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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 212 journals)
Showing 1 - 64 of 64 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Portuguesa de Nutrição     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Eating Disorders : Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Alimentos e Nutrição     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Botany     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 220)
American Journal of Food and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 56)
American Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Amerta Nutrition     Open Access  
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Appetite     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Arab Journal of Nutrition and Exercise     Open Access  
Arbor Clinical Nutrition Updates     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Archive of Food and Nutritional Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Better Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biomedicine & Preventive Nutrition     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
BMC Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
British Journal Of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
Cahiers de Nutrition et de Diététique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Food Studies / La Revue canadienne des études sur l'alimentation     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Childhood Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89)
Clinical Nutrition ESPEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Nutrition Experimental     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Nutrition Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Clinical Nutrition Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Clinical Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Current Nutrition & Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Nutrition Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
DEMETRA : Alimentação, Nutrição & Saúde     Open Access  
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 50)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Ecology of Food and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Egyptian Journal of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Endocrinología y Nutrición     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Endocrinología y Nutrición (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ernährung & Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
European Journal of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Flavour     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food & Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Food and Environmental Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Foodways: Explorations in the History and Culture of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food and Waterborne Parasitology     Open Access  
Food Digestion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Science & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Food, Culture and Society: An International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Frontiers in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Genes & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Hacettepe University Faculty of Health Sciences Journal     Open Access  
Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress     Open Access  
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Eating Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Nutrology     Open Access  
International Journal of Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91)
International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
Intrinsically Disordered Proteins     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Acupuncture and Herbs     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development     Open Access  
Journal of Dietary Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Eating Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Ethnic Foods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food & Nutritional Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Nutrition and Nutraceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medicinal Herbs and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of Muscle Foods     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Nutrition & Intermediary Metabolism     Open Access  
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Nutritional Disorders & Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Nutritional Ecology and Food Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nutritional Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nutritional Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (JPGN)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Probiotics & Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Renal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops     Open Access  
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
Journal of the American College of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of the American Dietetic Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Jurnal Gizi dan Dietetik Indonesia : Indonesian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Jurnal Gizi dan Pangan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia / The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Penelitian Gizi dan Makanan     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Jurnal Riset Kesehatan     Open Access  
La Ciencia al Servicio de la Salud y Nutrición     Open Access  
Lifestyle Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Lifestyle Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Maternal & Child Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Médecine & Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription  
Media Gizi Indonesia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Metabolism and Nutrition in Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
NFS Journal     Open Access  
Nigerian Food Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Nutrafoods     Hybrid Journal  
Nutrición Hospitalaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nutridate     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrients     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Nutrire     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Nutrition & Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Nutrition & Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Nutrition & Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Nutrition : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nutrition Action Health Letter     Free   (Followers: 2)
