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  Subjects -> PHYSICS (Total: 793 journals)
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PHYSICS (572 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Reviews of Modern Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Revista Colombiana de Física     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Física     Open Access  
Revista mexicana de física E     Open Access  
Rheologica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Russian Journal of Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal  
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Russian Physics Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Samuel Beckett Today/Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Science China : Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Science China Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy     Hybrid Journal  
Scientific Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Sensor Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sensors and Actuators A: Physical     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87)
Services Computing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Shock and Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Small     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Software Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Solid State Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Solid-State Circuits Magazine, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Space Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Spectral Analysis Review     Open Access  
Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Spectroscopy Letters: An International Journal for Rapid Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sri Lankan Journal of Physics     Open Access  
Strain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Strength of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Structural Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Studies In Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Surface Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Surface Review and Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Surface Science Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Surface Science Spectra     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Surface Topography : Metrology and Properties     Full-text available via subscription  
Synchrotron Radiation News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Synthetic Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Technical Physics     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Physics Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Tectonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
The European Physical Journal H     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The European Physical Journal Plus     Open Access  
The International Journal of Multiphysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The Physics of Metals and Metallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
The Physics Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Theoretical and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Topological Quantum Matter     Open Access  
Transport Theory and Statistical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Tribology International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Tribology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Tribotest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Physics     Open Access  
Ultrasonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Universal Journal of Physics and Application     Open Access  
Unnes Physics Education Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Unnes Physics Journal     Open Access  
Western Journal of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Women & Performance: a journal of feminist theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Women in Engineering Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access  
X-Acoustics: Imaging and Sensing : Photoacoustics, Thermoacoustics, Magnetoacoustics     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für angewandte Mathematik und Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Naturforschung A : A Journal of Physical Sciences     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
  [SJR: 0.939]   [H-I: 91]   [7 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0301-5629
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2801 journals]
  • Assessment of the Stiffness of Major Salivary Glands in Primary
           Sjögren's Syndrome through Quantitative Acoustic Radiation Force
           Impulse Imaging
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 3
      Author(s): Shanshan Zhang, Jiaan Zhu, Xia Zhang, Jing He, Jianguo Li
      The purpose of the study described here was to evaluate salivary gland stiffness in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) via acoustic radiation force impulse imaging, including Virtual Touch tissue quantification (VTQ) and Virtual Touch tissue imaging quantification (VTIQ). Twenty-one patients with pSS and 11 healthy patients were included, and the paired parotid and submandibular glands of all of the patients were examined using VTQ and VTIQ. Differences between the two groups were compared with independent and paired t-tests. The VTQ value for the parotid in the pSS group was significantly higher than that obtained for the control group (1.33 ± 0.22 and 1.18 ± 0.04 m/s, respectively, p < 0.01). The VTIQ values for the parotid and submandibular gland were both significantly higher in the pSS group than in the control group (p < 0.05). In the pSS group, a positive correlation was observed between the VTQ and VTIQ results for the parotid and submandibular glands. In summary, the stiffness of the major salivary glands in patients with pSS was increased compared with that of patients with normal glands. This finding indicates that VTQ and VTIQ imaging may be valuable adjuncts to gray-scale ultrasonography for the clinical diagnosis of pSS.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Validity of Carotid Duplex Sonography in Screening for Intracranial Dural
           Arteriovenous Fistula among Patients with Pulsatile Tinnitus
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Li-Kai Tsai, Shin-Joe Yeh, Sung-Chun Tang, Yu-Lin Hsieh, Ying-An Chen, Hon-Man Liu, Jiann-Shing Jeng
      Pulsatile tinnitus may result from intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF), which requires early diagnosis and management. This study validated the role of carotid duplex sonography in screening for DAVF in patients with pulsatile tinnitus. The criteria used for DAVF screening were low resistance index of the external carotid artery or occipital artery (OA). Patients then underwent head magnetic resonance imaging to confirm the diagnosis. Of the 155 patients with pulsatile tinnitus who were prospectively screened, 25 (16.1%) had a low resistance index in either the external carotid artery or occipital artery. All were proven to have DAVF. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 96%, 100%, 100% and 98%, respectively. Thus, carotid duplex sonography focusing on low resistance indexes of the external carotid and occipital arteries may be a valuable tool in screening for DAVF in patients with pulsatile tinnitus.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System and Ultrasound Elastography:
           Diagnostic Accuracy as a Tool in Recommending Repeat Fine-Needle
           Aspiration for Solid Thyroid Nodules with Non-Diagnostic Fine-Needle
           Aspiration Cytology
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Vivian Youngjean Park, Eun-Kyung Kim, Jin Young Kwak, Jung Hyun Yoon, Min Jung Kim, Hee Jung Moon
      The Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TIRADS) has been found to be accurate in the stratification of malignancy risk, and elastography has been found to have a high negative predictive value in non-diagnostic thyroid nodules. Through assessment of 104 solid non-diagnostic thyroid nodules, this study investigated the role of both in recommending repeat ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration for solid thyroid nodules with non-diagnostic cytology. All nodules were classified by TIRADS (categories 4a, 4b, 4c and 5), and elastography scores were assigned according to the Rago and Asteria criteria. The malignancy risks for TIRADS categories 4a, 4b, 4c and 5 were 12.5%, 25.0%, 25.8% and 16.7%, respectively. Elastography revealed the highest diagnostic performance for TIRADS category 4a, with a sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value and accuracy of 100%, 85.7%, 100%, 50% and 87.5% for the Asteria criteria. Observation may be considered for non-diagnostic solid nodules that have no other suspicious ultrasonographic features and are also benign on real-time strain elastography using the Asteria criteria.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Shear Wave Elastography in Head and Neck Lymph Node Assessment: Image
