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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1424 journals)
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HEALTH AND SAFETY (641 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 245)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences: Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Apuntes Universitarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 7)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Birat Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Boletin Médico de Postgrado     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Carta Comunitaria     Open Access  
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Innovación en Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Salud Virtual     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical and Experimental Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clocks & Sleep     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de la Escuela de Salud Pública     Open Access  
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Diversity of Research in Health Journal     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Düzce Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi / Journal of Duzce University Health Sciences Institute     Open Access  
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Ethics & Human Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Eurasian Journal of Health Technology Assessment     Open Access  
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Family & Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare : Finjehew     Open Access  
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ganesha Journal     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Challenges     Open Access  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Global Reproductive Health     Open Access  
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastane Öncesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
HCU Journal     Open Access  
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 10)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Equity     Open Access  
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Notions     Open Access  
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Health Psychology Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Security     Hybrid Journal  
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Healthcare Technology Letters     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Health Policy
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.252
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 45  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0168-8510
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3184 journals]
  • Infectious disease health services for refugees and asylum seekers during
           a time of crisis: A scoping study of six European Union countries
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health Policy, Volume 123, Issue 9Author(s): Kayvan Bozorgmehr, Mariya Samuilova, Roumyana Petrova-Benedict, Enrico Girardi, Pierluca Piselli, Alexander Kentikelenis BackgroundSystematic information on infectious disease services provided to refugees and asylum seekers in the European Union (EU) is sparse. We conducted a scoping study of experts in six EU countries in order to map health system responses related to infectious disease prevention and control among refugees and asylum seekers.MethodsWe conducted 27 semi-structured in-depth interviews with first-line staff and health officials to collect information about existing guidelines and practices at each stage of reception in first-entry (Greece/Italy), transit (Croatia/Slovenia), and destination countries (Austria/Sweden). Thematic coding was used to perform a content analysis of interview material.ResultsGuidance on infectious disease screening and health assessments lack standardisation across and—partly—within countries. Data collection on notifiable infectious diseases is mainly reported to be performed by national public health institutions, but is not stratified by migrant status. Health-related information is not transferred in a standardized way between facilities within a single country. International exchange of medical information between countries along the migration route is irregular. Services were reported to be fragmented, and respondents mentioned no specific coordination bodies beyond health authorities at different levels.ConclusionInfectious disease health services provided to refugees and asylum seekers lack standardisation in health assessments, data collection, transfer of health-related information and (partly) coordination. This may negatively affect health system performance including public health emergency preparedness.
  • Lethal privacy: Quantifying life years lost if the right to informational
           self-determination guides genetic screening for Lynch syndrome
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Fabia Gansen, Franziska Severin, Sebastian Schleidgen, Georg Marckmann, Wolf Rogowski Genetic relatives of hereditary colorectal cancer patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) are at risk of cancer. Testing both colorectal cancer patients and relatives of mutation carriers for LS allows targeted prevention. However, this could mean disclosing sensitive health data to family members. In light of potential trade-offs between cost-effectiveness and patient privacy, this study investigates the implications of increasing test uptake in Germany.Out of 22 screening strategies for LS, the non-dominated and current German strategies were assessed from the perspective of the Statutory Health Insurance. Life years gained by increased prevention were estimated with Markov models. The effects and implications of different test uptake rates in index patients and their relatives were investigated by scenario analysis.Privacy limitations could yield health gains of up to 2500 undiscounted life years for first-degree relatives of index patients and substantially improve cost-effectiveness. However, this approach may contradict the right to informational self-determination.This study demonstrates the effect higher LS test uptakes could have on the lives and rights of colorectal cancer patients and their relatives. It shows potential conflicts between the efficient use of health care resources on the one hand and reasonable consideration of patient autonomy on the other.
