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COMPUTER SCIENCE (1244 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 872 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Abakós     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACM Computing Surveys     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
ACM Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ACM Transactions on Applied Perception (TAP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization (TACO)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems (TAAS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ACM Transactions on Computation Theory (TOCT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ACM Transactions on Computational Logic (TOCL)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ACM Transactions on Computer Systems (TOCS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ACM Transactions on Design Automation of Electronic Systems (TODAES)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ACM Transactions on Economics and Computation     Hybrid Journal  
ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (TECS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology (TIST)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems (TiiS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications, and Applications (TOMCCAP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ACM Transactions on Reconfigurable Technology and Systems (TRETS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks (TOSN)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ACM Transactions on Speech and Language Processing (TSLP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ACM Transactions on Storage     Hybrid Journal  
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Informatica Malaysia     Open Access  
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Adaptive Data Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Computer Science : an International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Technology Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Information and Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
AI EDAM     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Air, Soil & Water Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Algorithms     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Computational Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Information Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Sensor Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Animation Practice, Process & Production     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of West University of Timisoara - Mathematics and Computer Science     Open Access  
Annual Reviews in Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Anuario Americanista Europeo     Open Access  
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Applied Artificial Intelligence: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Applied Computer Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Informatics     Open Access  
Applied Mathematics and Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Soft Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied System Innovation     Open Access  
Architectural Theory Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archive of Numerical Software     Open Access  
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
arq: Architectural Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Artifact     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asia Pacific Journal on Computational Engineering     Open Access  
Asia-Pacific Journal of Information Technology and Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Educational Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Automatic Control and Computer Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Automatic Documentation and Mathematical Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Automatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Automation in Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Balkan Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Behaviour & Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Big Data and Cognitive Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 344)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
British Journal of Educational Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin of Social Informatics Theory and Application     Open Access  
c't Magazin fuer Computertechnik     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
CALCOLO     Hybrid Journal  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Capturing Intelligence     Full-text available via subscription  
Catalysis in Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cell Communication and Signaling     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Computer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CERN IdeaSquare Journal of Experimental Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ChemSusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
CIN Computers Informatics Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
CLEI Electronic Journal     Open Access  
Clin-Alert     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clinical eHealth     Open Access  
Cluster Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combinatorics, Probability and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Communication Methods and Measures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Algebra     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Communications in Computational Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Communications in Information Science and Management Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Partial Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Communications of the ACM     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Communications of the Association for Information Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Complex & Intelligent Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Complex Adaptive Systems Modeling     Open Access  
Complex Analysis and Operator Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Materials Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Computación y Sistemas     Open Access  
Computation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Computational and Mathematical Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational Cognitive Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computational Condensed Matter     Open Access  
Computational Ecology and Software     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Computational Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Computational Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Computational Management Science     Hybrid Journal  
Computational Mathematics and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computational Methods and Function Theory     Hybrid Journal  
Computational Molecular Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computational Particle Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Computational Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computational Science and Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computational Statistics & Data Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Computer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 106)
Computer Aided Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Ad Hoc Networks
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.53
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 11  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1570-8705
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3160 journals]
  • Introducing article numbering to Ad Hoc Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 90Author(s):
  • 5GinFIRE: An End-to-End Open5G Vertical Network Function Ecosystem
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Aloizio P. Silva, Christos Tranoris, Spyros Denazis, Susana Sargento, João Pereira, Miguel Luís, Rodrigo Moreira, Flávio Silva, Ivan Vidal, Borja Negales, Reza Nejabati, Dimitra Simeonidou Advanced communication networks, such as 5G and beyond, will be a complex ecosystem made of multiple physically interconnected elements, implying that the upcoming network will have to address capabilities such as flexibility, programmability and extensibility. This article, describes an Open and Extensible 5G Network Function Virtualisation (NFV) based Reference ecosystem of experimental facilities, named 5GinFIRE, that integrates existing facilities with new vertical-specific ones but also lays down the foundations for instantiation fully softwarised architectures of vertical industries and experimenting with them. Additionally, we present 5GinFIRE as the forerunner experimental playground, together with three uses cases, wherein new components, architecture designs and APIs may be tried and proposed before they are ported to more industrially mainstream 5G networks that are expected to emerge in large scale.
  • Multiple and Replicated Random Walkers Analysis for Service Discovery in
           Fog Computing IoT Environments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Konstantinos Skiadopoulos, Konstantinos Oikonomou, Markos Avlonitis, Konstantinos Giannakis, Dimitrios Kogias, Ioannis Stavrakakis The multiple random walkers mechanism is revisited in this paper for service discovery purposes considering modern dynamic network environments like the Internet of Things (IoT), where there is a need for certain services (e.g., virtual network functions) to be available to the end users through fog computing devices. Network coverage is analytically investigated here considering multiple random walkers in soft random geometric graph topologies of various densities. It is shown that as the number of random walkers increases, then coverage linearly increases in the considered topologies. The analytical findings of this work are shown to be in accordance with other results in the literature (e.g., coverage under multiple random walkers for fully connected network topologies). Moreover, for certain coverage and time constraints (i.e., the minimum fraction of network nodes to be covered within a certain time period that is of practical importance in the considered environment), the required minimum number of random walkers satisfying these constraints is also analytically derived. A replication mechanism that allows random walkers to replicate themselves after a fixed number of time steps is also analytically investigated here with respect to coverage for various topology densities. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of multiple random walkers for service discovery purposes in the considered fog computing IoT environment and support the claims and expectations of the analysis for both the multiple random walkers and the replicated multiple random walkers mechanism.
