for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help
  Subjects -> PHYSICS (Total: 795 journals)
    - ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM (9 journals)
    - MECHANICS (21 journals)
    - NUCLEAR PHYSICS (51 journals)
    - OPTICS (84 journals)
    - PHYSICS (573 journals)
    - SOUND (25 journals)
    - THERMODYNAMICS (32 journals)

PHYSICS (573 journals)

The end of the list has been reached or no journals were found for your choice.
Journal Cover Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
  [SJR: 0.885]   [H-I: 106]   [8 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0301-5629
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3049 journals]
  • Non-invasive Assessment of Liver Fibrosis with ElastPQ: Comparison with
           Transient Elastography and Serologic Fibrosis Marker Tests, and
           Correlation with Liver Pathology Results
    • Authors: Jeong Eun Lee; Kyung Sook Shin; June-Sik Cho; Sun Kyoung You; Ji Hye Min; Kyung-Hee Kim; In Sang Song; Kwang Sik Cheon
      Pages: 2515 - 2521
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 43, Issue 11
      Author(s): Jeong Eun Lee, Kyung Sook Shin, June-Sik Cho, Sun Kyoung You, Ji Hye Min, Kyung-Hee Kim, In Sang Song, Kwang Sik Cheon
      We investigated the feasibility of using ultrasound shear wave elastography point quantification (ElastPQ) for liver fibrosis staging and compared it with other non-invasive tools with respect to efficacy in liver stiffness measurement. A total of 106 patients who underwent liver stiffness measurements, using ElastPQ and biochemical investigations, before parenchymal liver biopsy or surgery were included. Among these, 51 also underwent transient elastography (TE). Correlations of ElastPQ, TE and aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) with histopathological findings (as the reference standard) were determined using Spearman's correlation coefficient. The diagnostic performance of ElastPQ, TE and APRI was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. ElastPQ had good diagnostic accuracy in identifying each liver fibrosis stage, with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.810 to 0.864. Stiffness values obtained using ElastPQ, TE and APRI were significantly positively correlated (r = 0.686, r = 0.732 and r = 0.454, respectively) with histologic fibrosis staging (p < 0.001). According to the AUC for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis (≥F2) and cirrhosis (=F4), ElastPQ had better diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.929 and 0.834, respectively) than APRI (AUC = 0.656 and 0.618, respectively) (p < 0.05), and was similar to TE (AUC = 0.915 and 0.879, respectively). ElastPQ is a promising ultrasound-based imaging technique for evaluation of liver fibrosis, with a diagnostic accuracy comparable to that of TE.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T08:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.07.008
       
  • Assessing Hepatic Fibrosis Using 2-D Shear Wave Elastography in Patients
           with Liver Tumors: A Prospective Single-Center Study
    • Authors: Zhongxi Huang; Wei Zheng; Yao-Jun Zhang; Li Xu; Jin-Bin Chen; Jian-Cong Chen; Min-Shan Chen; Zhongguo Zhou
      Pages: 2522 - 2529
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 43, Issue 11
      Author(s): Zhongxi Huang, Wei Zheng, Yao-Jun Zhang, Li Xu, Jin-Bin Chen, Jian-Cong Chen, Min-Shan Chen, Zhongguo Zhou
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of 2-D shear wave elastography (2-D-SWE) in evaluations of liver stiffness in patients with liver tumors before resection. A total of 121 consecutive patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (n = 93), intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma (n = 6), mixed hepatocellular carcinoma and intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma (n = 6), liver metastases (n = 10) and benign tumors (n = 6) were prospectively enrolled in this study from June 2015 to March 2016. Three valid 2-D-SWE measurements for each patient and median liver stiffness values were calculated. Fibrosis staging was evaluated according to the METAVIR scoring system. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to assess diagnostic performance. In this study, we found that median liver stiffness values were significantly higher in patients with primary liver tumors than in those with liver metastases and benign tumors (11.80 kPa vs. 5.85 kPa, p < 0.001). In addition, liver stiffness, assessed using 2-D-SWE, was highly correlated with pathologically confirmed liver fibrosis stage. Liver fibrosis stage and liver stiffness values were analyzed using Spearman's correlation (0.708, p < 0.001). The median liver stiffness values were as follows: F1, 6.7 kPa; F2, 6.33 kPa; F3, 9.2 kPa; F4, 13.7 kPa. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves of the liver stiffness values that predicted significant fibrosis (≥F2), severe fibrosis (≥F3) and cirrhosis (=F4) were 83.5%, 91.6% and 88.1%, respectively. According to the Youden index, the optimal cutoff values for predicting significant fibrosis (≥F2), severe fibrosis (≥F3) and cirrhosis (=F4) were 7.05 kPa (sensitivity = 74.6%, specificity = 100.0%), 9.45 kPa (sensitivity = 78.8%, specificity = 100.0%) and 11.1 kPa (sensitivity = 83.1%, specificity = 89.3%), respectively. We conclude that 2-D-SWE is a useful, accurate and non-invasive method for evaluating hepatic fibrosis in patients with liver tumors adapted to hepatectomy (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02958592).

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T18:39:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.07.003
       
  • Imaging Features on Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound and Clinical
           Characteristics of Hepatitis B Virus-Related Combined
           Hepatocellular–Cholangiocarcinoma: Comparison with Hepatitis B
           Virus-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    • Authors: Jieyi Ye; Xiaoyan Xie; Baoxian Liu; Xiaoer Zhang; Wei Wang; Xiaowen Huang; Mingde Lu; Guangliang Huang
      Pages: 2530 - 2536
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 43, Issue 11
      Author(s): Jieyi Ye, Xiaoyan Xie, Baoxian Liu, Xiaoer Zhang, Wei Wang, Xiaowen Huang, Mingde Lu, Guangliang Huang
      The objective of this study was to compare the clinical characteristics and imaging features on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related combined hepatocellular–cholangiocarcinoma (CHC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Thirty-one pathologically proven CHCs were included and 31 HCCs were randomly selected as controls. Elevated carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 alone and simultaneous elevation of α-fetoprotein and CA19-9 were more frequent in CHC than in HCC patients (p = 0.004 and 0.029, respectively). On CEUS, homogeneous, heterogeneous and peripheral irregular rim-like enhancement was illustrated in 8 (25.8%), 12 (38.7%) and 11 (35.5%) CHCs and in 6 (19.4%), 23 (74.1%) and 2 (6.5%) HCCs, respectively (p = 0.007). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed CA19-9 elevation (p = 0.011, odds ratio [OR] = 6.545) and peripheral irregular rim-like enhancement on CEUS (p = 0.017, OR = 7.718) were independent variables. A receiver operating characteristic curve was plotted and the area under the curve was 0.740. CHC should be watched for in HBV-infected patients with liver tumor manifesting peripheral irregular rim-like enhancement on CEUS, accompanied by CA19-9 elevation.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T08:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.07.016
       
  • Ultrasound Imaging of Muscle Contraction of the Tibialis Anterior in
           Patients with Facioscapulohumeral Dystrophy
    • Authors: Kaj Gijsbertse; Rianne Goselink; Saskia Lassche; Maartje Nillesen; André Sprengers; Nico Verdonschot; Nens van Alfen; Chris de Korte
      Pages: 2537 - 2545
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 43, Issue 11
      Author(s): Kaj Gijsbertse, Rianne Goselink, Saskia Lassche, Maartje Nillesen, André Sprengers, Nico Verdonschot, Nens van Alfen, Chris de Korte
      A need exists for biomarkers to diagnose, quantify and longitudinally follow facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) and many other neuromuscular disorders. Furthermore, the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to muscle weakness in most neuromuscular disorders are not completely understood. Dynamic ultrasound imaging (B-mode image sequences) in combination with speckle tracking is an easy, applicable and patient-friendly imaging tool to visualize and quantify muscle deformation. This dynamic information provides insight in the pathophysiological mechanisms and may help to distinguish the various stages of diseased muscle in FSHD. In this proof-of-principle study, we applied a speckle tracking technique to 2-D ultrasound image sequences to quantify the deformation of the tibialis anterior muscle in patients with FSHD and in healthy controls. The resulting deformation patterns were compared with muscle ultrasound echo intensity analysis (a measure of fat infiltration and dystrophy) and clinical outcome measures. Of the four FSHD patients, two patients had severe peroneal weakness and two patients had mild peroneal weakness on clinical examination. We found a markedly varied muscle deformation pattern between these groups: patients with severe peroneal weakness showed a different motion pattern of the tibialis anterior, with overall less displacement of the central tendon region, while healthy patients showed a non-uniform displacement pattern, with the central aponeurosis showing the largest displacement. Hence, dynamic muscle ultrasound of the tibialis anterior muscle in patients with FSHD revealed a distinctively different tissue deformation pattern among persons with and without tibialis anterior weakness. These findings could clarify the understanding of the pathophysiology of muscle weakness in FSHD patients. In addition, the change in muscle deformation shows good correlation with clinical measures and quantitative muscle ultrasound measurements. In conclusion, dynamic ultrasound in combination with speckle tracking allows the study of the effects of muscle pathology in relation to strength, force transmission and movement generation. Although further research is required, this technique can develop into a biomarker to quantify muscle disease severity.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T08:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.06.016
       
