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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1277 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (18 journals)
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    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (506 journals)
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HEALTH AND SAFETY (506 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 171)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access  
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription  
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Heart Insight     Full-text available via subscription  
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Policy and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Professions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Health Sciences Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Health Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Healthcare Delivery Reform Initiatives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Healthcare Information Systems and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Healthcare Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover American Journal of Preventive Medicine
  [SJR: 2.764]   [H-I: 154]   [21 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0749-3797
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Exercise Intensity and Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome: The SUN Project
    • Authors: María Hidalgo-Santamaria; Alejandro Fernandez-Montero; Miguel A. Martinez-Gonzalez; Laura Moreno-Galarraga; Almudena Sanchez-Villegas; María T. Barrio-Lopez; Maira Bes-Rastrollo
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): María Hidalgo-Santamaria, Alejandro Fernandez-Montero, Miguel A. Martinez-Gonzalez, Laura Moreno-Galarraga, Almudena Sanchez-Villegas, María T. Barrio-Lopez, Maira Bes-Rastrollo
      Introduction Emerging evidence suggests that vigorous physical activity may be associated with higher cardioprotective benefits than moderate physical activity. This study aimed to assess the long-term relationship between the intensity of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MS) in a prospective cohort study. Methods The Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Project comprises Spanish university graduates. Participants (n=10,145) initially free of MS were followed for a minimum of 6 years (2008–2014). Analysis was conducted in 2015. Physical activity was assessed though a validated questionnaire. The intensity of each physical activity was measured in METs. The intensity of LTPA was estimated by the ratio between total METs/week and total hours of LTPA/week, obtaining the mean METs/hour of LTPA. MS was defined according to the harmonizing definition. The association between the intensity of LTPA (METs/hour) and MS was assessed with logistic regression models adjusting for potential confounders. Results Among 10,145 participants initially free of any MS criteria, 412 new MS cases were observed. Vigorous LTPA was associated with a 37% relatively lower risk (AOR=0.63, 95% CI=0.44, 0.89) compared with light LTPA. For a given total energy expenditure, independent of the time spent on it, participants who performed vigorous LTPA exhibited a higher reduction in the risk of MS than those who performed light to moderate LTPA. Conclusions Vigorous LTPA was significantly associated with lower risk of developing MS after a 6-year follow-up period.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.11.021
  • Parental-Reported Full Influenza Vaccination Coverage of Children in the
    • Authors: Yusheng Zhai; Tammy A. Santibanez; Katherine E. Kahn; Anup Srivastav
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): Yusheng Zhai, Tammy A. Santibanez, Katherine E. Kahn, Anup Srivastav
      Introduction Depending upon influenza vaccination history, children aged 6 months–8 years need one or two doses of influenza vaccine to be considered fully vaccinated. The objectives of this study were to quantify the percentage of children aged 6 months–8 years who were fully vaccinated against influenza based on parental report, overall, by state, and by sociodemographic characteristics, and to examine sociodemographic characteristics associated with being fully vaccinated. Methods Data from the National Immunization Survey-Flu for the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 influenza seasons were analyzed in 2015 using the Kaplan–Meier method to produce vaccination coverage estimates. Wald chi-square tests were used to test for bivariate associations, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to test for demographic characteristics independently associated with the child being fully vaccinated. Results The percentages of children aged 6 months–8 years who were fully vaccinated during the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 influenza seasons were 41.0% and 45.2%, respectively. Full vaccination varied widely by state and was more likely for children requiring only one dose. Based on the statistical models, children likely to be fully vaccinated were older, non-black, had a mother with an education >12 years, or lived in a high-income household. Conclusions Most children in the U.S. are not fully vaccinated against influenza. Reminder systems and interventions that reduce or remove barriers to children receiving their second doses of influenza vaccine may improve full influenza vaccination coverage among all children.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.10.040
  • Long-term Quit Rates in Fax-Referred as Compared to Self-Referred Tobacco
           Quitline Registrants
    • Authors: Dana S. Mowls; Lindsay Boeckman; Stephen R. Gillaspy; Laura A. Beebe
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): Dana S. Mowls, Lindsay Boeckman, Stephen R. Gillaspy, Laura A. Beebe
      Introduction To increase the use of quitlines for treating tobacco use and dependence, quitline referral interventions are recommended for healthcare systems and providers. Research is limited as to whether fax-referred smokers have quit outcomes similar to those of traditional self-callers to quitlines. Methods Oklahoma Tobacco Helpline registration data from March 2013 to October 2014 and 7-month follow-up data were used to compare hospital- and clinic-based fax-referred registrants (n=537) to self-callers (n=2,577). Contingency table chi-square tests and relative risks were used to identify differences in 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 7-month follow-up. Two-sided p-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Analyses were conducted in 2015. Results Fax-referred registrants versus self-callers were significantly more likely to be older (49.4 vs 47.6 years), white (70.6% vs 59.1%), non-Hispanic (96.8% vs 94.2%), and to have smoked fewer than one pack of cigarettes per day (54.0% vs 44.9%). Self-callers versus fax-referred registrants were significantly more likely to be uninsured (36.5% vs 29.4%) and have received nicotine-replacement therapy from the Helpline (92.3% vs 79.9%). At 7-month follow-up, a similar proportion of fax-referred registrants reported not using tobacco in the past 30 days as compared to self-callers (29.3% vs 31.8%, p=0.2945). Conclusions Although differences in sociodemographics, tobacco use behavior, and Helpline services were observed between fax-referred registrants and self-callers, quit outcomes at follow-up did not differ. This observational study has important implications for tobacco control initiatives as it shows patients fax-referred by hospitals and clinics to quitlines may be as successful as self-callers in quitting smoking.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.11.006
  • Ignition Interlock Laws: Effects on Fatal Motor Vehicle Crashes,
    • Authors: Emma E. McGinty; Gregory Tung; Juliana Shulman-Laniel; Rose Hardy; Lainie Rutkow; Shannon Frattaroli; Jon S. Vernick
      Pages: 417 - 423
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): Emma E. McGinty, Gregory Tung, Juliana Shulman-Laniel, Rose Hardy, Lainie Rutkow, Shannon Frattaroli, Jon S. Vernick
      Introduction Alcohol-involved motor vehicle crashes are a major cause of preventable mortality in the U.S., leading to more than 10,000 fatalities in 2013. Ignition interlocks, or alcohol-sensing devices connected to a vehicle’s ignition to prevent it from starting if a driver has a predetermined blood alcohol content (BAC) level, are a promising avenue for preventing alcohol-involved driving. This study sought to assess the effects of laws requiring ignition interlocks for some or all drunk driving offenders on alcohol-involved fatal crashes. Methods A multilevel modeling approach assessed the effects of state interlock laws on alcohol-involved fatal crashes in the U.S. from 1982 to 2013. Monthly data on alcohol-involved crashes in each of the 50 states was collected in 2014 from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Random-intercept models accounted for between-state variation in alcohol-involved fatal crash rates and autocorrelation of within-state crash rates over time. Analysis was conducted in 2015. Results State laws requiring interlocks for all drunk driving offenders were associated with a 7% decrease in the rate of BAC >0.08 fatal crashes and an 8% decrease in the rate of BAC ≥0.15 fatal crashes, translating into an estimated 1,250 prevented BAC >0.08 fatal crashes. Laws requiring interlocks for segments of high-risk drunk driving offenders, such as repeat offenders, may reduce alcohol-involved fatal crashes after 2 years of implementation. Conclusions Ignition interlock laws reduce alcohol-involved fatal crashes. Increasing the spread of interlock laws that are mandatory for all offenders would have significant public health benefit.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.10.043