  • Neighbor Knowledge-based Rebroadcast Algorithm for minimizing the Routing
           overhead in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Y. Harold Robinson, R. Santhana Krishnan, E. Golden Julie, Raghvendra Kumar, Le Hoang Son, Pham Huy Thong Mobile Ad-hoc Networks are constructed without any administration, providing the quality of service in spite of routing overhead. In MANET, it is impossible for a mobile host to contact with other hosts in a single-hop fashion. In a multi-hop scenario, packets sent by the source host are relayed by a number of intermediate hosts before reaching the destination host. Due to node mobility in MANETs, frequent path failures and route discoveries occur. Hence, RREQ (Route Request) packets have to be broadcasted for finding the route. This leads to excessive redundant retransmission of RREQ packets. This strategy induces routing overhead in MANET. In this paper, we propose a reliable routing method to obtain the Quality of Service in MANET. The bandwidth requirement is calculated using the strength of the node's signal in the established nodes. The selection of route is based on the fewer amounts of delay and strong stability. To ascertain the route more efficient than traditional broadcasting style, rebroadcast can be done with the assistance of neighbor knowledge methods. Here, NKR (Neighbor Knowledge-based Rebroadcast) algorithm and LVC (Loose Virtual Clustering) algorithm are used for routing overhead reduction in MANETs. The experimental results prove that the proposed work performs well in terms of routing overhead, network traffic and successful broadcast of data packets in the network.
  • Stochastic Computation Resource Allocation for Mobile Edge Computing
           Powered by Wireless Energy Transfer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 May 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Chunlin Li, Weining Chen, Hengliang Tang, Yan Xin, Youlong Luo Limited battery capacity and poor computing capability of wireless devices have been longstanding performance limitations in the Internet of Things (IoT) era. Employing Wireless Energy Transfer (WET) technology, wireless devices of the Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) systems can be released from these limitations and achieve a better quality of experience (QoE). This paper considered a wireless powered mobile edge computing (WP-MEC) system with one mobile device, where a double antenna hybrid access point (HAP) (integrated with a MEC server) transmits wireless energy to the device and communicates with the wireless terminal to assist in its data processing. We investigated the average computation rate maximization problem in this system and proposed an online service rate maximization (OSRM) algorithm to tackle this problem. In each time slot, the proposed algorithm optimally decides the time allocation policy and the CPU-frequency for the mobile device. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can balance the time average computation rate and the task buffer queue length, and outperforms the benchmark schemes.
  • Exploiting Peer-to-Peer Wireless Energy Sharing for Mobile Charging Relief
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Aashish Dhungana, Tomasz Arodz, Eyuphan Bulut In this paper, we investigate the utilization of peer-to-peer wireless energy sharing to relieve the users from the burden of cord-based charging. The devices of users can make use of energy available from other users’ devices based on their meeting patterns so that the battery level of their devices could be maintained within an acceptable level without the need of charging it through a cable frequently. We first use dynamic programming-based optimization to find out the minimum number of cord-based charging sessions to obtain the highest possible mobile charging relief through collaborative charge sharing among pairs of nearby user devices. Then, we map our problem to roommate matching problem and find out the best matching among users that will achieve the highest network-wide relief while satisfying all users with their assigned partners. With an extensive empirical analysis based on real device charging patterns and meeting patterns between mobile users, we evaluate the charging relief offered to users in various scenarios. The results show that users can get up to 13-17% relief from their charging burden using cooperative energy exchanges without changing their existing usage habits.
  • Pool Resource Management Based on Early Collision Detection in Random
           Access of Massive MTC over LTE
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 May 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Zahra Alavikia, Abdorasoul Ghasemi Collision in Random Access (RA) procedure of Long-Term Evolution (LTE) networks is the main problem in supporting massive Machine-Type Communications (MTC). Current solutions for resolving MTC Devices (MTCDs) collisions in the LTE incur additional overhead to existing MTCDs which may not be efficient for cost-effective MTCDs. Also, the lack of proper Physical Resource Blocks (PRBs) management scheme may waste a large number of PRBs and leads to poor RA performance upon massive access of MTCDs. To this end, a simple PRBs management scheme based on the early preamble collision detection is proposed in this paper to improve the RA throughput of massive MTC. By exploiting the pool of RA resources and upon collision detection, a proper number of PRBs is granted to each collided preamble by estimating the number of collided MTCDs. To sustain the number of consumed PRBs around a certain threshold, the number of contending MTCDs is regulated using an appropriate Access Class Barring (ACB) factor. Simulation results show that the RA throughput and average RA delay can be improved using the proposed solution compared to the previous schemes; while the expected number of consumed PRBs in each RA procedure is sustained below a certain threshold.
  • Towards Low-Complexity Wireless Technology Classification Across Multiple
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Jaron Fontaine, Erika Fonseca, Adnan Shahid, Maicon Kist, Luiz A. DaSilva, Ingrid Moerman, Eli De Poorter To cope with the increasing number of co-existing wireless standards, complex machine learning techniques have been proposed for wireless technology classification. However, machine learning techniques in the scientific literature suffer from some shortcomings, namely: (i) they are often trained using data from only a single measurement location, and as such the results do not necessarily generalise and (ii) they typically do not evaluate complexity/accuracy trade-offs of the proposed solutions.To remedy these shortcomings, this paper investigates which resource-friendly approaches are suitable across multiple heterogeneous environments. To this end, the paper designs and evaluates classifiers for LTE, Wi-Fi and DVB-T technologies using multiple datasets to investigate the complexity/accuracy trade-offs between manual feature extraction and automatic feature learning techniques.Our wireless technology classification reaches an accuracy up to 99%. Moreover, we propose the use of data augmentation techniques to extend these results to unseen environments at the cost of only 2% reduction in accuracy. When concerning generalisation capabilities, complex automatic learning techniques surpass simple manual feature extraction approaches. Finally, the complexity of these automatic learning techniques can be significantly reduced by using computationally less intensive received signal strength indicator data while reaching acceptable accuracies in unseen environments (92% vs 97%).