  • Ultrasound Imaging of the Renal Parenchyma of Premature Neonates for the
           Assessment of Renal Growth and Glomerulomegaly
    • Authors: Sonja Brennan; Yogavijayan Kandasamy
      Pages: 2546 - 2549
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 43, Issue 11
      Author(s): Sonja Brennan, Yogavijayan Kandasamy
      Evidence is increasingly showing that prematurity results in chronic kidney disease. We hypothesized that we could use ultrasound imaging to measure and monitor the growth of the renal parenchyma in premature neonates. We conducted a prospective, case-control study to compare renal parenchymal growth between neonates born prematurely and term neonates. The study patients underwent ultrasound assessment at 32 wk postmenstrual age (PMA) and 37 wk PMA. Term neonates (gestation >37 completed wk) admitted to the neonatal unit with minor neonatal conditions were recruited into the control group. Complete data sets were available in 91 premature neonates and during the same period, 56 term neonates were recruited as the control. The median birth weight (preterm babies) was 930 g (780–1220 g), and the mean gestational age was 27.0 wk (2.1 wk). Total renal volume (TRV) increased from 14.6 (4.3) cm3 to 20.5 (5.3) cm3 from 32 to 37 wk PMA. During the same period, the total renal parenchyma (TRP) thickness increased from 1.6 (0.3) cm to 1.8 (0.3) cm. At 37 wk PMA, ex-premature neonates have a significantly smaller total renal volume (20.5 [5.3] versus 25.9 [6.4] cm3; p < 0.001) and total renal parenchyma thickness (1.8 [0.3] versus 2.0 [0.2] cm; p = 0.015) compared with term (control) neonates. However, premature neonates at 37 wk PMA have a larger TRP:TRV ratio compared with term neonates (0.09 [0.02] versus 0.0 8 [0.02] cm−2; p < 0.001). Reduced nephron endowment as a result of prematurity may cause the remaining nephrons to undergo compensatory glomerulomegaly and we postulate this is the reason for the observed differences. Ultrasound imaging of the renal parenchyma shows promise in assessing the effects of prematurity on the developing kidney.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T08:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.06.033
       
  • Time-Harmonic Ultrasound elastography of the Descending Abdominal Aorta:
           Initial Results
    • Authors: Lars-Arne Schaafs; Heiko Tzschätzsch; Markus van der Giet; Alexander Reshetnik; Ingo G. Steffen; Bernd Hamm; Jürgen Braun; Ingolf Sack; Thomas Elgeti
      Pages: 2550 - 2557
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 43, Issue 11
      Author(s): Lars-Arne Schaafs, Heiko Tzschätzsch, Markus van der Giet, Alexander Reshetnik, Ingo G. Steffen, Bernd Hamm, Jürgen Braun, Ingolf Sack, Thomas Elgeti
      Stiffening of central large vessels is considered a key pathophysiologic factor within the cardiovascular system. Current diagnostic parameters such as pulse wave velocity (PWV) indirectly measure aortic stiffness, a hallmark of coronary diseases. The aim of the present study was to perform elastography of the proximal abdominal aorta based on externally induced time-harmonic shear waves. Experiments were performed in 30 healthy volunteers (25 young, 5 old, >50 y) and 5 patients with longstanding hypertension (PWV >10 m/s). B-Mode-guided sonographic time-harmonic elastography was used for measurement of externally induced shear waves at 30-Hz vibration frequency. Thirty-hertz shear wave amplitudes (SWAs) within the abdominal aorta were measured and displayed in real time and processed offline for differences in SWA between systole and diastole (ΔSWA). Data were analyzed using the Kruskal–Wallis test and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The change in SWA over the cardiac cycle was reduced significantly in all patients as assessed with ΔSWA (volunteers: mean = 10 ± 5 μm, patients: mean = 4 ± 1 μm; p < 0.001). The best separation of healthy volunteers from patients was obtained with a ΔSWA threshold of 4.7 μm, resulting in a sensitivity of 0.9 and a specificity of 1.0, with an overall area under the curve of 0.96. Time harmonic elastography of the abdominal aorta is feasible and shows promise for the exploitation of time-varying shear wave amplitudes as a diagnostic marker for aortic wall stiffening. Patients with elevated PWVs suggesting increased aortic wall stiffness were best identified by ΔSWA—a parameter that could be related to the ability of the vessel walls to distend on passages of the pulse wave.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T08:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.07.001
       
  • B-lines with Lung Ultrasound: The Optimal Scan Technique at Rest and
           During Stress
    • Authors: Maria Chiara Scali; Angela Zagatina; Iana Simova; Nadezhda Zhuravskaya; Quirino Ciampi; Marco Paterni; Mario Marzilli; Clara Carpeggiani; Eugenio Picano; Eugenio Picano; Quirino Ciampi; Rodolfo Citro; Antonello D'Andrea; Maria Chiara Scali; Lauro Cortigiani; Iacopo Olivotto; Fabio Mori; Maurizio Galderisi; Marco Fabio Costantino; Lorenza Pratali; Giovanni di Salvo; Eduardo Bossone; Francesco Ferrara; Jaroslaw D. Kasprszak; Fausto Rigo; Nicola Gaibazzi; Giuseppe Limongelli; Giuseppe Pacileo; Sergio Severino; Bruno Pinamonti; Laura Massa; Marco A.R. Torres; Marcelo H. Miglioranza; Clarissa Borguezan Daros; José Luis de Castro e Silva Pretto; Ana Djordjevic-Dikic; Milica Dekleva; Albert Varga; Gergely Agoston; Attila Palinkas; Angela Zagatina; Iana Simova; Miguel Amor; Jorge Lowenstein; Pablo Merlo; Jelena Celutkiene; Julio E. Perez; Paolo Trambaiolo; Dario Gregori; Paolo Colonna; Maria Grazia Andreassi; Michele De Nes; Ayana Arystan; Marco Paterni; Clara Carpeggiani
      Pages: 2558 - 2566
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 43, Issue 11
      Author(s): Maria Chiara Scali, Angela Zagatina, Iana Simova, Nadezhda Zhuravskaya, Quirino Ciampi, Marco Paterni, Mario Marzilli, Clara Carpeggiani, Eugenio Picano
      Various lung ultrasound (LUS) scanning modalities have been proposed for the detection of B-lines, also referred to as ultrasound lung comets, which are an important indication of extravascular lung water at rest and after exercise stress echo (ESE). The aim of our study was to assess the lung water spatial distribution (comet map) at rest and after ESE. We performed LUS at rest and immediately after semi-supine ESE in 135 patients (45 women, 90 men; age 62 ± 12 y, resting left ventricular ejection fraction = 41 ± 13%) with known or suspected heart failure or coronary artery disease. B-lines were measured by scanning 28 intercostal spaces (ISs) on the antero-lateral chest, 2nd–5th IS, along with the midaxillary (MA), anterior axillary (AA), mid-clavicular (MC) and parasternal (PS) lines. Complete 28-region, 16-region (3rd and 4th IS), 8-region (3rd IS), 4-region (3rd IS, only AA and MA) and 1-region (left 3rd IS, MA) scans were analyzed. In each space, the B-lines were counted from 0 = black lung to 10 = white lung. Interpretable images were obtained in all spaces (feasibility = 100 %). B-lines (>0 in at least 1 space) were present at ESE in 93 patients (69%) and absent in 42. More B-lines were found in the 3rd IS and along AA and MA lines. The B-line cumulative distribution was symmetric at rest (right/left = 1.10) and asymmetric with left lung predominance during stress (right/left = 0.67). The correlation of per-patient B-line number between 28-S and 16-S (R2 = 0.9478), 8-S (R2 = 0.9478) and 4-S scan (R2 = 0.9146) was excellent, but only good with 1-S (R2 = 0.8101). The average imaging and online analysis time were 5 s per space. In conclusion, during ESE, the comet map of lung water accumulation follows a predictable spatial pattern with wet spots preferentially aligned with the third IS and along the AA and MA lines. The time-saving 4-region scan is especially convenient during stress, simply dismissing dry regions and focusing on wet regions alone.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T08:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.07.007
       
  • Role of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound in the Pre-operative Diagnosis of
           Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients with Papillary Thyroid
           Carcinoma
    • Authors: Yu-Rong Hong; Zhi-Yan Luo; Guo-Qiang Mo; Ping Wang; Qin Ye; Pin-Tong Huang
      Pages: 2567 - 2575
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 43, Issue 11
      Author(s): Yu-Rong Hong, Zhi-Yan Luo, Guo-Qiang Mo, Ping Wang, Qin Ye, Pin-Tong Huang
      The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in differentiating between benign and metastatic cervical lymph nodes in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Three hundred nineteen cervical lymph nodes (162 metastatic from PTC and 157 benign) were evaluated using conventional ultrasonography (US) and CEUS before biopsy or surgery. Metastatic lymph nodes more often manifested centripetal or asynchronous perfusion, hyper-enhancement, heterogeneous enhancement, perfusion defects and ring-enhancing margins than benign lymph nodes at pre-operative CEUS (all p values < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the combination of conventional US and CEUS (0.983, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.971–0.994) was higher than that of conventional US alone (0.929, 95% CI: 0.899–0.958) and CEUS (0.911, 95% CI: 0.876–0.947). In conclusion, CEUS is a promising tool in conjunction with conventional US for the pre-operative prediction of metastatic cervical lymph nodes in patients with PTC.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T08:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.07.010
       
  • Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration of Non-palpable and Suspicious
           Axillary Lymph Nodes with Subsequent Removal after Tattooing:
           False-Negative Results and Concordance with Sentinel Lymph Nodes
    • Authors: Won Hwa Kim; Hye Jung Kim; Jin Hyang Jung; Ho Yong Park; Jeeyeon Lee; Wan Wook Kim; Ji Young Park; Hyejin Cheon; So Mi Lee; Seung Hyun Cho; Kyung Min Shin; Gab Chul Kim
      Pages: 2576 - 2581
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 43, Issue 11
      Author(s): Won Hwa Kim, Hye Jung Kim, Jin Hyang Jung, Ho Yong Park, Jeeyeon Lee, Wan Wook Kim, Ji Young Park, Hyejin Cheon, So Mi Lee, Seung Hyun Cho, Kyung Min Shin, Gab Chul Kim
      Ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-guided FNA) for axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) is currently used with various techniques for the initial staging of breast cancer and tagging of ALNs. With the implementation of the tattooing of biopsied ALNs, the rate of false-negative results of US-guided FNA for non-palpable and suspicious ALNs and concordance with sentinel lymph nodes were determined by node-to node analyses. A total of 61 patients with breast cancer had negative results for metastasis on US-guided FNA of their non-palpable and suspicious ALNs. The biopsied ALNs were tattooed with an injection of 1–3 mL Charcotrace (Phebra, Lane Cove West, Australia) ink and removed during sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary dissection. We determined the rate of false-negative results and concordance with the sentinel lymph nodes by a retrospective review of surgical and pathologic findings. The association of false-negative results with clinical and imaging factors was evaluated using logistic regression. Of the 61 ALNs with negative results for US-guided FNA, 13 (21%) had metastases on final pathology. In 56 of 61 ALNs (92%), tattooed ALNs corresponded to the sentinel lymph nodes. Among the 5 patients (8%) without correspondence, 1 patient (2%) had 2 metastatic ALNs of 1 tattooed node and 1 sentinel lymph node. In multivariate analysis, atypical cells on FNA results (odds ratio = 20.7, p = 0.040) was independently associated with false-negative FNA results. False-negative ALNs after US-guided FNA occur at a rate of 21% and most of the tattooed ALNs showed concordance with sentinel lymph nodes.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T08:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.07.011
       
  • B-Mode Ultrasound Combined with Color Doppler and Strain Elastography in
           the Diagnosis of Non-mass Breast Lesions: A Prospective Study
    • Authors: Lujing Li; Xinchuan Zhou; Xinbao Zhao; Shaoyun Hao; Jiyi Yao; Wenjing Zhong; Hui Zhi
      Pages: 2582 - 2590
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 43, Issue 11
      Author(s): Lujing Li, Xinchuan Zhou, Xinbao Zhao, Shaoyun Hao, Jiyi Yao, Wenjing Zhong, Hui Zhi
      Non-mass breast lesions on ultrasound (US) are areas without an associated mass. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether combining B-mode US with color Doppler US and strain elastography (SE) improves US differentiation between benign and malignant non-mass breast lesions and the decision for biopsy. In this prospective study, three different radiologists analyzed the US images of 77 non-mass lesions independently and recorded Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories for four data sets. The image characteristics and BI-RADS categories of the four data sets were analyzed by another radiologist. The final diagnosis was made on the basis of pathologic findings. Values for area under the receiver operating curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were compared among the data sets. The AUC of B-mode US combined with both color Doppler US and SE was greater than that of B-mode US alone (0.666 vs. 0.828) (p = 0.011). The specificity of making the decision for biopsy increased from 6.5% to 38.7% when B-mode US was combined with color Doppler and SE, without a statistically significant change in sensitivity (p < 0.001). Combined use of color Doppler and SE could improve the diagnostic value of B-mode US in distinguishing benign from malignant non-mass breast lesions and the specificity of making the decision for biopsy of non-mass breast lesions.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T08:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.07.014
       
  • Fluid Resuscitation in Septic Patients Improves Systolic but not Diastolic
           Middle Cerebral Artery Flow Velocity
    • Authors: Annika A. de Goede; Bert G. Loef; Auke C. Reidinga; Arjen Schaafsma
      Pages: 2591 - 2600
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 43, Issue 11
      Author(s): Annika A. de Goede, Bert G. Loef, Auke C. Reidinga, Arjen Schaafsma
      To investigate the effects of fluid resuscitation on cerebral hemodynamics in sepsis, the following set of transcranial Doppler (TCD) parameters was used: maximal change in flow velocity (FV) during stroke onset (acc), maximal FV during first (sys1) or second (sys2) phase of systole and mean diastolic FV (dias@560). We aim to evaluate changes in cerebral hemodynamics that result from (i) sepsis and (ii) adequate fluid resuscitation in critically ill septic patients. In the majority of 16 septic patients sys2 was initially absent but reappeared during the period of fluid resuscitation; whereas sys2 absence was never seen in healthy controls. Second, adequate fluid resuscitation resulted in a significant increase of the systolic FV components (acc, sys1, sys2 and systolic blood pressure); whereas the diastolic components (dias@560 and diastolic blood pressure) remained unchanged. Sys2 absence and reappearance in sepsis suggests that TCD could become a non-invasive alternative for hemodynamic monitoring.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T08:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.06.027
       
  • Vector Flow Visualization of Urinary Flow Dynamics in a Bladder
           Outlet Obstruction Model
    • Authors: Takuro Ishii; Billy Y.S. Yiu; Alfred C.H. Yu
      Pages: 2601 - 2610
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 43, Issue 11
      Author(s): Takuro Ishii, Billy Y.S. Yiu, Alfred C.H. Yu
      Voiding dysfunction that results from bladder outlet (BO) obstruction is known to alter significantly the dynamics of urine passage through the urinary tract. To non-invasively image this phenomenon on a time-resolved basis, we pursued the first application of a recently developed flow visualization technique called vector projectile imaging (VPI) that can track the spatiotemporal dynamics of flow vector fields at a frame rate of 10,000 fps (based on plane wave excitation and least-squares Doppler vector estimation principles). For this investigation, we designed a new anthropomorphic urethral tract phantom to reconstruct urinary flow dynamics under controlled conditions (300 mm H2O inlet pressure and atmospheric outlet pressure). Both a normal model and a diseased model with BO obstruction were developed for experimentation. VPI cine loops were derived from these urinary flow phantoms. Results show that VPI is capable of depicting differences in the flow dynamics of normal and diseased urinary tracts. In the case with BO obstruction, VPI depicted the presence of BO flow jet and vortices in the prostatic urethra. The corresponding spatial-maximum flow velocity magnitude was estimated to be 2.43 m/s, and it is significantly faster than that for the normal model (1.52 m/s) and is in line with values derived from computational fluid dynamics simulations. Overall, this investigation demonstrates the feasibility of using vector flow visualization techniques to non-invasively examine internal flow characteristics related to voiding dysfunction in the urethral tract.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T08:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.07.006
       
  • Feasibility of UltraFast Doppler in Post-operative Evaluation of Hepatic
           Artery in Recipients following Liver Transplantation
    • Authors: Se-Young Kim; Kyoung Won Kim; Sang Hyun Choi; Jae Hyun Kwon; Gi-Won Song; Heon-Ju Kwon; Young Ju Yun; Jeongjin Lee; Sung-Gyu Lee
      Pages: 2611 - 2618
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 43, Issue 11
      Author(s): Se-Young Kim, Kyoung Won Kim, Sang Hyun Choi, Jae Hyun Kwon, Gi-Won Song, Heon-Ju Kwon, Young Ju Yun, Jeongjin Lee, Sung-Gyu Lee
      To determine the feasibility of using UltraFast Doppler in post-operative evaluation of the hepatic artery (HA) after liver transplantation (LT), we evaluated 283 simultaneous conventional and UltraFast Doppler sessions in 126 recipients over a 2-mo period after LT, using an Aixplorer scanner The Doppler indexes of the HA (peak systolic velocity [PSV], end-diastolic velocity [EDV], resistive index [RI] and systolic acceleration time [SAT]) by retrospective analysis of retrieved waves from UltraFast Doppler clips were compared with those obtained by conventional spectral Doppler. Correlation, performance in diagnosing the pathologic wave, examination time and reproducibility were evaluated. The PSV, EDV, RI and SAT of spectral and UltraFast Doppler measurements exhibited excellent correlation with favorable diagnostic performance. During the bedside examination, the mean time spent for UltraFast clip storing was significantly shorter than that for conventional Doppler US measurements. Both conventional and UltraFast Doppler exhibited good to excellent inter-analysis consistency. In conclusion, compared with conventional spectral Doppler, UltraFast Doppler values correlated excellently and yielded acceptable pathologic wave diagnostic performance with reduced examination time at the bedside and excellent reproducibility.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T08:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.07.018
       
