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  Subjects -> COMPUTER SCIENCE (Total: 1735 journals)
    - ANIMATION AND SIMULATION (28 journals)
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    - COMPUTER SCIENCE (1199 journals)
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    - HARDWARE AND CIRCUITS (2 journals)
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COMPUTER SCIENCE (1199 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Abakós     Full-text available via subscription  
Academy of Information and Management Sciences Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (29 followers)
ACM Computing Surveys     Full-text available via subscription   (16 followers)
ACM Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (9 followers)
ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)     Full-text available via subscription   (12 followers)
ACM Transactions on Applied Perception (TAP)     Full-text available via subscription   (5 followers)
ACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization (TACO)     Full-text available via subscription   (5 followers)
ACM Transactions on Asian Language Information Processing (TALIP)     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems (TAAS)     Full-text available via subscription   (6 followers)
ACM Transactions on Computation Theory (TOCT)     Full-text available via subscription   (10 followers)
ACM Transactions on Computational Logic (TOCL)     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
ACM Transactions on Computer Systems (TOCS)     Full-text available via subscription   (8 followers)
ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction     Full-text available via subscription   (6 followers)
ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE)     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
ACM Transactions on Design Automation of Electronic Systems (TODAES)     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (TECS)     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)     Full-text available via subscription   (10 followers)
ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology (TIST)     Full-text available via subscription   (6 followers)
ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems (TiiS)     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
ACM Transactions on Management Information Systems (TMIS)     Full-text available via subscription   (10 followers)
ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications, and Applications (TOMCCAP)     Full-text available via subscription   (7 followers)
ACM Transactions on Reconfigurable Technology and Systems (TRETS)     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks (TOSN)     Full-text available via subscription   (5 followers)
ACM Transactions on Speech and Language Processing (TSLP)     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
ACM Transactions on Storage     Full-text available via subscription  
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (13 followers)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Acta Electrotechnica et Informatica     Open Access  
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (11 followers)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)
Advanced Engineering Materials     Hybrid Journal   (14 followers)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (6 followers)
Advanced Technology for Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (174 followers)
Advances in Adaptive Data Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (10 followers)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (4 followers)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (13 followers)
Advances in Computing     Open Access   (2 followers)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (82 followers)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (20 followers)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (10 followers)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (11 followers)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (14 followers)
Advances in Materials Sciences     Open Access   (8 followers)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (8 followers)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (7 followers)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (6 followers)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (7 followers)
Advancing Information Technology Research     Open Access  
AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
African Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science Research     Open Access  
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (12 followers)
AI EDAM     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Air, Soil & Water Research     Open Access   (6 followers)
AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (4 followers)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal  
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Algorithms     Open Access   (9 followers)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (27 followers)
American Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (2 followers)
American Journal of Computational Mathematics     Open Access   (2 followers)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (2 followers)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Animation Practice, Process & Production     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Annales UMCS, Informatica     Open Access   (1 follower)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (2 followers)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (9 followers)
Annual Reviews in Control     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Artificial Intelligence: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (9 followers)
Applied Computer Systems     Open Access  
Applied Computing and Informatics     Partially Free  
Applied Environmental Education & Communication     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Applied Mathematics and Computation     Hybrid Journal   (84 followers)
Applied Medical Informatics     Open Access   (5 followers)
Applied Numerical Analysis & Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Applied Soft Computing     Hybrid Journal   (9 followers)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Architectural Theory Review     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (119 followers)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
arq: Architectural Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Advances in Human-Computer Interaction    [16 followers]  Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 1687-5893 - ISSN (Online) 1687-5907
     Published by Hindawi Publishing Corporation Homepage  [347 journals]   [SJR: 0.343]   [H-I: 5]
  • Designing of a Personality Based Emotional Decision Model for Generating
           Various Emotional Behavior of Social Robots
    • Abstract: All humans feel emotions, but individuals express their emotions differently because each has a different personality. We design an emotional decision model that focuses on the personality of individuals. The personality-based emotional decision model is designed with four linear dynamics, viz. reactive dynamic system, internal dynamic system, emotional dynamic system, and behavior dynamic system. Each dynamic system calculates the output values that reflect the personality, by being used as system matrices, input matrices, and output matrices. These responses are reflected in the final emotional behavior through a behavior dynamic system as with humans. The final emotional behavior includes multiple emotional values, and a social robot shows various emotional expressions. We perform some experiments using the cyber robot system, to verify the efficiency of the personality-based emotional decision model that generates various emotions according to the personality.
      PubDate: Sun, 05 Jan 2014 11:55:30 +000
       
