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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 212 journals)
Showing 1 - 64 of 64 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Portuguesa de Nutrição     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Eating Disorders : Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Alimentos e Nutrição     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Botany     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 220)
American Journal of Food and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 56)
American Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Amerta Nutrition     Open Access  
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Appetite     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Arab Journal of Nutrition and Exercise     Open Access  
Arbor Clinical Nutrition Updates     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Archive of Food and Nutritional Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Better Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biomedicine & Preventive Nutrition     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
BMC Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
British Journal Of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
Cahiers de Nutrition et de Diététique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Food Studies / La Revue canadienne des études sur l'alimentation     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Childhood Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89)
Clinical Nutrition ESPEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Nutrition Experimental     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Nutrition Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Clinical Nutrition Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Clinical Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Current Nutrition & Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Nutrition Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
DEMETRA : Alimentação, Nutrição & Saúde     Open Access  
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 50)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Ecology of Food and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Egyptian Journal of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Endocrinología y Nutrición     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Endocrinología y Nutrición (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ernährung & Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
European Journal of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Flavour     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food & Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Food and Environmental Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Foodways: Explorations in the History and Culture of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food and Waterborne Parasitology     Open Access  
Food Digestion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Science & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Food, Culture and Society: An International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Frontiers in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Genes & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Hacettepe University Faculty of Health Sciences Journal     Open Access  
Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress     Open Access  
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Eating Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Nutrology     Open Access  
International Journal of Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91)
International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
Intrinsically Disordered Proteins     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Acupuncture and Herbs     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development     Open Access  
Journal of Dietary Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Eating Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Ethnic Foods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food & Nutritional Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Nutrition and Nutraceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medicinal Herbs and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of Muscle Foods     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Nutrition & Intermediary Metabolism     Open Access  
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Nutritional Disorders & Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Nutritional Ecology and Food Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nutritional Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nutritional Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (JPGN)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Probiotics & Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Renal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops     Open Access  
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
Journal of the American College of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of the American Dietetic Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Jurnal Gizi dan Dietetik Indonesia : Indonesian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Jurnal Gizi dan Pangan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia / The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Penelitian Gizi dan Makanan     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Jurnal Riset Kesehatan     Open Access  
La Ciencia al Servicio de la Salud y Nutrición     Open Access  
Lifestyle Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Lifestyle Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Maternal & Child Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Médecine & Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription  
Media Gizi Indonesia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Metabolism and Nutrition in Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
NFS Journal     Open Access  
Nigerian Food Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Nutrafoods     Hybrid Journal  
Nutrición Hospitalaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nutridate     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrients     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Nutrire     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Nutrition & Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Nutrition & Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Nutrition & Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Nutrition : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nutrition Action Health Letter     Free   (Followers: 2)
Nutrition and Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Nutrition and Dietary Supplements     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Nutrition and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nutrition and Metabolic Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nutrition Bytes     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Nutrition in Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Nutrition Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Nutrition Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nutrition Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Nutrition Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Nutritional Neuroscience : An International Journal on Nutrition, Diet and Nervous System     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Obésité     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Obesity Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Open Food Science Journal     Open Access  
Open Nutrition Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Obesity Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pediatric Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Perspectivas en Nutrición Humana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Plant Foods for Human Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Plant Production Science     Open Access  
Procedia Food Science     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Progress in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Public Health Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBONE - Revista Brasileira de Obesidade, Nutrição e Emagrecimento     Open Access  
Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture     Hybrid Journal  
Revista Chilena de Nutricion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Nutrição     Open Access  
Revista Española de Enfermedades Metabólicas Óseas     Full-text available via subscription  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 3.438
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 220  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0002-9165 - ISSN (Online) 1938-3207
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [411 journals]
  • Lifestyle for the prevention of type 2 diabetes: what is the role of
           genetic risk information'
    • Authors: Chen G Qi Q.
      Pages: 491 - 492
      Abstract: The prevalence of diabetes has been continuously increasing over the past 3 decades, globally but particularly in low-income and middle-income regions (1). There are 463 million adults (aged 20–79 y) estimated to be living with diabetes in 2019, with the largest number found in developing countries in Asia, such as China (116.4 million) and India (2). In the context of globalization, large proportions of populations in these less developed regions are undergoing urbanization and a host of environmental and nutritional transitions. The drastic shifts in lifestyle characterized by sedentary-style behaviors and Western-pattern diets are recognized as a major driver of the growing epidemic of diabetes (3).
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz350
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2020)
  • Neural response to fast food commercials in adolescents predicts intake
    • Authors: Gearhardt A; Yokum S, Harris J, et al.
      Pages: 493 - 502
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundFood advertising is a major contributor to obesity, and fast food (FF) restaurants are top advertisers. Research on the impact of food advertising in adolescents is lacking and no prior research has investigated neural predictors of food intake in adolescents. Neural systems implicated in reward could be key to understanding how food advertising drives food intake.ObjectivesTo investigate how neural responses to both unhealthy and healthier FF commercials predict food intake in adolescents.MethodsA cross-sectional sample of 171 adolescents (aged 13–16 y) who ranged from normal weight to obese completed an fMRI paradigm where they viewed unhealthy and healthier FF and nonfood commercials. Adolescents then consumed a meal in a simulated FF restaurant where foods of varying nutritional profiles (unhealthy compared with healthier) were available.ResultsGreater neural activation in reward-related regions (nucleus accumbens, r = 0.29; caudate nucleus, r = 0.27) to unhealthy FF commercials predicted greater total food intake. Greater responses to healthier FF relative to nonfood commercials in regions associated with reward (i.e., nucleus accumbens, r = 0.24), memory (i.e., hippocampus, r = 0.32), and sensorimotor processes (i.e., anterior cerebellum, r = 0.33) predicted greater total food and unhealthier food intake, but not healthier food intake. Lower activation in neural regions associated with visual attention and salience (e.g., precuneus, r = −0.35) to unhealthy relative to healthier FF commercials predicted healthier food intake.ConclusionsThese findings suggest that FF commercials contribute to overeating in adolescents through reward mechanisms. The addition of healthier commercials from FF restaurants is unlikely to encourage healthier food intake, but interventions that reduce the ability of unhealthy FF commercials to capture attention could be beneficial. However, an overall reduction in the amount of FF commercials exposure for adolescents is likely to be the most effective approach.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz305
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2020)
  • Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load during pregnancy and offspring
           risk of congenital heart defects: a prospective cohort study
    • Authors: Schmidt A; Lund M, Corn G, et al.