  • Evaluation of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Using Acoustic Radiation
           Force Impulse Imaging Elastography in Rat Models
    • Authors: Yanrong Guo; Changfeng Dong; Haoming Lin; Xinyu Zhang; Huiying Wen; Yuanyuan Shen; Tianfu Wang; Siping Chen; Yingxia Liu; Xin Chen
      Pages: 2619 - 2628
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 43, Issue 11
      Author(s): Yanrong Guo, Changfeng Dong, Haoming Lin, Xinyu Zhang, Huiying Wen, Yuanyuan Shen, Tianfu Wang, Siping Chen, Yingxia Liu, Xin Chen
      The aim of this study is to evaluate the utility of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography for assessing hepatic fibrosis stage and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) severity, as well as the relationship among hepatic histologic changes using shear wave velocity (SWV). Animal models with various degrees of NAFLD were established in 110 rats. The right liver lobe was processed and embedded in a fabricated gelatin solution (porcine skin). Liver mechanics were measured using SWV induced by acoustic radiation force. Among the histologic findings, liver elasticity could be used to differentiate normal rats from rats with simple steatosis (SS) as well as distinguish SS from non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) of 0.963 (95% confidence interval = 0.871–0.973) and 0.882 (95% confidence interval = 0.807–0.956), respectively. For NAFLD rats, the diagnostic performance of ARFI elastography in predicting significant fibrosis (F ≥ 2) had an AUROC of 0.963. For evaluating steatosis severity, we found a progressive increase in ARFI velocity proportional to steatotic severity in NAFLD rat models, but we observed no significant differences for steatotic severity after excluding the rats with fibrosis. ARFI elastography may be used to differentiate among degrees of severity of NAFLD and hepatic fibrotic stages in NAFLD rat models.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T08:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.06.026
       
  • Measurement of Liver Stiffness Using Shear Wave Elastography in a Rat
           Model: Factors Impacting Stiffness Measurement with Multiple- and
           Single-Tracking-Location Techniques
    • Authors: Jonathan H. Langdon; Etana Elegbe; Raul S. Gonzalez; Laurentius Osapoetra; Tristan Ford; Stephen A. McAleavey
      Pages: 2629 - 2639
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 43, Issue 11
      Author(s): Jonathan H. Langdon, Etana Elegbe, Raul S. Gonzalez, Laurentius Osapoetra, Tristan Ford, Stephen A. McAleavey
      The clinical use of elastography for monitoring fibrosis progression is challenged by the subtle changes in liver stiffness associated with early-stage fibrosis and the comparatively large variance in stiffness estimates provided by elastography. Single-tracking-location (STL) shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) is an ultrasound elastography technique previously found to provide improved estimate precision compared with multiple-tracking-location (MTL) SWEI. Because of the improved precision, it is reasonable to expect that STL-SWEI would provide improved ability to differentiate liver fibrosis stage compared with MTL-SWEI. However, this expectation has not been previously challenged rigorously. In this work, the performance of STL- and MTL-SWEI in the setting of a rat model of liver fibrosis is characterized, and the advantages of STL-SWEI in staging fibrosis are explored. The purpose of this study was to determine what advantages, if any, arise from using STL-SWEI instead of MTL-SWEI in the characterization of fibrotic liver. Thus, the ability of STL-SWEI to differentiate livers at various METAVIR fibrosis scores, for ex vivo postmortem measurements, is explored. In addition, we examined the effect of the common confounding factor of fluid versus solid boundary conditions in SWEI experiments. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with carbon tetrachloride over several weeks to produce liver disease of varying severity. STL and MTL stiffness measurements were performed ex vivo and compared with the METAVIR scores from histological analysis and the duration of treatment. A strong association was observed between liver stiffness and weeks of treatment with the liver toxin carbon tetrachloride. Direct comparison of STL- and MTL-SWEI measurements revealed no significant difference in ability to differentiate fibrosis stages based on SWEI mean values. However, image interquartile range was greatly improved in the case of STL-SWEI, compared with MTL-SWEI, at small beam spacing.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T08:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.07.004
       
  • The Combination of Glycolytic Inhibitor 2-Deoxyglucose and Microbubbles
           Increases the Effect of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Sonodynamic Therapy in Liver
           Cancer Cells
    • Authors: Rui Xie; Tongying Xu; Jiuxin Zhu; Xiaoli Wei; Wenting Zhu; Longmin Li; Yufeng Wang; Yu Han; Jianhua Zhou; Yuxian Bai
      Pages: 2640 - 2650
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 43, Issue 11
      Author(s): Rui Xie, Tongying Xu, Jiuxin Zhu, Xiaoli Wei, Wenting Zhu, Longmin Li, Yufeng Wang, Yu Han, Jianhua Zhou, Yuxian Bai
      Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) overcomes the shortcoming of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of cancer. Previous studies indicated that the glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) potentiated photodynamic therapy induced tumor cell death and microbubbles (MBs) improved the SDT performance. We hypothesized that the combination of 2-DG and MBs will increase the effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-SDT in HepG2 liver cancer cells. When cells were treated with 5-min ALA-SDT and 2-mmol/L 2-DG, the cell survival rate decreased to 73.0 ± 7.1% and 75.2 ± 7.9%, respectively. Furthermore, 2 mmol/L 2-DG increased 5-min ALA-SDT induced growth inhibition and augmented ALA-SDT induced cell apoptotic rate from 9.8 ± 0.7% to 17.4 ± 2.2%. In the combination group (2-DG and ALA-SDT group), HepG2 cells possessed typical apoptotic characters. 2-DG also increased ALA-SDT associated intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, SonoVue MBs had stimulatory function on cell viability inhibition, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial membrane potential loss for combination treatment. This study suggests a promising therapeutic strategy using a combination of 2-DG, MBs and ALA-SDT for treating liver cancer.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T08:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.06.031
       
  • Ultrasound Improves the Delivery and Therapeutic Effect
           of Nanoparticle-Stabilized Microbubbles in Breast Cancer Xenografts
    • Authors: Sofie Snipstad; Sigrid Berg; Ýrr Mørch; Astrid Bjørkøy; Einar Sulheim; Rune Hansen; Ingeborg Grimstad; Annemieke van Wamel; Astri F. Maaland; Sverre H. Torp; Catharina de Lange Davies
      Pages: 2651 - 2669
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 43, Issue 11
      Author(s): Sofie Snipstad, Sigrid Berg, Ýrr Mørch, Astrid Bjørkøy, Einar Sulheim, Rune Hansen, Ingeborg Grimstad, Annemieke van Wamel, Astri F. Maaland, Sverre H. Torp, Catharina de Lange Davies
      Compared with conventional chemotherapy, encapsulation of drugs in nanoparticles can improve efficacy and reduce toxicity. However, delivery of nanoparticles is often insufficient and heterogeneous because of various biological barriers and uneven tumor perfusion. We investigated a unique multifunctional drug delivery system consisting of microbubbles stabilized by polymeric nanoparticles (NPMBs), enabling ultrasound-mediated drug delivery. The aim was to examine mechanisms of ultrasound-mediated delivery and to determine if increased tumor uptake had a therapeutic benefit. Cellular uptake and toxicity, circulation and biodistribution were characterized. After intravenous injection of NPMBs into mice, tumors were treated with ultrasound of various pressures and pulse lengths, and distribution of nanoparticles was imaged on tumor sections. No effects of low pressures were observed, whereas complete bubble destruction at higher pressures improved tumor uptake 2.3 times, without tissue damage. An enhanced therapeutic effect was illustrated in a promising proof-of-concept study, in which all tumors exhibited regression into complete remission.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T08:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.06.029
       
  • Toward a Standardization of Ultrasound Scanners for Dynamic
           Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography: Methodology and Phantoms
    • Authors: Stéphanie Pitre-Champagnat; Bénédicte Coiffier; Laurène Jourdain; Baya Benatsou; Ingrid Leguerney; Nathalie Lassau
      Pages: 2670 - 2677
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 43, Issue 11
      Author(s): Stéphanie Pitre-Champagnat, Bénédicte Coiffier, Laurène Jourdain, Baya Benatsou, Ingrid Leguerney, Nathalie Lassau
      The standardization of ultrasound scanners for dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (DCE-US) is mandatory for evaluation of clinical multicenter studies. We propose a robust method using a phantom for measuring the variation of the harmonic signal intensity obtained from the area under the time-intensity curve versus various contrast-agent concentrations. The slope of this measured curve is the calibration parameter. We tested our method on two devices from the same manufacturer (AplioXV and Aplio500, Toshiba, Tokyo, Japan) using the same settings as defined for a French multicenter study. The Aplio500's settings were adjusted to match the slopes of the AplioXV, resulting in the following settings on the Aplio500: at 3.5 MHz: MI = 0.15; CG = 35 dB and at 8 MHz: MI = 0.10; CG = 32 dB. This calibration method is very important for future DCE-US multicenter studies.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T08:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.06.032
       
  • Mechanistic Insight into Sonoporation with Ultrasound-Stimulated Polymer
           Microbubbles
    • Authors: Brandon L. Helfield; Xucai Chen; Bin Qin; Simon C. Watkins; Flordeliza S. Villanueva
      Pages: 2678 - 2689
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 43, Issue 11
      Author(s): Brandon L. Helfield, Xucai Chen, Bin Qin, Simon C. Watkins, Flordeliza S. Villanueva
      Sonoporation is emerging as a feasible, non-viral gene delivery platform for the treatment of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Despite promising results, this approach remains less efficient than viral methods. The objective of this work is to help substantiate the merit of polymeric microbubble sonoporation as a non-viral, localized cell permeation and payload delivery strategy by taking a ground-up approach to elucidating the fundamental mechanisms at play. In this study, we apply simultaneous microscopy of polymeric microbubble sonoporation over its intrinsic biophysical timescales–with sub-microsecond resolution to examine microbubble cavitation and millisecond resolution over several minutes to examine local macromolecule uptake through enhanced endothelial cell membrane permeability–bridging over six orders of magnitude in time. We quantified microbubble behavior and resulting sonoporation thresholds at transmit frequencies of 0.5, 1 and 2 MHz, and determined that sonic cracking is a necessary but insufficient condition to induce sonoporation. Further, sonoporation propensity increases with the extent of sonic cracking, namely, from partial to complete gas escape from the polymeric encapsulation. For the subset that exhibited complete gas escape from sonic cracking, a proportional relationship between the maximum projected gas area and resulting macromolecule uptake was observed. These results have revealed one aspect of polymeric bubble activity on the microsecond time scale that is associated with eliciting sonoporation in adjacent endothelial cells, and contributes toward an understanding of the physical rationale for sonoporation with polymer-encapsulated microbubble contrast agents.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T08:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.07.017
       