  • A Congestion Control Framework For Delay- and Disruption Tolerant Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Aloizio P. Silva, Katia Obraczka, Scott Burleigh, JoséM.N. Silva, Celso M. Hirata Delay and Disruption Tolerant Networks (DTNs) are networks that experience frequent and long-lived connectivity disruptions. Unlike traditional networks, such as TCP/IP Internet, DTNs are often subject to high latency caused by very long propagation delays (e.g. interplanetary communication) and/or intermittent connectivity. In DTNs there is no guarantee of end-to-end connectivity between source and destination. Such distinct features pose a number of technical challenges in designing core network functions such as routing and congestion control mechanisms. Detecting and dealing with congestion in DTNs is an important problem since congestion can significantly deteriorate DTN performance. Most existing DTN congestion control mechanisms have been designed for a specific DTN application domain and have been shown to exhibit inadequate performance when used in different DTN scenarios and conditions.In this paper, we introduce Smart-DTN-CC, a novel DTN congestion control framework that adjusts its operation automatically based on the dynamics of the underlying network and its nodes. Smart-DTN-CC is an adaptive and distributed congestion aware framework that mitigates congestion using reinforcement learning, a machine learning technique known to be well suited to problems where: (1) the environment, in this case the network, plays a crucial role; and (2) yet, no prior knowledge about the target environment can be assumed, i.e., the only way to acquire information about the environment is to interact with it through continuous online learning.Smart-DTN-CC nodes receive input from the environment (e.g., buffer occupancy, neighborhood membership, etc), and, based on that information, choose an action to take from a set of possible actions. Depending on the selected action’s effectiveness in controlling congestion, a reward will be given. Smart-DTN-CC’s goal is to maximize the overall reward which translates to minimizing congestion. To our knowledge, Smart-DTN-CC is the first DTN congestion control framework that has the ability to automatically and continuously adapt to the dynamics of the target environment. As demonstrated by our experimental evaluation, Smart-DTN-CC is able to consistently outperform existing DTN congestion control mechanisms under a wide range of network conditions and characteristics.
  • Privacy-aware Query Processing in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Yongxuan Lai, Yifan Xu, Fan Yang, Wei Lu, Quan Yu Recently there is a research trend to integrate the cloud and the vehicular ad-hoc networks to enhance each other on the cooperative urban sensing applications. However, it remains a challenging problem on how to forward queries to search the results and then to route back the query results, as the vehicular nodes dynamically move on the road. Also, the dark side of vehicular cloud is often ignored. Getting the owner’s identity or locations of a given vehicle, or getting the queries submitted by vehicles would put the data privacy at risk. In this paper we propose a privacy preserving query processing scheme for vehicular sensor networks. The scheme consists of two phases: 1) at the index mapping phase, sensed data are stored locally at road side units (RSU), and a global index is maintained at the cloud; 2) at the query processing phase, queries are transformed based on a mapping function, and then are routed to the cloud. The cloud computes the set of RSUs that have the query result based on the mapping index, and then directs the query to the RSUs. Then the result forwarding is transformed into a query result forwarding problem at the RSU, where the data of query results are routed back at their best paths either through the 4G channel or through the DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communication) channel. Also, the query results are encrypted and diffused to a set of RSUs that the query requester would travel along, so the requester could fetch the results before the query is outdated. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in vehicular sensor networks. The ratio of successful query delivery is higher than existing query schemes, while at the same time preserving the privacy of query requesters and the data owner in vehicular sensor networks.
  • TimeStream: Exploiting video streams for clock synchronization
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Ilir Capuni, Nertil Zhuri, Rejvi Dardha Network Time Protocol (NTP) is the most commonly used protocol for clock synchronization on the Internet.In the wake of frequent news about attacks that use Network Time Protocol (NTP), we propose a TimeStream algorithm, which – in its plain version (without any extra settings) – successfully synchronizes computer clocks up to seconds, by processing data found in video streams that use HTTP Live Streaming (also known as HLS) protocol. Further increase of precision is possible with a proper setup of the origin video servers.TimeStream provides secure time synchronization without requiring new ports, new hardware, or expensive cryptography, and uses information which – currently – is already making at least 70% of all Internet traffic.We observe that some intrinsic properties of video streaming over HTTP and congestion control of TCP yield some useful properties that facilitate good performance of the proposed method even in adverse network conditions. These make TimeStream to be robust against packet delay manipulation attack in which, an attacker adds specifically crafted delays to packets carrying time information.To the best of our knowledge, TimeStream may be one of the first methods of its kind that uses structure and core features of video streams and underlying network transportation protocol, to extract information about time and opens a new line of research on almost real-time extraction of useful information from video content.
  • Vehicular Fog Gateways Selection on the Internet of Vehicles: A fuzzy
           logic with Ant Colony Optimization based Approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Issam Jabri, Tesnim Mekki, Abderrazak Rachedi, Maher Ben Jemaa Fog computing (FC) and multi-access edge computing (MEC) are two promising technologies that have been emerged to solve problems related to the access to the cloud computing (CC), mainly high latency and high bandwidth consumption. These two paradigms consist in enabling the cloud closer to users at the edge of the network. The pool of vehicular resources provided by the vehicular cloud (VC) can be exploited to process and store end users data instead of accessing remote servers. The combination of these three concepts can considerably augment the edge resources. In this context, we propose a multi-access edge based vehicular fog computing architecture on the internet of vehicles where vehicles are the fog nodes. In this paper, we present a detailed description of our suggested architecture and its modules. Then, we focus on a particular module which is the gateways selection module. The role of this module is the election of suitable fog nodes (i.e. vehicles) to access the MEC servers and the conventional cloud in order to reduce communication costs (e.g. bandwidth use, delay). The proposed selection approach has two steps. The first step consists in selecting a set of candidate gateways based on fuzzy logic. The second step allows the optimization of the number of selected gateways. We formulate it as a multi-objective optimization problem, and we solve it using ant colony optimization. The obtained simulation results show the efficiency of our proposed approach in terms of the number of selected gateways and connected fog nodes. In both static and mobile scenarios, the number of selected gateways is reduced up to 82% and 92%, respectively, compared to the fuzzy step. The ratio of connected vehicles is more than 94% in the static scenario.