  • Parent’s Physical Activity Associated With Preschooler Activity in
           Underserved Populations
    • Authors: Shari L. Barkin; Archana P. Lamichhane; Jorge A. Banda; Meghan M. JaKa; Maciej S. Buchowski; Kelly R. Evenson; Shrikant I. Bangdiwala; Charlotte Pratt; Simone A. French; June Stevens
      Pages: 424 - 432
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): Shari L. Barkin, Archana P. Lamichhane, Jorge A. Banda, Meghan M. JaKa, Maciej S. Buchowski, Kelly R. Evenson, Shrikant I. Bangdiwala, Charlotte Pratt, Simone A. French, June Stevens
      Introduction In the U.S., children from low-income families are more likely to be obese. The impact of parent modeling of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors in low-income American ethnic minorities is unclear, and studies examining objective measures of preschooler and parent PA are sparse. Methods This cross-sectional study examined 1,003 parent–child pairs who were of low income, largely Latino and African American, and living in one of two geographically disparate metropolitan areas in the U.S. Parents and children wore GT3X/GT3X+ accelerometers for an average of >12 hours/day (7:00am–9:00pm) for 1 week (September 2012 to May 2014). Analysis occurred in 2015–2016. Results About 75% of children were Latino and >10% were African American. Mean child age was 3.9 years. The majority of children (60%) were normal weight (BMI ≥50th and <85th percentiles), and more than a third were overweight/obese. Children’s total PA was 6.03 hours/day, with 1.5 hours spent in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). Covariate-adjusted models showed a monotonic, positive association between parent and child minutes of sedentary behavior (β=0.10, 95% CI=0.06, 0.15) and light PA (β=0.06; 95% CI=0.03, 0.09). Child and parent MVPA were positively associated up to 40 minutes/day of parent MVPA, but an inverse association was observed when parental MVPA was beyond 40 minutes/day (p=0.002). Conclusions Increasing parental PA and reducing sedentary behavior correlate with increased PA-related behaviors in children. However, more work is needed to understand the impact of high levels of parental MVPA on the MVPA levels of their children.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.11.017
  • Sexual Orientation and Sleep in the U.S.: A National Profile
    • Authors: Jen-Hao Chen; Cheng-Shi Shiu
      Pages: 433 - 442
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): Jen-Hao Chen, Cheng-Shi Shiu
      Introduction Sexual minorities often experience poorer health than non-sexual minorities. However, extant knowledge remains limited regarding the sleep characteristics, a risk factor for chronic diseases and excess mortality, of sexual minorities compared with non-sexual minorities at the population level. Methods This study analyzed the 2013–2014 National Health Interview Survey, Adult Sample (n=68,960) to examine the reported sleep duration and sleep disturbances (i.e., not feeling rested, difficulty falling asleep, and waking up at night) by sexual orientation (i.e., homosexual [n=1,149], bisexual [n=515], and other sexual minorities [n=144]). Statistical analysis, conducted in 2015, used multinomial logistic and logistic regressions to estimate the associations between sexual orientation and sleep variables. Results Adult sexual minorities had higher risks of sleep disturbances than heterosexual adults. Differences in SES and physical and mental health conditions partly explained the gaps. Sexual minority women had greater odds of waking up at night than sexual minority men did, but sexual minority adults who were also racial minorities showed no differences in odds of sleep disturbances compared to white sexual minority adults. Results found that sexual orientation was not associated with an increased risk of short or long sleep duration. Conclusions This study documented substantial disparities in sleep disturbances between sexual minorities and non-sexual minorities. These gaps cannot simply be explained by social and demographic factors. Interventions that target sexual minorities should pay attention to disparities in sleep and investigate methods to promote sleep health of sexual minorities.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.10.039
  • Correlates of Patient Intent and Preference on Colorectal Cancer Screening
    • Authors: Masahito Jimbo; Ananda Sen; Melissa A. Plegue; Sarah T. Hawley; Karen Kelly-Blake; Mary Rapai; Minling Zhang; Yuhong Zhang; Mack T. Ruffin
      Pages: 443 - 450
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): Masahito Jimbo, Ananda Sen, Melissa A. Plegue, Sarah T. Hawley, Karen Kelly-Blake, Mary Rapai, Minling Zhang, Yuhong Zhang, Mack T. Ruffin
      Introduction Information is limited on patient characteristics that influence their preference among screening options and intent to be screened for colorectal cancer (CRC). A mechanistic pathway to intent and preference was examined through a formal mediation analysis. Methods From 2012 to 2014, a total of 570 adults aged 50–75 years were recruited from 15 primary care practices in Metro Detroit for a trial on decision aids for CRC screening. Confirmatory factor, regression, and mediation analyses were performed in 2015–2016 on baseline cross-sectional data. Main outcomes were patient intent and preference. Perceived risk and self-efficacy were secondary outcomes. Covariates included demographic information, health status, previous CRC screening experience, patient attitudes, and knowledge. Results Mean age was 57.7 years, 56.1% were women, and 55.1% white and 36.6% black. Women had 32% and 41% lower odds than men of perceiving CRC to be high/moderate risk (OR=0.68, 95% CI=0.47, 0.97, p=0.03) and having high self-efficacy (OR=0.59, 95% CI=0.42, 0.85, p=0.006), respectively. Whites had 63% and 47% lower odds than blacks of having high self-efficacy (OR=0.37, 95% CI=0.25, 0.57, p<0.001) and intent to undergo CRC screening (OR=0.53, 95% CI=0.34, 0.84, p=0.007), respectively. Younger age, higher knowledge, lower level of test worries, and medium/high versus low self-efficacy increased the odds of intent of being screened. Self-efficacy, but not perceived risk, significantly mediated the association between race, attitude, and test worries and patient screening intent. Conclusions Self-efficacy mediated the association between race, attitude, and test worries and patient intent.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.11.026
  • Fruit-Promoting Smarter Lunchrooms Interventions: Results From a Cluster
    • Authors: Katherine N. Greene; Gnel Gabrielyan; David R. Just; Brian Wansink
      Pages: 451 - 458
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): Katherine N. Greene, Gnel Gabrielyan, David R. Just, Brian Wansink
      Introduction The Smarter Lunchrooms Movement was developed to provide schools with simple, low-cost solutions to encourage students to make healthier food choices at school. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fruit-promoting Smarter Lunchroom interventions on middle school students’ selection and consumption of fruits. Design A 9-week cluster RCT was conducted using a pre-test/post-test control group design in upstate New York in February–April 2014. Setting/participants Ten middle schools (Grades 5–8) were recruited and randomized into a fruit intervention (n=4), vegetable intervention (n=3), or control group (n=3). This article focuses only on the fruit intervention and control groups. Intervention The fruit intervention group made changes to the convenience, visibility, and attractiveness of fruit in their lunchrooms for a period of 6 weeks. The control group made no changes, and were offered Smarter Lunchrooms training post-intervention. Main outcome measures Selection and plate waste data were collected from February to April 2014, and analyzed in 2014–2015. Average selection, waste, and consumption of food items were computed, and the statistical differences between treatment and control groups were analyzed using t-test statistics and difference-in-difference analysis. Results Fruit selection increased overall by 36% (p<0.001), and fruit consumption increased overall by 23% (p<0.017). Vegetable selection and consumption and white milk selection also increased significantly in the treatment schools (p<0.001), though were not significant overall. Conclusions The fruit intervention increased the selection and consumption of fruits overall, and increased the selection and consumption of vegetables and the selection of white milk in treatment schools. These findings provide evidence supporting the use of fruit-promoting Smarter Lunchrooms techniques in middle schools to increase the selection and consumption of healthy food items.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.12.015