  • A new clinical complexity model for the Australian Refined Diagnosis
           Related Groups
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Vera Dimitropoulos, Trent Yeend, Qingsheng Zhou, Stuart McAlister, Michael Navakatikyan, Philip Hoyle, John Pilla, Carol Loggie, Anne Elsworthy, Ric Marshall, Richard Madden BackgroundThe Australian Refined Diagnosis Related Groups underwent a major review in 2014 with changes implemented in Version 8.0 of the classification.The core to the changes was the development of a new methodology to estimate the Diagnosis Complexity Level (DCL) and to aggregate the complexity level of individual diagnoses to the complexity of an entire episode (ECCS). This paper provides an overview of the new methodology and its application in Version 8.0.MethodThe AR-DRG V8.0 refinement project was overseen by a Classifications Clinical Advisory Group and a DRG Technical Group. Admitted Patient Care National Minimum Dataset and the National Hospital Cost Data Collection were used for complexity modelling and analysis.ResultIn total, Version 8.0 comprised 807 DRGs, including 3 error DRGs. Of the 321 ADRGs that had a split, 315 ADRGs used ECCS as the only splitting variable while the remaining 6 ADRGs used splitting variables other than ECCS: 2 used age and 4 used transfer.Discussion and conclusionA new episode clinical complexity model was developed and introduced in AR-DRG V8.0, replacing the original model introduced in the 1990s. Clear AR-DRG structure principles were established for revising the system. The new complexity model is conceptually based and statistically derived, and results in an improved relationship with actual variations in resource use due to episode complexity.
  • Substituting Emergency Services: Primary Care vs. Hospital Care
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Krämer Jonas, Schreyögg Jonas Overcrowding in emergency departments (EDs) is inefficient, especially if it is caused by inappropriate visits for which primary care physicians could be equally effective as a hospital ED. Our paper investigates the extent to which both ambulatory ED visits and inpatient ED admissions are substitutes for primary care emergency services (PCES) in Germany. We use extensive longitudinal data and fixed effects models. Moreover, we add interaction terms to investigate the influence of various determinants on the strength of the substitution. Our results show significant substitution between PCES and ambulatory ED visits. Regarding the determinants, we find the largest substitution for younger patients. The more accessible the hospital ED is, the significantly larger the substitution. Moreover, substitution is larger among better-educated patients. For inpatient ED admission, we find significant substitution that is eight times smaller than the substitution for ambulatory ED visits. With regard to the determinants, we find the strongest substitution for non-urgent, short-stay admission and elderly patients. Countries with no gate-keeping system (such as Germany) have difficulties redirecting the patients streaming to EDs. Our estimated elasticities can help policy makers to resolve this issue, as our findings indicate where incentivizing the utilization of PCES is particularly effective.
  • A spatial analysis to evaluate the impact of deregulation policies in the
           pharmacy sector: evidence from the case of Navarre
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Ilaria Barbarisi, Giuseppe Bruno, Antonio Diglio, Javier Elizalde, Carmela Piccolo Community pharmacies represent unusual enterprises as their main function is intrinsically related to the provision of healthcare services. Hence, market competition in this sector needs to be regulated, in order to ensure equitable accessibility, efficiency and quality of services. However, recently a general deregulation trend may be observed in Europe. In this paper, we focus on location restrictions, i.e. on demographic and geographic constraints to open new pharmacies, and we evaluate the impact of their relaxation. In particular, we analyze the case of the city of Pamplona (ES), where a striking increase in the number of pharmacies occurred, after the introduction of a new regulatory system in 2000. We evaluate, thanks to an in-depth spatial analysis, the evolution of the system to date and the effects produced on the consumers, in terms of accessibility, and on the competitors, in terms of market shares distribution. By comparing the obtained results with the ones related to the case of a second Spanish city, characterized by more strict restrictions, it emerges that the deregulation risks to produce a limited improvement in terms of accessibility and to exacerbate differences among consumers. Moreover, an increasing number of competitors does not necessarily imply a more equitable distribution of market shares, thus putting at risk the desired effects in terms of cost reduction and service quality improvement.