  • In-Band LOS Discovery Using Highly Directional Transceivers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Suman Bhunia, Mahmudur Khan, Murat Yuksel, Shamik Sengupta Directional Radio Frequency (RF) / Free-Space-Optical (FSO) transceivers are envisioned to play a great role in future generation wireless networks. They provide benefits in terms of better throughput, enhanced spectrum utilization and lower interference from unwanted sources. However, the stringent requirement of line-of-sight (LOS) communication makes it tough for a mobile node to maintain a link without a-priori information about its neighbor’s position. Hence, neighbor discovery takes a very crucial role in mobile ad hoc networks with directional transceivers. In this paper, we focus on neighbor discovery using highly directional transceivers operating on the same communication channel. We consider two nodes that can discover each other by steering their transceivers with a randomly chosen angular speed and performing a simple three-way handshaking protocol. We provide a theoretical analysis of the proposed neighbor discovery method. Additionally, we propose an algorithm where each node chooses its transceiver’s angular speed and renews it if the neighbor is not discovered within an optimal time interval. We evaluate the proposed method via simulation as well as on a system prototype. Results from both simulations and experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed neighbor discovery protocol.
  • Performance Analysis of Spectrum Handoff under Heterogeneous Spectrum
           Environment in Ad Hoc and Centralized CR Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 May 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Shanidul Hoque, Wasim Arif The prime objective of cognitive radio (CR) is to address the problem of spectrum scarcity and inefficient usage of spectrum, by allowing the unlicensed or cognitive users (CUs) to access the underutilized licensed spectrum of the primary users (PUs). CUs experience considerable performance degradation due to the event of random interruptions by PUs in their respective bands of operation. In this article, we develop a spectrum management scheme and evaluate the performance of the CUs under heterogeneous spectrum environment (HetSE) in both ad-hoc (opportunistic) and centralized (negotiated) CR networks. We consider a finite threshold period (Dth) for spectrum handoff delay to improve the performance of the CUs for both opportunistic situation with backup channels (OSB) and negotiated situation with backup channels (NSB). The spectrum handoff performance measuring metrics: link maintenance probability, link failure probability, probability mass function of spectrum handoff, expected number of spectrum handoff and non-completion probability of the CUs, are derived under heterogeneous spectrum environment to investigate the characteristics of the network for both opportunistic and negotiated spectrum access strategies.
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): S.G. Hymlin Rose, T. Jayasree Wireless Sensor Networks have a scattered nature, and the sensor nodes are resource constraints which are remotely deployed. They are vulnerable to several attacks, which creates security issues in the transmission of data. The Denial of Service attack (DoS) is one of the prevailing attacks, which creates jamming among the sensor nodes. There exist many techniques to prevent jamming in the sensor nodes. Some of the techniques are based on cryptographic algorithms, which are too complex to use. But, if it is a simple algorithm it is easy for the attacker to intrude into the deployed environment. Hence, a new technique based on clustering approach and timestamp is proposed which includes two main contributions. One is based on the grouping of sensor nodes and the other is based on the timestamp calculated from one node to another node. If the timestamp exceeds the time limit, it is declared that there are some malicious nodes and while decrypting the acknowledgement, the signature is mismatched and jamming is detected. Then the transmission stops and is rebroadcasted through another route. The performance metric is evaluated based on the Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), Network throughput, Energy consumed and Routing overhead, which demonstrates that the performance is better compared to the existing techniques.
  • A Novel Group Ownership Transfer Protocol for RFID Systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Cheng-Chi Lee, Chun-Ta Li, Chung-Lun Cheng, Yan-Ming Lai Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a wireless communication technology nowadays widely used in almost every aspect of our lives including healthcare, logistics & supply chain management, inventory tracking, race timing, access control, toll collection, and a lot more. In RFID systems, a tag usually stores private or sensitive information, and so it needs an access control mechanism. When a tag's owner is changed, the read permission of the tag needs to be transferred from the old owner to the new owner, and this is when ownership transfer schemes come into play. In fact, not only do RFID ownership transfer schemes do ownership transfer, but they have to make sure that the ownership transfer procedure is executed under proper security protection. Besides, in some particular environments, the ownership transfer would be far more efficiently done if the tags could be treated as a group instead of individual tags. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a novel group ownership transfer protocol that satisfies all important security requirements including mutual authentication, data and location privacy, forward/backward secrecy, ownership privacy, and group ownership integrity. In addition, due to the use of cloud computing, our new protocol provides ubiquitous authentication. Based on homomorphic encryption and quadratic residues, our novel RFID group ownership transfer protocol can have encrypted data efficiently processed, and the communication cost is very low. The results of our BAN logic correctness check, security analysis, and performance evaluation confirm that the new protocol is logically correct and is capable of providing high level security/privacy protection on the basis of high cost-effective performance.
  • Q-SQUARE: a Q-learning approach to provide a QoE aware UAV flight path in
           cellular networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Stefania Colonnese, Francesca Cuomo, Giulio Pagliari, Luca Chiaraviglio This paper deals with the adoption of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) as mobile Base Stations providing video streaming services within a cellular macro area. We devise a Q-learning based UAV flight planning algorithm aimed at improving the Quality of Experience (QoE) of video users. Specifically, the proposed algorithm, herein denoted as Q-SQUARE, leverages the well-established Q-learning algorithm by introducing a reward related to a key QoE metric that is the video segment delay. The Q-SQUARE algorithm also accounts for different UAV recharging stations being available in the covered area. The performance analysis, as a function of the number of UAVs and recharging stations, show that Q-SQUARE identifies the UAV flight paths, i.e. specific space-time allocation of the available bandwidth resources, that definitely improve the QoE of the streaming services.