  • Reduced Cardiovascular Disease Incidence With a National Lifestyle Change
    • Authors: Sandra L. Jackson; Sandra Safo; Lisa R. Staimez; Qi Long; Mary K. Rhee; Solveig A. Cunningham; Darin E. Olson; Anne M. Tomolo; Usha Ramakrishnan; K.M. Venkat Narayan; Lawrence S. Phillips
      Pages: 459 - 468
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): Sandra L. Jackson, Sandra Safo, Lisa R. Staimez, Qi Long, Mary K. Rhee, Solveig A. Cunningham, Darin E. Olson, Anne M. Tomolo, Usha Ramakrishnan, K.M. Venkat Narayan, Lawrence S. Phillips
      Introduction Lifestyle change programs implemented within healthcare systems could reach many Americans, but their impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unclear. The MOVE! program is the largest lifestyle change program implemented in a healthcare setting in the U.S. This study aimed to determine whether MOVE! participation was associated with reduced CVD incidence. Methods This retrospective cohort study, analyzed in 2013–2015, used national Veterans Health Administration databases to identify MOVE! participants and eligible non-participants for comparison (2005–2012). Patients eligible for MOVE!—obese or overweight with a weight-related health condition, and no baseline CVD—were examined (N=1,463,003). Of these, 169,248 (12%) were MOVE! participants. Patients were 92% male, 76% white, with mean age 52 years and BMI of 32. The main outcome was incidence of CVD (ICD-9 and procedure codes for coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and heart failure). Results Adjusting for age, race, sex, BMI, statin use, and baseline comorbidities, over a mean 4.9 years of follow-up, MOVE! participation was associated with lower incidence of total CVD (hazard ratio [HR]=0.83, 95% CI=0.80, 0.86); coronary artery disease (HR=0.81, 95% CI=0.77, 0.86); cerebrovascular disease (HR=0.87, 95% CI=0.82, 0.92); peripheral vascular disease (HR=0.89, 95% CI=0.83, 0.94); and heart failure (HR=0.78, 95% CI=0.74, 0.83). The association between MOVE! participation and CVD incidence remained significant when examined across categories of race/ethnicity, BMI, diabetes, hypertension, smoking status, and statin use. Conclusions Although participation was limited, MOVE! was associated with reduced CVD incidence in a nationwide healthcare setting.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.10.013
  • Economic Recession, Alcohol, and Suicide Rates: Comparative Effects of
           Poverty, Foreclosure, and Job Loss
    • Authors: William C. Kerr; Mark S. Kaplan; Nathalie Huguet; Raul Caetano; Norman Giesbrecht; Bentson H. McFarland
      Pages: 469 - 475
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): William C. Kerr, Mark S. Kaplan, Nathalie Huguet, Raul Caetano, Norman Giesbrecht, Bentson H. McFarland
      Introduction Suicide rates and the proportion of alcohol-involved suicides rose during the 2008–2009 recession. Associations between county-level poverty, foreclosures, and unemployment and suicide rates and proportion of alcohol-involved suicides were investigated. Methods In 2015, National Violent Death Reporting System data from 16 states in 2005–2011 were utilized to calculate suicide rates and a measure of alcohol involvement in suicides at the county level. Panel models with year and state fixed effects included county-level measures of unemployment, foreclosure, and poverty rates. Results Poverty rates were strongly associated with suicide rates for both genders and all age groups, were positively associated with alcohol involvement in suicides for men aged 45–64 years, and negatively associated for men aged 20–44 years. Foreclosure rates were negatively associated with suicide rates for women and those aged ≥65 years but positively related for those aged 45–64 years. Unemployment rate effects on suicide rates were mediated by poverty rates in all groups. Conclusions Population risk of suicide was most clearly associated with county-level poverty rates, indicating that programs addressing area poverty should be targeted for reducing suicide risk. Poverty rates were also associated with increased alcohol involvement for men aged 45–64 years, indicating a role for alcohol in suicide for this working-aged group. However, negative associations between economic indicators and alcohol involvement were found for four groups, suggesting that non-economic factors or more general economic effects not captured by these indicators may have played a larger role in alcohol-related suicide increases.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.09.021
  • Community-Level Inequalities in Concussion Education of Youth Football
    • Authors: Emily Kroshus; Zachary Y. Kerr; Joseph G.L. Lee
      Pages: 476 - 482
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): Emily Kroshus, Zachary Y. Kerr, Joseph G.L. Lee
      Introduction USA Football has made the Heads Up Football (HUF) concussion education program available for coaches of youth football players. Existing evidence about the effectiveness of the HUF coach education program is equivocal. For HUF and other programs, there is growing concern that even effective interventions can increase inequalities if there is different uptake or impact by SES or other demographic factors. Understanding how adoption is patterned along these lines is important for understanding equity issues in youth football. This study tested the hypothesis that there will be lower adoption of HUF among coaches of youth football players in lower-SES communities. Methods The authors conducted a cross-sectional study of the association between community-level characteristics and number of USA Football youth league coaches who have completed HUF. Data were collected in 2014 and analyzed in 2015–2016. Results Implementation of the HUF program was patterned by community-level socioeconomic characteristics. Leagues located in communities with a higher percentage of families with children aged <18 years living below the poverty line and a smaller percentage of non-Hispanic white residents tended to have leagues with smaller percentages of HUF-certified coaches. Conclusions As interventions are developed that reduce the risks of youth football, it is important to consider not just the effectiveness of these interventions, but also whether they reduce or exacerbate health inequities. These results suggest that relying on voluntary adoption of coach education may result in inequitable implementation. Further study is required to identify and remedy organizational and contextual barriers to implementation of coach education in youth sport.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.12.021
  • Disparities in Tuberculosis Treatment Completion by Incarceration Status,
           U.S., 1999–2011
    • Authors: Kiren Mitruka; Tyson Volkmann; Robert H. Pratt; J. Steve Kammerer
      Pages: 483 - 490
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): Kiren Mitruka, Tyson Volkmann, Robert H. Pratt, J. Steve Kammerer
      Introduction Treatment completion is the cornerstone of tuberculosis (TB) control strategy globally. Although the majority of reported TB cases in the U.S. have documented treatment completion, individuals diagnosed while incarcerated are less likely to have documentation of whether or not they completed treatment. This study assessed trends and correlates of no documented treatment completion among individuals incarcerated at diagnosis. Methods U.S. National TB Surveillance System (1999–2011) data on cases eligible for treatment completion were analyzed during 2014–2015. Treatment outcomes and trends in no documented completion were assessed by incarceration status. Multivariable logistic regression identified correlates of no documented completion among people incarcerated at diagnosis. Results A lower proportion of individuals incarcerated at diagnosis had documented TB treatment completion than non-incarcerated individuals (75.6% vs 93.7%), and a higher proportion were lost to follow-up (10.7% vs 2.2%) or moved (9.4% vs 2.3%) during treatment (p<0.001). The 1999–2011 trend in no documented completion significantly increased among those incarcerated at diagnosis and declined among non-incarcerated individuals. Being foreign born was the strongest correlate of no documented completion among people incarcerated at diagnosis (AOR=2.86, 95% CI= 2.35, 3.49). Social risk factors for TB (e.g., homelessness, substance abuse), although common among incarcerated individuals, did not emerge as correlates of no documented completion. Conclusions People diagnosed with TB disease at U.S. correctional facilities, especially the foreign born, require enhanced strategies for documenting TB treatment completion. Strengthened collaboration between correctional and public health agencies could improve continuity of care among released inmates.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.10.035
  • Impact of Social Determinants of Health on Medical Conditions Among