           Quality and Diagnostic Impact Compared with B-Mode and Doppler
           Ultrasonography
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Florian Desmots, Nicolas Fakhry, Julien Mancini, Anthony Reyre, Vincent Vidal, Alexis Jacquier, Laure Santini, Guy Moulin, Arthur Varoquaux
      The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of shear wave elastography (SWE) in comparison to B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography in differentiating benign from malignant head and neck lymph nodes (HNLNs). Sixty-two HNLNs from 56 patients were prospectively examined using B-mode, Doppler and SWE. The standard of reference was histopathology or cytology and follow-up. Qualitative malignant criteria (hilum infiltration, cortical hypo-echogenicity, irregular margins, abnormal vessels) were assessed on a five-point scale. Four quantitative parameters were obtained: long axis length, short axis length, short axis/long axis ratio, resistive index and maximum shear elasticity modulus (μmax). Diagnostic performance was analyzed with special emphasis on the sub-centimeter HNLN subgroup. Thirty HNLNs were malignant (48%). μmax intra-observer reproducibility was 0.899 (0.728 in sub-centimeter subgroup). Malignant HNLNs were stiffer (μmax = 72.4 ± 59.0 kPa) compared with benign nodes (μmax = 23.3 ± 25.3 kPa) (p < 0.001). Among the quantitative criteria, μmax had the highest diagnostic accuracy (area under the curve = 0.903 ± 0.042), especially in the sub-centimeter subgroup (area under the curve = 0.929 ± 0.045; p < 0.001) in which the area under the curve was significantly higher compared with the other quantitative criteria (p < 0.05). The additional use of SWE combined with B-mode tended to improve diagnostic accuracy (p > 0.05). SWE is a promising reproducible quantitative tool with which to predict malignant HNLNs, especially sub-centimeter nodes.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Virtual Touch Tissue Imaging Quantification Shear Wave Elastography:
           Prospective Assessment of Cervical Lymph Nodes
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Kai Lun Cheng, Young Jun Choi, Woo Hyun Shim, Jeong Hyun Lee, Jung Hwan Baek
      The goal of this study was to prospectively evaluate the diagnostic performance of Virtual Touch tissue imaging quantification (VTIQ) shear wave elastography in the discrimination of benign and malignant cervical lymph nodes in routine clinical practice. Shear wave velocity was analyzed using VTIQ in 100 patients with 100 histologically proven cervical lymph nodes. Diagnostic performance was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and leave-one-out cross-validation. Agreement between measurements was assessed with intra-class correlation coefficients. The mean shear wave velocity was significantly higher in metastatic lymphadenopathy (4.46 ± 1.46 m/s) than in benign lymphadenopathy (2.71 ± 0.85 m/s) (p < 0.001) at a cutoff level of 3.34 m/s. The cross-validated accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were 77%, 78.9% and 74.4%, respectively. Agreement of measurements with VTIQ was excellent (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.961). VTIQ shear wave elastography may be a feasible quantitative imaging method for differentiating benign and malignant cervical lymph nodes.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Ultrasound-Based Carotid Elastography for Detection of Vulnerable
           Atherosclerotic Plaques Validated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Chengwu Huang, Xiaochang Pan, Qiong He, Manwei Huang, Lingyun Huang, Xihai Zhao, Chun Yuan, Jing Bai, Jianwen Luo
      Ultrasound-based carotid elastography has been developed to estimate the mechanical properties of atherosclerotic plaques. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vivo capability of carotid elastography in vulnerable plaque detection using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging as reference. Ultrasound radiofrequency data of 46 carotid plaques from 29 patients (74 ± 5 y old) were acquired and inter-frame axial strain was estimated with an optical flow method. The maximum value of absolute strain rate for each plaque was derived as an indicator for plaque classification. Magnetic resonance imaging of carotid arteries was performed on the same patients to classify the plaques into stable and vulnerable groups for carotid elastography validation. The maximum value of absolute strain rate was found to be significantly higher in vulnerable plaques (2.15 ± 0.79 s−1, n = 27) than in stable plaques (1.21 ± 0.37 s−1, n = 19) (p < 0.0001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed, and the area under the curve was 0.848. Therefore, the in vivo capability of carotid elastography to detect vulnerable plaques, validated by magnetic resonance imaging, was proven, revealing the potential of carotid elastography as an important tool in atherosclerosis assessment and stroke prevention.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Safety Validation of Repeated Blood–Brain Barrier Disruption Using
           Focused Ultrasound
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Thiele Kobus, Natalia Vykhodtseva, Magdalini Pilatou, Yongzhi Zhang, Nathan McDannold
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects on the brain of multiple sessions of blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption using focused ultrasound (FUS) in combination with micro-bubbles over a range of acoustic exposure levels. Six weekly sessions of FUS, using acoustical pressures between 0.66 and 0.80 MPa, were performed under magnetic resonance guidance. The success and degree of BBB disruption was estimated by signal enhancement of post-contrast T1-weighted imaging of the treated area. Histopathological analysis was performed after the last treatment. The consequences of repeated BBB disruption varied from no indications of vascular damage to signs of micro-hemorrhages, macrophage infiltration, micro-scar formations and cystic cavities. The signal enhancement on the contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging had limited value for predicting small-vessel damage. T2-weighted imaging corresponded well with the effects on histopathology and could be used to study treatment effects over time. This study demonstrates that repeated BBB disruption by FUS can be performed with no or limited damage to the brain tissue.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Quantitative Ultrasound for Staging of Hepatic Steatosis in Patients on
           Home Parenteral Nutrition Validated with Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy:
           A Feasibility Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 3
      Author(s): Gerrit Weijers, Geert Wanten, Johan M. Thijssen, Marinette van der Graaf, Chris L. de Korte
      Patients on home parenteral nutrition are at risk for developing liver dysfunction, which is due partly to the accumulation of lipids in the liver (steatosis) and may progress to end-stage liver disease with overt liver failure. Therefore, a timely diagnosis with easy access to repeated assessment of the degree of liver steatosis is of great importance. A pilot study was performed in 14 patients on long-term home parenteral nutrition using the computer-aided ultrasound method. Ultrasound radio frequency data were acquired using a phased array transducer and were converted into conventional B-mode images. All patients were subjected to proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurement of liver fat content for reference. Computer-aided ultrasound parameters similar to those in a previous validation study in cows revealed significant correlations with fat content measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The most significant parameters were the residual attenuation coefficient (R = 0.95, p < 0.001) and the lateral speckle size (R = 0.77, p = 0.021). These findings indicate the potential usefulness of computer-aided ultrasound for staging of hepatic steatosis.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Sonographic Detection of Abnormal Plaque Motion of the Carotid Artery: Its
           Usefulness in Diagnosing High-Risk Lesions Ranging from Plaque Rupture to
           Ulcer Formation
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Mutsuko Muraki, Taisei Mikami, Tetsuyuki Yoshimoto, Shin Fujimoto, Mayumi Kitaguchi, Sanae Kaga, Tomoko Sugawara, Kouichi Tokuda, Sadao Kaneko, Takeshi Kashiwaba
      We investigated the feasibility of using sonography of abnormal plaque motion to diagnose high-risk carotid lesions ranging from plaque rupture to ulcer formation. Fifty consecutive carotid arteries of 49 patients (71 ± 7 y, 37 males) who underwent carotid endarterectomy were investigated by carotid sonography to find a plaque concavity (sonographic ulcer [SU]), fine trembling motion inside the plaque (FTMI) and systolic retractive motion of the plaque surface (SRMS). Plaque rupture or ulcer, necrotic core and intra-plaque hemorrhage were determined at carotid endarterectomy. Twenty-two SUs, 41 cases of FTMI and 20 cases of SRMS were detected by carotid sonography. The sensitivity and specificity of SU in diagnosing plaque rupture or ulcer at carotid endarterectomy were 48% and 90%, and those of FTMI were 93% and 60%. Plaques with SRMS more frequently had both a necrotic core and intra-plaque hemorrhage than those without SRMS (80% vs. 30%, p = 0.0005). Abnormal plaque motion detected by carotid sonography is useful in detecting a ruptured or ulcerated plaque with a necrotic core and/or hemorrhage.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 2




