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  Subjects -> COMPUTER SCIENCE (Total: 2098 journals)
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    - COMPUTER SCIENCE (1218 journals)
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    - INTERNET (95 journals)
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    - THEORY OF COMPUTING (9 journals)

COMPUTER SCIENCE (1218 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 872 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Abakós     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACM Computing Surveys     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
ACM Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ACM Transactions on Applied Perception (TAP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization (TACO)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems (TAAS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ACM Transactions on Computation Theory (TOCT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ACM Transactions on Computational Logic (TOCL)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ACM Transactions on Computer Systems (TOCS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ACM Transactions on Design Automation of Electronic Systems (TODAES)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ACM Transactions on Economics and Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (TECS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology (TIST)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems (TiiS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications, and Applications (TOMCCAP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ACM Transactions on Reconfigurable Technology and Systems (TRETS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks (TOSN)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ACM Transactions on Speech and Language Processing (TSLP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ACM Transactions on Storage     Hybrid Journal  
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Informatica Malaysia     Open Access  
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Adaptive Data Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Computer Science : an International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 49)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Technology Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Information and Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
AI EDAM     Hybrid Journal  
Air, Soil & Water Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Algorithms     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Computational Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Information Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Sensor Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Animation Practice, Process & Production     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annual Reviews in Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Anuario Americanista Europeo     Open Access  
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Applied Artificial Intelligence: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Applied Computer Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Informatics     Open Access  
Applied Mathematics and Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Soft Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied System Innovation     Open Access  
Architectural Theory Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archive of Numerical Software     Open Access  
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
arq: Architectural Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Artifact     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asia Pacific Journal on Computational Engineering     Open Access  
Asia-Pacific Journal of Information Technology and Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Educational Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Automatic Control and Computer Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Automatic Documentation and Mathematical Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Automatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Automation in Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Behaviour & Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Big Data and Cognitive Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 305)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
British Journal of Educational Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
c't Magazin fuer Computertechnik     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
CALCOLO     Hybrid Journal  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Capturing Intelligence     Full-text available via subscription  
Catalysis in Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cell Communication and Signaling     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Computer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CERN IdeaSquare Journal of Experimental Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ChemSusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
CIN Computers Informatics Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
CLEI Electronic Journal     Open Access  
Clin-Alert     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cluster Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combinatorics, Probability and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Communication Methods and Measures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Algebra     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Communications in Computational Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Communications in Information Science and Management Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Partial Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Communications of the ACM     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51)
Communications of the Association for Information Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Complex & Intelligent Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Complex Adaptive Systems Modeling     Open Access  
Complex Analysis and Operator Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Complexus     Full-text available via subscription  
Composite Materials Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Computación y Sistemas     Open Access  
Computation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational Cognitive Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computational Condensed Matter     Open Access  
Computational Ecology and Software     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Computational Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Computational Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Computational Management Science     Hybrid Journal  
Computational Mathematics and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computational Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computational Methods and Function Theory     Hybrid Journal  
Computational Molecular Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computational Particle Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Computational Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computational Science and Techniques     Open Access  
Computational Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Computational Statistics & Data Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Computer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 98)
Computer Aided Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Computer Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computer Methods in the Geosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover
Ad Hoc Networks
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.53
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 11  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1570-8705
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • Stable Throughput Region of the Two-User Interference Channel
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Nikolaos Pappas, Marios Kountouris We consider the two-user interference channel where two independent pairs communicate concurrently and investigate its stable throughput region. First, the stability region is characterized for the general case, i.e., without any specific consideration on the transmission and reception structures. Second, we explore two different interference harnessing strategies at the receiver: treating interference as noise and successive interference cancellation. Furthermore, we provide conditions for the convexity of the stability region and for which a certain receiver strategy leads to broader stability region. The impact of multiple transmit antennas on the stability region is briefly discussed. Finally, we study the effect of random access on the stability region of the two-user interference channel.
       
  • Frame-Based Randomized Scheduling of Packets with Random-Deadlines for
           Multi-Flow Wireless Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Mohamed Kashef, Nader Moayeri The use of wireless communications in industrial applications has motivated various advances in manufacturing automation by allowing more flexibility in installing wireless sensors and actuators than their wired counterparts. The main challenge in industrial wireless deployment is the strict timing and reliability requirements in these systems. Industrial wireless networks are commonly characterized by strict packet deadlines. As a result, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) protocols have been widely exploited in various technologies due to their ease of implementation and packet collision avoidance. Moreover, the use of frame-based protocols is motivated by the need for short processing times at the edge nodes of the network. In this work, we consider the problem of scheduling multiple data flows over a wireless network operating in an industrial environment. These flows are characterized by random strict deadlines for each packet following a given probability distribution. Each of these flows may represent the data coming from a sensor to the controller or the control commands from the controller to an actuator. A randomized frame-based scheduling scheme is analyzed where each time slot in the frame is assigned to a data flow randomly.
       
  • Clustering-Based Device-to-Device Cache Placement
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Ahmet Cihat Kazez, Tolga Girici In this work we consider the problem of optimal cache placement in a D2D enabled cellular network. There are a number of helper devices in the area, which use their cached contents to help other users and offload traffic from the base station. The goal of cache placement is maximizing the offloaded traffic. We first formulate and optimally solve the cache placement problem as a mixed integer linear program. Then we propose a distributively implementable algorithm that clusters helpers. Helpers in each cluster collectively decide the contents to be cached, based on the content popularity. Numerical evaluations show that the proposed cache placement scheme always performs within 5% of the optimal result and it is robust to popularity profile and cache capacity.
       
  • Flexible SDN Control in Tactical Ad Hoc Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Konstantinos Poularakis, Qiaofeng Qin, Erich Nahum, Miguel Rio, Leandros Tassiulas Modern tactical operations have complex communication and computing requirements that cannot be supported by today’s mobile ad hoc networks. The emerging Software Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm has the potential to enable the redesign and successful deployment of these systems. An SDN-based approach, however, will also bring new challenges since the SDN architecture was not designed to accommodate the requirements of an ad hoc network environment. Unreliability and dynamism may fragment the tactical network making the centralized SDN controller unsafe. To address these issues, in this paper, we propose flexible protocols that split the control of the ad hoc network between the centralized SDN controller and the data plane nodes. The latter can dynamically decide whether to follow the controller instructions or adapt to network changes in a distributed manner. We implement a proof-of-concept prototype of a flexible SDN ad hoc system and perform experiments to measure its performance benefits over traditional OpenFlow. Going a step further, we study theoretical, yet practical, methods of managing the overheads of flexible control which are crucial for the successful large-scale deployment of these systems. Evaluations on a real tactical ad hoc network dataset demonstrate that up to 50% more packets can be routed to their destinations if flexible SDN control is enabled, while the extra overheads are one order of magnitude lower than the control message overheads of traditional OpenFlow systems.
       
  • Cruisers: An Automotive Sensing Platform for Smart Cities using
           Door-to-door Garbage Collecting Trucks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Yin Chen, Jin Nakazawa, Takuro Yonezawa, Hideyuki Tokuda Due to the advance in information and communication technologies, smart cities have become an increasingly appealing vision. One indispensable basis in the research, development and implementation of smart cities is urban sensing technology. Automotive sensing is a novel urban sensing technology that equips sensors to vehicles, like buses, taxi cabs or garbage trucks and utilizes their mobility to help to conduct urban sensing tasks. In this paper, we present Cruisers, an automotive sensing platform for smart cities, based on the following ideas: a) Garbage collecting trucks are used to host sensors, b) Cellular communication network is used to deliver sensed data to servers, and c) Proxy server(s) are adopted to convert the format of sensed data to required ones, such as sampling rate, spatial interval or pub/sub protocol. To validate the feasibility of Cruisers, we implement a real system that consists of 66 customized sensing modular integrating typical environmental and mobility sensors and deploy them into the garbage collecting trucks at Fujisawa, a medium-sized city in Japan. Performance evaluation is conducted to investigate the performance of Cruisers in terms of scalability, data publishing delay and spatial coverage.
       
  • Age of Information with Network Coding
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Maice Costa, Yalin E. Sagduyu We consider the timeliness in delivering a file containing a fixed number of packets through a multicast wireless network using network coding, which is known to improve throughput and reliability for multicast communications. Information timeliness is characterized by metrics related to the Age of Information (AoI). We investigate the impact of network parameters on the average AoI and the peak AoI, including the effect of the number of packets in a coding block, number of destinations, and the Galois field size used for packet encoding. With respect to the field size, the common assumption of an infinite field yields a lower bound on the time to deliver the file to all destinations, but the assumption is impractical. We characterize the AoI for a finite field and show that a large field size may be unnecessary, as the AoI decreases sharply with this parameter. Finally, we consider randomness in obtaining the packets before transmission, including queuing delays in our analysis, and show that optimizing AoI is not equivalent to minimizing delay, and there exists interesting trade-offs among network performance objectives.
       