           Transgender Veterans
    • Authors: John R. Blosnich; Mary C. Marsiglio; Melissa E. Dichter; Shasha Gao; Adam J. Gordon; Jillian C. Shipherd; Michael R. Kauth; George R. Brown; Michael J. Fine
      Pages: 491 - 498
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): John R. Blosnich, Mary C. Marsiglio, Melissa E. Dichter, Shasha Gao, Adam J. Gordon, Jillian C. Shipherd, Michael R. Kauth, George R. Brown, Michael J. Fine
      Introduction Transgender individuals experience pronounced disparities in health (e.g., mood disorders, suicide risk) and in the prevalence of social determinants of housing instability, financial strain, and violence. The objectives of this study were to understand the prevalence of social determinants among transgender veterans and assess their associations with medical conditions. Methods This project was a records review using administrative data from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs databases for 1997–2014. Transgender veterans (N=6,308) were defined as patients with any of four ICD-9 diagnosis codes associated with transgender status. Social determinants were operationalized using ICD-9 codes and Department of Veterans Affairs clinical screens indicating violence, housing instability, or financial strain. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the associations of social determinants with medical conditions: mood disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol abuse disorder, illicit drug abuse disorder, tobacco use disorder, suicidal risk, HIV, and hepatitis C. Results After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, housing instability and financial strain were significantly associated with all medical conditions except for HIV, and violence was significantly associated with all medical conditions except for tobacco use disorder and HIV. There was a dose response–like relationship between the increasing number of forms of social determinants being associated with increasing odds for medical conditions. Conclusions Social determinants are prevalent factors in transgender patients’ lives, exhibiting strong associations with medical conditions. Documenting social determinants in electronic health records can help providers to identify and address these factors in treatment goals.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.12.019
  • Disclosing Genetic Risk for Coronary Heart Disease: Attitudes Toward
           Personal Information in Health Records
    • Authors: Sherry-Ann Brown; Hayan Jouni; Tariq S. Marroush; Iftikhar J. Kullo
      Pages: 499 - 506
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): Sherry-Ann Brown, Hayan Jouni, Tariq S. Marroush, Iftikhar J. Kullo
      Introduction Incorporating genetic risk information in electronic health records (EHRs) will facilitate implementation of genomic medicine in clinical practice. However, little is known about patients’ attitudes toward incorporation of genetic risk information as a component of personal health information in EHRs. This study investigated whether disclosure of a genetic risk score (GRS) for coronary heart disease influences attitudes toward incorporation of personal health information including genetic risk in EHRs. Methods Participants aged 45–65 years with intermediate 10-year coronary heart disease risk were randomized to receive a conventional risk score (CRS) alone or with a GRS from a genetic counselor, followed by shared decision making with a physician using the same standard presentation and information templates for all study participants. The CRS and GRS were then incorporated into the EHR and made accessible to both patients and physicians. Baseline and post-disclosure surveys were completed to assess whether attitudes differed by GRS disclosure. Data were collected from 2013 to 2015 and analyzed in 2015–2016. Results GRS and CRS participants reported similar positive attitudes toward incorporation of genetic risk information in the EHR. Compared with CRS participants, participants with high GRS were more concerned about the confidentiality of genetic risk information (OR=3.67, 95% CI=1.29, 12.32, p=0.01). Post-disclosure, frequency of patient portal access was associated with positive attitudes. Conclusions Participants in this study of coronary heart disease risk disclosure overall had positive attitudes toward incorporation of genetic risk information in EHRs, although those who received genetic risk information had concerns about confidentiality.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.11.005
  • Patterns of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Among U.S. Young Adults,
    • Authors: Ramzi G. Salloum; James F. Thrasher; Kayla R. Getz; Tracey E. Barnett; Taghrid Asfar; Wasim Maziak
      Pages: 507 - 512
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): Ramzi G. Salloum, James F. Thrasher, Kayla R. Getz, Tracey E. Barnett, Taghrid Asfar, Wasim Maziak
      Introduction Patterns of waterpipe smoking and associated other tobacco use were assessed among U.S. young adults (aged 18–24 years). Methods A descriptive analysis of baseline data (2013–2014) from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study was conducted in 2016. Results The study included 9,119 young adults—44% ever and 11% past−30 day waterpipe smokers (12% of men and 9% of women were past−30 day smokers). Among past−30 day smokers, waterpipe smoking frequency was distributed as follows: 4% daily, 23% weekly, 36% monthly, and 37% less than monthly. The average session exceeded 30 minutes for 79% of respondents. In this age group, 29% were exclusive waterpipe smokers, 16% were dual (waterpipe/cigarette) smokers, 8% were dual (waterpipe/e-cigarette) users, 19% were waterpipe/cigarette/e-cigarette users, and 28% presented with other combinations of poly use. Conclusions Waterpipe smoking is widespread among U.S. young adults. Although waterpipe patterns are predominantly intermittent, the average smoking session provides prolonged exposure. Waterpipe smoking among young adults is primarily characterized by the use of flavored tobacco, the café culture, and poly tobacco use. Rising trends in waterpipe smoking among U.S. youth warrant a strong regulatory response to prevent future waterpipe-related morbidity and mortality.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.10.015
  • Correlates of Hookah Pipe Awareness and Perceived Harmfulness Among U.S.
    • Authors: Kahee A. Mohammed; Christian J. Geneus; Simon Yadgir; Divya S. Subramaniam; Thomas E. Burroughs
      Pages: 513 - 518
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): Kahee A. Mohammed, Christian J. Geneus, Simon Yadgir, Divya S. Subramaniam, Thomas E. Burroughs
      Introduction Hookah smoking has recently become a common form of smoking, and its prevalence has increased worldwide. This study determined the prevalence and correlates of hookah awareness and perceived harmfulness among U.S. adults. Methods Weighted multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed on 6,711 adults aged ≥18 years collected from the 2013–2014 Health Information National Trends Survey (Cycles 3 and 4). Analysis was conducted in 2016. Results Overall, 74.3% were aware of hookah. Of these, 73.4% believed hookah pipes were equally harmful as cigarettes whereas 15.7% believed otherwise. Older (OR=0.13, 95% CI=0.09, 0.18), black (OR=0.51, 95% CI=0.38, 0.71), Hispanic (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.37, 0.71), and less-educated (OR=0.42, 95% CI=0.27, 0.65) respondents had lower odds of being aware of hookah. Compared with non-smokers, former smokers had 83% (95% CI=1.44, 2.33) higher odds of hookah awareness. Among those aware of hookah, older (OR=0.44, 95% CI=0.31, 0.62), black (OR=0.64, 95% CI=0.43, 0.96), and less-educated (OR=0.55, 95% CI=0.33, 0.92) respondents had lower odds of perceiving hookah as less harmful than cigarettes. Conclusions Most adults in U.S. are aware of hookah, but only 15.7% believe it is less harmful than cigarettes. This small proportion are mostly young, white, and college graduates. Targeted behavioral interventions will be necessary to increase individuals’ perceived risk, knowledge, and perceived harmfulness of hookah smoking.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.10.032
  • Diabetes Prevention in U.S. Hispanic Adults: A Systematic Review of
           Culturally Tailored Interventions
    • Authors: Jessica L. McCurley; Angela P. Gutierrez; Linda C. Gallo
      Pages: 519 - 529
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): Jessica L. McCurley, Angela P. Gutierrez, Linda C. Gallo