  • Effects of a Social Robot's Autonomy and Group Orientation on Human
           Decision-Making
    • Abstract: Social attributes of intelligent robots are important for human-robot systems. This paper investigates influences of robot autonomy (i.e., high versus low) and group orientation (i.e., ingroup versus outgroup) on a human decision-making process. We conducted a laboratory experiment with 48 college students and tested the hypotheses with MANCOVA. We find that a robot with high autonomy has greater influence on human decisions than a robot with low autonomy. No significant effect is found on group orientation or on the interaction between group orientation and autonomy level. The results provide implications for social robot design.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Dec 2013 11:09:47 +000
       
  • Blind Sailors’ Spatial Representation Using an On-Board Force
           Feedback Arm: Two Case Studies
    • Abstract: Using a vocal, auditory, and haptic application designed for maritime navigation, blind sailors are able to set up and manage their voyages. However, investigation of the manner to present information remains a crucial issue to better understand spatial cognition and improve navigation without vision. In this study, we asked two participants to use SeaTouch on board and manage the ship headings during navigation in order to follow a predefined itinerary. Two conditions were tested. Firstly, blind sailors consulted the updated ship positions about the virtual map presented in an allocentric frame of reference (i.e., facing north). In the second case, they used the forced-feedback device in an egocentric frame of reference (i.e., facing the ship headings). Spatial performance tended to show that the egocentric condition was better for controlling the course during displacement, whereas the allocentric condition was more efficient for building mental representation and remembering it after the navigation task.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Dec 2013 18:07:58 +000
       
  • Computer Breakdown as a Stress Factor during Task Completion under Time
           Pressure: Identifying Gender Differences Based on Skin Conductance
    • Abstract: In today’s society, as computers, the Internet, and mobile phones pervade almost every corner of life, the impact of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) on humans is dramatic. The use of ICT, however, may also have a negative side. Human interaction with technology may lead to notable stress perceptions, a phenomenon referred to as technostress. An investigation of the literature reveals that computer users’ gender has largely been ignored in technostress research, treating users as “gender-neutral.” To close this significant research gap, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which we investigated users’ physiological reaction to the malfunctioning of technology. Based on theories which explain that men, in contrast to women, are more sensitive to “achievement stress,” we predicted that male users would exhibit higher levels of stress than women in cases of system breakdown during the execution of a human-computer interaction task under time pressure, if compared to a breakdown situation without time pressure. Using skin conductance as a stress indicator, the hypothesis was confirmed. Thus, this study shows that user gender is crucial to better understanding the influence of stress factors such as computer malfunctions on physiological stress reactions.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Oct 2013 08:04:08 +000
       
  • Enhanced Cognitive Walkthrough: Development of the Cognitive Walkthrough
           Method to Better Predict, Identify, and Present Usability Problems
    • Abstract: To avoid use errors when handling medical equipment, it is important to develop products with a high degree of usability. This can be achieved by performing usability evaluations in the product development process to detect and mitigate potential usability problems. A commonly used method is cognitive walkthrough (CW), but this method shows three weaknesses: poor high-level perspective, insufficient categorisation of detected usability problems, and difficulties in overviewing the analytical results. This paper presents a further development of CW with the aim of overcoming its weaknesses. The new method is called enhanced cognitive walkthrough (ECW). ECW is a proactive analytical method for analysis of potential usability problems. The ECW method has been employed to evaluate user interface designs of medical equipment such as home-care ventilators, infusion pumps, dialysis machines, and insulin pumps. The method has proved capable of identifying several potential use problems in designs.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Oct 2013 13:23:00 +000
       
