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HEALTH AND SAFETY (509 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 176)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription  
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Policy and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Professions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Health Sciences Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Health Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Healthcare Delivery Reform Initiatives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover American Journal of Preventive Medicine
  [SJR: 2.764]   [H-I: 154]   [21 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0749-3797
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3030 journals]
  • A Trial of Financial and Social Incentives to Increase Older Adults’
    • Authors: Kristin A. Harkins; Jeffrey T. Kullgren; Scarlett L. Bellamy; Jason Karlawish; Karen Glanz
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 5
      Author(s): Kristin A. Harkins, Jeffrey T. Kullgren, Scarlett L. Bellamy, Jason Karlawish, Karen Glanz
      Introduction Despite evidence that regular physical activity confers health benefits, physical activity rates among older adults remain low. Both personal and social goals may enhance older adults’ motivation to become active. This study tested the effects of financial incentives, donations to charity, and the combined effects of both interventions on older adults’ uptake and retention of increased levels of walking. Study design RCT comparing three interventions to control. Data collection occurred from 2012 to 2013. Analyses were conducted in 2013–2016. Participants Ninety-four adults aged ≥65 years from Philadelphia-area retirement communities. Intervention All participants received digital pedometers, walking goals of a 50% increase in daily steps, and weekly feedback on goal attainment. Participants were randomized to one of four groups: (1) Control: received weekly feedback only; (2) Financial Incentives: received payment of $20 each week walking goals were met; (3) Social Goals: received donation of $20 to a charity of choice each week walking goals were met; and (4) Combined: received $20 each week walking goals were met that could be received by participant, donated to a charity of choice, or divided between the participant and charity. Main outcome measures Mean proportion of days walking goals were met during the 16-week intervention and 4-week follow-up period. Results After adjusting for baseline walking, the proportion of days step goals were met during the 16-week intervention period was higher in all intervention groups versus controls (relative risk, 3.71; 95% CI=1.37, 10.01). During the 4-week follow up period, the proportion of days step goals were met did not differ in intervention groups compared to control (relative risk, 2.91; 95% CI=0.62, 13.64). Conclusions Incentive schemes that use donations to a charity of choice, personal financial incentives, or a combination of the two can each increase older adults’ initial uptake of increased levels of walking. Trial Registration This study is registered at NCT01643538.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:11:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.11.011
  • The Role of Gender and Physical Performance on Injuries: An Army Study
    • Authors: Morgan K. Anderson; Tyson Grier; Esther O. Dada; Michelle Canham-Chervak; Bruce H. Jones
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 5
      Author(s): Morgan K. Anderson, Tyson Grier, Esther O. Dada, Michelle Canham-Chervak, Bruce H. Jones
      Introduction In basic combat training, women experience twice as many injuries as men; however, evidence at the operational Army level is limited. This study aims to investigate the association between gender and injury likelihood while controlling for certain confounding factors in the operational Army. Methods Data were analyzed in 2015 from a cross-sectional study utilizing data from a 2010–2011 survey of light infantry Army Soldiers. Gender, age, body fat, tobacco use, Army Physical Fitness Test (2-mile run, push-ups, and sit-ups), occupational physical demand, and injury data were obtained via paper survey. ORs and 95% CIs from a multivariable analysis were calculated. Results Surveys were completed by 4,384 male and 363 female Soldiers. Injury incidence was 42% for men and 53% for women. After adjusting for the aforementioned variables, injury likelihood was higher in Soldiers aged ≥27 years (OR [age 27–29/22–26 years]=1.26, 95% CI=1.07, 1.48; OR [age ≥30/22–26 years]=1.28, 95% CI=1.08, 1.51), Soldiers with body fat ≥23.38% (OR [body fat ≥23.38%/≤19.28%]=1.30, 95% CI=1.08, 1.57), and Soldiers with the slowest 2-mile run times (OR [≥15.68/≤14.13 minutes]=1.53, 95% CI=1.26, 1.85). Women were no more likely than men to sustain an injury. Conclusions When accounting for age, body fat, physical performance, and occupational physical demand, there was no gender difference in the likelihood of injury among Soldiers. Although women, on average, have lower aerobic and muscular performance than men, results suggest men and women of similar physical performance experience similar injury likelihood.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:11:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.11.012
  • Influence of the Flavored Cigarette Ban on Adolescent Tobacco Use
    • Authors: Charles J. Courtemanche; Makayla K. Palmer; Michael F. Pesko
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 5
      Author(s): Charles J. Courtemanche, Makayla K. Palmer, Michael F. Pesko
      Introduction This paper estimated the association between the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s 2009 ban on flavored cigarettes (which did not apply to menthol cigarettes or tobacco products besides cigarettes) and adolescents’ tobacco use. Methods Regression modeling was used to evaluate tobacco use before and after the ban. The analyses controlled for a quadratic time trend, demographic variables, prices of cigarettes and other tobacco products, and teenage unemployment rate. Data from the 1999–2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys were collected and analyzed in 2016. The sample included 197,834 middle and high schoolers. Outcomes were past 30–day cigarette use; cigarettes smoked in the past 30 days among smokers; rate of menthol cigarette use among smokers; and past 30–day use of cigars, smokeless tobacco, pipes, any tobacco products besides cigarettes, and any tobacco products including cigarettes. Results Banning flavored cigarettes was associated with reductions in the probability of being a cigarette smoker (17%, p<0.001) and cigarettes smoked by smokers (58%, p=0.005). However, the ban was positively associated with the use by smokers of menthol cigarettes (45%, p<0.001), cigars (34%, p<0.001), and pipes (55%, p<0.001), implying substitution toward the remaining legal flavored tobacco products. Despite increases in some forms of tobacco, overall there was a 6% (p<0.001) reduction in the probability of using any tobacco. Conclusions The results suggest the 2009 flavored cigarette ban did achieve its objective of reducing adolescent tobacco use, but effects were likely diminished by the continued availability of menthol cigarettes and other flavored tobacco products.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:11:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.11.019
  • Cost Effectiveness of Subsidizing Fruit and Vegetable Purchases Through
           the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
    • Authors: Sung Eun Choi; Hilary Seligman; Sanjay Basu
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 5
      Author(s): Sung Eun Choi, Hilary Seligman, Sanjay Basu
      Introduction A diet high in fruits and vegetables (FV) is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease. One strategy to incentivize FV consumption among low-income households is to make them more affordable through the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). This study aims to identify the cost effectiveness of subsidizing FV purchases among the one in seven Americans who participate in SNAP. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted from a societal perspective to estimate lifetime costs and health gains associated with subsidizing FV purchases. A stochastic microsimulation model of obesity, type 2 diabetes, myocardial infarction, and stroke in the 2015 U.S. population was used. Model parameters were based on nationally representative SNAP participation and dietary consumption data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003–2012), and data from a randomized trial of FV subsidies among SNAP users. Results Despite cycling of participants in and out of SNAP, expanding an FV subsidy nationwide through SNAP would be expected to reduce incidence of type 2 diabetes by 1.7% (95% CI=1.2, 2.2), myocardial infarction by 1.4% (95% CI=0.9, 1.9), stroke by 1.2% (95% CI=0.8, 1.6), and obesity by 0.2% (95% CI=0.1, 0.3), and be cost saving from a societal perspective. The saved costs would be largely attributable to long-term reductions in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Conclusions The model suggests nationwide SNAP FV subsidies would reduce chronic disease morbidity, mortality, and costs over long time horizons that are unlikely to be observed in short-term community-based trials.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:11:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.12.013
  • Non-routine Discharge From Military Service: Mental Illness, Substance Use
           Disorders, and Suicidality
    • Authors: Emily Brignone; Jamison D. Fargo; Rebecca K. Blais; Marjorie E. Carter; Matthew H. Samore; Adi V. Gundlapalli
      Pages: 557 - 565
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 5
      Author(s): Emily Brignone, Jamison D. Fargo, Rebecca K. Blais, Marjorie E. Carter, Matthew H. Samore, Adi V. Gundlapalli
      Introduction Mental illness and substance use disorders among newly returned military service members pose challenges to successful reintegration into civilian life and, in extreme cases, may lead to outcomes such as incarceration, homelessness, and suicide. One potential early indicator for these difficulties is non-routine discharge from military service. Methods Using data from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) for 443,360 active duty service Veterans who deployed to Afghanistan and Iraq and subsequently utilized VHA services between Fiscal Years 2004 and 2013, this study examined risk for receiving a VHA-documented diagnosis of mental illness, substance use disorders, and suicidality as a function of discharge type, controlling for demographic and military service covariates. Analyses were conducted in 2016. Results In total, 126,314 Veterans (28.5%) had a non-routine military service discharge. Compared with routinely discharged Veterans, odds for nearly all diagnostic outcomes were significantly greater among Veterans discharged for disqualification or misconduct, including personality disorders (AOR=9.21 and 3.29, respectively); bipolar/psychotic disorders (AOR=3.98 and 3.40); alcohol/substance use disorders (AOR=1.55 and 4.42); and suicidal ideation and behaviors (AOR=2.81 and 2.77). Disability-discharged Veterans had significantly higher odds for diagnoses of anxiety disorders (AOR=1.97) and bipolar/psychotic disorders (AOR=3.93). Conclusions Non-routine service discharge strongly predicts VHA-diagnosed mental illness, substance use disorders, and suicidality, with particularly elevated risk among Veterans discharged for disqualification or misconduct. Results emphasize the importance of discharge type as an early marker of adverse post-discharge outcomes, and suggest a need for targeted prevention and intervention efforts to improve reintegration outcomes among this vulnerable subpopulation.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:11:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.11.015