  • Efficient Data Handling in Vehicular Micro Clouds
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Florian Hagenauer, Takamasa Higuchi, Onur Altintas, Falko Dressler Wireless communication capabilities currently transform the automotive landscape. Short-range communication technologies enable a wide range of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) application for cars, drivers, and even large-scale Internet of Things (IoT) applications. Many of such applications have complex requirements in particular related to locality of data. Recently, the concept of the vehicular cloud has been proposed to address these issues, similar to what is currently investigated in the scope of Mobile Edge Computing (MEC). Forming what we call micro clouds of cars, we establish a virtual roadside infrastructure that can not only support other cars but also complex IoT applications. In this paper, we focus on data management in such micro clouds, i.e., clusters of cars organized in a hierarchical manner. Our micro clouds can provide services in their vicinity and together form macro clouds enabling more complex services and spanning entire cities. We first present an algorithm to form micro clouds at a specific geographic location using a map-based approach. Then, we develop data management services for such dynamic clusters. Concentrating on two services, namely collect data for collecting sensor data from vehicles within the micro cloud and forwarding these (possibly in aggregated form) to the macro cloud, and preserve data for keeping location-based data at the specified geo-location by continuously handing data from cars leaving to such joining the cluster. Our evaluation results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach including all the enhancements described in the paper.
  • Towards Socially Enabled Internet of Industrial Things: Architecture,
           Semantic Model and Relationship Management
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Nancy Gulati, Pankaj Deep Kaur The progression of Internet of Things (IoT) has culminated from merely communicating objects towards smart objects. Furthermore, the widespread adoption of social networking is leading us into a new era of social objects. Under this vision, the idea of Social Internet of Things (SIoT) involving integration of social networking concepts into IoT was carved. Also, in the past few years application of IoT technologies into industry termed as Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) has gained significant attention worldwide. This paper examines the major opportunities emerging from the introduction of novel concept of SIoT into manufacturing industry along with proposing reference architecture for the same. The proposed architecture is explored from a semantic point of view and an ontological model is designed. In addition, a novel approach for relationship management among manufacturing resources (assets) has been introduced. Further, to support the theoretical framework, a use case scenario and a simulation model for the performance management of an automated bottle filling industrial plant has been designed. The proposed model is certain to serve as a solid foundation for the future development of industrial IoT applications by researchers and developers.
  • Design of Network Coding Based Reliable Sensor Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): E. AL-Hawri, N. Correia, A. Barradas Network coding can be very useful in achieving a balance between energy efficiency and end-to-end packet error in sensor networks, particularly if only a subset of the nodes act as encoding nodes. In this article, a mathematical model and a heuristic algorithm are proposed to plan for the best placement of encoding nodes while ensuring reliability. These approaches are also able to address scenarios where sensor networks, using different gateways, are federated. In this case a distributed storage system is required to ensure the recovery of packets when related coded packets arrive to the different gateways. The experimental results show that the adequate number and placement of encoding nodes can be effectively determined, significantly enhancing the performance of constrained sensor networks using network coding.
  • Special Issue on Security of IoT-enabled Infrastructures in Smart Cities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Ali Ismail Awad, Steven Furnell, Abbas M. Hassan, Theo Tryfonas
  • Recent advances on security and privacy in Intelligent Transportation
           Systems (ITSs)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Sedjelmaci Hichem, Sidi Mohammed Senouci, Nirwan Ansari, Mubashir Husain Rehmani
  • A Macroscopic Traffic Model-based Approach for Sybil Attack Detection in
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Marwane AYAIDA, Nadhir MESSAI, Sameh NAJEH, Kouamé Boris NDJORE Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are expected to play an important role in our lives. They will improve traffic safety and bring a revolution on the driving experience. However, these benefits are counterbalanced by possible attacks that threaten not only the vehicle’s security, but also passengers lives. One of the most common ones is the Sybil attack, which is more dangerous than others since it could be the starting point of many other attacks in VANETs. This paper proposes a distributed approach allowing the detection of Sybil attacks using the traffic flow theory. The key idea here is that each vehicle will monitor its neighbourhood in order to detect an eventual Sybil attack. This is achieved by comparing between the real accurate speed of the vehicle and the one estimated using the V2V communications with vehicles in the vicinity. This estimated speed is obtained using the traffic flow fundamental diagram of the road’s portion where the vehicles are moving.A mathematical model that evaluates the rate of Sybil attack detection according to the traffic density is proposed. Then, this model is validated through some extensive simulations conducted using the well-known NS3 network simulator together with SUMO traffic simulator.
  • An Intrusion Detection System for Connected Vehicles in Smart Cities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Moayad Aloqaily, Safa Otoum, Ismaeel Al Ridhawi, Yaser Jararweh In the very near future, transportation will go through a transitional period that will shape the industry beyond recognition. Smart vehicles have played a significant role in the advancement of intelligent and connected transportation systems. Continuous vehicular cloud service availability in smart cities is becoming a crucial subscriber necessity which requires improvement in the vehicular service management architecture. Moreover, as smart cities continue to deploy diversified technologies to achieve assorted and high-performance cloud services, security issues with regards to communicating entities which share personal requester information still prevails. To mitigate these concerns, we introduce an automated secure continuous cloud service availability framework for smart connected vehicles that enables an intrusion detection mechanism against security attacks and provides services that meet users’ quality of service (QoS) and quality of experience (QoE) requirements. Continuous service availability is achieved by clustering smart vehicles into service-specific clusters. Cluster heads are selected for communication purposes with trusted third-party entities (TTPs) acting as mediators between service requesters and providers. The most optimal services are then delivered from the selected service providers to the requesters. Furthermore, intrusion detection is accomplished through a three-phase data traffic analysis, reduction, and classification technique used to identify positive trusted service requests against false requests that may occur during intrusion attacks. The solution adopts deep belief and decision tree machine learning mechanisms used for data reduction and classification purposes, respectively. The framework is validated through simulations to demonstrate the effectiveness of the solution in terms of intrusion attack detection. The proposed solution achieved an overall accuracy of 99.43% with 99.92% detection rate and 0.96% false positive and false negative rate of 1.53%.
  • A Review on Safety Failures, Security Attacks, and Available
           Countermeasures for Autonomous Vehicles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Jin Cui, Lin Shen Liew, Giedre Sabaliauskaite, Fengjun Zhou Autonomous vehicles (AVs) attract a lot of attention recently. They are expected to assist/replace the human drivers in maneuvering the vehicle, thereby reducing the likelihood of road accidents caused by human error, as a means to improve the road traffic safety. However, AVs have their inherent safety and security challenges, which have to be addressed before they are ready for wide adoption. This paper presents an overview of recent research on AV safety failures and security attacks, as well as the available safety and security countermeasures.
