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  Subjects -> COMPUTER SCIENCE (Total: 2054 journals)
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COMPUTER SCIENCE (1198 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 872 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Abakós     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACM Computing Surveys     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
ACM Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ACM Transactions on Applied Perception (TAP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization (TACO)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems (TAAS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
ACM Transactions on Computation Theory (TOCT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ACM Transactions on Computational Logic (TOCL)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ACM Transactions on Computer Systems (TOCS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ACM Transactions on Design Automation of Electronic Systems (TODAES)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ACM Transactions on Economics and Computation     Hybrid Journal  
ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (TECS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology (TIST)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems (TiiS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications, and Applications (TOMCCAP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ACM Transactions on Reconfigurable Technology and Systems (TRETS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks (TOSN)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
ACM Transactions on Speech and Language Processing (TSLP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ACM Transactions on Storage     Hybrid Journal  
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Adaptive Data Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Computer Science : an International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Materials Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Technology Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Information and Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
AI EDAM     Hybrid Journal  
Air, Soil & Water Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Algorithms     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Computational Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Information Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Sensor Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Animation Practice, Process & Production     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annual Reviews in Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anuario Americanista Europeo     Open Access  
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Applied Artificial Intelligence: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Applied Computer Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Informatics     Open Access  
Applied Mathematics and Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Soft Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied System Innovation     Open Access  
Architectural Theory Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archive of Numerical Software     Open Access  
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
arq: Architectural Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Artifact     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asia Pacific Journal on Computational Engineering     Open Access  
Asia-Pacific Journal of Information Technology and Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Educational Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Automatic Control and Computer Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Automatic Documentation and Mathematical Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Automatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Automation in Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Behaviour & Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Big Data and Cognitive Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 291)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
British Journal of Educational Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 145)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
c't Magazin fuer Computertechnik     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
CALCOLO     Hybrid Journal  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Capturing Intelligence     Full-text available via subscription  
Catalysis in Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cell Communication and Signaling     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Computer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CERN IdeaSquare Journal of Experimental Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
ChemSusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
CIN Computers Informatics Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
CLEI Electronic Journal     Open Access  
Clin-Alert     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cluster Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combinatorics, Probability and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Communication Methods and Measures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Algebra     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Communications in Computational Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Communications in Partial Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Communications of the ACM     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Communications of the Association for Information Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Complex & Intelligent Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Complex Adaptive Systems Modeling     Open Access  
Complex Analysis and Operator Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Complexus     Full-text available via subscription  
Composite Materials Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Computación y Sistemas     Open Access  
Computation     Open Access  
Computational and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational Cognitive Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computational Condensed Matter     Open Access  
Computational Ecology and Software     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Computational Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computational Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Computational Management Science     Hybrid Journal  
Computational Mathematics and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computational Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computational Methods and Function Theory     Hybrid Journal  
Computational Molecular Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Particle Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Computational Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computational Science and Techniques     Open Access  
Computational Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Computational Statistics & Data Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Computer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 94)
Computer Aided Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Computer Engineering and Applications Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Computer Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computer Methods in the Geosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Music Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (TECS)
  [SJR: 0.408]   [H-I: 20]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1539-9087 - ISSN (Online) 1558-3465
   Published by ACM Homepage  [45 journals]
  • Mining Timed Regular Specifications from System Traces
    • Abstract: Apurva Narayan, Greta Cutulenco, Yogi Joshi, Sebastian Fischmeister

      Temporal properties define the order of occurrence and timing constraints on event occurrence. Such specifications are important for safety-critical real-time systems. We propose a framework for automatically mining temporal properties that are in the form of timed regular expressions (TREs) from system traces. Using an abstract structure of the property, the framework constructs a finite state machine to serve as an acceptor. We analytically derive speedup for the fragment and confirm the speedup using empirical validation with synthetic traces. The framework is evaluated on industrial-strength safety-critical real-time applications using traces with more than 1 million entries.
      PubDate: Wed, 03 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Synergistic CPU-GPU Frequency Capping for Energy-Efficient Mobile Games
    • Abstract: Jurn-Gyu Park, Chen-Ying Hsieh, Nikil Dutt, Sung-Soo Lim

