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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1292 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (18 journals)
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    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (524 journals)
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HEALTH AND SAFETY (524 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 221)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Healthy-Mu Journal     Open Access  
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover American Journal of Preventive Medicine
  [SJR: 2.764]   [H-I: 154]   [22 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0749-3797
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Differences in U.S. Suicide Rates by Educational Attainment,
    • Authors: Julie A. Phillips; Katherine Hempstead
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Julie A. Phillips, Katherine Hempstead
      Introduction The purpose of this study was to document the association between education and suicide risk, in light of rising suicide rates and socioeconomic differentials in mortality in the U.S. Methods Differentials and trends in U.S. suicide rates by education were examined from 2000 to 2014 using death certificate data on 442,135 suicides from the National Center for Health Statistics and Census data. Differences in the circumstances and characteristics of suicide deaths by education were investigated using 2013 data from the National Violent Death Reporting System for nine states. Analyses were conducted in 2016. Results Between 2000 and 2014, men and women aged ≥25 years with at least a college degree exhibited the lowest suicide rates; those with a high school degree displayed the highest rates. Men with a high school education were twice as likely to die by suicide compared with those with a college degree in 2014. The education gradient in suicide mortality generally remained constant over the study period. Interpersonal/relationship problems and substance abuse were more common circumstances for less educated decedents. Mental health issues and job problems were more prevalent among college-educated decedents. Conclusions The findings highlight the importance of social determinants in suicide risk, with important prevention implications.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.04.010
  • Transactions at a Northeastern Supermarket Chain: Differences by
           Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Use
    • Authors: Rebecca L. Franckle; Alyssa Moran; Tao Hou; Dan Blue; Julie Greene; Anne N. Thorndike; Michele Polacsek; Eric B. Rimm
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Rebecca L. Franckle, Alyssa Moran, Tao Hou, Dan Blue, Julie Greene, Anne N. Thorndike, Michele Polacsek, Eric B. Rimm
      Introduction Although one in seven Americans receives Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits, little is known about how these benefits for food are spent because individual-level sales data are not publicly available. The purpose of this study is to compare transactions made with and without SNAP benefits at a large regional supermarket chain. Methods Sales data were obtained from a large supermarket chain in the Northeastern U.S. for a period of 2 years (April 2012–April 2014). Multivariate multiple regression models were used to quantify relative differences in dollars spent on 31 predefined SNAP-eligible food categories. Analyses were completed in 2016. Results Transactions with SNAP benefit use included higher spending on less healthful food categories, including sugar-sweetened beverages ($1.08), red meat ($1.55), and convenience foods ($1.34), and lower spending on more healthful food categories, such as fruits (–$1.51), vegetables (–$1.35), and poultry (–$1.25) compared to transactions without SNAP benefit use. Conclusions These findings provide objective data to compare purchases made with and without SNAP benefits. Next steps should be to test proposed SNAP modifications to determine whether they would have the intended effect of promoting healthier purchasing patterns among SNAP beneficiaries.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.06.019
  • Initial Results of the Early Auditory Referral-Primary Care (EAR-PC) Study
    • Authors: Philip Zazove; Melissa A. Plegue; Paul R. Kileny; Michael M. McKee; Lauren S. Schleicher; Lee A. Green; Ananda Sen; Mary E. Rapai; Timothy C. Guetterman; Elie Mulhem
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Philip Zazove, Melissa A. Plegue, Paul R. Kileny, Michael M. McKee, Lauren S. Schleicher, Lee A. Green, Ananda Sen, Mary E. Rapai, Timothy C. Guetterman, Elie Mulhem
      Introduction Hearing loss (HL) is the second most common disability in the U.S., yet is clinically underdiagnosed. To manage its common adverse psychosocial and cognitive outcomes, early identification of HL must be improved. Methods A feasibility study conducted to increase screening for HL and referral of patients aged ≥55 years arriving at two family medicine clinics. Eligible patients were asked to complete a self-administered consent form and the Hearing Handicap Inventory (HHI). Independently, clinicians received a brief educational program after which an electronic clinical prompt (intervention) alerted them (blinded to HHI results) to screen for HL during applicable patient visits. Pre- and post-intervention differences were analyzed to assess the proportion of patients referred to audiology and those diagnosed with HL (primary outcomes) and the audiology referral appropriateness (secondary outcome). Referral rates for those who screened positive for HL on the HHI were compared with those who scored negatively. Results There were 5,520 eligible patients during the study period, of which 1,236 (22.4%) consented. After the intervention’s implementation, audiology referral rates increased from 1.2% to 7.1% (p<0.001). Overall, 293 consented patients (24%) completed the HHI and scored >10, indicating probable HL. Of these 293 patients, 28.0% were referred to audiology versus only 7.4% with scores <10 (p<0.001). Forty-two of the 54 referred patients seen by audiology were diagnosed with HL (78%). Overall, the diagnosis of HL on problem lists increased from 90 of 4,815 patients (1.9%) at baseline to 163 of 5,520 patients (3.0%, p<0.001) over only 8 months. Conclusions The electronic clinical prompt significantly increased audiology referrals for at-risk patients for HL in two family medicine clinics. Larger-scale studies are needed to address the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force call to assess the long-term impact of HL screening in community populations.

      PubDate: 2017-09-20T19:09:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.06.024
  • Veterans and the National Tragedy of Suicide
    • Authors: Nancy Lutwak; Curt Dill
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Nancy Lutwak, Curt Dill

      PubDate: 2017-09-20T19:09:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.03.024
  • Authors’ Response to “Veterans and the National Tragedy of
    • Authors: Emily Brignone; Jamison D. Fargo; Rebecca K. Blais; Marjorie E. Carter; Matthew H. Samore; Adi V. Gundlapalli
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Emily Brignone, Jamison D. Fargo, Rebecca K. Blais, Marjorie E. Carter, Matthew H. Samore, Adi V. Gundlapalli

      PubDate: 2017-09-20T19:09:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.04.004
  • Clinical Preventive Medicine: Causing More Identity Crisis for Preventive
           Medicine or Helping to Manage the Crisis
    • Authors: Elham Hatef; Clarence Lam
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Elham Hatef, Clarence Lam

      PubDate: 2017-09-20T19:09:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.04.016
  • Author Response to “Clinical Preventive Medicine: Causing More Identity
           Crisis for Preventive Medicine or Helping to Manage the Crisis”
    • Authors: Paul Jung; Boris D. Lushniak
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Paul Jung, Boris D. Lushniak