      Pages: 526 - 535
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundPrepregnancy diabetes, especially when severely dysregulated, is associated with an increased risk of congenital heart defects in offspring. This suggests that glucose plays a role in embryonic heart development.ObjectiveThe aim was to investigate the association between midpregnancy dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and sugar-sweetened beverages and the risk of congenital heart defects in the offspring.MethodsOffspring of mothers from the Danish National Birth Cohort who filled out a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) covering midpregnancy dietary intake were included. Individual-level information on GI and GL, offspring congenital heart defects, and health and lifestyle covariates was linked. The association between GI and GL and offspring congenital heart defects was estimated by logistic regression. Further, we evaluated whether maternal intake of sugar-sweetened drinks increased the risk of offspring congenital heart defects.ResultsIn total, 66,387 offspring of women who responded to the FFQ were included; among offspring, 543 had a congenital heart defect. The adjusted OR (aOR) of congenital heart defects among offspring of mothers belonging to the highest versus the lowest GI quintile was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.78, 1.34; P-trend = 0.86). Results were similar for GL (aOR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.24). A high intake of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of offspring congenital heart defects (highest vs lowest intake—aOR: 2.41; 95% CI: 1.26, 4.64; P-trend = 0.03). No association was found with other types of beverages.ConclusionsThe study does not support an association between a high GI and GL in midpregnancy and increased offspring risk of congenital heart defects. Nevertheless, a statistically significant association between sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages and a moderately increased risk of offspring congenital heart defects was observed.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz342
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2020)
  • Associations between the proportion of fat-free mass loss during weight
           loss, changes in appetite, and subsequent weight change: results from a
           randomized 2-stage dietary intervention trial
    • Authors: Turicchi J; O'Driscoll R, Finlayson G, et al.
      Pages: 536 - 544
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundDynamic changes in body composition which occur during weight loss may have an influential role on subsequent energy balance behaviors and weight.ObjectivesThe aim of this article is to consider the effect of proportionate changes in body composition during weight loss on subsequent changes in appetite and weight outcomes at 26 wk in individuals engaged in a weight loss maintenance intervention.MethodsA subgroup of the Diet, Obesity, and Genes (DiOGenes) study (n = 209) was recruited from 3 European countries. Participants underwent an 8-wk low-calorie diet (LCD) resulting in ≥8% body weight loss, during which changes in body composition (by DXA) and appetite (by visual analog scale appetite perceptions in response to a fixed test meal) were measured. Participants were randomly assigned into 5 weight loss maintenance diets based on protein and glycemic index content and followed up for 26 wk. We investigated associations between proportionate fat-free mass (FFM) loss (%FFML) during weight loss and 1) weight outcomes at 26 wk and 2) changes in appetite perceptions.ResultsDuring the LCD, participants lost a mean ± SD of 11.2 ± 3.5 kg, of which 30.4% was FFM. After adjustment, there was a tendency for %FFML to predict weight regain in the whole group (β: 0.041; 95% CI: −0.001, 0.08; P = 0.055), which was significant in men (β: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.15; P = 0.009) but not women (β: 0.01; 95% CI: −0.04, 0.07; P = 0.69). Associations between %FFML and change in appetite perceptions during weight loss were inconsistent. The strongest observations were in men for hunger (r = 0.69, P = 0.002) and desire to eat (r = 0.61, P = 0.009), with some tendencies in the whole group and no associations in women.ConclusionsOur results suggest that composition of weight loss may have functional importance for energy balance regulation, with greater losses of FFM potentially being associated with increased weight regain and appetite. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00390637.
      PubDate: Fri, 17 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz331
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2020)
  • Effects of high-fiber diets enriched with carbohydrate, protein, or
           unsaturated fat on circulating short chain fatty acids: results from the
           OmniHeart randomized trial
    • Authors: Mueller N; Zhang M, Juraschek S, et al.
      Pages: 545 - 554
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundShort chain fatty acids (SCFAs; e.g., acetate, propionate, and butyrate) are produced by microbial fermentation of fiber in the colon. Evidence is lacking on how high-fiber diets that differ in macronutrient composition affect circulating SCFAs.ObjectivesWe aimed to compare the effects of 3 high-fiber isocaloric diets differing in %kcal of carbohydrate, protein, or unsaturated fat on circulating SCFAs. Based on previous literature, we hypothesized that serum acetate, the main SCFA in circulation, increases on all high-fiber diets, but differently by macronutrient composition of the diet.MethodsOmniHeart is a randomized crossover trial of 164 men and women (≥30 y old); 163 participants with SCFA data were included in this analysis. We provided participants 3 isocaloric high-fiber (∼30 g/2100 kcal) diets, each for 6 wk, in random order: a carbohydrate-rich (Carb) diet, a protein-rich (Prot) diet (protein predominantly from plant sources), and an unsaturated fat–rich (Unsat) diet. We used LC-MS to quantify SCFA concentrations in fasting serum, collected at baseline and the end of each diet period. We fitted linear regression models with generalized estimating equations to examine change in ln-transformed SCFAs from baseline to the end of each diet; differences between diets; and associations of changes in SCFAs with cardiometabolic parameters.ResultsFrom baseline, serum acetate concentrations were increased by the Prot (β: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.35), Unsat (β: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.33), and Carb (β: 0.12; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.24) diets; between diets, only Prot compared with Carb was significant (P = 0.02). Propionate was decreased by the Carb (β: −0.10; 95% CI: −0.16, −0.03) and Unsat (β: −0.10; 95% CI: −0.16, −0.04) diets, not the Prot diet; between diet comparisons of Carb vs. Prot (P = 0.006) and Unsat vs. Prot (P = 0.002) were significant. The Prot diet increased butyrate (β: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.09) compared with baseline, but not compared with the other diets. Increases in acetate were associated with decreases in insulin and glucose; increases in propionate with increases in leptin, LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure; and increases in butyrate with increases in insulin and glucose, and decreases in HDL cholesterol and ghrelin (Ps < 0.05).ConclusionsMacronutrient composition of high-fiber diets affects circulating SCFAs, which are associated with measures of appetite and cardiometabolic health. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00051350.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz322
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2020)
  • Epigenetic aging in newborns: role of maternal diet
    • Authors: Phang M; Ross J, Raythatha J, et al.