  • An adaptive energy aware strategy based on game theory to add privacy in
           the physical layer for Cognitive WSNs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Elena Romero, Javier Blesa, Alvaro Araujo The expansion of big data and the evolution of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies will play an important role in the feasibility of Smart City initiatives. In this IoT network infrastructure Cognitive Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), as a network of nodes that work in a cooperative way to sense the spectrum and control the environment surrounding them, are one of the main technologies. Security and privacy appear as key aspects for the development of new applications and services. In this work we propose a novel artificial noise generation strategy based on game theory in order to improve the security against privacy attacks in CWSNs. Artificial noise generation consists in introducing interferences in the spectrum in order to mask the real information. The decision whether or not to introduce artificial noise is modeled through a light non-cooperative game designed for low-resources networks that balance security enhancement and energy consumption. We show, using several simulations, that even with a cognitive attacker our strategy has reduced the information obtained by the attacker (Secrecy Outage Probability) to a value under 10%. The overhead (energy consumption and spectrum occupancy) of the strategy has also been deeply analyzed. All possible cases our approach provides better results, in the ratio energy consumption - security, than not using the strategy or using a random noise generation strategy. Also, although the saturation of the radio spectrum is strongly affected, the reliability of the network is maintained in 95% of application packages received. Therefore, we can conclude that an improvement of the privacy in the physical layer is obtained, taking into account energy consumption and maintaining levels of spectrum saturation suitable for the application proposes.
  • Efficient Certificate Revocation Management Schemes for IoT-based Advanced
           Metering Infrastructures in Smart Cities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Mumin Cebe, Kemal Akkaya Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), which refers to the communication network for the collection of power data from smart meters in a Smart Grid, is expected to be used in the service of many Smart City applications such as gas and water data collection or electric vehicle charging. As the communication within the AMI needs to be secure to protect user’s power data, key management becomes a challenge due to its overhead and limited resources on smart meters. While using public-keys eliminate some of the overhead of key management as opposed to symmetric-key management, there are still challenges regarding the management of certificates that store and certify the public-keys. In particular, distribution and storage of certificate revocation list (CRL) is major a challenge due to cost of distribution and storage in AMI networks which is envisioned to utilize wireless mesh networks. Motivated by the need of keeping the CRL distribution and storage cost effective and scalable, in this paper, we present a distributed CRL management scheme by utilizing distributed hash trees (DHTs) that have been heavily employed in peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. The basic idea is to share the burden of storage of CRLs among all the smart meters by exploiting the convenient wireless communication capability of the smart meters among each other. Using DHTs not only reduces the space requirements for CRLs but also makes the CRL updates more convenient. We implemented DHT-based CRL structure both on ns-3 and testbed using IEEE 802.11s mesh standard as a model for AMI and demonstrated its superior performance with respect to traditional methods of CRL management through extensive simulations.
  • DoS-resilient Cooperative Beacon Verification for Vehicular Communication
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Hongyu Jin, Panos Papadimitratos Authenticated safety beacons in Vehicular Communication (VC) systems ensure awareness among neighboring vehicles. However, the verification of beacon signatures introduces significant processing overhead for resource-constrained vehicular On-Board Units (OBUs). Even worse in dense neighborhood or when a clogging Denial of Service (DoS) attack is mounted. The OBU would fail to verify for all received (authentic or fictitious) beacons. This could significantly delay the verifications of authentic beacons or even affect the awareness of neighboring vehicle status. In this paper, we propose an efficient cooperative beacon verification scheme leveraging efficient symmetric key based authentication on top of pseudonymous authentication (based on traditional public key cryptography), providing efficient discovery of authentic beacons among a pool of received authentic and fictitious beacons, and can significantly decrease waiting times of beacons in queue before their validations. We show with simulation results that our scheme can guarantee low waiting times for received beacons even in high neighbor density situations and under DoS attacks, under which a traditional scheme would not be workable.
  • Energy Efficient Cross-layer Approach for Object Security of CoAP for IoT
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Rizwan Hamid Randhawa, Abdul Hameed, Adnan Noor Mian CoAP is an application layer protocol designed for resource-constrained devices in Internet-of-Things (IoT). Object Security of CoAP (OSCoAP) is an IETF draft for addressing security issues with CoAP messages that can arise with the use of intermediate proxies. These proxies are employed for better performance, scalability and offloading expensive operations. OSCoAP adopts the counter with cipher block chaining message authentication code (CCM) mode of authenticated encryption with associated data (AEAD) that simultaneously ensures confidentiality, integrity, and authentication of the messages. The current implementation of CCM for OSCoAP is carried out in software. In this paper, we propose a cross-layer approach towards exploiting the CCM for OSCoAP using mac-layer security suite in IoT devices. The motivation is based on the fact that most of these devices are equipped with 802.15.4 radio chips. The IEEE 802.15.4 standard mandates the availability of some security features for mac-layer encryption in these radio chips including the CCM. We propose an algorithm that takes advantage of these on-board features by efficiently implementing the CCM operations for OSCoAP. The results show that our implementation of CCM is memory efficient, save up to 10 times more energy, improves battery life by 30% and is 37% faster than state of the art software implementation of CCM for OSCoAP.
  • A Secure and Robust Scheme for Sharing Confidential Information in IoT
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Lake Bu, Mihailo Isakov, Michel A. Kinsy In Internet of Things (IoT) systems with security demands, there is often a need to distribute sensitive information (such as encryption keys, digital signatures, or login credentials etc.) to the devices, so that it can be retrieved for confidential purposes at a later moment. However, this piece of information cannot be entrusted to any individual device, since the malfunction of one device will jeopardize the security of the entire network. Even if the information is split among the devices, there is still a danger when attackers compromise a group of them. Therefore we have designed and implemented a secure and robust scheme to facilitate the sharing of sensitive information in IoT networks. This solution provides two important features: 1) This scheme uses Threshold Secret Sharing (TSS) to split the information into shares to be kept by all devices in the system. And so the information can only be retrieved collaboratively by groups of devices. 2) This scheme ensures the privacy and integrity of that piece of information even when there is a large amount of sophisticated and collusive attackers who can hijack the devices. It is able to identify all the compromised devices, while still keeping the secret unknown and unforgeable to attackers.
