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  Subjects -> COMPUTER SCIENCE (Total: 2115 journals)
    - ANIMATION AND SIMULATION (31 journals)
    - ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (105 journals)
    - AUTOMATION AND ROBOTICS (105 journals)
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    - COMPUTER GAMES (21 journals)
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    - COMPUTER SCIENCE (1228 journals)
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    - ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING (22 journals)
    - IMAGE AND VIDEO PROCESSING (40 journals)
    - INFORMATION SYSTEMS (107 journals)
    - INTERNET (95 journals)
    - SOCIAL WEB (53 journals)
    - SOFTWARE (34 journals)
    - THEORY OF COMPUTING (9 journals)

COMPUTER SCIENCE (1228 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 872 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Abakós     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACM Computing Surveys     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
ACM Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ACM Transactions on Applied Perception (TAP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization (TACO)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems (TAAS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ACM Transactions on Computation Theory (TOCT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ACM Transactions on Computational Logic (TOCL)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ACM Transactions on Computer Systems (TOCS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
ACM Transactions on Design Automation of Electronic Systems (TODAES)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ACM Transactions on Economics and Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (TECS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology (TIST)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems (TiiS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications, and Applications (TOMCCAP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ACM Transactions on Reconfigurable Technology and Systems (TRETS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks (TOSN)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ACM Transactions on Speech and Language Processing (TSLP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ACM Transactions on Storage     Hybrid Journal  
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Informatica Malaysia     Open Access  
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Adaptive Data Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Computer Science : an International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 50)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Technology Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Information and Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
AI EDAM     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Air, Soil & Water Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Algorithms     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Computational Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Information Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Sensor Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Animation Practice, Process & Production     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of West University of Timisoara - Mathematics and Computer Science     Open Access  
Annual Reviews in Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Anuario Americanista Europeo     Open Access  
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Applied Artificial Intelligence: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Applied Computer Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Informatics     Open Access  
Applied Mathematics and Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Soft Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied System Innovation     Open Access  
Architectural Theory Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archive of Numerical Software     Open Access  
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 150)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
arq: Architectural Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Artifact     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asia Pacific Journal on Computational Engineering     Open Access  
Asia-Pacific Journal of Information Technology and Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Educational Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Automatic Control and Computer Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Automatic Documentation and Mathematical Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Automatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Automation in Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Balkan Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Behaviour & Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Big Data and Cognitive Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 319)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
British Journal of Educational Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
c't Magazin fuer Computertechnik     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
CALCOLO     Hybrid Journal  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Capturing Intelligence     Full-text available via subscription  
Catalysis in Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cell Communication and Signaling     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Computer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CERN IdeaSquare Journal of Experimental Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ChemSusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
CIN Computers Informatics Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
CLEI Electronic Journal     Open Access  
Clin-Alert     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clinical eHealth     Open Access  
Cluster Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combinatorics, Probability and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Communication Methods and Measures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Algebra     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Communications in Computational Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Communications in Information Science and Management Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Partial Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Communications of the ACM     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51)
Communications of the Association for Information Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Complex & Intelligent Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Complex Adaptive Systems Modeling     Open Access  
Complex Analysis and Operator Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Complexus     Full-text available via subscription  
Composite Materials Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Computación y Sistemas     Open Access  
Computation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Computational and Mathematical Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational Cognitive Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computational Condensed Matter     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Ecology and Software     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Computational Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Computational Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Computational Management Science     Hybrid Journal  
Computational Mathematics and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computational Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computational Methods and Function Theory     Hybrid Journal  
Computational Molecular Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Particle Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Computational Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computational Science and Techniques     Open Access  
Computational Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Computational Statistics & Data Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Computer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 104)
Computer Aided Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover
Ad Hoc Networks
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.53
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 11  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1570-8705
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3157 journals]
  • Personal tributes to Mario Gerla
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Melodia Tommaso
       
  • Efficient Broadcast in Opportunistic Networks using Optimal Stopping
           Theory
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Carlos Borrego, Joan Borrell, Sergi Robles In this paper, we present a broadcast dissemination protocol for messages in opportunistic networks (OppNet) that is efficient in terms of energy consumption and network capacity usage, while not increasing the number of excluded nodes (nodes not receiving messages). The majority of the OppNet broadcast delivery schemes proposed in the literature, do not take into consideration that reducing energy and buffer usage is of paramount importance in these wireless networks normally consisting of small devices. In our protocol, broadcast messages are limited by carefully selecting their prospective forwarders (storers). The keystone of our protocol is the use of Optimal Stopping Theory, which selects the best message storers at every stage of the algorithm, while holding back broad message dissemination until convenient conditions are met. The broadcast efficiency of the proposed protocol out competes other OppNet broadcast proposals in four well-known scenarios. Furthermore, the protocol reduces the number of both dropped messages and nodes not receiving messages, thus maximising network capacity usage, and the span of the message delivery.
       
  • A mixed-integer linear programming approach for energy-constrained mobile
           anchor path planning in wireless sensor networks localization
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Sahar Kouroshnezhad, Ali Peiravi, Mohammad Sayad Haghighi, Qi Zhang In sensors localization, it is not economically argumentative to equip many static nodes with GPS. The most widespread solution is to utilize from mobile location-aware nodes called mobile anchors. A substantial amount of research to propose mobile anchor trajectory to improve localization accuracy, localization latency, network coverage and traversed path has been reported. However, none of the existing static mobile anchor path planning mechanisms has emphasized on increasing mobile anchor lifetime and reliability that is necessary due to limited energy. In this paper we propose a novel mobile anchor trajectory planning scheme called Optimal Priority based Trajectory with Energy Constraint (OPTEC) in order to address these issues. The proposed scheme utilizes the Mixed Integer Linear Programming optimization (MILP) approach for optimal route planning in the presence of location uncertainty for deployed sensors. Several important evaluation metrics including localization coverage, localization success, ineffective beacon points and energy-location uncertainty product are also defined for a comprehensive comparison of static mobile anchor trajectory plans. In this paper, static sensors utilize a range-free localization algorithm. Simulation results reveal that the proposed mobile anchor trajectory planning approach can surpass other existing trajectories in terms of localization error, mobile anchor energy consumption and even sensors lifetime.
       