      Pages: 555 - 561
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundEpigenetic aging is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all-cause mortality and may be a mechanistic link between early-life exposures, such as maternal dietary characteristics during pregnancy, and risk of adult disease.ObjectivesWe sought to determine the early-life risk factors for newborn epigenetic aging, specifically maternal dietary macronutrient intake, and whether epigenetic aging is associated with cardiovascular health markers in the newborn.MethodsEpigenetic age acceleration of 169 newborns was measured from saliva using the Horvath age calculator. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed using food-frequency questionnaires.ResultsNewborns with positive age acceleration were more likely to be female and have greater body fatness. Maternal intakes of saturated fat [6.2 wk epigenetic age acceleration (95% CI: 1.0, 11.3) per 5% of energy; P = 0.02] and monounsaturated fat [12.4 wk (95% CI: 4.2, 20.5) per 5% of energy; P = 0.003] were associated with higher epigenetic age acceleration in the newborn. The strongest association of individual fatty acids were for palmitoleic acid (25.3 wk; 95% CI: 11.4, 39.2; P = 0.0004), oleic acid (2.2 wk; 95% CI: 0.8, 3.6; P = 0.002), and palmitic acid (2.9 wk; 95% CI: 1.0, 4.9; P = 0.004) per 1% of energy intake. Vitamin D supplementation was associated with lower epigenetic age acceleration (−8.1 wk; 95% CI: −14.5, −1.7; P = 0.01). Epigenetic age acceleration was associated with aortic intima-media thickness in preterm infants [1.0 µm (95% CI: 0.2, 1.8) per week of epigenetic age acceleration; P = 0.01], but not among those born at term (P = 0.78). Epigenetic age acceleration was not associated with heart rate variability in either preterm or term born infants (both P > 0.2).ConclusionsThis study provides evidence of maternal dietary characteristics that are associated with epigenetic aging in the offspring. Prospective intervention studies are required to determine whether such associations are causal.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz326
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2020)
  • Association of BMI and major molecular pathological markers of colorectal
           cancer in men and women
    • Authors: Carr P; Amitay E, Jansen L, et al.
      Pages: 562 - 569
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundObservational studies have consistently shown that a high BMI is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the underlying mechanisms linking obesity to CRC remain unclear.ObjectivesTo investigate the associations of BMI and CRC by major molecular pathological subtypes of CRC.MethodsThis analysis included 2407 cases and 2454 controls from a large German population–based case–control study. Information on recent weight and height as well as other demographic and lifestyle data were obtained by standardized interviews. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs for the associations between BMI and risk of CRC by major molecular pathological features: microsatellite instability (MSI), CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) mutation, and Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog gene (KRAS) mutation.ResultsAmong women, a higher BMI was differentially and more strongly associated with risk of MSI CRC (OR per 5 kg/m2: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.34, 2.12; Pheterogeneity ≤ 0.001), CIMP-high CRC (OR per 5 kg/m2: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.30, 1.89; Pheterogeneity ≤ 0.001), BRAF-mutated CRC (OR per 5 kg/m2: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.99; Pheterogeneity = 0.04), and KRAS-wildtype CRC (OR per 5 kg/m2: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.17, 1.54; Pheterogeneity = 0.01), compared with the risk of CRC in subjects with the molecular feature counterpart. In men, no meaningful differences in CRC risk were observed for the investigated molecular feature pairs. For the association of BMI with MSI CRC, we observed effect modification by sex (Pinteraction = 0.04). Also, in women, the risk of CRC with the serrated pathway features was more strongly increased with higher BMI than risk of CRC with the traditional pathway features (OR per 5 kg/m2: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.28, 2.34; Pheterogeneity = 0.01).ConclusionsIn women, the relation between BMI and MSI-high CRC seems to be stronger than that between BMI and microsatellite-stable CRC. However, a validation in an independent cohort is needed. This observational study was registered at the German Clinical Trials Register (http://www.drks.de; study ID: DRKS00011793), an approved primary register in the WHO network.
      PubDate: Fri, 03 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz315
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2020)
  • The autophagic-lysosomal and ubiquitin proteasome systems are
           simultaneously activated in the skeletal muscle of gastric cancer patients
           with cachexia
    • Authors: Zhang Y; Wang J, Wang X, et al.
      Pages: 570 - 579
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundCancer cachexia is characterized by weight loss, especially ongoing skeletal muscle loss, and is associated with poor patient outcomes. However, the molecular mechanism of skeletal muscle wasting is not fully understood.ObjectivesWe aimed to investigate muscle fiber morphology and proteolysis system activity changes that may account for cancer cachexia and to relate these changes to patients’ clinical phenotypes.MethodsWe divided 39 patients with resectable gastric cancer into 4 groups based on the presence of cachexia (weight loss) and/or sarcopenia (low muscularity), including a noncachexia/nonsarcopenia group (N, n = 10), a cachexia/sarcopenia group (CS, n = 13), a cachexia/nonsarcopenia group (C, n = 9), and a noncachexia/sarcopenia group (S, n = 7). Rectus abdominis muscle biopsy specimens were obtained intraoperatively. Muscle fiber size, ultrastructural architecture, and the expression of autophagic-lysosomal system (ALS) and ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) markers were assayed.ResultsMean ± SD muscle fiber cross-sectional areas were significantly decreased in the CS (460 ± 120 μm2) and S groups (480 ± 135 μm2) compared with the N (1615 ± 388 μm2, both P < 0.05) and C groups (1219 ± 302 μm2, both P < 0.05). In the C, S, and CS groups, the muscle exhibited tissue disorganization and autophagosome formation to different degrees. The levels of ALS and UPS markers were significantly increased in the CS, C, and S groups compared with the N group. Alterations in muscle fiber morphology and increased ALS and UPS activity were related to severe muscle loss, but not weight loss.ConclusionsThe ALS and UPS are simultaneously activated in cancer cachexia and may play coordinated roles in cachexia-induced muscle loss.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz347
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2020)
  • Trends in alcohol consumption in relation to cause-specific and all-cause
           mortality in the United States: a report from the NHANES linked to the US
           mortality registry
    • Authors: Ricci C; Schutte A, Schutte R, et al.
      Pages: 580 - 589
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundExcessive alcohol use is the third leading cause of mortality in the United States, where alcohol use consistently increased over the last decades. This trend is currently maintained, despite regulatory policies aimed to counteract it. While the increased health risks resulting from alcohol use are evident, some open questions regarding alcohol use and its consequences in the US population remain.ObjectivesThe current work aims to evaluate the relation between alcohol consumption trends over a period of 15 y with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. In addition, we evaluate the adequacy of the current alcohol recommended limits according to the 2015–2020 US Dietary Guidelines for Americans (USDGA).MethodsThis was a prospective population-based study defined by the NHANES conducted over the period 1999–2014 linked to US mortality registry in 2015.ResultsThe sample, composed of 34,672 participants, was observed for a median period of 7.8 y, totaling 282,855 person-years. In the present sample, 4,303 deaths were observed. Alcohol use increased during the period 1999–2014. Alcohol use above the current US recommendations was associated with increased all-cause and cause-specific mortality risk, ranging from 39% to 126%. A proportion of these deaths, ranging from 19% to 26%, could be theoretically prevented if US citizens followed current guidelines, and 13% of all-cause deaths in men could be avoided if the current US guidelines for women (1 standard drink/d) were applied to them.ConclusionsThe present study provides evidence in support of limiting alcohol intake in adherence to the USDGA recommendations.