  • Virtual/Real Transfer in a Large-Scale Environment: Impact of Active
           Navigation as a Function of the Viewpoint Displacement Effect and Recall
           Tasks
    • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of navigation mode (passive versus active) on the virtual/real transfer of spatial learning, according to viewpoint displacement (ground: 1 m 75 versus aerial: 4 m) and as a function of the recall tasks used. We hypothesize that active navigation during learning can enhance performances when route strategy is favored by egocentric match between learning (ground-level viewpoint) and recall (egocentric frame-based tasks). Sixty-four subjects (32 men and 32 women) participated in the experiment. Spatial learning consisted of route learning in a virtual district (four conditions: passive/ground, passive/aerial, active/ground, or active/aerial), evaluated by three tasks: wayfinding, sketch-mapping, and picture-sorting. In the wayfinding task, subjects who were assigned the ground-level viewpoint in the virtual environment (VE) performed better than those with the aerial-level viewpoint, especially in combination with active navigation. In the sketch-mapping task, aerial-level learning in the VE resulted in better performance than the ground-level condition, while active navigation was only beneficial in the ground-level condition. The best performance in the picture-sorting task was obtained with the ground-level viewpoint, especially with active navigation. This study confirmed the expected results that the benefit of active navigation was linked with egocentric frame-based situations.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Sep 2013 10:56:06 +000
       
  • Development of Estimating Equation of Machine Operational Skill by
           Utilizing Eye Movement Measurement and Analysis of Stress and Fatigue
    • Abstract: For an establishment of a skill evaluation method for human support systems, development of an estimating equation of the machine operational skill is presented. Factors of the eye movement such as frequency, velocity, and moving distance of saccade were computed using the developed eye gaze measurement system, and the eye movement features were determined from these factors. The estimating equation was derived through an outlier test (to eliminate nonstandard data) and a principal component analysis (to find dominant components). Using a cooperative carrying task (cc-task) simulator, the eye movement and operational data of the machine operators were recorded, and effectiveness of the derived estimating equation was investigated. As a result, it was confirmed that the estimating equation was effective strongly against actual simple skill levels (). In addition, effects of internal condition such as fatigue and stress on the estimating equation were analyzed. Using heart rate (HR) and coefficient of variation of R-R interval (). Correlation analysis between these biosignal indexes and the estimating equation of operational skill found that the equation reflected effects of stress and fatigue, although the equation could estimate the skill level adequately.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Aug 2013 13:31:13 +000
       
  • Virtual Sectioning and Haptic Exploration of Volumetric Shapes in the
           Absence of Visual Feedback
    • Abstract: The reduced behavior for exploration of volumetric data based on the virtual sectioning concept was compared with the free scanning at the use of the StickGrip linkage-free haptic device. Profiles of the virtual surface were simulated through the penholder displacements in relation to the pen tip of the stylus. One or two geometric shapes (cylinder, trapezoidal prism, ball, and torus) or their halves and the ripple surface were explored in the absence of visual feedback. In the free scanning, the person physically moved the stylus. In the parallel scanning, cross-sectional profiles were generated automatically starting from the location indicated by the stylus. Analysis of the performance of 18 subjects demonstrated that the new haptic visualization and exploration technique allowed to create accurate mental images, to recognize and identify virtual shapes. The mean number of errors was about 2.5% in the free scanning mode and 1.9% and 1.5% in the parallel scanning mode at the playback velocity of 28 mm/s and 42 mm/s, respectively. All participants agreed that the haptic visualization of the 3D virtual surface presented as the cross-sectional slices of the workspace was robust and easy to use. The method was developed for visualization of spatially distributed data collected by sensors.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Jul 2013 11:50:04 +000
       
  • Designing Interactive Applications to Support Novel Activities
    • Abstract: R&D in media-related technologies including multimedia, information retrieval, computer vision, and the semantic web is experimenting on a variety of computational tools that, if sufficiently matured, could support many novel activities that are not practiced today. Interactive technology demonstration systems produced typically at the end of their projects show great potential for taking advantage of technological possibilities. These demo systems or “demonstrators” are, even if crude or farfetched, a significant manifestation of the technologists’ visions in transforming emerging technologies into novel usage scenarios and applications. In this paper, we reflect on design processes and crucial design decisions made while designing some successful, web-based interactive demonstrators developed by the authors. We identify methodological issues in applying today’s requirement-driven usability engineering method to designing this type of novel applications and solicit a clearer distinction between designing mainstream applications and designing novel applications. More solution-oriented approaches leveraging design thinking are required, and more pragmatic evaluation criteria is needed that assess the role of the system in exploiting the technological possibilities to provoke further brainstorming and discussion. Such an approach will support a more efficient channelling of the technology-to-application transformation which are becoming increasingly crucial in today’s context of rich technological possibilities.
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Jun 2013 14:36:54 +000
       