  • A Wireless Vehicle-based Mobile Network Infrastructure Designed for
           Smarter Cities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Giorgio Quer, Tugcan Aktas, Federico Librino, Tara Javidi, Ramesh R. Rao The evolution of smart city services and applications requires a more efficient wireless infrastructure to provide the needed data rate to users in a high-density environment with high mobility, satisfying at the same time the request for high-connectivity and low-energy consumption. To address the challenges in this new network scenario, we propose to opportunistically rely on the increasing number of connected vehicles in densely populated urban areas. The idea is to support the macro base station (BS) with a secondary communication tier composed of a set of smart and connected vehicles that are in movement in the urban area. As a first step towards a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis of this architecture, this paper considers the case where these vehicles are equipped with femto-mobile access points (fmAPs) and constitute a mobile out-of-band relay infrastructure. We first study this network system with a continuous time model, in which three techniques to select an fmAP (if more than one is available) are proposed and the maximal feasible gain in the data rate is characterized as a function of the vehicle density, average vehicle speeds, handoff overhead cost, as well as physical layer parameters. We then introduce a time slotted model, in which we consider a more realistic communication channel, with an exponential path loss model, and we investigate the tradeoff between energy consumption and expected data rate, as a function of the system parameters. The analytical and simulation results, with both the continuous and time slotted models, provide a first benchmark characterizing this architecture and the definition of guidelines for its future realistic study and implementation.
       
  • Learning Algorithms for Scheduling in Wireless Networks with Unknown
           Channel Statistics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Thomas Stahlbuhk, Brooke Shrader, Eytan Modiano We study the problem of learning channel statistics to efficiently schedule transmissions in wireless networks subject to interference constraints. We propose an algorithm that uses greedily-constructed schedules in order to learn the channels’ transmission rates, while simultaneously exploiting previous observations to obtain high throughput. Comparison to the offline solution shows our algorithm to have good performance that scales well with the number of links in the network. We then turn our attention to the stochastic setting where packets randomly arrive to the network and await transmission in queues at the nodes. We develop a queue-length-based scheduling policy that uses the channel learning algorithm as a component. We analyze our method in time-varying environments and show that it achieves the same stability region as that of a greedy policy with full channel knowledge.
       
  • Towards Optimal Resource Allocation in Wireless Powered Communication
           Networks with Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Mariam M.N. Aboelwafa, Mohamed A. Abd-Elmagid, Alessandro Biason, Karim G. Seddik, Tamer ElBatt, Michele Zorzi The optimal allocation of time and energy resources is characterized in a Wireless Powered Communication Network (WPCN) with Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA). We consider two different formulations; in the first one (max-sum), the sum-throughput of all users is maximized. In the second one (max-min), and targeting fairness among users, we consider maximizing the min-throughput of all users. Under the above two formulations, two NOMA decoding schemes are studied, namely, Low Complexity Decoding (LCD) and Successive Interference Cancellation Decoding (SICD). Due to the non-convexity of three of the studied optimization problems, we consider an approximation approach, in which the non-convex optimization problem is approximated by a convex optimization problem, which satisfies all the constraints of the original problem. The approximated convex optimization problem can then be solved iteratively. The results show a trade-off between maximizing the sum throughout and achieving fairness through maximizing the minimum throughput.
       
  • EK-means: a New Clustering Approach for Datasets Classification in Sensor
           Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Mohamad Rida, Abdallah Makhoul, Hassan Harb, David Laiymani, Mahmoud Barhamgi In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), hundreds or thousands of nodes are deployed in order to provide high quality monitoring. Nowadays, they constitute one of the most important sources of big data. Such amount of collected data is a real challenge for sensor nodes suffering from many limitations, especially, energy constraints. Therefore, to address big data issue, research efforts have been done today to design efficient data management (acquisition, aggregation, mining, etc.) techniques for WSNs. The main objective of these works is to reduce the amount of transmitted data over the network while preserving their properties. In this paper, we present a new data handling approach in order to reduce data transmission without the loss of data integrity. Our proposed approach, named EK-means, is a two-steps approach. First, it eliminates similar data generated at the sensors level using an Euclidean distance based data aggregation technique. Second, it applies an enhanced k-means clustering algorithm in order to group similar datasets generated by neighboring nodes into same clusters and reduce further the amount of data sent to the sink. Experiments on real sensor data show that our proposal can effectively minimize the energy consumption in WSNs and largely outperform the classic K-means algorithm.
       
  • Performance Enhancement for Energy Harvesting Based Two-Way Relay
           Protocols in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks with Partial and Full Relay
           Selection Methods
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Tan N. Nguyen, Tran Hoang Quang Minh, Phuong T. Tran, Miroslav Voznak, Tran Trung Duy In this paper, we propose two relay selection methods to enhance system outage performance for energy harvesting (EH) based two-way relaying protocols in wireless adhoc networks. In the proposed protocol, two source nodes communicate with each other via the assistance of multiple decode-and-forward (DF) relays using three-phase digital network coding. At the first and second phases, two sources broadcast their data to the relays. Employing a power-splitting model, the relays would harvest energy from radio frequency (RF) signals of the sources to transmit the data at the third phase. We propose a simple partial relay selection (PRS) method and an opportunistic relay selection (ORS) method to enhance the reliability of data transmission at the cooperative phase. For performance evaluation, we derive exact and asymptotic expressions of the system outage probability (SOP) for the proposed protocols over block Rayleigh fading channels. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations are presented to verify the theoretical derivations as well as to compare the performance of the proposed protocols with that of the random relay selection protocol.
       
  • Analysis and Evaluation of Adaptive RSSI-based Ranging in Outdoor Wireless
           Sensor Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Jari Luomala, Ismo Hakala Estimating inter-node distances based on received radio signal strength (RSSI) is the foundation of RSSI-based outdoor localization in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, the accuracy of RSSI-based ranging depends on environmental and weather conditions. Therefore, it is important that RSSI-based ranging adapts to prevailing conditions to improve its range and location accuracy. This paper analyzes and evaluates RSSI-based ranging and adaptive techniques in outdoor WSNs to improve the range quality. The findings highlight the effects of path loss exponent (PLE) estimation error and temperature change on RSSI-based ranging. Consequently, we analyze techniques for mitigating these detrimental effects and propose an adaptive RSSI-based ranging algorithm in order to improve the ranging quality in changing outdoor conditions. The algorithm comprises link RSSI estimation, temperature compensation, PLE estimation, and inter-node distance estimation. Furthermore, we evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm and compare different WSN-specific PLE estimation techniques by employing real measurement data of 2.4 GHz IEEE 802.15.4-compliant WSN nodes. The results indicate that although ranging error can be mitigated using the proposed adaptive techniques, the accuracy when a single PLE estimate is used is, in general, limited due to high inter-link PLE variation.
       
  • Energy-Efficient Multicast Routing Protocol based on SDN and Fog Computing
           for Vehicular Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Ahmed Jawad Kadhim, Seyed Amin Hosseini Seno Vehicular networks have been expanding significantly to perform several applications and strategies related to vehicles, ambulances, traffic jam, drivers, and even passengers. The most important challenge in this network is routing data among vehicles. Therefore, there is a need to design efficient routing protocols for unicast, Geocast, multicast and broadcast transmission modes. The multicasting can be used in many application fields such as emergency, police, and firefighting. There is a large body of studies on multicast routing in vehicular networks. However, safety applications in vehicular networks require a special multicast routing protocol that takes into account the deadline and existing bandwidth constraints. On the other hand, there has been a growing tendency towards electric cars in recent years. Therefore, energy consumption is one of major parameters that should be considered in the design of this routing protocol. The goal of this paper is to present a new Energy Efficient Multicast routing protocol based on Software Defined Networks and Fog computing for Vehicular networks called EEMSFV including deadline and bandwidth constraints. Multicast routing with multiple constraints of QoS has been proved to be a NP complete problem. The proposed architecture consists of four layers: vehicles, fog computing, OpenFlow switches and SDN controller. Moreover, a priority based scheduling algorithm and a classification algorithm to schedule the multicast requests based on their application type and deadline constraint after classifying them are proposed. The partitioning concept is used to decrease time complexity and overhead in the SDN controller. From the simulation results, we concluded that EEMSFV is better than MABC and CVLMS in terms of successfully transmitted ratio, average end to end delay, normalized overhead load, multicast energy consumption, packet loss ratio and percentage of critical multicast sessions that meet the deadline.
       