Nutrition and Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Nutrition and Dietary Supplements     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Nutrition and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nutrition and Metabolic Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nutrition Bytes     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Nutrition in Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Nutrition Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Nutrition Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nutrition Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Nutrition Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Nutritional Neuroscience : An International Journal on Nutrition, Diet and Nervous System     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Obésité     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Obesity Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Open Food Science Journal     Open Access  
Open Nutrition Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Obesity Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pediatric Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Perspectivas en Nutrición Humana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Plant Foods for Human Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Plant Production Science     Open Access  
Procedia Food Science     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Progress in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Public Health Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBONE - Revista Brasileira de Obesidade, Nutrição e Emagrecimento     Open Access  
Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture     Hybrid Journal  
Revista Chilena de Nutricion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Nutrição     Open Access  
Revista Española de Enfermedades Metabólicas Óseas     Full-text available via subscription  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Food and Environmental Virology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.696
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 1  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1867-0334 - ISSN (Online) 1867-0342
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Synergistic Effects of Combined Chlorine and Vitamin B 1 on the Reduction
           of Murine Norovirus-1 on the Oyster ( Crassostrea gigas ) Surface
    • Abstract: This study investigated the synergistic effects of combined chlorine (200, 500, 700, and 1000 ppm) and vitamin B1 (1000, 2000, and 3000 ppm) on the murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1), a human norovirus (NoV) surrogate, on oyster surface. Vitamin B1 slightly reduced MNV-1 (0.04–0.3 log-reduction), whereas chlorine significantly reduced MNV-1 (0.4–1.0 log-reduction). The combined chlorine and vitamin B1 resulted in a 0.52–1.97 log-reduction of MNV-1. The synergistic reduction in the MNV titer was not dependent on the concentrations of chlorine and vitamin B1, and it ranged between 0.08 and 1.03 log10 PFU/mL. The largest synergistic reduction observed was for the combined 700 ppm chlorine and 1000 ppm vitamin B1. The pH and mechanical texture of the oysters were not significantly changed by the combined 0–1000 ppm chlorine and 3000 ppm vitamin B1. The overall sensory acceptability were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in oysters treated with 1000 ppm chlorine and 3000 ppm vitamin B1 than in those treated with 0–700 ppm chlorine and 3000 ppm vitamin B1. This study suggests that the combined 700 ppm chlorine and 3000 ppm vitamin B1 could potentially be used to reduce NoV on oyster surface without causing concomitant changes in the mechanical texture, pH, or sensory qualities of the oysters.
      PubDate: 2019-03-22
  • Outbreaks of Norovirus and Acute Gastroenteritis Associated with British
           Columbia Oysters, 2016–2017
    • Abstract: Two outbreaks of norovirus and acute gastroenteritis took place in Canada between November 2016 and April 2017. Both outbreaks were linked to oysters from British Columbia (BC) coastal waters. This paper describes the multi-agency investigations to identify the source and control the outbreak. Public health officials conducted interviews to determine case exposures. Traceback was conducted by collecting oyster tags from restaurants and analyzing them to determine the most common farms. Oyster samples were collected from case homes, restaurants, and harvest sites and tested for the presence of norovirus. Potential environmental pollution sources were investigated to identify the source of the outbreak. Four hundred and 49 cases were identified as part of the two outbreak waves. The oysters were traced to various geographically dispersed farms in BC coastal waters. Twelve farms were closed as a result of the investigations. No environmental pollution sources could be identified as the cause of the outbreak. Similarities in the timeframe, genotype, and geographic distribution of identified oyster farms indicate that they may have been one continuous event. Genotype data indicate that human sewage contamination was the likely cause of the outbreak, although no pollution source was identified.
      PubDate: 2019-03-21
  • Glass Wool Concentration Optimization for the Detection of Enveloped and
           Non-enveloped Waterborne Viruses
    • Abstract: An extremely affordable virus concentration method based on adsorption-elution to glass wool and subsequent reconcentration through polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) precipitation was optimized to recover not only non-enveloped viruses but also enveloped viruses. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) were employed as surrogates for naked and enveloped viruses, respectively, to set up the methodology. Initial experimentation in small-volume samples showed that both types of particles readily adsorbed to the positively charged glass wool but were poorly detached from it through standard elution with 0.05 M glycine with 3% of beef extract buffer, pH 9.5, with elution efficiencies of 7.2% and 2.6%, for HAV and TGEV, respectively. To improve the recovery of enveloped viruses, several modifications in the elution were assayed: increasing the elution pH, extending glass wool and eluent contact time, adding a detergent, or performing the elution by recirculation or under agitation. Considering practicability and performance, recircularization of the eluent at pH 11.0 for 20 min was the elution procedure of choice, with efficiencies of 25.7% and 18.8% for HAV and TGEV in 50 L of water. Additionally, employing 20% PEG instead of 10% for virus reconcentration improved recoveries up to 47% and 51%, respectively. The optimized procedure was applied to detect naturally occurring HAV and coronaviruses in surface water of Wadi Hanifa, Riyadh. HAV was detected in 38% of the samples, while one sample was positive for an alphacoronavirus. This cheap virus detection system enables the comprehensive surveillance of viruses present in water samples.