  • Efficacy of Indocyanine Green-Mediated Sonodynamic Therapy on Rheumatoid
           Arthritis Fibroblast-like Synoviocytes
    • Authors: Qin Tang; Shufang Chang; Zhonghua Tian; Jiangchuan Sun; Lan Hao; Zhigang Wang; Shenyin Zhu
      Pages: 2690 - 2698
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 43, Issue 11
      Author(s): Qin Tang, Shufang Chang, Zhonghua Tian, Jiangchuan Sun, Lan Hao, Zhigang Wang, Shenyin Zhu
      Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) has become a new therapeutic method because of its activation of certain sensitizers by ultrasound. Some studies have reported that indocyanine green (ICG) has the characteristics of a sonosensitizer and favorable fluorescence imaging in synovitis of early inflammatory arthritis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effect of ICG-mediated SDT on MH7A cells in vitro and the potential mechanisms involved. ICG was found to be taken up mainly in cytoplasm, with maximal uptake in 4 h. Cell viability in ICG-mediated SDT (SDT-0.5 and SDT-1.0) groups decreased significantly to 73.09 ± 1.97% and 54.24 ± 4.66%, respectively; cell apoptosis increased significantly to 26.43 ± 0.91% and 45.93 ± 6.17%, respectively. Moreover, marked loss in mitochondrial membrane potential and greatly increased generation of reactive oxygen species were observed in ICG-mediated SDT groups. Interestingly, the loss in cell viability could be effectively rescued with pretreatment with the reactive oxygen species scavenger N-acetylcysteine. These results indicate that ICG-mediated SDT is cytotoxic to fibroblast-like synoviocytes and is a potential modality for targeted therapy of synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T08:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.06.030
       
  • Role of Reactive Oxygen Species during Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound
           Application in MC-3 T3 E1 Pre-osteoblast Cell Culture
    • Authors: Harmanpreet Kaur; Arno G. Siraki; Hasan Uludağ; Douglas N. Dederich; Patrick Flood; Tarek El-Bialy
      Pages: 2699 - 2712
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 43, Issue 11
      Author(s): Harmanpreet Kaur, Arno G. Siraki, Hasan Uludağ, Douglas N. Dederich, Patrick Flood, Tarek El-Bialy
      We evaluated the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation through reactive oxygen species (ROS) by application of low-intensity ultrasound (LIPUS) to MC-3 T3 E1 pre-osteoblasts. The cells were subjected to one LIPUS application for either 10 or 20 min, and the control group was exposed to a sham transducer. For ROS inhibition, 10 μM diphenylene iodonium (DPI) was added to the cells an hour before LIPUS application. Samples were collected 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h after LIPUS application, and cells were evaluated for ROS generation, cell viability, gene expression and MAPK activation by immunoblot analyses. LIPUS caused a significant increase in ROS and cell viability in the non-DPI-treated group. Expression of RUNX2, OCN and OPN mRNA was higher in the LIPUS-treated groups at 1 h in both the DPI-treated and non-DPI-treated groups; RUNX2 and OCN mRNA levels increased at 6 h. ERK1/2 activation was increased in the LIPUS-treated groups. These results indicate that LIPUS activates MAPK by ROS generation in MC-3 T3 E1 pre-osteoblasts.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T08:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.07.002
       
  • Respiratory Variation in Femoral Vein Diameter Has Moderate Accuracy as a
           Marker of Fluid Responsivity in Mechanically Ventilated Septic Shock
           Patients
    • Authors: Wagner Luis Nedel; Daniele Moraes Simas; Luiz Gustavo Marin; Vinicius Daudt Morais; Gilberto Friedman
      Pages: 2713 - 2717
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 43, Issue 11
      Author(s): Wagner Luis Nedel, Daniele Moraes Simas, Luiz Gustavo Marin, Vinicius Daudt Morais, Gilberto Friedman
      Ultrasound (US) is considered the first step in evaluation of patients with shock; respiratory variation of the inferior vena cava (inferior vena cava collapsibility [IVCc]) is an important measurement in this scenario that can be impaired by patient condition or technical skills. The main objective of this study was to evaluate if respiratory variation of the femoral vein (femoral vein collapsibility [FVc]), which is easier to visualize, can adequately predict fluid responsiveness in septic shock patients. Forty-five mechanically ventilated septic shock patients in a mixed clinical–surgical, 30-bed intensive care unit were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent assessments of FVc, IVCc and cardiac output using a portable US device. The passive leg raising test was used to evaluate fluid responsiveness. FVc presented an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.678 (95% confidence interval: 0.519–0.837, p = 0.044) with a cutoff point of 17%, yielding a sensitivity of 62% and specificity of 65% in predicting fluid responsiveness. IVCc had greater diagnostic accuracy compared with FVc, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.733 (95% confidence interval: 0.563–0.903, p = 0.024) and a cutoff point of 29%, yielding a sensitivity of 47% and specificity of 86%. In conclusion, FVc has moderate accuracy when employed as an indicator of fluid responsiveness in spontaneously mechanically ventilated septic shock patients.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T08:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.06.023
       
  • Non-Invasive Intra-cardiac Pressure Measurements Using Subharmonic-Aided
           Pressure Estimation: Proof of Concept in Humans
    • Authors: Jaydev K. Dave; Sushmita V. Kulkarni; Purva P. Pangaonkar; Maria Stanczak; Maureen E. McDonald; Ira S. Cohen; Praveen Mehrotra; Michael P. Savage; Paul Walinsky; Nicholas J. Ruggiero; David L. Fischman; David Ogilby; Carolyn VanWhy; Matthew Lombardi; Flemming Forsberg
      Pages: 2718 - 2724
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 43, Issue 11
      Author(s): Jaydev K. Dave, Sushmita V. Kulkarni, Purva P. Pangaonkar, Maria Stanczak, Maureen E. McDonald, Ira S. Cohen, Praveen Mehrotra, Michael P. Savage, Paul Walinsky, Nicholas J. Ruggiero, David L. Fischman, David Ogilby, Carolyn VanWhy, Matthew Lombardi, Flemming Forsberg
      This study evaluated the feasibility of employing non-invasive intra-cardiac pressure estimation using subharmonic signals from ultrasound contrast agents in humans. This institutional review board–approved proof-of-concept study included 15 consenting patients scheduled for left and right heart catheterization. During the catheterization procedure, Definity was infused intra-venously at 4–10 mL/min. Ultrasound scanning was performed with a Sonix RP using pulse inversion, three incident acoustic output levels and 2.5-MHz transmit frequency. Radiofrequency data were processed and subharmonic amplitudes were compared with the pressure catheter data. The correlation coefficient between subharmonic signals and pressure catheter data ranged from −0.3 to −0.9. For acquisitions with optimum acoustic output, pressure errors between the subharmonic technique and catheter were as low as 2.6 mmHg. However, automatically determining optimum acoustic output during scanning for each patient remains to be addressed before clinical applicability can be decided.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T08:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.07.009
       
  • Combining Subharmonic and Ultraharmonic Modes for Intravascular Ultrasound
           Imaging: A Preliminary Evaluation
    • Authors: Himanshu Shekhar; Jeffrey S. Rowan; Marvin M. Doyley
      Pages: 2725 - 2732
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 43, Issue 11
      Author(s): Himanshu Shekhar, Jeffrey S. Rowan, Marvin M. Doyley
      Contrast-enhanced intra-vascular ultrasound (CE-IVUS) imaging could provide clinicians a valuable tool to assess cardiovascular risk and guide the choice of therapeutic strategies. In this technical note, we evaluated the feasibility of combining subharmonic and ultraharmonic imaging to improve the performance of CE-IVUS. Vessel phantoms perfused with phospholipid-shelled ultrasound contrast agents were visualized using subharmonic, ultraharmonic and combined CE-IVUS modes with commercial peripheral and coronary imaging catheters. Flow channels as small as 0.8 mm and 0.5 mm were imaged at 12-MHz and 30-MHz transmit frequencies, respectively. Subharmonic and ultraharmonic imaging modes achieved a contrast-to-tissue ratio (CTR) up to 18.1 ± 1.8 dB and 19.6 ± 1.9 dB at 12-MHz, and 8.8 ± 1.8 and 12.5 ± 1.1 dB at 30-MHz transmit frequencies, respectively. Combining these modes improved the CTR to 32.5 ± 3.0 dB and 25.0 ± 1.6 dB at 12-MHz and 30-MHz transmit frequencies. These results underscore the potential of combined-mode CE-IVUS imaging. Furthermore, the demonstration of this approach with commercial catheters may serve as a first step toward the clinical translation of CE-IVUS.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T08:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.07.012
       