  • DoS-resilient Cooperative Beacon Verification for Vehicular Communication
           Systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Hongyu Jin, Panos Papadimitratos Authenticated safety beacons in Vehicular Communication (VC) systems ensure awareness among neighboring vehicles. However, the verification of beacon signatures introduces significant processing overhead for resource-constrained vehicular On-Board Units (OBUs). Even worse in dense neighborhood or when a clogging Denial of Service (DoS) attack is mounted. The OBU would fail to verify for all received (authentic or fictitious) beacons. This could significantly delay the verifications of authentic beacons or even affect the awareness of neighboring vehicle status. In this paper, we propose an efficient cooperative beacon verification scheme leveraging efficient symmetric key based authentication on top of pseudonymous authentication (based on traditional public key cryptography), providing efficient discovery of authentic beacons among a pool of received authentic and fictitious beacons, and can significantly decrease waiting times of beacons in queue before their validations. We show with simulation results that our scheme can guarantee low waiting times for received beacons even in high neighbor density situations and under DoS attacks, under which a traditional scheme would not be workable.
       
  • Anonymous two factor authentication protocol for roaming service in global
           mobility network with security beyond traditional limit
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Mohit Gupta, Narendra S. Chaudhari In a globalized world, the mobile user roams frequently from one place to other. Global mobility network provides roaming services to a mobile user when the mobile user is away from his home network and wants to avail the services of the foreign network. Roaming authentication protocol supports authentication between the mobile user and the foreign server in global mobility network so that the malicious user can not get access the roaming services in the foreign network. Moreover, privacy-preserving authentication between the mobile user and the foreign server is an essential technology for the secure access of global mobility network because mobile user’s privacy protection has become a major issue due to increasingly misuse of consumer’s private data by various organizations and individuals. Many privacy-preserving two-factor authentication protocols have been proposed to provide secure roaming services in global mobility network but they failed to support privacy and security while ensuring efficient typo detection by the smart card. We propose a privacy-preserving secure two-factor authentication protocol for roaming service in global mobility network which not only ensures the privacy of the mobile user but also provides efficient typo detection using fuzzy verifier and honeyword technique. Moreover, the proposed protocol overcomes the problem of desynchronization attack using public key encryption technique based on quadratic residue assumption with low computational load at the mobile user.
       
  • On the Performance of Non-orthogonal Multiple Access in the Finite
           Blocklength Regime
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Endrit Dosti, Mohammad Shehab, Hirley Alves, Matti Latva-aho In this paper, we present a finite-block-length comparison between the orthogonal multiple access (OMA) scheme and the non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) for the uplink channel. First, we consider the Gaussian channel, and derive the closed form expressions for the rate and outage probability. Then, we extend our results to the quasi-static Rayleigh fading channel. Our analysis is based on the recent results on the characterization of the maximum coding rate at finite block-length and finite block-error probability. The overall system throughput is evaluated as a function of the number of information bits, channel uses and power. We find what would be the respective values of these different parameters that would enable throughput maximization. Furthermore, we analyze the system performance in terms of reliability and throughput when applying the type-I ARQ protocol with limited number of retransmissions. The throughput and outage probability are evaluated for different blocklengths and number of information bits. Our analysis reveals that there is a trade-off between reliability and throughput in the ARQ. While increasing the number of retransmissions boosts reliability by minimizing the probability of reception error, it results in more delay which decreases the throughput. Nevertheless, the results show that NOMA always outperforms OMA in terms of throughput, reliability and latency regardless of the users priority or the number of retransmissions in both Gaussian and fading channels.
       
  • A taxonomy and survey of cyber-physical intrusion detection approaches for
           vehicles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): George Loukas, Eirini Karapistoli, Emmanouil Panaousis, Panagiotis Sarigiannidis, Anatolij Bezemskij, Tuan Vuong With the growing threat of cyber and cyber-physical attacks against automobiles, drones, ships, driverless pods and other vehicles, there is also a growing need for intrusion detection approaches that can facilitate defence against such threats. Vehicles tend to have limited processing resources and are energy-constrained. So, any security provision needs to abide by these limitations. At the same time, attacks against vehicles are very rare, often making knowledge-based intrusion detection systems less practical than behaviour-based ones, which is the reverse of what is seen in conventional computing systems. Furthermore, vehicle design and implementation can differ wildly between different types or different manufacturers, which can lead to intrusion detection designs that are vehicle-specific. Equally importantly, vehicles are practically defined by their ability to move, autonomously or not. Movement, as well as other physical manifestations of their operation may allow cyber security breaches to lead to physical damage, but can also be an opportunity for detection. For example, physical sensing can contribute to more accurate or more rapid intrusion detection through observation and analysis of physical manifestations of a security breach. This paper presents a classification and survey of intrusion detection systems designed and evaluated specifically on vehicles and networks of vehicles. Its aim is to help identify existing techniques that can be adopted in the industry, along with their advantages and disadvantages, as well as to identify gaps in the literature, which are attractive and highly meaningful areas of future research.
       
  • Reducing Delay and Prolonging the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Network
           Using Efficient Routing Protocol Based on Mobile Sink and Virtual
           Infrastructure
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Ramin Yarinezhad Mobile sink has been used by many routing algorithms to improve the network lifetime in wireless sensor networks. Sink mobility brings new challenges to the sensor network. It suggests that sink position is continuously propagated through the network area to keep all sensor nodes updated with the direction of forwarding data to the sink. Unfortunately, frequent sink position updates can lead to both high-energy consumption and increased collisions in the network. In this paper, a new routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks is proposed, which uses a virtual multi-ring shaped infrastructure to advertise the mobile sink position to the network. In addition, the proposed algorithm supports several mobile sinks in the network. Simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm reduces energy consumption and delay, and prolongs the sensor network lifetime when compared with the other similar algorithms.
       
  • GRNN and KF Framework based Real Time Target Tracking Using PSOC BLE and
           Smartphone
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Satish R. Jondhale, Rajkumar S. Deshpande With the advancements in the mobile devices having Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) capability, the BLE based indoor target localization is the recent trend. The majority of indoor localization methods generally rely on traditional simple techniques such as trilateration or angulation. However significant localization errors are involved with these techniques due to highly nonlinear relationship between RSSI and distance because of issues such as NLOS, multipath propagation. The Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN) with a one pass learning capability, is well known for its ability to train quickly. This paper proposes an application of GRNN as an alternative to these traditional techniques to obtain first location estimates of moving person using a hybrid network of PSOC BLE nodes and smartphone, which are further refined using kalman filtering (KF) framework. Two algorithms namely, GRNN + Kalman Filter and GRNN + Unscented Kalman Filter are proposed in this research work. The GRNN is trained with the RSSI values from PSOC BLE nodes at various locations and the corresponding actual 2-D locations of the given monitoring area. The real time experiments prove the efficacy of the proposed algorithms over the traditional approach in the context of NLOS, multipath propagation.
       
  • BehaveSense: Continuous Authentication for Security-Sensitive Mobile Apps
           using Behavioral Biometrics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Yafang Yang, Bin Guo, Zhu Wang, Mingyang Li, Zhiwen Yu, Xingshe Zhou With the emergence of smartphones as an essential part of our daily lives, continuous authentication becomes an urgent need which could efficiently protect user security and privacy. However, only a small percentage of apps contain sensitive data. To save energy and protect user security, we propose BehaveSense, an accurate and efficient continuous authentication method for security-sensitive mobile apps using touch-based behavioral biometrics. By exploring four different types of touch operations, we train the owner model using One-Class SVM (OCSVM) and isolation forest (iForest), and calculate the accuracy of each type with the model. Afterwards, we calculate the confidence level of each type using the Bayesian theorem. Finally, we obtain the accuracy of a touch operation sequence with an improved expectedprob algorithm. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we conduct a series of experiments. We collect the WeChat app data of 45 volunteers during two weeks. Experimental results show that our method can recognize user identity efficiently. Specifically, our method achieves average accuracy of approaching 95.85% for touch operation sequence, when considering 9 touch operations. Our method is very promising to authenticate user.
       
  • Anomaly detection in ad-hoc networks based on deep learning model: A plug
           and play device
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Fang Feng, Xin Liu, Binbin Yong, Rui Zhou, Qingguo Zhou Ad-hoc network is a temporary self-organizing network that needs no fixed infrastructure. So it has been applied extensively in many areas requesting temporary communication such as military field, emergency disaster relief and road traffic. While, due to the feature of self-organization and wireless communication channels, ad-hoc network is more vulnerable to various attacks compared to the traditional network. In this paper, we proposed a plug and play device to detect Denial of Service (DoS) and privacy attacks. This device mainly includes capture tool and deep learning detection model. Capture tool is used to grab packets in ad-hoc networks, deep learning detection model is used for detecting attacks. An alarm will be triggered if the detected result is attack. In this way, we can avoid the detected attack to spreading out in larger scale. The proposed method can be used as the second line of dense to issue the early-warning signal. In the experiment, first, we use Deep neural network (DNN) detection model to detect DoS attacks; next, we use DNN, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) detection model to detect XSS and SQL attacks. The results show that these detection models can achieve very high Accuracy, Precision, Recall and F1−score. In addition, the time efficiency among the CNN, the LSTM and the DNN is in acceptable range. It proofs that the proposed method can be effectively applied for attack detection. It is important to note that the proposed method can be extended to all other attacks with little modification in ad-hoc networks.
       