  • Using Brain Waves to Control Computers and Machines
    • PubDate: Tue, 11 Jun 2013 12:19:38 +000
       
  • Controlling Assistive Machines in Paralysis Using Brain Waves and Other
           Biosignals
    • Abstract: The extent to which humans can interact with machines significantly enhanced through inclusion of speech, gestures, and eye movements. However, these communication channels depend on a functional motor system. As many people suffer from severe damage of the motor system resulting in paralysis and inability to communicate, the development of brain-machine interfaces (BMI) that translate electric or metabolic brain activity into control signals of external devices promises to overcome this dependence. People with complete paralysis can learn to use their brain waves to control prosthetic devices or exoskeletons. However, information transfer rates of currently available noninvasive BMI systems are still very limited and do not allow versatile control and interaction with assistive machines. Thus, using brain waves in combination with other biosignals might significantly enhance the ability of people with a compromised motor system to interact with assistive machines. Here, we give an overview of the current state of assistive, noninvasive BMI research and propose to integrate brain waves and other biosignals for improved control and applicability of assistive machines in paralysis. Beside introducing an example of such a system, potential future developments are being discussed.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 May 2013 17:45:27 +000
       
  • Towards Brain-Computer Interface Control of a 6-Degree-of-Freedom Robotic
           Arm Using Dry EEG Electrodes
    • Abstract: Introduction. Development of a robotic arm that can be operated using an exoskeletal position sensing harness as well as a dry electrode brain-computer interface headset. Design priorities comprise an intuitive and immersive user interface, fast and smooth movement, portability, and cost minimization. Materials and Methods. A robotic arm prototype capable of moving along 6 degrees of freedom has been developed, along with an exoskeletal position sensing harness which was used to control it. Commercially available dry electrode BCI headsets were evaluated. A particular headset model has been selected and is currently being integrated into the hybrid system. Results and Discussion. The combined arm-harness system has been successfully tested and met its design targets for speed, smooth movement, and immersive control. Initial tests verify that an operator using the system can perform pick and place tasks following a rather short learning curve. Further evaluation experiments are planned for the integrated BCI-harness hybrid setup. Conclusions. It is possible to design a portable robotic arm interface comparable in size, dexterity, speed, and fluidity to the human arm at relatively low cost. The combined system achieved its design goals for intuitive and immersive robotic control and is currently being further developed into a hybrid BCI system for comparative experiments.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 May 2013 17:37:51 +000
       
  • A Comparison of Field-Based and Lab-Based Experiments to Evaluate User
           Experience of Personalised Mobile Devices
    • Abstract: There is a growing debate in the literature regarding the tradeoffs between lab and field evaluation of mobile devices. This paper presents a comparison of field-based and lab-based experiments to evaluate user experience of personalised mobile devices at large sports events. A lab experiment is recommended when the testing focus is on the user interface and application-oriented usability related issues. However, the results suggest that a field experiment is more suitable for investigating a wider range of factors affecting the overall acceptability of the designed mobile service. Such factors include the system function and effects of actual usage contexts aspects. Where open and relaxed communication is important (e.g., where participant groups are naturally reticent to communicate), this is more readily promoted by the use of a field study.
      PubDate: Thu, 11 Apr 2013 14:11:21 +000
       
  • A Review of Mobile Robotic Telepresence
    • Abstract: Mobile robotic telepresence (MRP) systems incorporate video conferencing equipment onto mobile robot devices which can be steered from remote locations. These systems, which are primarily used in the context of promoting social interaction between people, are becoming increasingly popular within certain application domains such as health care environments, independent living for the elderly, and office environments. In this paper, an overview of the various systems, application areas, and challenges found in the literature concerning mobile robotic telepresence is provided. The survey also proposes a set terminology for the field as there is currently a lack of standard terms for the different concepts related to MRP systems. Further, this paper provides an outlook on the various research directions for developing and enhancing mobile robotic telepresence systems per se, as well as evaluating the interaction in laboratory and field settings. Finally, the survey outlines a number of design implications for the future of mobile robotic telepresence systems for social interaction.
       