  • Pilot Investigation into the Use of an Anthropomorphic Breast Sonography
           Phantom as a Training and Assessment Tool
    • Authors: Jacinta E. Browne; Louise M. Cannon; Ronan McDermott; Max Ryan; Andrew J. Fagan
      Pages: 2733 - 2740
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 43, Issue 11
      Author(s): Jacinta E. Browne, Louise M. Cannon, Ronan McDermott, Max Ryan, Andrew J. Fagan
      A device for the training and quantitative assessment of the competency of trainee radiologists in the technically challenging area of breast sonography was developed and evaluated. Currently, suitable commercially available devices are lacking, and there is a growing realization that the reliance on direct exposure to patients for learning may not represent best practice from either the trainees' or patients' perspective. Three devices (PI, PII and PIII) were designed to produce very realistic sonographic images of breast morphology with a range of embedded pathologies. The pilot evaluation used a case study research design to evaluate the role of the anthropomorphic breast sonography training device in training and assessment in a clinical environment. Through the case study, it was possible to evaluate the process and relationships when using this type of training intervention for a small group of radiology resident trainees. The investigation involved a baseline assessment of trainees' (n = 4) ability to detect and characterize all lesions in PI, followed by a 4-wk training period on PII and a post-training assessment using PIII. The evaluation revealed an improvement of 30% ± 8% in the trainee's performance from pre- to post-training. It was expected that the performance of the trainees would improve as the training phantom described in this study aligns with the learning theory of constructivism and fits the ideal specifications of a medical training device in terms of its realism and facilitation of self-directed learning and deliberate practice of the trainees. The device provides a useful platform upon which training and assessment can be facilitated.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T08:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.07.015
       
  • Evolution of Ultrasonography Since the 1970s
    • Authors: David Owen Cosgrove
      Pages: 2741 - 2742
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 43, Issue 11
      Author(s): David Owen Cosgrove


      PubDate: 2017-09-19T08:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.06.015
       
  • In Memoriam: David Cosgrove (1938–2017)
    • Authors: Jeffrey Bamber; Robert J. Eckersley; Chris Harvey; Adrian Lim; Paul Sidhu; Meng-Xing Tang
      Pages: 2743 - 2745
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 43, Issue 11
      Author(s): Jeffrey Bamber, Robert J. Eckersley, Chris Harvey, Adrian Lim, Paul Sidhu, Meng-Xing Tang


      PubDate: 2017-09-19T08:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.07.005
       
  • Erratum to ‘Could Linear Hysteresis Contribute to Shear Wave Losses in
           Tissues' [Ultrasound Med Biol 41 (2015) 1100–1104]
    • Authors: Kevin J. Parker
      First page: 2746
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 43, Issue 11
      Author(s): Kevin J. Parker


      PubDate: 2017-09-19T08:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.07.019
       
  • Histologic and Hemodynamic Correlates of Right Ventricular Function in a
           Pressure Overload Model: a Study Using Three-Dimensional Speckle Tracking
           Echocardiography
    • Authors: Yuman Li; Lei Li; Junwei Liu; Mengmei Li; Qing Lv; Jing Wang; Lin He; Mingxing Xie
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
      Author(s): Yuman Li, Lei Li, Junwei Liu, Mengmei Li, Qing Lv, Jing Wang, Lin He, Mingxing Xie
      The aim of our study was to assess the characterization of right ventricular (RV) deformation using three-dimensional (3D) speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) and association of 3D-STE indices with histologic and hemodynamic parameters in a chronic RV pressure overload animal model. Pulmonary artery banding (PAB) was used to induce RV pressure overload in seven beagles. 3D-STE, histologic and hemodynamic measurements were performed in PAB and sham-operated beagles 3 mo after PAB. RV longitudinal, radial and circumferential strain was measured from 3D-STE. Three mo after PAB, RV longitudinal strain was decreased; whereas radial and circumferential strain remained unchanged in PAB group. RV longitudinal strain was associated with interstitial fibrosis (r = −0.733) in the endocardial layer of the RV free wall. RV circumferential strain was related to dp/dtmax (r = 0.718). The significant correlations of RV 3D-STE indices with histologic and hemodynamic parameters indicate that 3D-STE may be a valuable tool for assessment of ventricular function in RV pressure overload.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T18:39:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.09.022
       
  • Statement and Recommendations on Interventional Ultrasound as a Thyroid
           Diagnostic and Treatment Procedure
    • Authors: Christoph F. Dietrich; Thomas Müller; Jörg Bojunga; Yi Dong; Giovanni Mauri; Maija Radzina; Manjiri Dighe; Xin-Wu Cui; Frank Grünwald; Andreas Schuler; Andre Ignee; Huedayi Korkusuz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
      Author(s): Christoph F. Dietrich, Thomas Müller, Jörg Bojunga, Yi Dong, Giovanni Mauri, Maija Radzina, Manjiri Dighe, Xin-Wu Cui, Frank Grünwald, Andreas Schuler, Andre Ignee, Huedayi Korkusuz
      The recently published guidelines of the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) on interventional ultrasound (INVUS)-guided procedures summarize the intended interdisciplinary and multiprofessional approach. Herewith, we report on recommendations for interventional procedures for diagnosis and treatment of the thyroid gland.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T18:39:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.08.1889
       
  • Effect of Pulsed Therapeutic Ultrasound and Diosmin on Skeletal Muscle
           Oxidative Parameters
    • Authors: Luis Fernando Sousa Filho; Paula P. Menezes; Dayanne Valéria Soares Santana; Bruno S. Lima; Shanmugan Saravanan; Grace Kelly M. Almeida; José Evaldo R. Menezes Filho; Marta M.B. Santos; Adriano Antunes A.S. Araújo; Evaleide Diniz de Oliveira
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
      Author(s): Luis Fernando Sousa Filho, Paula P. Menezes, Dayanne Valéria Soares Santana, Bruno S. Lima, Shanmugan Saravanan, Grace Kelly M. Almeida, José Evaldo R. Menezes Filho, Marta M.B. Santos, Adriano Antunes A.S. Araújo, Evaleide Diniz de Oliveira
      Cyclodextrins (CDs) have been widely used as a promising alternative in the formation of inclusion complexes with poorly soluble molecules. From this perspective, the present study aimed to study the inclusion complexes of diosmin in β-cyclodextrin, chemically quantify the diosmin-in-gel preparation and analyze the stability of the gels. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of therapeutic pulsed ultrasound (TPU) in association with the gel–diosmin complex on the parameters of muscle damage and oxidative stress in rats. Serum creatine kinase (CK) levels were used as an indicator of skeletal muscle injury. Lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS]) and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were used as indicators of oxidative stress. The results obtained indicated that the inclusion complex obtained by co-evaporation had the highest complexation efficiency and stability; there was no change in the features of diosmin on incorporation into the Carbopol gel. Additionally, a significant (p < 0.05) decrease was observed in CK levels (TPU plus gel-diosmin: 178.4 ± 85.3 U/L) relative to the untreated group (527.8 ± 46.1 U/L). Levels of TBARS were lower in the TPU plus gel-diosmin group (0.008 ± 0.0004 nmol malondialdehyde/mg protein, p < 0.05) compared with the untreated group (0.081 ± 0.011 nmol malondialdehyde/mg protein, p < 0.05, n = 6). Catalase activity did not statistically significantly differ between the treatment groups, and superoxide dismutase activity was lower in the diosmin-treated group (0.320 ± 0.11 U/mg protein) compared with the untreated group (0.983 ± 0.40 U/mg protein). These results suggest that TPU in association with the diosmin–gel complex is effective in reducing muscle damage and oxidative stress after mechanical trauma.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T18:39:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.09.009
       
  • Usefulness of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound in Differentiating Inflammatory
           Bowel Disease From Colon Cancer
    • Authors: Fan Zhang; Li-ying Miao; Hui-yu Ge; Shi Tan; Zhi-Qiang Li; Bo Zhao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
      Author(s): Fan Zhang, Li-ying Miao, Hui-yu Ge, Shi Tan, Zhi-Qiang Li, Bo Zhao
      To evaluate the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in differential diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colon cancer, we enrolled 51 patients with thickened bowel walls (13 with IBD and 38 with colon cancer). Ultrasound and CEUS were performed and both qualitative and quantitative features were analyzed. The intestinal wall stratification was preserved in 63.6% of the IBD group but in only 2.6% of the colon cancer group (p < 0.01). On CEUS, disordered enhancement and heterogeneous enhancement were shown in only 9.1% and 0%, respectively, of the IBD group while in 94.7% and 78.9%, respectively, of the colon cancer group (p < 0.01). For quantitative analysis, compared to IBD, colon cancer showed later enhancement and slower wash-out with less speed to reach peak intensity (p < 0.05). In conclusion, CEUS may prove useful for the differential diagnosis of IBD and colon cancer, but more studies are required.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T18:39:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.09.016
       
  • Diagnostic Accuracy of 2-D Shear Wave Elastography for the Non-Invasive
           Staging of Liver Fibrosis in Patients with Elevated Alanine
           Aminotransferase Levels
    • Authors: Jie Zeng; Zeping Huang; Jieyang Jin; Jian Zheng; Tao Wu; Rongqin Zheng
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
      Author(s): Jie Zeng, Zeping Huang, Jieyang Jin, Jian Zheng, Tao Wu, Rongqin Zheng
      This study assessed the diagnostic accuracy of 2-D shear wave elastography (2-D-SWE) for the non-invasive staging of liver fibrosis and compared the findings with those for biochemical markers (the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet index and fibrosis-4 index) of liver fibrosis in patients with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (>5 × the upper limit of normal). Patients with chronic liver diseases and elevated ALT levels who underwent liver biopsy were consecutively included. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to assess overall accuracy and to identify optimal cutoff values. After exclusions, data from 105 patients were analyzed. The areas under the ROC curves (AUROCs) for significant fibrosis, severe fibrosis and cirrhosis were 0.83, 0.86 and 0.91, respectively. The optimal cutoff values for predicting significant fibrosis, severe fibrosis and cirrhosis were 10.6, 13.2 and 17.6 kPa, respectively. The AUROCs of 2-D-SWE were significantly higher than those of biochemical markers for predicting significant fibrosis, severe fibrosis and cirrhosis (all p values < 0.05). Therefore, the diagnostic performance of 2-D-SWE in assessing liver fibrosis stages in patients with elevated ALT levels was promising. The optimal cutoff values were increased but appropriate for this cohort because the baseline levels of liver stiffness measurements were increased in these patients, even in the absence of fibrosis.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T18:39:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.09.011
       