  • RCT Testing Bystander Effectiveness to Reduce Violence
    • Authors: Ann L. Coker; Heather M. Bush; Patricia G. Cook-Craig; Sarah A. DeGue; Emily R. Clear; Candace J. Brancato; Bonnie S. Fisher; Eileen A. Recktenwald
      Pages: 566 - 578
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 5
      Author(s): Ann L. Coker, Heather M. Bush, Patricia G. Cook-Craig, Sarah A. DeGue, Emily R. Clear, Candace J. Brancato, Bonnie S. Fisher, Eileen A. Recktenwald
      Introduction Bystander-based programs have shown promise to reduce interpersonal violence at colleges, yet limited rigorous evaluations have addressed bystander intervention effectiveness in high schools. This study evaluated the Green Dot bystander intervention to reduce sexual violence and related forms of interpersonal violence in 26 high schools over 5 years. Design A cluster RCT was conducted. Setting/participants Kentucky high schools were randomized to intervention or control (wait list) conditions. Intervention Green Dot−trained educators conducted schoolwide presentations and recruited student popular opinion leaders to receive bystander training in intervention schools beginning in Year 1. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was sexual violence perpetration, and related forms of interpersonal violence victimization and perpetration were also measured using anonymous student surveys collected at baseline and annually from 2010 to 2014. Because the school was the unit of analysis, violence measures were aggregated by school and year and school-level counts were provided. Results A total of 89,707 students completed surveys. The primary, as randomized, analyses conducted in 2014–2016 included linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations to examine the condition−time interaction on violence outcomes. Slopes of school-level totals of sexual violence perpetration (condition−time, p<0.001) and victimization (condition−time, p<0.001) were different over time. During Years 3–4, when Green Dot was fully implemented, the mean number of sexual violent events prevented by the intervention was 120 in Intervention Year 3 and 88 in Year 4. For Year 3, prevalence rate ratios for sexual violence perpetration in the intervention relative to control schools were 0.83 (95% CI=0.70, 0.99) in Year 3 and 0.79 (95% CI=0.67, 0.94) in Year 4. Similar patterns were observed for sexual violence victimization, sexual harassment, stalking, and dating violence perpetration and victimization. Conclusions Implementation of Green Dot in Kentucky high schools significantly decreased not only sexual violence perpetration but also other forms of interpersonal violence perpetration and victimization.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:11:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.01.020
  • Effect of Relocation to the U.S. on Asthma Risk Among Hispanics
    • Authors: Elina Jerschow; Garrett Strizich; Xiaonan Xue; Golda Hudes; Simon Spivack; Victoria Persky; Guadalupe X. Ayala; Alan Delamater; Youngmee Kim; Erin Etzel; Jianwen Cai; Robert C. Kaplan
      Pages: 579 - 588
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 5
      Author(s): Elina Jerschow, Garrett Strizich, Xiaonan Xue, Golda Hudes, Simon Spivack, Victoria Persky, Guadalupe X. Ayala, Alan Delamater, Youngmee Kim, Erin Etzel, Jianwen Cai, Robert C. Kaplan
      Introduction Asthma prevalence is reportedly higher among U.S.-born relative to foreign-born Hispanics/Latinos. Little is known about rates of asthma onset before and after relocation to the U.S. in Latinos. Asthma rates were examined by U.S. residence and country/territory of origin. Methods In 2015–2016, age at first onset of asthma symptoms was analyzed, defined retrospectively from a cross-sectional survey in 2008–2011, in relation to birthplace and U.S. residence among 15,573 U.S.-dwelling participants (aged 18–76 years) in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Results Cumulative incidence of asthma through age 30 years ranged from 7.9% among Mexican background individuals to 29.4% among those of Puerto Rican background. Among those born outside the U.S. mainland, the adjusted hazard for asthma was 1.52-fold higher (95% CI=1.25, 1.85) after relocation versus before relocation to the U.S. mainland, with heterogeneity in this association by Hispanic/Latino background (p-interaction<0.0001). Among foreign-born Dominicans and Mexicans, rates of asthma were greater after relocation versus before relocation (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] for after versus before relocation, 2.42, 95% CI=1.44, 4.05 among Dominicans; AHR=2.90, 95% CI=2.02, 4.16 among Mexicans). Puerto Ricans had modestly increased asthma onset associated with U.S. mainland residence (AHR=1.52, 95% CI=1.06, 2.17). No similar increase associated with U.S. residence was observed among Central/South American immigrants (AHR=0.94, 95% CI=0.53, 1.67). Asthma rates among Cuban immigrants were lower after relocation (AHR=0.45, 95% CI=0.24, 0.82). Conclusions The effect of relocation to the U.S. on asthma risk among Hispanics is not uniform across Hispanic/Latino groups.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:11:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.12.018
  • Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening After CARES: A Community Program for
           Immigrant and Marginalized Women
    • Authors: Sheila F. Dunn; Aisha K. Lofters; Ophira M. Ginsburg; Christopher A. Meaney; Farah Ahmad; M. Catherine Moravac; Cam Tu Janet Nguyen; Angela M. Arisz
      Pages: 589 - 597
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 5
      Author(s): Sheila F. Dunn, Aisha K. Lofters, Ophira M. Ginsburg, Christopher A. Meaney, Farah Ahmad, M. Catherine Moravac, Cam Tu Janet Nguyen, Angela M. Arisz
      Introduction Marginalized populations such as immigrants and refugees are less likely to receive cancer screening. Cancer Awareness: Ready for Education and Screening (CARES), a multifaceted community-based program in Toronto, Canada, aimed to improve breast and cervical screening among marginalized women. This matched cohort study assessed the impact of CARES on cervical and mammography screening among under-screened/never screened (UNS) attendees. Methods Provincial administrative data collected from 1998 to 2014 and provided in 2015 were used to match CARES participants who were age eligible for screening to three controls matched for age, geography, and pre-education screening status. Dates of post-education Pap and mammography screening up to June 30, 2014 were determined. Analysis in 2016 compared screening uptake and time to screening for UNS participants and controls. Results From May 15, 2012 to October 31, 2013, a total of 1,993 women attended 145 educational sessions provided in 20 languages. Thirty-five percent (118/331) and 48% (99/206) of CARES participants who were age eligible for Pap and mammography, respectively, were UNS on the education date. Subsequently, 26% and 36% had Pap and mammography, respectively, versus 9% and 14% of UNS controls. ORs for screening within 8 months of follow-up among UNS CARES participants versus their matched controls were 5.1 (95% CI=2.4, 10.9) for Pap and 4.2 (95%=CI 2.3, 7.8) for mammography. Hazard ratios for Pap and mammography were 3.6 (95% CI=2.1, 6.1) and 3.2 (95% CI=2.0, 5.3), respectively. Conclusions CARES’ multifaceted intervention was successful in increasing Pap and mammography screening in this multiethnic under-screened population.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:11:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.11.023
  • Trends in Automobile Travel, Motor Vehicle Fatalities, and Physical
           Activity: 2003−2015
    • Authors: Noreen C. McDonald
      Pages: 598 - 605
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 5
      Author(s): Noreen C. McDonald
      Introduction Annual per-capita automobile travel declined by 600 miles from 2003 to 2014 with decreases greatest among young adults. This article tests whether the decline has been accompanied by public health co-benefits of increased physical activity and decreased motor vehicle fatalities. Methods Minutes of auto travel and physical activity derived from active travel, sports, and exercise were obtained from the American Time Use Survey. Fatalities were measured using the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Longitudinal change was assessed for adults aged 20–59 years by age group and sex. Significance of changes was assessed by absolute differences and unadjusted and adjusted linear trends. Analyses were conducted in 2016. Results Daily auto travel decreased by 9.2 minutes from 2003 to 2014 for all ages (p<0.001) with the largest decrease among men aged 20–29 years (Δ= −21.7, p<0.001). No significant changes were observed in total minutes of physical activity. Motor vehicle occupant fatalities per 100,000 population showed significant declines for all ages (Δ=−5.8, p<0.001) with the largest for young men (Δ= −15.3, p<0.001). Fatalities per million minutes of auto travel showed only modest declines across age groups and, for men aged 20–29 years, varied from 10.9 (95% CI=10.0, 11.7) in 2003 to 9.7 (95% CI=8.7, 10.8) in 2014. Conclusions Reduced motor vehicle fatalities are a public health co-benefit of decreased driving, especially for male millennials. Despite suggestions to the contrary, individuals did not switch from cars to active modes nor spend more time in sports and exercise. Maintenance of the safety benefits requires additional attention to road safety efforts, particularly as auto travel increases.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:11:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.12.012
  • The Longitudinal Impact of an Internet Safety Decision Aid for Abused
    • Authors: Nancy E. Glass; Nancy A. Perrin; Ginger C. Hanson; Tina L. Bloom; Jill T. Messing; Amber S. Clough; Jacquelyn C. Campbell; Andrea C. Gielen; James Case; Karen B. Eden
      Pages: 606 - 615
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 5
      Author(s): Nancy E. Glass, Nancy A. Perrin, Ginger C. Hanson, Tina L. Bloom, Jill T. Messing, Amber S. Clough, Jacquelyn C. Campbell, Andrea C. Gielen, James Case, Karen B. Eden
      Introduction Women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) navigate complex, dangerous decisions. Tailored safety information and safety planning, typically provided by domestic violence service providers, can prevent repeat IPV exposure and associated adverse health outcomes; however, few abused women access these services. The Internet represents a potentially innovative way to connect abused women with tailored safety planning resources and information. The purpose of this study was to compare safety and mental health outcomes at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months among abused women randomized to: (1) a tailored, Internet-based safety decision aid; or (2) control website (typical safety information available online). Design Multistate, community-based longitudinal RCT with one-to-one allocation ratio and blocked randomization. Data were collected March 2011–May 2013 and analyzed June–July 2015. Setting/participants Currently abused Spanish- or English-speaking women (N=720). Intervention A tailored Internet-based safety decision aid included priority-setting activities, risk assessment, and tailored feedback and safety plans. A control website offered typical safety information available online. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes were decisional conflict, safety behaviors, and repeat IPV; secondary outcomes included depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Results At 12 months, there were no significant group differences in IPV, depression, or post-traumatic stress disorder. Intervention women experienced significantly less decisional conflict after one use (β= –2.68, p=0.042) and greater increase in safety behaviors they rated as helpful from baseline to 12 months (12% vs 9%, p=0.033) and were more likely to have left the abuser (63% vs 53%, p=0.008). Women who left had higher baseline risk (14.9 vs 13.1, p=0.003) found more of the safety behaviors they tried helpful (61.1% vs 47.5%, p<0.001), and had greater reductions in psychological IPV ((11.69 vs 7.5, p=0.001) and sexual IPV (2.41 vs 1.25, p=0.001) than women who stayed. Conclusions Internet-based safety planning represents a promising tool to reduce the public health impact of IPV.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:11:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.12.014