      PubDate: 2017-09-20T19:09:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.04.017
  • Federally Qualified Health Center Substitution of Local Health Department
    • Authors: Jeremy W. Snider; Betty R. Bekemeier; Douglas A. Conrad; David E. Grembowski
      Pages: 405 - 411
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Jeremy W. Snider, Betty R. Bekemeier, Douglas A. Conrad, David E. Grembowski
      Introduction Strategic and budgetary considerations have shifted local health departments (LHDs) away from safety net clinical services and toward population-focused services. Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) play an increasing role in the safety net, and may complement or substitute for LHD clinical services. The authors examined the association between FQHC service levels in communities and the presence of specific LHD clinical services in 2010 and 2013. Methods Data from LHD surveys and FQHC service data were merged for 2010 and 2013. Multivariate regression and instrumental variable methods were used to examine FQHC service levels that might predict related LHD service presence or discontinuation from 2010 to 2013. Results There were modest reductions in LHD service presence and increases in FQHC service volume over the time period. LHD primary care and dental service presence were inversely associated with higher related FQHC service volume. LHD prenatal care service presence, as well as a measure of change in general service approach, were not significantly associated with FQHC service volume. Conclusions LHDs were less likely to provide certain clinical services where FQHCs provide a greater volume of services, suggesting a substitution effect. However, certain clinical services, such as prenatal care, may complement the public health mission—and LHDs may be strategically placed to continue to deliver these services.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.06.006
  • Birth Order and Injury-Related Infant Mortality in the U.S.
    • Authors: Katherine A. Ahrens; Lauren M. Rossen; Marie E. Thoma; Margaret Warner; Alan E. Simon
      Pages: 412 - 420
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Katherine A. Ahrens, Lauren M. Rossen, Marie E. Thoma, Margaret Warner, Alan E. Simon
      Introduction The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of death during the first year of life due to injury, such as unintentional injury and homicide, by birth order in the U.S. Methods Using national birth cohort–linked birth–infant death data (births, 2000–2010; deaths, 2000–2011), risks of infant mortality due to injury in second-, third-, fourth-, and fifth or later–born singleton infants were compared with first-born singleton infants. Risk ratios were estimated using log-binomial models adjusted for maternal age, marital status, race/ethnicity, and education. The statistical analyses were conducted in 2016. Results Approximately 40%, 32%, 16%, 7%, and 4% of singleton live births were first, second, third, fourth, and fifth or later born, respectively. From 2000 to 2011, a total of 15,866 infants died as a result of injury (approximately 1,442 deaths per year). Compared with first-born infants (2.9 deaths per 10,000 live births), second or later–born infants were at increased risk of infant mortality due to injury (second, 3.6 deaths; third, 4.2 deaths; fourth, 4.8 deaths; fifth or later, 6.4 deaths). The corresponding adjusted risk ratios were as follows: second, 1.84 (95% CI=1.76, 1.91); third, 2.42 (95% CI=2.30, 2.54); fourth, 2.96 (95% CI=2.77, 3.16); and fifth or later, 4.26 (95% CI=3.96, 4.57). Conclusions Singleton infants born second or later were at increased risk of mortality due to injury during their first year of life in the U.S. This study’s findings highlight the importance of investigating underlying mechanisms behind this increased risk.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.04.018
  • Intersectionality: An Understudied Framework for Addressing Weight Stigma
    • Authors: Mary S. Himmelstein; Rebecca M. Puhl; Diane M. Quinn
      Pages: 421 - 431
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Mary S. Himmelstein, Rebecca M. Puhl, Diane M. Quinn
      Introduction Obesity is an ongoing public health concern in the U.S. Weight stigma is linked to a number of obesogenic health outcomes, which complicate obesity treatment and prevention. Despite higher rates of obesity in female and minority populations, little research has examined weight stigma in non-white women and men. This study investigated intersectionality in weight stigma and health-related coping responses to stigmatizing experiences across racial groups. Methods In 2015, a total of 2,378 adults completed questionnaires about weight stigma, weight bias internalization, and coping strategies. Analyses were conducted in 2016. Results No differences in weight stigma emerged as a function of race or gender, but women reported higher weight bias internalization (B=0.19, p=0.004). Further, black men and women reported less weight bias internalization than white men and women (B=–0.43, p=0.009). Compared with white women, black women were less likely to cope with stigma using disordered eating (B=–0.57, p=0.001), whereas Hispanic women were more likely to cope with stigma using disordered eating (B=0.39, p=0.020). Black men were more likely than white men to cope with stigma via eating (B=–0.49, p=0.017). Conclusions Findings highlight that weight stigma is equally present across racial groups, but that groups internalize and cope with stigma in different ways, which exacerbate health risks. Increased research and policy attention should address stigma as an obstacle in prevention and treatment for obesity to reduce weight-based inequities in underserved populations.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.04.003
  • Maternal Prepregnancy Weight and Children’s Behavioral and Emotional
    • Authors: Julianna Deardorff; Louisa H. Smith; Lucia Petito; Hyunju Kim; Barbara F. Abrams
      Pages: 432 - 440
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Julianna Deardorff, Louisa H. Smith, Lucia Petito, Hyunju Kim, Barbara F. Abrams
      Introduction This study investigated associations between maternal prepregnancy BMI and child behaviors at ages 9–11 years and examine interaction by race and gender. Methods The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the Children and Young Adults surveys are U.S.-based, ongoing longitudinal studies, initiated in 1979 and 1986, respectively. Mothers (n=2,952) reported pregnancy and child (n=5,660) developmental information at multiple time points. Child total, internalizing, and externalizing problems at ages 9–11 years were assessed using the Behavior Problems Index (BPI), collected biennially until 2012. Associations between prepregnancy BMI and child BPI outcomes were examined, as well as two- and three-way interactions by race and gender. Analyses were conducted in 2017. Results Boys whose mothers had higher prepregnancy weights exhibited higher total BPI and externalizing scores at ages 9–11 years versus those with normal-weight mothers. Boys with severely obese mothers had higher total BPI (mean difference=7.99, 95% CI=3.53, 12.46) and externalizing (mean difference=5.77, 95% CI=1.50, 10.04) scores. Prepregnancy underweight was associated with boys’ higher total BPI (mean difference=2.34, 95% CI=0.02, 4.66) and externalizing (mean difference=3.30, 95% CI=0.69, 5.91); these associations were not significant in sensitivity analyses. No associations emerged for girls or internalizing problems. Two-way interactions by race and three-way interactions by race and gender were not significant. Conclusions Maternal prepregnancy weight was associated with BPI level among boys. Boys with severely obese mothers exhibited markedly higher behavioral problems at ages 9–11 years versus those with normal-weight mothers, regardless of race. Maintaining healthy prepregnancy weight may be important for preventing boys’ deleterious behavior outcomes in middle childhood.