  • Dronemap Planner: A Service-Oriented Cloud-Based Management System for the
           Internet-of-Drones
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Anis Koubâa, Basit Qureshi, Mohamed-Foued Sriti, Azza Allouch, Yasir Javed, Maram Alajlan, Omar Cheikhrouhou, Mohamed Khalgui, Eduardo Tovar 1 Low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also known as drones, are increasingly gaining interest for enabling novel commercial and civil Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications. However, there are still open challenges that restrain their real-world deployment. First, drones typically have limited wireless communication ranges with the ground stations preventing their control over large distances. Second, these low-cost aerial platforms have limited computation and energy resources preventing them from running heavy applications onboard. In this paper, we address this gap and we present Dronemap Planner (DP), a service-oriented cloud-based drone management system that controls, monitors and communicates with drones over the Internet. DP allows seamless communication with the drones over the Internet, which enables their control anywhere and anytime without restriction on distance. In addition, DP provides access to cloud computing resources for drones to offload heavy computations. It virtualizes the access to drones through Web services (SOAP and REST), schedules their missions, and promotes collaboration between drones. DP supports two communication protocols: (i.) the MAVLink protocol, which is a lightweight message marshaling protocol supported by commodities Ardupilot-based drones. (ii.) the ROSLink protocol, which is a communication protocol that we developed to integrate Robot Operating System (ROS)-enabled robots into the IoT. We present several applications and proof-of-concepts that were developed using DP. We demonstrate the effectiveness of DP through a performance evaluation study using a real drone for a real-time tracking application.
       
  • Mobility-Aware Application Protocols
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Bruno Y.L. Kimura, Roberto S. Yokoyama, Leandro A. Villas, Antonio A.F. Loureiro Temporal/spatial disruptions and IP changing caused by host mobility lead the user applications to fail. This remains a problem due to the ossification of the TCP/IP protocol stack and the lack of support of existing solutions in enabling connection failure tolerance at application layer. To preserve integrity and transmission consistency upon erroneous communication events caused by host mobility, enabling mobility awareness is a key requirement for the current user applications. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive study on mobility-aware application protocols that ensure reliability and resiliency for long-lived TCP sessions established between clients and severs that migrate across different wireless IP networks on the Internet. To this end, we modeled and simulated such protocols through general-purpose state machines, which we conceived regarding the Socket semantic to resume session from broken connections. Simulations results revealed how internal and external factors, i.e., protocol design decisions and mobile environment conditions, respectively, can and cannot influence performance. When comparing results with TCP-Migrate – a well-known transport layer mobility protocol, handover delays in application protocols are longer in single jumps between mobile client and stationary server, but shorter in double jumps, when both client and server are mobile entities.
       
  • GreedyFlow: Distributed Greedy Packet Routing between Landmarks in DTNs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Kang Chen, Haiying Shen Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs) have attracted much research interest recently due to its adaptability in areas without infrastructures. In such scenarios, moving data from one place (landmark) to another place (landmark) is essential for data communication between different areas. However, current DTN routing algorithms either fail to fully utilize node mobility or have additional requirements that cannot be satisfied easily in DTNs. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a distributed greedy routing algorithm, namely GreedyFlow, for efficient packet routing between landmarks in DTNs. GreedyFlow builds a local traffic map and a global landmark map on each node. The local traffic map indicates the node’s knowledge about the amount of traffic (node transition) between landmarks in the area where it primarily visits. The global landmark map shows the distribution of landmarks in the system and is built offline. In packet routing, the global landmark map shows the general packet forwarding direction, while the local traffic map helps determine the next-hop landmark on the fastest path in the forwarding direction. As a result, packets are greedily forwarded toward their destination landmarks. We also propose advanced components to enhance the consistency of local traffic maps and exploit node-based forwarding, both of which help improve the packet routing efficiency. Extensive real trace driven experiments demonstrate the high efficiency of GreedyFlow.
       
  • A New Lossless Neighborhood Indexing Sequence (NIS) Algorithm for Data
           Compression in Wireless Sensor Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): J Uthayakumar, T Vengattaraman, P Dhavachelvan In the recent years, wireless sensor networks (WSN) has been deployed in different real time applications. Energy efficiency is the critical issue in the design and deployment of WSN since the sensor nodes are powered by batteries with limited capacity. As data transmission is the main power consuming process in WSN, several energy efficient techniques have been proposed. Data compression is a popular energy efficient technique which helps to reduce the amount of data to be transmitted in the network resulting in significant power saving. This paper proposes a new algorithm called Neighborhood Indexing Sequence (NIS) for data compression in WSN. The proposed NIS algorithm dynamically assigns shorter length codewords to each character in the input sequence by exploiting the occurrence of neighboring bits. Using the real world WSN dataset, it is shown that the compression performance of the NIS algorithm is superior to existing compression algorithms. Compared with existing methods, the proposed compression algorithm is not only efficient but also highly robust for different WSN dataset. The proposed algorithm attains a compression ratio of 89.13 with the bit rate of 1.74 per sample. Moreover, it achieved power savings up to 87.57% for the applied WSN dataset.
       
  • How to Obfuscate Execution of Protocols in an Ad Hoc Radio Network'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Marcin Kardas, Marek Klonowski, Piotr Syga We consider an ad hoc radio network in which nodes perform some distributed algorithms. We provide a framework, that at the cost of increasing time complexity, prevents an outer, passive adversary from gaining significant information about the execution of the algorithm. The main idea we utilize is adding some extra obfuscating rounds to conceal the real execution. Despite the fact that we assume a relatively weak model of the adversary, trying to solve the problem, we encounter several non-trivial issues. First of all, the proposed method needs to be universal and work in on-line mode. Moreover, the method should entail possibly small time overhead and provide a provable security. Finding a satisfactory solution is particularly difficult due to the very restrictive, in terms of nodes capabilities, communication model. The main result presented in this paper is an efficient general method for obfuscating an execution of any underlying algorithm and its rigid analysis. We provide security guarantees against a passive adversary, with an ability of eavesdropping every transmission in the network, that aims at learning the execution of the algorithm. We also present a specialized algorithm for a secure listing of all present (active) nodes, that does not reveal any substantial information about the network to the outer adversary.
       
  • Relay-Pair Selection in Buffer-Aided Successive Opportunistic Relaying
           using a Multi-Antenna Source
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Themistoklis Charalambous, Su Min Kim, Nikolaos Nomikos, Mats Bengtsson, Mikael Johansson We study a cooperative network with a buffer-aided multi-antenna source, multiple half-duplex (HD) buffer-aided relays and a single destination. Such a setup could represent a cellular downlink scenario, in which the source can be a more powerful wireless device with a buffer and multiple antennas, while a set of intermediate less powerful devices are used as relays to reach the destination. The main target is to recover the multiplexing loss of the network by having the source and a relay to simultaneously transmit their information to another relay and the destination, respectively. Successive transmissions in such a cooperative network, however, cause inter-relay interference (IRI). First, by assuming global channel state information (CSI), we show that the detrimental effect of IRI can be alleviated by precoding at the source, mitigating or even fully cancelling the interference. A cooperative relaying policy is proposed that employs a joint precoding design and relay-pair selection. Note that both fixed rate and adaptive rate transmissions can be considered. For the case when channel state information is only available at the receiver side (CSIR), we propose a relay selection policy that employs a phase alignment technique to reduce the IRI. The performance of the two proposed relay pair selection policies are evaluated and compared with other state-of-the-art relaying schemes in terms of outage and throughput. The results show that the use of a powerful source can provide considerable performance improvements.
       