  • Text Entry by Gazing and Smiling
    • Abstract: Face Interface is a wearable prototype that combines the use of voluntary gaze direction and facial activations, for pointing and selecting objects on a computer screen, respectively. The aim was to investigate the functionality of the prototype for entering text. First, three on-screen keyboard layout designs were developed and tested () to find a layout that would be more suitable for text entry with the prototype than traditional QWERTY layout. The task was to enter one word ten times with each of the layouts by pointing letters with gaze and select them by smiling. Subjective ratings showed that a layout with large keys on the edge and small keys near the center of the keyboard was rated as the most enjoyable, clearest, and most functional. Second, using this layout, the aim of the second experiment () was to compare entering text with Face Interface to entering text with mouse. The results showed that text entry rate for Face Interface was 20 characters per minute (cpm) and 27 cpm for the mouse. For Face Interface, keystrokes per character (KSPC) value was 1.1 and minimum string distance (MSD) error rate was 0.12. These values compare especially well with other similar techniques.
       
  • User Assessment in Serious Games and Technology-Enhanced Learning
    •  
  • Assessment of Learners’ Motivation during Interactions with Serious
           Games: A Study of Some Motivational Strategies in Food-Force
    • Abstract: This study investigated motivational strategies and the assessment of learners’ motivation during serious gameplay. Identifying and intelligently assessing the effects that these strategies may have on learners are particularly relevant for educational computer-based systems. We proposed, therefore, the use of physiological sensors, namely, heart rate, skin conductance, and electroencephalogram (EEG), as well as a theoretical model of motivation (Keller’s ARCS model) to evaluate six motivational strategies selected from a serious game called Food-Force. Results from nonparametric tests and logistic regressions supported the hypothesis that physiological patterns and their evolution are suitable tools to directly and reliably assess the effects of selected strategies on learners’ motivation. They showed that specific EEG “attention ratio” was a significant predictor of learners’ motivation and could relevantly evaluate motivational strategies, especially those associated with the Attention and Confidence categories of the ARCS model of motivation. Serious games and intelligent systems can greatly benefit from using these results to enhance and adapt their interventions.
       
  • Usability Testing for Serious Games: Making Informed Design Decisions with
           User Data
    • Abstract: Usability testing is a key step in the successful design of new technologies and tools, ensuring that heterogeneous populations will be able to interact easily with innovative applications. While usability testing methods of productivity tools (e.g., text editors, spreadsheets, or management tools) are varied, widely available, and valuable, analyzing the usability of games, especially educational “serious” games, presents unique usability challenges. Because games are fundamentally different than general productivity tools, “traditional” usability instruments valid for productivity applications may fall short when used for serious games. In this work we present a methodology especially designed to facilitate usability testing for serious games, taking into account the specific needs of such applications and resulting in a systematically produced list of suggested improvements from large amounts of recorded gameplay data. This methodology was applied to a case study for a medical educational game, MasterMed, intended to improve patients’ medication knowledge. We present the results from this methodology applied to MasterMed and a summary of the central lessons learned that are likely useful for researchers who aim to tune and improve their own serious games before releasing them for the general public.
       
  • Static and Dynamic User Portraits
    • Abstract: User modeling and profiling has been used to evaluate systems and predict user behaviors for a considerable time. Models and profiles are generally constructed based on studies of users’ behavior patterns, cognitive characteristics, or demographic data and provide an efficient way to present users’ preferences and interests. However, such modeling focuses on users’ interactions with a system and cannot support complicated social interaction, which is the emerging focus of serious games, educational hypermedia systems, experience, and service design. On the other hand, personas are used to portray and represent different groups and types of users and help designers propose suitable solutions in iterative design processes. However, clear guidelines and research approaches for developing useful personas for large-scale and complex social networks have not been well established. In this research, we reflect on three different design studies related to social interaction, experience, and cross-platform service design to discuss multiple ways of identifying both direct users and invisible users in design research. In addition, research methods and attributes to portray users are discussed.
       