      PubDate: 2017-09-20T19:09:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.05.013
  • Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Pediatric Healthcare Visits and
    • Authors: Ashley L. Merianos; Roman A. Jandarov; E. Melinda Mahabee-Gittens
      Pages: 441 - 448
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Ashley L. Merianos, Roman A. Jandarov, E. Melinda Mahabee-Gittens
      Introduction This study assessed the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) as measured by serum cotinine and healthcare utilization among children. Methods In 2016, the 2009–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data were analyzed including 4,985 children aged 3–19 years. Associations between SHSe and having a routine place for healthcare, type of place, and hospital utilization were examined using logistic regression models. Poisson regression analyses assessed the relationship between SHSe and number of hospital admissions. Relationships between SHSe and acute care visits and hospital utilization were examined among asthmatic children. Results SHSe level did not differ by having a routine place for healthcare, although children with high SHSe indicative of active smoking (cotinine ≥3 ng/mL) were 3.49 times (95% CI=1.77, 6.89) more likely to use an emergency department. Children with high SHSe were 2.85 times (95% CI=1.87, 4.34) more likely to have had an overnight hospital stay. Children with high SHSe had 2.05 times (95% CI=1.46, 2.87) the risk of having a higher number of hospital admissions for overnight stays versus children with no SHSe (cotinine <0.05 ng/mL). Among asthmatic children, those with high SHSe and low SHSe (cotinine 0.05–2.99 ng/mL) were more likely to have an acute care visit, overnight hospital stay, and higher number of hospital admissions than asthmatic children with no SHSe. Conclusions High SHSe is associated with increased healthcare utilization. The emergency department and inpatient settings are important venues in which to routinely offer cessation and SHSe reduction interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.03.020
  • National Academy of Medicine Social and Behavioral Measures: Associations
           With Self-Reported Health
    • Authors: Aric A. Prather; Laura M. Gottlieb; Nunzia B. Giuse; Taneya Y. Koonce; Sheila V. Kusnoor; William W. Stead; Nancy E. Adler
      Pages: 449 - 456
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Aric A. Prather, Laura M. Gottlieb, Nunzia B. Giuse, Taneya Y. Koonce, Sheila V. Kusnoor, William W. Stead, Nancy E. Adler
      Introduction Social and behavioral factors play important roles in physical and mental health; however, they are not routinely assessed in the healthcare system. A brief panel of measures of social and behavioral determinants of health (SBDs) were recommended in a National Academy of Medicine report for use in electronic health records. Initial testing of the panel established feasibility of use and robustness of the measures. This study evaluates their convergent and divergent validity in relation to self-reported physical and mental health and social desirability bias. Methods Adults, aged ≥18 years, were recruited through Qualtrics online panel survey platform in 2015 (data analyzed in 2015–2016). Participants completed the (1) panel of SBD measures; (2) 12-Item Short Form Health Survey to assess associations with global physical and mental health; and (3) Marlowe–Crowne Social Desirability Scale short form to assess whether social desirability influenced associations between SBD measures and self-reported health. Results The sample included 513 participants (mean age, 47.9 [SD=14.2] years; 65.5% female). Several SBD domain measures were associated with physical and mental health. Adjusting for age, poorer physical and mental health were observed among participants reporting higher levels of financial resource strain, stress, depression, physical inactivity, current tobacco use, and a positive score for intimate partner violence. These associations remained significant after adjustment for social desirability bias. Conclusions SBD domains were associated with global measures of physical and mental health and were not impacted by social desirability bias. The panel of SBD measures should now be tested in clinical settings.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.02.010
  • Economic Insecurity and Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Victimization
    • Authors: Matthew J. Breiding; Kathleen C. Basile; Joanne Klevens; Sharon G. Smith
      Pages: 457 - 464
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Matthew J. Breiding, Kathleen C. Basile, Joanne Klevens, Sharon G. Smith
      Introduction Previous research has consistently found that low SES is associated with higher levels of both intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence (SV) victimization. Though associated with poverty, two indicators of economic insecurity, food and housing insecurity, have been identified as conceptually distinct social determinants of health. This study examined the relationship between food and housing insecurity experienced in the preceding 12 months and IPV and SV victimization experienced in the preceding 12 months, after controlling for SES and other demographic variables. Methods Data were from the 2010 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, a nationally representative telephone survey of U.S. adults. In 2016, multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to examine the association between food and housing insecurity and multiple forms of IPV and SV victimization. Results Robust associations were found between food and housing insecurity experienced in the preceding 12 months and IPV and SV experienced in the preceding 12 months, for women and men, even after controlling for age, family income, race/ethnicity, education, and marital status. Conclusions Food and housing insecurity may be important considerations for the prevention of SV and IPV or the reductions of their consequences, although future research is needed to disentangle the direction of the association. Strategies aimed at buffering economic insecurity may reduce vulnerability to IPV and SV victimization.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.03.021
  • Helmet Use Among Personal Bicycle Riders and Bike Share Users in
           Vancouver, BC
    • Authors: Moreno Zanotto; Meghan L. Winters
      Pages: 465 - 472
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Moreno Zanotto, Meghan L. Winters
      Introduction Public bike share users have low prevalence of helmet use, and few public bike share systems make helmets available. In summer 2016, a public bike share system launched in Vancouver, BC. Each bicycle is equipped with a free helmet, in response to BC’s all-ages compulsory helmet law. This study assessed the prevalence of helmet use among adult cyclists on personal and public bicycles in Vancouver. Methods A survey of adult cyclists (age estimated at ≥16 years) at five screen line sites and at 15 public bike share docking stations was conducted. Observations were made on fair weather days in 2016. Observers recorded the gender of the rider, bicycle type, helmet use, and helmet type. In 2016, multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the odds of helmet use by personal and trip characteristics. Results Observers conducted 87.5 hours of observation and recorded 11,101 cyclists. They observed 10,704 (96.4%) cyclists on personal bicycles and 397 (3.6%) public bicycle users. Overall, the prevalence of helmet use was 78.1% (n=8,670/11,101), higher for personal bicycle riders (78.6%, n=8,416/10,704) than bike share users (64.0%, n=254/397). Helmet use was associated with gender, bicycle facility type, and day and time of travel. Conclusions In a city with all-ages helmet legislation, helmet use is high but differs across infrastructure types and cyclist characteristics. Bike share systems could increase helmet use by providing complementary helmets coupled with supportive measures.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.04.013
  • Parental Support for Age-based Indoor Tanning Restrictions
    • Authors: Melissa B. Gilkey; Darren Mays; Maryam M. Asgari; Melanie L. Kornides; Annie-Laurie McRee
      Pages: 473 - 480
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Melissa B. Gilkey, Darren Mays, Maryam M. Asgari, Melanie L. Kornides, Annie-Laurie McRee
      Introduction Regulatory agencies, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, are considering policies to ban indoor tanning for youth aged <18 years. Using data from a nationally representative sample, this study assessed parental support for age-based bans as well as less restrictive parental permission requirements. Methods Data came from an online survey completed by 1,244 parents of adolescents aged 11–17 years. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models assessed correlates of supporting an indoor tanning ban for youth aged <18 years. Data collection and analysis occurred in 2016. Results Almost two thirds (65%) of parents agreed with indoor tanning bans for youth, with smaller proportions having no opinion (23%) or disagreeing (12%). Support for bans increased with greater perceived harm of indoor tanning for adolescents (OR=2.66, 95% CI=1.97, 3.59) and decreased with greater perceived benefits (OR=0.49, 95% CI=0.36, 0.67). Compared with support for bans, support for parental permission requirements was somewhat higher, with 79% of parents agreeing with the policy. Most parents (60%) agreed with both policies; only 4% disagreed with both. Conclusions Age-based indoor tanning restrictions, including bans, engender broad-based support among parents. Communicating the harm of indoor tanning may facilitate the implementation of these policies.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.03.011
  • Bicycle Trains, Cycling, and Physical Activity: A Pilot Cluster RCT
    • Authors: Jason A. Mendoza; Wren Haaland; Maya Jacobs; Mark Abbey-Lambertz; Josh Miller; Deb Salls; Winifred Todd; Rachel Madding; Katherine Ellis; Jacqueline Kerr
      Pages: 481 - 489
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Jason A. Mendoza, Wren Haaland, Maya Jacobs, Mark Abbey-Lambertz, Josh Miller, Deb Salls, Winifred Todd, Rachel Madding, Katherine Ellis, Jacqueline Kerr
      Introduction Increasing children’s cycling to school and physical activity are national health goals. The objective was to conduct an RCT of a bicycle train program to assess impact on students’ school travel mode and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Study design Pilot cluster RCT with randomization at the school level and N=54 participants. Setting/participants Fourth–fifth graders from four public schools serving low-income families in Seattle, WA in 2014 with analyses in 2015–2016. All participants were provided and fitted with bicycles, safety equipment (helmets, locks, and lights), and a 2- to 3-hour bicycle safety course. Intervention The intervention was a bicycle train offered daily (i.e., students volunteered to cycle with study staff to and from school). Main outcome measures Time 1 assessments occurred prior to randomization. Time 2 assessments occurred after 3–5 weeks of the intervention (i.e., during Weeks 4–6 of the intervention period). The primary outcome was the percentage of daily commutes to school by cycling measured by validated survey. MVPA, measured by accelerometry and GPS units and processed by machine learning algorithms, was a secondary outcome. Results For two separate adjusted repeated measures linear mixed effects models in which students (N=54) were nested within schools (N=4), intervention participants had: (1) an absolute increase in mean percentage of daily commutes by cycling of 44.9%, (95% CI=26.8, 63.0) and (2) an increase in mean MVPA of 21.6 minutes/day, (95% CI=8.7, 34.6) from Time 1 to Time 2 compared with controls. Conclusions A pilot bicycle train intervention increased cycling to school and daily MVPA in the short term among diverse, inner-city elementary school students. The bicycle train intervention appears promising and warrants further experimental trials among large, diverse samples with longer follow-up. Trial registration This study is registered at NCT02006186.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.05.001