  • Cooking at Home: A Strategy to Comply With U.S. Dietary Guidelines at No
           Extra Cost
    • Authors: Arpita Tiwari; Anju Aggarwal; Wesley Tang; Adam Drewnowski
      Pages: 616 - 624
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 5
      Author(s): Arpita Tiwari, Anju Aggarwal, Wesley Tang, Adam Drewnowski
      Introduction Cooking at home is associated with better diet quality. This study examined the frequency of home-cooked dinners versus eating out in relation to the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), and food expenditures. Methods The Seattle Obesity Study used a stratified random sample of 437 King County adults. In-person computer-assisted interviews collected sociodemographic and behavioral data during 2011–2013. HEI-2010 and 2005 were computed using Food Frequency Questionnaires. Multivariable regression analyses, conducted in 2015, examined associations among HEI scores, food expenditures, and frequency of cooking at home versus eating out variables. Results Frequent home-cooked dinners were associated with being married, unemployed, larger households, presence of children aged <12 years, and lower frequency of eating out, but unrelated to education or income. In adjusted models, frequent at-home cooking was associated with higher HEI-2010 (β=7.4, p<0.001), whereas frequent eating out was associated with lower HEI-2010 (β= –6.6, p<0.001). Frequent home cooking was linked with reduced per capita food expenditures overall ($330/month among low vs $273/month among high cooking group, p<0.001), and reduced away-from-home expenditures ($133 and $65, respectively), without any significant increase in at-home food expenditures. However, frequent eating out was associated with significantly higher per capita food expenditures overall ($261 in low vs $364 among high eating out group, p=0.001), and higher away-from-home expenditures. Conclusions Home-cooked dinners were associated with greater dietary guideline compliance, without significant increase in food expenditures. By contrast, frequent eating out was associated with higher expenditures and lower compliance. Home cooking may be a component of nutrition resilience.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:11:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.01.017
  • Hepatitis C Antibody Testing in a Commercially Insured Population,
    • Authors: Cheryl J. Isenhour; Susan H. Hariri; Craig M. Hales; Claudia J. Vellozzi
      Pages: 625 - 631
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 5
      Author(s): Cheryl J. Isenhour, Susan H. Hariri, Craig M. Hales, Claudia J. Vellozzi
      Introduction In the U.S., the burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and associated sequelae is substantial. HCV prevalence is highest among those born in 1945–1965 (Birth Cohort). Newly diagnosed infections are increasing in younger people concurrent with rising opioid/heroin use. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012) and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (2013) recommend HCV testing for at-risk individuals and one-time testing for the Birth Cohort. This study describes national trends in HCV antibody testing from 2005 to 2014. Methods Using commercial and Medicare supplemental insurance claims data, people were identified who were continuously enrolled for ≥2 years during the 10-year study period, without prior HCV diagnosis (N=190,926,299). Current Procedural Terminology codes identified 3,382,267 unique antibody tests. Temporal trends in annual testing were evaluated using the Cochran–Armitage test, and primary ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes used at the time of testing were described. Data were analyzed in 2015 and 2016. Results Testing was highest among those aged 18–29 and 30–39 years, increasing by 123% (1.66% to 3.71%) and 108% (1.99% to 4.13%), respectively (p<0.0001). Among the Birth Cohort, there was a 136% increase in HCV antibody testing from 2005 to 2014, with a 91% increase from 1.71% in 2011 to 3.26% 2014 (p<0.0001). Conclusions Although the increased HCV antibody testing observed among the Birth Cohort from 2011 to 2014 likely reflects early adoption of updated national testing recommendations, overall testing remains low in this commercially insured population, indicating a clear need for improvement.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:11:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.12.016
  • Association of Bacterial Vaginosis With Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Among
           Women in the U.S. Army
    • Authors: Christian T. Bautista; Eyako K. Wurapa; Warren B. Sateren; Sara M. Morris; Bruce P. Hollingsworth; Jose L. Sanchez
      Pages: 632 - 639
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 5
      Author(s): Christian T. Bautista, Eyako K. Wurapa, Warren B. Sateren, Sara M. Morris, Bruce P. Hollingsworth, Jose L. Sanchez
      Introduction Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal condition in women of reproductive age, which has been associated with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among commercial sex workers and women attending sexually transmitted infection clinics. Pathogen-specific associations between BV and other sexually transmitted infections among U.S. military women have not been investigated. Methods A population-based, nested case-control study was conducted of all incident chlamydia and gonorrhea cases reported to the Defense Medical Surveillance System during 2006−2012. Using a density sampling approach, for each chlamydia or gonorrhea case, 10 age-matched (±1 year) controls were randomly selected from those women who were never diagnosed with these infections. Incidence rate ratios were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Statistical analysis was carried out in December 2015. Results A total of 37,149 chlamydia cases and 4,987 gonorrhea cases were identified during the study period. Antecedent BV was associated with an increased risk of subsequent chlamydia (adjusted incidence rate ratio=1.51; 95% CI=1.47, 1.55) and gonorrhea (adjusted incidence rate ratio=2.42; 95% CI=2.27, 2.57) infections. For every one additional episode of BV, the risk of acquiring chlamydia and gonorrhea infections increased by 13% and 26%, respectively. A monotonic dose−response relationship was also noted between antecedent BV and subsequent chlamydia and gonorrhea infection. In addition, an effect modification on the additive scale was found between BV and African-American race for gonorrhea, but not for chlamydia. Conclusions Among U.S. Army women, antecedent BV is associated with an increased risk of subsequent chlamydia and gonorrhea infection.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:11:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.09.016
  • Put the Family Back in Family Health History: A Multiple-Informant
    • Authors: Jielu Lin; Christopher S. Marcum; Melanie F. Myers; Laura M. Koehly
      Pages: 640 - 644
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 5
      Author(s): Jielu Lin, Christopher S. Marcum, Melanie F. Myers, Laura M. Koehly
      Introduction An accurate family health history is essential for individual risk assessment. This study uses a multiple-informant approach to examine whether family members have consistent perceptions of shared familial risk for four common chronic conditions (heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, and hypertension) and whether accounting for inconsistency in family health history reports leads to more accurate risk assessment. Methods In 2012–2013, individual and family health histories were collected from 127 adult informants of 45 families in the Greater Cincinnati Area. Pedigrees were linked within each family to assess inter-informant (in)consistency regarding common biological family member’s health history. An adjusted risk assessment based on pooled pedigrees of multiple informants was evaluated to determine whether it could more accurately identify individuals affected by common chronic conditions, using self-reported disease diagnoses as a validation criterion. Analysis was completed in 2015–2016. Results Inter-informant consistency in family health history reports was 54% for heart disease, 61% for Type 2 diabetes, 43% for high cholesterol, and 41% for hypertension. Compared with the unadjusted risk assessment, the adjusted risk assessment correctly identified an additional 7%–13% of the individuals who had been diagnosed, with a ≤2% increase in cases that were predicted to be at risk but had not been diagnosed. Conclusions Considerable inconsistency exists in individual knowledge of their family health history. Accounting for such inconsistency can, nevertheless, lead to a more accurate genetic risk assessment tool. A multiple-informant approach is potentially powerful when coupled with technology to support clinical decisions.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:11:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.11.018
  • Dental Disparities and Psychological Distress Among Mobility-Impaired
    • Authors: Astha Singhal; Belinda Borrelli
      Pages: 645 - 652
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 5
      Author(s): Astha Singhal, Belinda Borrelli
      Introduction More than one in five American adults has a disability, the most common being mobility impairment (MI). People with MI face significant barriers to healthcare access and are more likely to experience psychological distress. This study examined disparities in access to medical and dental care among people with MI and examine the mediational role of psychological distress on this relationship. Methods Analyses were conducted on 36,697 adults (aged ≥18 years) responding to the 2014 National Health Interview Survey (analyzed in 2015). MI was defined as needing special equipment and having difficulty walking a quarter mile without equipment. Outcomes included having lost all natural teeth (edentulous), unmet dental needs, annual dental visit, and annual medical visit. Psychological distress was measured using the Kessler psychological distress (K6) scale. Results Compared with adults without MI, adults with MI had greater odds of being edentulous (OR=2.10, 95% CI=1.82, 2.43), having unmet dental needs (OR=1.99, 95% CI=1.66, 2.40), and lower odds of having annual dental visits (OR=0.62, 95% CI=0.54, 0.71). However, adults with MI were significantly more likely to have annual medical visits (OR=2.31, 95% CI=1.90, 2.81) than adults without MI. Psychological distress partially, yet significantly, mediated the relationship between MI and outcomes. Conclusions People with MI have significant oral health needs and poor access to dental care, which are partially mediated by psychological distress. Results suggest that mental health services should be considered for inclusion in interventions and medical visits can be leveraged to improve oral health outcomes in this population.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:11:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.10.025