      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Comparison of Thermal Safety Practice Guidelines for Diagnostic
           Ultrasound Exposures
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Gerald R. Harris, Charles C. Church, Diane Dalecki, Marvin C. Ziskin, Jennifer E. Bagley
      This article examines the historical evolution of various practice guidelines designed to minimize the possibility of thermal injury during a diagnostic ultrasound examination, including those published by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, British Medical Ultrasound Society and Health Canada. The guidelines for prenatal/neonatal examinations are in general agreement, but significant differences were found for postnatal exposures. We propose sets of thermal index versus exposure time for these examination categories below which there is reasonable assurance that an examination can be conducted without risk of producing an adverse thermal effect under any scanning conditions. If it is necessary to exceed these guidelines, the occurrence of an adverse thermal event is still unlikely in most situations because of mitigating factors such as transducer movement and perfusion, but the general principle of “as low as reasonably achievable” should be followed. Some limitations of the biological effects studies underpinning the guidelines also are discussed briefly.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Masthead
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 2




      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Editorial Advisory Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 2




      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Quantification of Shunt Volume Through Ventricular Septal Defect by
           Real-Time 3-D Color Doppler Echocardiography: An in Vitro Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
      Author(s): Meihua Zhu, Muhammad Ashraf, Lydia Tam, Cole Streiff, Sumito Kimura, Eriko Shimada, David J. Sahn
      Quantification of shunt volume is important for ventricular septal defects (VSDs). The aim of the in vitro study described here was to test the feasibility of using real-time 3-D color Doppler echocardiography (RT3-D-CDE) to quantify shunt volume through a modeled VSD. Eight porcine heart phantoms with VSDs ranging in diameter from 3 to 25 mm were studied. Each phantom was passively driven at five different stroke volumes from 30 to 70 mL and two stroke rates, 60 and 120 strokes/min. RT3-D-CDE full volumes were obtained at color Doppler volume rates of 15, 20 and 27 volumes/s. Shunt flow derived from RT3-D-CDE was linearly correlated with pump-driven stroke volume (R = 0.982). RT3-D-CDE-derived shunt volumes from three color Doppler flow rate settings and two stroke rate acquisitions did not differ (p > 0.05). The use of RT3-D-CDE to determine shunt volume though VSDs is feasible. Different color volume rates/heart rates under clinically/physiologically relevant range have no effect on VSD 3-D shunt volume determination.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Trans-Stent B-Mode Ultrasound and Passive Cavitation Imaging
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Kevin J. Haworth, Jason L. Raymond, Kirthi Radhakrishnan, Melanie R. Moody, Shao-Ling Huang, Tao Peng, Himanshu Shekhar, Melvin E. Klegerman, Hyunggun Kim, David D. McPherson, Christy K. Holland
      Angioplasty and stenting of a stenosed artery enable acute restoration of blood flow. However, restenosis or a lack of re-endothelization can subsequently occur depending on the stent type. Cavitation-mediated drug delivery is a potential therapy for these conditions, but requires that particular types of cavitation be induced by ultrasound insonation. Because of the heterogeneity of tissue and stochastic nature of cavitation, feedback mechanisms are needed to determine whether the sustained bubble activity is induced. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of passive cavitation imaging through a metal stent in a flow phantom and an animal model. In this study, an endovascular stent was deployed in a flow phantom and in porcine femoral arteries. Fluorophore-labeled echogenic liposomes, a theragnostic ultrasound contrast agent, were injected proximal to the stent. Cavitation images were obtained by passively recording and beamforming the acoustic emissions from echogenic liposomes insonified with a low-frequency (500 kHz) transducer. In vitro experiments revealed that the signal-to-noise ratio for detecting stable cavitation activity through the stent was greater than 8 dB. The stent did not significantly reduce the signal-to-noise ratio. Trans-stent cavitation activity was also detected in vivo via passive cavitation imaging when echogenic liposomes were insonified by the 500-kHz transducer. When stable cavitation was detected, delivery of the fluorophore into the arterial wall was observed. Increased echogenicity within the stent was also observed when echogenic liposomes were administered. Thus, both B-mode ultrasound imaging and cavitation imaging are feasible in the presence of an endovascular stent in vivo. Demonstration of this capability supports future studies to monitor restenosis with contrast-enhanced ultrasound and pursue image-guided ultrasound-mediated drug delivery to inhibit restenosis.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Comparison of Uterine Receptivity between Fertile and Unexplained
           Infertile Women by Assessment of Endometrial and Subendometrial Perfusion
           Using Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound: Which Index is Better—Peak
           Intensity or Area under the Curve'
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 3
      Author(s): Minxia Chen, Yanni He, Pengjie Zhang, Qiang Geng, Qiuxiang Liu, Linghong Kong, Yihan Chen, Qingzhu Wei, Jianghuan Liu, Suiqun Guo, Hongmei Liu
      The goal of this study was to compare uterine receptivity between women with normal fertility and those with unexplained infertility during natural cycles by assessment of endometrial and subendometrial perfusion using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). We wanted to determine the better index: peak intensity (PI) or area under the curve (AUC). Thirty women with unexplained infertility were recruited into the study group, and 30 women with normal fertility were recruited into the control group. All women underwent CEUS during the late proliferative phase, ovulation phase, and implantation window of a menstrual cycle. Endometrial PI, endometrial AUC, subendometrial PI and subendometrial AUC were analyzed. In the late proliferative phase, the control group had a significantly higher endometrial PI (p < 0.001) as well as subendometrial PI (p < 0.001) and AUC (p = 0.004) than the study group. In the ovulation phase, the control group had a significantly higher endometrial PI (p < 0.001) and AUC (p = 0.021), as well as subendometrial PI (p < 0.001) and AUC (p = 0.003). During the implantation window, there were no significant differences between the two groups. Only subendometrial PI underwent a significant periodic change during the menstrual cycle in both groups. This finding was further confirmed by evaluation of the microvessel density of endometria. In conclusion, CEUS can be used to assess endometrial and subendometrial perfusion to evaluate uterine receptivity. Subendometrial PI was the most sensitive index compared with endometrial PI, endometrial AUC and subendometrial AUC.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Liver Function Assessment Using Parenchyma-Specific Contrast-Enhanced
           Ultrasonography
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Jaehyung Park, Jinhan Cho, Heejin Kwon, Myongjin Kang, Sangyun Lee, Young-hoon Roh, Kwan Woo Kim, Sung Wook Lee
      The aim of this study was to assess hepatic functional reserve by analyzing the hepatic parenchyma enhancement curve of parenchyma-specific contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS). Fifty-two patients with cirrhosis who underwent CEUS and indocyanine green tests (ICG) because of a focal liver lesion were enrolled. We evaluated the hemodynamic-related parameters of the time-intensity curve and compared these findings with the ICG retention rate at 15 min (ICG R15). The correlation between the time from peak to one half (s) and ICG R15 was statistically significant and was relatively proportional to the ICG R15. A cut-off value of 149 s was determined for the time from peak to one half for abnormal ICG R15 (>14). The sensitivity and specificity were 85.7% and 92.3%, respectively, for the detection of abnormal ICG R15. In conclusion, the time from peak to one half of the time-intensity curve of parenchyma-specific CEUS of the liver can be a useful parameter to predict the hepatic reserve in liver cirrhosis.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Long-Term Effects of Pericardiectomy on Left Ventricular Mechanics