  • Referral for Expert Physical Activity Counseling: A Pragmatic RCT
    • Authors: Erica L. James; Ben D. Ewald; Natalie A. Johnson; Fiona G. Stacey; Wendy J. Brown; Elizabeth G. Holliday; Mark Jones; Fan Yang; Charlotte Hespe; Ronald C. Plotnikoff
      Pages: 490 - 499
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Erica L. James, Ben D. Ewald, Natalie A. Johnson, Fiona G. Stacey, Wendy J. Brown, Elizabeth G. Holliday, Mark Jones, Fan Yang, Charlotte Hespe, Ronald C. Plotnikoff
      Introduction Primary care physicians are well placed to offer physical activity counseling, but insufficient time is a barrier. Referral to an exercise specialist is an alternative. In Australia, exercise specialists are publicly funded to provide face-to-face counseling to patients who have an existing chronic illness. This trial aimed to (1) determine the efficacy of primary care physicians’ referral of insufficiently active patients for counseling to increase physical activity, compared with usual care, and (2) compare the efficacy of face-to-face counseling with counseling predominantly via telephone. Study design Three-arm pragmatic RCT. Setting/participants Two hundred three insufficiently active (<7,000 steps/day) primary care practice patients (mean age 57 years; 70% female) recruited in New South Wales, Australia, in 2011–2014. Intervention (1) Five face-to-face counseling sessions by an exercise specialist, (2) one face-to-face counseling session followed by four telephone calls by an exercise specialist, or (3) a generic mailed physical activity brochure (usual care). The counseling sessions operationalized social cognitive theory via a behavior change counseling framework. Main outcome measures Change in average daily step counts between baseline and 12 months. Data were analyzed in 2016. Results Forty (20%) participants formally withdrew; completion rates at 3 and 6 months were 64% and 58%, respectively. Intervention attendance was high (75% received five sessions). The estimated mean difference between usual care and the combined intervention groups at 12 months was 1,002 steps/day (95% CI=244, 1,759, p=0.01). When comparing face-to-face with predominantly telephone counseling, the telephone group had a non-significant higher mean daily step count (by 619 steps) at 12 months. Conclusions Provision of expert physical activity counseling to insufficiently active primary care patients resulted in a significant increase in physical activity (approximately 70 minutes of walking per week) at 12 months. Face-to-face only and counseling conducted predominantly via telephone were both effective. This trial provides evidence to expand public funding for expert physical activity counseling and for delivery via telephone in addition to face-to-face consultations. Trial registration This trial is registered at ACTRN12611000884909.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.06.016
  • Potential Consequences of Not Using Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine
    • Authors: Kenneth J. Smith; Mary Patricia Nowalk; Angela Wateska; Shawn T. Brown; Jay V. DePasse; Jonathan M. Raviotta; Eunha Shim; Richard K. Zimmerman
      Pages: 500 - 503
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Kenneth J. Smith, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Angela Wateska, Shawn T. Brown, Jay V. DePasse, Jonathan M. Raviotta, Eunha Shim, Richard K. Zimmerman
      Introduction Decreased live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) effectiveness in the U.S. prompted the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices in August 2016 to recommend against this vaccine’s use. However, overall influenza uptake increases when LAIV is available and, unlike the U.S., LAIV has retained its effectiveness in other countries. These opposing countercurrents create a dilemma. Methods To examine the potential consequences of the decision to not recommend LAIV, which may result in decreased influenza vaccination coverage in the U.S. population, a Markov decision analysis model was used to examine influenza vaccination options in U.S. children aged 2–8 years. Data were compiled and analyzed in 2016. Results Using recently observed low LAIV effectiveness values, fewer influenza cases will occur if LAIV is not used compared with having LAIV as a vaccine option. However, having the option to use LAIV may be favored if LAIV effectiveness returns to prior levels or if the absence of vaccine choice substantially decreases overall vaccine uptake. Conclusions Continued surveillance of LAIV effectiveness and influenza vaccine uptake is warranted, given their importance in influenza vaccination policy decisions.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.02.019
  • Recent Patterns in Genetic Testing for Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk in
           the U.S.
    • Authors: Xuesong Han; Ahmedin Jemal
      Pages: 504 - 507
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Xuesong Han, Ahmedin Jemal
      Introduction Mutations in BRCA genes are strongly associated with increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer, and it is recommended that women at high risk for these mutations be referred for genetic counseling and testing. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) provision implemented in 2010 eliminated cost sharing for BRCA genetic testing for privately insured women with family history of BRCA-related cancers. Methods Using a nationally representative sample from the National Health Interview Survey, this study examined trends in genetic testing for breast and ovarian cancer risk from 2005 to 2015 among women by family history and insurance status. To assess the impact of the ACA provision, a difference-in-differences strategy was used to compare changes in genetic testing after ACA implementation between women with a family history of breast or ovarian cancer and those with a family history of other cancers, stratified by insurance type. Analyses were conducted in 2016. Results Genetic testing for breast and ovarian cancer risk increased among women with private or public insurance, but not among uninsured women. Among privately insured women, those with family history of breast or ovarian cancer experienced a net increase of 2.9 percentage points (p=0.001) over those with a family history of other cancers, but no significant difference was observed among women with public insurance, suggesting a positive effect of the ACA provision. Conclusions This study underscores the continued need to improve access to care for all populations. Future work should monitor the impact of policy on genetic testing among the high-risk population.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.04.014
  • Moderators of Exercise Effects on Depressive Symptoms in Multiple
           Sclerosis: A Meta-regression
    • Authors: Matthew P. Herring; Karl M. Fleming; Sara P. Hayes; Robert W. Motl; Susan B. Coote
      Pages: 508 - 518
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Matthew P. Herring, Karl M. Fleming, Sara P. Hayes, Robert W. Motl, Susan B. Coote
      Context This study examined the extent to which patient and trial characteristics moderate the effects of exercise on depressive symptoms among people with multiple sclerosis. Evidence acquisition Twenty-four effects were derived from 14 articles published before August 2016 located using Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science. Trials involved 624 people with multiple sclerosis and included both randomization to exercise training or a non-exercise control condition and measurement of depressive symptoms at baseline and at mid- and/or post-intervention. Hedges’ d effect sizes were computed, study quality was assessed, and random effects models were used for all analyses. Meta-regression quantified the extent to which patient and trial characteristics moderated the estimated population effect. Analyses were completed in September 2016 and updated in February 2017. Evidence synthesis Exercise training significantly reduced depressive symptoms by a heterogeneous mean effect Δ of 0.55 (95% CI=0.31, 0.78, p<0.001). Significant improvement in fatigue moderated the overall effect (β=0.37, p≤0.03). Significantly larger antidepressant effects resulted from trials in which exercise significantly improved fatigue (Δ=1.04, 95% CI=0.53, 1.55, k=8) compared with no significant improvement in fatigue (Δ=0.41, 95% CI=0.21, 0.60, k=14, z=2.91, p≤0.004). Conclusions Exercise significantly improves depressive symptoms among people with multiple sclerosis. Exercise-induced improvements in fatigue significantly moderated exercise effects on depressive symptoms. Future trials may benefit from focusing on using exercise to concurrently improve depressive symptoms and fatigue as a symptom cluster.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.04.011
  • Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes in U.S. Hispanic Youth: A Systematic Review
           of Lifestyle Interventions
    • Authors: Jessica L. McCurley; Margaret A. Crawford; Linda C. Gallo
      Pages: 519 - 532
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Jessica L. McCurley, Margaret A. Crawford, Linda C. Gallo
      Context Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in youth has increased rapidly in recent decades along with rises in childhood obesity. Disparities in risk and prevalence of T2DM are evident in Hispanic youth when compared with non-Hispanic whites. Targeted diabetes prevention programs have been recommended to reduce risk prior to adulthood in this population. This systematic review explores the effectiveness of lifestyle-based diabetes prevention interventions for Hispanic youth. Evidence acquisition PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and CENTRAL were searched from database inception to March 1, 2017, for studies that evaluated lifestyle-focused prevention trials targeting U.S. Hispanic youth under age 18 years. Fifteen publications met criteria for inclusion. Evidence synthesis Of the 15 studies, 11 were RCTs; four were uncontrolled. Interventions were heterogeneous in intensity, content, and setting. Duration of most trials was 12–16 weeks. Mean age of participants ranged from 9.8 to 15.8 years, sample sizes were generally small, and the majority of participants were overweight (BMI ≥85th percentile). Three studies reported statistically significant reductions in mean BMI, four in BMI z-score, and six in fasting glucose/insulin. Study quality was moderate to high. Effect sizes were generally small to medium. Conclusions Evidence for the impact of lifestyle-based diabetes prevention interventions targeting U.S. Hispanic youth remains limited. Few interventions demonstrated success in reducing BMI and glucose regulation and follow-up times were brief. More studies are needed that recruit larger samples sizes, extend follow-up times, explore innovative delivery modalities, and examine effectiveness across sex and age.