      Context Type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, and metabolic syndrome are highly prevalent in Hispanic individuals in the U.S. Cultural adaptations of traditional lifestyle interventions have been recommended to better reach this high-risk population. This systematic review examined the effectiveness of diabetes prevention programs for Hispanics in lowering risk for Type 2 diabetes, as evidenced by a reduction in weight or improvement in glucose regulation. Evidence acquisition PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and PsycINFO were searched from database inception to June 2016 for studies that evaluated diabetes prevention trials targeting U.S. Hispanic populations. Twelve publications met criteria for inclusion. Evidence synthesis Interventions varied substantially in length, rigor, and tailoring strategies. Five of 12 studies were RCTs. Eight studies included entirely or largely (>70%) female samples. All studies were delivered in Spanish and took place in community settings. Nine studies reported significant reductions in weight, and two in glucose regulation, post-intervention or when compared with controls. Effect sizes were small to moderate, study quality was moderate, and attrition was high in most trials. Interventions with the largest effect sizes included one or more of the following adaptations: literacy modification, Hispanic foods/recipes, cultural diabetes beliefs, family/friend participation, structured community input, and innovative experiential learning. Conclusions Culturally tailored lifestyle interventions for diabetes prevention appear to be modestly effective in reducing risk for diabetes in Hispanics in the U.S. More studies are needed that utilize randomized controlled designs, recruit Hispanic men, report intervention content and tailoring strategies systematically, and publish participant evaluation and feedback.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.10.028
  • Community Audit of Social, Civil, and Activity Domains in Diverse
           Environments (CASCADDE)
    • Authors: Emily A. Knapp; Claudia Nau; Sy Brandau; Joseph DeWalle; Annemarie G. Hirsch; Lisa Bailey-Davis; Brian S. Schwartz; Thomas A. Glass
      Pages: 530 - 540
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): Emily A. Knapp, Claudia Nau, Sy Brandau, Joseph DeWalle, Annemarie G. Hirsch, Lisa Bailey-Davis, Brian S. Schwartz, Thomas A. Glass
      There are currently no direct observation environmental audit tools that measure diverse aspects of the obesity-related environment efficiently and reliably in a variety of geographic settings. The goal was to develop a new instrument to reliably characterize the overall properties and features of rural, suburban, and urban settings along multiple dimensions. The Community Audit of Social, Civil, and Activity Domains in Diverse Environments (CASCADDE) is an iPad-based instrument that incorporates GPS coordinates and photography and comprises 214 items yielding seven summary indices. A comprehensive spatial sampling strategy, training manual, and supporting data analysis code were also developed. Random geospatial sampling using GIS was used to capture features of the community as a whole. A single auditor collected 510 observation points in 30 communities (2013–2015). This analysis was done in 2015–2016. Correlation coefficients were used to compare items and indices to each other and to standard measures. Multilevel unconditional means models were used to calculate intraclass correlation coefficients to determine if there was significant variation between communities. Results suggest that CASCADDE measures aspects of communities not previously captured by secondary data sources. Additionally, seven summary indices capture meaningful differences between communities based on 15 observations per community. Community audit tools such as CASCADDE complement secondary data sources and have the potential to offer new insights about the mechanisms through which communities affect obesity and other health outcomes.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.11.013
  • Reproducibility of Accelerometer-Assessed Physical Activity and Sedentary
    • Authors: Sarah Kozey Keadle; Eric J. Shiroma; Masamitsu Kamada; Charles E. Matthews; Tamara B. Harris; I-Min Lee
      Pages: 541 - 548
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): Sarah Kozey Keadle, Eric J. Shiroma, Masamitsu Kamada, Charles E. Matthews, Tamara B. Harris, I-Min Lee
      Introduction Accelerometers are used increasingly in large epidemiologic studies, but, given logistic and cost constraints, most studies are restricted to a single, 7-day accelerometer monitoring period. It is unknown how well a 7-day accelerometer monitoring period estimates longer-term patterns of behavior, which is critical for interpreting, and potentially improving, disease risk estimates in etiologic studies. Methods A subset of participants from the Women’s Health Study (N=209; mean age, 70.6 [SD=5.7] years) completed at least two 7-day accelerometer administrations (ActiGraph GT3X+) within a period of 2–3 years. Monitor output was translated into total counts, steps, and time spent in sedentary, light-intensity, and moderate to vigorous–intensity activity (MVPA) and bouted-MVPA (i.e., 10-minute bouts). For each metric, intraclass correlations (ICCs) and 95% CIs were calculated using linear-mixed models and adjusted for wear time, age, BMI, and season. The data were collected in 2011–2015 and analyzed in 2015–2016. Results The ICCs ranged from 0.67 (95% CI=0.60, 0.73) for bouted-MVPA to 0.82 (95% CI=0.77, 0.85) for total daily counts and were similar across age, BMI, and for less and more active women. For all metrics, classification accuracy within 1 quartile was >90%. Conclusions These data provide reassurance that a 7-day accelerometer-assessment protocol provides a reproducible (and practical) measure of physical activity and sedentary time. However, ICCs varied by metric; therefore, future prospective studies of chronic diseases might benefit from existing methods to adjust risk estimates for within-person variability in activity to get a better estimate of the true strength of association.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.11.010
  • Denominator Issues for Personally Generated Data in Population Health
    • Authors: Rumi Chunara; Lauren E. Wisk; Elissa R. Weitzman
      Pages: 549 - 553
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4
      Author(s): Rumi Chunara, Lauren E. Wisk, Elissa R. Weitzman

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.10.038
  • Information for CME Credit—Community-Level Inequalities in Concussion
           Education of Youth Football Coaches
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
  • Information for CME Credit—Disparities in Tuberculosis Treatment
           Completion by Incarceration Status, U.S., 1999–2011
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
  • A Cohen, C Richardson, M Heisler, A Sen, E Murphy, O Hesterman, M Davis, S
           Zick. Increasing Use of a Healthy Food Incentive: A Waiting Room
           Intervention Among Low-Income Patients. Am J Prev Med 2017;52(2):154–162
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
  • Correction
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
  • Correction
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
  • Acknowledgments for AJPM Volumes 50 and 51
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 4

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
  • Proposed Medicare Coverage for Diabetes Prevention: Strengths,
           Limitations, and Recommendations for Improvement
    • Authors: Natalie D. Ritchie; Edward P. Havranek; Susan L. Moore; Rocio I. Pereira
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Natalie D. Ritchie, Edward P. Havranek, Susan L. Moore, Rocio I. Pereira

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.02.005
  • Primary Enforcement of Mandatory Seat Belt Laws and Motor Vehicle Crash
    • Authors: Sam Harper; Erin C. Strumpf
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Sam Harper, Erin C. Strumpf
      Introduction Policies that allow directly citing motorists for seat belt non-use (primary enforcement) have been shown to reduce motor vehicle crash deaths relative to secondary enforcement, but the evidence base is dated and does not account for recent improvements in vehicle designs and road safety. The purpose of this study was to test whether recent upgrades to primary enforcement still reduce motor vehicle crash deaths. Methods In 2016, researchers used motor vehicle crash death data from the Fatal Analysis Reporting System for 2000–2014 and calculated rates using both person- and exposure-based denominators. Researchers used a difference-in-differences design to estimate the effect of primary enforcement on death rates, and estimated negative binomial regression models, controlling for age, substance use involvement, fixed state characteristics, secular trends, state median household income, and other state-level traffic safety policies. Results Models adjusted only for crash characteristics and state-level covariates models showed a protective effect of primary enforcement (rate ratio, 0.88, 95% CI=0.77, 0.98; rate difference, –1.47 deaths per 100,000 population, 95% CI= –2.75, –0.19). After adjustment for fixed state characteristics and secular trends, there was no evidence of an effect of upgrading from secondary to primary enforcement in the whole population (rate ratio, 0.98, 95% CI=0.92, 1.04; rate difference, –0.22, 95% CI= –0.90, 0.46) or for any age group. Conclusions Upgrading to primary enforcement no longer appears protective for motor vehicle crash death rates.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.02.003