  • A Game-Based Virtualized Reality Approach for Simultaneous Rehabilitation
           of Motor Skill and Confidence
    • Abstract: Virtualized reality games offer highly interactive and engaging user experience and therefore game-based approaches (GBVR) may have significant potential to enhance clinical rehabilitation practice as traditional therapeutic exercises are often repetitive and boring, reducing patient compliance. The aim of this study was to investigate if a rehabilitation training programme using GBVR could simultaneously improve both motor skill (MS) and confidence (CON), as they are both important determinants of daily living and physical and social functioning. The study was performed using a nondominant hand motor deficit model in nonambidextrous healthy young adults, whereby dominant and nondominant arms acted as control and intervention conditions, respectively. GBVR training was performed using a commercially available tennis-based game. CON and MS were assessed by having each subject perform a comparable real-world motor task (RWMT) before and after training. Baseline CON and MS for performing the RWMT were significantly lower for the nondominant hand and improved after GBVR training, whereas there were no changes in the dominant (control) arm. These results demonstrate that by using a GBVR approach to address a MS deficit in a real-world task, improvements in both MS and CON can be facilitated and such approaches may help increase patient compliance.
       
  • BCI Could Make Old Two-Player Games Even More Fun: A Proof of Concept with
           “Connect Four”
    • Abstract: We present a brain-computer interface (BCI) version of the famous “Connect Four”. Target selection is based on brain event-related responses measured with nine EEG sensors. Two players compete against each other using their brain activity only. Importantly, we turned the general difficulty of producing a reliable BCI command into an advantage, by extending the game play and rules, in a way that adds fun to the game and might well prove to trigger up motivation in future studies. The principle of this new BCI is directly inspired from our own implementation of the classical P300 Speller (Maby et al. 2010, Perrin et al. 2011). We here establish a proof of principle that the same electrophysiological markers can be used to design an efficient two-player game. Experimental evaluation on two competing healthy subjects yielded an average accuracy of 82%, which is in line with our previous results on many participants and demonstrates that the BCI “Connect Four” can effectively be controlled. Interestingly, the duration of the game is not significantly affected by the usual slowness of BCI commands. This suggests that this kind of BCI games could be of interest to healthy players as well as to disabled people who cannot play with classical games.
       
  • Objective and Subjective Evaluation of Online Error Correction during
           P300-Based Spelling
    • Abstract: Error potentials (ErrP) are alterations of EEG traces following the subject’s perception of erroneous feedbacks. They provide a way to recognize misinterpreted commands in brain-computer interfaces (BCI). However, this has been evaluated online in only a couple of studies and mostly with very few subjects. In this study, we implemented a P300-based BCI, including not only online error detection but also, for the first time, automatic correction. We evaluated it in 16 healthy volunteers. Whenever an error was detected, a new decision was made based on the second best guess of a probabilistic classifier. At the group level, correction did neither improve nor deteriorate spelling accuracy. However, automatic correction yielded a higher bit rate than a respelling strategy. Furthermore, the fine examination of interindividual differences in the efficiency of error correction and spelling clearly distinguished between two groups who differed according to individual specificity in ErrP detection. The high specificity group had larger evoked responses and made fewer errors which were corrected more efficiently, yielding a 4% improvement in spelling accuracy and a higher bit rate. Altogether, our results suggest that the more the subject is engaged into the task, the more useful and well accepted the automatic error correction.
       