  • Special Issue: Advances and Trends on Cognitive Cyber-Physical Systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): FLAVIA C. DELICATO, XIAOKANG ZHOU, KEVIN WANG, SONG GUO
       
  • An IoT-based smart cities infrastructure architecture applied to a waste
           management scenario
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Patric Marques, Diogo Manfroi, Eduardo Deitos, Jonatan Cegoni, Rodrigo Castilhos, Juergen Rochol, Edison Pignaton, Rafael Kunst Studies estimate that by 2050 two thirds of the world population will be leaving in urban areas, what leads to the necessity of intelligent services to meet the needs of the cities residents. An emerging solution to deal with this scenario is the convergence of information and communication technologies through the implementation of the concepts of smart cities and Internet of Things to provide solutions in diverse fields like infrastructure, transportation, and surveillance. Considering this challenging scenario, in this article a multilevel IoT-based smart cities infrastructure management architecture is proposed and the waste management problem is used as a case study to evaluate the performance of the proposed solution. Results proved the concept of the architecture, showing that it is able to manage up to 3902 garbage bins simultaneously. These bins are able to correctly separate organic and recyclable waste in both indoor and outdoor scenarios, presenting low response times, what leads to a good quality of experience to the users of the system.
       
  • Quality Enhancement with fault tolerant embedding in video transmission
           over WMSNs in 802.11e WLAN
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Praveen Kumar K, Govindaraj E With the ever-growing demand in video transmissions, it is essential to design an efficient compression and powerful transmission scheme to transmit a large volume of data in wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs). The main objective of this work is to maximize the network throughput and to maintain/support a better visual experience to different end-users. In this paper, we propose a predictive compression with fault-tolerant embedding based multi-path routing and concealment process to maintain the Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE) in video transmission. In order to reduce the bit rate in high-efficiency videos, a Scalable High-efficiency Inter-layer Prediction based Video coding (SHIPVC) is proposed with two layer predictions such as texture color, and motion with different quantization parameters to attain the high coding efficiency. After compression, a multi-path genetic algorithm establishes a routing and fault tolerance embedding during transmission to maintain the QoS. In decoding side, QoE is maintained by concealing the Intra frame (I-frame) and Predicted frame (P-frame) separately using the motion vector estimation. Experimental results show better performances through bit rate reduction, maximum fault tolerance, and minimum delay parameters. The PSNR calculation for concealment technique shows the better result when compared to the previous standards. Hence, the proposed method performs the effective video transmission with acceptable quality measurements in WMSNs.
       
  • Personal tributes to Anthony Ephremides
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Jeff Wieselthier
       
  • A FESTSCHRIFT ON THE OCCASION OF THE 75th BIRTHDAY OF PROF.
           ANTHONY EPHREMIDES
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Jeffrey E. Wieselthier, Leandros Tassiulas, John C. Malone, Eytan Modiano
       
  • Performance Analysis of a Cooperative Wireless Network with Adaptive
           Relays
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Ioannis Dimitriou, Nikolaos Pappas In this work, we investigate a slotted-time relay assisted cooperative random access wireless network with multipacket (MPR) reception capabilities. MPR refers to the capability of a wireless node to successfully receive packets from more than two other modes that transmit simultaneously at the same slot. We consider a network of N saturated sources that transmit packets to a common destination node with the cooperation of two infinite capacity relay nodes. The relays assist the sources by forwarding the packets that failed to reach the destination. Moreover, the relays have also packets of their own to transmit to the destination. We further assume that the relays employ a state-dependent retransmission control mechanism. In particular, a relay node accordingly adapts its transmission probability based on the status of the other relay. Such a protocol is towards self-aware networks and leads to substantial performance gains in terms of delay. We investigate the stability region and the throughput performance for the full MPR model. Moreover, for the asymmetric two-sources, two-relay case we derive the generating function of the stationary joint queue-length distribution with the aid of the theory of boundary value problems. For the symmetric case, we obtain explicit expressions for the average queueing delay in a relay node without solving a boundary value problem. Extensive numerical examples are presented and provide insights on the system performance.
       
  • Geometric Aspects of Probabilistic Broadcasting in Ad Hoc Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Felipe Forero R., Néstor M. Peña T., Nelson L.S. da Fonseca This paper studies pure probabilistic broadcast in ad hoc networks under a variety of topological scenarios, offering a comparison of the performance of broadcast in lattice-like geometric node layouts (e.g. nodes arranged in triangular, square and hexagonal grids) with that in randomly placed nodes. Results suggest that the geometry of the position of nodes has an impact on the success of probabilistic broadcast techniques. Specifically, networks with randomly-placed nodes exhibit a near-ideal (collision-free) behavior, whereas the grid layouts are extremely sensitive to the impact of collisions and interference. To account for the unreliable behavior of broadcast under certain node-distribution geometries, this paper provides an analysis of Signal to Interference ratio for ad hoc networks.
       