      PubDate: 2017-09-20T19:09:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.05.020
  • Divergent Responses to Mammography and Prostate-Specific Antigen
    • Authors: Kathryn A. Martinez; Michael B. Rothberg
      Pages: 533 - 536
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Kathryn A. Martinez, Michael B. Rothberg

      PubDate: 2017-09-20T19:09:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.01.035
  • Tdap Vaccination Among Healthcare Personnel, Internet Panel Survey,
    • Authors: Anup Srivastav; Carla L. Black; Peng-Jun Lu; Jun Zhang; Jennifer L. Liang; Stacie M. Greby
      Pages: 537 - 546
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Anup Srivastav, Carla L. Black, Peng-Jun Lu, Jun Zhang, Jennifer L. Liang, Stacie M. Greby
      Introduction Healthcare personnel (HCP) are at risk for pertussis infection exposure or transmitting the disease to patients in their work settings. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination for HCP to minimize these risks. This study assessed Tdap vaccination coverage among U.S. HCP by sociodemographic and occupation-related characteristics. Methods The 2012, 2013, and 2014 Internet Panel Surveys were analyzed in 2015 to assess HCP Tdap vaccination. Effective sample sizes for 2012, 2013, and 2014 survey years were 2,038, 1613, and 1633, respectively. Missing values were assigned using multiple imputation. Multivariable logistic regression identified factors independently associated with HCP Tdap vaccination. Statistical measures were calculated with an assumption of random sampling. Results Overall, Tdap vaccination coverage among HCP was 34.8% (95% CI=30.6%, 39.0%); 40.2% (95% CI=36.1%, 44.4%); and 42.4% (95% CI=38.7%, 46.0%) in 2012, 2013, and 2014, respectively. Nurse practitioners/physician’s assistants, physicians, nurses, and HCP working in hospitals and ambulatory care settings had higher Tdap coverage. Having contact with an infant aged ≤6 months and influenza vaccination receipt were associated with increased Tdap vaccination. Non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, having an associate/bachelor’s degree, being below poverty, non-clinical personnel status, and working in a long-term care setting were associated with decreased Tdap vaccination. Conclusions HCP Tdap vaccination coverage increased during 2012–2014; however, coverage remains low. Vaccination coverage varied widely by healthcare occupation, occupational setting, and sociodemographic characteristics. Evidence-based employer strategies used to increase HCP influenza vaccination, if applied to Tdap, may increase Tdap coverage.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.04.002
  • Social Stress and Substance Use Disparities by Sexual Orientation Among
           High School Students
    • Authors: Richard Lowry; Michelle M. Johns; Leah E. Robin; Laura K. Kann
      Pages: 547 - 558
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): Richard Lowry, Michelle M. Johns, Leah E. Robin, Laura K. Kann
      Introduction Sexual minority youth often experience increased social stress due to prejudice, discrimination, harassment, and victimization. Increased stress may help explain the disproportionate use of substances like tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use by sexual minority youth. This study examined the effect of social stress on substance use disparities by sexual orientation among U.S. high school students. Methods In 2016, data from the national 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, conducted among a nationally representative sample of 15,624 U.S. high school students, were analyzed to examine the effect of school-related (threatened/injured at school, bullied at school, bullied electronically, felt unsafe at school) and non–school-related (forced sexual intercourse, early sexual debut) social stress on substance use disparities by sexual orientation, by comparing unadjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) and adjusted (for social stressors, age, sex, and race/ethnicity) prevalence ratios (APRs). Results Unadjusted PRs reflected significantly (p<0.05 or 95% CI did not include 1.0) greater substance use among students who identified as lesbian/gay or bisexual than students who identified as heterosexual. APRs for injection drug use decreased substantially among lesbian/gay (PR=12.02 vs APR=2.14) and bisexual (PR=2.62 vs APR=1.18) students; the APR for bisexual students became nonsignificant. In addition, APRs among both lesbian/gay and bisexual students decreased substantially and were no longer statistically significant for cocaine, methamphetamine, and heroin use. Conclusions School-based substance use prevention programs might appropriately include strategies to reduce social stress, including policies and practices designed to provide a safe school environment and improved access to social and mental health services.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.06.011
  • Stigma and Health-Related Quality of Life in Sexual Minorities
    • Authors: S. Bryn Austin; Allegra R. Gordon; Najat J. Ziyadeh; Brittany M. Charlton; Sabra L. Katz-Wise; Mihail Samnaliev
      Pages: 559 - 566
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4
      Author(s): S. Bryn Austin, Allegra R. Gordon, Najat J. Ziyadeh, Brittany M. Charlton, Sabra L. Katz-Wise, Mihail Samnaliev
      Introduction Stigma against sexual minorities is well documented, but its long-term consequences for health-related quality of life (HRQL) are unknown. This study examined stigma-related predictors of sexual orientation disparities in HRQL and their contribution to young adult HRQL disparities. Methods In 2013, participants (N=7,304, aged 18–31 years) reported sexual orientation (completely heterosexual [CH], mostly heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian/gay). The EQ5D-5L, preference weighted for the U.S. population, was used to assess HRQL (range, –0.109 [worse than dead] to 1 [full health]). In prior waves conducted during adolescence, participants reported past-year bullying victimization (range, 1 [never] to 5 [several times/week]) and subjective social status (SSS) in their school (range, 1 [top] to 10 [bottom]). Analyses conducted in 2016 used longitudinal, multivariable linear and logistic regression to assess the contribution of bullying victimization and SSS in adolescence to sexual orientation disparities in HRQL in young adulthood, controlling for confounders and stratified by gender. Results Compared with CHs, both female and male sexual minorities reported more bullying victimization and lower SSS in adolescence and lower HRQL in young adulthood (HRQL score among women: mostly heterosexual, 0.878; bisexual, 0.839; lesbian, 0.848; CH, 0.913; HRQL score among men: mostly heterosexual, 0.877; bisexual, 0.882; gay, 0.890; CH, 0.925; all p-values <0.05). When bullying and SSS were added into multivariable models, orientation group effect estimates were attenuated substantially, suggesting bullying and lower SSS in adolescence partly explained HRQL disparities in young adulthood. Conclusions Stigma-related experiences in adolescence may have lasting adverse effects on sexual minority health in adulthood.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.05.007
  • American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2016 Article of the Year
    • Authors: Matthew L. Boulton
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 3
      Author(s): Matthew L. Boulton

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T18:28:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.06.030
  • Setting the Stage: Advancing a Cancer Prevention Agenda for Young Adults
    • Authors: Claire D. Brindis
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 3, Supplement 1
      Author(s): Claire D. Brindis