  • Source Detection and Functional Connectivity of the Sensorimotor Cortex
           during Actual and Imaginary Limb Movement: A Preliminary Study on the
           Implementation of eConnectome in Motor Imagery Protocols
    • Abstract: Introduction. Sensorimotor cortex is activated similarly during motor execution and motor imagery. The study of functional connectivity networks (FCNs) aims at successfully modeling the dynamics of information flow between cortical areas. Materials and Methods. Seven healthy subjects performed 4 motor tasks (real foot, imaginary foot, real hand, and imaginary hand movements), while electroencephalography was recorded over the sensorimotor cortex. Event-Related Desynchronization/Synchronization (ERD/ERS) of the mu-rhythm was used to evaluate MI performance. Source detection and FCNs were studied with eConnectome. Results and Discussion. Four subjects produced similar ERD/ERS patterns between motor execution and imagery during both hand and foot tasks, 2 subjects only during hand tasks, and 1 subject only during foot tasks. All subjects showed the expected brain activation in well-performed MI tasks, facilitating cortical source estimation. Preliminary functional connectivity analysis shows formation of networks on the sensorimotor cortex during motor imagery and execution. Conclusions. Cortex activation maps depict sensorimotor cortex activation, while similar functional connectivity networks are formed in the sensorimotor cortex both during actual and imaginary movements. eConnectome is demonstrated as an effective tool for the study of cortex activation and FCN. The implementation of FCN in motor imagery could induce promising advancements in Brain Computer Interfaces.
       
  • A Combination of Pre- and Postprocessing Techniques to Enhance Self-Paced
           BCIs
    • Abstract: Mental task onset detection from the continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) in real time is a critical issue in self-paced brain computer interface (BCI) design. The paper shows that self-paced BCI performance can be significantly improved by combining a range of simple techniques including (1) constant-Q filters with varying bandwidth size depending on the center frequency, instead of constant bandwidth filters for frequency decomposition of the EEG signal in the 6 to 36 Hz band; (2) subject-specific postprocessing parameter optimization consisting of dwell time and threshold, and (3) debiasing before postprocessing by readjusting the classification output based on the current and previous brain states, to reduce the number of false detections. This debiasing block is shown to be optimal when activated only in special cases which are predetermined during the training phase. Analysis of the data recorded from seven subjects executing foot movement shows a statistically significant 10% () average improvement in true positive rate (TPR) and a 1% reduction in false positive rate (FPR) detections compared with previous work on the same data.
       
  • A Review of Hybrid Brain-Computer Interface Systems
    • Abstract: Increasing number of research activities and different types of studies in brain-computer interface (BCI) systems show potential in this young research area. Research teams have studied features of different data acquisition techniques, brain activity patterns, feature extraction techniques, methods of classifications, and many other aspects of a BCI system. However, conventional BCIs have not become totally applicable, due to the lack of high accuracy, reliability, low information transfer rate, and user acceptability. A new approach to create a more reliable BCI that takes advantage of each system is to combine two or more BCI systems with different brain activity patterns or different input signal sources. This type of BCI, called hybrid BCI, may reduce disadvantages of each conventional BCI system. In addition, hybrid BCIs may create more applications and possibly increase the accuracy and the information transfer rate. However, the type of BCIs and their combinations should be considered carefully. In this paper, after introducing several types of BCIs and their combinations, we review and discuss hybrid BCIs, different possibilities to combine them, and their advantages and disadvantages.
       
  • Assessment in and of Serious Games: An Overview
    • Abstract: There is a consensus that serious games have a significant potential as a tool for instruction. However, their effectiveness in terms of learning outcomes is still understudied mainly due to the complexity involved in assessing intangible measures. A systematic approach—based on established principles and guidelines—is necessary to enhance the design of serious games, and many studies lack a rigorous assessment. An important aspect in the evaluation of serious games, like other educational tools, is user performance assessment. This is an important area of exploration because serious games are intended to evaluate the learning progress as well as the outcomes. This also emphasizes the importance of providing appropriate feedback to the player. Moreover, performance assessment enables adaptivity and personalization to meet individual needs in various aspects, such as learning styles, information provision rates, feedback, and so forth. This paper first reviews related literature regarding the educational effectiveness of serious games. It then discusses how to assess the learning impact of serious games and methods for competence and skill assessment. Finally, it suggests two major directions for future research: characterization of the player’s activity and better integration of assessment in games.
       
