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PHYSICS (578 journals)

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Journal Cover Physical Communication
  [SJR: 0.552]   [H-I: 19]   [1 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1874-4907
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3034 journals]
  • Effect of tunnel geometry and antenna parameters on through-the-air
           communication systems in underground mines: Survey and open research areas
           
    • Authors: Intikhab Hussain; Frederick Cawood; Rex van Olst
      Pages: 84 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2017
      Source:Physical Communication
      Author(s): Intikhab Hussain, Frederick Cawood, Rex van Olst
      In the mining industry, communication systems are important for ensuring personnel safety and optimizing the mining processes underground. The need for through-the-air (TTA) in the underground mining industry has been evolved from man-to-man, man-to-machine and machine-to-machine real-time voice, video and data transmission. Reliable communication has always been a challenge in the underground environment due to harsh and dynamic conditions. This article surveys the effect of tunnel geometry and antenna parameters on TTA communication system performance in underground mines. It provides a comprehensive review of measurement campaigns that have been published to date by systematic organization of literature. The open research areas for future investigation are also discussed. Finally, digital system ′ s findings in the University of Witwatersrand (WITS) mock-mine are presented.

      PubDate: 2017-03-13T02:56:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.phycom.2017.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2017)
       
  • Editorial for Physical Communication Journal 2016
    • Authors: Ian F. Akyildiz
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Physical Communication, Volume 22
      Author(s): Ian F. Akyildiz


      PubDate: 2017-02-18T02:34:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1874-4907(17)30037-x
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2017)
       
  • Average symbol error rate and outage probability of DS-CDMA systems with
           AF relaying over asymmetric fading channels
    • Authors: Nuri Kapucu; Mehmet Bilim; Ibrahim Develi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2017
      Source:Physical Communication
      Author(s): Nuri Kapucu, Mehmet Bilim, Ibrahim Develi
      In this paper, approximate outage probability (OP) and average symbol error rate (SER) of cooperative direct-sequence code-division multiple access (DS-CDMA) systems with amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying are evaluated over asymmetric fading channels. Practically, the channels between source ( S ) , relay ( R ) and destination ( D ) nodes in a DS-CDMA system can be subject to different fading due to the nature of wireless medium. Motivated by this reality, the S – D path is assumed to be Nakagami- m distributed which is a general fading model for different types of channel conditions while S – R and R – D paths are considered to experience Rician fading in order to include line of sight conditions. First, closed-form solutions are obtained for both the cumulative distribution function and the probability density function of S – R – D paths. Then, a closed-form total moment generating function (MGF) of the considered system is derived. The lower bound of the OP is calculated with the help of the inverse Laplace transform of the derived MGF expression while average SER is analyzed by evaluating the integral over the derived MGF. Finally, an asymptotic MGF expression is proposed for high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) analysis of AF DS-CDMA systems. The simulation results are provided to verify the correctness of the analytical derivations. It is shown that the approximate OP and average SER results are in well agreement with the simulations and the asymptotic results are tight from medium to high SNR regime.

      PubDate: 2017-03-04T06:07:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.phycom.2017.03.001
       
  • Distributed spatial modulation with dynamic frequency allocation
    • Authors: Kunal Sankhe; Sachin Chaudhari; Garimella Rama Murthy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2017
      Source:Physical Communication
      Author(s): Kunal Sankhe, Sachin Chaudhari, Garimella Rama Murthy
      This paper proposes a distributed implementation of spatial modulation (SM) using cognitive radios. In distributed spatial modulation (DSM), multiple relays form a virtual antenna array and assist a source to transmit its information to a destination. The source broadcasts its signal, which is independently demodulated by all the relys. Each of the relays then divides the received data in two parts: the first part is used to decide which one of the relays will be active, and the other part decides what data it will transmit to the destination. An analytical expression for symbol error probability is derived for DSM in independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channels. The analytical results are later compared with Monte Carlo simulations. Further, an instantaneous symbol error rate (SER) based selection combining is proposed to incorporate the direct link between the source and destination with existing DSM. Next, DSM implementation is extended to a cognitive network scenario where the source, relays, and destination are all cognitive radios. A dynamic frequency allocation scheme is proposed to improve the performance of DSM in this scenario. The frequency allocation is modeled through a bipartite graph with end-to-end SER as a weight function. The optimal frequency allocation problem is formulated as minimum weight perfect matching problem and is solved using the Hungarian method. Finally, numerical results are provided to illustrate the efficacy of the proposed scheme.