  • Domain-Specific Physical Activity and Mental Health: A Meta-analysis
    • Authors: Rhiannon Lee White; Mark J. Babic; Philip D. Parker; David R. Lubans; Thomas Astell-Burt; Chris Lonsdale
      Pages: 653 - 666
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 5
      Author(s): Rhiannon Lee White, Mark J. Babic, Philip D. Parker, David R. Lubans, Thomas Astell-Burt, Chris Lonsdale
      Context The mental health benefits of physical activity are well established. However, less is known about whether the relationship between physical activity and mental health is consistent across different life domains. It is important to understand how context may influence the relationship between physical activity and mental health so that interventions and policy guidelines can be tailored to maximize positive effects. Evidence acquisition In 2015, systematic searches of four databases identified 13,435 records, of which 98 studies met the inclusion criteria. Evidence synthesis Included studies were published between 1988 and 2015 and had a combined sample size of 648,726. Of the 98 included studies, 93 examined leisure-time physical activity, 14 examined work-related physical activity, 15 examined transport physical activity, 16 examined household physical activity, three examined school sport, and three examined physical education. Multi-level meta-analyses showed that leisure-time physical activity (r =0.13) and transport physical activity (r =0.13) both had a positive association with mental health. Leisure-time physical activity (r = –0.11) and school sport (r = –0.09) both had an inverse association with mental ill-health. However, physical activity was not consistently associated with lower mental ill-health across domains, as work-related physical activity was positively associated with mental ill-health (r =0.09). Household physical activity and participation in physical education had no relationship with mental health or mental ill-health. Conclusions The domain in which physical activity occurs influences the relationship between physical activity and mental health and should, therefore, be considered when developing interventions, treatment programs, and policy guidelines.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:11:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.12.008
  • Ongoing Implementation Challenges to the Patient Protection and Affordable
           Care Act’s Contraceptive Mandate
    • Authors: Kelli Stidham Hall; Melissa Kottke; Vanessa K. Dalton; Carol R. Hogue
      Pages: 667 - 670
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 5
      Author(s): Kelli Stidham Hall, Melissa Kottke, Vanessa K. Dalton, Carol R. Hogue

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:11:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.10.014
  • Association Among Father Involvement, Partner Violence, and Paternal
           Health: UN Multi-Country Cross-Sectional Study on Men and Violence
    • Authors: Ko Ling Chan; Clifton R. Emery; Emma Fulu; Richard M. Tolman; Patrick Ip
      Pages: 671 - 679
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 5
      Author(s): Ko Ling Chan, Clifton R. Emery, Emma Fulu, Richard M. Tolman, Patrick Ip
      Introduction The influence of father involvement on intimate partner violence (IPV) and men’s health is poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of six aspects of father involvement in delivery and child care, and to explore their individual associations with IPV against women and paternal health in an Asia-Pacific context. Methods This study analyzed data from the 2011–2012 UN Multi-Country Cross-Sectional Study on Men and Violence, which surveyed >10,000 men from Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and Sri Lanka. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted in 2016 to examine the associations among father involvement, IPV, and paternal health. Results The sample comprised 6,184 men (aged 18–49 years) who had at least one child. The prevalence ranged from 40.0% to 62.9% across different aspects of father involvement. Presence at prenatal visits, taking paternity leave, and helping children with homework were associated with a reduced likelihood of IPV against women (all p<0.05). When possible confounding factors were adjusted for, father involvement accounted for 2% of the variance of men’s perceived health, 4% of depression, and 2% of life satisfaction (all p<0.05). Conclusions Father involvement may be beneficial in reducing IPV and improving paternal health. More family-friendly policies should be adopted by policymakers to promote father involvement throughout pregnancy to improve family well-being and child development.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:11:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.12.017
  • Parental Expectations and Child Screen and Academic Sedentary Behaviors in
    • Authors: Miao Li; Hong Xue; Weidong Wang; Youfa Wang
      Pages: 680 - 689
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 5
      Author(s): Miao Li, Hong Xue, Weidong Wang, Youfa Wang
      Introduction This study examined sociodemographic patterns of parental expectations for academic performance, terminal degree, and future occupation for middle school students in China, and how these expectations influence students’ screen-based and academic-related sedentary behaviors through parenting control practices. Methods Based on data collected in 2013–2014 from 19,487 Chinese middle school students, bivariate logistic regressions tested associations between sociodemographic variables and parental expectations; structural equation models tested associations between parental expectations and students’ self-reported daily time on TV/Internet/homework, with parental controls as potential mediators. Analyses were performed in October 2015. Results Chinese students spent 0.96 (SD=1.44) hours/day on TV, 0.56 (SD=1.20) on Internet use, and 2.79 (SD=2.07) on homework. Girls spent more hours/day on homework (2.98 [SD=2.07] vs 2.62 [SD=2.04]) than boys but less on TV (0.90 [SD=1.37] vs 1.02 [SD=1.50]) and Internet (0.42 [SD=0.98] vs 0.69 [SD=1.36]). More than 30% of students were expected by parents to reach the top five of their class, almost 90% were expected to earn a college degree or higher, and >80% were expected to have a professional occupation. Students in rural areas, with siblings, and with lower parental SES tended to bear lower parental expectations. Children experiencing higher parental expectations spent more time on homework but less time on TV/Internet, partially explained by stricter parental homework and screen control. Conclusions High parental expectations suppress screen use but promote academic-related sedentary behaviors for Chinese children. Interventions should attend to academic-related sedentary behaviors and call for broader policies addressing sociocultural factors fueling high parental expectations.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:11:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.12.006
  • Exercise Intensity and Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome: The SUN Project
    • Authors: María Hidalgo-Santamaria; Alejandro Fernandez-Montero; Miguel A. Martinez-Gonzalez; Laura Moreno-Galarraga; Almudena Sanchez-Villegas; María T. Barrio-Lopez; Maira Bes-Rastrollo
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): María Hidalgo-Santamaria, Alejandro Fernandez-Montero, Miguel A. Martinez-Gonzalez, Laura Moreno-Galarraga, Almudena Sanchez-Villegas, María T. Barrio-Lopez, Maira Bes-Rastrollo
      Introduction Emerging evidence suggests that vigorous physical activity may be associated with higher cardioprotective benefits than moderate physical activity. This study aimed to assess the long-term relationship between the intensity of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MS) in a prospective cohort study. Methods The Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Project comprises Spanish university graduates. Participants (n=10,145) initially free of MS were followed for a minimum of 6 years (2008–2014). Analysis was conducted in 2015. Physical activity was assessed though a validated questionnaire. The intensity of each physical activity was measured in METs. The intensity of LTPA was estimated by the ratio between total METs/week and total hours of LTPA/week, obtaining the mean METs/hour of LTPA. MS was defined according to the harmonizing definition. The association between the intensity of LTPA (METs/hour) and MS was assessed with logistic regression models adjusting for potential confounders. Results Among 10,145 participants initially free of any MS criteria, 412 new MS cases were observed. Vigorous LTPA was associated with a 37% relatively lower risk (AOR=0.63, 95% CI=0.44, 0.89) compared with light LTPA. For a given total energy expenditure, independent of the time spent on it, participants who performed vigorous LTPA exhibited a higher reduction in the risk of MS than those who performed light to moderate LTPA. Conclusions Vigorous LTPA was significantly associated with lower risk of developing MS after a 6-year follow-up period.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.11.021
  • Parental-Reported Full Influenza Vaccination Coverage of Children in the
    • Authors: Yusheng Zhai; Tammy A. Santibanez; Katherine E. Kahn; Anup Srivastav
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): Yusheng Zhai, Tammy A. Santibanez, Katherine E. Kahn, Anup Srivastav
      Introduction Depending upon influenza vaccination history, children aged 6 months–8 years need one or two doses of influenza vaccine to be considered fully vaccinated. The objectives of this study were to quantify the percentage of children aged 6 months–8 years who were fully vaccinated against influenza based on parental report, overall, by state, and by sociodemographic characteristics, and to examine sociodemographic characteristics associated with being fully vaccinated. Methods Data from the National Immunization Survey-Flu for the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 influenza seasons were analyzed in 2015 using the Kaplan–Meier method to produce vaccination coverage estimates. Wald chi-square tests were used to test for bivariate associations, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to test for demographic characteristics independently associated with the child being fully vaccinated. Results The percentages of children aged 6 months–8 years who were fully vaccinated during the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 influenza seasons were 41.0% and 45.2%, respectively. Full vaccination varied widely by state and was more likely for children requiring only one dose. Based on the statistical models, children likely to be fully vaccinated were older, non-black, had a mother with an education >12 years, or lived in a high-income household. Conclusions Most children in the U.S. are not fully vaccinated against influenza. Reminder systems and interventions that reduce or remove barriers to children receiving their second doses of influenza vaccine may improve full influenza vaccination coverage among all children.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.10.040
  • Long-term Quit Rates in Fax-Referred as Compared to Self-Referred Tobacco
           Quitline Registrants
    • Authors: Dana S. Mowls; Lindsay Boeckman; Stephen R. Gillaspy; Laura A. Beebe
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): Dana S. Mowls, Lindsay Boeckman, Stephen R. Gillaspy, Laura A. Beebe