      Mobile platforms are increasingly using Heterogeneous Multiprocessor Systems-on-Chip (HMPSoCs) with differentiated processing cores and GPUs to achieve high performance for graphics-intensive applications such as mobile games. Traditionally, separate CPU and GPU governors are deployed in order to achieve energy efficiency through Dynamic Voltage Frequency Scaling (DVFS) but miss opportunities for further energy savings through coordinated system-level application of DVFS. We present a cooperative CPU-GPU DVFS strategy (called Co-Cap) that orchestrates energy-efficient CPU and GPU DVFS through synergistic CPU and GPU frequency capping to avoid frequency overprovisioning while maintaining desired performance. Unlike traditional approaches that target a narrow set of mobile games, our Co-Cap approach is applicable across a wide range of microbenchmarks and mobile games.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Formal Requirement Debugging for Testing and Verification of
           Cyber-Physical Systems
    • Abstract: Adel Dokhanchi, Bardh Hoxha, Georgios Fainekos

      A framework for the elicitation and debugging of formal specifications for Cyber-Physical Systems is presented. The elicitation of specifications is handled through a graphical interface. Two debugging algorithms are presented. The first checks for erroneous or incomplete temporal logic specifications without considering the system. The second can be utilized for the analysis of reactive requirements with respect to system test traces. The specification debugging framework is applied on a number of formal specifications collected through a user study. The user study establishes that requirement errors are common and that the debugging framework can resolve many insidious specification errors.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Guest Editorial for the Special Issue of ESWEEK 2016
    • Abstract: Petru Eles, Jörg Henkel

      PubDate: Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Symbolic Multi-Level Loop Mapping of Loop Programs for Massively Parallel
           Processor Arrays
    • Abstract: Alexandru Tanase, Michael Witterauf, Jürgen Teich, Frank Hannig

      Today’s MPSoCs (multiprocessor systems-on-chip) have brought up massively parallel processor array accelerators that may achieve a high computational efficiency by exploiting multiple levels of parallelism and different memory hierarchies. Such parallel processor arrays are perfect targets, particularly for the acceleration of nested loop programs due to their regular and massively parallel nature. However, existing loop parallelization techniques are often unable to exploit multiple levels of parallelism and are either I/O or memory bounded. Furthermore, if the number of available processing elements becomes only known at runtime—as in adaptive systems—static approaches fail. In this article, we solve some of these problems by proposing a hybrid compile/runtime multi-level symbolic parallelization technique that is able to: (a) exploit multiple levels of parallelism as well as (b) different memory hierarchies, and (c) to match the I/O or memory capabilities of the target architecture for scenarios where the number of available processing elements is only ...
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Model and Program Repair via SAT Solving
    • Abstract: Paul C. Attie, Kinan Dak Al Bab, Mouhammad Sakr

      We consider the subtractive model repair problem: given a finite Kripke structure M and a CTL formula η, determine if M contains a substructure M′ that satisfies η. Thus, M can be “repaired” to satisfy eta by deleting some transitions and states. We map an instance ⟨ M,η ⟩ of model repair to a Boolean formula repair(M,η) such that ⟨ M,η ⟩ has a solution iff repair(M,η) is satisfiable. Furthermore, a satisfying assignment determines which states and transitions must be removed from M to yield a model M′ of η Thus, we can use any SAT solver to repair Kripke structures.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • SCEst: Sequentially Constructive Esterel
    • Abstract: Steven Smyth, Christian Motika, Karsten Rathlev, Reinhard Von Hanxleden, Michael Mendler

      The synchronous language Esterel provides determinate concurrency for reactive systems. Determinacy is ensured by the signal coherence rule, which demands that signals have a stable value throughout one reaction cycle. This is natural for the original application domains of Esterel, such as controller design and hardware development; however, it is unnecessarily restrictive for software development. Sequentially Constructive Esterel (SCEst) overcomes this restriction by allowing values to change instantaneously, as long as determinacy is still guaranteed, adopting the recently proposed Sequentially Constructive model of computation.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Effective Verification for Low-Level Software with Competing Interrupts
    • Abstract: Lihao Liang, Tom Melham, Daniel Kroening, Peter Schrammel, Michael Tautschnig

      Interrupt-driven software is difficult to test and debug, especially when interrupts can be nested and subject to priorities. Interrupts can arrive at arbitrary times, leading to an exponential blow-up in the number of cases to consider. We present a new formal approach to verifying interrupt-driven software based on symbolic execution. The approach leverages recent advances in the encoding of the execution traces of interacting, concurrent threads. We assess the performance of our method on benchmarks drawn from embedded systems code and device drivers, and experimentally compare it to conventional approaches that use source-to-source transformations. Our results show that our method significantly outperforms these techniques.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Exploiting Sparsity to Accelerate Fully Connected Layers of CNN-Based
           Applications on Mobile SoCs
    • Abstract: Xinfeng Xie, Dayou Du, Qian Li, Yun Liang, Wai Teng Tang, Zhong Liang Ong, Mian Lu, Huynh Phung Huynh, Rick Siow Mong Goh

      Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are widely employed in many image recognition applications. With the proliferation of embedded and mobile devices, such applications are becoming commonplace on mobile devices. Network pruning is a commonly used strategy to reduce the memory and storage footprints of CNNs on mobile devices. In this article, we propose customized versions of the sparse matrix multiplication algorithm to speed up inference on mobile devices and make it more energy efficient. Specifically, we propose a Block Compressed Sparse Column algorithm and a bit-representation-based algorithm (BitsGEMM) that exploit sparsity to accelerate the fully connected layers of a network on the NVIDIA Jetson TK1 platform.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Time and Sequence Integrated Runtime Anomaly Detection for Embedded
    • Abstract: Sixing Lu, Roman Lysecky

      Network-connected embedded systems grow on a large scale as a critical part of Internet of Things, and these systems are under the risk of increasing malware. Anomaly-based detection methods can detect malware in embedded systems effectively and provide the advantage of detecting zero-day exploits relative to signature-based detection methods, but existing approaches incur significant performance overheads and are susceptible to mimicry attacks. In this article, we present a formal runtime security model that defines the normal system behavior including execution sequence and execution timing. The anomaly detection method in this article utilizes on-chip hardware to non-intrusively monitor system execution through trace port of the processor and detect malicious activity at runtime.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Symbolic WCET Computation
    • Abstract: Clément Ballabriga, Julien Forget, Giuseppe Lipari

      Parametric Worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis of a sequential program produces a formula that represents the worst-case execution time of the program, where parameters of the formula are user-defined parameters of the program (as loop bounds, values of inputs, or internal variables, etc). In this article we propose a novel methodology to compute the parametric WCET of a program. Unlike other algorithms in the literature, our method is not based on Integer Linear Programming (ILP). Instead, we follow an approach based on the notion of symbolic computation of WCET formulae. After explaining our methodology and proving its correctness, we present a set of experiments to compare our method against the state of the art.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Analysis and Design of Adders for Approximate Computing
    • Abstract: Sunil Dutt, Sukumar Nandi, Gaurav Trivedi

      The concept of approximate computing, that is, to sacrifice computation quality for computation efforts, has recently emerged as a promising design approach. Over the past decade, several research works have explored approximate computing at both the software level and hardware level of abstraction with encouraging results. At the hardware level of abstraction, adders (being the fundamental and most widely used data operators in digital systems) have attracted a significant attention for approximation. In this article, we first explain briefly the need/significance of approximate adders. We then propose four Approximate Full Adders (AFAs) for high-performance energy-efficient approximate computing. The key design objective behind the proposed AFAs is to curtail the length of carry propagation subjected to minimal error rate.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Coverage Preservation with Rapid Forwarding in Energy-Harvesting Wireless
           Sensor Networks for Critical Rare Events
    • Abstract: David C. Harrison, Winston K. G. Seah, Ramesh Rayudu

      Wireless sensor networks for rarely occurring critical events must maintain sensing coverage and low-latency network connectivity to ensure event detection and subsequent rapid propagation of notification messages. Few algorithms have been proposed that address both coverage and forwarding and those that do are either unconcerned with rapid propagation or are not optimised to handle the constant changes in topology observed in duty-cycled networks. This article proposes an algorithm for Coverage Preservation with Rapid Forwarding (CPRF). The algorithm is shown to deliver perfect coverage maintenance and low-latency guaranteed message propagation whilst allowing stored-charge conservation via collaborative duty cycling in energy-harvesting networks. Favourable comparisons are made against established and recently proposed algorithms in both sparse planned and dense random distributions.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • D-PUF: An Intrinsically Reconfigurable DRAM PUF for Device Authentication
           and Random Number Generation
    • Abstract: Soubhagya Sutar, Arnab Raha, Devadatta Kulkarni, Rajeev Shorey, Jeffrey Tew, Vijay Raghunathan