  • Energy Efficient Cross-layer Approach for Object Security of CoAP for IoT
           Devices
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Rizwan Hamid Randhawa, Abdul Hameed, Adnan Noor Mian CoAP is an application layer protocol designed for resource-constrained devices in Internet-of-Things (IoT). Object Security of CoAP (OSCoAP) is an IETF draft for addressing security issues with CoAP messages that can arise with the use of intermediate proxies. These proxies are employed for better performance, scalability and offloading expensive operations. OSCoAP adopts the counter with cipher block chaining message authentication code (CCM) mode of authenticated encryption with associated data (AEAD) that simultaneously ensures confidentiality, integrity, and authentication of the messages. The current implementation of CCM for OSCoAP is carried out in software. In this paper, we propose a cross-layer approach towards exploiting the CCM for OSCoAP using mac-layer security suite in IoT devices. The motivation is based on the fact that most of these devices are equipped with 802.15.4 radio chips. The IEEE 802.15.4 standard mandates the availability of some security features for mac-layer encryption in these radio chips including the CCM. We propose an algorithm that takes advantage of these on-board features by efficiently implementing the CCM operations for OSCoAP. The results show that our implementation of CCM is memory efficient, save up to 10 times more energy, improves battery life by 30% and is 37% faster than state of the art software implementation of CCM for OSCoAP.
       
  • A Secure and Robust Scheme for Sharing Confidential Information in IoT
           Systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Lake Bu, Mihailo Isakov, Michel A. Kinsy In Internet of Things (IoT) systems with security demands, there is often a need to distribute sensitive information (such as encryption keys, digital signatures, or login credentials etc.) to the devices, so that it can be retrieved for confidential purposes at a later moment. However, this piece of information cannot be entrusted to any individual device, since the malfunction of one device will jeopardize the security of the entire network. Even if the information is split among the devices, there is still a danger when attackers compromise a group of them. Therefore we have designed and implemented a secure and robust scheme to facilitate the sharing of sensitive information in IoT networks. This solution provides two important features: 1) This scheme uses Threshold Secret Sharing (TSS) to split the information into shares to be kept by all devices in the system. And so the information can only be retrieved collaboratively by groups of devices. 2) This scheme ensures the privacy and integrity of that piece of information even when there is a large amount of sophisticated and collusive attackers who can hijack the devices. It is able to identify all the compromised devices, while still keeping the secret unknown and unforgeable to attackers.
       
  • Joint Channel and Power Allocation for Device-to-Device Underlay
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Gökhan Kılıç, Tolga Girici Device-to-Device transmission is one of the enabling technologies of 5G, with a potential of significantly improving the spectral efficiency. Spectral reuse in D2D underlay necessitates interference management. A challenge in D2D underlay systems is the increased number of D2D and interfering links and CSI feedback requirement. In this work we propose a solution for D2D channel allocation, which requires only the neighbor information of D2D communicating nodes. We aim to maximize the supported D2D pairs with a constraint on the interference caused at the base station, at each subchannel. We formulate the channel allocation problem as a Mixed Integer Programming (MIP). We also combine it with an iterative power control scheme in order to fit more D2D pairs in the channels. We also propose suboptimal channel + power allocation algorithms and evaluate and compare their performances by simulations. Numerical results reveal that the proposed algorithms perform quite close to the MIP-based solution and power control significantly increases the number of served D2D pairs.
       
  • MAC-LEAP: Multi-Antenna, Cross Layer, Energy Adaptive Protocol
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Hoda Ayatollahi, Cristiano Tapparello, Wendi Heinzelman With the continuous development of wireless networks, energy conservation and energy efficiency are becoming key factors in improving the network lifetime. In multi-antenna wireless networks, the energy conservation problem can be addressed using the trade-off between the transmit power and the circuit energy consumption. In this paper, we propose a cross layer protocol, MAC-LEAP, that selects the best transmission policy based on Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) in both single-hop and multi-hop wireless networks. Various data transmission algorithms are presented in which many factors are considered in order to find the best transmission policy between each pair of nodes. An RTS/CTS handshake is used to exchange the required information to select the best transmission policy prior to data transmission. Moreover, we introduce a MIMO-based framework in Network Simulator 3 (ns-3) in which the wireless nodes may be equipped with more than one antenna. Using extensive simulations in ns-3, we compare the performance of MAC-LEAP with traditional protocols in terms of the network lifetime and the number of received packets. The simulation results show that MAC-LEAP outperforms the traditional protocols in both single-hop and multi-hop networks for various transmission distances and target Bit-Error-Rates (BER).
       
  • Network Intrusion Detection System for UAV Ad-hoc Communication From
           methodology design to real test validation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Jean-Philippe Condomines, Ruohao Zhang, Nicolas Larrieu The use of a swarm of low-cost, mission-specific drones to form a Flying Ad-hoc Network (FANET) has literally become a ’hotspot’ in the drone community. A number of studies have been conducted on how to achieve a FANET, but few have considered the security perspectives of this subject. FANET’s unique features have made it difficult to strengthen its defense against ever-changing security threats. Today, more and more FANET applications are implemented into civil airspace, but the development of FANET security has remained unsatisfactory. In this paper, we try to address this issue by proposing a new Intrusion Detection System (IDS), an hybrid method based on both spectral traffic analysis and a robust controller / observer for anomaly estimation inside UAV networks. The proposed hybrid method considers, as a preliminary step, a statistical signature of the traffic exchanged in the network. By examining the resulted signatures, the differences are used to select the accurate model for accurate estimation of that abnormal traffic. The proposed IDS design has been successfully applied to some relevant practical problems such as ad hoc networks for aerial vehicles, and the effectiveness is illustrated by using real traffic traces including Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. Our first results show promising perspectives for Intrusion Detection System (IDS) in UAV communication networks. Indeed, different types of anomaly have been considered and they are all accurately detected by the intrusion detection process we propose in this paper. Finally, both simulation-based validation and real-time real-world based implementation of our IDS are described in this article.
       
  • SKA-PS: Secure Key Agreement Protocol using Physiological Signals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Duygu Karaoğlan Altop, Beste Seymen, Albert Levi In this paper, we propose SKA-PS, a novel Secure Key Agreement protocol using Physiological Signals, for Body Area Networks (BANs). Our protocol generates symmetric cryptographic keys using the physiological parameters derived from the physiological signals of the users, such as electrocardiogram, photoplethysmogram and blood pressure. In our construction, we reduce the problem of secure key agreement into the problem of set reconciliation by representing the physiological parameter sequences generated from the physiological signals of the BAN users with appropriate sets. When properly selected parameters are applied, biosensors of the same BAN user can agree on symmetric cryptographic keys with remarkably high true match and low false match rates (as much as 100% and 0.46% for pairwise execution, and 100% and 0.26% for group execution, respectively), and low communication, computational and storage costs. We implemented our model in an embedded system, thus the results show real implementation outcomes. Moreover, we comparatively analyze the performance of SKA-PS with two existing bio-cryptographic key agreement protocols and show that SKA-PS outperforms both in all performance metrics.
       
  • Optical-acoustic Hybrid Network Toward Real-time Video Streaming for
           Mobile Underwater Sensors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Seongwon Han, Youngtae Noh, Uichin Lee, Mario Gerla Underwater sensor networking is generally regarded as an emerging technology in conducting oceanic exploration and research in an automated and effective manner. As underwater operations become more sophisticated and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) become more advanced, there is an increasing demand for real-time video streaming from AUVs to remotely steer them and to probe the environment. However, real-time video streaming requires high bandwidth. To help overcome this obstacle, we propose a hybrid solution that combines acoustic and optical communications. In our hybrid solution, optics provide good quality real-time video streaming. Acoustic maintains a “thin” channel for the network topology and transmission control. The acoustic channel is also used for still frame video delivery when the optical channel fails. In particular, we enable optical communications by acoustic-assisted alignment and use acoustic communications as a backup when the optical signal is interrupted. The main contribution of this research is to enable reliable, real-time video streaming without underwater optical cables. Another important contribution is the smooth transition between the acoustic and optical video delivery mode, by leveraging image processing algorithms to compress the key frames before transmitting them on the acoustic channel.
       
  • Intelligent Positive Computing with Mobile, Wearable, and IoT Devices:
           Literature Review and Research Directions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Uichin Lee, Kyungsik Han, Hyunsung Cho, Kyong-Mee Chung, Hwajung Hong, Sung-Ju Lee, Youngtae Noh, Sooyoung Park, John M. Carroll The use of mobile, wearable, and Internet of Things (IoT) technologies fosters unique opportunities for designing novel intelligent positive computing services that address various health and well-being issues such as stress and depression. As positive computing research is often cross-disciplinary, it is difficult to acquire holistic perspectives on the design, implementation, and evaluation of intelligent positive computing systems with mobile, wearable, and IoT technologies. To bridge this gap, we propose a conceptual framework and review the key components to provide guidelines for intelligent positive computing systems research. We also present several practical service scenarios and provide useful insights on opportunities and challenges. By critically reflecting on the literature and scenarios, we suggest several research directions on the core topics in intelligent positive computing systems research. In addition, we discuss concerns and challenges such as technology dependence, abandonment, side effects, privacy, and ethical issues.
       