  • Drug Price, Dosage and Safety: Real-World Evidence of Oral Hypoglycemic
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Yu-Shiuan Lin, Min-Ting Lin, Shou-Hsia Cheng ObjectivesDrug price reduction is one of the major policies to restrain pharmaceutical expenses worldwide. This study explores whether there is a relationship between drug price and clinical quality using real-world data.MethodsPatients with newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetes receiving metformin or sulfonylureas during 2001 and 2010 were identified using the claim database of the Taiwan universal health insurance system. Propensity score matching was performed to obtain comparable subjects for analysis. Pharmaceutical products were categorized as brand-name agents (BD), highpriced generics (HP) or low-priced generics (LP). Indicators of clinical quality were defined as the dosage of cumulative oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA), exposure to other pharmacological classes of OHA, hospitalization or urgent visit for hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia, insulin utilization and diagnosis of diabetic complications within 1 year after diagnosis.ResultsA total of 40,152 study subjects were identified. A generalized linear mix model showed that HP and BD users received similar OHA dosages with comparable clinical outcomes. By contrast, LP users had similar outcomes to BD users but received a 39% greater OHA dosage. A marginally higher risk of poor glycemic control in LP users was also observed.ConclusionsDrug price is related to indicators of clinical quality. Clinicians and health authorities should monitor the utilization, effectiveness and clinical safety indicators of generic drugs, especially those with remarkably low prices.
  • “Health policies and mixed migration – lessons learnt from the
           ‘Refugee Crisis’”
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Nora Gottlieb, Kayvan Bozorgmehr, Ursula Trummer, Bernd Rechel
  • The Effect of the United Kingdom Smoking Ban on Alcohol Spending: Evidence
           from the Living Costs and Food Survey 2001-14
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 August 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Robert Pryce The effect of smoking bans on alcohol consumption is unclear, and this is especially true of the differing effect on smokers and non-smokers. This paper uses spending survey data to examine the effect of the United Kingdom smoking bans on alcohol spending. It finds the introduction of a smoking ban decreased alcohol expenditure, specifically in the on-trade (pubs and restaurants) and amongst smoking households. Smoking households are estimated to have reduced their weekly on-premise alcohol expenditure by £1.70 (approximately 15-20%), whilst non-smoking households do not significantly change their expenditure. The smoking ban may therefore have affected on-premise outlets through a reduction in revenue. This study provides further evidence that tobacco policies affect drinking behaviour.
  • Health records for migrants and refugees: a systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 July 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Valentina Chiesa, Antonio Chiarenza, Davide Mosca, Bernd Rechel IntroductionOne of the challenges facing migrants and refugees is access to medical records. The aim of this study was to identify Health Records (HRs) developed specifically for migrants and refugees, describe their characteristics, and discuss their reported strengths and weaknesses.Materials and methodsA systematic review of articles focusing on HRs implemented exclusively for migrants and refugees was undertaken. Publications were identified by searching the scientific databases Embase, Medline, Scopus and Cochrane, the grey literature and by checking the reference lists of articles.ResultsThe literature search yielded an initial list of 1432 records, with 58 articles remaining after screening of title and abstract. Following full-text screening, 33 articles were retained. Among the 33 articles reviewed, 20 different HRs were identified.DiscussionOur findings suggest that HRs, especially electronic ones, might be efficient and effective tools for registering, monitoring and improving the health of migrants and refugees. However, some of the evidence base is narrative or institutional and needs to be backed up by scientific studies.ConclusionsHealth records, implemented specifically for migrants and refugees, seem to have the potential to address some of the challenges that they face in accessing health care, in particular in strategic hotspots, cross-border settings and for migrants on the move.
  • Once covered, forever covered: The actuarial challenges of the Belgian
           private health insurance system
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Hamza Hanbali, Hubert Claassens, Michel Denuit, Jan Dhaene, Julien Trufin The Belgian Law of 20 July 2007 has drastically changed the Belgian private health insurance sector by making individual contracts lifelong with the technical basis (i.e. actuarial assumptions) fixed at policy issue. The goal of the Law is to ensure the accessibility to supplementary health coverage in order to protect policyholders from discrimination and exclusion, essentially when these operate on the basis of age. Due to the unpredictable nature of medical inflation risk and the difficulty to model future increases of health claims, the legislator introduced medical indices together with a specific updating mechanism, which aim at establishing standardized and fair premium adjustments across the sector. This paper considers two major issues of the current Belgian system. The first one is related to the transferability of the reserves, whereas the second one is related to age-discrimination. We discuss these issues and their interplay, and we address the conflict between the goal of the Law and the practical problems arising in the light of the actuarial techniques.