  • Network Intrusion Detection System for UAV Ad-hoc Communication From
           methodology design to real test validation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Jean-Philippe Condomines, Ruohao Zhang, Nicolas Larrieu The use of a swarm of low-cost, mission-specific drones to form a Flying Ad-hoc Network (FANET) has literally become a ’hotspot’ in the drone community. A number of studies have been conducted on how to achieve a FANET, but few have considered the security perspectives of this subject. FANET’s unique features have made it difficult to strengthen its defense against ever-changing security threats. Today, more and more FANET applications are implemented into civil airspace, but the development of FANET security has remained unsatisfactory. In this paper, we try to address this issue by proposing a new Intrusion Detection System (IDS), an hybrid method based on both spectral traffic analysis and a robust controller / observer for anomaly estimation inside UAV networks. The proposed hybrid method considers, as a preliminary step, a statistical signature of the traffic exchanged in the network. By examining the resulted signatures, the differences are used to select the accurate model for accurate estimation of that abnormal traffic. The proposed IDS design has been successfully applied to some relevant practical problems such as ad hoc networks for aerial vehicles, and the effectiveness is illustrated by using real traffic traces including Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. Our first results show promising perspectives for Intrusion Detection System (IDS) in UAV communication networks. Indeed, different types of anomaly have been considered and they are all accurately detected by the intrusion detection process we propose in this paper. Finally, both simulation-based validation and real-time real-world based implementation of our IDS are described in this article.
  • Efficient DCT-based Secret Key Generation for the Internet of Things
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): George Margelis, Xenofon Fafoutis, George Oikonomou, Robert Piechocki, Theo Tryfonas, Paul Thomas Cryptography is one of the most widely employed means to ensure confidentiality in the Internet of Things (IoT). Establishing cryptographically secure links between IoT devices requires the prior consensus to a secret encryption key. Yet, IoT devices are resource-constrained and cannot employ traditional key distribution schemes. As a result, there is a growing interest in generating secret random keys locally, using the shared randomness of the communicating channel. This article presents a secret key generation scheme, named SKYGlow, which is targeted at resource-constrained IoT platforms and tested on devices that employ IEEE 802.15.4 radios. We first examine the practical upper bounds of the number of secret bits that can be extracted from a message exchange. We contrast these upper bounds with the current state-of-the-art, and elaborate on the workings of the proposed scheme. SKYGlow applies the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) on channel observations of exchanged messages to reduce mismatches and increase correlation between the generated secret bits. We validate the performance of SKYGlow in both indoor and outdoor scenarios, at 2.4 GHz and 868 MHz respectively. The results suggest that SKYGlow can create secret 128-bit keys of 0.9978 bits entropy with just 65 packet exchanges, outperforming the state-of-the-art in terms of energy efficiency.
  • The Impact of ECDSA in a VANET routing service: Insights from Real Data
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Pedro Cirne, André Zúquete, Susana Sargento, Miguel Luís Both the WAVE IEEE 1609.2 standard in USA and the ETSI ITS security standards in Europe rely on the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) to authenticate messages exchanged among vehicles. Although being faster than other equivalent algorithms, the ECDSA computational cost nevertheless affects the message validation throughput. Even worse, the number of messages that a device has to authenticate may easily exhaust its computational limits.In this article, we evaluated the impact caused by ECDSA authentication of messages of the multi-hop routing control plane used in a real Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET). Such control plane uses periodic vicinity updates to keep accurate, distributed routing paths, and ECDSA-based validation delays may force to discard many of such updates.To perform the evaluation of the impact imposed by ECDSA we considered the multiple curve parameters associated to WAVE and ETSI ITS, their implementation by different cryptographic libraries and their performance in distinct hardware. We took as reference for traffic to be authenticated with ECDSA a day-long set of messages of a VANET routing control plane. These messages were inferred from connectivity status samples from all mobile nodes of a real VANET. Emulation results with those messages show that, without high-end computing devices, ECDSA authentication would have a substantial negative impact in the routing service of the tested VANET.
  • Pairing-based Authentication Protocol for V2G Networks in Smart Grid
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Luis Fernando Arias Roman, Paulo R.L. Gondim, Jaime Lloret Vehicle to Grid (V2G) network is a very important component for Smart Grid (SG), as it offers new services that help the optimization of both supply and demand of energy in the SG network and provide mobile distributed capacity of battery storage for minimizing the dependency of non-renewable energy sources. However, the privacy and anonymity of users’ identity, confidentiality of the transmitted data and location of the Electric Vehicle (EV) must be guaranteed. This article proposes a pairing-based authentication protocol that guarantees confidentiality of communications, protects the identities of EV users and prevents attackers from tracking the vehicle. Results from computing and communications performance analyses were better in comparison to other protocols, thus overcoming signalling congestion and reducing bandwidth consumption. The protocol protects EVs from various known attacks and its formal security analysis revealed it achieves the security goals.
  • Apparatus: A Framework for Security Analysis in Internet of Things Systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Orestis Mavropoulos, Haralambos Mouratidis, Andrew Fish, Emmanouil Panaousis Internet of Things (IoT) systems are ubiquitous, highly complex and dynamic event-based systems. These characteristics make their security analysis challenging. Security in IoT requires domain-specific methodologies and tools. The proposed methodologies need to be able to capture information from software and hardware constructs to security and social constructs. In this paper, in addition to refining the modeling language of the Apparatus Framework, we propose a class-based notation of the modeling language and a structured approach to transition between different models. Apparatus is a security framework developed to facilitate security analysis in IoT systems. We demonstrate the application of the framework by analyzing the security of smart public transport system. The security analysis and visualization of the system are facilitated by a software application that is developed as part of the Apparatus Framework.