  • Optimization of an integrated fronthaul/backhaul network under path and
           delay constraints
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Nuria Molner, Antonio de la Oliva, Ioannis Stavrakakis, Arturo Azcorra Cloud or Centralized Radio Access Networks (C-RANs) are expected to be widely deployed under 5G in order to support the anticipated increased traffic demands and reduce costs. Under C-RAN, the radio elements (e.g., eNB or gNB in 5G) are split into a basic radio part (Distributed Unit, DU), and a pool-able base band processing part (Central Unit, CU). This functional split results in high bandwidth and delay constrained traffic flows between DUs and CUs (referred to as fronthaul), calling for the deployment of a specialized network to accommodate them or for integrating them with the rest of the flows (referred to as backhaul) over the existing infrastructure. This work studies the next generation of transport networks, which aims at integrating fronthaul and backhaul traffic over the same transport stratum. An optimization framework for routing and resource placement is developed, taking into account delay, capacity and path constraints, maximizing the degree of DU deployment while minimizing the supporting CUs. The framework and the developed heuristics (to reduce the computational complexity) are validated and applied to both small and large- scale (production-level) networks. They can be useful to network operators for both network planning as well as network operation adjusting their (virtualized) infrastructure dynamically.
       
  • Software-Defined Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Networking for Video
           Dissemination Services
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Zhongliang Zhao, Pedro Cumino, Arnaldo Souza, Denis Rosário, Torsten Braun, Eduardo Cerqueira, Mario Gerla Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) empower people to reach endangered areas under emergency situations. By collaborating with each other, multiple UAVs forming a UAV network (UAVNet) could work together to perform specific tasks in a more efficient and intelligent way than having a single UAV. UAVNets pose special characteristics of high dynamics, unstable aerial wireless links, and UAV collision probabilities. To address these challenges, we propose a Software-Defined UAV Networking (SD-UAVNet) architecture, which facilitates the management of UAV networks through a centralized SDN UAV controller. In addition, we introduce a use case scenario to evaluate the optimal UAV relay node placement for life video surveillance services with the proposed architecture. In the SD-UAVNet architecture, the controller considers the global UAV relevant context information to optimize the UAVs’ movements, selects proper routing paths, and prevents UAVs from collisions to determine the relay nodes deployment and guarantee satisfactory video quality. The experimental results show that the proposed SD-UAVNet architecture can effectively mitigate the challenges of UAVNet and it provides suitable Quality of Experience (QoE) to end-users.
       
  • ADTH: Bounded Nodal Delay for Better Performance in Wireless Ad-hoc
           Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): L.B. Lim, D.J.G. Spendlove, L. Guan, X.G. Wang Delay is an unavoidable factor that occurs within networks and may be exacerbated by the nature of wireless ad-hoc networks. Maintaining a manageable level of delay may be required to provide satisfactory performance for each of the nodes that form the network. The variability of IoT devices, topologies and network conditions demand that a standalone and scalable scheme be used. ADTH is first shown to accomplish this through simulations with the NS-2 network simulator. The scheme was then used with testbed implementation with Gumstix devices and real-time traffic provided by an STC Traffic Generator. These demonstrated its effectiveness in managing flows of delay sensitive traffic, in addition to delivering superior bandwidth utilisation than standard policies.
       
  • Neuro-Dominating Set Scheme for a Fast and Efficient Robot Deployment in
           Internet of Robotic Things
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Cristanel Razafimandimby, Valeria Loscrí, Anna Maria Vegni, Abderrahim Benslimane Internet of Robotic Things (IoRT) is a new concept introduced for the first time by ABI Research. Unlike the Internet of Things (IoT), IoRT provides an active sensorization and is considered as the new evolution of IoT. In this context, we propose a Neuro-Dominating Set algorithm (NDS) to efficiently deploy a team of mobile wireless robots in an IoRT scenario, in order to reach a desired inter-robot distance, while maintaining global connectivity in the whole network. We use the term Neuro-Dominating Set to describe our approach, since it is inspired by both neural network and dominating set principles. With NDS algorithm, a robot adopts different behaviors according whether it is a dominating or a dominated robot. Our main goal is to show and demonstrate the beneficial effect of using different behaviors in the IoRT concept. The obtained results show that the proposed method outperforms an existing related technique (i.e., the Virtual Angular Force approach) and the neural network based approach presented in our previous work. As an objective, we aim to decrease the overall traveled distance and keep a low energy consumption level, while maintaining network connectivity and an acceptable convergence time.
       
  • Use MU-MIMO at Your Own Risk — Why We Don’t Get Gb/s Wi-Fi
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Hyunwoo Choi, Taesik Gong, Jaehun Kim, Jaemin Shin, Sung-Ju Lee With the ever growing popularity of mobile devices, the demand for wireless bandwidth has also increased, with the mobile users now expecting wireless network quality similar to what they experience with wired networks. Wireless LANs have evolved over the last twenty years, with major breakthrough technologies such as OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing), MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output), and MU (Multi-User)-MIMO. The latest IEEE 802.11ac standard supports up to 6.9 Gb/s theoretical capacity, but it could only be achieved with 8-streams in a “perfect” environment. Commercial 802.11ac wave 2 APs that include MU-MIMO capability, have only recently been made available in the market. We deployed a few APs from different vendors (that uses chipsets from different vendors) in various office environments and measured user throughput on smartphone mobile devices. We observe an enormous gap between theory and practice, with MU-MIMO often providing less throughput than SU (Single User)-MIMO in various network environments. We analyze the root cause of performance issues and suggest future research directions to achieve Gb/s Wi-Fi in practical deployments.
       
  • Broadcasting in Dense Linear Networks: to Cooperate or not to
           Cooperate'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Birsen Sirkeci-Mergen, Shiva Moballegh In this paper, the effectiveness of cooperative broadcast in high-density linear networks is studied. In the considered protocol, a single source sends messages continuously causing interference among messages and the goal is to reach to the entire network via cooperating relays. Sufficient conditions for successful broadcast are derived under two different transmission schemes: the unidirectional scheme and the bidirectional scheme. Our analysis shows that the broadcast behavior depends on the pathloss exponent γ and the type of transmission scheme even though the channel between two nodes are affected by small-scale fading. Unlike the noncooperative multihop broadcast, the cooperative broadcast propagates the message to the entire network successfully when γ ≤ 1 provided that network parameters satisfy certain conditions. Furthermore, for γ > 1, cooperative scheme becomes optimal under the bidirectional transmission when the information rate is below a threshold; however if the transmissions are unidirectional, noncooperative scheme becomes optimal. When compared with 2D networks, we demonstrate that the advantages of cooperative broadcast in linear networks are limited.
       
  • Traffic Management and Networking for Autonomous Vehicular Highway Systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Izhak Rubin, Andrea Baiocchi, Yulia Sunyoto, Ion Turcanu We develop traffic management and data networking mechanisms and study their integrated design for an autonomous transportation system. The traffic management model involves a multi-lane multi-segment highway. Ramp managers regulate admission of vehicles into the highway and their routing to designated lanes. Vehicles moving across each lane are organized into platoons. A Platoon Leader (PL) is elected in each platoon and is used to manage its members and their communications with the infrastructure and with vehicles in other platoons. We develop new methods that are employed to determine the structural formations of platoons and their mobility processes in each lane, aiming to maximize the realized flow rate under vehicular end-to-end delay constraints. We set a limit on the vehicular on-ramp queueing delay and on the (per unit distance) transit time incurred along the highway. We make use of the platoon formations to develop new Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) wireless networking cross-layer schemes that are used to disseminate messages among vehicles traveling within a specified neighborhood. For this purpose, we develop algorithms that configure a hierarchical networking architecture for the autonomous system. Certain platoon leaders are dynamically assigned to act as Backbone Nodes (BNs). The latter are interconnected by communications links to form a Backbone Network (Bnet). Each BN serves as an access point for its Access Network (Anet), which consists of its mobile clients. We study the delay-throughput performance behavior of the network system and determine the optimal setting of its parameters, assuming both TDMA and IEEE 802.11p oriented wireless channel sharing (MAC) schemes. Integrating these traffic management and data networking mechanisms, we demonstrate the performance tradeoffs available to the system designer and manager when aiming to assure an autonomous transportation system operation that achieves targeted vehicular flow rates and transit delays while also setting the data communications network system to meet targeted message throughput and delay objectives.
       