  • DACYCLEM: a Decentralized Algorithm for Maximizing Coverage and Lifetime
           in a Mobile Wireless Sensor Network
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Jean-Matthieu Etancelin, André Fabbri, Frédéric Guinand, Martin Rosalie The goal of Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks (M-WSN) is to sense a specific environment. A commonly considered objective is to organize the work of the sensors such that they monitor the environment as long as possible and cover a surface as large as possible. While most of the time this problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem we present a new decentralized approach for building a connected dominating set (CDS) coupled with attractive and repulsive forces for the movement of sensors in order to maintain the network connectivity. The approach is implemented as a hybrid decentralized algorithm: DACYCLEM (Decentralized Algorithm under Connectivity constraint with mobilitY for Coverage and LifEtime Maximization). The lifetime and the coverage achieved by our approach are the results of the local interactions between the sensors and were not obtained by the application of a direct optimization method. We also introduce a new metric, the speed of coverage, to evaluate the balance between coverage and lifetime. Finally, our simulation results show that one single parameter of DACYCLEM is responsible for the balancing between coverage and lifetime.
       
  • Lifetime Improvement of Wireless Sensor Network by Information Sensitive
           Aggregation Method for Railway Condition Monitoring
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Manoj Tolani, Sunny, Rajat Kumar Singh Lifetime maximization is an important issue while designing wireless sensor network. One of the ways to increase the lifetime of WSN is to reduce the energy demand of the sensor nodes and cluster head nodes, which can be decreased by filtering out redundant data traffic. A Two-Layer Hierarchal Aggregation (TLHA) protocol has been proposed, which filter out redundant data traffic. Simple aggregation algorithm has been used to classify the sensed data based on their normalized standard deviation for efficient data filtration. The algorithm also performs k-Means based re-classification of data to improve the efficiency of the algorithm. Two-layered redundant data filtration technique has been proposed to classify the data. Aggregation protocol reduces data traffic in lower layer hierarchy (sensor nodes to cluster head node) as well as upper layer hierarchy (cluster head nodes to base station node). In former, Energy efficient Time Division Multiple Access (EA-TDMA) Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is used while in latter Bit-Map-Assisted (BMA) MAC protocol is used for transmission of data. Simulation and experimental results show that TLHA saves an enormous amount of energy, which finally increases the lifetime of the sensor network. The performance of the proposed TLHA protocol has been compared with already existing protocols viz. Data Aggregation Window Function (DAWF) and Spatial-Temporal Correlation Algorithm (STCA).
       
  • A Review on Safety Failures, Security Attacks, and Available
           Countermeasures for Autonomous Vehicles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Jin Cui, Lin Shen Liew, Giedre Sabaliauskaite, Fengjun Zhou Autonomous vehicles (AVs) attract a lot of attention recently. They are expected to assist/replace the human drivers in maneuvering the vehicle, thereby reducing the likelihood of road accidents caused by human error, as a means to improve the road traffic safety. However, AVs have their inherent safety and security challenges, which have to be addressed before they are ready for wide adoption. This paper presents an overview of recent research on AV safety failures and security attacks, as well as the available safety and security countermeasures.
       
  • PPSHA: Privacy Preserving Secure Handover Authentication Scheme for All
           Application Scenarios in LTE-A networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Ruhui Ma, Jin Cao, Dengguo Feng, Hui Li, Yinghui Zhang, Xixiang Lv To ensure secure and seamless handovers inter-Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) is a key issue in LTE-A networks. Due to the introduction of Home Evolved NodeB (HeNB), there are three different access modes for the HeNB and the mobility scenarios between the eNB and the HeNB in LTE-A networks are rather complicated. Different handover procedures are executed for different mobility scenarios according to the 3GPP committee, which makes the overall system complex. Thus, it is a key point to propose a unified and secure handover scheme to fit in with all the mobility scenarios in LTE-A networks. In this paper, we propose a secure handover authentication scheme based on the certificateless signcryption technique. Our proposed scheme can achieve the unified and secure handover procedure without sacrificing efficiency. The security and performance evaluations demonstrate that our proposed scheme can meet various security requirements including the perfect forward/backward secrecy and privacy preserving. At the same time, our scheme achieves ideal efficiency.
       
  • Novel Strategies for Path Stability Estimation under Topology Change using
           Hello Messaging in MANETs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Alamgir Naushad, Ghulam Abbas, Ziaul Haq Abbas, Aris Pagourtzis Path stability estimation due to connectivity failures is one of the key challenges for effective communication under random mobility of network nodes in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). Under random movement of network nodes and topology triggered reactive path distribution statistics among the neighboring nodes, there must be a unified model to determine an adequate path stability estimation strategy in MANETs. We present novel link connectivity metrics (LCM) and path distribution analysis (PDA) strategies for path stability estimation under uniform speed and random trajectory of mobile nodes. We also design an adaptive routing model that guarantees effective communication among neighboring nodes inside a cluster. We find that LCM strategy among neighboring nodes is affected by the link expiration time, relative velocity, link connectivity, and link stability metrics in terms of remaining probability for a connected link, link recovery probability, and stability of a path at different time steps of a Markov process. We also find that PDA strategy among neighboring nodes is affected by the link excess life, distribution of path durations, cluster stability, and path duration statistics in terms of throughput and overhead during Hello message(s) communication at different time steps of a Markov process. Analytical and simulation results indicate efficacy of the proposed LCM and PDA strategies by efficiently estimating path stability under topology change, thereby, increasing the global network connectivity.
       
  • Network Lifetime Improvement using Landmark-Assisted Mobile Sink
           Scheduling for Cyber-Physical System Applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Surender Redhu, Rajesh M. Hegde Improving the lifetime of a wireless sensor network is a challenging issue in the development of energy-efficient cyber-physical systems, especially in the design of sensor data aggregation protocols. Mobile sinks are typically used in this context to increase the lifetime of the sensor network in a cyber-physical system. In this work, a landmark-assisted mobile sink scheduling scheme is proposed for designing an energy-efficient data aggregation protocol. A landmark-node identification method along with network clustering is first developed using random walks over network graphs. Subsequently, using the locations of landmark-nodes, a mobile sink scheduling method is developed for sensor data aggregation in an extended Kalman filtering framework. This method is robust since location information of the landmark-nodes is also continuously updated in the Kalman filtering framework. Experiments on identifying landmark-nodes and mobile sink scheduling are conducted on the Intel Berkeley Research Lab dataset and over a real WSN test bed with a Kobuki-Yujin robot. Experimental results obtained for network lifetime analysis and energy-efficiency for various network configurations indicate an improvement over standard methods and are motivating enough for use in practical cyber-physical system applications.
       