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T18:28:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.04.026
  • Cancer Prevention During Early Adulthood: Highlights From a Meeting of
    • Authors: Dawn M. Holman; Mary C. White; Meredith L. Shoemaker; Greta M. Massetti; Mary C. Puckett; Claire D. Brindis
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 3, Supplement 1
      Author(s): Dawn M. Holman, Mary C. White, Meredith L. Shoemaker, Greta M. Massetti, Mary C. Puckett, Claire D. Brindis
      Using a life course approach, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control and the National Association of Chronic Disease Directors co-hosted a 2-day meeting with 15 multidisciplinary experts to consider evidence linking factors in early adulthood to subsequent cancer risk and strategies for putting that evidence into practice to reduce cancer incidence. This paper provides an overview of key themes from those meeting discussions, drawing attention to the influence that early adulthood can have on lifetime cancer risk and potential strategies for intervention during this phase of life. A number of social, behavioral, and environmental factors during early adulthood influence cancer risk, including dietary patterns, physical inactivity, medical conditions (e.g., obesity, diabetes, viral infections), circadian rhythm disruption, chronic stress, and targeted marketing of cancer-causing products (e.g., tobacco, alcohol). Suggestions for translating research into practice are framed in the context of the four strategic directions of the National Prevention Strategy: building healthy and safe community environments; expanding quality preventive services in clinical and community settings; empowering people to make healthy choices; and eliminating health disparities. Promising strategies for prevention among young adults include collaborating with a variety of community sectors as well as mobilizing young adults to serve as advocates for change. Young adults are a heterogeneous demographic group, and targeted efforts are needed to address the unique needs of population subgroups that are often underserved and under-represented in research studies.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T18:28:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.04.020
  • U.S. HIV Incidence and Transmission Goals, 2020 and 2025
    • Authors: Robert A. Bonacci; David R. Holtgrave
      Pages: 275 - 281
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 3
      Author(s): Robert A. Bonacci, David R. Holtgrave
      Introduction The recently updated U.S. National HIV/AIDS Strategy sets key HIV prevention and care targets for 2020, but the trajectory of the epidemic remains unclear.
      Authors modeled HIV incidence, prevalence, and mortality for the U.S. over 10 years to determine whether an ambitious trajectory toward “ending AIDS” by 2025 would be achievable. Methods
      Authors utilized recently published 2010–2013 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance data to model HIV incidence, prevalence, and mortality.
      Authors applied a 90/90/90 framework (90% awareness of serostatus, 90% of diagnosed individuals in care, and 90% of individuals on antiretroviral therapy virally suppressed) by 2020 and 95/95/95 by 2025 to assess the feasibility of meeting epidemiologic targets. Analyses were conducted in 2016. Results With a goal of reducing infections to 21,000 new HIV infections in 2020, authors project a transmission rate of 1.74, 12,571 deaths, and a total of 1,205,515 people living with HIV. By 2025, with a target of 12,000 new HIV infections (a 69% decrease in HIV incidence), authors project a transmission rate of 0.98, 12,522 deaths, and a total of 1,220,615 people living with HIV. With a 90/90/90 framework by 2020 and a 95/95/95 framework by 2025, these epidemiologic targets would be feasible. Conclusions Key programmatic milestones provide an ambitious, but important, pathway to reduce U.S. HIV incidence below 12,000 new infections by 2025. HIV incidence would decrease below mortality in 2025, marking a transition toward ending the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Such goals will require a sustained and intensified national commitment over the next decade.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.03.012
  • Feasibility of Text Message Influenza Vaccine Safety Monitoring During
    • Authors: Melissa S. Stockwell; Maria Cano; Kathleen Jakob; Karen R. Broder; Cynthia Gyamfi-Bannerman; Paula M. Castaño; Paige Lewis; Angela Barrett; Oidda I. Museru; Ormarys Castellanos; Philip S. LaRussa
      Pages: 282 - 289
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 3
      Author(s): Melissa S. Stockwell, Maria Cano, Kathleen Jakob, Karen R. Broder, Cynthia Gyamfi-Bannerman, Paula M. Castaño, Paige Lewis, Angela Barrett, Oidda I. Museru, Ormarys Castellanos, Philip S. LaRussa
      Introduction The feasibility and accuracy of text messaging to monitor events after influenza vaccination throughout pregnancy and the neonatal period has not been studied, but may be important for seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines and future maternal vaccines. Methods This prospective observational study was conducted during 2013–2014 and analyzed in 2015–2016. Enrolled pregnant women receiving inactivated influenza vaccination at a gestational age <20 weeks were sent text messages intermittently through participant-reported pregnancy end to request fever, health events, and neonatal outcomes. Text message response rates, Day 0–2 fever (≥100.4°F), health events, and birth/neonatal outcomes were assessed. Results Most (80.2%, n=166) eligible women enrolled. Median gestational age was 8.9 (SD=3.9) weeks at vaccination. Response rates remained high (80.0%−95.2%). Only one Day 0–2 fever was reported. Women reported via text both pregnancy- and non-pregnancy−specific health events, not all associated with medical visits. Most pregnancy-specific events in the electronic medical record (EMR) were reported via text message. Of all enrollees, 84.9% completed the study (131 reported live birth, ten reported pregnancy loss). Two losses reported via text were not medically attended; there was one additional EMR-identified loss. Gestational age and weight at birth were similar between text message−reported and EMR-abstracted data and 95% CIs were overlapping for proportions of prematurity, low birth weight, small for gestational age, and major birth defects, as identified by text message−reported versus EMR-abstracted plus text message−reported versus EMR-abstracted data only. Conclusions This study demonstrated the feasibility of text messaging for influenza vaccine safety surveillance sustained throughout pregnancy. In these women receiving inactivated influenza vaccination during pregnancy, post-vaccination fever was infrequent and a typical pattern of maternal and neonatal health outcomes was observed.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.03.014
  • Older Suicide Decedents: Intent Disclosure, Mental and Physical Health,
           and Suicide Means
    • Authors: Namkee G. Choi; Diana M. DiNitto; C. Nathan Marti; Mark S. Kaplan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Namkee G. Choi, Diana M. DiNitto, C. Nathan Marti, Mark S. Kaplan
      Introduction This study examined: (1) associations of suicide intent disclosure with depressed mood and health problems; (2) age-group differences in those associations; and (3) relationship between disclosure and suicide means among suicide decedents aged ≥50 years (N=46,857). Methods Data came from the National Violent Death Reporting Systems, 2005–2014. Data analysis was conducted in 2017. Chi-square tests were used to compare disclosers and nondisclosers on sociodemographic and precipitating factors and suicide means. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the research questions. Results The overall disclosure rate was 23.4%. Logistic regression results showed that both depressed mood (AOR=1.57, 95% CI=1.50, 1.65, p<0.001) and health problems (AOR=1.56, 95% CI=1.48, 1.64, p<0.001) were associated with increased odds of disclosure. Compared with decedents aged 50–59 years, those aged 70–79 years and ≥80 years had greater disclosure odds. When interaction terms of age group X health problems were entered in the model, disclosure odds increased among those with health problems in the groups aged 60–69 years (ratio of AOR=1.19, 95% CI=1.06, 1.34, p=0.003), 70–79 years (ratio of AOR=1.29, 95% CI=1.13, 1.48, p<0.001), and ≥80 years (ratio of AOR=1.41, 95% CI=1.20, 1.66, p<0.001). Compared with other suicide means, both firearm use and hanging/suffocation were associated with lower disclosure odds. Conclusions The older the decedents were, the more likely they were to have disclosed suicidal intent, and health problems largely explained their higher odds of disclosure. Healthcare providers need better preparation to screen and aid those in need to prevent suicide. Social support system members should also be assisted in identifying warning signs and linking older adults to services.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.07.021
  • A Randomized Trial of Text Messaging for Smoking Cessation in Pregnant
    • Authors: Lorien C. Abroms; Pamela R. Johnson; Leah E. Leavitt; Sean D. Cleary; Jessica Bushar; Thomas H. Brandon; Shawn C. Chiang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Lorien C. Abroms, Pamela R. Johnson, Leah E. Leavitt, Sean D. Cleary, Jessica Bushar, Thomas H. Brandon, Shawn C. Chiang
      Introduction There is a need for innovation in both the enrollment of pregnant smokers in smoking cessation treatment programs and in the types of treatments offered. The study tests whether an interactive and intensive text messaging program, Quit4baby, can promote smoking cessation for pregnant women already enrolled in a health text messaging program, Text4baby. Methods Between July 2015 and February 2016, a total of 35,957 recruitment text messages were sent to Text4baby subscribers. Eligible pregnant smokers were enrolled and randomized to receive Text4baby (control) or Text4baby and Quit4baby (intervention; N=497). Participants were surveyed at 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months post-enrollment, and saliva samples were collected at 3 months for biochemical verification of smoking status. Data were collected from 2015 to 2016 and analyzed in 2016. Results Using an intention-to-treat analysis, 28.80% of the intervention group and 15.79% of the control group reported not smoking in the past 7 days at 1 month (p<0.01), and 35.20% of the intervention group and 22.67% of the control group reported not smoking in the past 7 days at 3 months (p<0.01). Biochemical verification of smoking status at 3 months indicated no significant differences between groups (15.60% in the intervention group and 10.93% in the control group [p=0.13]), although significant differences favoring the intervention were found for older smokers (p<0.05) and for those who enrolled in their second or third trimester of pregnancy (p<0.05). Self-report of late pregnancy 7- and 30-day point prevalence abstinence favored the intervention group (p<0.001, p<0.01). No significant differences were observed at the 6-month follow-up or in the postpartum period. Conclusions Results provide limited support of the efficacy of the Quit4baby text messaging program in the short term and late in pregnancy, but not in the postpartum period.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.08.002
  • Pneumococcal Vaccination Among Adults With Work-related Asthma
    • Authors: Katelynn E. Dodd; Jacek M. Mazurek
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Katelynn E. Dodd, Jacek M. Mazurek
      Introduction Pneumococcal vaccination is recommended for all adults with asthma and a Healthy People 2020 goal aims to achieve 60% coverage among high-risk adults, including those with asthma. Adults with work-related asthma have more severe asthma symptoms than those with non−work-related asthma and are particularly vulnerable to pneumococcal pneumonia. Methods To assess pneumococcal vaccination coverage by work-related asthma status among ever-employed adults aged 18–64 years with current asthma, data from the 2012–2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Asthma Call-back Survey for ever-employed adults (18–64 years) with current asthma from 29 states were examined in 2016. Adults with work-related asthma had ever been told by a physician their asthma was work-related. Pneumococcal vaccine recipients self-reported having ever received a pneumococcal vaccine. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios and associated 95% CIs. Results Among an estimated 12 million ever-employed adults with current asthma in 29 states, 42.0% received a pneumococcal vaccine. Adults with work-related asthma were more likely to have received a pneumococcal vaccine than adults with non−work-related asthma (53.7% versus 35.0%, respectively, prevalence ratio=1.24, 95% CI=1.06, 1.45). Among adults with work-related asthma, pneumococcal vaccine coverage was lowest among Hispanics (36.2%) and those without health insurance (38.5%). Conclusions Pneumococcal vaccination coverage among adults with work-related asthma and non−work-related asthma is below the Healthy People 2020 target level. Healthcare providers should verify pneumococcal vaccination status in their patients with asthma and offer the vaccine to those not vaccinated.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.07.022