      Physically Unclonable Functions (PUFs) have proved to be an effective and low-cost measure against counterfeiting by providing device authentication and secure key storage services. Memory-based PUF implementations are an attractive option due to the ubiquitous nature of memory in electronic devices and the requirement of minimal (or no) additional circuitry. Dynamic Random Access Memory-- (DRAM) based PUFs are particularly advantageous due to their large address space and multiple controllable parameters during response generation. However, prior works on DRAM PUFs use a static response-generation mechanism making them vulnerable to security attacks. Further, they result in slow device authentication, are not applicable to commercial off-the-shelf devices, or require DRAM power cycling prior to authentication.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Fault Injection for Test-Driven Development of Robust SoC Firmware
    • Abstract: Petra R. Maier, Veit B. Kleeberger, Daniel Mueller-Gritschneder, Ulf Schlichtmann

      Robustness against errors in hardware must be considered from the very beginning of safety-critical system-on-chip firmware design. Therefore, we present fault injection for test-driven development (TDD) of robust firmware. As TDD is based on instant feedback to the designer, fault injection must execute within few minutes. In contrast to state-of-the-art approaches, we avoid long simulation scenarios and runtimes by injecting faults at the unit level and utilizing host-compiled simulation. Further, three static bit-level analyses of firmware source code and hardware specification reduce the fault set significantly. This accelerates fault injection by several orders of magnitude and enables robustness-aware TDD.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Underminer: A Framework for Automatically Identifying Nonconverging
           Behaviors in Black-Box System Models
    • Abstract: Ayca Balkan, Paulo Tabuada, Jyotirmoy V. Deshmukh, Xiaoqing Jin, James Kapinski

      Evaluation of industrial embedded control system designs is a time-consuming and imperfect process. While an ideal process would apply a formal verification technique such as model checking or theorem proving, these techniques do not scale to industrial design problems, and it is often difficult to use these techniques to verify performance aspects of control system designs, such as stability or convergence. For industrial designs, engineers rely on testing processes to identify critical or unexpected behaviors. We propose a novel framework called Underminer to improve the testing process; this is an automated technique to identify nonconverging behaviors in embedded control system designs.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Simulation-Driven Reachability Using Matrix Measures
    • Abstract: Chuchu Fan, James Kapinski, Xiaoqing Jin, Sayan Mitra

      Simulation-driven verification can provide formal safety guarantees for otherwise intractable nonlinear and hybrid system models. A key step in simulation-driven algorithms is to compute the reach set overapproximations from a set of initial states through numerical simulations and sensitivity analysis. This article addresses this problem by providing algorithms for computing discrepancy functions as the upper bound on the sensitivity, that is, the rate at which trajectories starting from neighboring states converge or diverge. The algorithms rely on computing local bounds on matrix measures as the exponential change rate of the discrepancy function. We present two techniques to compute the matrix measures under different norms: regular Euclidean norm or Euclidean norm under coordinate transformation, such that the exponential rate of the discrepancy function, and therefore, the conservativeness of the overapproximation, is locally minimized.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Predictable Shared Cache Management for Multi-Core Real-Time
    • Abstract: Hyoseung Kim, Ragunathan (Raj) Rajkumar

      Real-time virtualization has gained much attention for the consolidation of multiple real-time systems onto a single hardware platform while ensuring timing predictability. However, a shared last-level cache (LLC) on modern multi-core platforms can easily hamper the timing predictability of real-time virtualization due to the resulting temporal interference among consolidated workloads. Since such interference caused by the LLC is highly variable and may have not even existed in legacy systems to be consolidated, it poses a significant challenge for real-time virtualization. In this article, we propose a predictable shared cache management framework for multi-core real-time virtualization. Our framework introduces two hypervisor-level techniques, vLLC and vColoring, that enable the cache allocation of individual tasks running in a virtual machine (VM), which is not achievable by the current state of the art.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Low Overhead CS-Based Heterogeneous Framework for Big Data Acceleration
    • Abstract: Amey Kulkarni, Colin Shea, Tahmid Abtahi, Houman Homayoun, Tinoosh Mohsenin

      Big data processing on hardware gained immense interest among the hardware research community to take advantage of fast processing and reconfigurability. Though the computation latency can be reduced using hardware, big data processing cost is dominated by data transfers. In this article, we propose a low overhead framework based on compressive sensing (CS) to reduce data transfers up to 67% without affecting signal quality. CS has two important kernels: “sensing” and “reconstruction.” In this article, we focus on CS reconstruction is using orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm. We implement the OMP CS reconstruction algorithm on a domain-specific PENC many-core platform and a low-power Jetson TK1 platform consisting of an ARM CPU and a K1 GPU.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Exploiting Approximate MLC-PCM in Low-Power Embedded Systems
    • Abstract: Mohammad Taghi Teimoori Nodeh, Mostafa Bazzaz, Alireza Ejlali