  • QoS-based Dynamic Channel Selection Algorithm for Cognitive Radio based
           Smart Grid Communication Network
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Muhammad Waqas Khan, Muhammad Zeeshan Smart Grid (SG) operation requires multi-way communication among power generation, transmission, distribution, and consumer facilities. The complete SG architecture involves multiple layers of networks stretching from energy control center to consumer facilities and multiple applications with diverse Quality-of-Service (QoS) requirements. To meet these requirements, Cognitive Radio (CR) which offers efficient spectrum utilization and sharing, has been considered as a favorable solution. Due to diverse requirements of latency, data rate and reliability, it is a great challenge to support various SG applications under spectrum sensing uncertainties, Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) variations and availability of desired channel bandwidth. In this paper, we propose a dynamic channel selection algorithm based on Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) capable of selecting the most appropriate available idle channel with desired bandwidth, minimum required SNR and probability of miss detection Pmd. The proposed algorithm utilizes various modes of IEEE Standard 802.22, Wireless Regional Area Network (WRAN), at the physical layer. In case of unavailability of idle channels with required SNR and/or Pmd, we propose a novel approach to select the channel with closest possible parameters aiming to reduce the re-transmission probability and thus achieve the desired throughput, latency and reliability requirements. The performance is compared with existing algorithms to demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed algorithm.
       
  • Use of A Quantum Genetic Algorithm for Coalition Formation in Large-scale
           UAV Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Sajad Mousavi, Fatemeh Afghah, Jonathan D. Ashdown, Kurt Turck Task allocation among a network of heterogeneous resource-constrained Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in an unknown and remote environment is still a challenging problem noting the limited available information about highly dynamic environment, lack of continuous and reliable communication network, and the limited energy and resources available at the UAVs. One solution for this such allocation problem is to form several efficient coalitions of the UAVs, where a complex task is assigned to a group of agents (i.e., a coalition) carrying the required resources/capabilities to perform this task. In this paper, inspired by Quantum Evolutionary Algorithms, we propose a leader-follower coalition formation algorithm in a large-scale UAV network to form the best possible coalitions of agents to accomplish the detected tasks in an unknown environment. Three main objectives have been considered in this coalition formation: (i) minimizing resource consumption in completing the assigned tasks on time; (ii) enhancing the reliability of the coalitions; and (iii) considering the most trustworthy UAVs amid the self-interested UAVs in forming the coalitions. The simulation results demonstrate the superior performances of the proposed model in different scenarios with large number of UAVs compared to existing coalition formation algorithms such as merge-and-split and a famous multi-objective genetic algorithm called NSGA-II.12
       
  • Celebrating Professor Mario Gerla 75th birthday
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Melodia Tommaso
       
  • Network Bottlenecks in OLSR Based Ad-hoc Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Nadav Schweitzer, Ariel Stulman, Tirza Hirst, Roy David Margalit, Asaf Shabtai All nefarious players must be able to maximize profit on an attack. In the context of communication networks, part of that need translates to finding the best topological location for the attack. While in static networks this is an easily solvable problem, in mobile ad-hoc networks (manet) having constant topology fluctuations, this becomes a formidable task. Highly important asset nodes are those having numerous paths traversing through them, with bottlenecks being nodes that all data must pass through. Once such nodes are compromised, the damage can be catastrophic. Hence, network defenders must also find these nodes so they can be better protected.In this paper we propose a method that ensures finding such bottleneck nodes (assuming one exists) in olsr based manet, with linear cost. This is accomplished without adding overhead on the network. We experiment and compare, using network simulation tools, multiple types of attackers over a diverse set of topologies.
       
  • Investigating Physical Security in Stealthy Lattice Wireless Sensor
           Networks Using k-Barrier Coverage
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Habib M. Ammari Any unauthorized access to a critical space is a physical breach in our society that can be viewed as a physical security problem. It is essential to build a barrier that prevents any intruder's attempt to cross it and access a critical area. In this paper, we address the problem of physical security in stealthy lattice wireless sensor networks using a belt of sensors around a critical area. Precisely, we propose a theoretical framework to analyze the k-barrier coverage problem, where any path that crosses this belt intersects with the sensing range of at least k sensors, k ≥ 1. Precisely, we analyze the k-barrier coverage problem from a tiling perspective, where the sensors’ sensing disks are tangential to each other. We study two deterministic sensor deployment strategies, which yield square lattice and hexagonal lattice wireless sensor networks, respectively. First, we introduce the concept of intruder's abstract paths along a k-barrier covered sensor belt region, and compute their number. Second, we propose a polynomial representation of all abstract paths. Third, we compute the number of sensors deployed over a k-barrier covered sensor belt region for both lattices. Fourth, we define the concept of weakly k-barrier covered path crossing a k-barrier covered sensor belt region, and compute its length for both lattices. Also, we define the observability of intruder's abstract path, and compute its value for both lattices. Fifth, we generalize our results for random intruder's moves across a k-barrier covered sensor belt region. Sixth, we corroborate our analysis with simulation results.
       