  • Efficient DCT-based Secret Key Generation for the Internet of Things
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): George Margelis, Xenofon Fafoutis, George Oikonomou, Robert Piechocki, Theo Tryfonas, Paul Thomas Cryptography is one of the most widely employed means to ensure confidentiality in the Internet of Things (IoT). Establishing cryptographically secure links between IoT devices requires the prior consensus to a secret encryption key. Yet, IoT devices are resource-constrained and cannot employ traditional key distribution schemes. As a result, there is a growing interest in generating secret random keys locally, using the shared randomness of the communicating channel. This article presents a secret key generation scheme, named SKYGlow, which is targeted at resource-constrained IoT platforms and tested on devices that employ IEEE 802.15.4 radios. We first examine the practical upper bounds of the number of secret bits that can be extracted from a message exchange. We contrast these upper bounds with the current state-of-the-art, and elaborate on the workings of the proposed scheme. SKYGlow applies the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) on channel observations of exchanged messages to reduce mismatches and increase correlation between the generated secret bits. We validate the performance of SKYGlow in both indoor and outdoor scenarios, at 2.4 GHz and 868 MHz respectively. The results suggest that SKYGlow can create secret 128-bit keys of 0.9978 bits entropy with just 65 packet exchanges, outperforming the state-of-the-art in terms of energy efficiency.
       
  • The Impact of ECDSA in a VANET routing service: Insights from Real Data
           Traces
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Pedro Cirne, André Zúquete, Susana Sargento, Miguel Luís Both the WAVE IEEE 1609.2 standard in USA and the ETSI ITS security standards in Europe rely on the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) to authenticate messages exchanged among vehicles. Although being faster than other equivalent algorithms, the ECDSA computational cost nevertheless affects the message validation throughput. Even worse, the number of messages that a device has to authenticate may easily exhaust its computational limits.In this article, we evaluated the impact caused by ECDSA authentication of messages of the multi-hop routing control plane used in a real Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET). Such control plane uses periodic vicinity updates to keep accurate, distributed routing paths, and ECDSA-based validation delays may force to discard many of such updates.To perform the evaluation of the impact imposed by ECDSA we considered the multiple curve parameters associated to WAVE and ETSI ITS, their implementation by different cryptographic libraries and their performance in distinct hardware. We took as reference for traffic to be authenticated with ECDSA a day-long set of messages of a VANET routing control plane. These messages were inferred from connectivity status samples from all mobile nodes of a real VANET. Emulation results with those messages show that, without high-end computing devices, ECDSA authentication would have a substantial negative impact in the routing service of the tested VANET.
       
  • Pairing-based Authentication Protocol for V2G Networks in Smart Grid
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Luis Fernando Arias Roman, Paulo R.L. Gondim, Jaime Lloret Vehicle to Grid (V2G) network is a very important component for Smart Grid (SG), as it offers new services that help the optimization of both supply and demand of energy in the SG network and provide mobile distributed capacity of battery storage for minimizing the dependency of non-renewable energy sources. However, the privacy and anonymity of users’ identity, confidentiality of the transmitted data and location of the Electric Vehicle (EV) must be guaranteed. This article proposes a pairing-based authentication protocol that guarantees confidentiality of communications, protects the identities of EV users and prevents attackers from tracking the vehicle. Results from computing and communications performance analyses were better in comparison to other protocols, thus overcoming signalling congestion and reducing bandwidth consumption. The protocol protects EVs from various known attacks and its formal security analysis revealed it achieves the security goals.
       
  • Apparatus: A Framework for Security Analysis in Internet of Things Systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Orestis Mavropoulos, Haralambos Mouratidis, Andrew Fish, Emmanouil Panaousis Internet of Things (IoT) systems are ubiquitous, highly complex and dynamic event-based systems. These characteristics make their security analysis challenging. Security in IoT requires domain-specific methodologies and tools. The proposed methodologies need to be able to capture information from software and hardware constructs to security and social constructs. In this paper, in addition to refining the modeling language of the Apparatus Framework, we propose a class-based notation of the modeling language and a structured approach to transition between different models. Apparatus is a security framework developed to facilitate security analysis in IoT systems. We demonstrate the application of the framework by analyzing the security of smart public transport system. The security analysis and visualization of the system are facilitated by a software application that is developed as part of the Apparatus Framework.
       
  • An Efficient Privacy-Preserving Protocol for Database-driven Cognitive
           Radio Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Yali Zeng, Li Xu, Xu Yang, Xun Yi Cognitive radio is regarded as a promising technology for remedying spectrum shortage and improving spectrum utilization. However, database-driven cognitive radio networks (CRNs) are vulnerable to a series of security attacks and privacy threats, especially the privacy breach of secondary users (SUs). In this paper, we propose an efficient privacy-preserving protocol to protect the identity and trajectory privacy of each SU and to prevent the database (DB) from tracing any SU. Besides, this paper also aims at improving the efficiency of authentication and channel allocation to offer the best connectivity to SUs wherever they are and at any time. Taking advantage of the elliptic curve cryptography technique, our protocol achieves the mutual authentication between SUs and base stations (BSs), which enhances the security of CRNs communication. Based on channel pre-allocation to BSs, our protocol reduces the latency of obtaining available channels for SUs. Moreover, our protocol exploits reputation to motivate SUs to be honest and thus increases the utilization of the limited spectrum resources. The results of security analysis show that our protocol provides strong privacy preservation for SUs that the DB cannot get the entire trajectory of any SU, even the DB colludes with all BSs. Furthermore, the results also show that the proposed protocol can resist various types of attacks. The results of performance evaluation indicate the efficiency of the proposed privacy-preserving protocol.
       
  • On Trust Models for Communication Security in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Na Fan, Chase Q. Wu Vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) are prone to various network attacks due to its open, dynamic, and distributed nature. It is of increasing importance to assess the trustworthiness of vehicle nodes and messages for communication security in such networks. In this paper, we propose an integrated security scheme to help nodes in VANETs identify the legitimacy of messages for proper decision making. Within the proposed scheme, we first construct trust models to quantify the direct and indirect reputation of a participating node. Particularly, we use the certain-factor model to measure the node’s direct reputation by observing its communication behavior, and synthesize the information from the node’s neighbors and road side unit (RSU) reports to determine its indirect reputation. Both types of reputation are then combined using the uncertain deductive method. Based on these trust models, we further design an attribute-weighted K-means method to identify legitimate messages and a routing method for message delivery in VANETs. We also design and incorporate a dynamic game model-based incentive mechanism to encourage nodes to take cooperative actions and restrain them from selfish behaviors. Extensive simulations show that the proposed security scheme exhibits superior performances over existing methods in alleviating negative effects caused by selfish or malicious nodes.
       
  • Efficient and Privacy Preserving Supplier Matching for Electric Vehicle
           Charging
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Fatih Yucel, Kemal Akkaya, Eyuphan Bulut Electric Vehicle (EV) charging takes longer time and happens more frequently compared to refueling of fossil-based vehicles. This requires in-advance scheduling on charging stations depending on the route of the demander EVs for efficient resource allocation. However, such scheduling and frequent charging may leak sensitive information about the users which may expose their driving patterns, whereabouts, schedules, etc. The situation is compounded with the proliferation of EV chargers such as V2V charging where any two EVs can charge each other through a charging cable. In such cases, the matching of these EVs is typically done in a centralized manner which exposes private information to third parties which do the matching. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose an efficient and privacy-preserving distributed matching of demander EVs with charge suppliers (i.e., public/private stations, V2V chargers) using bichromatic mutual nearest neighbor (BMNN) assignments. To this end, we use partially homomorphic encryption-based BMNN computation through local communication (e.g., DSRC or LTE-direct) between users while hiding their locations. The proposed matching algorithm provides not only a satisfactory assignment for all parties but also achieves an efficient matching in dynamic environments where new demanders and suppliers show up and some leave. The simulation results indicate that the proposed matching of suppliers and demanders can be achieved in a distributed fashion within reasonable computation and convergence times while preserving privacy of users. Moreover, due to the nature of its design, it provides a more efficient matching process for dynamic environments compared to standard stable matching algorithm, reducing the average waiting time for users until matching.
       