      Multi-level cell phase change memory (MLC-PCM), because of its very low leakage power and high density, is promising for embedded systems. Furthermore, for applications with inherent low sensitivity to errors, approximate write operations can be exploited in MLC-PCM to improve endurance and performance. However, data that reside in the approximate MLC-PCM for a rather long time without refreshing are prone to soft errors due to resistance drift phenomenon, while even for an application with inherent low sensitivity to errors, a high soft error rate can degrade its Quality of Result (QoR). The architecture-level approaches to decrease the drift effect incur considerable power overhead (about 100%), which is a prominent issue in embedded systems, and are dependent on the number of logic levels stored in the PCM cell (e.g., most of them are designed for 4LC-PCM).
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • DC4CD: A Platform for Distributed Computing on Constrained Devices
    • Abstract: Salvatore Gaglio, Giuseppe Lo Re, Gloria Martorella, Daniele Peri

      In this article, we present Distributed Computing for Constrained Devices (DC4CD), a novel software architecture that supports symbolic distributed computing on wireless sensor networks. DC4CD integrates the functionalities of a high-level symbolic interpreter, a compiler, and an operating system, and includes networking abstractions to exchange high-level symbolic code among peer devices. Contrarily to other architectures proposed in the literature, DC4CD allows for changes at runtime, even on deployed nodes of both application and system code.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • A Majority-Based Reliability-Aware Task Mapping in High-Performance
           Homogenous NoC Architectures
    • Abstract: Alireza Namazi, Meisam Abdollahi, Saeed Safari, Siamak Mohammadi

      This article presents a new reliability-aware task mapping approach in a many-core platform at design time for applications with DAG-based task graphs. The main goal is to devise a task mapping which meets a predefined reliability threshold considering a minimized performance degradation. The proposed approach uses a majority-voting replication technique to fulfill error-masking capability. A quantitative reliability model is also proposed for the platform. Our platform is a homogenous many-core architecture with mesh-based interconnection using traditional deterministic XY routing algorithm. Our iterative approach is applicable to an unlimited number of system fault types. All parts of the platform, including cores, links, and routers, are assumed to be prone to failures.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Testing Programs with Contextual Unfoldings
    • Abstract: Kari Kähkönen, Keijo Heljanko

      In this article, we present a new algorithm that combines contextual unfoldings and dynamic symbolic execution to systematically test multithreaded programs. The approach uses symbolic execution to limit the number of input values and unfoldings to thus limit the number of thread interleavings that are needed to cover reachable local states of threads in the program under test. We show that the use of contextual unfoldings allows interleavings of threads to be succinctly represented. This can in some cases lead to a substantial reduction in the number of needed test executions when compared to previous approaches.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Efficient Schedulability Test for Dynamic-Priority Scheduling of
           Mixed-Criticality Real-Time Systems
    • Abstract: Xiaozhe Gu, Arvind Easwaran

      Systems in many safety-critical application domains are subject to certification requirements. In such a system, there are typically different applications providing functionalities that have varying degrees of criticality. Consequently, the certification requirements for functionalities at these different criticality levels are also varying, with very high levels of assurance required for a highly critical functionality, whereas relatively low levels of assurance are required for a less critical functionality. Considering the timing assurance given to various applications in the form of guaranteed budgets within deadlines, a theory of real-time scheduling for such multi-criticality systems has been recently under development. In particular, an algorithm called Earliest Deadline First with Virtual Deadlines (EDF-VD) has shown a lot of promise for systems with two criticality levels, especially in terms of practical performance demonstrated through experiment results.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Fixed-Priority Scheduling for Two-Phase Mixed-Criticality Systems
    • Abstract: Zheng Li, Shuibing He

      In this article, a two-phase execution model is proposed for mixed-criticality (MC) tasks. Different from traditional MC tasks with a computation phase only, the two-phase execution model requires a memory-access phase first to fetch the instructions and data, and then computation. Theoretical foundations are first established for a schedulability test under given memory-access and computation priority assignment. Based on the established theoretical conclusions, a two-stage priority assignment algorithm, which can find the best priority assignment for both memory-access and computation phases under fixed-priority scheduling, is further developed.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Fault Recovery Time Analysis for Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable
    • Abstract: Ganghee Lee, Ediz Cetin, Oliver Diessel