  • Sonographic and Anatomic Description of the Subtalar Joint
    • Authors: Peter Mandl; David Bong; Peter V. Balint; Hilde Berner Hammer; Maribel Miguel; Esperanza Naredo; Lene Terslev; Ingrid Möller
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
      Author(s): Peter Mandl, David Bong, Peter V. Balint, Hilde Berner Hammer, Maribel Miguel, Esperanza Naredo, Lene Terslev, Ingrid Möller
      Our study provides a detailed anatomic and sonographic description of the subtalar joint, a single joint that, anatomically, is divided into the anterior subtalar joint (ASTJ) and the posterior subtalar joint (PSTJ). Cadaver specimens of the ankle and foot were examined in detail by ultrasound (US), and the subtalar joints of all the specimens were injected with colored latex of a contrasting color under US guidance. Compatible with other studies, examination of the sections revealed lack of communication between the ASTJ and the PSTJ and communication between the PSTJ and the posterior recess of the tibiotalar joint. A recommended list of standardized ultrasound scans was developed using a Delphi consensus process, which allows sonographers to evaluate both the ASTJ and PSTJ from the medial, lateral and posterior aspects. The recommended ultrasound scans were found to be applicable based on a test of agreement between images acquired in cadaver specimens and images acquired in four centers using healthy patients.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T18:39:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.09.017
       
  • Can in Vivo Medial Gastrocnemius Muscle–Tendon Unit Lengths be Reliably
           Estimated by Two Ultrasonography Methods' A Within-Session Analysis
    • Authors: Francesco Cenni; Simon-Henri Schless; Lynn Bar-On; Guy Molenaers; Anja Van Campenhout; Erwin Aertbeliën; Herman Bruyninckx; Britta Hanssen; Kaat Desloovere
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
      Author(s): Francesco Cenni, Simon-Henri Schless, Lynn Bar-On, Guy Molenaers, Anja Van Campenhout, Erwin Aertbeliën, Herman Bruyninckx, Britta Hanssen, Kaat Desloovere
      A clinically feasible method to reliably estimate muscle–tendon unit (MTU) lengths could provide essential diagnostic and treatment planning information. A 3-D freehand ultrasound (3-DfUS) method was previously validated for extracting in vivo medial gastrocnemius (MG) lengths, although the processing time can be considered substantial for the clinical environment. This investigation analyzed a quicker and simpler method using the US transducer as a spatial pointer (US-PaP), where the within-session reliability of extracting the muscle–tendon unit (MTU) and tendon lengths are estimated. MG MTU lengths were extracted in a group of 14 healthy adults using both 3-DfUS and US-PaP. Two consecutive acquisitions were performed per participant, and the data processed by two researchers independently. The intra-class correlation coefficients were above 0.97, and the standard error of measurements below 3.6 mm (1.5%). This investigation proposes that the simplified US-PaP method is a viable alternative for estimating MG MTU lengths.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T18:39:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.09.018
       
  • Necessity of Axillary Scanning After Negative Finding on Both Mammography
           and Subsequent Breast Ultrasound
    • Authors: Inyoung Youn; Jung Hyun Yoon; Ji Hyun Youk; Hee Jung Moon; Min Jung Kim; Eun-Kyung Kim; Jai Kyung You
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
      Author(s): Inyoung Youn, Jung Hyun Yoon, Ji Hyun Youk, Hee Jung Moon, Min Jung Kim, Eun-Kyung Kim, Jai Kyung You
      The purpose of our study was to assess the cancer detection rate and positive predictive value (PPV) for incidentally detected abnormal axillary lymph nodes with negative mammography and subsequent breast ultrasound (US). We included 7039 screened patients (mean age, 52 y) from January 2012 to March 2015 with negative mammography and subsequent breast US results. In two patients with positive lymph nodes, neither were from breast malignancy. The calculated cancer detection rate, PPV for biopsy and axillary biopsy rate was 0.3 per 1000 axillary US, 14.3% and 0.2%. Cancer rates for patients with a family or personal operation history, with cancer history and with no family/operation/cancer history were 0%, 0.1% and 0.2%, respectively. Our results indicate that the cancer detection rate and PPV for US were too low to recommend routine axillary scanning including screening breast US in patients with negative mammography and subsequent breast US, especially with no history of any cancers.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T18:39:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.08.1888
       
  • Assessing the Reliability of Ultrasound Imaging to Examine Peripheral
           Nerve Excursion: A Systematic Literature Review
    • Authors: Ben Kasehagen; Richard Ellis; Rodney Pope; Nicholas Russell; Wayne Hing
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
      Author(s): Ben Kasehagen, Richard Ellis, Rodney Pope, Nicholas Russell, Wayne Hing
      Ultrasound imaging (USI) is gaining popularity as a tool for assessing nerve excursion and is becoming an important tool for the assessment and management of entrapment neuropathies. This systematic review aimed to identify current methods and report on the reliability of using USI to examine nerve excursion and identify the level of evidence supporting the reliability of this technique. A systematic search of five electronic databases identified studies assessing the reliability of using USI to examine nerve excursion. Two independent reviewers critically appraised and assessed the methodological quality of the identified articles. Eighteen studies met the eligibility criteria. The majority of studies were of “moderate” or “high” methodological quality. The overall analysis indicated a “strong” level of evidence of moderate to high reliability of using USI to assess nerve excursion. Further reliability studies with consistency of reporting are required to further strengthen the level of evidence.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T16:20:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.08.1886
       
  • Monitoring Progression of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Using Ultrasound
           Morpho-Textural Muscle Biomarkers: A Pilot Study
    • Authors: Jacinto J. Martínez-Payá; José Ríos-Díaz; Francesc Medina-Mirapeix; Juan F. Vázquez-Costa; María Elena del Baño-Aledo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
      Author(s): Jacinto J. Martínez-Payá, José Ríos-Díaz, Francesc Medina-Mirapeix, Juan F. Vázquez-Costa, María Elena del Baño-Aledo
      The need is increasing for progression biomarkers that allow the loss of motor neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to be monitored in clinical trials. In this prospective longitudinal study, muscle thickness, echointensity, echovariation and gray level co-occurrence matrix textural features are examined as possible progression ultrasound biomarkers in ALS patients during a 5-mo follow-up period. We subjected 13 patients to 3 measurements for 20 wk. They showed a significant loss of muscle, an evident tendency to loss of thickness and increased echointensity and echovariation. In regard to textural parameters, muscle heterogeneity tended to increase as a result of the neoformation of non-contractile tissue through denervation. Considering some limitations of the study, the quantitative muscle ultrasound biomarkers evaluated showed a promising ability to monitor patients affected by ALS.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T16:20:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.09.013
       
  • Interstitial Matrix Prevents Therapeutic Ultrasound From Causing Inertial
           Cavitation in Tumescent Subcutaneous Tissue
    • Authors: John P. Koulakis; Joshua Rouch; Nhan Huynh; Genia Dubrovsky; James C.Y. Dunn; Seth Putterman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
      Author(s): John P. Koulakis, Joshua Rouch, Nhan Huynh, Genia Dubrovsky, James C.Y. Dunn, Seth Putterman
      We search for cavitation in tumescent subcutaneous tissue of a live pig under application of pulsed, 1-MHz ultrasound at 8 W cm−2 spatial peak and pulse-averaged intensity. We find no evidence of broadband acoustic emission indicative of inertial cavitation. These acoustic parameters are representative of those used in external-ultrasound-assisted lipoplasty and in physical therapy and our null result brings into question the role of cavitation in those applications. A comparison of broadband acoustic emission from a suspension of ultrasound contrast agent in bulk water with a suspension injected subcutaneously indicates that the interstitial matrix suppresses cavitation and provides an additional mechanism behind the apparent lack of in-vivo cavitation to supplement the absence of nuclei explanation offered in the literature. We also find a short-lived cavitation signal in normal, non-tumesced tissue that disappears after the first pulse, consistent with cavitation nuclei depletion in vivo.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T16:20:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.09.005
       