      PubDate: 2017-03-04T06:07:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.phycom.2017.02.005
       
  • Indoor cognitive radio operation within the broadcast TV protection
           contour
    • Authors: Meng-Jung Ho; Stevan M. Berber; Kevin W. Sowerby
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2017
      Source:Physical Communication
      Author(s): Meng-Jung Ho, Stevan M. Berber, Kevin W. Sowerby
      Although the broadcast television (TV) spectrum is currently open for unlicensed operation in the USA, a considerably large geographic area still remains excluded from the unlicensed operation due to potential interference to the licensed users. However, it might be possible to reuse primary spectrum within the protection contour if the frequency reuse occurs inside a building that shields radio signals and reduces interference to the primary system. Interference to outdoor licensed users from the indoor operations can be minimized if the unlicensed users adjust their transmit power according to their locations in the building. This paper presents an analysis and effectiveness evaluation of a novel cognitive radio (CR) system which enables CRs to access the licensed spectrum inside a building in the area within the protection contour. The system utilizes an indoor sensor network for (i) interference sensing, (ii) CR transmit power control, to limit the interference to the outdoor primary receiving antennas. Power control model of the indoor system has been developed to estimate safe transmit power for the indoor users. Two cases have been considered; single-user single-sensor (single indoor user and single sensor), and multi-user multi-sensor. Based on the power control model, a power control algorithm has been developed and its effectiveness is assessed through simulations. The algorithm is effective in realistic propagation scenarios, e.g. when internal partition walls and multipath fading are present. The outage probabilities in these propagation scenarios are found and the procedure of determining the transmit powers for CRs is presented.

      PubDate: 2017-03-04T06:07:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.phycom.2017.02.006
       
  • Gerchberg–Saxton algorithm based phase correction in optical
           wireless communication
    • Authors: Ming Li; Yupeng Li; Jiawei Han
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2017
      Source:Physical Communication
      Author(s): Ming Li, Yupeng Li, Jiawei Han
      Optical wireless communication (OWC) enables to establish the backhaul in the fifth generation (5G) wireless communication networks. The air turbulence, however, could distort the phases of optical signals, thus limit transmission capacity. In this paper, we study the correction of phase distortions by using the Gerchberg–Saxton (GS) algorithm. The air turbulence-induced phase is generated by the Monte-Carlo phase screen method, which characterizes the realistic air turbulence effect on the optical signals. The numerical results reveal that the GS algorithm is able to retrieve the phase information with fast convergence by adopting a proper initial condition. Also, the GS algorithm based phase correction in OWC is confirmed.

      PubDate: 2017-03-04T06:07:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.phycom.2017.02.008
       
  • MIMO-OFDM underwater acoustic communication systems–A review
    • Authors: Gang Qiao; Zeeshan Babar; Lu Ma; Songzuo Liu; Jinqiu Wu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2017
      Source:Physical Communication
      Author(s): Gang Qiao, Zeeshan Babar, Lu Ma, Songzuo Liu, Jinqiu Wu
      The ever increasing demand for bandwidth, efficiency, spatial diversity and performance of underwater acoustic (UWA) communication has opened doors for the use of Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO). A combination of MIMO and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) has proved to be a promising solution for many scenarios in UWA communication; on the contrary, it also amplifies the design challenges for implementing such schemes to acquire the required bandwidth efficiency. The goal of this study is to provide a comprehensive survey of the latest researches in the field of UWA MIMO-OFDM communication. The previous works are summarized, reviewed and compared according to their years of publication while problems faced by UWA MIMO-OFDM communication are highlighted. The articles are classified according to the focused techniques like channel estimation, equalization, coding and detection. Furthermore the works are compared based on the complexity and performance of the algorithms while some future research issues are identified.

      PubDate: 2017-03-04T06:07:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.phycom.2017.02.007
       
  • Investigation of quadrature imbalance compensation algorithm for coherent
           6PolSK-QPSK
    • Authors: Yupeng Li; Ming Li; Jiawei Han; Tingting Han
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Physical Communication
      Author(s): Yupeng Li, Ming Li, Jiawei Han, Tingting Han
      6PolSK-QPSK is a promising modulation format in optical fiber communication. Because of the damage suffered during the transmission and reception, a series of algorithms are needed to be adopted to recover the original data. We proposed a novel quadrature imbalance compensation algorithm based on the data statistical properties. Simulation results show that the quadrature imbalance can be well compensated with the proposed algorithm.

