreases from June to September accompanied by a general decrease of the ftEs values which is more pronounced in the daytime than in the nighttime. h'Es also presents a diurnal variation characterized by two maxima but, unlike ftEs, these present the same amplitude which is independent from the considered month. Assuming that both ftEs and h'Es trends are influenced by the atmospheric tides, the height–time–intensity (HTI) technique was applied to deeply investigate how these waves control the Es dynamics. The HTI study, along with a fast Fourier transform analysis, show that a well-defined semidiurnal periodicity characterizes the Es layer dynamics most accurately in June and July, while in August and September the daytime semidiurnal periodicity becomes weaker and the role of the diurnal periodicity is consequently highlighted.
- Deterministic prediction of surface wind speed variations
Abstract: Deterministic prediction of surface wind speed variations
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1415-1425, 2014
Author(s): G. V. Drisya, D. C. Kiplangat, K. Asokan, and K. Satheesh Kumar
Accurate prediction of wind speed is an important aspect of various tasks related to wind energy management such as wind turbine predictive control and wind power scheduling. The most typical characteristic of wind speed data is its persistent temporal variations. Most of the techniques reported in the literature for prediction of wind speed and power are based on statistical methods or probabilistic distribution of wind speed data. In this paper we demonstrate that deterministic forecasting methods can make accurate short-term predictions of wind speed using past data, at locations where the wind dynamics exhibit chaotic behaviour. The predictions are remarkably accurate up to 1 h with a normalised RMSE (root mean square error) of less than 0.02 and reasonably accurate up to 3 h with an error of less than 0.06. Repeated application of these methods at 234 different geographical locations for predicting wind speeds at 30-day intervals for 3 years reveals that the accuracy of prediction is more or less the same across all locations and time periods. Comparison of the results with f-ARIMA model predictions shows that the deterministic models with suitable parameters are capable of returning improved prediction accuracy and capturing the dynamical variations of the actual time series more faithfully. These methods are simple and computationally efficient and require only records of past data for making short-term wind speed forecasts within practically tolerable margin of errors.
- Nonlocal nonlinear coupling of kinetic sound waves
Abstract: Nonlocal nonlinear coupling of kinetic sound waves
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1407-1413, 2014
Author(s): O. Lyubchyk and Y. Voitenko
We study three-wave resonant interactions among kinetic-scale oblique sound waves in the low-frequency range below the ion cyclotron frequency. The nonlinear eigenmode equation is derived in the framework of a two-fluid plasma model. Because of dispersive modifications at small wavelengths perpendicular to the background magnetic field, these waves become a decay-type mode. We found two decay channels, one into co-propagating product waves (forward decay), and another into counter-propagating product waves (reverse decay). All wavenumbers in the forward decay are similar and hence this decay is local in wavenumber space. On the contrary, the reverse decay generates waves with wavenumbers that are much larger than in the original pump waves and is therefore intrinsically nonlocal. In general, the reverse decay is significantly faster than the forward one, suggesting a nonlocal spectral transport induced by oblique sound waves. Even with low-amplitude sound waves the nonlinear interaction rate is larger than the collisionless dissipation rate. Possible applications regarding acoustic waves observed in the solar corona, solar wind, and topside ionosphere are briefly discussed.