      Coarse-grained reconfigurable architectures (CGRAs) have drawn increasing attention due to their performance and flexibility advantages. Typically, CGRAs incorporate many processing elements in the form of an array, which is suitable for implementing spatial redundancy, as used in the design of fault-tolerant systems. This article introduces a recovery time model for transient faults in CGRAs. The proposed fault-tolerant CGRAs are based on triple modular redundancy and coding techniques for error detection and correction. To evaluate the model, several kernels from space computing are mapped onto the suggested architecture. We demonstrate the tradeoff between recovery time, performance, and area. In addition, the average execution time of an application including recovery time is evaluated using area-based error-rate estimates in harsh radiation environments.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • CaffePresso: Accelerating Convolutional Networks on Embedded SoCs
    • Abstract: Gopalakrishna Hegde, Siddhartha, Nachiket Kapre

      Auto-tuning and parametric implementation of deep learning kernels allow off-the-shelf accelerator-based embedded platforms to deliver high-performance and energy-efficient mappings of the inference phase of lightweight neural networks. Low-complexity classifiers are characterized by operations on small image maps with two to three deep layers and few class labels. For these use cases, we consider a range of embedded systems with 20W power budgets such as the Xilinx ZC706 (FPGA), NVIDIA Jetson TX1 (GPU), TI Keystone II (DSP), and Adapteva Parallella (RISC+NoC). In CaffePresso, we combine auto-tuning of the implementation parameters, and platform-specific constraints deliver optimized solutions for each input ConvNet specification.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • LOCUS: Low-Power Customizable Many-Core Architecture for Wearables
    • Abstract: Cheng Tan, Aditi Kulkarni, Vanchinathan Venkataramani, Manupa Karunaratne, Tulika Mitra, Li-Shiuan Peh

      Application requirements, such as real-time response, are pushing wearable devices to leverage more powerful processors inside the SoC (system on chip). However, existing wearable devices are not well suited for such challenging applications due to poor performance, and the conventional powerful many-core architectures are not appropriate either due to the stringent power budget in this domain. We propose LOCUS—a low-power, customizable, many-core processor for next-generation wearable devices. LOCUS combines customizable processor cores with a customizable network on a message-passing architecture to deliver very competitive performance/watt—an average 3.1× compared to quad-core ARM processors used in state-of-the-art wearable devices. A combination of full system simulation with representative applications from the wearable domain and RTL synthesis of the architecture show that 16-core LOCUS achieves an average 1.52× performance/watt improvement over a conventional 16-core shared memory many-core architecture.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Improving Write Performance and Extending Endurance of Object-Based NAND
           Flash Devices
    • Abstract: Jie Guo, Chuhan Min, Tao Cai, Yiran Chen

      Write amplification is a major cause of performance and endurance degradations in NAND flash-based storage systems. In an object-based NAND flash device (ONFD), two causes of write amplification are onode partial update and cascading update. Here, onode is a type of small-sized object metadata, and multiple onodes are stored in one NAND flash page. Updating one onode invokes partial page update (i.e., onode partial update), incurring unnecessary migration of the un-updated data. Cascading update denotes updating object metadata in a cascading manner due to object data update or migration. Although there are only several bytes that need to be updated in the object metadata, one or more pages have to be re-written accordingly.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (TECS) Volume 17 Issue 2,
           November 2017 (Issue-in-Progress)
    • PubDate: Tue, 14 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Runtime Performance and Power Optimization of Parallel Disparity
           Estimation on Many-Core Platforms
    • Abstract: Charles Leech, Charan Kumar, Amit Acharyya, Sheng Yang, Geoff V. Merrett, Bashir M. Al-Hashimi

      This article investigates the use of many-core systems to execute the disparity estimation algorithm, used in stereo vision applications, as these systems can provide flexibility between performance scaling and power consumption. We present a learning-based runtime management approach that achieves a required performance threshold while minimizing power consumption through dynamic control of frequency and core allocation. Experimental results are obtained from a 61-core Intel Xeon Phi platform for the aforementioned investigation.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Transmission Adaptation for Battery-Free Relaying
    • Abstract: Zejue Wang, Hongjia Li, Dan Hu, Song Ci