  • ACPC: Efficient revocation of pseudonym certificates using activation
           codes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Marcos Vinicius M. Silva, Marcos A. Simplicio, Jefferson E. Ricardini, Eduardo Lopes Cominetti, Harsh Kupwade Patil Vehicular communication (V2X) technologies allow vehicles to exchange information about the road conditions and their own status, and thereby enhance transportation safety and efficiency. For broader deployment, however, such technologies are expected to address security and privacy concerns, preventing abuse by users and by the system’s entities. In particular, the system is expected to enable the revocation of malicious vehicles, e.g., in case they send invalid information to their peers or to the roadside infrastructure; it should also prevent the system from being misused for tracking honest vehicles. Both features are enabled by Vehicular Public Key Infrastructure (VPKI) solutions such as Security Credential Management Systems (SCMS), one of the leading candidates for protecting V2X communication in the United States. Unfortunately, though, SCMS’s original revocation mechanism can lead to large Certification Revocation Lists (CRLs), which in turn impacts the bandwidth usage and processing overhead of the system. In this article, we propose a novel design called Activation Codes for Pseudonym Certificates (ACPC), which can be integrated into SCMS to address this issue. Our proposal is based on activation codes, short bit-strings without which certificates previously issued to a vehicle cannot be used by the latter, which are periodically distributed to non-revoked vehicles using an efficient broadcast mechanism. As a result, the identifiers of the corresponding certificates do no need to remain on the CRL for a long time, reducing the CRLs’ size and streamlining their distribution and verification of any vehicle’s revocation status. Besides describing ACPC in detail, we also compare it to similar-purpose solutions such as Issue First Activate Later (IFAL) and Binary Hash Tree based Certificate Access Management (BCAM). This analysis shows that our proposal not only improves privacy (e.g., in terms of resilience against colluding system authorities), but also leads to processing and bandwidth overheads that are orders of magnitude smaller than those observed in the state of the art.
       
  • FALCON: A New Approach for the Evaluation of Opportunistic Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Enrique Hernández-Orallo, Juan Carlos Cano, Carlos T. Calafate, Pietro Manzoni Evaluating the performance of opportunistic networks with a high number of nodes is a challenging problem. Analytical models cannot provide a realistic evaluation of these networks, and simulations can be very time-consuming, sometimes requiring even weeks only to provide the results of a single scenario.In this paper, we present a fast evaluation model called FALCON (Fast Analysis, using a Lattice Cell model, of Opportunistic Networks) that is computationally very efficient and precise. The model is based on discretising space and time in order to reduce the computation complexity, and we formalised it as a discrete dynamic system that can be quickly solved.We describe some validation experiments showing that the precision of the obtained results is equivalent to the ones obtained with standard simulation approaches. The experiments also show that computation time is reduced by two orders of magnitude (from hours to seconds), allowing for a faster evaluation of opportunistic networks. Finally, we show that the FALCON model is easy to adapt and expand to consider different scenarios and protocols.
       
  • Security Analysis for Interference Management in Heterogeneous Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Dongfeng Fang, Yi Qian, Rose Qingyang Hu Heterogeneous network (HetNet) is recognized as a promising technique to provide blanket wireless coverage and high throughput in 5G wireless networks. With the heterogeneous characteristics, HetNet achieves higher capacity, wider coverage and better performance in energy efficiency and spectrum efficiency. However, HetNet also brings complex interference management in the network. In this paper, we present a security analysis for a proposed interference management mechanism in a two-tier heterogeneous network (HetNet) system. The proposed interference management mechanism aims to maximize the secrecy rate of a cellular user under eavesdropping attack. The HetNet system model includes a macro base station, several small base stations, several users, and one eavesdropper. To further improve the performance of the network, massive multiple-input multiple-output technology is applied to base stations. A single antenna is applied to users and the eavesdropper. Device-to-device (D2D) communications are considered in the HetNet system model for introducing interference in the macro cell to the eavesdropper. The proposed interference management mechanism takes consideration of three factors as transmit beamforming, spectrum reuse and D2D communications. Not only the secrecy rate of the user under eavesdropping attack but also the communication quality of services of SBSs users are considered in the security analysis. An optimization problem is formulated for the secrecy rate maximization of the user under eavesdropping attack with the constraints of quality of services of users associated with base stations and power limitation of base stations. The security analysis and numerical results show that our proposed interference management mechanism for physical layer security can utilize the interference in the network to improve the secrecy rate of the cellular user under eavesdropping attack.
       
  • Information Sharing and Bullwhip Effect in Smart Destination Network
           System
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Qijie Jiang, Ge Ke Information communication technologies (ICTs) have been extensively applied in smart destinations in recent years so as to improve the information transfer and information sharing amongst individual actors involving in the destination network ecosystem. This paper attempts to explore the influence of information sharing on the bullwhip effect throughout the tourism supply chain (SC) network, which has been considered as a major problem faces the destination management and all individual actors. Specifically, two mathematic models have been built to analyse the following different situations respectively; first, ICTs have not been well applied in destinations and there is no information sharing amongst individual actors, second, ICTs have been well applied in destinations and there exists information sharing amongst individual actors. Further, this paper makes a comparison of the bullwhip effects under these two situations. What's more, the data collected from JIUZHAI valley has been used to verify the correction of the mathematic analysis. Overall, this paper proves that the application of ICTs will contribute to the reduction of bullwhip effect throughout the tourism SC network by promoting the information sharing amongst individual actors, and some parameters (e.g., autocorrelation coefficient, the number of demand forecasting, and the lead time) will play a crucial role on the acting process. The results have both theoretical significance to the development of tourism SC management theory and managerial implication to tourism practices of individual actors and management departments.
       
  • MUPF: Multiple Unicast Path Forwarding in Content-Centric VANETs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Lanlan Rui, Hui Guo, Haoqiu Huang, RuiChang Shi, Xuesong Qiu Vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) with traditional TCP/ IP architecture cannot manage mobile nodes effectively. Inspired by information-centric networking (ICN), content-centric VANETs have emerged as a promising architecture to address the challenges of traditional IP-based communications in VANETs. However, several issues need to be solved with regard to this architecture. Among them, inflexible routing schemata based on IP addresses, inefficient traffic caused by network broadcast, and volatility in the network environment cause low network performance in VANETs. By focusing on the content routing of the VANETs, we propose a multiple unicast path-forwarding scheme, MUPF, in which we aim to build multiple stable unicast forwarding paths in content-centric VANETs. The main design concepts of MUPF are as follows: 1) By introducing the idea of ICN, we avoid using the fixed-communication “host-to-host” method employed in IP; MUPF applies a content-centric routing process to request for and reply to packets. 2) We have evaluated the often-occurring broadcast in VANETs, which is thought to have a bad impact on network performance; hence, MUPF uses multiple unicast forwarding paths to deliver the packets instead of a simple broadcast. 3) Considering the highly volatile feature of VANETs, wherein the links are easily broken when the nodes leave, combined with the nodes’ motion parameters and link quality metrics, MUPF can choose some more reliable nodes as next hops to improve the time tolerance of each routing path. In terms of average response time, the performance improvement achieved by MUPF is ∼10%, 15%-20%, and 60% compared to CCVN, V-NDN, and TCP/IP, respectively. In terms of the cache-hit ratio, MUPF achieves an improvement of ∼8% and 13.8% over CCVN and V-NDN, respectively; it also decreases network traffic significantly.
       
  • A Prediction-Based Approach for Features Aggregation in Visual Sensor
           Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Alessandro Enrico Redondi, Matteo Cesana, Luigi Fratta, Antonio Capone, Flaminio Borgonovo Visual Sensor Networks (VSNs) constitute a key technology for the implementation of several visual analysis tasks. Recent studies have demonstrated that such tasks can be efficiently performed following an operative paradigm where cameras transmit to a central controller local image features, rather than pixel-domain images. Furthermore, features from multiple camera views may be efficiently aggregated exploiting the spatial redundancy between overlapping views. In this paper we propose a routing protocol designed for supporting aggregation of image features in a VSN. First, we identify a predictor able to estimate the efficiency of local features aggregation between different cameras in a VSN. The proposed predictor is chosen so as to minimize the prediction error while keeping the network overhead cost low. Then, we harmonically integrate the proposed predictor in the Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) in order to support the task of in-network feature aggregation. We propose a RPL objective function that takes into account the predicted aggregation efficiency and build the routes from the camera nodes to a central controller so that either energy consumption or used network bandwidth is minimized. Extensive experimental results confirm that the proposed approach can be used to increase the efficiency of VSNs.
       
  • LANET: Visible-Light Ad Hoc Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Nan Cen, Jithin Jagannath, Simone Moretti, Zhangyu Guan, Tommaso Melodia Visible light communication (VLC) is a wireless technology complementary to well-understood radio frequency (RF) communication that is promising to help alleviate the spectrum crunch problem in overcrowded RF spectrum bands. While there has been significant advancement in recent years in understanding physical layer techniques for visible light point-to-point links, the core problem of developing efficient networking technology specialized for visible-light networks is substantially unaddressed.This article discusses the current existing techniques as well as the main challenges for the design of visible-light ad hoc networks - referred to as LANETs. The paper discusses typical architectures and application scenarios for LANETs and highlights the major differences between LANETs and traditional mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). Enabling technologies and design principles of LANETs are analyzed and existing work is surveyed following a layered approach. Open research issues in LANET design are also discussed, including long-range visible light communication, full-duplex LANET MAC, blockage-resistant routing, VLC-friendly TCP and software-defined prototyping, among others.
       
 
 
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