- Long-term lidar observations of wintertime gravity wave activity over
Abstract: Long-term lidar observations of wintertime gravity wave activity over northern Sweden
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1395-1405, 2014
Author(s): B. Ehard, P. Achtert, and J. Gumbel
This paper presents an analysis of gravity wave activity over northern Sweden as deduced from 18 years of wintertime lidar measurements at Esrange (68° N, 21° E). Gravity wave potential energy density (GWPED) was used to characterize the strength of gravity waves in the altitude regions 30–40 km and 40–50 km. The obtained values exceed previous observations reported in the literature. This is suggested to be due to Esrange's location downwind of the Scandinavian mountain range and due to differences in the various methods that are currently used to retrieve gravity wave parameters. The analysis method restricted the identification of the dominating vertical wavelengths to a range from 2 to 13 km. No preference was found for any wavelength in this window. Monthly mean values of GWPED show that most of the gravity waves' energy dissipates well below the stratopause and that higher altitude regions show only small dissipation rates of GWPED. Our analysis does not reproduce the previously reported negative trend in gravity wave activity over Esrange. The observed inter-annual variability of GWPED is connected to the occurrence of stratospheric warmings with generally lower wintertime mean GWPED during years with major stratospheric warmings. A bimodal GWPED occurrence frequency indicates that gravity wave activity at Esrange is affected by both ubiquitous wave sources and orographic forcing.
- Sea surface temperature as a proxy for convective gravity wave excitation:
a study based on global gravity wave observations in the middle atmosphere
Abstract: Sea surface temperature as a proxy for convective gravity wave excitation: a study based on global gravity wave observations in the middle atmosphere
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1373-1394, 2014
Author(s): J. Y. Jia, P. Preusse, M. Ern, H.-Y. Chun, J. C. Gille, S. D. Eckermann, and M. Riese
Absolute values of gravity wave momentum flux (GWMF) deduced from satellite measurements by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) are correlated with sea surface temperature (SST) with the aim of identifying those oceanic regions for which convection is a major source of gravity waves (GWs). Our study identifies those latitude bands where high correlation coefficients indicate convective excitation with confidence. This is based on a global ray-tracing simulation, which is used to delineate the source and wind-filtering effects. Convective GWs are identified at the eastern coasts of the continents and over the warm water regions formed by the warm ocean currents, in particular the Gulf Stream and the Kuroshio. Potential contributions of tropical cyclones to the excitation of the GWs are discussed. Convective excitation can be identified well into the mid-mesosphere. In propagating upward, the centers of GWMF formed by convection shift poleward. Some indications of the main forcing regions are even shown for the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT).
- Thin current sheets with strong bell-shape guide field: Cluster
observations and models with beams
Abstract: Thin current sheets with strong bell-shape guide field: Cluster observations and models with beams
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1349-1360, 2014
Author(s): I. Y. Vasko, A. V. Artemyev, A. A. Petrukovich, and H. V. Malova
We study the kinetic structure of intense ion-scale current sheets with strong electron currents and the guide field having a bell-shape profile. We consider four crossings of the Earth magnetotail current sheet by the Cluster mission in 2003. The thickness of these current sheets is about the ion inertial length and significantly smaller than the characteristic ion gyroradius. We analyze the asymmetry of the electron velocity distribution functions and show that the electron current is provided by the small electron subpopulation interpreted as an electron beam or two counter-streaming electron beams. The beam (counter-streaming beams) has a bulk velocity of the order of the electron thermal velocity and a density (difference of beam densities) of about 1–5% of the plasma density. To describe the observed current sheets we develop a kinetic model with particle beams. The model predicts different thickness of the current sheet for different types of current carriers (one electron beam or two counter-streaming electron beams). The observed ion-scale current sheets can be explained assuming that the current is carried by one electron beam and a co-streaming ion beam. Although the ion beam does not carry a significant current, this beam is required to balance the electron current perpendicular to the current sheet neutral plane. The developed model explains the dominance of the electron current and the ion scales of the current sheets.