           Evaluated by Using Speckle Tracking Echocardiography in Patients with
           Constrictive Pericarditis
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Li Li, You-Bin Deng, Kun Liu, Ling-Dan Guo, Hong-Yun Liu, Wei Zhou, Qiao-Ying Tang
      The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term changes in left ventricular (LV) mechanics after pericardiectomy in patients with constrictive pericarditis (CP) and to correlate post-operative LV mechanics with clinical status. A total of 24 patients with CP underwent serial speckle tracking echocardiography 1 wk before and 1, 6 and 12 mo after pericardiectomy. Global LV longitudinal, circumferential and radial strains, along with LV twist, were measured. Twenty-three healthy volunteers were served as control patients. Although global LV longitudinal, circumferential and radial strains obtained 6 mo after pericardiectomy increased compared with those for pre-pericardiectomy, they were still significantly lower than those for control patients. Further improvements occurred over time with normalization of global LV longitudinal and radial strains 12 mo after pericardiectomy, but global circumferential strain obtained 12 mo after pericardiectomy was still lower than that for control patients. LV twist remained unchanged after pericardiectomy. In addition, the improvements in global LV circumferential strain after pericardiectomy were associated with improvements in clinical symptoms (p < 0.001). These findings suggest that the global LV circumferential strain may be a promising parameter in the evaluation of the effectiveness of pericardiectomy.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Masthead
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 3




      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Editorial Advisory Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 3




      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 3




      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Calendar
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 3




      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • A Broadband Polyvinylidene Difluoride-Based Hydrophone with Integrated
           Readout Circuit for Intravascular Photoacoustic Imaging
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
      Author(s): Verya Daeichin, Chao Chen, Qing Ding, Min Wu, Robert Beurskens, Geert Springeling, Emile Noothout, Martin D. Verweij, Koen W.A. van Dongen, Johan G. Bosch, Antonius F.W. van der Steen, Nico de Jong, Michiel Pertijs, Gijs van Soest
      Intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging can visualize the coronary atherosclerotic plaque composition on the basis of the optical absorption contrast. Most of the photoacoustic (PA) energy of human coronary plaque lipids was found to lie in the frequency band between 2 and 15 MHz requiring a very broadband transducer, especially if a combination with intravascular ultrasound is desired. We have developed a broadband polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) transducer (0.6 × 0.6 mm, 52 μm thick) with integrated electronics to match the low capacitance of such a small polyvinylidene difluoride element (<5 pF/mm2) with the high capacitive load of the long cable (∼100 pF/m). The new readout circuit provides an output voltage with a sensitivity of about 3.8 μV/Pa at 2.25 MHz. Its response is flat within 10 dB in the range 2 to 15 MHz. The root mean square (rms) output noise level is 259 μV over the entire bandwidth (1–20 MHz), resulting in a minimum detectable pressure of 30 Pa at 2.25 MHz.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Use of Hydroxyapatite Doping to Enhance Responsiveness of Heat-Inducible
           Gene Switches to Focused Ultrasound
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 3
      Author(s): Mario L. Fabiilli, Rahul A. Phanse, Alexander Moncion, J. Brian Fowlkes, Renny T. Franceschi
      Recently, we demonstrated that ultrasound-based hyperthermia can activate cells containing a heat-activated and ligand-inducible gene switch in a spatio-temporally controlled manner. These engineered cells can be incorporated into hydrogel scaffolds (e.g., fibrin) for in vivo implantation, where ultrasound can be used to non-invasively pattern transgene expression. Due to their high water content, the acoustic attenuation of fibrin scaffolds is low. Thus, long ultrasound exposures and high acoustic intensities are needed to generate sufficient hyperthermia for gene activation. Here, we demonstrate that the attenuation of fibrin scaffolds and the resulting hyperthermia achievable with ultrasound can be increased significantly by doping the fibrin with hydroxyapatite (HA) nanopowder. The attenuation of a 1% (w/v) fibrin scaffold with 5% (w/v) HA was similar to soft tissue. Transgene activation of cells harboring the gene switch occurred at lower acoustic intensities and shorter exposures when the cells were encapsulated in HA-doped fibrin scaffolds versus undoped scaffolds. Inclusion of HA in the fibrin scaffold did not affect the viability of the encapsulated cells.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Investigation of Ultrasound-Measured Flow Rate and Wall Shear Rate in
           Wrist Arteries Using Flow Phantoms
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 3
      Author(s): Xiaowei Zhou, Chunming Xia, Faisel Khan, George A. Corner, Zhihong Huang, Peter R. Hoskins
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the errors in measurement of volumetric flow rate and wall shear rate measured in radial and ulnar arteries using a commercial ultrasound scanning system. The Womersley equations were used to estimate the flow rate and wall shear rate waveforms, based on the measured vessel diameter and centerline velocity waveform. In the experiments, each variable (vessel depth, diameter, flow rate, beam–vessel angle and different waveform) in the phantom was investigated in turn, and its value was varied within a normal range while others were fixed at their typical values. The outcomes revealed that flow rate and wall shear rate were overestimated in all cases, from around 13% to nearly 50%. It is concluded that measurements of flow rate and wall shear rate in radial and ulnar arteries with a clinical ultrasound scanner are vulnerable to overestimation.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Effects of Different Therapeutic Ultrasound Waveforms on Endothelial
           Function in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized Clinical Trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Jeferson Mendes Cruz, Melina Hauck, Ana Paula Cardoso Pereira, Maicon Borges Moraes, Cassio Noronha Martins, Felipe da Silva Paulitsch, Rodrigo Della Méa Plentz, William Peres, Antônio Marcos Vargas da Silva, Luis Ulisses Signori
      The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different therapeutic 1-MHz ultrasound waveforms on endothelial function before and after cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition. Forty-two healthy volunteers aged 27.2 ± 3.8 y underwent interventions and an evaluation for endothelial function (n = 15; with COX inhibition, n = 15; duration of the vasodilator effect, n = 12) by technique flow-mediated dilation. Continuous ultrasound therapy (0.4 W/cm2 SATA), pulsed ultrasound therapy (20% duty cycle, 0.08 W/cm2 SATA) or placebo (equipment power off) was randomly applied over the brachial artery for 5 min. COX inhibition (aspirin) was carried out 30 min before treatments. In relation to the placebo, flow-mediated dilation increased by 4.8% using continuous ultrasound and by 3.4% using pulsed ultrasound. After COX, flow-mediated dilation was enhanced by 2.1% by continuous ultrasound and 2.6% by pulsed ultrasound. This vasodilation persisted for 20 min. Continuous and pulsed therapeutic 1-MHz ultrasound waveforms improved endothelial function in humans, which provided them with anti-inflammatory vascular effects.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Effects of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound on Orthodontic Tooth Movement
           and Orthodontically Induced Inflammatory Root Resorption in Ovariectomized
           Osteoporotic Rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 3
      Author(s): Feras Y. Dahhas, Tarek El-Bialy, Ahmed R. Afify, Ali H. Hassan
      This study investigated the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) and orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIRR) in ovariectomized osteoporotic rats. Forty-eight 28-d-old female Wistar rats were divided into ovariectomized and intact groups. In both groups, animals were left untreated; treated with 50 g mesially directed orthodontic force on the maxillary first molars using nickel–titanium closed-coil springs for 28 d; or treated with the same orthodontic protocol along with a 20-min LIPUS application on alternate days for 28 d. Extent of OTM and amount of OIRR of mesial roots were measured on three-dimensionally reconstructed micro-computed tomography images. Ovariectomy increased OIRR (p < 0.05). LIPUS reduced root volumetric loss regardless of ovariectomy status (p < 0.05); only ovariectomized animals had decreased OTM (p < 0.05). LIPUS normalizes OTM and attenuates OIRR in ovariectomized osteoporotic rats. It may therefore be beneficial in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Correlation of Global Strain Rate and Left Ventricular