      Introduction To increase the use of quitlines for treating tobacco use and dependence, quitline referral interventions are recommended for healthcare systems and providers. Research is limited as to whether fax-referred smokers have quit outcomes similar to those of traditional self-callers to quitlines. Methods Oklahoma Tobacco Helpline registration data from March 2013 to October 2014 and 7-month follow-up data were used to compare hospital- and clinic-based fax-referred registrants (n=537) to self-callers (n=2,577). Contingency table chi-square tests and relative risks were used to identify differences in 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 7-month follow-up. Two-sided p-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Analyses were conducted in 2015. Results Fax-referred registrants versus self-callers were significantly more likely to be older (49.4 vs 47.6 years), white (70.6% vs 59.1%), non-Hispanic (96.8% vs 94.2%), and to have smoked fewer than one pack of cigarettes per day (54.0% vs 44.9%). Self-callers versus fax-referred registrants were significantly more likely to be uninsured (36.5% vs 29.4%) and have received nicotine-replacement therapy from the Helpline (92.3% vs 79.9%). At 7-month follow-up, a similar proportion of fax-referred registrants reported not using tobacco in the past 30 days as compared to self-callers (29.3% vs 31.8%, p=0.2945). Conclusions Although differences in sociodemographics, tobacco use behavior, and Helpline services were observed between fax-referred registrants and self-callers, quit outcomes at follow-up did not differ. This observational study has important implications for tobacco control initiatives as it shows patients fax-referred by hospitals and clinics to quitlines may be as successful as self-callers in quitting smoking.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.11.006
  • Ignition Interlock Laws: Effects on Fatal Motor Vehicle Crashes,
    • Authors: Emma E. McGinty; Gregory Tung; Juliana Shulman-Laniel; Rose Hardy; Lainie Rutkow; Shannon Frattaroli; Jon S. Vernick
      Pages: 417 - 423
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): Emma E. McGinty, Gregory Tung, Juliana Shulman-Laniel, Rose Hardy, Lainie Rutkow, Shannon Frattaroli, Jon S. Vernick
      Introduction Alcohol-involved motor vehicle crashes are a major cause of preventable mortality in the U.S., leading to more than 10,000 fatalities in 2013. Ignition interlocks, or alcohol-sensing devices connected to a vehicle’s ignition to prevent it from starting if a driver has a predetermined blood alcohol content (BAC) level, are a promising avenue for preventing alcohol-involved driving. This study sought to assess the effects of laws requiring ignition interlocks for some or all drunk driving offenders on alcohol-involved fatal crashes. Methods A multilevel modeling approach assessed the effects of state interlock laws on alcohol-involved fatal crashes in the U.S. from 1982 to 2013. Monthly data on alcohol-involved crashes in each of the 50 states was collected in 2014 from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Random-intercept models accounted for between-state variation in alcohol-involved fatal crash rates and autocorrelation of within-state crash rates over time. Analysis was conducted in 2015. Results State laws requiring interlocks for all drunk driving offenders were associated with a 7% decrease in the rate of BAC >0.08 fatal crashes and an 8% decrease in the rate of BAC ≥0.15 fatal crashes, translating into an estimated 1,250 prevented BAC >0.08 fatal crashes. Laws requiring interlocks for segments of high-risk drunk driving offenders, such as repeat offenders, may reduce alcohol-involved fatal crashes after 2 years of implementation. Conclusions Ignition interlock laws reduce alcohol-involved fatal crashes. Increasing the spread of interlock laws that are mandatory for all offenders would have significant public health benefit.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.10.043
  • Parent’s Physical Activity Associated With Preschooler Activity in
           Underserved Populations
    • Authors: Shari L. Barkin; Archana P. Lamichhane; Jorge A. Banda; Meghan M. JaKa; Maciej S. Buchowski; Kelly R. Evenson; Shrikant I. Bangdiwala; Charlotte Pratt; Simone A. French; June Stevens
      Pages: 424 - 432
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): Shari L. Barkin, Archana P. Lamichhane, Jorge A. Banda, Meghan M. JaKa, Maciej S. Buchowski, Kelly R. Evenson, Shrikant I. Bangdiwala, Charlotte Pratt, Simone A. French, June Stevens
      Introduction In the U.S., children from low-income families are more likely to be obese. The impact of parent modeling of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors in low-income American ethnic minorities is unclear, and studies examining objective measures of preschooler and parent PA are sparse. Methods This cross-sectional study examined 1,003 parent–child pairs who were of low income, largely Latino and African American, and living in one of two geographically disparate metropolitan areas in the U.S. Parents and children wore GT3X/GT3X+ accelerometers for an average of >12 hours/day (7:00am–9:00pm) for 1 week (September 2012 to May 2014). Analysis occurred in 2015–2016. Results About 75% of children were Latino and >10% were African American. Mean child age was 3.9 years. The majority of children (60%) were normal weight (BMI ≥50th and <85th percentiles), and more than a third were overweight/obese. Children’s total PA was 6.03 hours/day, with 1.5 hours spent in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). Covariate-adjusted models showed a monotonic, positive association between parent and child minutes of sedentary behavior (β=0.10, 95% CI=0.06, 0.15) and light PA (β=0.06; 95% CI=0.03, 0.09). Child and parent MVPA were positively associated up to 40 minutes/day of parent MVPA, but an inverse association was observed when parental MVPA was beyond 40 minutes/day (p=0.002). Conclusions Increasing parental PA and reducing sedentary behavior correlate with increased PA-related behaviors in children. However, more work is needed to understand the impact of high levels of parental MVPA on the MVPA levels of their children.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.11.017
  • Sexual Orientation and Sleep in the U.S.: A National Profile
    • Authors: Jen-Hao Chen; Cheng-Shi Shiu
      Pages: 433 - 442
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): Jen-Hao Chen, Cheng-Shi Shiu
      Introduction Sexual minorities often experience poorer health than non-sexual minorities. However, extant knowledge remains limited regarding the sleep characteristics, a risk factor for chronic diseases and excess mortality, of sexual minorities compared with non-sexual minorities at the population level. Methods This study analyzed the 2013–2014 National Health Interview Survey, Adult Sample (n=68,960) to examine the reported sleep duration and sleep disturbances (i.e., not feeling rested, difficulty falling asleep, and waking up at night) by sexual orientation (i.e., homosexual [n=1,149], bisexual [n=515], and other sexual minorities [n=144]). Statistical analysis, conducted in 2015, used multinomial logistic and logistic regressions to estimate the associations between sexual orientation and sleep variables. Results Adult sexual minorities had higher risks of sleep disturbances than heterosexual adults. Differences in SES and physical and mental health conditions partly explained the gaps. Sexual minority women had greater odds of waking up at night than sexual minority men did, but sexual minority adults who were also racial minorities showed no differences in odds of sleep disturbances compared to white sexual minority adults. Results found that sexual orientation was not associated with an increased risk of short or long sleep duration. Conclusions This study documented substantial disparities in sleep disturbances between sexual minorities and non-sexual minorities. These gaps cannot simply be explained by social and demographic factors. Interventions that target sexual minorities should pay attention to disparities in sleep and investigate methods to promote sleep health of sexual minorities.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.10.039
  • Correlates of Patient Intent and Preference on Colorectal Cancer Screening
    • Authors: Masahito Jimbo; Ananda Sen; Melissa A. Plegue; Sarah T. Hawley; Karen Kelly-Blake; Mary Rapai; Minling Zhang; Yuhong Zhang; Mack T. Ruffin
      Pages: 443 - 450
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): Masahito Jimbo, Ananda Sen, Melissa A. Plegue, Sarah T. Hawley, Karen Kelly-Blake, Mary Rapai, Minling Zhang, Yuhong Zhang, Mack T. Ruffin
      Introduction Information is limited on patient characteristics that influence their preference among screening options and intent to be screened for colorectal cancer (CRC). A mechanistic pathway to intent and preference was examined through a formal mediation analysis. Methods From 2012 to 2014, a total of 570 adults aged 50–75 years were recruited from 15 primary care practices in Metro Detroit for a trial on decision aids for CRC screening. Confirmatory factor, regression, and mediation analyses were performed in 2015–2016 on baseline cross-sectional data. Main outcomes were patient intent and preference. Perceived risk and self-efficacy were secondary outcomes. Covariates included demographic information, health status, previous CRC screening experience, patient attitudes, and knowledge. Results Mean age was 57.7 years, 56.1% were women, and 55.1% white and 36.6% black. Women had 32% and 41% lower odds than men of perceiving CRC to be high/moderate risk (OR=0.68, 95% CI=0.47, 0.97, p=0.03) and having high self-efficacy (OR=0.59, 95% CI=0.42, 0.85, p=0.006), respectively. Whites had 63% and 47% lower odds than blacks of having high self-efficacy (OR=0.37, 95% CI=0.25, 0.57, p<0.001) and intent to undergo CRC screening (OR=0.53, 95% CI=0.34, 0.84, p=0.007), respectively. Younger age, higher knowledge, lower level of test worries, and medium/high versus low self-efficacy increased the odds of intent of being screened. Self-efficacy, but not perceived risk, significantly mediated the association between race, attitude, and test worries and patient screening intent. Conclusions Self-efficacy mediated the association between race, attitude, and test worries and patient intent.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.11.026
  • Fruit-Promoting Smarter Lunchrooms Interventions: Results From a Cluster
    • Authors: Katherine N. Greene; Gnel Gabrielyan; David R. Just; Brian Wansink
      Pages: 451 - 458
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): Katherine N. Greene, Gnel Gabrielyan, David R. Just, Brian Wansink
      Introduction The Smarter Lunchrooms Movement was developed to provide schools with simple, low-cost solutions to encourage students to make healthier food choices at school. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fruit-promoting Smarter Lunchroom interventions on middle school students’ selection and consumption of fruits. Design A 9-week cluster RCT was conducted using a pre-test/post-test control group design in upstate New York in February–April 2014. Setting/participants Ten middle schools (Grades 5–8) were recruited and randomized into a fruit intervention (n=4), vegetable intervention (n=3), or control group (n=3). This article focuses only on the fruit intervention and control groups. Intervention The fruit intervention group made changes to the convenience, visibility, and attractiveness of fruit in their lunchrooms for a period of 6 weeks. The control group made no changes, and were offered Smarter Lunchrooms training post-intervention. Main outcome measures Selection and plate waste data were collected from February to April 2014, and analyzed in 2014–2015. Average selection, waste, and consumption of food items were computed, and the statistical differences between treatment and control groups were analyzed using t-test statistics and difference-in-difference analysis. Results Fruit selection increased overall by 36% (p<0.001), and fruit consumption increased overall by 23% (p<0.017). Vegetable selection and consumption and white milk selection also increased significantly in the treatment schools (p<0.001), though were not significant overall. Conclusions The fruit intervention increased the selection and consumption of fruits overall, and increased the selection and consumption of vegetables and the selection of white milk in treatment schools. These findings provide evidence supporting the use of fruit-promoting Smarter Lunchrooms techniques in middle schools to increase the selection and consumption of healthy food items.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.12.015