  • A hierarchical fractional LMS prediction method for data reduction in a
           wireless sensor network
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Pramod Ganjewar, S. Barani, Sanjeev J. Wagh A network of sensor nodes forms WSN, where the nodes observe the environment and transfer the sensed data to the sink node. Constraints on various resources, like energy, bandwidth, and memory, are usual in WSN, which the researchers attempt to solve. This paper presents a transmission technique with data reduction using Hierarchical Fractional Least-Mean-Square (HFLMS), in WSN. The proposed HFLMS filter is a prediction method that attempts to predict the sensed data based on an error estimate. The filter design of HFLMS extends Hierarchical Least-Mean-Square (HLMS) by modifying its weight update using Fractional Calculus (FC). The proposed adaptive filter reduces energy constraints in WSN by allowing the sensor nodes to transmit only the required data to the sink. Thus, HFLMS with integrated FC prolongs the lifespan of the network preserving the energy. Two evaluation parameters, energy and prediction error, are utilized to measure the performance of the algorithm. The experimental results performed using two datasets from UCI machine learning, show that HFLMS has better results than the existing without prediction, LMS, and HLMS techniques, with the energy of 0.1202 at 500th round and minimum prediction error of 0.0253.
       
  • A Novel Communication Paradigm for High Capacity and Security via
           Programmable Indoor Wireless Environments in Next Generation Wireless
           Systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Christos Liaskos, Shuai Nie, Ageliki Tsioliaridou, Andreas Pitsillides, Sotiris Ioannidis, Ian Akyildiz Wireless communication environments comprise passive objects that cause performance degradation and eavesdropping concerns due to anomalous scattering. This paper proposes a new paradigm, where scattering becomes software-defined and, subsequently, optimizable across wide frequency ranges. Through the proposed programmable wireless environments, the path loss, multi-path fading and interference effects can be controlled and mitigated. Moreover, the eavesdropping can be prevented via novel physical layer security capabilites. The core technology of this new paradigm is the concept of metasurfaces, which are planar intelligent structures whose effects on impinging electromagnetic waves are fully defined by their micro-structure. Their control over impinging waves has been demonstrated to span from 1 GHz to 10 THz. This paper contributes the software-programmable wireless environment, consisting of several HyperSurface tiles (programmable metasurfaces) controlled by a central server. HyperSurfaces are a novel class of metasurfaces whose structure and, hence, electromagnetic behavior can be altered and controlled via a software interface. Multiple networked tiles coat indoor objects, allowing fine-grained, customizable reflection, absorption or polarization overall. A central server calculates and deploys the optimal electromagnetic interaction per tile, to the benefit of communicating devices. Realistic simulations using full 3D ray-tracing demonstrate the groundbreaking performance and security potential of the proposed approach in 2.4 GHz and 60 GHz frequencies.
       
  • An adaptive energy aware strategy based on game theory to add privacy in
           the physical layer for Cognitive WSNs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Elena Romero, Javier Blesa, Alvaro Araujo The expansion of big data and the evolution of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies will play an important role in the feasibility of Smart City initiatives. In this IoT network infrastructure Cognitive Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), as a network of nodes that work in a cooperative way to sense the spectrum and control the environment surrounding them, are one of the main technologies. Security and privacy appear as key aspects for the development of new applications and services. In this work we propose a novel artificial noise generation strategy based on game theory in order to improve the security against privacy attacks in CWSNs. Artificial noise generation consists in introducing interferences in the spectrum in order to mask the real information. The decision whether or not to introduce artificial noise is modeled through a light non-cooperative game designed for low-resources networks that balance security enhancement and energy consumption. We show, using several simulations, that even with a cognitive attacker our strategy has reduced the information obtained by the attacker (Secrecy Outage Probability) to a value under 10%. The overhead (energy consumption and spectrum occupancy) of the strategy has also been deeply analyzed. All possible cases our approach provides better results, in the ratio energy consumption - security, than not using the strategy or using a random noise generation strategy. Also, although the saturation of the radio spectrum is strongly affected, the reliability of the network is maintained in 95% of application packages received. Therefore, we can conclude that an improvement of the privacy in the physical layer is obtained, taking into account energy consumption and maintaining levels of spectrum saturation suitable for the application proposes.
       
  • Efficient Certificate Revocation Management Schemes for IoT-based Advanced
           Metering Infrastructures in Smart Cities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Mumin Cebe, Kemal Akkaya Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), which refers to the communication network for the collection of power data from smart meters in a Smart Grid, is expected to be used in the service of many Smart City applications such as gas and water data collection or electric vehicle charging. As the communication within the AMI needs to be secure to protect user’s power data, key management becomes a challenge due to its overhead and limited resources on smart meters. While using public-keys eliminate some of the overhead of key management as opposed to symmetric-key management, there are still challenges regarding the management of certificates that store and certify the public-keys. In particular, distribution and storage of certificate revocation list (CRL) is major a challenge due to cost of distribution and storage in AMI networks which is envisioned to utilize wireless mesh networks. Motivated by the need of keeping the CRL distribution and storage cost effective and scalable, in this paper, we present a distributed CRL management scheme by utilizing distributed hash trees (DHTs) that have been heavily employed in peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. The basic idea is to share the burden of storage of CRLs among all the smart meters by exploiting the convenient wireless communication capability of the smart meters among each other. Using DHTs not only reduces the space requirements for CRLs but also makes the CRL updates more convenient. We implemented DHT-based CRL structure both on ns-3 and testbed using IEEE 802.11s mesh standard as a model for AMI and demonstrated its superior performance with respect to traditional methods of CRL management through extensive simulations.
       