      PubDate: 2017-02-18T02:34:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.phycom.2017.02.004
       
  • Performance analysis of relay-assisted uplink massive MIMO systems with
           zero-forcing receiver
    • Authors: Liang Han; Weixia Zou
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Physical Communication
      Author(s): Liang Han, Weixia Zou
      As one of the most promising candidate technique for the fifth generation (5G) wireless network, massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) has attracted much research interests. However, due to the high path loss and severe shadowing, the cell-edge users may have very poor performance in uplink massive MIMO systems. To overcome this problem, we investigate relay-assisted uplink massive MIMO systems, where K single-antenna users communicate with an N -antenna base station (BS) through an M -antenna relay and N is very large. We use amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying schemes which simply forward scaled versions of its received signals. Assuming the BS can obtain perfect channel state information (CSI) of all the user-relay links and relay-BS links, zero-forcing (ZF) receiver is adopted at the BS. Based on these assumptions, we derive the closed-form expressions for the ergodic achievable rate and outage probability. Numerical and simulation results validate our analysis and show that the relay-assisted massive MIMO systems achieve better performance than direct transmission massive MIMO systems when the links from the users to the BS are weak.

      PubDate: 2017-02-18T02:34:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.phycom.2017.02.001
       
  • Investigation of 64-QAM optical modulator with paralleled dual-drive MZMs
           driven by binary signals
    • Authors: Yupeng
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Physical Communication
      Author(s): Yupeng Li
      High-order Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is a promising approach to increase the spectral efficiency of wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) transmission. However, the optical implementation is still challenging. A customized modulator is proposed for 64-QAM signal generation, and its performance is investigated in detail.

      PubDate: 2017-02-18T02:34:38Z
       
  • Characterization of distributed mode crosstalk in few-mode fiber links
           with low MIMO complexity
    • Authors: Jiawei Han; Caifeng Qu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Physical Communication
      Author(s): Jiawei Han, Caifeng Qu
      We theoretically model and numerically analyze the linear behavior of distributed mode crosstalk in a step-index weakly-coupled 7-mode fiber. This fiber is assumed to be used for one-polarization uncoupled mode-division multiplexing (MDM) systems with: (1) sparse MIMO equalizers which are performed over only degenerate LP modes, or (2) one single differential mode delay-independent MIMO equalizer which is performed over all non-degenerate LP modes. For the above two low-complexity MIMO configuration schemes, the impacts of distributed mode coupling on the multi-path interference-dependent achievable distance and system quality are empirically evaluated, through the numerical simulations for uncoupled MDM transmissions of a single-channel 28 GBaud QPSK signal over the fiber.

      PubDate: 2017-02-18T02:34:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.phycom.2017.02.002
       
  • Traffic-aware green cognitive radio
    • Authors: Washim Uddin Mondal; Sudipta Biswas; Goutam Das; Priyadip Ray
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2017
      Source:Physical Communication
      Author(s): Washim Uddin Mondal, Sudipta Biswas, Goutam Das, Priyadip Ray
      Cognitive Radio Network (CRN) has emerged as an effective solution to the spectrum under-utilization problem, by providing secondary users (SUs) an opportunistic access to the unoccupied frequency bands of primary users (PUs). Most of the current research on CRN are based on the assumption that the SU always has a large amount of data to transmit. This leads to the objective of SU throughput maximization with a constraint on the allowable interference to the PU. However, in many of the practical scenarios, the data arrival process of the SU closely follows an ON–OFF traffic model, and thus the usual throughput optimization framework may no longer be suitable. In this paper, we propose an intelligent data scheduling strategy which minimizes the average transmission power of the SU while maintaining the transmission delay to be sufficiently small. The data scheduling problem has been formulated as a finite horizon Markov Decision Process (MDP) with an appropriate cost function. Dynamic programming approach has been adopted to arrive at an optimal solution. Our findings show that the average transmitted power for our proposed approach can be as small as 36.5% of the power required for usual throughput maximization technique with insignificant increase in average delay.

      PubDate: 2017-01-28T19:33:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.phycom.2017.01.002
       
  • Multiuser detection for the uplink of clustered 5G systems with universal
           frequency reuse
    • Authors: F. Casal Ribeiro; R. Dinis; F. Cercas; A. Silva
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 January 2017
      Source:Physical Communication
      Author(s): F. Casal Ribeiro, R. Dinis, F. Cercas, A. Silva
      With 5G (Fifth generation) cellular communications, systems have to be able to cope with a massive increase of mobile devices and services and simultaneously improve the system’s spectral efficiency, as well as dealing with high interference levels. Base Station (BS) cooperation architectures jointly with block transmission techniques, such as OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) for the downlink and SC-FDE (Single-Carrier with Frequency-Domain Equalization) for the uplink, are proven to be suitable for broadband wireless transmission systems. In BS cooperation systems MTs (Mobile Terminals) in adjacent cells share the same physical channel allowing the reducing of the frequency reuse and improving the spectral efficiency of cellular systems. In this paper we present a set of multiuser detection techniques for the uplink transmission in clustered architectures based on the C-RAN (Centralized-Radio Access Network) concept. We consider BS cooperation systems employing a universal frequency reuse approach. Our performance results demonstrate that by employing clustered techniques for the detection procedure it is possible to reduce substantially the signal processing complexity and the side information that must be transmitted by the backhaul structure.