  • Reduced Cardiovascular Disease Incidence With a National Lifestyle Change
    • Authors: Sandra L. Jackson; Sandra Safo; Lisa R. Staimez; Qi Long; Mary K. Rhee; Solveig A. Cunningham; Darin E. Olson; Anne M. Tomolo; Usha Ramakrishnan; K.M. Venkat Narayan; Lawrence S. Phillips
      Pages: 459 - 468
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): Sandra L. Jackson, Sandra Safo, Lisa R. Staimez, Qi Long, Mary K. Rhee, Solveig A. Cunningham, Darin E. Olson, Anne M. Tomolo, Usha Ramakrishnan, K.M. Venkat Narayan, Lawrence S. Phillips
      Introduction Lifestyle change programs implemented within healthcare systems could reach many Americans, but their impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unclear. The MOVE! program is the largest lifestyle change program implemented in a healthcare setting in the U.S. This study aimed to determine whether MOVE! participation was associated with reduced CVD incidence. Methods This retrospective cohort study, analyzed in 2013–2015, used national Veterans Health Administration databases to identify MOVE! participants and eligible non-participants for comparison (2005–2012). Patients eligible for MOVE!—obese or overweight with a weight-related health condition, and no baseline CVD—were examined (N=1,463,003). Of these, 169,248 (12%) were MOVE! participants. Patients were 92% male, 76% white, with mean age 52 years and BMI of 32. The main outcome was incidence of CVD (ICD-9 and procedure codes for coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and heart failure). Results Adjusting for age, race, sex, BMI, statin use, and baseline comorbidities, over a mean 4.9 years of follow-up, MOVE! participation was associated with lower incidence of total CVD (hazard ratio [HR]=0.83, 95% CI=0.80, 0.86); coronary artery disease (HR=0.81, 95% CI=0.77, 0.86); cerebrovascular disease (HR=0.87, 95% CI=0.82, 0.92); peripheral vascular disease (HR=0.89, 95% CI=0.83, 0.94); and heart failure (HR=0.78, 95% CI=0.74, 0.83). The association between MOVE! participation and CVD incidence remained significant when examined across categories of race/ethnicity, BMI, diabetes, hypertension, smoking status, and statin use. Conclusions Although participation was limited, MOVE! was associated with reduced CVD incidence in a nationwide healthcare setting.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.10.013
  • Economic Recession, Alcohol, and Suicide Rates: Comparative Effects of
           Poverty, Foreclosure, and Job Loss
    • Authors: William C. Kerr; Mark S. Kaplan; Nathalie Huguet; Raul Caetano; Norman Giesbrecht; Bentson H. McFarland
      Pages: 469 - 475
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): William C. Kerr, Mark S. Kaplan, Nathalie Huguet, Raul Caetano, Norman Giesbrecht, Bentson H. McFarland
      Introduction Suicide rates and the proportion of alcohol-involved suicides rose during the 2008–2009 recession. Associations between county-level poverty, foreclosures, and unemployment and suicide rates and proportion of alcohol-involved suicides were investigated. Methods In 2015, National Violent Death Reporting System data from 16 states in 2005–2011 were utilized to calculate suicide rates and a measure of alcohol involvement in suicides at the county level. Panel models with year and state fixed effects included county-level measures of unemployment, foreclosure, and poverty rates. Results Poverty rates were strongly associated with suicide rates for both genders and all age groups, were positively associated with alcohol involvement in suicides for men aged 45–64 years, and negatively associated for men aged 20–44 years. Foreclosure rates were negatively associated with suicide rates for women and those aged ≥65 years but positively related for those aged 45–64 years. Unemployment rate effects on suicide rates were mediated by poverty rates in all groups. Conclusions Population risk of suicide was most clearly associated with county-level poverty rates, indicating that programs addressing area poverty should be targeted for reducing suicide risk. Poverty rates were also associated with increased alcohol involvement for men aged 45–64 years, indicating a role for alcohol in suicide for this working-aged group. However, negative associations between economic indicators and alcohol involvement were found for four groups, suggesting that non-economic factors or more general economic effects not captured by these indicators may have played a larger role in alcohol-related suicide increases.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.09.021
  • Community-Level Inequalities in Concussion Education of Youth Football
    • Authors: Emily Kroshus; Zachary Y. Kerr; Joseph G.L. Lee
      Pages: 476 - 482
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): Emily Kroshus, Zachary Y. Kerr, Joseph G.L. Lee
      Introduction USA Football has made the Heads Up Football (HUF) concussion education program available for coaches of youth football players. Existing evidence about the effectiveness of the HUF coach education program is equivocal. For HUF and other programs, there is growing concern that even effective interventions can increase inequalities if there is different uptake or impact by SES or other demographic factors. Understanding how adoption is patterned along these lines is important for understanding equity issues in youth football. This study tested the hypothesis that there will be lower adoption of HUF among coaches of youth football players in lower-SES communities. Methods The authors conducted a cross-sectional study of the association between community-level characteristics and number of USA Football youth league coaches who have completed HUF. Data were collected in 2014 and analyzed in 2015–2016. Results Implementation of the HUF program was patterned by community-level socioeconomic characteristics. Leagues located in communities with a higher percentage of families with children aged <18 years living below the poverty line and a smaller percentage of non-Hispanic white residents tended to have leagues with smaller percentages of HUF-certified coaches. Conclusions As interventions are developed that reduce the risks of youth football, it is important to consider not just the effectiveness of these interventions, but also whether they reduce or exacerbate health inequities. These results suggest that relying on voluntary adoption of coach education may result in inequitable implementation. Further study is required to identify and remedy organizational and contextual barriers to implementation of coach education in youth sport.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.12.021
  • Disparities in Tuberculosis Treatment Completion by Incarceration Status,
           U.S., 1999–2011
    • Authors: Kiren Mitruka; Tyson Volkmann; Robert H. Pratt; J. Steve Kammerer
      Pages: 483 - 490
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): Kiren Mitruka, Tyson Volkmann, Robert H. Pratt, J. Steve Kammerer
      Introduction Treatment completion is the cornerstone of tuberculosis (TB) control strategy globally. Although the majority of reported TB cases in the U.S. have documented treatment completion, individuals diagnosed while incarcerated are less likely to have documentation of whether or not they completed treatment. This study assessed trends and correlates of no documented treatment completion among individuals incarcerated at diagnosis. Methods U.S. National TB Surveillance System (1999–2011) data on cases eligible for treatment completion were analyzed during 2014–2015. Treatment outcomes and trends in no documented completion were assessed by incarceration status. Multivariable logistic regression identified correlates of no documented completion among people incarcerated at diagnosis. Results A lower proportion of individuals incarcerated at diagnosis had documented TB treatment completion than non-incarcerated individuals (75.6% vs 93.7%), and a higher proportion were lost to follow-up (10.7% vs 2.2%) or moved (9.4% vs 2.3%) during treatment (p<0.001). The 1999–2011 trend in no documented completion significantly increased among those incarcerated at diagnosis and declined among non-incarcerated individuals. Being foreign born was the strongest correlate of no documented completion among people incarcerated at diagnosis (AOR=2.86, 95% CI= 2.35, 3.49). Social risk factors for TB (e.g., homelessness, substance abuse), although common among incarcerated individuals, did not emerge as correlates of no documented completion. Conclusions People diagnosed with TB disease at U.S. correctional facilities, especially the foreign born, require enhanced strategies for documenting TB treatment completion. Strengthened collaboration between correctional and public health agencies could improve continuity of care among released inmates.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.10.035
  • Impact of Social Determinants of Health on Medical Conditions Among
           Transgender Veterans
    • Authors: John R. Blosnich; Mary C. Marsiglio; Melissa E. Dichter; Shasha Gao; Adam J. Gordon; Jillian C. Shipherd; Michael R. Kauth; George R. Brown; Michael J. Fine
      Pages: 491 - 498
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): John R. Blosnich, Mary C. Marsiglio, Melissa E. Dichter, Shasha Gao, Adam J. Gordon, Jillian C. Shipherd, Michael R. Kauth, George R. Brown, Michael J. Fine
      Introduction Transgender individuals experience pronounced disparities in health (e.g., mood disorders, suicide risk) and in the prevalence of social determinants of housing instability, financial strain, and violence. The objectives of this study were to understand the prevalence of social determinants among transgender veterans and assess their associations with medical conditions. Methods This project was a records review using administrative data from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs databases for 1997–2014. Transgender veterans (N=6,308) were defined as patients with any of four ICD-9 diagnosis codes associated with transgender status. Social determinants were operationalized using ICD-9 codes and Department of Veterans Affairs clinical screens indicating violence, housing instability, or financial strain. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the associations of social determinants with medical conditions: mood disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol abuse disorder, illicit drug abuse disorder, tobacco use disorder, suicidal risk, HIV, and hepatitis C. Results After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, housing instability and financial strain were significantly associated with all medical conditions except for HIV, and violence was significantly associated with all medical conditions except for tobacco use disorder and HIV. There was a dose response–like relationship between the increasing number of forms of social determinants being associated with increasing odds for medical conditions. Conclusions Social determinants are prevalent factors in transgender patients’ lives, exhibiting strong associations with medical conditions. Documenting social determinants in electronic health records can help providers to identify and address these factors in treatment goals.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.12.019