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa008
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2020)
  • Effect of a 2-year diet intervention with walnuts on cognitive decline.
    • Authors: Sala-Vila A; Valls-Pedret C, Rajaram S, et al.
      Pages: 590 - 600
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundWalnut consumption counteracts oxidative stress and inflammation, 2 drivers of cognitive decline. Clinical data concerning effects on cognition are lacking.ObjectivesThe Walnuts And Healthy Aging study is a 2-center (Barcelona, Spain; Loma Linda, CA) randomized controlled trial examining the cognitive effects of a 2-y walnut intervention in cognitively healthy elders.MethodsWe randomly allocated 708 free-living elders (63–79 y, 68% women) to a diet enriched with walnuts at ∼15% energy (30–60 g/d) or a control diet (abstention from walnuts). We administered a comprehensive neurocognitive test battery at baseline and 2 y. Change in the global cognition composite was the primary outcome. We performed repeated structural and functional brain MRI in 108 Barcelona participants.ResultsA total of 636 participants completed the intervention. Besides differences in nutrient intake, participants from Barcelona smoked more, were less educated, and had lower baseline neuropsychological test scores than those from Loma Linda. Walnuts were well tolerated and compliance was good. Modified intention-to-treat analyses (n = 657) uncovered no between-group differences in the global cognitive composite, with mean changes of −0.072 (95% CI: −0.100, −0.043) in the walnut diet group and −0.086 (95% CI: −0.115, −0.057) in the control diet group (P = 0.491). Post hoc analyses revealed significant differences in the Barcelona cohort, with unadjusted changes of −0.037 (95% CI: −0.077, 0.002) in the walnut group and −0.097 (95% CI: −0.137, −0.057) in controls (P = 0.040). Results of brain fMRI in a subset of Barcelona participants indicated greater functional network recruitment in a working memory task in controls.ConclusionsWalnut supplementation for 2 y had no effect on cognition in healthy elders. However, brain fMRI and post hoc analyses by site suggest that walnuts might delay cognitive decline in subgroups at higher risk. These encouraging but inconclusive results warrant further investigation, particularly targeting disadvantaged populations, in whom greatest benefit could be expected.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01634841.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz328
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2020)
  • Circulating folate concentrations and risk of coronary artery disease: a
           prospective cohort study in Chinese adults and a Mendelian randomization
    • Authors: Long P; Liu X, Li J, et al.
      Pages: 635 - 643
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe association between circulating folate concentrations and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) has been evaluated in Western populations with inconsistent results; however, the observational and causal associations in Chinese populations with relatively low folate concentrations remain unclear.ObjectivesWe aimed to examine the association of circulating folate concentrations with incident CAD in Chinese adults, and further evaluated the causal relation using Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis.MethodsWe measured baseline serum folate in 1605 incident CAD cases and 1605 age- and sex-matched controls nested within the Dongfeng-Tongji (DFTJ) cohort, which recruited 27,009 individuals with a mean age of 63.6 y in 2008–2010 and followed up until the end of 2013 (mean: 4.4 y). We quantified the observational association between folate and incident CAD using conditional logistic regression models. A 2-sample MR analysis was performed using summary statistics obtained for genetic variants identified from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating folate concentrations in participants of European ancestry (n = 37,341) and from the CardiogramplusC4D 1000 genomes–based GWAS meta-analysis (n = 184,305). We also conducted 1-sample MR among 1545 incident CAD cases and 1444 controls with genotyping data in the DFTJ cohort.ResultsIn the DFTJ cohort, higher serum folate concentrations were associated with a lower risk of CAD: the OR (95% CI) across sex-specific quartiles of folate (from lowest to highest concentrations) was 1.00 (reference), 0.78 (0.63, 0.97), 0.77 (0.61, 0.97), and 0.75 (0.60, 0.95), respectively (P-trend = 0.01). In the MR analysis, the OR of CAD per SD increase in genetically predicted serum folate was 0.99 (0.82, 1.20) and 0.88 (0.59, 1.32) for European and Chinese populations, respectively.ConclusionsWe found an inverse association between circulating folate concentrations and incident CAD among Chinese populations. However, we confirmed that there was no genetic evidence to support the causal relation in both European and Chinese populations.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz314
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2020)
  • Associations of choline-related nutrients with cardiometabolic and
           all-cause mortality: results from 3 prospective cohort studies of blacks,
           whites, and Chinese
    • Authors: Yang J; Lipworth L, Shu X, et al.
      Pages: 644 - 656
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundCholine-related nutrients are dietary precursors of a gut microbial metabolite, trimethylamine-N-oxide, which has been linked to cardiometabolic diseases and related death. However, epidemiologic evidence on dietary choline and mortality remains limited, particularly among nonwhite populations.ObjectivesThis study aimed to investigate the associations of choline-related nutrients with cardiometabolic and all-cause mortality among black and white Americans and Chinese adults.MethodsIncluded were 49,858 blacks, 23,766 whites, and 134,001 Chinese, aged 40–79 y, who participated in 3 prospective cohorts and lived ≥1 y after enrollment. Cox regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs for cardiometabolic [e.g., ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and diabetes] and all-cause deaths. To account for multiple testing, P values < 0.003 were considered significant.ResultsMean choline intake among blacks, whites, and Chinese was 404.1 mg/d, 362.0 mg/d, and 296.8 mg/d, respectively. During a median follow-up of 11.7 y, 28,673 deaths were identified, including 11,141 cardiometabolic deaths. After comprehensive adjustments, including for overall diet quality and disease history, total choline intake was associated with increased cardiometabolic mortality among blacks and Chinese (HR for highest compared with lowest quintile: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.40 and HR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.38, respectively; both P-trend < 0.001); among whites, the association was weaker (HR: 1.12; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.33; P-trend = 0.02). Total choline intake was also associated with diabetes and all-cause mortality in blacks (HR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.26, 2.19 and HR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.29, respectively), with diabetes mortality in Chinese (HR: 2.24; 95% CI: 1.68, 2.97), and with IHD mortality in whites (HR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.69) (all P-trend < 0.001). The choline–mortality association was modified by alcohol consumption and appeared stronger among individuals with existing cardiometabolic disease. Betaine intake was associated with increased cardiometabolic mortality in Chinese only (HR: 1.16; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.25; P-trend < 0.001).ConclusionsHigh choline intake was associated with increased cardiometabolic mortality in racially diverse populations.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz318
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2020)
  • Evidence of gut enteropathy and factors associated with undernutrition
           among slum-dwelling adults in Bangladesh
    • Authors: Fahim S; Das S, Gazi M, et al.