  • Analysis and Evaluation of Adaptive RSSI-based Ranging in Outdoor Wireless
           Sensor Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Jari Luomala, Ismo Hakala Estimating inter-node distances based on received radio signal strength (RSSI) is the foundation of RSSI-based outdoor localization in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, the accuracy of RSSI-based ranging depends on environmental and weather conditions. Therefore, it is important that RSSI-based ranging adapts to prevailing conditions to improve its range and location accuracy. This paper analyzes and evaluates RSSI-based ranging and adaptive techniques in outdoor WSNs to improve the range quality. The findings highlight the effects of path loss exponent (PLE) estimation error and temperature change on RSSI-based ranging. Consequently, we analyze techniques for mitigating these detrimental effects and propose an adaptive RSSI-based ranging algorithm in order to improve the ranging quality in changing outdoor conditions. The algorithm comprises link RSSI estimation, temperature compensation, PLE estimation, and inter-node distance estimation. Furthermore, we evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm and compare different WSN-specific PLE estimation techniques by employing real measurement data of 2.4 GHz IEEE 802.15.4-compliant WSN nodes. The results indicate that although ranging error can be mitigated using the proposed adaptive techniques, the accuracy when a single PLE estimate is used is, in general, limited due to high inter-link PLE variation.
       
  • DoS-resilient Cooperative Beacon Verification for Vehicular Communication
           Systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Hongyu Jin, Panos Papadimitratos Authenticated safety beacons in Vehicular Communication (VC) systems ensure awareness among neighboring vehicles. However, the verification of beacon signatures introduces significant processing overhead for resource-constrained vehicular On-Board Units (OBUs). Even worse in dense neighborhood or when a clogging Denial of Service (DoS) attack is mounted. The OBU would fail to verify for all received (authentic or fictitious) beacons. This could significantly delay the verifications of authentic beacons or even affect the awareness of neighboring vehicle status. In this paper, we propose an efficient cooperative beacon verification scheme leveraging efficient symmetric key based authentication on top of pseudonymous authentication (based on traditional public key cryptography), providing efficient discovery of authentic beacons among a pool of received authentic and fictitious beacons, and can significantly decrease waiting times of beacons in queue before their validations. We show with simulation results that our scheme can guarantee low waiting times for received beacons even in high neighbor density situations and under DoS attacks, under which a traditional scheme would not be workable.
       
  • Energy Efficient Cross-layer Approach for Object Security of CoAP for IoT
           Devices
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Rizwan Hamid Randhawa, Abdul Hameed, Adnan Noor Mian CoAP is an application layer protocol designed for resource-constrained devices in Internet-of-Things (IoT). Object Security of CoAP (OSCoAP) is an IETF draft for addressing security issues with CoAP messages that can arise with the use of intermediate proxies. These proxies are employed for better performance, scalability and offloading expensive operations. OSCoAP adopts the counter with cipher block chaining message authentication code (CCM) mode of authenticated encryption with associated data (AEAD) that simultaneously ensures confidentiality, integrity, and authentication of the messages. The current implementation of CCM for OSCoAP is carried out in software. In this paper, we propose a cross-layer approach towards exploiting the CCM for OSCoAP using mac-layer security suite in IoT devices. The motivation is based on the fact that most of these devices are equipped with 802.15.4 radio chips. The IEEE 802.15.4 standard mandates the availability of some security features for mac-layer encryption in these radio chips including the CCM. We propose an algorithm that takes advantage of these on-board features by efficiently implementing the CCM operations for OSCoAP. The results show that our implementation of CCM is memory efficient, save up to 10 times more energy, improves battery life by 30% and is 37% faster than state of the art software implementation of CCM for OSCoAP.
       
  • A Secure and Robust Scheme for Sharing Confidential Information in IoT
           Systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Lake Bu, Mihailo Isakov, Michel A. Kinsy In Internet of Things (IoT) systems with security demands, there is often a need to distribute sensitive information (such as encryption keys, digital signatures, or login credentials etc.) to the devices, so that it can be retrieved for confidential purposes at a later moment. However, this piece of information cannot be entrusted to any individual device, since the malfunction of one device will jeopardize the security of the entire network. Even if the information is split among the devices, there is still a danger when attackers compromise a group of them. Therefore we have designed and implemented a secure and robust scheme to facilitate the sharing of sensitive information in IoT networks. This solution provides two important features: 1) This scheme uses Threshold Secret Sharing (TSS) to split the information into shares to be kept by all devices in the system. And so the information can only be retrieved collaboratively by groups of devices. 2) This scheme ensures the privacy and integrity of that piece of information even when there is a large amount of sophisticated and collusive attackers who can hijack the devices. It is able to identify all the compromised devices, while still keeping the secret unknown and unforgeable to attackers.
       
  • Network Intrusion Detection System for UAV Ad-hoc Communication From
           methodology design to real test validation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Jean-Philippe Condomines, Ruohao Zhang, Nicolas Larrieu The use of a swarm of low-cost, mission-specific drones to form a Flying Ad-hoc Network (FANET) has literally become a ’hotspot’ in the drone community. A number of studies have been conducted on how to achieve a FANET, but few have considered the security perspectives of this subject. FANET’s unique features have made it difficult to strengthen its defense against ever-changing security threats. Today, more and more FANET applications are implemented into civil airspace, but the development of FANET security has remained unsatisfactory. In this paper, we try to address this issue by proposing a new Intrusion Detection System (IDS), an hybrid method based on both spectral traffic analysis and a robust controller / observer for anomaly estimation inside UAV networks. The proposed hybrid method considers, as a preliminary step, a statistical signature of the traffic exchanged in the network. By examining the resulted signatures, the differences are used to select the accurate model for accurate estimation of that abnormal traffic. The proposed IDS design has been successfully applied to some relevant practical problems such as ad hoc networks for aerial vehicles, and the effectiveness is illustrated by using real traffic traces including Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. Our first results show promising perspectives for Intrusion Detection System (IDS) in UAV communication networks. Indeed, different types of anomaly have been considered and they are all accurately detected by the intrusion detection process we propose in this paper. Finally, both simulation-based validation and real-time real-world based implementation of our IDS are described in this article.
       