  • Disclosing Genetic Risk for Coronary Heart Disease: Attitudes Toward
           Personal Information in Health Records
    • Authors: Sherry-Ann Brown; Hayan Jouni; Tariq S. Marroush; Iftikhar J. Kullo
      Pages: 499 - 506
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): Sherry-Ann Brown, Hayan Jouni, Tariq S. Marroush, Iftikhar J. Kullo
      Introduction Incorporating genetic risk information in electronic health records (EHRs) will facilitate implementation of genomic medicine in clinical practice. However, little is known about patients’ attitudes toward incorporation of genetic risk information as a component of personal health information in EHRs. This study investigated whether disclosure of a genetic risk score (GRS) for coronary heart disease influences attitudes toward incorporation of personal health information including genetic risk in EHRs. Methods Participants aged 45–65 years with intermediate 10-year coronary heart disease risk were randomized to receive a conventional risk score (CRS) alone or with a GRS from a genetic counselor, followed by shared decision making with a physician using the same standard presentation and information templates for all study participants. The CRS and GRS were then incorporated into the EHR and made accessible to both patients and physicians. Baseline and post-disclosure surveys were completed to assess whether attitudes differed by GRS disclosure. Data were collected from 2013 to 2015 and analyzed in 2015–2016. Results GRS and CRS participants reported similar positive attitudes toward incorporation of genetic risk information in the EHR. Compared with CRS participants, participants with high GRS were more concerned about the confidentiality of genetic risk information (OR=3.67, 95% CI=1.29, 12.32, p=0.01). Post-disclosure, frequency of patient portal access was associated with positive attitudes. Conclusions Participants in this study of coronary heart disease risk disclosure overall had positive attitudes toward incorporation of genetic risk information in EHRs, although those who received genetic risk information had concerns about confidentiality.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.11.005
  • Patterns of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Among U.S. Young Adults,
    • Authors: Ramzi G. Salloum; James F. Thrasher; Kayla R. Getz; Tracey E. Barnett; Taghrid Asfar; Wasim Maziak
      Pages: 507 - 512
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): Ramzi G. Salloum, James F. Thrasher, Kayla R. Getz, Tracey E. Barnett, Taghrid Asfar, Wasim Maziak
      Introduction Patterns of waterpipe smoking and associated other tobacco use were assessed among U.S. young adults (aged 18–24 years). Methods A descriptive analysis of baseline data (2013–2014) from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study was conducted in 2016. Results The study included 9,119 young adults—44% ever and 11% past−30 day waterpipe smokers (12% of men and 9% of women were past−30 day smokers). Among past−30 day smokers, waterpipe smoking frequency was distributed as follows: 4% daily, 23% weekly, 36% monthly, and 37% less than monthly. The average session exceeded 30 minutes for 79% of respondents. In this age group, 29% were exclusive waterpipe smokers, 16% were dual (waterpipe/cigarette) smokers, 8% were dual (waterpipe/e-cigarette) users, 19% were waterpipe/cigarette/e-cigarette users, and 28% presented with other combinations of poly use. Conclusions Waterpipe smoking is widespread among U.S. young adults. Although waterpipe patterns are predominantly intermittent, the average smoking session provides prolonged exposure. Waterpipe smoking among young adults is primarily characterized by the use of flavored tobacco, the café culture, and poly tobacco use. Rising trends in waterpipe smoking among U.S. youth warrant a strong regulatory response to prevent future waterpipe-related morbidity and mortality.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.10.015
  • Information for CME Credit—RCT Testing Bystander Effectiveness to
           Reduce Violence
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 5

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:11:23Z
  • Information for CME Credit—Cooking at Home: A Strategy to Comply With
           U.S. Dietary Guidelines at No Extra Cost
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 5

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:11:23Z
  • Lopez PM, Islam N, Feinberg A, Myers C, Seidl L, Drackett E, Riley L, Mata
           A, Pinzon J, Benjamin E, Wyka K, Dannefer R, Lopez J, Trinh-Shevrin C,
           Maybank KA, Thorpe LE. A Place-Based Community Health Worker Program:
           Feasibility and Early Outcomes, New York City, 2015. Am J Prev Med
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 5

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:11:23Z
  • Potential Consequences of Not Using Live Attenuated In • If there are
           any drug dosages in your article, please verify them and indicate that you
           have done so by initialing this query. • Please review and confirm the
           accuracy and completeness of any affiliations.-->fluenza Vaccine
    • Authors: Kenneth J. Smith; Mary Patricia Nowalk; Angela Wateska; Shawn T. Brown; Jay V. DePasse; Jonathan M. Raviotta; Eunha Shim; Richard K. Zimmerman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Kenneth J. Smith, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Angela Wateska, Shawn T. Brown, Jay V. DePasse, Jonathan M. Raviotta, Eunha Shim, Richard K. Zimmerman
      Introduction Decreased live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) effectiveness in the U.S. prompted the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices in August 2016 to recommend against this vaccine’s use. However, overall influenza uptake increases when LAIV is available and, unlike the U.S., LAIV has retained its effectiveness in other countries. These opposing countercurrents create a dilemma. Methods To examine the potential consequences of the decision to not recommend LAIV, which may result in decreased influenza vaccination coverage in the U.S. population, a Markov decision analysis model was used to examine influenza vaccination options in U.S. children aged 2–8 years. Data were compiled and analyzed in 2016. Results Using recently observed low LAIV effectiveness values, fewer influenza cases will occur if LAIV is not used compared with having LAIV as a vaccine option. However, having the option to use LAIV may be favored if LAIV effectiveness returns to prior levels or if the absence of vaccine choice substantially decreases overall vaccine uptake. Conclusions Continued surveillance of LAIV effectiveness and influenza vaccine uptake is warranted, given their importance in influenza vaccination policy decisions.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T12:49:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.02.019
  • Anti-bullying Policies and Disparities in Bullying: A State-Level Analysis
    • Authors: Mark L. Hatzenbuehler; Javier E. Flores; Joseph E. Cavanaugh; Angela Onwuachi-Willig; Marizen R. Ramirez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Mark L. Hatzenbuehler, Javier E. Flores, Joseph E. Cavanaugh, Angela Onwuachi-Willig, Marizen R. Ramirez
      Introduction Recent research suggests that anti-bullying laws may be effective in reducing risk of bullying victimization among youth, but no research has determined whether these laws are also effective in reducing disparities in bullying. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effectiveness of anti-bullying legislation in reducing disparities in sex- and weight-based bullying and cyberbullying victimization. Methods Data on anti-bullying legislation were obtained from the U.S. Department of Education, which commissioned a systematic review of 16 key components of state laws in 2011. States were also categorized based on whether their legislation enumerated protected groups and, if so, which groups were enumerated. These policy variables from 28 states were linked to individual-level data on bullying and cyberbullying victimization from students in 9th through 12th grade participating in the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System study (N=79,577). Analyses were conducted in 2016. Results There was an absence of any kind of moderating effect of anti-bullying legislation on weight-based disparities in bullying and cyberbullying victimization. Only state laws with high compliance to Department of Education enumeration guidelines were associated with lower sex-based disparities in bullying victimization. Conclusions Anti-bullying policies were not associated with lower weight-based disparities in bullying and cyberbullying victimization among youth, and only one form of policies (high compliance to Department of Education enumeration guidelines) was associated with lower sex-based disparities in bullying victimization. Results therefore suggest that anti-bullying legislation requires further refinement to protect youth who are vulnerable to bullying victimization.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T12:49:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.02.004
  • Preventing Alcohol and Tobacco Exposed Pregnancies: CHOICES Plus in
           Primary Care
    • Authors: Mary M. Velasquez; Kirk L. von Sternberg; R. Louise Floyd; Danielle Parrish; Alicia Kowalchuk; Nanette S. Stephens; Britta Ostermeyer; Charles Green; J. Paul Seale; Patricia Dolan Mullen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Mary M. Velasquez, Kirk L. von Sternberg, R. Louise Floyd, Danielle Parrish, Alicia Kowalchuk, Nanette S. Stephens, Britta Ostermeyer, Charles Green, J. Paul Seale, Patricia Dolan Mullen
      Introduction Alcohol and tobacco use are common among U.S. women, yet if used during pregnancy these substances present significant preventable risks to prenatal and perinatal health. Because use of alcohol and tobacco often continue into the first trimester and beyond, especially among women with unintended pregnancies, effective evidence-based approaches are needed to decrease these risk behaviors. This study was designed to test the efficacy of CHOICES Plus, a preconception intervention for reducing the risk of alcohol- and tobacco-exposed pregnancies (AEPs and TEPs). Study design RCT with two intervention groups: CHOICES Plus (n=131) versus Brief Advice (n=130). Data collected April 2011 to October 2013. Data analysis finalized February 2016. Setting/participants Settings were 12 primary care clinics in a large Texas public healthcare system. Participants were women who were non-sterile, non-pregnant, aged 18–44 years, drinking more than three drinks per day or more than seven drinks per week, sexually active, and not using effective contraception (N=261). Forty-five percent were smokers. Intervention Interventions were two CHOICES Plus sessions and a contraceptive visit or Brief Advice and referral to community resources. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes were reduced risk of AEP and TEP through 9-month follow-up. Results In intention-to-treat analyses across 9 months, the CHOICES Plus group was more likely than the Brief Advice group to reduce risk of AEP with an incidence rate ratio of 0.620 (95% CI=0.511, 0.757) and absolute risk reduction of –0.233 (95% CI= –0.239, –0.226). CHOICES Plus group members at risk for both exposures were more likely to reduce TEP risk (incidence rate ratio, 0.597; 95% CI=0.424, 0.840 and absolute risk reduction, –0.233; 95% CI= –0.019, –0.521). Conclusions CHOICES Plus significantly reduced AEP and TEP risk. Addressing these commonly co-occurring risk factors in a single preconception program proved both feasible and efficacious in a low-income primary care population. Intervening with women before they become pregnant could shift the focus in clinical practice from treatment of substance-exposed pregnancies to prevention of a costly public health concern. Trial registration This study is registered at NCT01032772.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T12:49:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.02.012