      Pages: 657 - 666
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundAdult undernutrition (BMI <18.5 kg/m2) is responsible for immune deficits, increased risk of disease burden, and higher rates of mortality. The prevalence of adult undernutrition in Bangladesh is substantial, but there have been few studies on the etiology of this condition for the inhabitants of urban slums.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with undernutrition among slum-dwelling adults in Bangladesh.MethodsA case-control study was conducted in the Bauniabadh area of Dhaka, Bangladesh. 270 adult participants (135 cases with a BMI <18.5 and 135 controls with a BMI between 18.5 and 24.9) aged 18–45 y were enrolled between October 2018 and January 2019. Sociodemographic variables, dietary diversity, micronutrient deficiencies, psychological symptoms, infection, and biomarkers of gut health were assessed to identify the factors associated with undernutrition using multivariable logistic regression analysis.ResultsA higher number of siblings [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.39; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.77], increased self-reporting questionnaire-20 score (an instrument to screen mental health disorders and detect psychological symptoms) (aOR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.23), elevated fecal concentration of α-1 antitrypsin (aOR: 4.82; 95% CI: 1.01, 25.29), and anemia (aOR: 3.63; 95% CI: 1.62, 8.58) were positively associated with undernutrition in adults. Age (aOR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.96), dietary diversity score (aOR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.99), C-reactive protein (aOR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.92), Helicobacter pylori infection (aOR: 0.11; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.23), and always washing hands before eating or preparing foods (aOR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.87) were associated with reduced odds of undernutrition among the study population.ConclusionsOur results indicate that undernutrition in slum-dwelling adults in Bangladesh is associated with numerous physiological and sociodemographic factors, including evidence of gastrointestinal inflammation and altered intestinal permeability.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz327
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2020)
  • Dietary Patterns and Progression of Knee Osteoarthritis: Data from the
           Osteoarthritis Initiative
    • Authors: Xu C; Marchand N, Driban J, et al.
      Pages: 667 - 676
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundWhile some individual foods and nutrients have been associated with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) progression, the association between dietary patterns and KOA progression has received little research attention.ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to determine whether dietary patterns, derived by principal components analysis (PCA), are associated with KOA progression.MethodsIn the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI), a prospective cohort with clinical centers in Maryland, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island, 2757 participants with existing KOA (mean age 62 y) and diet assessed at baseline were followed for ≤72 mo. Using PCA, Western and prudent dietary patterns were derived. Radiographic KOA progression was assessed using 2 separate measures, 1 full Kellgren–Lawrence (KL) grade increase and loss in joint space width (JSW). Symptomatic KOA progression was defined as an increase in or remaining in 1 of the 2 highest classification categories of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC).ResultsAdherence to Western and prudent dietary patterns was significantly associated with radiographic and symptomatic progression of KOA. With increasing Western pattern score, there was increased KL-worsening risk (compared with quartile 1, HR for quartile 4: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.61; P-trend < 0.01) and increased odds of progression to higher WOMAC score (compared with quartile 1, OR for quartile 4: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.18, 1.63; P-trend < 0.01) but no significant change in JSW loss. With increasing prudent pattern score there was decreased KL-worsening risk (compared with quartile 1, HR for quartile 4: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.64, 0.98; P-trend = 0.02), decreased JSW loss (quartile 1: 0.46 mm; quartile 4: 0.38 mm; P-trend < 0.01), and decreased odds of higher WOMAC progression (compared with quartile 1, OR for quartile 4 0.73; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.86; P-trend < 0.01) in multivariable adjusted models.ConclusionsAdherence to a Western dietary pattern was associated with increased radiographic and symptomatic KOA progression, while following a prudent pattern was associated with reduced progression. In general, for people already diagnosed with KOA, eating a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, fish, whole grains, and legumes may be related to decreased radiographic and symptomatic disease progression.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz333
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2020)
  • Legume and soy intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and
           meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies
    • Authors: Tang J; Wan Y, Zhao M, et al.
      Pages: 677 - 688
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundPrevious findings on the associations of legume and soy intake with the risk of type 2 diabetes are conflicting.ObjectiveWe aimed to summarize the longitudinal associations between legume and soy intake and risk of type 2 diabetes.MethodsWe searched for relevant prospective cohort studies in PubMed, EMBASE, and Ovid up to August 2019. Study-specific, multivariable-adjusted RRs and 95% CIs were pooled by random-effects models.ResultsWe identified 15 unique cohorts including 565,810 individuals and 32,093 incident cases. The summary RRs (95% CIs) of incident type 2 diabetes were 0.95 (0.79, 1.14; NS) for total legumes, 0.83 (0.68, 1.01; NS) for total soy, 0.89 (0.71, 1.11; NS) for soy milk, 0.92 (0.84, 0.99) for tofu, 0.84 (0.75, 0.95) for soy protein, and 0.88 (0.81, 0.96) for soy isoflavones, respectively. High heterogeneity was found for total legumes (I2 = 84.8%), total soy (I2 = 90.8%), and soy milk (I2 = 91.7%). Potential sources of heterogeneity were not evident for total legumes or soy milk, whereas for total soy, geographic location (Asia, United States; P = 0.04) and study quality (high, moderate, or low; P = 0.02) significantly predicted heterogeneity. In dose–response analysis, significant linear inverse associations were observed for tofu, soy protein, and soy isoflavones (all P < 0.05). Overall quality of evidence was rated as moderate for total legumes and low for total soy and soy subtypes.ConclusionsDietary intakes of tofu, soy protein, and soy isoflavones, but not total legumes or total soy, are inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes. Our findings support recommendations to increase intakes of certain soy products for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. However, the overall quality of evidence was low and more high-quality evidence from prospective studies is needed. This trial was registered as PROSPERO CRD42019126403 (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO).