  • Accessibility and Affordability of Supermarkets: Associations With the
           DASH Diet
    • Authors: Joreintje D. Mackenbach; Thomas Burgoine; Jeroen Lakerveld; Nita G. Forouhi; Simon J. Griffin; Nicholas J. Wareham; Pablo Monsivais
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Joreintje D. Mackenbach, Thomas Burgoine, Jeroen Lakerveld, Nita G. Forouhi, Simon J. Griffin, Nicholas J. Wareham, Pablo Monsivais
      Introduction It is unknown whether there is an interplay of affordability (economic accessibility) and proximity (geographic accessibility) of supermarkets in relation to having a Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-accordant diet. Methods Data (collected: 2005–2015, analyzed: 2016) were from the cross-sectional, population-based Fenland Study cohort: 9,274 adults aged 29–64 years, living in Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom. Dietary quality was evaluated using an index of DASH dietary accordance, based on recorded consumption of foods and beverages in a validated 130-item, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. DASH accordance was defined as a DASH score in the top quintile. Dietary costs (£/day) were estimated by attributing a food price variable to the foods consumed according to the questionnaire. Individuals were classified as having low-, medium-, or high-cost diets. Supermarket affordability was determined based on the cost of a 101-item market basket. Distances between home address to the nearest supermarket (geographic accessibility) and nearest economically-appropriate supermarket (economic accessibility) were divided into tertiles. Results Higher-cost diets were more likely to be DASH-accordant. After adjustment for key demographics and exposure to other food outlets, individuals with lowest economic accessibility to supermarkets had lower odds of being DASH-accordant (OR=0.59, 95% CI=0.52, 0.68) than individuals with greatest economic accessibility. This association was stronger than with geographic accessibility alone (OR=0.85, 95% CI=0.74, 0.98). Conclusions Results suggest that geographic and economic access to food should be taken into account when considering approaches to promote adherence to healthy diets for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and other chronic disease.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.01.044
  • Effectiveness of Switching Smoking-Cessation Medications Following Relapse
    • Authors: Bryan W. Heckman; K. Michael Cummings; Karin A. Kasza; Ron Borland; Jessica L. Burris; Geoffrey T. Fong; Ann McNeill; Matthew J. Carpenter
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Bryan W. Heckman, K. Michael Cummings, Karin A. Kasza, Ron Borland, Jessica L. Burris, Geoffrey T. Fong, Ann McNeill, Matthew J. Carpenter
      Introduction Nicotine dependence is a chronic disorder often characterized by multiple failed quit attempts (QAs). Yet, little is known about the sequence of methods used across multiple QAs or how this may impact future ability to abstain from smoking. This prospective cohort study examines the effectiveness of switching smoking-cessation medications (SCMs) across multiple QAs. Methods Adult smokers (aged ≥18 years) participating in International Tobacco Control surveys in the United Kingdom, U.S., Canada, and Australia (N=795) who: (1) completed two consecutive surveys between 2006 and 2011; (2) initiated a QA at least 1 month before each survey; and (3) provided data for the primary predictor (SCM use during most recent QA), outcome (1-month point prevalence abstinence), and relevant covariates. Analyses were conducted in 2016. Results Five SCM user classifications were identified: (1) non-users (43.5%); (2) early users (SCM used for initial, but not subsequent QA; 11.4%); (3) later users (SCM used for subsequent, but not initial QA; 18.4%); (4) repeaters (same SCM used for both QAs; 10.7%); and (5) switchers (different SCM used for each QA; 14.2%). Abstinence rates were lower for non-users (15.9%, OR=0.48, p=0.002), early users (16.6%, OR=0.27, p=0.03), and repeaters (12.4%, OR=0.36, p=0.004) relative to switchers (28.5%). Conclusions Findings suggest smokers will be more successful if they use a SCM in QAs and vary the SCM they use across time. That smokers can increase their odds of quitting by switching SCMs is an important message that could be communicated to smokers.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.01.038
  • Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and 20-Year Physical Activity Trends Among
    • Authors: Ashley Winning; Paola Gilsanz; Karestan C. Koenen; Andrea L. Roberts; Qixuan Chen; Jennifer A. Sumner; Eric B. Rimm; M. Maria Glymour; Laura D. Kubzansky
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Ashley Winning, Paola Gilsanz, Karestan C. Koenen, Andrea L. Roberts, Qixuan Chen, Jennifer A. Sumner, Eric B. Rimm, M. Maria Glymour, Laura D. Kubzansky
      Introduction Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be associated with physical inactivity, a modifiable lifestyle factor that contributes to risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases; however, no study has evaluated the association between PTSD onset and subsequent physical activity (PA) changes. Method Analyses were conducted between October 2014 and April 2016, using data from the ongoing Nurses’ Health Study II (N=50,327). Trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms were assessed using two previously validated measures, the Brief Trauma Questionnaire and Short Screening Scale for DSM-IV PTSD. Average PA (hours/week) was assessed using self-report measures at six time points across 20 years (1989–2009). Linear mixed models with time-updated PTSD assessed differences in PA trajectories by trauma/PTSD status. Among a subsample of women whose trauma/PTSD onset during follow-up, group differences in PA patterns before and after onset were assessed using linear spline models. Results PA decreased more steeply over time among trauma-exposed women reporting four or five (β= –2.5E–3, SE=1.0E–3, p=0.007) or six or seven PTSD symptoms (β= –6.7E–3, SE=1.1E–3, p<0.001) versus women without trauma exposure, adjusting for potential confounders. Among a subsample of women whose trauma/PTSD symptoms onset during follow-up, no differences in PA were observed prior to onset; after onset, women with six or seven PTSD symptoms had a steeper decline (β= –17.1E–3, SE=4.2E–3, p<0.001) in PA over time than trauma-exposed women without PTSD. Conclusions Decreases in PA associated with PTSD symptoms may be a pathway through which PTSD influences cardiovascular and other chronic diseases.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.01.040
  • Flavored Tobacco Product Use in Youth and Adults: Findings From the First
           Wave of the PATH Study (2013–2014)
    • Authors: Andrea C. Villanti; Amanda L. Johnson; Bridget K. Ambrose; K. Michael Cummings; Cassandra A. Stanton; Shyanika W. Rose; Shari P. Feirman; Cindy Tworek; Allison M. Glasser; Jennifer L. Pearson; Amy M. Cohn; Kevin P. Conway; Raymond S. Niaura; Maansi Bansal-Travers; Andrew Hyland
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Andrea C. Villanti, Amanda L. Johnson, Bridget K. Ambrose, K. Michael Cummings, Cassandra A. Stanton, Shyanika W. Rose, Shari P. Feirman, Cindy Tworek, Allison M. Glasser, Jennifer L. Pearson, Amy M. Cohn, Kevin P. Conway, Raymond S. Niaura, Maansi Bansal-Travers, Andrew Hyland
      Introduction The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act banned characterizing flavors other than menthol in cigarettes but did not restrict their use in other forms of tobacco (e.g., smokeless, cigars, hookah, e-cigarettes). Methods A cross-sectional analysis of Wave 1 data from 45,971 U.S. adults and youth, aged ≥12 years in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study collected in 2013–2014, was conducted in 2016. This study examined (1) the prevalence and reasons for use of flavored tobacco products; (2) the proportion of ever tobacco users reporting that their first product was flavored; and (3) correlates of current flavored tobacco product use. Results Current flavored (including menthol) tobacco product use was highest in youth (80%, aged 12–17 years); and young adult tobacco users (73%, aged 18–24 years); and lowest in older adult tobacco users aged ≥65 years (29%). Flavor was a primary reason for using a given tobacco product, particularly among youth. Eighty-one percent of youth and 86% of young adult ever tobacco users reported that their first product was flavored versus 54% of adults aged ≥25 years. In multivariable models, reporting that one’s first tobacco product was flavored was associated with a 13% higher prevalence of current tobacco use among youth ever tobacco users and a 32% higher prevalence of current tobacco use among adult ever users. Conclusions These results add to the evidence base that flavored tobacco products may attract young users and serve as starter products to regular tobacco use.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T01:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.01.026
  • Neighborhood Socioeconomic Deprivation and Weight Change in a Large U.S.