  • Reach and Effectiveness of the National Diabetes Prevention Program for
           Young Women
    • Authors: Natalie D. Ritchie; Katherine A. Sauder; Stefka Fabbri
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Natalie D. Ritchie, Katherine A. Sauder, Stefka Fabbri
      Introduction Reducing obesity and diabetes risks among women of child-bearing age is urgently needed to halt the transgenerational cycle of disease. Interventions among pregnant women have largely been ineffective and may be initiated too late to improve maternal and child health. The National Diabetes Prevention Program is a widely disseminated lifestyle intervention that may help mitigate risks before pregnancy. However, the program has targeted relatively older adults, and effectiveness among women of child-bearing age remains largely unknown. Methods The National Diabetes Prevention Program was delivered in an urban safety net hospital. Reach and effectiveness were evaluated among 4,866 eligible women who were invited to participate in the program. The authors compared enrollment, attendance, and weight loss for women aged 18–39 years as compared to women aged ≥40 years. Data were collected between 2013 and 2016. Analyses were conducted in 2017. Results Women of child-bearing age were nearly half as likely to enroll than older women in adjusted models (OR=0.58, 95% CI=0.49, 0.69). Subsequently, younger enrollees were less likely to attend ≥1 session(s) than older women (OR=0.77, 95% CI=0.61, 0.99). There was no significant age group difference in program completion rates or weight-loss outcomes. Both groups lost an average of 3% body weight. Conclusions Women of child-bearing age were less likely than older women to engage in the National Diabetes Prevention Program; however, they were equally likely to benefit from weight loss when they attended. Further efforts are needed to improve engagement of women of child-bearing age.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.06.013
  • Vaccination Coverage of Adolescents With Chronic Medical Conditions
    • Authors: Annika M. Hofstetter; Stewin Camargo; Karthik Natarajan; Susan L. Rosenthal; Melissa S. Stockwell
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Annika M. Hofstetter, Stewin Camargo, Karthik Natarajan, Susan L. Rosenthal, Melissa S. Stockwell
      Introduction Adolescents with chronic medical conditions (CMCs) are at increased risk of vaccine-preventable infections. Little is known about their vaccine uptake. Methods This retrospective cohort study included 3,989 adolescents aged 11–17 years receiving care at academically affiliated pediatric clinics between August 2011 and June 2013. Data were abstracted from the medical center’s electronic health record and immunization registry in 2014. Vaccination coverage, timeliness, and missed opportunities were evaluated and analyzed in 2015–2016. Results Adolescents with CMCs had lower human papillomavirus vaccination initiation than those without CMCs (81.3% vs 85.0%), although this difference was only observed in stratified analysis among males (adjusted relative risk=0.90, 95% CI=0.85, 0.96), aged 13–17 years (adjusted relative risk=0.94, 95% CI=0.91, 0.98), and those with more primary care visits (adjusted relative risk=0.94, 95% CI=0.91, 0.98). Adolescents with CMCs had greater influenza vaccination coverage and timeliness than those without CMCs (2011–2012 season: 66.9% vs 50.1%; adjusted hazards ratio=1.27, 95% CI=1.15, 1.40; 2012–2013 season: 73.8% vs 64.5%; adjusted hazards ratio=1.20, 95% CI=1.10, 1.31). Only 32.1% and 18.2% of eligible adolescents had received pneumococcal polysaccharide and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, respectively. Missed opportunities were higher among adolescents with versus without CMCs for human papillomavirus vaccination initiation (4.2 vs 2.7, p<0.001), meningococcal vaccination (4.0 vs 2.9, p<0.001), and influenza vaccination (2011–2012 season: 2.1 vs 1.7, p<0.001; 2012–2013 season: 2.0 vs 1.6, p<0.001). Missed opportunities for pneumococcal vaccination were common. Conclusions Pockets of undervaccination and missed opportunities exist among adolescents with CMCs. Greater, more timely influenza vaccination suggests that optimal vaccination of high-risk adolescents is possible.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.07.017
  • Childhood Maltreatment and BMI Trajectory: The Mediating Role of
    • Authors: Rebecca M. Sacks; Erin Takemoto; Sarah Andrea; Nathan F. Dieckmann; Katherine W. Bauer; Janne Boone-Heinonen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Rebecca M. Sacks, Erin Takemoto, Sarah Andrea, Nathan F. Dieckmann, Katherine W. Bauer, Janne Boone-Heinonen
      Introduction Childhood maltreatment is associated with later obesity, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the extent to which depression mediates the associations between childhood maltreatment and BMI in adolescence through adulthood. Methods Data on a cohort of 13,362 adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Wave I [1994–1995] to Wave IV [2008–2009]) were analyzed in 2015–2016. Classes of maltreatment experienced prior to age 12 years were statistically identified using latent class analysis. Gender-stratified latent growth curve analysis was used to estimate total effects of maltreatment classes on latent BMI trajectory (aged 13–31 years) and indirect effects of maltreatment classes that occurred through latent depression trajectory (aged 12–31 years). Results Four latent maltreatment classes were identified: high abuse and neglect; physical abuse dominant; supervisory neglect dominant; and no/low maltreatment. In girls, compared with no/low maltreatment, supervisory neglect dominant (coefficient=0.3, 95% CI=0.0, 0.7) and physical abuse dominant (coefficient=0.6, 95% CI=0.1, 1.2) maltreatment were associated with faster gain in BMI. Change in depression over time fully mediated the association of BMI slope with physical abuse dominant maltreatment, but not with supervisory neglect dominant maltreatment. In boys, high abuse and neglect maltreatment was associated with marginally greater BMI at baseline (coefficient=0.7, 95% CI= –0.1, 1.5); this association was not mediated by depression. Conclusions Although maltreatment was associated with depression and BMI trajectories from adolescence to adulthood, depression only mediated associations with physical abuse dominant maltreatment in girls.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.07.007
  • Mothers’ Adverse Childhood Experiences and Their Young
           Children’s Development
    • Authors: Jing Sun; Falguni Patel; Ruth Rose-Jacobs; Deborah A. Frank; Maureen M. Black; Mariana Chilton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Jing Sun, Falguni Patel, Ruth Rose-Jacobs, Deborah A. Frank, Maureen M. Black, Mariana Chilton
      Introduction This study examined how mothers’ Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) relate to their children’s developmental risk and assessed how the association is mediated through mothers’ depressive symptoms and fair/poor health. Methods Mothers of children aged between 4 months and 4 years were recruited from the emergency department of a children’s hospital between March 2012 and June 2015 and interviewed about ACEs, mothers’ depressive symptoms and health status, and children’s developmental risk (screened via Parents’ Evaluations of Developmental Status [PEDS]). Between August and November 2016 a Cochran–Armitage test assessed trend of PEDS by ACEs. Multinomial regression models examined differences in PEDS by ACEs severity. Mediation by mothers’ depressive symptoms and self-rated health was also assessed. Results Of 1,293 mothers, 56.7% reported one or more ACEs. Mothers also reported developmental risk (20.4% overall): 120 (9.2%) reported one concern and 144 (11.2%) reported two or more concerns on the PEDS. Mothers who reported household substance use, mental illness, or an incarcerated household member during childhood were more likely to report at least one child developmental concern on the PEDS. After controlling for covariates, odds of one PEDS concern were 1.86 (95% CI=1.16, 3.00) for ACEs, one to three versus none, and 2.21 (95% CI=1.26, 3.87) for ACEs four or more versus none. Adjusted odds of two or more concerns were 1.70 (95% CI=1.07, 2.72) for ACEs, one to three versus none, and 1.76 (95% CI=1.02, 3.05) for ACEs, four or more versus none. Mothers’ depressive symptoms and self-rated health were potential mediators. Conclusions Mothers’ ACEs are significantly associated with their children’s developmental risk. If replicated, findings suggest that addressing intergenerational trauma through focus on childhood adversity among young children’s caregivers may promote child development.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.07.015
  • Prevalence and Trends in Lifetime Obesity in the U.S., 1988–2014
    • Authors: Andrew Stokes; Yu Ni; Samuel H. Preston
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Andrew Stokes, Yu Ni, Samuel H. Preston
      Introduction Estimates of obesity prevalence based on current BMI are an important but incomplete indicator of the total effects of obesity on a population. Methods In this study, data on current BMI and maximum BMI were used to estimate prevalence and trends in lifetime obesity status, defined using the categories never (maximum BMI ≤30 kg/m2), former (maximum BMI ≥30 kg/m2 and current BMI ≤30 kg/m2), and current obesity (current BMI ≥30 kg/m2). Prevalence was estimated for the period 2013–2014 and trends for the period 1988–2014 using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Predictors of lifetime weight status and the association between lifetime weight categories and prevalent disease status were also investigated using multivariable regression. Results A total of 50.8% of American males and 51.6% of American females were ever obese in 2013–2014. The prevalence of lifetime obesity exceeded the prevalence of current obesity by amounts that were greater for males and for older persons. The gap between the two prevalence values has risen over time. By 2013–2014, a total of 22.0% of individuals who were not currently obese had formerly been obese. For each of eight diseases considered, prevalence was higher among the formerly obese than among the never obese. Conclusions A larger fraction of the population is affected by obesity and its health consequences than is suggested in prior studies based on current BMI alone. Weight history should be incorporated into routine health surveillance of the obesity epidemic for a full accounting of the effects of obesity on the U.S. population.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.06.008
  • Current High-Intensity Drinking Among Eighth and Tenth Grade Students in
           the U.S.
    • Authors: Megan E. Patrick; Yvonne M. Terry-McElrath; Richard A. Miech; Patrick M. O’Malley; John E. Schulenberg; Lloyd D. Johnston
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Megan E. Patrick, Yvonne M. Terry-McElrath, Richard A. Miech, Patrick M. O’Malley, John E. Schulenberg, Lloyd D. Johnston
      Introduction This study assessed the prevalence of current high-intensity drinking (i.e., having ten or more drinks in a row in the past 2 weeks) among national samples of U.S. eighth and tenth grade students (at modal ages 14 and 16 years, respectively). Methods Data on high-intensity drinking were provided by 10,210 students participating in the nationally representative Monitoring the Future study in 2016, and analyzed in 2016–2017. Prevalence levels and interactions between grade and key covariates were estimated using procedures that adjusted for the Monitoring the Future study’s complex sampling design. Results Approximately 2% of adolescents reported current high-intensity drinking, with significant differences by grade (1.2% of eighth graders; 3.1% of tenth graders) and gender (1.7% female; 2.3% male). High-intensity drinking was significantly higher among eighth and tenth grade students who reported any cigarette or marijuana use than among students who reported never using either substance. Conclusions A meaningful percentage of young adolescents in the U.S. engage in high-intensity drinking.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.06.027
  • Information for CME Credit— Major Physical Health Conditions and
           Risk of Suicide
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4