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz338
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2020)
  • Yogurt consumption in relation to mortality from cardiovascular disease,
           cancer, and all causes: a prospective investigation in 2 cohorts of US
           women and men
    • Authors: Schmid D; Song M, Zhang X, et al.
      Pages: 689 - 697
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundAlthough a link between regular yogurt consumption and mortality appears plausible, data are sparse and have yielded inconsistent results.ObjectivesWe examined the association between regular yogurt consumption and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality among US women and men.MethodsA total of 82,348 women in the Nurses’ Health Study and 40,278 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer in 1980 (women) or 1986 (men) were followed up until 2012. Yogurt consumption was assessed by updated validated FFQs.ResultsDuring 3,354,957 person-years of follow-up, 20,831 women and 12,397 men died. Compared with no yogurt consumption, the multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of mortality were 0.89 (0.86, 0.93), 0.85 (0.81, 0.89), 0.88 (0.84, 0.91), and 0.91 (0.85, 0.98) for ≤1–3 servings/mo, 1 serving/wk, 2–4 servings/wk, and >4 servings/wk in women (P-trend = 0.34), respectively. For men, the corresponding HRs (95% CIs) were 0.99 (0.94, 1.03), 0.98 (0.91, 1.05), 1.04 (0.98, 1.10), and 1.05 (0.95, 1.16), respectively. We further noted inverse associations for cancer mortality (multivariable-adjusted HR comparing extreme categories: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.98; P-trend = 0.04) and CVD mortality (HR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.08; P-trend = 0.41) in women, although the latter was attenuated in the multivariable-adjusted model. Replacement of 1 serving/d of yogurt with 1 serving/d of nuts (women and men) or whole grains (women) was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality, whereas replacement of yogurt with red meat, processed meat (women and men), and milk or other dairy foods (women) was associated with a greater mortality.ConclusionsIn our study, regular yogurt consumption was related to lower mortality risk among women. Given that no clear dose–response relation was apparent, this result must be interpreted with caution.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz345
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2020)
  • Genetic risk, adherence to a healthy lifestyle, and type 2 diabetes risk
           among 550,000 Chinese adults: results from 2 independent Asian cohorts
    • Authors: Li H; , Khor C, et al.
      Pages: 698 - 707
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundWhether genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes is modified by a healthy lifestyle among Chinese remains unknown.ObjectivesThe aim of the study was to determine whether genetic risk and adherence to a healthy lifestyle contribute independently to the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.MethodsWe defined a lifestyle score using BMI, alcohol intake, smoking, physical activities, and diets in 461,030 participants from the China Kadoorie Biobank and 38,434 participants from the Singapore Chinese Health Study. A genetic risk score was constructed based on type 2 diabetes loci among 100,175 and 16,172 participants in each cohort, respectively. A Cox proportional-hazards model was used to estimate the interaction between genetic and lifestyle factors on the risk of type 2 diabetes.ResultsIn 2 independent Asian cohorts, we consistently found a healthy lifestyle (the bottom quintile of lifestyle score) was associated with a substantially lower risk of type 2 diabetes than an unhealthy lifestyle (the top quintile of lifestyle score) regardless of genetic risk. In those at a high genetic risk, the risk of type 2 diabetes was 57% lower among participants with a healthy lifestyle than among those with an unhealthy lifestyle in the pooled cohorts. Among participants at high genetic risk, the standardized 10-y incidence of type 2 diabetes was 7.11% in those with an unhealthy lifestyle vs. 2.45% in those with a healthy lifestyle.ConclusionsIn 2 independent cohorts involving 558,302 Chinese participants, we did not observe an interaction between genetics and lifestyle with type 2 diabetes risk, but our findings provide replicable evidence to show lifestyle factors and genetic factors were independently associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. Within any genetic risk category, a healthy lifestyle was associated with a significantly lower risk of type 2 diabetes among the Chinese population.
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz310
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2020)
  • Whey protein but not collagen peptides stimulate acute and longer-term
           muscle protein synthesis with and without resistance exercise in healthy
           older women: a randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Oikawa S; Kamal M, Webb E, et al.
      Pages: 708 - 718
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundAging appears to attenuate the response of skeletal muscle protein synthesis (MPS) to anabolic stimuli such as protein ingestion (and the ensuing hyperaminoacidemia) and resistance exercise (RE).ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to determine the effects of protein quality on feeding- and feeding plus RE–induced increases of acute and longer-term MPS after ingestion of whey protein (WP) and collagen protein (CP).MethodsIn a double-blind parallel-group design, 22 healthy older women (mean ± SD age: 69 ± 3 y, n = 11/group) were randomly assigned to consume a 30-g supplement of either WP or CP twice daily for 6 d. Participants performed unilateral RE twice during the 6-d period to determine the acute (via [13C6]-phenylalanine infusion) and longer-term (ingestion of deuterated water) MPS responses, the primary outcome measures.ResultsAcutely, WP increased MPS by a mean ± SD 0.017 ± 0.008%/h in the feeding-only leg (Rest) and 0.032 ± 0.012%/h in the feeding plus exercise leg (Exercise) (both P < 0.01), whereas CP increased MPS only in Exercise (0.012 ± 0.013%/h) (P < 0.01) and MPS was greater in WP than CP in both the Rest and Exercise legs (P = 0.02). Longer-term MPS increased by 0.063 ± 0.059%/d in Rest and 0.173 ± 0.104%/d in Exercise (P < 0.0001) with WP; however, MPS was not significantly elevated above baseline in Rest (0.011 ± 0.042%/d) or Exercise (0.020 ± 0.034%/d) with CP. Longer-term MPS was greater in WP than in CP in both Rest and Exercise (P < 0.001).ConclusionsSupplementation with WP elicited greater increases in both acute and longer-term MPS than CP supplementation, which is suggestive that WP is a more effective supplement to support skeletal muscle retention in older women than CP.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03281434.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz332
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2020)
  • A randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial of a decaffeinated energy
           drink shows no significant acute effect on mental energy
    • Authors: Garcia-Alvarez A; Cunningham C, Mui B, et al.