      PubDate: 2017-01-28T19:33:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.phycom.2017.01.006
       
  • Power control based on the Stackelberg game in two-tier femtocell networks
    • Authors: Zhixin Liu; Shiyi Li; Lili Hao; Hongjiu Yang; Xinping Guan; Xinbin Li
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2017
      Source:Physical Communication
      Author(s): Zhixin Liu, Shiyi Li, Lili Hao, Hongjiu Yang, Xinping Guan, Xinbin Li
      In this paper, the resource allocation strategy is investigated for a spectrum sharing two-tier femtocell networks, in which a central macrocell is underlaid with distributed femtocells. The spectral radius is introduced to address the conditions that any feasible set of users’ signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio requirements should satisfy in femtocell networks. To develop power allocation scheme with the derived conditions, a Stackelberg game is formulated, which aims at the utility maximization both of the macrocell user and femtocell users. The distributed power control algorithm is given to reduce the cross-tier interference between the macrocell and femtocell with same channel. At last, admission control algorithm is proposed, aiming to exploit the network resource effectively. Numerical results show that the proposed resource allocation schemes are effective in reducing power consumption and more suitable in the densely deployed scenario of the femtocell networks. Meanwhile, it also presents that the distributed power allocation scheme combined with admission control can protect the performance of all active femtocell users in a robust manner.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T16:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.phycom.2017.01.005
       
  • Computation of information rates by means of discrete states density
           recursion
    • Authors: L. Reggiani; L. Dossi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2017
      Source:Physical Communication
      Author(s): L. Reggiani, L. Dossi
      Starting from the existing works on the computation of information rates of channels with memory, we present a modification of these methods that can be used for continuous-state space models. The principle used for developing this alternative method is based on the partitioning of the continuous-state space into sub-sets, each one representing a state of a trellis, and the association between the states and the probability density functions built and updated on such sub-sets. The paper discusses the cases in which the method provides a computational advantage and it presents numerical results regarding the relevant example of the Wiener phase noise model.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T16:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.phycom.2017.01.004
       
  • Multi-channel sensing and resource allocation in energy constrained
           cognitive radio networks
    • Authors: Kedar Kulkarni; Adrish Banerjee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2017
      Source:Physical Communication
      Author(s): Kedar Kulkarni, Adrish Banerjee
      We consider a cognitive radio network in a multi-channel licensed environment. Secondary user transmits in a channel if the channel is sensed to be vacant. This results in a tradeoff between sensing time and transmission time. When secondary users are energy constrained, energy available for transmission is less if more energy is used in sensing. This gives rise to an energy tradeoff. For multiple primary channels, secondary users must decide appropriate sensing time and transmission power in each channel to maximize average aggregate-bit throughput in each frame duration while ensuring quality-of-service of primary users. Considering time and energy as limited resources, we formulate this problem as a resource allocation problem. Initially a single secondary user scenario is considered and solution is obtained using decomposition and alternating optimization techniques. Later we extend the analysis for the case of multiple secondary users. Simulation results are presented to study effect of channel occupancy, fading and energy availability on performance of proposed method.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T16:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.phycom.2017.01.003
       
  • Transport capacity of cooperative cognitive radio ad hoc networks
    • Authors: Jing Gao; Yinghui Zhang; Yang Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2017
      Source:Physical Communication
      Author(s): Jing Gao, Yinghui Zhang, Yang Liu
      It is more challenging for improving the traditional performance metrics for the 5-th generation network (5G) because of more congestible frequency spectrum. How to improve the network capacity without using more spectrum has become one of important studies in 5G. In this paper, the transport capacity of cooperative cognitive radio ad hoc networks is studied. In order to characterize the transport capacity, a half-slotted ALOHA multiple access protocol is introduced. In each slot, secondary users are divided into cooperative secondary users and ordinary users dependent on the positional relationship between them and primary transmitters. Primary transmitters send their packets in the first half slot while keep silence in the second half slot. Ordinary secondary users send their packets at a probability p in the whole slot. Cooperative secondary users receive the packets from their corresponding primary transmitters in the first half slot and forward them to the primary receivers in the second half slot. The closed-form expressions of the bounds of primary transport capacity and mean secondary transport capacity are derived based on the protocol. Furtherly, the optimal problem of the performance is analyzed about two important parameters: primary and secondary coverage radius. Theoretical results show that an optimal primary coverage radius could be found to maximize the transport capacity of primary network. While the transport capacity of secondary network increases with the increasing secondary coverage radius. The analysis reveals that the transport capacity could be improved by secondary cooperation because of higher successful transmission probability.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T16:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.phycom.2017.01.001
       