  • Understanding how Local Authorities in England address obesity: a wider
           determinants of health perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): James Nobles, Alex Christensen, Matthew Butler, Duncan Radley, Katie Pickering, Joanna Saunders, Carol Weir, Pinki Sahota, Paul Gately Local government organisations (LAs) have a major role in the prevention and treatment of obesity in England. This study aims to 1) understand what actions are being taken by LAs to address obesity, and 2) determine how actions counter the perceived causes of obesity when mapped against the Wider Determinants of Health (WDoH) model.Thirty-two LAs were invited to complete an Action Mapping Tool, 10 participated. The tool requires LAs to document actions being implemented locally to address obesity. This then enables LAs to map their actions against the perceived causes of obesity, using the WDoH model as an analytical lens. We collated data from the 10 LAs and used an adapted framework synthesis method for analysis.280 actions were documented across the 10 LAs; almost 60% (n = 166) targeted Individual Lifestyle Factors (ILF), with 7.1% (n = 20), 16.8% (n = 47) and 16.4% (n = 46) targeting Social and Community Factors (SCF), Living and Working Conditions (LWC) and Wider Conditions (WC) respectively. Conversely, 60% of causes were spread across the LWC and WC, with 16.4% regarded as ILF. Physical activity-, weight management-, and health improvement- programmes were most frequently implemented by LAs.There is a stark mismatch between LA actions on obesity and its perceived causes. Given that LAs acknowledge the complex aetiology of obesity, an equally comprehensive approach should be implemented in the future.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Envisioning and shaping translation of knowledge into action: a
           comparative case-study of stakeholder engagement in the development of a
           European tobacco control tool
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Robert A.J. Borst, Maarten Olivier Kok, Alison J. O’Shea, Subhash Pokhrel, Teresa H. Jones, Annette Boaz Stakeholder engagement in health policy research is often said to increase ‘research impact’, but the active role of stakeholders in creating impact remains underexplored. We explored how stakeholders shaped the translation of health policy research into action. Our comparative case-study tracked a European research project that aimed to transfer an existing tobacco control return on investment tool. That project also aimed to increase its impact by engaging with stakeholders in further developing the tool. We conducted semi-structured interviews, using an actor-scenario mapping approach. Actor-scenarios can be seen as relational descriptions of a future world. We mapped the scenarios by asking stakeholders to describe who and what would play a role in the tool’s utilisation. Our results show that stakeholders envisioned disparate futures for the tool. Some scenarios were specific, whereas most were generic projections of abstract potential users and responsibilities. We show how stakeholders mobilised elements of context, such as legislative support and agricultural practice, that would affect the tool’s use. We conclude that stakeholders shape knowledge translation processes by continuously putting forth explicit or implicit scenarios about the use of such knowledge. Mapping actor-scenarios may help in aligning knowledge production with utilisation. Insights into potential roles and responsibilities could be fed back in research projects with the aim of increasing the likelihood that the study results may be used.
  • Using national electronic health care registries for comparing the risk of
           psychiatric re-hospitalisation in six European countries: opportunities
           and limitations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Heinz Katschnig, Christa Straßmayr, Florian Endel, Michael Berger, Günther Zauner, Jorid Kalseth, Raluca Sfetcu, Kristian Wahlbeck, Federico Tedeschi, Lilijana Šprah, on behalf of the CEPHOS-LINK study group Psychiatric re-hospitalisation rates have been of longstanding interest as health care quality metric for planners and policy makers, but are criticized for not being comparable across hospitals and countries due to measurement unclarities. The objectives of the present study were to explore the interoperability of national electronic routine health care registries of six European countries (Austria, Finland, Italy, Norway, Romania, Slovenia) and, by using variables found to be comparable, to calculate and compare re-hospitalisation rates and the associated risk factors. A “Methods Toolkit” was developed for exploring the interoperability of registry data and protocol led pilot studies were carried out. Problems encountered in this process are described. Using restricted but comparable data sets, up to twofold differences in psychiatric re-hospitalisation rates were found between countries for both a 30- and 365-day follow-up period. Cumulative incidence curves revealed noteworthy additional differences. Health system characteristics are discussed as potential causes for the differences. Using logistic regression analyses younger age and a diagnosis of schizophrenia/mania/bipolar disorder consistently increased the probability of psychiatric re-hospitalisation across countries. It is concluded that the advantage of having large unselected study populations of national electronic health care registries needs to be balanced against the considerable efforts to examine the interoperability of databases in cross-country comparisons.