  • Zoo U: A Stealth Approach to Social Skills Assessment in Schools
    • Abstract: This paper describes the design and evaluation of Zoo U, a novel computer game to assess children’s social skills development. Zoo U is an innovative product that combines theory-driven content and customized game mechanics. The game-like play creates the opportunity for stealth assessment, in which dynamic evidence of social skills is collected in real time and players’ choices during gameplay provide the needed data. To ensure the development of an engaging and valid game, we utilized an iterative data-driven validation process in which the game was created, tested, revised based on student performance and feedback, and retested until game play was statistically matched to independent ratings of social skills. We first investigated whether the data collected through extensive logging of student actions provided information that could be used to improve the assessment. We found that detailed game logs of socially relevant player behavior combined with external measures of player social skills provided an efficient vector to incrementally improve the accuracy of the embedded assessments. Next, we investigated whether the game performance correlated with teachers’ assessments of students’ social skills competencies. An evaluation of the final game showed (a) significant correlations between in-game social skills assessments and independently obtained standard psychological assessments of the same students and (b) high levels of engagement and likeability for students. These findings support the use of the interactive and engaging computer game format for the stealth assessment of children’s social skills. The created innovative design methodologies should prove useful in the design and improvement of computer games in education.
       
  • Affect Detection from Text-Based Virtual Improvisation and Emotional
           Gesture Recognition
    • Abstract: We have developed an intelligent agent to engage with users in virtual drama improvisation previously. The intelligent agent was able to perform sentence-level affect detection from user inputs with strong emotional indicators. However, we noticed that many inputs with weak or no affect indicators also contain emotional implication but were regarded as neutral expressions by the previous interpretation. In this paper, we employ latent semantic analysis to perform topic theme detection and identify target audiences for such inputs. We also discuss how such semantic interpretation of the dialog contexts is used to interpret affect more appropriately during virtual improvisation. Also, in order to build a reliable affect analyser, it is important to detect and combine weak affect indicators from other channels such as body language. Such emotional body language detection also provides a nonintrusive channel to detect users’ experience without interfering with the primary task. Thus, we also make initial exploration on affect detection from several universally accepted emotional gestures.
       
  • Interactive Language Learning through Speech-Enabled Virtual Scenarios
    • Abstract: This paper describes the evaluation of an educational game designed to give learners of foreign languages the opportunity to practice their spoken language skills. Within the speech interactive Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) program, scenarios are presented in which learners interact with virtual characters in the target language using speech recognition technology. Two types of interactive scenarios with virtual characters are presented as part of the game: the one-to-one scenarios which take the form of practice question and answer scenarios where the learner interacts with one virtual character and the interactive scenario which is an immersive contextualised scenario where the learner interacts with two or more virtual characters within the scene to complete a (task-based) communicative goal. The study presented here compares learners’ subjective attitudes towards the different scenarios. In addition, the study investigates the performance of the speech recognition component in this game. Forty-eight students of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) took part in the evaluation. Results indicate that learners’ subjective ratings for the contextualised interactive scenario are higher than for the one-to-one, practice scenarios. In addition, recognition performance was better for these interactive scenarios.
       
  • Improving Interactions between a Power-Assist Robot System and Its Human
           User in Horizontal Transfer of Objects Using a Novel Adaptive Control
           Method
    • Abstract: Power assist systems are usually used for rehabilitation, healthcare, and so forth.This paper puts emphasis on the use of power assist systems for object transfer and thus brings a novelty in the power-assist applications. However, the interactions between the systems and the human users are usually not satisfactory because human features are not included in the control design. In this paper, we present the development of a 1-DOF power assist system for horizontal transfer of objects. We included human features such as weight perception in the system dynamics and control. We then simulated the system using MATLAB/Simulink for transferring objects with it and (i) determined the optimum maneuverability conditions for object transfer, (ii) determined psychophysical relationships between actual and perceived weights, and (iii) analyzed load forces and motion features. We then used the findings to design a novel adaptive control scheme to improve the interactions between the user and the system. We implemented the novel control (simulated the system again using the novel control), the subjects evaluated the system, and the results showed that the novel control reduced the excessive load forces and accelerations and thus improved the human-system interactions in terms of maneuverability, safety, and so forth. Finally, we proposed to use the findings to develop power assist systems for manipulating heavy objects in industries that may improve interactions between the systems and the users.
       
 
 
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