      Pages: 719 - 727
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackground“Energy drinks” are heavily marketed to the general public, across the age spectrum. The efficacy of decaffeinated energy drinks in enhancing subjective feelings of energy (s-energy) is controversial.ObjectiveThe authors sought to test the efficacy of the caffeine-free version of a popular energy drink compared with a placebo drink.MethodsThis study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in 223 healthy men and women aged 18–70 y with intention-to-treat and completers analysis. Participants were randomly assigned to consumption of either the decaffeinated energy drink or a placebo drink on testing day 1, and the other drink a week later. A battery of computer-based mood and cognitive tests to assess s-energy was conducted at baseline and at 0.5, 2.5, and 5 h post-ingestion. The main outcome measures were 1) mood, which was assessed by using a General Status Check Scale and the Profile of Mood States 2nd edition brief form, and 2) cognitive measures, including the N-back task (reaction time and accuracy), Reaction Time test, Flanker task (distraction avoidance), and Rapid Visual Information Processing test.ResultsNo statistically significant or meaningful benefits were observed for any outcome measure, including mood and cognitive measures. Analyses of mean differences, slopes, and median differences were consistent.ConclusionsNo differences were detected across a range of mood/cognitive/behavioral/s-energy–level tests after consumption of the energy drink compared with a placebo drink in this diverse sample of adults. Thus, we found strong evidence that the energy drink is not efficacious in enhancing s-energy levels, nor any related cognitive or behavioral variables measured. In light of federal regulations, these findings suggest that labeling and marketing of some products which claim to provide these benefits may be unsubstantiated. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02727920.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz343
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2020)
  • Corrigendum for McCullough et al. Metabolomic markers of healthy dietary
           patterns in US postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 2019;109:1439–51
    • Pages: 728 - 728
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz235
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2020)
  • Corrigendum for Goulao B et al. Cancer and vitamin D supplementation:
           systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 2018;107:652-63
    • Pages: 729 - 730
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz287
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2020)
  • Calendar of Events
    • Pages: 731 - 731
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa022
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2020)
  • Intermittent fasting, Paleolithic, or Mediterranean diets in the real
           world: exploratory secondary analyses of a weight-loss trial that included
           choice of diet and exercise
    • Authors: Jospe M; Roy M, Brown R, et al.
      Pages: 503 - 514
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundIntermittent fasting (IF) and Paleolithic (Paleo) diets produce weight loss in controlled trials, but minimal evidence exists regarding long-term efficacy under free-living conditions without intense dietetic support.ObjectivesThis exploratory, observational analysis examined adherence, dietary intake, weight loss, and metabolic outcomes in overweight adults who could choose to follow Mediterranean, IF, or Paleo diets, and standard exercise or high-intensity interval training (HIIT) programs, as part of a 12-mo randomized controlled trial investigating how different monitoring strategies influenced weight loss (control, daily self-weighing, hunger training, diet/exercise app, brief support).MethodsA total of 250 overweight [BMI (in kg/m2) ≥27] healthy adults attended an individualized dietary education session (30 min) relevant to their self-selected diet. Dietary intake (3-d weighed diet records), weight, body composition, blood pressure, physical activity (0, 6, and 12 mo), and blood indexes (0 and 12 mo) were assessed. Mean (95% CI) changes from baseline were estimated using regression models. No correction was made for multiple tests.ResultsAlthough 54.4% chose IF, 27.2% Mediterranean, and 18.4% Paleo diets originally, only 54% (IF), 57% (Mediterranean), and 35% (Paleo) participants were still following their chosen diet at 12 mo (self-reported). At 12 mo, weight loss was −4.0 kg (95% CI: −5.1, −2.8 kg) in IF, −2.8 kg (−4.4, −1.2 kg) in Mediterranean, and −1.8 kg (−4.0, 0.5 kg) in Paleo participants. Sensitivity analyses showed that, due to substantial dropout, these may be overestimated by ≤1.2 kg, whereas diet adherence increased mean weight loss by 1.1, 1.8, and 0.3 kg, respectively. Reduced systolic blood pressure was observed with IF (−4.9 mm Hg;  −7.2, −2.6 mm Hg) and Mediterranean (−5.9 mm Hg; −9.0, −2.7 mm Hg) diets, and reduced glycated hemoglobin with the Mediterranean diet (−0.8 mmol/mol; −1.2, −0.4 mmol/mol). However, the between-group differences in most outcomes were not significant and these comparisons may be confounded due to the nonrandomized design.ConclusionsSmall differences in metabolic outcomes were apparent in participants following self-selected diets without intensive ongoing dietary support, even though dietary adherence declined rapidly. However, results should be interpreted with caution given the exploratory nature of analyses. This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12615000010594 at https://www.anzctr.org.au.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Dec 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz330
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2019)
  • Race affects the association of obesity measures with insulin sensitivity
    • Authors: Tay J; Goss A, Garvey W, et al.
      Pages: 515 - 525
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundRace differences in body composition and fat distribution may in part explain the differences in insulin sensitivity and the disproportionate burden of type 2 diabetes in African Americans.ObjectiveTo determine if differences in body composition and fat distribution explain race differences in insulin sensitivity and identify obesity measures that were independently associated with insulin sensitivity.MethodsParticipants were 113 lean, overweight, and obese African-American and Caucasian-American adults without diabetes. Skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity was determined using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (SIClamp, insulin rate:120 mU/m2/min). Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT), intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), and liver fat were measured by MRI; leg fat, total fat, and lean mass were measured by DXA.ResultsRace-by-adiposity interactions were significant in cross-sectional analyses utilizing multiple linear regression models for SIClamp (P < 0.05); higher BMI, fat mass, SAAT, leg fat, and liver fat were associated with lower SIClamp in Caucasian Americans but not African Americans. Race-by-IAAT interaction was not significant (P = 0.65). A central fat distribution (SAAT adjusted for leg fat) was associated with lower SIClamp in African Americans (β = −0.45, SE = 0.11, P < 0.001) but not Caucasian Americans (β = −0.42, SE = 0.30, P = 0.17). A peripheral fat distribution (leg fat adjusted for IAAT/SAAT) was associated with a higher SIClamp in African Americans (β = 0.11, SE = 0.05, P = 0.02) but lower SIClamp in Caucasian Americans (β = −0.28, SE = 0.14, P = 0.049). Lean mass was inversely associated with SIClamp in African Americans (β = −0.05, SE = 0.03, P = 0.04) but not Caucasian Americans (β = 0.08, SE = 0.05, P = 0.10) in the model for leg fat.ConclusionsMeasures of overall adiposity were more strongly associated with SIClamp in Caucasian Americans, whereas body fat distribution and lean mass showed stronger correlations with SIClamp in African Americans. Insulin sensitivity may have a genetic basis in African Americans that is reflected in the pattern of body fat distribution. These findings suggest a race-specific pathophysiology of insulin resistance, which has implications for the prevention of diabetes and related cardiometabolic diseases.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Dec 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz309
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2019)
  • Population RBC folate concentrations can be accurately estimated from
           measured whole blood folate, measured hemoglobin, and predicted serum
           folate—cross-sectional data from the NHANES 1988–2010
    • Authors: Zhang M; Sternberg M, Yeung L, et al.