- Aerosol black carbon characteristics over a high-altitude Western Ghats
location in Southern India
Abstract: Aerosol black carbon characteristics over a high-altitude Western Ghats location in Southern India
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1361-1371, 2014
Author(s): C. Udayasoorian, R. M. Jayabalakrishnan, A. R. Suguna, Mukunda M. Gogoi, and S. Suresh Babu
Aerosol black carbon (BC) mass concentrations were continuously monitored over a period of 2 years (April 2010 to May 2012) from a high-altitude location Ooty in the Nilgiris Mountain range in southern India to characterize the distinct nature of absorbing aerosols and their seasonality. Despite being remote and sparsely inhabited, BC concentrations showed significant seasonality with higher values (~ 0.96 ± 0.35 μg m−3) in summer (March to May), attributed to increased vertical transport of effluents in the upwind valley regions, which might have been confined to the surrounding valley regions within the very shallow winter boundary layer. The local atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) influence in summer was further modulated by the long-range transported aerosols from the eastern locations of Ooty. During monsoon (June–August), the concentrations were far reduced (~ 0.23 ± 0.06 μg m−3) due to intense precipitation. Diurnal variations were found conspicuous mainly during summer season associated with local ABL. The spectral absorption coefficients (αabs) depicted, in general, flatter distribution (mostly < 1.0 for more than 85% of daily mean values), suggesting the relative dominance of fossil fuel combustion, though showed marginal seasonal change with higher values of αabs in summer.
- Meteor trail characteristics observed by high time resolution lidar
Abstract: Meteor trail characteristics observed by high time resolution lidar
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1321-1332, 2014
Author(s): Y. J. Liu, J. M. C. Plane, B. R. Clemesha, J. H. Wang, and X. W. Cheng
We report and analyse the characteristics of 1382 meteor trails based on a sodium data set of ~ 680 h. The observations were made at Yanqing (115.97° E, 40.47° N), China by a ground-based Na fluorescence lidar. The temporal resolution of the raw profiles is 1.5 s and the altitude resolution is 96 m. We discover some characteristics of meteor trails different from those presented in previous reports. The occurrence heights of the trails follow a double-peak distribution with the peaks at ~ 83.5 km and at ~ 95.5 km, away from the peak height of the regular Na layer. 4.7% of the trails occur below 80 km, and 3.25% above 100 km. 75% of the trails are observed in only one 1.5 s profile, suggesting that the dwell time in the laser beam is not greater than 1.5 s. The peak density of the trails as a function of height is similar to that of the background sodium layer. The raw occurrence height distribution is corrected taking account of three factors which affect the relative lifetime of a trail as a function of height: the meteoroid velocity (which controls the ratio of Na/Na+ ablated); diffusional spreading of the trail; and chemical removal of Na. As a result, the bi-modal distribution is more pronounced. Modelling results show that the higher peak corresponds to a meteoroid population with speeds between 20 and 30 km s−1, whereas the lower peak should arise from much slower particles in a near-prograde orbit. It is inferred that most meteoroids in this data set have masses of ~ 1 mg, in order for ablation to produce sufficient Na atoms to be detected by lidar. Finally, the evolution of longer-duration meteor trails is investigated. Signals at each altitude channel consist of density enhancement bursts with the growth process usually faster than the decay process, and there exists a progressive phase shift among these altitude channels.
- Characteristics of Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) naturally
enhanced ion-acoustic lines (NEIALs) in relation to auroral forms
Abstract: Characteristics of Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) naturally enhanced ion-acoustic lines (NEIALs) in relation to auroral forms
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1333-1347, 2014
Author(s): R. G. Michell, T. Grydeland, and M. Samara
Naturally enhanced ion-acoustic lines (NEIALs) have been observed with the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) ever since it began operating in 2006. The nearly continuous operation of PFISR since then has led to a large number of NEIAL observations from there, where common-volume, high-resolution auroral imaging data are available. We aim to systematically distinguish the different types of auroral forms that are associated with different NEIAL features, including spectral shape and altitude extent. We believe that NEIALs occur with a continuum of morphological characteristics, although we find that most NEIALs observed with PFISR fall into two general categories. The first group occurs at fairly low altitudes – F region or below – and have power at, and spread between, the ion-acoustic peaks. The second group contains the type of NEIALs that have previously been observed with the EISCAT radars, those that extend to high altitudes (600 km or more) and often have large asymmetries in the power enhancements between the two ion-acoustic shoulders. We find that there is a correlation between the auroral structures and the type of NEIALs observed, and that the auroral structures present during NEIAL events are consistent with the likely NEIAL generation mechanisms inferred in each case. The first type of NEIAL – low altitude – is the most commonly observed with PFISR and is most often associated with active, structured auroral arcs, such as substorm growth phase, and onset arcs and are likely generated by Langmuir turbulence. The second type of NEIAL – high altitude – occurs less frequently in the PFISR radar and is associated with aurora that contains large fluxes of low-energy electrons, as can happen in poleward boundary intensifications as well as at substorm onset and is likely the result of current-driven instabilities and in some cases Langmuir turbulence as well. In addition, a preliminary auroral photometry analysis revealed that there is an anticorrelation between the altitude of the NEIALs and the calculated energy of the electrons, which is consistent with the hypotheses presented here regarding generation mechanisms.