  • Efficient DCT-based Secret Key Generation for the Internet of Things
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): George Margelis, Xenofon Fafoutis, George Oikonomou, Robert Piechocki, Theo Tryfonas, Paul Thomas Cryptography is one of the most widely employed means to ensure confidentiality in the Internet of Things (IoT). Establishing cryptographically secure links between IoT devices requires the prior consensus to a secret encryption key. Yet, IoT devices are resource-constrained and cannot employ traditional key distribution schemes. As a result, there is a growing interest in generating secret random keys locally, using the shared randomness of the communicating channel. This article presents a secret key generation scheme, named SKYGlow, which is targeted at resource-constrained IoT platforms and tested on devices that employ IEEE 802.15.4 radios. We first examine the practical upper bounds of the number of secret bits that can be extracted from a message exchange. We contrast these upper bounds with the current state-of-the-art, and elaborate on the workings of the proposed scheme. SKYGlow applies the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) on channel observations of exchanged messages to reduce mismatches and increase correlation between the generated secret bits. We validate the performance of SKYGlow in both indoor and outdoor scenarios, at 2.4 GHz and 868 MHz respectively. The results suggest that SKYGlow can create secret 128-bit keys of 0.9978 bits entropy with just 65 packet exchanges, outperforming the state-of-the-art in terms of energy efficiency.
       
  • The Impact of ECDSA in a VANET routing service: Insights from Real Data
           Traces
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Pedro Cirne, André Zúquete, Susana Sargento, Miguel Luís Both the WAVE IEEE 1609.2 standard in USA and the ETSI ITS security standards in Europe rely on the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) to authenticate messages exchanged among vehicles. Although being faster than other equivalent algorithms, the ECDSA computational cost nevertheless affects the message validation throughput. Even worse, the number of messages that a device has to authenticate may easily exhaust its computational limits.In this article, we evaluated the impact caused by ECDSA authentication of messages of the multi-hop routing control plane used in a real Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET). Such control plane uses periodic vicinity updates to keep accurate, distributed routing paths, and ECDSA-based validation delays may force to discard many of such updates.To perform the evaluation of the impact imposed by ECDSA we considered the multiple curve parameters associated to WAVE and ETSI ITS, their implementation by different cryptographic libraries and their performance in distinct hardware. We took as reference for traffic to be authenticated with ECDSA a day-long set of messages of a VANET routing control plane. These messages were inferred from connectivity status samples from all mobile nodes of a real VANET. Emulation results with those messages show that, without high-end computing devices, ECDSA authentication would have a substantial negative impact in the routing service of the tested VANET.
       
  • Pairing-based Authentication Protocol for V2G Networks in Smart Grid
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Luis Fernando Arias Roman, Paulo R.L. Gondim, Jaime Lloret Vehicle to Grid (V2G) network is a very important component for Smart Grid (SG), as it offers new services that help the optimization of both supply and demand of energy in the SG network and provide mobile distributed capacity of battery storage for minimizing the dependency of non-renewable energy sources. However, the privacy and anonymity of users’ identity, confidentiality of the transmitted data and location of the Electric Vehicle (EV) must be guaranteed. This article proposes a pairing-based authentication protocol that guarantees confidentiality of communications, protects the identities of EV users and prevents attackers from tracking the vehicle. Results from computing and communications performance analyses were better in comparison to other protocols, thus overcoming signalling congestion and reducing bandwidth consumption. The protocol protects EVs from various known attacks and its formal security analysis revealed it achieves the security goals.
       
  • Apparatus: A Framework for Security Analysis in Internet of Things Systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Orestis Mavropoulos, Haralambos Mouratidis, Andrew Fish, Emmanouil Panaousis Internet of Things (IoT) systems are ubiquitous, highly complex and dynamic event-based systems. These characteristics make their security analysis challenging. Security in IoT requires domain-specific methodologies and tools. The proposed methodologies need to be able to capture information from software and hardware constructs to security and social constructs. In this paper, in addition to refining the modeling language of the Apparatus Framework, we propose a class-based notation of the modeling language and a structured approach to transition between different models. Apparatus is a security framework developed to facilitate security analysis in IoT systems. We demonstrate the application of the framework by analyzing the security of smart public transport system. The security analysis and visualization of the system are facilitated by a software application that is developed as part of the Apparatus Framework.
       
  • An Efficient Privacy-Preserving Protocol for Database-driven Cognitive
           Radio Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Yali Zeng, Li Xu, Xu Yang, Xun Yi Cognitive radio is regarded as a promising technology for remedying spectrum shortage and improving spectrum utilization. However, database-driven cognitive radio networks (CRNs) are vulnerable to a series of security attacks and privacy threats, especially the privacy breach of secondary users (SUs). In this paper, we propose an efficient privacy-preserving protocol to protect the identity and trajectory privacy of each SU and to prevent the database (DB) from tracing any SU. Besides, this paper also aims at improving the efficiency of authentication and channel allocation to offer the best connectivity to SUs wherever they are and at any time. Taking advantage of the elliptic curve cryptography technique, our protocol achieves the mutual authentication between SUs and base stations (BSs), which enhances the security of CRNs communication. Based on channel pre-allocation to BSs, our protocol reduces the latency of obtaining available channels for SUs. Moreover, our protocol exploits reputation to motivate SUs to be honest and thus increases the utilization of the limited spectrum resources. The results of security analysis show that our protocol provides strong privacy preservation for SUs that the DB cannot get the entire trajectory of any SU, even the DB colludes with all BSs. Furthermore, the results also show that the proposed protocol can resist various types of attacks. The results of performance evaluation indicate the efficiency of the proposed privacy-preserving protocol.
       