    • Authors: Qian Xiao; David Berrigan; Sarah K. Keadle; Charles E. Matthews
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Qian Xiao, David Berrigan, Sarah K. Keadle, Charles E. Matthews
      Introduction Both excessive weight gain and weight loss are important risk factors in the older population. Neighborhood environment may play an important role in weight change, but neighborhood effects on weight gain and weight loss have not been studied separately. This study examined the associations between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and excessive weight gain and weight loss. Methods This analysis included 153,690 men and 105,179 women (aged 51–70 years). Baseline addresses were geocoded into geographic coordinates and linked to the 2000 U.S. Census at the Census tract level. Census variables were used to generate a socioeconomic deprivation index by principle component analysis. Excessive weight gain and loss were defined as gaining or losing >10% of baseline (1995–1996) body weight at follow-up (2004–2006). The analysis was performed in 2015. Results More severe neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was associated with higher risks of both excessive weight gain and weight loss after adjusting for individual indicators of SES, disease conditions, and lifestyle factors (Quintile 5 vs Quintile 1: weight gain, OR=1.36, 95% CI=1.28, 1.45 for men and OR=1.20, 95% CI=1.13, 1.27 for women; weight loss, OR=1.09, 95%% CI=1.02, 1.17 for men and OR=1.23, 95% CI=1.14, 1.32 for women). The findings were fairly consistent across subpopulations with different demographics and lifestyle factors. Conclusions Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation predicts higher risk of excessive weight gain and weight loss.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T01:31:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.01.036
  • A Patient and Provider Research Agenda on Diabetes and Hypertension
    • Authors: Emily B. Zimmerman; Sarah K. Cook; Amber D. Haley; Steven H. Woolf; Sarah K. Price; Danielle Berman; Thomas DeLeire; Rebecca Etz; Jag Khalsa; Kirsten Knutson; Kathryn Kolasa; Alex Krist; Anton Kuzel; Pearl Lee; Theresa J. Nartea; Gretchen Piatt; Hilary Seligman; Joni Strom Williams; Josh Brown; Jennifer Early; Jill Hellman; Julie Karr; Megan Kervin; Isra Malik; Albert Walker; Sheila Goode; Danita Gregory; Sharon Herman; Brenda Kenney; Chimere Miles; Audrey Smith; Travis White
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Emily B. Zimmerman, Sarah K. Cook, Amber D. Haley, Steven H. Woolf, Sarah K. Price, Danielle Berman, Thomas DeLeire, Rebecca Etz, Jag Khalsa, Kirsten Knutson, Kathryn Kolasa, Alex Krist, Anton Kuzel, Pearl Lee, Theresa J. Nartea, Gretchen Piatt, Hilary Seligman, Joni Strom Williams, Josh Brown, Jennifer Early, Jill Hellman, Julie Karr, Megan Kervin, Isra Malik, Albert Walker, Sheila Goode, Danita Gregory, Sharon Herman, Brenda Kenney, Chimere Miles, Audrey Smith, Travis White
      Introduction A demonstration project in Richmond, Virginia involved patients and other stakeholders in the creation of a research agenda on dietary and behavioral management of diabetes and hypertension. Given the impact of these diseases on morbidity and mortality, considerable research has been directed at the challenges patients face in chronic disease management. The continuing need to understand disparities and find evidence-based interventions to improve outcomes has been fruitful, but disparities and unmet needs persist. Methods The Stakeholder Engagement in Question Development (SEED) method is a stakeholder engagement methodology that combines engagement with a review of available evidence to generate research questions that address current research gaps and are important to patients and other stakeholders. Using the SEED method, patients and other stakeholders participated in research question development through a combination of collaborative, participatory, and consultative engagement. Steps in the process included: (1) identifying the topic and recruiting participants; (2) conducting focus groups and interviews; (3) developing conceptual models; (4) developing research questions; and (5) prioritizing research questions. Results Stakeholders were involved in the SEED process from February to August 2015. Eighteen questions were prioritized for inclusion in the research agenda, covering diverse domains, from healthcare provision to social and environmental factors. Data analysis took place September to May 2016. During this time, researchers conducted a literature review to target research gaps. Conclusions The stakeholder-prioritized, novel research questions developed through the SEED process can directly inform future research and guide the development of evidence that translates more directly to clinical practice.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T01:31:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.01.034
  • Divergent Responses to Mammography and Prostate-Specific Antigen
    • Authors: Kathryn A. Martinez; Michael B. Rothberg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Kathryn A. Martinez, Michael B. Rothberg

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T01:31:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.01.035
  • Positive Psychosocial Factors in Childhood Predicting Adult Type 2
           Diabetes: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, 1980–2012
    • Authors: Laura Pulkki-Råback; Marko Elovainio; Christian Hakulinen; Jari Lipsanen; Laura D. Kubzansky; Mirka Hintsanen; Kateryna Savelieva; Anna Serlachius; Costan G. Magnussen; Matthew A. Sabin; David P. Burgner; Terho Lehtimäki; Eero Jokinen; Tapani Rönnemaa; Vera Mikkilä; Antti Jula; Nina Hutri-Kähönen; Jorma Viikari; Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen; Olli Raitakari; Markus Juonala
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Laura Pulkki-Råback, Marko Elovainio, Christian Hakulinen, Jari Lipsanen, Laura D. Kubzansky, Mirka Hintsanen, Kateryna Savelieva, Anna Serlachius, Costan G. Magnussen, Matthew A. Sabin, David P. Burgner, Terho Lehtimäki, Eero Jokinen, Tapani Rönnemaa, Vera Mikkilä, Antti Jula, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Jorma Viikari, Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen, Olli Raitakari, Markus Juonala
      Introduction Type 2 diabetes is a public health concern, but psychosocial factors that may protect against the disease are unknown. This study examines whether a positive psychosocial environment in childhood is associated with lower risk for Type 2 diabetes in adulthood or healthier glucose trajectories over the life course, and whether BMI mediates the associations. Methods A cohort of 3,596 Finnish children was followed into adulthood over 32 years. An overall positive psychosocial score, consisting of six subdomains, was measured at study baseline (1980). Relative risk ratios and multilevel growth curve modeling were used to examine associations of the psychosocial score with Type 2 diabetes (2012) and glucose trajectories (1986–2012). The mediating effect by BMI was examined using mediation analysis. The analyses were conducted between June 2015 and January 2016. Results There was a 21% decrease in the rate of Type 2 diabetes (relative risk ratio, 0.79; 95% CI=0.66, 0.94) for each 1-SD increase in the positive psychosocial score after adjustment for childhood cardiovascular risk factors and dietary behaviors. Adult BMI mediated 52% and weight gain mediated 25% of the association. The growth curve model showed healthier glucose trajectories (age X psychosocial score interaction, b= –0.01; p=0.010) for participants with higher versus lower positive psychosocial score in childhood. Conclusions Positive psychosocial environment in childhood seems to have beneficial influences on the risk for Type 2 diabetes over the life span. RCTs will be required to see if interventions directed at early-life circumstances are warranted.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T01:31:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.01.042
  • Sexual and Behavioral Health Disparities Among Sexual Minority
           Hispanics/Latinos: Findings From the National Health and Nutrition
           Examination Survey, 2001–2014
    • Authors: Omar Martinez; Ji Hyun Lee; Frank Bandiera; E. Karina Santamaria; Ethan C. Levine; Don Operario
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Omar Martinez, Ji Hyun Lee, Frank Bandiera, E. Karina Santamaria, Ethan C. Levine, Don Operario
      Introduction Hispanics/Latinos (henceforth, Latinos) are the largest minority group in the U.S. With growing health disparities among this group, the highest burden remains among sexual and gender minority Latinos. Differences regarding sexual orientation have not been fully explored within this group using national representative samples. This study analyzed sexual and behavioral health disparities associated with sexual minority status among Latinos in the U.S. Methods The study included data from 5,598 Latino adults who participated in the 2001–2014 waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data analysis was conducted in 2016. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses examined the prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, mental health problems, cigarette smoking, and alcohol/illicit drug use among sexual minorities and heterosexual Latino adults. Sexual minorities were defined as “gay, lesbian, and bisexual” (GLB) and “other” non-heterosexual groups. Results GLB Latinos reported higher prevalence of mental health problems and cigarette smoking compared with heterosexuals. After adjusting for covariates, GLB Latinos had greater odds of testing positive for HIV, lifetime diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections, poor mental health outcomes, cigarette smoking (including lifetime and current smoking status), and illicit drug use than heterosexuals. Conclusions The disproportionate impact of health disparities among Latinos varies significantly by sexual orientation, with GLB individuals facing elevated prevalence. In particular, elevated odds for HIV/sexually transmitted infections, mental health problems, smoking, and illicit substance use were found. Further research, including longitudinal studies to understand the trajectories of risks, is needed to identify intervention opportunities in this population.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T01:31:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.01.037
  • National and State Trends in Sales of Cigarettes and E-Cigarettes, U.S.,