           Filling Pressure in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: A 2-D
           Speckle-Tracking Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Hong Ma, Wei-Chun Wu, Rong-Ai Xie, Li-Jian Gao, Hao Wang
      The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of 2-D speckle-tracking imaging in the prediction of left ventricular filling pressure in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Eighty-four patients with CAD and 30 healthy controls were recruited prospectively. The longitudinal strain rate (SR) curves were determined in three apical views of the left ventricle long axis. Circumferential and radial SR curves were determined in three short-axis views. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) was invasively obtained by left heart catheterization. Compared with the 30 controls, the patients with CAD had significantly lower global SR during early diastole (SRe) and higher E/SRe in three directions of myocardial deformation. CAD patients with elevated LVEDP had significantly lower SRe and higher E/SRe of three deformations. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that LVEDP correlated positively with E/E′ ratio, radial SRe and longitudinal and circumferential E/SRe. LVEDP correlated negatively with longitudinal and circumferential SRe and radial E/SRe. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that these SR indexes predicted elevated LVEDP (areas under the curve: longitudinal E/SRe = 0.74, circumferential E/SRe = 0.74, circumferential SRe = 0.70, longitudinal SRe = 0.69, radial E/SRe = 0.68, radial SRe = 0.65), but neither was superior to the tissue Doppler imaging index E/E' (area under the curve = 0.84). The present study indicates that 2-D speckle-tracking imaging is a practical method for evaluating LV filling pressure, but it might not provide additional advantages compared with E/E′ in CAD patients.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Calibration and Evaluation of Ultrasound Thermography Using Infrared
           Imaging
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Yi-Sing Hsiao, Cheri X. Deng
      Real-time monitoring of the spatiotemporal evolution of tissue temperature is important to ensure safe and effective treatment in thermal therapies including hyperthermia and thermal ablation. Ultrasound thermography has been proposed as a non-invasive technique for temperature measurement, and accurate calibration of the temperature-dependent ultrasound signal changes against temperature is required. Here we report a method that uses infrared thermography for calibration and validation of ultrasound thermography. Using phantoms and cardiac tissue specimens subjected to high-intensity focused ultrasound heating, we simultaneously acquired ultrasound and infrared imaging data from the same surface plane of a sample. The commonly used echo time shift-based method was chosen to compute ultrasound thermometry. We first correlated the ultrasound echo time shifts with infrared-measured temperatures for material-dependent calibration and found that the calibration coefficient was positive for fat-mimicking phantom (1.49 ± 0.27) but negative for tissue-mimicking phantom (−0.59 ± 0.08) and cardiac tissue (−0.69 ± 0.18°C-mm/ns). We then obtained the estimation error of the ultrasound thermometry by comparing against the infrared-measured temperature and revealed that the error increased with decreased size of the heated region. Consistent with previous findings, the echo time shifts were no longer linearly dependent on temperature beyond 45°C–50°C in cardiac tissues. Unlike previous studies in which thermocouples or water bath techniques were used to evaluate the performance of ultrasound thermography, our results indicate that high-resolution infrared thermography is a useful tool that can be applied to evaluate and understand the limitations of ultrasound thermography methods.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • High-Frequency, Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Enhances Alveolar Bone
           Healing of Extraction Sockets in Rats: A Pilot Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Kyung Lhi Kang, Eun-Cheol Kim, Joon Bong Park, Jung Sun Heo, Yumi Choi
      Most studies of the beneficial effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on bone healing have used frequencies between 1.0 and 1.5 MHz. However, after consideration of ultrasound wave characteristics and depth of target tissue, higher-frequency LIPUS may have been more effective on superficially positioned alveolar bone. We investigated this hypothesis by applying LIPUS (frequency, 3.0 MHz; intensity, 30 mW/cm2) on shaved right cheeks over alveolar bones of tooth extraction sockets in rats for 10 min/d for 2 wk after tooth extraction; the control group (left cheek of the same rats) did not receive LIPUS treatment. Compared with the control group, the LIPUS group manifested more new bone growth inside the sockets on histomorphometric analysis (maximal difference = 2.5-fold on the seventh day after extraction) and higher expressions of osteogenesis-related mRNAs and proteins than the control group did. These findings indicate that 3.0-MHz LIPUS could enhance alveolar bone formation and calcification in rats.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Image-Guided Ultrasound Characterization of Volatile Sub-Micron
           Phase-Shift Droplets in the 20–40 MHz Frequency Range
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 3
      Author(s): Paul S. Sheeran, Yasaman Daghighi, Kimoon Yoo, Ross Williams, Emmanuel Cherin, F. Stuart Foster, Peter N. Burns
      Phase-shift perfluorocarbon droplets are designed to convert from the liquid to the gas state by the external application of acoustic or optical energy. Although droplet vaporization has been investigated extensively at ultrasonic frequencies between 1 and 10 MHz, few studies have characterized performance at the higher frequencies commonly used in small animal imaging. In this study, we use standard B-mode imaging sequences on a pre-clinical ultrasound platform to both image and activate sub-micron decafluorobutane droplet populations in vitro and in vivo at center frequencies in the range of 20–40 MHz. Results show that droplets remain stable against vaporization at low imaging pressures but are vaporized at peak negative pressures near 3.5 MPa at the three frequencies tested. This study also found that a small number of size outliers present in the distribution can greatly influence droplet performance. Removal of these outliers results in a more accurate assessment of the vaporization threshold and produces free-flowing microbubbles upon vaporization in the mouse kidney.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Fluid Viscosity Affects the Fragmentation and Inertial Cavitation
           Threshold of Lipid-Encapsulated Microbubbles
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 3
      Author(s): Brandon Helfield, John J. Black, Bin Qin, John Pacella, Xucai Chen, Flordeliza S. Villanueva
      Ultrasound and microbubble optimization studies for therapeutic applications are often conducted in water/saline, with a fluid viscosity of 1 cP. In an in vivo context, microbubbles are situated in blood, a more viscous fluid (∼4 cP). In this study, ultrahigh-speed microscopy and passive cavitation approaches were employed to investigate the effect of fluid viscosity on microbubble behavior at 1 MHz subject to high pressures (0.25–2 MPa). The propensity for individual microbubble (n = 220) fragmentation was found to significantly decrease in 4-cP fluid compared with 1-cP fluid, despite achieving similar maximum radial excursions. Microbubble populations diluted in 4-cP fluid exhibited decreased wideband emissions (up to 10.2 times), and increasingly distinct harmonic emission peaks (e.g., ultraharmonic) with increasing pressure, compared with those in 1-cP fluid. These results suggest that in vitro studies should consider an evaluation using physiologic viscosity perfusate before transitioning to in vivo evaluations.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Image-Guided Focused Ultrasound-Mediated Regional Brain Stimulation in
           Sheep
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Wonhye Lee, Stephanie D. Lee, Michael Y. Park, Lori Foley, Erin Purcell-Estabrook, Hyungmin Kim, Krisztina Fischer, Lee-So Maeng, Seung-Schik Yoo