- Satellite-based analysis of thermosphere response to extreme solar flares
Abstract: Satellite-based analysis of thermosphere response to extreme solar flares
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1305-1309, 2014
Author(s): S. Krauss, M. Pfleger, and H. Lammer
We present a refined algorithm to calculate pseudo solar indices, which enable the reproduction of a solar flare impact on the upper Earth's atmosphere for the empirical thermosphere model Jacchia-Bowman 2008. In a first step we compare the estimates of the new algorithm with those from a previous study by analysing an extreme X17.2 flare in 2003 using TIMED/SEE EUV observations. In a second step we adapt the method to use SOHO/SEM measurements within the algorithm and compare the findings with the previous results. Furthermore, the latter procedure is validated by means of GRACE density measurements during a X2.0 solar flare in November 2004. In each of the cases also a comparison with theoretical thermosphere models is performed, which shows a good agreement and suggests that the algorithm can support theoretical evolution studies in case no in situ density measurements during extreme solar events are available.
- Validation of COSMIC ionospheric peak parameters by the measurements of an
ionosonde chain in China
Abstract: Validation of COSMIC ionospheric peak parameters by the measurements of an ionosonde chain in China
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1311-1319, 2014
Author(s): L. Hu, B. Ning, L. Liu, B. Zhao, G. Li, B. Wu, Z. Huang, X. Hao, S. Chang, and Z. Wu
Although the electron density profiles (EDPs) from Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) measurement have been validated by ionosonde data at a number of locations during the solar minimum period, the performance of COSMIC measurements at different latitudes has not been well evaluated, particularly during the solar maximum period. In this paper the COSMIC ionospheric peak parameters (peak electron density of the F region – NmF2; peak height of the F region – hmF2) are validated by the ionosonde data from an observation chain in China during the solar maximum period of 2011–2013. The validations show that the COSMIC measurement generally agrees well with the ionosonde observation. The error in NmF2 from COSMIC and ionosonde measurements varies with latitude. At midlatitude stations, the differences between COSMIC NmF2s and those of ionosondes are very slight. However, COSMIC NmF2 overestimates (underestimates) that of the ionosonde at the north (south) of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) crest. The relative errors of hmF2s are much lower than those of NmF2s at all stations, which indicates the EDP retrieval algorithm of the COSMIC measurement has a better performance in determining the ionospheric peak height. The root mean square errors (RMSEs) of NmF2s (hmF2s) are higher (lower) during the daytime than during the nighttime at all stations. Correlation analysis shows that the correlations for both NmF2s and hmF2s are comparably good (correlation coefficients > 0.9) at midlatitude stations, while correlations of NmF2 (correlation coefficients > 0.9) are higher than those of hmF2 (correlation coefficients > 0.8) at low-latitude stations.
- Preface C/NOFS results and equatorial ionospheric dynamics
Abstract: Preface C/NOFS results and equatorial ionospheric dynamics
Annales Geophysicae, 32, 1303-1303, 2014
Author(s): J. Klenzing, O. de La Beaujardière, L. C. Gentile, J. Retterer, F. S. Rodrigues, and R. A. Stoneback