      Energy harvesting (EH)–enabled relaying has attracted considerable attention as an effective way to prolong the operation time of energy-constrained networks and extend coverage beside desired survivability and rate of transmission. In related literature, the Harvest-Store-Use (HSU) model is usually utilized to describe the energy flow behavior of the EH system. However, the half-duplex (HD) constraint of HSU that harvested energy can only be used after being temporally stored in energy buffer may reduce effective transmission time. Thus, we first construct the full-duplex (FD) energy flow behavior model of the EH system where the harvested energy can be tuned to power load and being stored simultaneously.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • OPPC: An Optimal Path Planning Charging Scheme Based on Schedulability
           Evaluation for WRSNs
    • Abstract: Chi Lin, Yanhong Zhou, Houbing Song, Chang Wu Yu, Guowei Wu

      The lack of schedulability evaluation of previous charging schemes in wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs) degrades the charging efficiency, leading to node exhaustion. We propose an Optimal Path Planning Charging scheme, namely OPPC, for the on-demand charging architecture. OPPC evaluates the schedulability of a charging mission, which makes charging scheduling predictable. It provides an optimal charging path which maximizes charging efficiency. When confronted with a non-schedulable charging mission, a node discarding algorithm is developed to enable the schedulability. Experimental simulations demonstrate that OPPC can achieve better performance in successful charging rate as well as charging efficiency.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Harvest Energy from the Water: A Self-Sustained Wireless Water Quality
           Sensing System
    • Abstract: Qi Chen, Ye Liu, Guangchi Liu, Qing Yang, Xianming Shi, Hongwei Gao, Lu Su, Quanlong Li

      Water quality data is incredibly important and valuable, but its acquisition is not always trivial. A promising solution is to distribute a wireless sensor network in water to measure and collect the data; however, a drawback exists in that the batteries of the system must be replaced or recharged after being exhausted. To mitigate this issue, we designed a self-sustained water quality sensing system that is powered by renewable bioenergy generated from microbial fuel cells (MFCs). MFCs collect the energy released from native magnesium oxidizing microorganisms (MOMs) that are abundant in natural waters. The proposed energy-harvesting technology is environmentally friendly and can provide maintenance-free power to sensors for several years.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Efficient, Long-Term Logging of Rich Data Sensors Using Transient Sensor
    • Abstract: Andres Gomez, Lukas Sigrist, Thomas Schalch, Luca Benini, Lothar Thiele

      While energy harvesting is generally seen to be the key to power cyber-physical systems in a low-cost, long-term, efficient manner, it has generally required large energy storage devices to mitigate the effects of the source’s variability. The emerging class of transiently powered systems embrace this variability by performing computation in proportion to the energy harvested, thereby minimizing the obtrusive and expensive storage element. By using an efficient Energy Management Unit (EMU), small bursts of energy can be buffered in an optimally sized capacitor and used to supply generic loads, even when the average harvested power is only a fraction of that required for sustained system operation.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • A See-through-Wall System for Device-Free Human Motion Sensing Based on
           Battery-Free RFID
    • Abstract: Zhongqin Wang, Fu Xiao, Ning Ye, Ruchuan Wang, Panlong Yang

      A see-through-wall system can be used in life detection, military fields, elderly people surveillance. and gaming. The existing systems are mainly based on military devices, customized signals or pre-deployed sensors inside the room, which are very expensive and inaccessible for general use. Recently, a low-cost RFID technology has gained a lot of attention in this field. Since phase estimates of a battery-free RFID tag collected by a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) RFID reader are sensitive to external interference, the RFID tag could be regarded as a battery-free sensor that detects reflections off targeted objects. The existing RFID-based system, however, needs to first learn the environment of the empty room beforehand to separate reflections off the tracked target.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Joint Optimization of Sensing and Power Allocation in Energy-Harvesting
           Cognitive Radio Networks
    • Abstract: Hang Hu, Hang Zhang, Jianxin Guo, Feng Wang

      The energy-harvesting cognitive radio (CR) network is proposed to improve the spectrum efficiency and energy efficiency. We focus on the optimization of sensing time and power allocation to maximize the throughput of the energy-harvesting CR network subject to the energy causality constraint and collision constraint. Based on the classification of operating regions, the optimization problem is divided into two sub-problems. Then, the efficient iterative Algorithm 1 and Algorithm 2 are proposed to solve sub-problem (A) and sub-problem (B), respectively. Numerical results show that a significant improvement in the throughput is achieved via joint optimization of sensing time and power allocation.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • R 3: Reliable Over-the-Air Reprogramming on
           Computational RFIDs
    • Abstract: Die Wu, Li Lu, Muhammad Jawad Hussain, Songfan Li, Mo Li, Fengli Zhang