      PubDate: 2019-03-21
  • Environmental Surveillance of Human Enteroviruses in Córdoba City,
           Argentina: Prevalence and Detection of Serotypes from 2009 to 2014
    • Abstract: Environmental surveillance is an effective approach to investigate the circulation of human enteroviruses (EVs) in the population. EVs excreted by patients who present diverse clinical syndromes can remain infectious in the environment for several weeks, and limited data on circulating environmental EVs are available. A 6-year (2009–2014) surveillance study was conducted to detect non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) in the urban sewage of Cordoba city, Argentina. Echovirus 6 (E-6) was the most prevalent (28%), followed by E-14 (17%), E-16 (14%), Coxsackievirus (CV) A9 (11%), E-20 (9%), and CVA24 (6%). Other minority serotypes (E-7, E-13, E-21, E-25, and CVB4) were found, which together represented 14% of the total. In the absence of a systematic EV disease surveillance system, the detection and characterization of sewage-borne NPEVs will help us better understand the changes in EV disease trends and the epidemic background of circulating EVs, which could help interpret the EV trends and warn of future outbreaks in this area.
      PubDate: 2019-03-20
  • Occurrence of Salivirus in Sewage and River Water Samples in Karaj, Iran
    • Abstract: Salivirus is a newly discovered virus which seems to be related to acute gastroenteritis in children. Salivirus may infect susceptible children by fecal–oral route after exposure to contaminated water. The present study aims to evaluate the occurrence and quantity of Salivirus in treated and untreated sewage water and river water samples collected in the city of Karaj, Iran by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR assay. A total of 50 samples were collected from environmental waters containing 22 treated and untreated sewage water in volume of 1 l and 28 river water samples in volume of 5 l were included in this study. After viral RNA extraction, the Real-time PCR was performed to amplify the 5′UTR sequence of Salivirus genome and viral load was assessed. Out of the 50 samples tested, the Salivirus genomic RNA was identified in 5/12 (41.6%) of treated and 3/10 (30%) of untreated sewage samples and in 8/28 (28.5%) of river water samples. The maximum viral load was 4.8 × 106 copies/l in treated sewage water sample in September and the lower viral load was 4 × 105 copies/l related to treated sewage water taken in December. This is the first report of Salivirus occurrence in the environmental waters in Iran. The viral prevalence of Salivirus in each of the three sets of tested samples was within low to moderate in range.
      PubDate: 2019-03-20
  • Hepatitis A Outbreak in the General Population due to a MSM-Associated HAV
    • Abstract: Hepatitis A (HAV) is a viral infection causing a range of symptoms, sudden onset of fever, malaise, diarrhea, and jaundice. It is mostly transmitted fecal-oral through contaminated food, with immediate household and sexual contacts having a higher risk of infection. Since 2016 an increased number of HAV infections, mostly affecting men who have sex with men (MSM) have been noticed worldwide, with three main genotypes circulating. We report here on the first spillover outbreak of the MSM-associated HAV genotype RIVM-HAV16-090 in the German general population in November 2017–February 2018. In total, twelve cases could be attributed to the outbreak with the index case and a coworker in a butchers shop being the most probable source of the outbreak. The identical HAV genotype was detected in two environmental samples in the premises of the butchers shop and in nine cases. Outbreak control measures included detailed contact tracing and stool examinations, several environmental investigations, thorough cleaning, and disinfection of the premises of the butchers shop. Post-exposure vaccination was recommended to all unprotected contacts during the investigation. Furthermore, although hand-washing facilities were in accordance with the required law, additional installment of soap and disinfectant dispensers and contactless faucets has been recommended.