  • Challenges in the value assessment, pricing and funding of targeted
           combination therapies in oncology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): D. Dankó, J-Y. Blay, L. Garrison
  • Combined impact of future trends on healthcare utilisation of older
           people: a Delphi study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): W.M. Ravensbergen, Y.M. Drewes, H.B.M. Hilderink, M. Verschuuren, J. Gussekloo, R.A.A. Vonk PurposeTo explore the combined effect of trends in older people on their future healthcare utilisation.MethodsA Delphi study consisting of two rounds was conducted. The heterogeneous expert panel (n = 16) in the field of elderly care rated the effect of combinations of trends in the Netherlands on the use of seven healthcare services: i.e. informal, home, general practitioner, acute, specialist, nursing home and mental health care. The percentage and direction of the overall consensus, for the different health services, and for three main trends were analysed.ResultsExperts reached consensus in 57 of 92 ratings (62%). Taking into account the interaction between trends, they expected an extra increase for informal, home, and general practitioner care, but no additional effect of interaction for specialist and acute care. Combinations that included trends leading to less support were expected to lead to an extra increase in utilisation.ConclusionsExperts expect that interaction between trends will lead to an extra increase in the use of general practitioner, home, and informal care. This increase is mainly the result of interaction with trends leading to less support for older persons. The present results show the need to take the effect of interaction into account when designing new health policy and in research on future healthcare utilisation.
  • Pay for Performance for Specialised Care in England: Strengths and
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Yan Feng, Søren Rud Kristensen, Paula Lorgelly, Rachel Meacock, Marina Rodes Sanchez, Luigi Siciliani, Matt Sutton Pay-for-Performance (P4P) schemes have become increasingly common internationally, yet evidence of their effectiveness remains ambiguous. P4P has been widely used in England for over a decade both in primary and secondary care. A prominent P4P programme in secondary care is the Commissioning for Quality and Innovation (CQUIN) framework. The most recent addition to this framework is Prescribed Specialised Services (PSS) CQUIN, introduced into the NHS in England in 2013. This study offers a review and critique of the PSS CQUIN scheme for specialised care. A key feature of PSS CQUIN is that whilst it is centrally developed, performance targets are agreed locally. This means that there is variation across providers in: the schemes selected from the national menu, the achievement level needed to earn payment, and the proportion of the overall payment attached to each scheme. Specific schemes vary in terms of what is incentivised – structure, process and/or outcome – and how they are incentivised. Centralised versus decentralised decision making, the nature of the performance measures, the tiered payment structure and the dynamic nature of the schemes have created a sophisticated but complex P4P programme which requires evaluation to understand the effect of such incentives on specialised care.
  • Asylum seekers’ mental health and treatment utilization in a three
           months follow-up study after transfer from a state registration-and
           reception-center in Germany
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 July 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Christoph Nikendei, David Kindermann, Hannah Brandenburg, Cassandra Derreza-Greeven, Valentina Zeyher, Florian Junne, Hans-Christoph Friederich, Kayvan Bozorgmehr Even though asylum seekers show a high prevalence of trauma-related disorders and comorbid psychological stress symptoms, little is known about how their mental health develops during the asylum process and what options of care are provided. We aimed to investigate the mental health and treatment utilization of asylum seekers after they were transferred from a state registration- and reception-center to municipal shelters in Germany. N = 228 asylum seekers with on-going asylum procedure were recruited in the psychosocial walk-in clinic located in a state registration- and reception-center. We firstly captured symptoms of posttraumatic stress, depression, anxiety disorders, quality of life, as well as alcohol or drug abuse. Subsequently we performed a follow-up after three months to evaluate a potential shift in symptoms and determining rates of access to treatment. In the pre-post psychometric assessment, there were statistically significant changes in depression (PHQ-2), panic (PHQ-PD) and psychosocial well-being scores (WHO-5). However, all these scores still remained within a clinical relevant range, respectively. Traumatic stress (PC-PTSD-5) and general anxiety scores (GAD-2) did not change significantly. Although N = 44 (66%) of the interviewed patients had been referred to psychotherapy initially, none (0%) of them had received outpatient psychotherapeutic treatment after three months. Our results emphasize a strong need for low-threshold, cultural adapted psychotherapeutic treatment for asylum seekers.