  • An Efficient Privacy-Preserving Protocol for Database-driven Cognitive
           Radio Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Yali Zeng, Li Xu, Xu Yang, Xun Yi Cognitive radio is regarded as a promising technology for remedying spectrum shortage and improving spectrum utilization. However, database-driven cognitive radio networks (CRNs) are vulnerable to a series of security attacks and privacy threats, especially the privacy breach of secondary users (SUs). In this paper, we propose an efficient privacy-preserving protocol to protect the identity and trajectory privacy of each SU and to prevent the database (DB) from tracing any SU. Besides, this paper also aims at improving the efficiency of authentication and channel allocation to offer the best connectivity to SUs wherever they are and at any time. Taking advantage of the elliptic curve cryptography technique, our protocol achieves the mutual authentication between SUs and base stations (BSs), which enhances the security of CRNs communication. Based on channel pre-allocation to BSs, our protocol reduces the latency of obtaining available channels for SUs. Moreover, our protocol exploits reputation to motivate SUs to be honest and thus increases the utilization of the limited spectrum resources. The results of security analysis show that our protocol provides strong privacy preservation for SUs that the DB cannot get the entire trajectory of any SU, even the DB colludes with all BSs. Furthermore, the results also show that the proposed protocol can resist various types of attacks. The results of performance evaluation indicate the efficiency of the proposed privacy-preserving protocol.
  • On Trust Models for Communication Security in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Na Fan, Chase Q. Wu Vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) are prone to various network attacks due to its open, dynamic, and distributed nature. It is of increasing importance to assess the trustworthiness of vehicle nodes and messages for communication security in such networks. In this paper, we propose an integrated security scheme to help nodes in VANETs identify the legitimacy of messages for proper decision making. Within the proposed scheme, we first construct trust models to quantify the direct and indirect reputation of a participating node. Particularly, we use the certain-factor model to measure the node’s direct reputation by observing its communication behavior, and synthesize the information from the node’s neighbors and road side unit (RSU) reports to determine its indirect reputation. Both types of reputation are then combined using the uncertain deductive method. Based on these trust models, we further design an attribute-weighted K-means method to identify legitimate messages and a routing method for message delivery in VANETs. We also design and incorporate a dynamic game model-based incentive mechanism to encourage nodes to take cooperative actions and restrain them from selfish behaviors. Extensive simulations show that the proposed security scheme exhibits superior performances over existing methods in alleviating negative effects caused by selfish or malicious nodes.
  • Efficient and Privacy Preserving Supplier Matching for Electric Vehicle
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Fatih Yucel, Kemal Akkaya, Eyuphan Bulut Electric Vehicle (EV) charging takes longer time and happens more frequently compared to refueling of fossil-based vehicles. This requires in-advance scheduling on charging stations depending on the route of the demander EVs for efficient resource allocation. However, such scheduling and frequent charging may leak sensitive information about the users which may expose their driving patterns, whereabouts, schedules, etc. The situation is compounded with the proliferation of EV chargers such as V2V charging where any two EVs can charge each other through a charging cable. In such cases, the matching of these EVs is typically done in a centralized manner which exposes private information to third parties which do the matching. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose an efficient and privacy-preserving distributed matching of demander EVs with charge suppliers (i.e., public/private stations, V2V chargers) using bichromatic mutual nearest neighbor (BMNN) assignments. To this end, we use partially homomorphic encryption-based BMNN computation through local communication (e.g., DSRC or LTE-direct) between users while hiding their locations. The proposed matching algorithm provides not only a satisfactory assignment for all parties but also achieves an efficient matching in dynamic environments where new demanders and suppliers show up and some leave. The simulation results indicate that the proposed matching of suppliers and demanders can be achieved in a distributed fashion within reasonable computation and convergence times while preserving privacy of users. Moreover, due to the nature of its design, it provides a more efficient matching process for dynamic environments compared to standard stable matching algorithm, reducing the average waiting time for users until matching.
  • ACPC: Efficient revocation of pseudonym certificates using activation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Marcos Vinicius M. Silva, Marcos A. Simplicio, Jefferson E. Ricardini, Eduardo Lopes Cominetti, Harsh Kupwade Patil Vehicular communication (V2X) technologies allow vehicles to exchange information about the road conditions and their own status, and thereby enhance transportation safety and efficiency. For broader deployment, however, such technologies are expected to address security and privacy concerns, preventing abuse by users and by the system’s entities. In particular, the system is expected to enable the revocation of malicious vehicles, e.g., in case they send invalid information to their peers or to the roadside infrastructure; it should also prevent the system from being misused for tracking honest vehicles. Both features are enabled by Vehicular Public Key Infrastructure (VPKI) solutions such as Security Credential Management Systems (SCMS), one of the leading candidates for protecting V2X communication in the United States. Unfortunately, though, SCMS’s original revocation mechanism can lead to large Certification Revocation Lists (CRLs), which in turn impacts the bandwidth usage and processing overhead of the system. In this article, we propose a novel design called Activation Codes for Pseudonym Certificates (ACPC), which can be integrated into SCMS to address this issue. Our proposal is based on activation codes, short bit-strings without which certificates previously issued to a vehicle cannot be used by the latter, which are periodically distributed to non-revoked vehicles using an efficient broadcast mechanism. As a result, the identifiers of the corresponding certificates do no need to remain on the CRL for a long time, reducing the CRLs’ size and streamlining their distribution and verification of any vehicle’s revocation status. Besides describing ACPC in detail, we also compare it to similar-purpose solutions such as Issue First Activate Later (IFAL) and Binary Hash Tree based Certificate Access Management (BCAM). This analysis shows that our proposal not only improves privacy (e.g., in terms of resilience against colluding system authorities), but also leads to processing and bandwidth overheads that are orders of magnitude smaller than those observed in the state of the art.
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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