      PubDate: 2019-03-13
  • The First Molecular Detection of Aichi Virus 1 in Raw Sewage and Mussels
           Collected in South Africa
    • Abstract: Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1) has a worldwide distribution and is associated with gastroenteritis in humans. In this study, raw sewage and mussel samples were analyzed for the presence of AiV-1 using reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Amplification and sequencing of the 3CD and VP1 genomic regions followed by phylogenetic analysis using selected genome sequences revealed the presence of AiV-1, genotype B. The results highlight the importance of further screening to evaluate the prevalence and epidemiology of this clinically important virus in South Africa.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Detection of Human Enteric Viruses in French Polynesian Wastewaters,
           Environmental Waters and Giant Clams
    • Abstract: Lack of wastewater treatment efficiency causes receiving seawaters and bivalve molluscan shellfish to become contaminated, which can lead to public health issues. Six wastewater samples, five seawater samples and three batches of giant clams from Tahiti (French Polynesia) were investigated for the presence of enteric viruses, but also if present, for the diversity, infectivity and integrity of human adenoviruses (HAdV). Enteroviruses (EV), sapoviruses (SaV) and human polyomaviruses (HPyV) were detected in all wastewater samples. In decreasing frequency, noroviruses (NoV) GII and HAdV, rotaviruses (RoV), astroviruses (AsV), NoV GI and finally hepatitis E viruses (HEV) were also observed. Nine types of infectious HAdV were identified. HPyV and EV were found in 80% of seawater samples, NoV GII in 60%, HAdV and SaV in 40% and AsV and RoV in 20%. NoV GI and HEV were not detected in seawater. Intact and infectious HAdV-41 were detected in one of the two seawater samples that gave a positive qPCR result. Hepatitis A viruses were never detected in any water types. Analysis of transcriptomic data from giant clams revealed homologues of fucosyltransferases (FUT genes) involved in ligand biosynthesis that strongly bind to certain NoV strains, supporting the giant clams ability to bioaccumulate NoV. This was confirmed by the presence of NoV GII in one of the three batches of giant clams placed in a contaminated marine area. Overall, all sample types were positive for at least one type of virus, some of which were infectious and therefore likely to cause public health concerns.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Antiviral Activity of Essential Oils Against Hepatitis A Virus in Soft
    • Abstract: Berries have repeatedly been associated with outbreaks of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. The fruits are usually minimally processed in the food industry due to their delicate nature. While washing treatments partially remove enteric viruses, the commonly used chemical additives produce toxic by-products. A valid alternative to preserve the food safety of these products could be the use of essential oils (EOs). EOs exert antimicrobial activity and do not interfere with the nutritional characteristics of food products. We investigated the efficacy of four essential oils, lemon (Citrus limon), sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), and rosemary cineole (Rosmarinus officinalis chemotype 1.8 cineole) in reducing viral loads of HAV in soft fruits. Mixed fruit berries were inoculated with 106.74 TCID50/ml of HAV, and treated with four different EOs (0.5% lemon, 0.1% sweet orange and grapefruit, and 0.05% rosemary) for 1 h at room temperature. Virus infectivity was then assessed by titration assays for its ability to grow on cell cultures. A statistically significant reduction in HAV titer on the fruit surface was observed after treating the berries with EOs of lemon (2.84 log TCID50/ml), grapefruit (2.89 log TCID50/ml), and rosemary cineole (2.94 log TCID50/ml). Rosemary cineole was the most effective EO in reducing viral titer on berries, followed by grapefruit EO. These results improve our knowledge about the antiviral activity of these EOs and highlight their potential use in fresh produce sanitation.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Evaluation of Secondary Concentration Methods for Poliovirus Detection in