    • Authors: Kristy L. Marynak; Doris G. Gammon; Brian A. King; Brett R. Loomis; Erika B. Fulmer; Teresa W. Wang; Todd Rogers
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Kristy L. Marynak, Doris G. Gammon, Brian A. King, Brett R. Loomis, Erika B. Fulmer, Teresa W. Wang, Todd Rogers
      Introduction In recent years, self-reported cigarette smoking has declined among youth and adults, while electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased. However, sales trends for these products are less certain. This study assessed national and state patterns of U.S. cigarette and e-cigarette unit sales. Methods Trends in cigarette and e-cigarette unit sales were analyzed using retail scanner data from September 25, 2011 through January 9, 2016 for: (1) convenience stores; and (2) all other outlets combined, including supermarkets, mass merchandisers, drug, dollar, and club stores, and military commissaries (online, tobacco-only, and “vape“ shops were not available). Data by store type were available for the total contiguous U.S. and 29 states; combined data were available for the remaining states, except Alaska, Hawaii, and DC. Results During 2011–2015, cigarette sales exhibited a small, significant decrease; however, positive year-over-year growth occurred in convenience stores throughout most of 2015. E-cigarette unit sales significantly increased during 2011–2015, but year-over-year growth slowed and was occasionally negative. Cigarette unit sales exceeded e-cigarettes by 64:1 during the last 4-week period. During 2014–2015, cigarette sales increases occurred in 15 of 48 assessed states; e-cigarette sales increased in 18 states. Conclusions Despite overall declines during 2011–2015, cigarette sales in 2015 grew for the first time in a decade. E-cigarette sales growth was positive, but slowed over the study period in assessed stores. Cigarette sales continued to exceed e-cigarette sales, reinforcing the importance of efforts to reduce the appeal and accessibility of cigarettes and other combusted tobacco products.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T01:31:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.01.016
  • Recent Hepatitis C Virus Testing Patterns Among Baby Boomers
    • Authors: Ahmedin Jemal; Stacey A. Fedewa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Ahmedin Jemal, Stacey A. Fedewa

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T01:09:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.01.033
  • RCT Testing Bystander Effectiveness to Reduce Violence
    • Authors: Ann L. Coker; Heather M. Bush; Patricia G. Cook-Craig; Sarah A. DeGue; Emily R. Clear; Candace J. Brancato; Bonnie S. Fisher; Eileen A. Recktenwald
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Ann L. Coker, Heather M. Bush, Patricia G. Cook-Craig, Sarah A. DeGue, Emily R. Clear, Candace J. Brancato, Bonnie S. Fisher, Eileen A. Recktenwald
      Introduction Bystander-based programs have shown promise to reduce interpersonal violence at colleges, yet limited rigorous evaluations have addressed bystander intervention effectiveness in high schools. This study evaluated the Green Dot bystander intervention to reduce sexual violence and related forms of interpersonal violence in 26 high schools over 5 years. Design A cluster RCT was conducted. Setting/participants Kentucky high schools were randomized to intervention or control (wait list) conditions. Intervention Green Dot−trained educators conducted schoolwide presentations and recruited student popular opinion leaders to receive bystander training in intervention schools beginning in Year 1. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was sexual violence perpetration, and related forms of interpersonal violence victimization and perpetration were also measured using anonymous student surveys collected at baseline and annually from 2010 to 2014. Because the school was the unit of analysis, violence measures were aggregated by school and year and school-level counts were provided. Results A total of 89,707 students completed surveys. The primary, as randomized, analyses conducted in 2014–2016 included linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations to examine the condition−time interaction on violence outcomes. Slopes of school-level totals of sexual violence perpetration (condition−time, p<0.001) and victimization (condition−time, p<0.001) were different over time. During Years 3–4, when Green Dot was fully implemented, the mean number of sexual violent events prevented by the intervention was 120 in Intervention Year 3 and 88 in Year 4. For Year 3, prevalence rate ratios for sexual violence perpetration in the intervention relative to control schools were 0.83 (95% CI=0.70, 0.99) in Year 3 and 0.79 (95% CI=0.67, 0.94) in Year 4. Similar patterns were observed for sexual violence victimization, sexual harassment, stalking, and dating violence perpetration and victimization. Conclusions Implementation of Green Dot in Kentucky high schools significantly decreased not only sexual violence perpetration but also other forms of interpersonal violence perpetration and victimization.

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T01:09:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.01.020
  • Social Media Use and Perceived Social Isolation Among Young Adults in the
    • Authors: Brian A. Primack; Ariel Shensa; Jaime E. Sidani; Erin O. Whaite; Liu yi Lin; Daniel Rosen; Jason B. Colditz; Ana Radovic; Elizabeth Miller
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Brian A. Primack, Ariel Shensa, Jaime E. Sidani, Erin O. Whaite, Liu yi Lin, Daniel Rosen, Jason B. Colditz, Ana Radovic, Elizabeth Miller
      Introduction Perceived social isolation (PSI) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Social media platforms, commonly used by young adults, may offer an opportunity to ameliorate social isolation. This study assessed associations between social media use (SMU) and PSI among U.S. young adults. Methods Participants were a nationally representative sample of 1,787 U.S. adults aged 19–32 years. They were recruited in October–November 2014 for a cross-sectional survey using a sampling frame that represented 97% of the U.S. population. SMU was assessed using both time and frequency associated with use of 11 social media platforms, including Facebook, Twitter, Google+, YouTube, LinkedIn, Instagram, Pinterest, Tumblr, Vine, Snapchat, and Reddit. PSI was measured using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System scale. In 2015, ordered logistic regression was used to assess associations between SMU and SI while controlling for eight covariates. Results In fully adjusted multivariable models that included survey weights, compared with those in the lowest quartile for SMU time, participants in the highest quartile had twice the odds of having greater PSI (AOR=2.0, 95% CI=1.4, 2.8). Similarly, compared with those in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile of SMU frequency had more than three times the odds of having greater PSI (AOR=3.4, 95% CI=2.3, 5.1). Associations were linear (p<0.001 for all), and results were robust to all sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Young adults with high SMU seem to feel more socially isolated than their counterparts with lower SMU. Future research should focus on determining directionality and elucidating reasons for these associations.

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T01:09:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.01.010
  • Performance of a Random Glucose Case-Finding Strategy to Detect
           Undiagnosed Diabetes
    • Authors: Michael E. Bowen; Lei Xuan; Ildiko Lingvay; Ethan A. Halm
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Michael E. Bowen, Lei Xuan, Ildiko Lingvay, Ethan A. Halm
      Introduction Random glucose <200 mg/dL is associated with undiagnosed diabetes but not included in screening guidelines. This study describes a case-finding approach using non-diagnostic random glucose values to identify individuals in need of diabetes testing and compares its performance to current screening guidelines. Methods In 2015, cross-sectional data from non-fasting adults without diagnosed diabetes or prediabetes (N=7,161) in the 2007–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed. Random glucose and survey data were used to assemble the random glucose, American Diabetes Association (ADA), and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) screening strategies and predict diabetes using hemoglobin A1c criteria. Results Using random glucose ≥100 mg/dL to select individuals for diabetes testing was 81.6% (95% CI=74.9%, 88.4%) sensitive, 78% (95% CI=76.6%, 79.5%) specific and had an area under the receiver operating curve (AROC) of 0.80 (95% CI=0.78, 0.83) to detect undiagnosed diabetes. Overall performance of ADA (AROC=0.59, 95% CI=0.58, 0.60), 2008 USPSTF (AROC=0.62, 95% CI=0.59, 0.65), and 2015 USPSTF (AROC=0.64, 95% CI=0.61, 0.67) guidelines was similar. The random glucose strategy correctly identified one case of undiagnosed diabetes for every 14 people screened, which was more efficient than ADA (number needed to screen, 35), 2008 USPSTF (44), and 2015 USPSTF (32) guidelines. Conclusions Using random glucose ≥100 mg/dL to identify individuals in need of diabetes screening is highly sensitive and specific, performing better than current screening guidelines. Case-finding strategies informed by random glucose data may improve diabetes detection. Further evaluation of this strategy’s effectiveness in real-world clinical practice is needed.

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T01:09:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.01.023
  • Information for CME Credit—Activity and Sedentary Time 10 Years After a
           Successful Lifestyle Intervention: The Diabetes Prevention Program
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 3

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T01:09:51Z
  • Acknowledgments
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 3, Supplement 3

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T01:09:51Z
  • Information for CME Credit—The Longitudinal Impact of NFL PLAY 60
           Programming on Youth Aerobic Capacity and BMI
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 3

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T01:09:51Z
  • In Memoriam
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 52, Issue 3, Supplement 3

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T01:09:51Z
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