      Non-invasive brain stimulation using focused ultrasound has largely been carried out in small animals. In the present study, we applied stimulatory focused ultrasound transcranially to the primary sensorimotor (SM1) and visual (V1) brain areas in sheep (Dorset, all female, n = 8), under the guidance of magnetic resonance imaging, and examined the electrophysiologic responses. By use of a 250-kHz focused ultrasound transducer, the area was sonicated in pulsed mode (tone-burst duration of 1 ms, duty cycle of 50%) for 300 ms. The acoustic intensity at the focal target was varied up to a spatial peak pulse-average intensity (I sppa) of 14.3 W/cm2. Sonication of SM1 elicited electromyographic responses from the contralateral hind leg, whereas stimulation of V1 generated electroencephalographic potentials. These responses were detected only above a certain acoustic intensity, and the threshold intensity, as well as the degree of responses, varied among sheep. Post-sonication animal behavior was normal, but minor microhemorrhages were observed from the V1 areas exposed to highly repetitive sonication (every second for ≥500 times for electroencephalographic measurements, I sppa = 6.6–10.5 W/cm2, mechanical index = 0.9–1.2). Our results suggest the potential translational utility of focused ultrasound as a new brain stimulation modality, yet also call for caution in the use of an excessive number of sonications.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Are Results of 4-D Ultrasound Angiography Examinations Dependent on the
           Doppler Technology Applied' Comparison of Results Obtained from
           an In Vivo Model
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Marek J. Kudla, Andrzej Los, Juan Luis Alcazar
      We aimed to evaluate the agreement of results obtained by 4-D spatio-temporal image correlation (STIC) angiography with two options of Doppler technology (power Doppler [PD] and high-definition flow [HDF]) from an ovary as an in vivo model. Thirty-eight ovaries were recorded by trans-vaginal ultrasound examination in the first part of the menstrual cycle. Two STIC sequences (4-D HDF and 4-D PD) were stored. Volumetric pulsatility index, volumetric resistance index and volumetric systolic/diastolic index for each of these sequences were calculated, and their mean values were compared and correlated. Agreement between 4-D HDF and 4-D PD was assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient. Intra-class correlation coefficients for all three indices were high, but 95% confidence intervals and limits of agreement were wide. We conclude that both 4-D power Doppler and 4-D high-definition flow may be used for calculating volumetric pulsatility index, volumetric resistance index and volumetric systolic/diastolic index from a STIC sequence, at least in ovaries used as an in vivo model. However, values obtained by both methods cannot be used interchangeably.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Ultrasound Assessment of the Skeletal Development of the Proximal Tibial,
           Proximal Femoral, and Distal Femoral Epiphyses in Premature and Mature
           Newborns
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Daniel Windschall, Michael Pommerenke, Roland Haase
      We evaluated postnatal skeletal development of the proximal femoral epiphysis, distal femoral epiphysis (DFE) and proximal tibial epiphysis (PTE) in 178 premature and mature newborns, between 25 and 47 wk of biological age, using high-resolution B-mode musculoskeletal ultrasound. Approximate age-related values were determined based on the ossification center size and epiphyseal cartilage thickness. The earliest onsets of visible mineralization were at 30 wk of maturity in the DFE, 31 wk in the PTE and 43 wk in the proximal femoral epiphysis. In preterm and term neonates, significant correlations were observed for transverse and longitudinal length of the DFE and PTE with biological age (R² = 0.35–0.50, p < 0.01). No significant age-dependent increases or decreases in cartilage thickness were seen between the ossification centers and cartilage surface in the DFE and PTE. High-resolution B-mode musculoskeletal ultrasound is an excellent tool for assessing skeletal development in premature and mature newborns.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • The Effect of Docetaxel-Loaded Micro-Bubbles Combined with Low-Frequency
           Ultrasound in H22 Hepatocellular Carcinoma-Bearing Mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Shu-Ting Ren, Shu Shen, Xin-Ying He, Yi-Ran Liao, Peng-Fei Sun, Bing Wang, Wen-Bao Zhao, Shui-Ping Han, Yi-Li Wang, Tian Tian
      A novel lipid micro-bubble (MB) loaded with docetaxel (DOC-MB) was investigated in a previous study. However, its anti-tumor effects and mechanism of action in combination with low-frequency ultrasound (LFUS) in vivo are still unclear. DOC-MBs containing 5.0 mg of DOC were prepared by lyophilization with modification via ultrasonic emulsification. Then, the effects of DOC-MBs combined with LFUS on tumor growth, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression and cell apoptosis, as well as local DOC delivery, were investigated in H22 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-bearing mice. Compared with the previously prepared DOC-MBs (1.6 mg of DOC loaded), the encapsulation efficiency (81.2% ± 3.89%) and concentration ([7.94 ± 0.04] × 109 bubbles/mL) of the DOC-MBs containing 5.0 mg of DOC were higher, but the bubble size (1.368 ± 0.004 μm) was smaller. After treatment with the DOC-MBs and LFUS, the H22 HCC growth inhibition rate was significantly increased, PCNA expression in tumor tissue was significantly inhibited and local release of DOC was induced. In conclusion, new DOC-MBs containing 5.0 mg of DOC were successfully prepared with a high encapsulation efficiency and superior bubble size and concentration, and their combination with LFUS significantly enhanced the anti-tumor effect of DOC in H22 HCC-bearing mice by inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and increasing local drug delivery.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Dynamic Behavior of Microbubbles during Long Ultrasound Tone-Burst
           Excitation: Mechanistic Insights into Ultrasound-Microbubble Mediated
           Therapeutics Using High-Speed Imaging and Cavitation Detection
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Xucai Chen, Jianjun Wang, John J. Pacella, Flordeliza S. Villanueva
      Ultrasound (US)–microbubble (MB)-mediated therapies have been found to restore perfusion and enhance drug/gene delivery. On the presumption that MBs do not persist during long US exposure under high acoustic pressures, most schemes use short US pulses when a high US pressure is employed. However, we recently observed an enhanced thrombolytic effect using long US pulses at high acoustic pressures. Therefore, we explored the fate of MBs during long tone-burst exposures (5 ms) at various acoustic pressures and MB concentrations via direct high-speed optical observation and passive cavitation detection. MBs first underwent stable or inertial cavitation depending on the acoustic pressure and then formed gas-filled clusters that continued to oscillate, break up and form new clusters. Cavitation detection confirmed continued, albeit diminishing, acoustic activity throughout the 5-ms US excitation. These data suggest that persisting cavitation activity during long tone bursts may confer additional therapeutic effects.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Enhanced Homing of CXCR-4 Modified Bone Marrow–Derived Mesenchymal
           Stem Cells to Acute Kidney Injury Tissues by Micro-Bubble–Mediated
           Ultrasound Exposure
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Gong Wang, Qian Zhang, Zhongxiong Zhuo, Shengzheng Wu, Yali Xu, Linru Zou, Ling Gan, Kaibin Tan, Hongmei Xia, Zheng Liu, Yunhua Gao
      Although the curative effects of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) for acute kidney injury (AKI) have been recognized, their in vivo reparative capability is limited by the low levels of targeted homing and retention of intravenous injected cells. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) plays an important role in stem cell homing and retention through interaction with its specific functional receptor, CXCR4, which is presumably related to the poor homing in AKI therapy. However, most of the functional CXCR4 chemokine receptors are lost upon in vitro culturing. Ultrasound-targeted micro-bubble destruction (UTMD) has become one of the most promising strategies for the targeted delivery of drugs and genes. To improve BMSC homing to AKI kidneys, we isolated and cultured rat BMSCs to third passage and enhanced CXCR-4 transfection efficiency in vitro by applying UTMD and polyethylenimine. Transwell migration assay showed that the migration ability of CXCR4-modified BMSCs was nine-fold higher than controls. Then, mercuric chloride–induced AKI rats were injected with transfected BMSCs through their tail veins. We showed that enhanced homing and retention of BMSCs were observed in the CXCR-4 modified group compared with other groups at 1, 2 and 3 d post-treatment. Collectively, our data indicated that UTMD was an effective method to increase BMSCs' engraftment to AKI kidney tissues by increasing CXCR-4 expression.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Molecular Acoustic Angiography: A New Technique for High-resolution