    • Abstract: Effective surveillance of human enteric viruses is critical to estimate disease prevalence within a community and can be a vital supplement to clinical surveillance. This study sought to evaluate simple, effective, and inexpensive secondary concentration methods for use with ViroCap™ filter eluate for environmental surveillance of poliovirus. Wastewater was primary concentrated using cartridge ViroCap filters, seeded with poliovirus type 1 (PV1), and then concentrated using five secondary concentration methods (beef extract-Celite, ViroCap flat disc filter, InnovaPrep® Concentrating Pipette, polyethylene glycol [PEG]/sodium chloride [NaCl] precipitation, and skimmed-milk flocculation). PV1 was enumerated in secondary concentrates by plaque assay on BGMK cells. Of the five tested methods, PEG/NaCl precipitation and skimmed-milk flocculation resulted in the highest PV1 recoveries. Optimization of the skimmed-milk flocculation method resulted in a greater PV1 recovery (106 ± 24.8%) when compared to PEG/NaCl precipitation (59.5 ± 19.4%) (p = 0.004, t-test). The high PV1 recovery, short processing time, low reagent cost, no required refrigeration, and requirement for only standard laboratory equipment suggest that the skimmed-milk flocculation method would be a good candidate to be field-validated for secondary concentration of environmental ViroCap filter samples containing poliovirus.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Interlaboratory Validation of a Method for Hepatitis E Virus RNA Detection
           in Meat and Meat Products
    • Abstract: Increasing numbers of hepatitis E cases are currently recognized in many European countries. The zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 mainly circulates in domestic pigs and wild boars, and can be transmitted to humans via consumption of insufficiently heated meat or meat products produced from those animals. Here, a detailed protocol for detection of HEV RNA in meat products is provided, which is based on the method originally described by Szabo et al. (Intl J Food Microbiol 215:149–156, 2015). It consists of a TRI Reagent®/chloroform-based food matrix homogenization, a silica bead-based RNA extraction and a real-time RT-PCR-based RNA detection. The method was further validated in a ring trial with nine independent laboratories using pork liver sausage samples artificially contaminated with different amounts of HEV. The results indicate sufficient sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the method for its broad future use in survey studies, routine food control or outbreak investigations.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Viability RT-qPCR Combined with Sodium Deoxycholate Pre-treatment for
           Selective Quantification of Infectious Viruses in Drinking Water Samples
    • Abstract: The presence of pathogenic viruses in drinking water is a major public health concern. Although viability RT-qPCR methods were developed to quantify infectious viruses, they may not always reflect viral infectivity, therefore leading to false-positive results. In this study, sodium deoxycholate (SD) pre-treatment was used to improve the efficiency of viability RT-qPCR methods with respect to exclusive quantification of infectious viruses. The ability of SD pre-treatment to enhance the penetration of three viability markers, namely, ethidium monoazide (EMA, 100 µM), propidium monoazide (PMA, 100 µM), and cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (CDDP, 1000 µM), into heat-treated (90 °C for 1 min) Aichi virus at various concentrations (0.01–0.5%) was evaluated. The optimal SD concentration was found to be 0.1% for all markers. EMA/PMA/CDDP-RT-qPCR with 0.1% SD pre-treatment was significantly more effective than without SD pre-treatment in determining AiV inactivation after heat (50, 60, 70, 80, or 90 °C for 1 min) or chlorine treatment (1 mgCl2/L for 1, 2, 5, or 10 min). Among the viability RT-qPCR methods tested, CDDP-RT-qPCR with SD pre-treatment (SD-CDDP-RT-qPCR) was the most effective in reflecting viral infectivity. Performance testing of SD-CDDP-RT-qPCR in concentrated drinking water samples did not reveal any significant effects of SD-CDDP treatment. Thus, SD-CDDP-RT-qPCR could be a useful tool for monitoring infectious virus presence in drinking water.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Effects of pH Variability on Peracetic Acid Reduction of Human Norovirus
           GI, GII RNA, and Infectivity Plus RNA Reduction of Selected Surrogates