      Computational Radio Frequency Identification (CRFID) tags operate solely on harvested energy and have emerged as viable platforms for a variety of ubiquitous sensing and computation applications. Due to their battery-less nature, these tags can be permanently deployed in hard-to-reach places where the possibility of tag access is eliminated. In such scenarios, maintaining and upgrading the tag’s firmware becomes infeasible because programming tools, including wired interface and PC-based software, are required to erase, modify, or reprogram the microcontroller unit’s memory. Such limitations necessitate the demand for an over-the-air (OTA) scheme, which can wirelessly reprogram or upgrade the firmware in CRFID tags. In this article, we present R3—a reliable OTA reprogramming scheme that is compliant with EPC protocol and requires no hardware upgrade to RFID reader or CRFID tag.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Predictive Retransmissions for Intermittently Connected Sensor Networks
           with Transmission Diversity
    • Abstract: MD. Majharul Islam Rajib, Asis Nasipuri

      Batteryless wireless sensor networks that rely on energy harvested from the environment often exhibit random power outages due to limitations of energy resources, which give rise to intermittent connectivity and long transmission delays. To improve the delay performance in such networks, we consider a design strategy that uses predictive retransmissions to maximize the probability of success for each transmission. This is applied to two different transmission diversity schemes: cooperative relaying over unicast routes and opportunistic routing. Performance evaluations from theoretical models and simulations are presented that show that significant gains can be achieved using the proposed approach in such networks.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (TECS) Volume 17 Issue 1,
           August 2017 (Issue-in-Progress)
    • PubDate: Tue, 29 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Guest Editorial for ACM TECS: Special Issue on Autonomous Battery-Free
           Sensing and Communication
    • Abstract: Jiming Chen, Yu (Jason) Gu, Gil Zussman

      PubDate: Tue, 29 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Near-Optimal Co-Deployment of Chargers and Sink Stations in Rechargeable
           Sensor Networks
    • Abstract: Songyuan Li, Lingkun Fu, Shibo He, Youxian Sun

      Wireless charging technology has drawn great attention of both academia and industry in recent years, due to its potential of significantly improving the system performance of sensor networks. The emergence of an open-source experimental platform for wireless rechargeable sensor networks, Powercast, has made the theoretical research closer to reality. This pioneering platform is able to recharge sensor nodes much more efficiently and allows different communication protocols to be implemented upon users’ demands. Different from the RFID-based model widely used in the existing works, Powercast designs the charger and sink station separately. This leads to a new design challenge of cooperatively deploying minimum number of chargers and sink stations in wireless rechargeable sensor networks.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Operating Energy-Neutral Real-Time Systems
    • Abstract: Peter Wägemann, Tobias Distler, Heiko Janker, Phillip Raffeck, Volkmar Sieh, Wolfgang SchröDer-Preikschat

      Energy-neutral real-time systems harvest the entire energy they use from their environment. In such systems, energy must be treated as an equally important resource as time, which creates the need to solve a number of problems that so far have not been addressed by traditional real-time systems. In particular, this includes the scheduling of tasks with both time and energy constraints, the monitoring of energy budgets, as well as the survival of blackout periods during which not enough energy is available to keep the system fully operational. In this article, we address these issues presenting EnOS, an operating-system kernel for energy-neutral real-time systems.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Green-Energy-Powered Cognitive Radio Networks: Joint Time and Power
    • Abstract: Chi Xu, Wei Liang, Haibin Yu

      This article studies a green-energy-powered cognitive radio network (GCRN) in an underlay paradigm, wherein multiple battery-free secondary users (SUs) capture both the spectrum and the energy of primary users (PUs) to communicate with an access point (AP). By time division multiple access, each SU transmits data to AP in the allocated time and harvests energy from the RF signals of PUs otherwise, all in the same licensed spectrum concurrently with PUs. Thus, the transmit power of each SU is jointly constrained by the peak interference power at PU and the harvested energy of SU. With the formulated green coexistence paradigm, we investigate the sum-throughput maximization problem with respect to time and power allocation, which is non-convex.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
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