  • On the design of a multi-carrier correlation delay-shift keying system
    • Authors: Nguyen Xuan Quyen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2017
      Source:Physical Communication
      Author(s): Nguyen Xuan Quyen
      This paper presents the design of a multi-carrier correlation delay-shift keying (MC-CDSK) system for the operation in wireless environments. In the proposed system, the sum of a chaotic sequence and it delayed version is considered to be a reference sequence and transmitted through a predefined subcarrier. The input data is divided into multiple pairs of bit sub-sequences, where the first and second ones of each pair are spread in the frequency domain by directly multiplying with the chaotic sequence and the delayed version, respectively. The sum of two resulting signals for each pair is then transmitted on a corresponding subcarrier. In the receiving side, the reference sequence retrieved from the predefined subcarrier and the signal retrieved from each of the remaining subcarriers are correlated with the delayed version of the other ones to recover the corresponding bit sub-sequence pair. The recovered pairs are combined to an output data. Schemes for the transmitter and receiver are designed and their operation over a multipath Rayleigh fading channel is described. The system performance is evaluated via theoretical analysis and then verified by numerical simulation. Our findings show that MC-CDSK system can improve communication features, i.e., bit error rate (BER) performance, energy and spectrum efficiency compared to those of the conventional CDSK.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T14:25:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.phycom.2016.12.004
       
  • Finite-SNR outage analysis for MIMO channels with imperfect channel state
           information
    • Authors: Nandita Lavanis; Devendra Jalihal; Arun Pachai Kannu; Srikrishna Bhashyam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2017
      Source:Physical Communication
      Author(s): Nandita Lavanis, Devendra Jalihal, Arun Pachai Kannu, Srikrishna Bhashyam
      In this paper, a point-to-point multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channel with imperfect channel state information (CSI) at the receiver and no CSI at the transmitter is considered. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we compute the optimum number of active antennas required at the transmitter ( t opt ) to minimize the outage probability. We show that, apart from the number of transmit antennas, t opt depends on the signal to noise ratio (SNR), multiplexing gain, coherence time, and the number of receive antennas. Our results give insights on the behavior of t opt with respect to these parameters. Specifically, we show that as the multiplexing gain increases, the value of t opt increases from one, and as the multiplexing gain reaches its maxima, the value of t opt equals the minimum of the number of transmit and receive antennas. The intermediate behavior of t opt with respect to multiplexing gain depends on the MIMO channel configuration. t opt for the MIMO channel with perfect CSI at the receiver follows a similar pattern as that with imperfect CSIR. For a multiple-input single-output (MISO) channel with imperfect CSIR, we obtain a tight upper bound on the outage probability. Using this analytical upper bound, we can calculate t opt for any fixed channel configuration. For a MISO channel with imperfect CSIR and fixed SNR, t opt reduces as multiplexing gain increases; however, for fixed multiplexing gain and fixed SNR, t opt monotonically increases with increase in coherence time of the channel.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T14:25:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.phycom.2016.12.005
       
  • Distributed power allocation for spectrum sharing in mutually interfering
           wireless systems
    • Authors: Saygın Bakşi; Dimitrie C. Popescu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2017
      Source:Physical Communication
      Author(s): Saygın Bakşi, Dimitrie C. Popescu
      Allocation of transmit power is critical for spectrum sharing and coexistence of mutually interfering wireless systems. In this paper we present a novel approach for allocation of transmit power, which is based on a non-greedy procedure that aims at maximizing transmission rate while also controlling interference levels. The proposed approach is fully distributed and requires no central control or coordination. Numerical results obtained from simulations are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed approach in both sparse and dense environments. In sparse wireless environments, where there are fewer mutually interfering wireless links than available frequency bands, the proposed approach yields power allocations which outperform those obtained by applying alternative power allocation strategies, while in dense environments, where there are more interfering links than available frequency bands, the proposed approach yields power allocations with performance similar to those of existing power strategies. Thus, the distributed power allocation procedure based on the proposed approach is a drop-in replacement algorithm that yields better system throughput than existing algorithms for spectrum sharing.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T12:21:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.phycom.2016.12.003
       
 
 
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