    • Abstract: With increasing interest in peracetic acid (PAA) as a disinfectant in water treatment processes, this study determined PAA treatment effects on human noroviruses (hNoVs) genotype I (GI) and genotype II (GII) as well as effects on bacteriophage MS2 and murine norovirus (MNV) in relation to pH. Across all pH conditions, PAA achieved between 0.2 and 2.5 log10 reduction of hNoVs over 120 min contact time in buffer solution as measured by reverse transcription-qPCR (RT-qPCR). The PAA treatments produced similar RT-qPCR reductions of MS2 and MNV, in the range of 0.2–2.7 log10. Infectivity assays achieved > 4 log10 reduction of both MS2 and MNV in buffer solution after 120 min contact time. Comparing PAA activity across varying pH, disinfection at pH 8.5, in general, resulted in less reduction of infectivity and molecular signals compared to pH conditions of 6.5 and 7.5. This difference was most pronounced for reductions in infectivity of MNV and MS2, with as much as 2.7 log10 less reduction at pH 8.5 relative to lower pH conditions. This study revealed that PAA was an effective disinfectant for treatment of hNoV GI and GII, MS2 and MNV, with greatest virus reduction observed for MS2 and MNV infectivity. RT-qPCR reductions of MS2 and MNV were lower than concurrent MS2 and MNV infectivity reductions, suggesting that observed hNoV RT-qPCR reductions may underestimate reductions in hNoV infectivity achieved by PAA. Although virus disinfection by PAA occurred at all evaluated pH levels, PAA is most effective at pH 6.5–7.5.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Detection of Norovirus and Rotavirus Present in Suspended and Dissolved
           Forms in Drinking Water Sources
    • Abstract: We investigated the present forms of genogroup II norovirus and group A rotavirus in surface water used for drinking water production. River water samples (N = 15) collected at a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) monthly from June 2017 to August 2018 were fractioned by filtration through 10- and 0.45-μm-pore-size membranes, and viruses present in suspended and dissolved forms were quantitatively detected. Norovirus GII was present in > 10-μm- and 0.45–10-μm-suspended and dissolved forms with detection rates of 33%, 60%, and 87%, respectively. Rotavirus A was detected more frequently than norovirus GII in each form (> 10 μm suspended, 73%; 0.45–10 μm suspended, 93%; dissolved, 100%). We also analyzed surface water samples from 21 DWTPs all over Japan in non-epidemic and epidemic seasons of gastroenteritis. Norovirus GII was detected in 48% and 81% of samples with the concentrations of up to 4.1 and 5.3 log10 copies/L in dissolved form in non-epidemic and epidemic seasons, respectively, and GII.4 Sydney 2012 was predominant genotype followed by GII.2. Rotavirus A was detected in 95% and 86% of samples with the maximum concentrations of 5.5 and 6.3 log10 copies/L in dissolved form in respective seasons. Concentration of norovirus GII was similar in 0.45–10-μm suspended and dissolved forms, while there was a significant difference for rotavirus A (P < 0.01, pared t test), indicating that rotavirus A was less associated with suspended solids in the surface water samples compared to norovirus GII. Our observations provide important implications for understanding of viral behavior in environmental waters.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Comparative Assessment of BGM and PLC/PRF/5 Cell Lines for Enteric Virus
           Detection in Biosolids
    • Abstract: The buffalo green monkey (BGM) cell line is required for the detection of enteric viruses in biosolids through a total culturable viral assay (TCVA) by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. In the present study, BGM and PLC/PRF/5 cell lines were evaluated for TCVA and for their use in determining the incidence of adenoviruses and enteroviruses in raw sludge and Class B biosolids. Six raw sludge and 17 Class B biosolid samples were collected from 13 wastewater treatment plants from seven U.S. states. Samples were processed via organic flocculation and concentrate volumes equivalent to 4 g total solids were assayed on BGM and PLC/PRF/5 cells. Cell monolayers were observed for cytopathic effect (CPE) after two 14-days passages. Cell lysates were tested for the presence of adenoviruses and enteroviruses by PCR or RT-PCR. The PLC/PRF/5 cells detected more culturable viruses than the BGM cells by CPE (73.9% vs. 56.5%, respectively). 52% of the samples were positive for CPE using both cell lines. No viruses were detected in either cell line by PCR in flasks in which CPE was not observed. No adenoviruses were detected in 13 CPE-positive samples from BGM lysates. In contrast, of the 17 samples exhibiting CPE on PLC/PRF/5 cells, 14 were positive for adenoviruses (82.4%). In conclusion, PLC/PRF/5 cells were superior for the detection of adenoviruses in both raw sludge and Class B biosolids. Thus, the use of BGM cells alone for TCVA may underestimate the viral concentration in sludge/biosolid samples.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Alarming Situation of Spreading Enteric Viruses Through Sewage Water in
           Dhaka City: Molecular Epidemiological Evidences