      Pages: 601 - 612
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundRBC folate (RBF) is an indicator of folate status and risk of neural-tube defects. It is calculated from whole blood folate (WBF), serum folate (SFOL), and hematocrit (Hct). SFOL and/or Hct are sometimes unavailable; hemoglobin (Hb) is generally available in surveys.ObjectivesWe assessed the ability of different RBF approximations to generate population data in women aged 12–49 y.MethodsUsing SFOL, RBF, Hct, Hb, and mean corpuscular Hb content (MCHC) from prefortification (1988–1994) and postfortification (1999–2006, 2007–2010) NHANES we applied 6 approaches: #1) assume SFOL = 0; #2) impute SFOL (population median); #3) impute Hct (population median); #4) estimate Hct (Hb/MCHC); #5) assume SFOL = 0 and estimate Hct; and #6) predict SFOL (from WBF) and estimate Hct. For each approach, we calculated the paired percentage difference to the “true” RBF and estimated various statistics.ResultsFor 2007–2010 (unweighted data), the median relative difference from “true” RBF was lowest for approaches #2 (−0.74%), #4 (−0.96%), and #6 (−1.15%), intermediate for #3 (−3.36%), and highest for #5 (4.96%) and #1 (5.78%). The 95% agreement limits were smallest for approach #1 (2.33%, 13.0%) and largest for #3 (−20.8%, 11.3%). Approach #2 showed concentration-dependence (negative compared with positive differences at low compared with high RBF). Using weighted data, we found similar patterns across approaches for mean relative differences by demographic subgroup for all 3 time periods.ConclusionsWe obtained the best agreement between estimated and “true” RBF when we predicted SFOL using a regression equation obtained from a subset of samples (approach #6). Alternatively, the consistent overestimation of RBF when assuming SFOL = 0 (∼6%) could be addressed by adjusting the data (approach #5). Similar observations for pre- and postfortification periods suggest applicability to low and high folate status situations, but should be confirmed elsewhere. To estimate RBF, at least WBF and Hb are needed.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz307
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2019)
  • Maternal fatty acid concentrations and newborn DNA methylation
    • Authors: Robinson S; Mumford S, Guan W, et al.
      Pages: 613 - 621
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundPreconception nutrition sets the stage for a healthy pregnancy. Maternal fatty acids (FAs) are related to beneficial neonatal outcomes with DNA methylation proposed as a mechanism; however, few studies have investigated this association and none with preconception FAs.ObjectivesWe examined the relations of maternal plasma FA concentrations at preconception (n = 346) and 8 weeks of gestation (n = 374) with newborn DNA methylation.MethodsThe Effects of Aspirin in Gestation and Reproduction Trial (2006–2012) randomly assigned women with previous pregnancy loss to low dose aspirin or placebo prior to conception. We measured maternal plasma phospholipid FA concentration at preconception (on average 4 mo before pregnancy) and 8 weeks of gestation. Cord blood DNA from singletons was measured using the MethylationEPIC BeadChip. We used robust linear regression to test the associations of FA concentration with methylation β-values of each CpG site, adjusting for estimated cell count using a cord blood reference, sample plate, maternal sociodemographic characteristics, cholesterol, infant sex, and epigenetic-derived ancestry. False discovery rate correction was used for multiple testing.ResultsMean ± SD concentrations of preconception marine (20:5n–3+22:6n–3+22:5n–3) and ω-6 PUFAs, SFAs, MUFAs, and trans FAs were 4.7 ± 1.2, 38.0 ± 2.0, 39.4 ± 1.8, 11.6 ± 1.1, and 1.0 ± 0.4 % of total FA, respectively; concentrations at 8 weeks of gestation were similar. Preconception marine PUFA concentration was associated with higher methylation at GRAMD2 (P = 1.1 × 10−8), LOXL1 (P = 5.5 × 10−8), SIK3 (P = 1.6 × 10−7), HTR1B (P = 1.9 × 10−7), and MCC (P = 2.1 × 10−7) genes. Preconception SFA concentration was associated with higher methylation at KIF25-AS1 and lower methylation at SLC39A14; other associations exhibited sensitivity to outliers. The trans FA concentration was related to lower methylation at 3 sites and higher methylation at 1 site. FAs at 8 weeks of gestation were largely unrelated to DNA methylation.ConclusionsMaternal preconception FAs are related to newborn DNA methylation of specific CpG sites, highlighting the importance of examining nutritional exposures preconceptionally. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00467363.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz311
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2019)
  • Reducing children's sugar intake through food reformulation: methods for
           estimating sugar reduction program targets, using New Zealand as a case
    • Authors: Eyles H; Trieu K, Jiang Y, et al.
      Pages: 622 - 634
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundReducing sugar in packaged foods and beverages could help protect children's future health. Clear methods for the development of feasible yet impactful sugar reduction program targets are needed.ObjectivesTo outline methods for the development of program targets that would reduce, by 20%, the total sugar content of packaged foods and beverages commonly consumed by children. New Zealand (NZ) is used as a case study.MethodsSugar content and pack size targets were developed using a 6-step process informed by the UK sugar and salt reduction programs. Food groups contributing ≥2% to children's total sugar intake were identified using national dietary survey data. Consumption volume, sugar content, and pack size were obtained from household panel data linked with a packaged food composition database. Category-specific targets were set as 20% reductions in sales-weighted means adjusted for feasibility, i.e., ∼1/3 of products already meeting the target, and alignment with existing, relevant targets.ResultsTwenty-two food groups were identified as major contributors to NZ children's total sugar intake. Mean reductions required in sugar content and pack size to meet the targets were 5.2 g  per 100 g/mL (26%) and 61.2 g/mL/pack (23%), respectively. The percentage of products already meeting the sugar targets ranged from 14% for electrolyte drinks and flavored dairy milk to 50% for cereal bars, and for pack size targets compliance ranged from 32% for chocolate confectionary to 62% for fruit juices and drinks. Estimated reductions in annual household sugar purchases if the sugar and pack size targets were met were 1459 g (23%) and 286 g (6%), respectively.ConclusionsMethods for the development of sugar and pack size reduction targets are presented, providing a robust, step-by-step process for countries to follow. The results of the case study provide a suggested benchmark for a potential national sugar reduction program in NZ.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Dec 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz313
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2019)
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