  • Effect of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound on Joint Injury and
           Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis: an Animal Study
    • Authors: Talal Zahoor; Reed Mitchell; Priya Bhasin; Yi Guo; Sharada Paudel; Lew Schon; Zijun Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
      Author(s): Talal Zahoor, Reed Mitchell, Priya Bhasin, Yi Guo, Sharada Paudel, Lew Schon, Zijun Zhang
      This study investigated the therapeutic potential of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) in post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Intra-articular fracture of the medial tibial plateau was surgically created in 30 rats. LIPUS was applied to the operated joints either for the first 2 wk (LIPUS1-2 group) or in weeks 4 and 5 after intra-articular fracture (LIPUS4-5 group). In controls, the operated knees were not treated with LIPUS (LIPUS0 group). The rats were monitored with weekly gait analysis and euthanized at week 8. Among the altered gait parameters, the maximal and average paw print areas in the LIPUS1-2 and LIPUS4-5 groups, but not the LIPUS0 group, had either reached baseline or significantly recovered (70%, p < 0.05) by week 8. PTOA pathology in both the LIPUS1-2 and LIPUS4-5 groups was less severe than that in the LIPUS0 group (Mankin score: 5.4 and 4.5 vs. 8.8, p < 0.05). In conclusion, LIPUS treatment partially improved the gait of the affected limbs and reduced cartilage degeneration in PTOA.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T16:20:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.09.014
       
  • Effects of Extracorporeal Shock Wave-Mediated Transdermal Local Anesthetic
           Drug Delivery on Rat Caudal Nerves
    • Authors: Jer-Junn Luh; Wan-Ting Huang; Kwan-Hwa Lin; Yi-You Huang; Po-Ling Kuo; Wen-Shiang Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
      Author(s): Jer-Junn Luh, Wan-Ting Huang, Kwan-Hwa Lin, Yi-You Huang, Po-Ling Kuo, Wen-Shiang Chen
      Cavitation plays a substantial role in the clinical effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT). It is also generally accepted as a major mechanism in sonophoresis. To identify the enhancing effect of extracorporeal shock wave-mediated transdermal drug delivery, 24 Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: (i) topical application of a eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA); (ii) 1-MHz ultrasound; (iii) ESWT pre-treatment combined with EMLA application; (iv) ESWT concurrent with EMLA application on rat tails. The degree of anesthesia was assessed using the amplitude and latency of sensory nerve action potentials within 5 min after a 60-min EMLA application. The results indicated that ESWT pre-treatment and concurrent ESWT accelerated the anesthetic effects of the EMLA cream on the tail nerve (p < 0.05). This finding might indicate that shock wave-mediated transdermal drug delivery is possible during the ESWT period.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T16:20:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.09.010
       
  • Spatial Compounding of 3-D Fetal Brain Ultrasound Using Probabilistic Maps
    • Authors: Jorge Perez-Gonzalez; Fernando Arámbula-Cosío; Mario Guzmán; Lisbeth Camargo; Benjamin Gutierrez; Diana Mateus; Nassir Navab; Verónica Medina-Bañuelos
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
      Author(s): Jorge Perez-Gonzalez, Fernando Arámbula-Cosío, Mario Guzmán, Lisbeth Camargo, Benjamin Gutierrez, Diana Mateus, Nassir Navab, Verónica Medina-Bañuelos
      A new method to address the problem of shadowing in fetal brain ultrasound volumes is presented. The proposed approach is based on the spatial composition of multiple 3-D fetal head projections using the weighted Euclidean norm as an operator. A support vector machine, which is trained with optimal textural features, was used to assign weighting according to the posterior probabilities of brain tissue and shadows. Both phantom and real fetal head ultrasound volumes were compounded using previously reported operators and compared with the proposed composition method to validate it. The quantitative evaluations revealed increases in signal-to-noise ratio ≤35% and in contrast-to-noise ratio 135% using real data. Qualitative comparisons made by obstetricians indicated that this novel method adequately recovers brain tissue and improves the visibility of the main cerebral structures. This may prove useful both for fetal monitoring and in the diagnosis of brain defects. Overall this new approach outperforms spatial composition methods previously reported.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T16:20:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.09.001
       
  • Ultrasound Imaging Technologies for Breast Cancer Detection and
           Management: A Review
    • Authors: Rongrong Guo; Guolan Lu; Binjie Qin; Baowei Fei
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
      Author(s): Rongrong Guo, Guolan Lu, Binjie Qin, Baowei Fei
      Ultrasound imaging is a commonly used modality for breast cancer detection and diagnosis. In this review, we summarize ultrasound imaging technologies and their clinical applications for the management of breast cancer patients. The technologies include ultrasound elastography, contrast-enhanced ultrasound, 3-D ultrasound, automatic breast ultrasound and computer-aided detection of breast ultrasound. We summarize the study results seen in the literature and discuss their future directions. We also provide a review of ultrasound-guided, breast biopsy and the fusion of ultrasound with other imaging modalities, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For comparison, we also discuss the diagnostic performance of mammography, MRI, positron emission tomography and computed tomography for breast cancer diagnosis at the end of this review. New ultrasound imaging techniques, ultrasound-guided biopsy and the fusion of ultrasound with other modalities provide important tools for the management of breast patients.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T16:20:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.09.012
       
  • Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome Evaluated with 3-D Contrast-Enhanced
           Ultrasonography: a New Approach
    • Authors: Xian-Ming Wang; Xian-Ping Hua; Guo-Liang Zheng
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
      Author(s): Xian-Ming Wang, Xian-Ping Hua, Guo-Liang Zheng
      This study was performed to estimate the value of 3-D contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (3-D-CEUS) in the diagnosis of celiac artery compression syndrome (CACS). Patients suspected of having CACS were assessed with 3-D-CEUS and contrasted with computed tomography angiography. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated with a receiver operating characteristic curve. Three-dimensional CEUS revealed 19 positive and 9 negative cases. In the negative group, the contrast agent did not change with respiration. In the positive group, the contrast agent exhibited a hook-shaped stenosis on expiration and returned to normal on inspiration. Computed tomography angiography indicated 1 false-positive case and 1 false-negative case. The sensitivity and specificity of 3-D-CEUS were 95% and 89%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.982 (p < 0.01). In conclusion, 3-D-CEUS can accurately reveal the characteristic hooked appearance and dynamic nature of CACS with respiration, and thus, it represents a new, non-invasive approach to CACS diagnosis.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T16:20:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.09.008
       
  • Effect of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound on the Expression of Calcium Ion
           Transport-Related Proteins during Tertiary Dentin Formation
    • Authors: Jing Zuo; Jiaxiu Zhen; Fei Wang; Yueheng Li; Zhi Zhou
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
      Author(s): Jing Zuo, Jiaxiu Zhen, Fei Wang, Yueheng Li, Zhi Zhou
      Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) is known for its positive effect on bone healing and reparative regeneration. This study investigated whether LIPUS affects reparative progression of the tooth and the expression of calcium ion transport-related proteins in odontoblasts and dental pulp cells using a rat dentin–pulp complex injury model. Forty male adult Sprague-Dawley rats underwent cavity preparation in the right maxillary first molar: 20 received LIPUS irradiation on the cavity-prepared tooth; 20 received LIPUS irradiation on the left maxillary first molar. Rats were randomly allocated into four groups: blank control group, LIPUS group, cavity-prepared group, cavity-prepared + LIPUS group. LIPUS irradiation (frequency: 1.5 MHz, 200-µs pulse width, 1-kHz pulse repetition frequency, 30 mW/cm2 spatial averaged temporal averaged intensity) was administered individually for 20 min daily. Rats were sacrificed 1, 3, 7 and 14 d post-operation. The histopathological and cellular morphologic changes in the dentin–pulp complex were detected with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Expression of calcium ion transport-related proteins (Cav1.2, NCX1 and TRPV1) was determined with immunohistochemical staining and imaging analysis. Histopathological analysis revealed obvious reparative dentin formation at day 14 in the cavity-prepared + LIPUS group compared with the other groups. Expression levels of Cav1.2, NCX1 and TRPV1 increased significantly by 22%, 53% and 23%, respectively, at day 1 and increased significantly by 23%, 27% and 22%, respectively, at day 3 in the cavity-prepared + LIPUS group (p < 0.05) compared with the cavity-prepared group. LIPUS has a positive effect on the expression of calcium transport-related proteins during early-stage dentin injury and facilitates tertiary dentin formation; the mechanism for this likely relates to the inflammatory reaction and a mechanical effect.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T16:20:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.09.006
       
  • Real-Time Spatiotemporal Control of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound
           
    • Authors: Mohamed A. Abbass; Jakob K. Killin; Neeraja Mahalingam; Fong Ming Hooi; Peter G. Barthe; T. Douglas Mast
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 October 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
      Author(s): Mohamed A. Abbass, Jakob K. Killin, Neeraja Mahalingam, Fong Ming Hooi, Peter G. Barthe, T. Douglas Mast
      The ability to control high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) thermal ablation using echo decorrelation imaging feedback was evaluated in ex vivo bovine liver. Sonications were automatically ceased when the minimum cumulative echo decorrelation within the region of interest exceeded an ablation control threshold, determined from preliminary experiments as −2.7 (log-scaled decorrelation per millisecond), corresponding to 90% specificity for local ablation prediction. Controlled HIFU thermal ablation experiments were compared with uncontrolled experiments employing two, five or nine sonication cycles. Means and standard errors of the lesion width, area and depth, as well as receiver operating characteristic curves testing ablation prediction performance, were computed for each group. Controlled trials exhibited significantly smaller average lesion area, width and treatment time than five-cycle or nine-cycle uncontrolled trials and also had significantly greater prediction capability than two-cycle uncontrolled trials. These results suggest echo decorrelation imaging is an effective approach to real-time HIFU ablation control.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T16:20:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.09.007
       
  • Editorial Advisory Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 43, Issue 11


      PubDate: 2017-09-19T08:00:03Z
       
  • Calendar
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 43, Issue 11


      PubDate: 2017-09-19T08:00:03Z
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 107.20.120.65
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2016