    • Abstract: Global burden of acute viral gastroenteritis remains high, particularly in developing countries including Bangladesh. Sewage water (SW) is an important node to monitor enteric pathogens both in the environment and among the population. Analysis of SW in Dhaka city deems crucially important because a large number of urban-city dwellers live in Dhaka city, the capital of Bangladesh, under a constant threat of precarious sewerage system. In this study, we collected raw SW from five locations of Dhaka city every month from June 2016 to May 2017. It was concentrated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and investigated for three major enteric viruses, rotavirus A (RVA), norovirus GII (NoV GII) and adenovirus (AdV) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Most of these SW samples collected from both hospitals and non-hospital areas yielded enteric viruses: 76% samples were positive for AdV, followed by 53% NoV GII and 38% RVA. Viral load was determined as much as 1 × 107 copies/ml for RVA and 3.5 × 103 copies/ml for NoV GII. Importantly, NoV GII and AdV that can affect people of all ages were predominated during monsoon also when SW overflows and spreads over a wide and crowded area. Genotypes G1, G2, G3, G8, and G9 for RVA, GII.4 for NoV, and type 41 for AdV were detected representing the current profile of circulating genotypes in the population. This study provides the first evidence of distribution of major diarrheal viruses in SW in Dhaka city which is alarming showing grave risk of impending outbreaks through exposure.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Critical Evaluation of CrAssphage as a Molecular Marker for Human-Derived
           Wastewater Contamination in the Aquatic Environment
    • Abstract: The discharge of human-derived wastewater represents a major threat to water quality with the potential for waterborne disease outbreaks mainly associated with enteric viruses. To prevent illnesses, indicators associated with fecal contamination are monitored in polluted areas, however, their prevalence often does not correlate well with viral pathogens. In this study, we used crAssphage, a recently discovered human-specific gut-associated bacteriophage, for the surveillance of wastewater-derived viral contamination. Untreated and treated wastewater, surface water, sediment and mussel samples were collected monthly over 1 year from the Conwy River and estuary (UK) and were analyzed for crAssphage marker by quantitative PCR. This is the first long-term catchment-to-coast scale study of environmental crAssphage concentrations. CrAssphage was detected in all sample types and showed no distinct seasonal pattern. CrAssphage concentrations were 2 × 105–109 genome copies (gc)/L in all untreated wastewater influent and 107–108 gc/L in secondary treated effluent samples, 3 × 103 gc/L–3 × 107 gc/L in surface water samples (94% positive) and 2 × 102–104 gc/g sediment (68% positive) and mussel digestive tissue (79% positive). CrAssphage concentrations were 1–5 log10 higher than human enteric virus titers (norovirus, sapovirus, adenovirus, polyomavirus). Our results indicate that crAssphage is well suited to tracking human wastewater contamination and pollution risk assessment in aquatic environments.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
  • How Fiber Breakage Reduces Microorganism Removal in Ultrafiltration for
           Wastewater Reclamation
    • Abstract: Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes are increasingly being used for wastewater reclamation treatment for their high removal of pathogens and suspended solids. However, breakage of UF membrane fibers could allow leakage of pathogens into the permeate and create health risks in the use of reclaimed water. Here, we assessed the log10 reduction value (LRV) of human enteric viruses and microbial indicators of new and aged UF modules in a pilot-scale UF process to evaluate the influence of fiber breakage. Norovirus genotypes I and II, Aichi virus, and Escherichia coli were not detected in any permeate samples of intact UF modules, but were detected in samples of damaged UF modules. LRVs of all microorganisms assayed decreased as fiber breakage of new UF modules increased, with maximum decreases of > 3.3 log10. Fiber breakage in the aged UF modules did not decrease LRVs of somatic coliphages and MS2, but breakage in the new UF modules did decrease them. Intact new UF modules gave higher LRVs than intact aged UF modules. When the LRV of intact UF module was assumed to be 1 or 2 log10, increasing fiber breakage did not significantly decrease the predicted LRV, but when it was ≥ 3 log10, it did decrease LRV, in good agreement with measured LRVs in the degraded UF modules. These results suggest that the LRV of intact UF modules affects the decrease in LRV and confirm the leakage of human enteric viruses following fiber breakage in UF modules of different ages in the UF process of wastewater reclamation.