      PubDate: 2017-09-20T19:09:42Z
  • Information for CME Credit— Leisure Time Physical Activity Among U.S.
           Adults With Arthritis, 2008–2015
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 4

      PubDate: 2017-09-20T19:09:42Z
  • Vitamin D and Blood Pressure Among U.S. Adults: A Cross-sectional
           Examination by Race/Ethnicity and Gender
    • Authors: Abhishek Vishnu; Vasudha Ahuja
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine
      Author(s): Abhishek Vishnu, Vasudha Ahuja
      Introduction The cross-sectional association of serum vitamin D levels with blood pressure and hypertension status among a representative sample of U.S. adults was examined. Methods Participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2001 to 2010 were included in these analyses. Harmonizing of the vitamin D levels from 2001 to 2006 with vitamin D measurement from 2007 to 2010 was done using regression equations released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Use of vitamin D supplements was assessed for all participants. Statistical analyses included examination of linear association of vitamin D levels with blood pressure and non-linear cubic splines with hypertension in overall population, by gender, and by race/ethnicity. Results With every 10 nmol/L higher vitamin D, systolic blood pressure decreased by 0.19 mmHg in this population (p<0.01). In fully adjusted stratified analyses, this association was present among females (–0.25 mmHg, p<0.01) and non-Hispanic whites (0.22 mmHg, p<0.01). After race/ethnic and gender stratification, this association was observed among non-Hispanic white females (0.26 mmHg, p=0.01), non-Hispanic black females (0.65 mmHg, p=0.02), and marginally significant among Hispanic males (0.33 mmHg, p=0.07). Non-parametric assessment with cubic splines show that vitamin D has an inverse association with odds of hypertension up to 100 nmol/L with no apparent benefit at higher levels in overall population, and even lower threshold levels of vitamin D in non-Hispanic blacks (50 nmol/L) and Hispanic Americans (70 nmol/L). Conclusions Significant race/ethnic and gender differences exist in the association of vitamin D and systolic blood pressure. Odds for hypertension are reduced significantly at higher vitamin D levels, but this benefit plateaus at very high vitamin D levels.

      PubDate: 2017-09-20T19:09:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.07.006
  • Information for CME Credit— Major Physical Health Conditions and
           Risk of Suicide
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 3

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T18:28:37Z
  • Information for CME Credit— Leisure Time Physical Activity Among U.S.
           Adults With Arthritis, 2008–2015
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 3

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T18:28:37Z
  • Acknowledgments
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 53, Issue 3, Supplement 1

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T18:28:37Z
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