           Superharmonic Ultrasound Molecular Imaging
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 3
      Author(s): Sarah E. Shelton, Brooks D. Lindsey, James K. Tsuruta, F. Stuart Foster, Paul A. Dayton
      Ultrasound molecular imaging utilizes targeted microbubbles to bind to vascular targets such as integrins, selectins and other extracellular binding domains. After binding, these microbubbles are typically imaged using low pressures and multi-pulse imaging sequences. In this article, we present an alternative approach for molecular imaging using ultrasound that relies on superharmonic signals produced by microbubble contrast agents. Bound bubbles were insonified near resonance using a low frequency (4 MHz) element and superharmonic echoes were received at high frequencies (25–30 MHz). Although this approach was observed to produce declining image intensity during repeated imaging in both in vitro and in vivo experiments because of bubble destruction, the feasibility of superharmonic molecular imaging was demonstrated for transmit pressures, which are sufficiently high to induce shell disruption in bound microbubbles. This approach was validated using microbubbles targeted to the αvβ3 integrin in a rat fibrosarcoma model (n = 5) and combined with superharmonic images of free microbubbles to produce high-contrast, high-resolution 3-D volumes of both microvascular anatomy and molecular targeting. Image intensity over repeated scans and the effect of microbubble diameter were also assessed in vivo, indicating that larger microbubbles yield increased persistence in image intensity. Using ultrasound-based acoustic angiography images rather than conventional B-mode ultrasound to provide the underlying anatomic information facilitates anatomic localization of molecular markers. Quantitative analysis of relationships between microvasculature and targeting information indicated that most targeting occurred within 50 μm of a resolvable vessel (>100 μm diameter). The combined information provided by these scans may present new opportunities for analyzing relationships between microvascular anatomy and vascular targets, subject only to limitations of the current mechanically scanned system and microbubble persistence to repeated imaging at moderate mechanical indices.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Preclinical Assessment of the Efficacy of Anti-Angiogenic Therapies in
           Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Matthias Barral, Annemilaï Raballand, Anthony Dohan, Philippe Soyer, Marc Pocard, Philippe Bonnin
      Diffuse hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complex affliction in which comorbidities can bias global outcome of cancer therapy. Better methods are thus warranted to directly assess effects of therapy on tumor angiogenesis and growth. As tumor angiogenesis is invariably associated with changes in local blood flow, we assessed the utility of ultrasound imaging in evaluation of the efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapy in a spontaneous transgenic mouse model of HCC. Blood flow velocities were measured monthly in the celiac trunk before and after administration of sorafenib or bevacizumab at doses corresponding to those currently used in clinical practice. Concordant with clinical experience, sorafenib, but not bevacizumab, reduced microvascular density and suppressed tumor growth relative to controls. Evolution of blood flow velocities correlated with microvascular density and with the evolution of tumor size. Ultrasound imaging thus provides a useful non-invasive tool for preclinical evaluation of new anti-angiogenic therapies for HCC.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Impact of Acquisition Method and Region of Interest Placement on
           Inter-observer Agreement and Measurement of Tumor Response to Targeted
           Therapy Using Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 3
      Author(s): Mostafa Atri, John M. Hudson, Mehrdad Sinaei, Ross Williams, Laurent Milot, Hadas Moshonov, Peter N. Burns, Georg A. Bjarnason
      This study evaluated the impact of different acquisition methods, user-directed region of interest placement and post-processing steps on the quantification of dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound measurements of blood volume in 29 patients with renal cancer, pre- and post-treatment. Specifically, we compared tumor quantification using multiple planes versus a single plane, breathhold versus free breathing and large region of interest versus a region targeting the area of highest vascularity. Performance was evaluated using area under the receiver operating characteristic curves to identify the method that best predicts progression-free survival. The intra-class correlation coefficient was also used to investigate how the same parameters affect inter-observer agreement. Of the different methods used to quantify blood volume in this study, the combination that had the highest level of inter-observer agreement (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.8–0.97) and was the best predictor of progression-free survival was the change in blood volume measured (area under receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.77, p = 0.04) by a multiplane average, acquired during quiet breathing, quantified using a region of interest that encompassed the entire tumor.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Effects of Focused Extracorporeal Shock Waves on Bone Marrow Mesenchymal
           Stem Cells in Patients with Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 3
      Author(s): Lei Zhai, Nan Sun, Bo Zhang, Shui-Tao Liu, Zhe Zhao, Hai-Chao Jin, Xin-Long Ma, Geng-Yan Xing
      To observe the effect of extracorporeal shock waves (ESWs) on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head, we collected bone marrow donated by patients and then cultivated and passaged MSCs in vitro using density gradient centrifugation combined with adherence screening methods. The P3 generation MSCs were divided into the ESW group and the control group. The cell counting kit for MSCs detected some proliferation differences. Cytochemistry, alkaline phosphatase staining and Alizarin red staining were used to determine alkaline phosphatase content. Simultaneously, real-time polymerase factor α1, osteocalcin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. Together, the results of our study first indicate that moderate ESW intensity, which is instrumental in enhancing MSC proliferation, inducing conversion of MSCs into osteoblasts, and inhibiting differentiation of MSCs into adipocytes from MSCs, is one of the effective mechanisms for treating avascular necrosis of the femoral head.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Ultrasound Image Discrimination between Benign and Malignant Adnexal
           Masses Based on a Neural Network Approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 3
      Author(s): Verónica Aramendía-Vidaurreta, Rafael Cabeza, Arantxa Villanueva, Javier Navallas, Juan Luis Alcázar
      The discrimination between benign and malignant adnexal masses in ultrasound images represents one of the most challenging problems in gynecologic practice. In the study described here, a new method for automatic discrimination of adnexal masses based on a neural networks approach was tested. The proposed method first calculates seven different types of characteristics (local binary pattern, fractal dimension, entropy, invariant moments, gray level co-occurrence matrix, law texture energy and Gabor wavelet) from ultrasound images of the ovary, from which several features are extracted and collected together with the clinical patient age. The proposed technique was validated using 106 benign and 39 malignant images obtained from 145 patients, corresponding to its probability of appearance in general population. On evaluation of the classifier, an accuracy of 98.78%, sensitivity of 98.50%, specificity of 98.90% and area under the curve of 0.997 were calculated.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • The Imaging Modulography Technique Revisited for High-Definition
           Intravascular Ultrasound: Theoretical Framework
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 3
      Author(s): Antoine Tacheau, Simon Le Floc'h, Gérard Finet, Marvin M. Doyley, Roderic I. Pettigrew, Guy Cloutier, Jacques Ohayon
      Mechanical characterization of atherosclerotic lesions remains an essential step for the detection of vulnerable plaques (VPs). Recently, an intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) elasticity reconstruction method (iMOD) has been tested in vivo by our group. The major limitation of iMOD is the need to estimate the strain field in the entire VP despite attenuated depth penetration signals when using high-definition (HD) IVUS systems. Therefore, an extended iMOD approach (E-iMOD) was designed and applied to coronary lesions of patients imaged in vivo with IVUS. The E-iMOD method (i) quantified necrotic core areas with a mean absolute relative error of 3.5 ± 3.5% and (ii) identified Young's moduli of the necrotic cores and fibrous regions with mean values of 5.7 ± 0.8 kPa and 794.5 ± 22.0 kPa instead of 5 kPa and 800 kPa, respectively. This study demonstrates the potential of the improved HD-IVUS modulography technique E-iMOD to characterize coronary VPs.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Incidence and Predictors of In-stent Re-Stenosis in the Superficial