      PubDate: 2019-02-12
  • Mineral Waste Containing High Levels of Iron from an Environmental
           Disaster (Bento Rodrigues, Mariana, Brazil) is Associated with Higher
           Titers of Enteric Viruses
    • Abstract: Although the effects of heavy metals on the behavior, including infectivity, of bacteria have been studied, little information is available about their effects on enteric viruses. We report an investigation of effects on the biosynthesis of human adenoviruses (HAdV) and hepatitis A (HAV) of waters contaminated with mineral waste following an environmental disaster in Mariana City, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study area was affected on November 5, 2015, by 60 million m3 of mud (containing very high concentrations of iron salts) from a mining reservoir (Fundão), reaching the Gualaxo do Norte River (sites evaluated in this study), the “Rio Doce” River and finally the Atlantic Ocean. We found substantial counts of infectious HAdV and HAV (by qPCR) in all sampled sites from Gualaxo do Norte River, indicating poor basic sanitation in this area. The effects of iron on viral infection processes were evaluated using HAdV-2 and HAV-175, as DNA and RNA enteric virus models, respectively, propagated in the laboratory and exposed to this contaminated water. Experiments in field and laboratory scales found that the numbers of plaque forming units (PFU) of HAdV and HAV were significantly higher in contaminated water with high iron concentrations than in waters with low iron concentration (< 20 µg/L of iron). These findings indicate that iron can potentiate enteric virus infectivity, posing a potential risk to human and animal health, particularly during pollution disasters such as that described here in Mariana, Brazil.
      PubDate: 2019-02-12
  • An Outbreak of Gastroenteritis Associated with GII.17 Norovirus
           -Contaminated Secondary Water Supply System in Wuhan, China, 2017
    • Abstract: A gastroenteritis outbreak occurred in a university in May, 2017, Wuhan, China. The epidemiological survey and pathogen analysis were conducted to identify the pathogen and control this outbreak. Feces or anal swabs from individuals, water, and swabs taken from tap surfaces of the secondary water supply system (SWSS) and foods were collected for the detection of viruses and pathogenic enteric bacteria by real-time RT-PCR and culture, respectively. Nucleotide sequences were determined by RT-PCR and direct sequencing. Genotyping, phylogenetic, and recombination analyses were conducted by a web-based genotyping tool, MEGA, and RDP4 programs, respectively. Of 144 individuals enrolled, 75 met the case definitions. The epidemic curve showed one peak of incidence suggesting the most probable spread of a single common source. In total, 33 specimens were collected before disinfection of the SWSS. Of these, norovirus was detected and identified as GII.P17-GII.17 with 100% nucleotide sequence identity among the strains detected in ten students (10/14), a maintenance worker (1/2) dealing with the SWSS, four water samples (4/8), and two swabs taken from tap surfaces (2/3). Pathogens including Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Bacillus cereus, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, rotavirus, astrovirus, and sapovirus were negative. The GII.17 strains in this outbreak clustered closely in the same branch of the phylogenetic tree, and slightly apart from the strains of other cities in China, neighboring countries and regions, European and American countries. This gastroenteritis outbreak was deduced to be attributed to GII.P17-GII.17 norovirus contamination of the SWSS.
      PubDate: 2019-02-09
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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