  • On Trust Models for Communication Security in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Na Fan, Chase Q. Wu Vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) are prone to various network attacks due to its open, dynamic, and distributed nature. It is of increasing importance to assess the trustworthiness of vehicle nodes and messages for communication security in such networks. In this paper, we propose an integrated security scheme to help nodes in VANETs identify the legitimacy of messages for proper decision making. Within the proposed scheme, we first construct trust models to quantify the direct and indirect reputation of a participating node. Particularly, we use the certain-factor model to measure the node’s direct reputation by observing its communication behavior, and synthesize the information from the node’s neighbors and road side unit (RSU) reports to determine its indirect reputation. Both types of reputation are then combined using the uncertain deductive method. Based on these trust models, we further design an attribute-weighted K-means method to identify legitimate messages and a routing method for message delivery in VANETs. We also design and incorporate a dynamic game model-based incentive mechanism to encourage nodes to take cooperative actions and restrain them from selfish behaviors. Extensive simulations show that the proposed security scheme exhibits superior performances over existing methods in alleviating negative effects caused by selfish or malicious nodes.
       
  • Efficient and Privacy Preserving Supplier Matching for Electric Vehicle
           Charging
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Fatih Yucel, Kemal Akkaya, Eyuphan Bulut Electric Vehicle (EV) charging takes longer time and happens more frequently compared to refueling of fossil-based vehicles. This requires in-advance scheduling on charging stations depending on the route of the demander EVs for efficient resource allocation. However, such scheduling and frequent charging may leak sensitive information about the users which may expose their driving patterns, whereabouts, schedules, etc. The situation is compounded with the proliferation of EV chargers such as V2V charging where any two EVs can charge each other through a charging cable. In such cases, the matching of these EVs is typically done in a centralized manner which exposes private information to third parties which do the matching. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose an efficient and privacy-preserving distributed matching of demander EVs with charge suppliers (i.e., public/private stations, V2V chargers) using bichromatic mutual nearest neighbor (BMNN) assignments. To this end, we use partially homomorphic encryption-based BMNN computation through local communication (e.g., DSRC or LTE-direct) between users while hiding their locations. The proposed matching algorithm provides not only a satisfactory assignment for all parties but also achieves an efficient matching in dynamic environments where new demanders and suppliers show up and some leave. The simulation results indicate that the proposed matching of suppliers and demanders can be achieved in a distributed fashion within reasonable computation and convergence times while preserving privacy of users. Moreover, due to the nature of its design, it provides a more efficient matching process for dynamic environments compared to standard stable matching algorithm, reducing the average waiting time for users until matching.
       
  • ACPC: Efficient revocation of pseudonym certificates using activation
           codes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Marcos Vinicius M. Silva, Marcos A. Simplicio, Jefferson E. Ricardini, Eduardo Lopes Cominetti, Harsh Kupwade Patil Vehicular communication (V2X) technologies allow vehicles to exchange information about the road conditions and their own status, and thereby enhance transportation safety and efficiency. For broader deployment, however, such technologies are expected to address security and privacy concerns, preventing abuse by users and by the system’s entities. In particular, the system is expected to enable the revocation of malicious vehicles, e.g., in case they send invalid information to their peers or to the roadside infrastructure; it should also prevent the system from being misused for tracking honest vehicles. Both features are enabled by Vehicular Public Key Infrastructure (VPKI) solutions such as Security Credential Management Systems (SCMS), one of the leading candidates for protecting V2X communication in the United States. Unfortunately, though, SCMS’s original revocation mechanism can lead to large Certification Revocation Lists (CRLs), which in turn impacts the bandwidth usage and processing overhead of the system. In this article, we propose a novel design called Activation Codes for Pseudonym Certificates (ACPC), which can be integrated into SCMS to address this issue. Our proposal is based on activation codes, short bit-strings without which certificates previously issued to a vehicle cannot be used by the latter, which are periodically distributed to non-revoked vehicles using an efficient broadcast mechanism. As a result, the identifiers of the corresponding certificates do no need to remain on the CRL for a long time, reducing the CRLs’ size and streamlining their distribution and verification of any vehicle’s revocation status. Besides describing ACPC in detail, we also compare it to similar-purpose solutions such as Issue First Activate Later (IFAL) and Binary Hash Tree based Certificate Access Management (BCAM). This analysis shows that our proposal not only improves privacy (e.g., in terms of resilience against colluding system authorities), but also leads to processing and bandwidth overheads that are orders of magnitude smaller than those observed in the state of the art.
       
  • Information Sharing and Bullwhip Effect in Smart Destination Network
           System
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Qijie Jiang, Ge Ke Information communication technologies (ICTs) have been extensively applied in smart destinations in recent years so as to improve the information transfer and information sharing amongst individual actors involving in the destination network ecosystem. This paper attempts to explore the influence of information sharing on the bullwhip effect throughout the tourism supply chain (SC) network, which has been considered as a major problem faces the destination management and all individual actors. Specifically, two mathematic models have been built to analyse the following different situations respectively; first, ICTs have not been well applied in destinations and there is no information sharing amongst individual actors, second, ICTs have been well applied in destinations and there exists information sharing amongst individual actors. Further, this paper makes a comparison of the bullwhip effects under these two situations. What's more, the data collected from JIUZHAI valley has been used to verify the correction of the mathematic analysis. Overall, this paper proves that the application of ICTs will contribute to the reduction of bullwhip effect throughout the tourism SC network by promoting the information sharing amongst individual actors, and some parameters (e.g., autocorrelation coefficient, the number of demand forecasting, and the lead time) will play a crucial role on the acting process. The results have both theoretical significance to the development of tourism SC management theory and managerial implication to tourism practices of individual actors and management departments.
       
 
 
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