           Femoral Artery: Evaluation of Long-Term Outcomes by Color Duplex
           Ultrasound
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 3
      Author(s): Mingjie Gao, Xinyu Zhao, Yunlu Tao, Lili Wang, Mingyu Xia, Zhu Tong, Chengbei Hou, Yang Hua
      This study aimed to investigate the incidence and predictors of in-stent re-stenosis (ISR) for nitinol stents in the superficial femoral artery (SFA) by color duplex ultrasound (CDU). In total, 235 patients undergoing SFA stenting were included in the present study. The cumulative ISR rates at 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 mo post-procedure were 5.4%, 24.0%, 49.0%, 61.5% and 71.5%, respectively. The markedly low peak systolic velocity of the popliteal artery (PSV2) post-operation was inversely correlated with the ISR. The threshold for ≥50% re-stenosis was PSV2 ≤ 63 cm/s with 86.6% sensitivity and 90.5% specificity. With regard to re-occlusion, the PSV2 was ≤40 cm/s with 98.1% sensitivity and 93.4% specificity. Cox regression analysis indicated that the cumulative stent length, diabetes, and pre-stent stenosis level were independent risk factors of ISR. In conclusion, the ISR incidence after SFA stenting is relatively high and CDU follow-up is a feasible method for evaluating ISR.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Quest for the Vulnerable Atheroma: Carotid Stenosis and Diametric
           Strain—A Feasibility Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 3
      Author(s): Canxing Xu, Chun Yuan, Edward Stutzman, Gador Canton, Keith A. Comess, Kirk W. Beach
      The Bernoulli effect may result in eruption of a vulnerable carotid atheroma, causing a stroke. We measured electrocardiography (ECG)-registered QRS intra-stenotic blood velocity and atheroma strain dynamics in carotid artery walls using ultrasonic tissue Doppler methods, providing displacement and time resolutions of 0.1 μm and 3.7 ms. Of 22 arteries, 1 had a peak systolic velocity (PSV) >280 cm/s, 4 had PSVs between 165 and 280 cm/s and 17 had PSVs <165 cm/s. Eight arteries with PSVs <65 cm/s and 4 of 9 with PSVs between 65 and 165 cm/s had normal systolic diametric expansion (0% and 7%) and corresponding systolic wall thinning. The remaining 10 arteries had abnormal systolic strain dynamics, 2 with diametric reduction (>−0.05 mm), 2 with extreme wall expansion (>0.1 mm), 2 with extreme wall thinning (>−0.1 mm) and 4 with combinations. Decreases in systolic diameter and/or extreme systolic arterial wall thickening may indicate imminent atheroma rupture.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Automated Breast Volume Scanning: Identifying 3-D Coronal Plane Imaging
           Features May Help Categorize Complex Cysts
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 3
      Author(s): Hong-Yan Wang, Yu-Xin Jiang, Qing-Li Zhu, Jing Zhang, Meng-Su Xiao, He Liu, Qing Dai, Jian-Chu Li, Qiang Sun
      The study described here sought to identify specific ultrasound (US) automated breast volume scanning (ABVS) features that distinguish benign from malignant lesions. Medical records of 750 patients with 792 breast lesions were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 750 patients, 101 with 122 cystic lesions were included in this study, and the results ABVS results were compared with biopsy pathology results. These lesions were classified into six categories based on ABVS sonographic features: type I = simple cyst; type II = clustered cyst; type III = cystic masses with thin septa; type IV = complex cyst; type V = predominantly cystic masses; and type VI = predominantly solid masses. Comparisons were conducted between the ABVS coronal plane features of the lesions and histopathology results, and the positive predictive value (PPV) was calculated for each feature. Of the 122 lesions, 90 (73.8%) were classified as benign, and 32 (26.2%) were classified as malignant. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy associated with ABVS features for cystic lesions were 78.1%, 74.4% and 75.4%, respectively. The 11 cases (8.9%) of type I–IV cysts were all benign. Of the 22 (18.0%) type V cysts, 16 (13.1%) were benign and 6 (4.9%) were malignant. Of the 89 (72.9%) type VI cysts, 63 (51.7%) were benign and 26 (21.3%) were malignant. The typical symptoms of malignancy on ABVS include retraction (PPV = 100%, p < 0.05), hyper-echoic halos (PPV = 85.7%, p < 0.05), microcalcification (PPV = 66.7%, p < 0.05), thick walls or thick septa (PPV = 62.5%, p < 0.05), irregular shape (PPV: 51.2%, p < 0.05), indistinct margin (PPV: 48.6%, p < 0.05) and predominantly solid masses with eccentric cystic foci (PPV = 46.8%, p < 0.05). ABVS can reveal sonographic features of the lesions along the coronal plane, which may be of benefit in the detection of malignant, predominantly cystic masses and provide high clinical values.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter among Healthy
           Chinese Adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 3
      Author(s): Lijuan Wang, Liangshu Feng, Yan Yao, Fang Deng, Yuzhi Wang, Jiachun Feng, Yingqi Xing
      The aim of the work described here was to establish the range for optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) and potential factors influencing ONSD in healthy Chinese adults. Both ONSDs were measured twice in the sagittal and transversal planes by two observers. The final ONSD value for each participant was the average of 16 measurements of both eyes. The ONSD range (N = 3680) among 230 participants was 2.65–4.30 mm. The upper ONSD limit was lower than those in previous studies in Caucasian and African samples. Simple linear regression analyses revealed that the ONSD was correlated with sex, body mass index and waistline and head circumference. After adjustment for potential confounds between these factors, sex (coefficient = 0.225, p < 0.001) and body mass index (coefficient = 0.042, p < 0.001) were independently associated with ONSD. Underweight women had the smallest ONSD. These results suggest that racial, sex, and body mass index differences should be noted when assessing ultrasonographic criteria.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • The Skin Acts to Maintain Muscle Shear Modulus
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 3
      Author(s): Yasuhide Yoshitake, Naokazu Miyamoto, Keigo Taniguchi, Masaki Katayose, Hiroaki Kanehisa
      It is not clear how the tissues covering the skeletal muscles affect the muscles' mechanical properties. The main purpose of this study was to examine changes in muscle shear modulus as a representative mechanical property of muscle with and without the covering tissues of skin and epimysium (fascia). Shear modulus of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle was determined using ultrasound shear-wave elastography in the Thiel's embalmed cadavers under three different conditions: original (intact cadavers), removal of the skin on the MG and subsequent removal of the epimysium. Muscle shear modulus significantly decreased by 50% after removal of the skin, whereas no additional changes in shear modulus were observed after subsequent removal of the epimysium. This study suggests that the skin is a main contributor for maintaining the muscle mechanical properties among tissues covering the skeletal muscle.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
  • Ultrasound-Based Tendon Micromorphology Predicts Mechanical
           Characteristics of Degenerated Tendons
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Volume 42, Issue 3
      Author(s): Kornelia Kulig, Yu-Jen Chang, Slawomir Winiarski, Gregory R. Bashford
      The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between tendon micro-morphology quantified from a sonogram and tendon mechanical characteristics measured in vivo. Nineteen adults (nine with unilateral Achilles tendinosis) participated. A commercial ultrasound scanner was used to capture longitudinal B-mode ultrasound images from the mid-portion of bilateral Achilles tendons and a custom image analysis program was used to analyze the spatial frequency content of manually defined regions of interest; in particular, the average peak spatial frequency of the regions of interest was acquired. In addition, a dynamometer and a motion analysis system indirectly measured the tendon mechanical (stiffness) and material (elastic modulus) properties. The peak spatial frequency correlated with tendon stiffness (r = 0.74, p = 0.02) and elastic modulus (r = 0.65, p = 0.05) in degenerated tendons, but not healthy tendons. This is the first study relating the mechanical characteristics of degenerated human Achilles tendon using a non-invasive micro-morphology analysis approach.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T02:57:15Z
       
 
 
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