  • Colorectal Cancer Screening Initiation After Age 50 Years in an Organized
    • Authors: Stacey A. Fedewa; Douglas A. Corley; Christopher D. Jensen; Wei Zhao; Michael Goodman; Ahmedin Jemal; Kevin C. Ward; Theodore R. Levin; Chyke A. Doubeni
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Stacey A. Fedewa, Douglas A. Corley, Christopher D. Jensen, Wei Zhao, Michael Goodman, Ahmedin Jemal, Kevin C. Ward, Theodore R. Levin, Chyke A. Doubeni
      Introduction Recent studies report racial disparities among individuals in organized colorectal cancer (CRC) programs; however, there is a paucity of information on CRC screening utilization by race/ethnicity among newly age-eligible adults in such programs. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study among Kaiser Permanente Northern California enrollees who turned age 50 years between 2007 and 2012 (N=138,799) and were served by a systemwide outreach and facilitated in-reach screening program based primarily on mailed fecal immunochemical tests to screening-eligible people. Kaplan–Meier and Cox model analyses were used to estimate differences in receipt of CRC screening in 2015–2016. Results Cumulative probabilities of CRC screening within 1 and 2 years of subjects’ 50th birthday were 51% and 73%, respectively. Relative to non-Hispanic whites, the likelihood of completing any CRC screening was similar in blacks (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% CI=0.96, 1.00); 5% lower in Hispanics (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% CI=0.93, 0.96); and 13% higher in Asians (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% CI=1.11, 1.15) in adjusted analyses. Fecal immunochemical testing was the most common screening modality, representing 86% of all screening initiations. Blacks and Hispanics had lower receipt of fecal immunochemical testing in adjusted analyses. Conclusions CRC screening uptake was high among newly screening-eligible adults in an organized CRC screening program, but Hispanics were less likely to initiate screening near age 50 years than non-Hispanic whites, suggesting that cultural and other individual-level barriers not addressed within the program likely contribute. Future studies examining the influences of culturally appropriate and targeted efforts for screening initiation are needed.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T12:49:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.02.018
  • Booster Seat Effectiveness Among Older Children: Evidence From Washington
    • Authors: D. Mark Anderson; Lindsay L. Carlson; Daniel I. Rees
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): D. Mark Anderson, Lindsay L. Carlson, Daniel I. Rees
      Introduction The American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended that children as old as 12 years use a booster seat when riding in motor vehicles, yet little is known about booster seat effectiveness when used by older children. This study estimated the association between booster use and injuries among children aged 8–12 years who were involved in motor vehicle crashes. Methods Researchers analyzed data on all motor vehicle crashes involving children aged 8–12 years reported to the Washington State Department of Transportation from 2002 to 2015. Data were collected in 2015 and analyzed in 2016. Children who were in a booster seat were compared with children restrained by a seat belt alone. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders. Results In unadjusted models, booster use was associated with a 29% reduction in the odds of experiencing any injury versus riding in a seat belt alone (OR=0.709, 95% CI=0.675, 0.745). In models adjusted for potential confounders, booster use was associated with a 19% reduction in the odds of any injury relative to riding in a seat belt alone (OR=0.814, 95% CI=0.749, 0.884). The risk of experiencing an incapacitating/fatal injury was not associated with booster use. Conclusions Children aged 8–12 years involved in a motor vehicle crash are less likely to be injured if in a booster than if restrained by a seat belt alone. Because only 10% of U.S. children aged 8–12 years use booster seats, policies encouraging their use could lead to fewer injuries.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T12:49:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.02.023
  • Arab American Health in a Racially Charged U.S.
    • Authors: Nadia N. Abuelezam; Abdulrahman M. El-Sayed; Sandro Galea
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Nadia N. Abuelezam, Abdulrahman M. El-Sayed, Sandro Galea

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T12:49:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.02.021
  • State-Level Awareness of Chronic Kidney Disease in the U.S.
    • Authors: Sai H. Dharmarajan; Jennifer L. Bragg-Gresham; Hal Morgenstern; Brenda W. Gillespie; Yi Li; Neil R. Powe; Delphine S. Tuot; Tanushree Banerjee; Nilka Ríos Burrows; Deborah B. Rolka; Sharon H. Saydah; Rajiv Saran
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Sai H. Dharmarajan, Jennifer L. Bragg-Gresham, Hal Morgenstern, Brenda W. Gillespie, Yi Li, Neil R. Powe, Delphine S. Tuot, Tanushree Banerjee, Nilka Ríos Burrows, Deborah B. Rolka, Sharon H. Saydah, Rajiv Saran
      Introduction This study examined state-level variation in chronic kidney disease (CKD) awareness using national estimates of disease awareness among adults in the U.S. with CKD. Methods Data on U.S. adults were obtained from two national, population-based surveys: (1) the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS 2011; n=506,467), a state-level phone survey containing information on self-reported kidney disease; and (2) the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005–2012; n=20,831), containing physical health examination, surveys containing data on self-reported kidney disease, risk factors, and laboratory values. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15–59 mL/minute/1.73 m2 or urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio >30 mg/g. As BRFSS does not include laboratory data, CKD status for each person was imputed (multiple) based on a logistic regression model predicting NHANES CKD status. CKD awareness in each state was estimated as the weighted proportion of BRFSS participants with imputed CKD who reported having kidney disease. Results Overall, estimated CKD awareness was 9.0% (95% CI=8.0%, 10.0%), ranging from 5.8% (95% CI=4.8%, 6.8%) in Iowa to 11.7% (95% CI=9.7%, 13.7%) in Arizona. Awareness was greater among adults with hypertension (12.0%) and diabetes (15.3%) than among adults without those conditions, and lower in Hispanics (6.0%) than in non-Hispanic whites (8.8%), non-Hispanic blacks (9.9%), and other racial/ethnic groups (12.7%). Conclusions Among individuals with CKD, awareness of their condition was very low and varied approximately twofold among states. This is the first study to estimate awareness of kidney disease by state for the U.S. adult population.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T12:49:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.02.015
  • Comprehensive Screening for Suicide Risk in Primary Care
    • Authors: Guy S. Diamond; Joanna L. Herres; E. Stephanie Krauthamer Ewing; Tita O. Atte; Syreeta W. Scott; Matt B. Wintersteen; Robert J. Gallop
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Guy S. Diamond, Joanna L. Herres, E. Stephanie Krauthamer Ewing, Tita O. Atte, Syreeta W. Scott, Matt B. Wintersteen, Robert J. Gallop
      Introduction Suicide is a major public health problem and a complex clinical challenge. Assessment and early identification could be enhanced with screening tools that look beyond depression. The purpose of this study was to identify profiles of risk behaviors and social stress associated with suicidal ideation and behavior using the Behavioral Health Screen. Methods The study used screening data from 2,513 primary care patients (aged 14–24 years). Data were collected between 2008 and 2012, and were analyzed in 2016. Results Latent class analysis identified a high and low risk profile. Domains of primary influence included substance use, sexual assault, same-sex behavior, and unsafe sex. The high-risk group was 11 times more likely to have made a suicide attempt, five times more likely to report a history of suicidal ideation and behavior, and three times more likely to report recent suicidal ideation and behavior. Conclusions Risk behaviors and social stress contribute to the risk for suicide above and beyond depression and should be assessed during routine primary care visits with adolescents. The Behavioral Health Screen can screen all these domains and thus assist primary care providers in assessing for both psychiatric and social stress factors associated with youth suicide.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T12:49:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.02.020
  • Prevalence of Cardiovascular Health by Occupation: A Cross-Sectional
           Analysis Among U.S. Workers Aged ≥45 Years
    • Authors: Leslie A. MacDonald; Stephen Bertke; Misty J. Hein; Suzanne Judd; Sherry Baron; Robert Merritt; Virginia J. Howard
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Leslie A. MacDonald, Stephen Bertke, Misty J. Hein, Suzanne Judd, Sherry Baron, Robert Merritt, Virginia J. Howard
      Introduction Identification of groups with poor cardiovascular health (CVH) can inform where and how to target public health efforts. National prevalence estimates of CVH were derived for clinical (blood glucose, total cholesterol, blood pressure) and behavioral (BMI, diet quality, physical activity, smoking) factors among U.S. workers aged ≥45 years. Methods This cross-sectional analysis included 6,282 employed black and white men and women aged ≥45 years enrolled in the national population-based REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke study from 2003 to 2007. Each CVH factor was scored as ideal (2); intermediate (1); or poor (0) according to American Heart Association criteria, and summed to define optimal composite scores: CVH (sum, 10–14); clinical (sum, 5–6); and behavioral (sum, 6–8) health. Occupational data were collected 2011–2013. Analyses were conducted in 2016. Results Only 14% met ideal criteria for all three clinical health factors, and none met ideal criteria for all four behavioral health factors. Sales and low status office workers had a low prevalence of optimal CVH. Service workers in protective services and the food preparation and serving occupations had a low prevalence of optimal clinical health; computer and healthcare support workers had a low prevalence of optimal behavioral health. Conclusions The prevalence of optimal CVH among middle-aged and older workers in the U.S. is low, but considerable differences exist by occupation. Targeted public health interventions may improve the CVH of at-risk older workers with different clinical and behavioral risk factor profiles employed in diverse occupational settings.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T09:49:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.02.022
  • Information for CME Credit—Community-Level Inequalities in Concussion
           Education of Youth Football Coaches
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
  • Information for CME Credit—Disparities in Tuberculosis Treatment
           Completion by Incarceration Status, U.S., 1999–2011
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
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