  • Removing the last billboard for the tobacco industry: Tobacco standardized
           packaging in Ireland
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Eric Crosbie The World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) implementation guidelines recommend that governments adopt plain packaging (also known as standardized packaging (SP)) along with pictorial health warning labels covering 50% or more of the tobacco package. The 2014 revised European Union Tobacco Product Directive also supports EU member states to introduce SP. Following these developments and recommendations, in 2013 the Department of Health launched a “Tobacco Free Ireland” policy which aimed to reduce the smoking prevalence rate to less than 5% by 2025. Tobacco Free Ireland set out 60 recommendations and measures to reach the 2025 target, including introducing SP. Tobacco companies and trademark and intellectual property organizations opposed the SP proposal claiming it would; 1) not work to reduce smoking levels, 2) increase illicit tobacco trade, 3) create unnecessary problems for retailers, and 4) violate domestic and international laws governing trademarks. However leading health groups in Ireland presented evidence on how SP would communicate the harms of tobacco to smokers and discourage young people from beginning to smoke. These efforts combined with strong political will helped Ireland to become the second country in the world to enact standardized packaging for all tobacco products.
  • Shaping access to health care for refugees on the local level in Germany
           – mixed-methods analysis of official statistics and perspectives of
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Kristin Rolke, Judith Wenner, Oliver Razum BackgroundAnalyses of refugee reception in European countries are increasingly focusing on the local level. We analyzed how gatekeepers can shape access to health care on a local level, taking as an example the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), Germany, where municipalities have implemented different local access models for newly arrived refugees.MethodsWe assessed the details of and the rationale for the implementation of local access models (implementation analysis), and the potential access to health care for refugees in municipalities (local policy analysis). We covered three municipalities with a health care voucher model and three with an electronic health card model. We combined data from official reports and semi-structured interviews (N = 21) with gatekeepers.ResultsLarger municipalities are more likely to implement the eHC. Gatekeepers report that costs, workload and control are the major aspects underlying the choice of a model in municipalities. Access plays only a minor role – even though some of the gatekeepers claim that the eHC can facilitate access. Regardless of the implemented model, gatekeepers on the local level can contribute to facilitating the access to health care for refugees.ConclusionPotential access of newly arrived refugees is – among others – determined by the gatekeepers’ support and the implementation of the access models. Within the legal framework, municipalities can implement the models differently.
  • Erratum to “Gender differences in the incomes of self-employed French
           physicians: The role of family structure” [Health Policy 123 (2019)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Fanny Mikol, Carine Franc
  • The dynamics of health poverty in Spain during the economic crisis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Marta Pascual-Sáez, David Cantarero-Prieto, Paloma Lanza-León In recent years, and because of the economic crisis, Spain’s government has been worried about changes in health poverty. In this paper, we examine individual health status measured subjectively (SAH) and we decompose some socio-economic determinants to analyse how this situation affects health. We focus on SAH to estimate the poverty trends over time using the Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) index. For this purpose, we have used data provided by the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC). Our results show a negative growth if a poor SAH status is chosen as a health poverty threshold, and a positive growth of health poverty, if a fair SAH status is chosen. Furthermore, we decompose some socio-economic factors (such as gender, age and education level) to study how these characteristics affect health poverty. Our findings, based on different subgroup decompositions, reveal a rise of health poverty in Spain.
  • Efficacy of the tobacco tax policy in the presence of product
           heterogeneity: A pseudo-panel approach applied to Spain
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Mercedes Burguillo, Desiderio Romero-Jordán, José-Félix Sanz-Sanz This paper focuses on the substitution effects between different comercial presentations of tobacco in Spain. Concretely, on cigarettes, cigars and RYO. When taxing policies increase tobacco prices these effects might lead changes from more expensive to cheaper products instead of reducing tobacco consumption. We use micro-data for the years 2006 -2012. We estimate a complete model of demand. The own-price, the income and the cross elasticity of each good are estimated. The results show that the own-price elasticity of cigarettes is low and the income elasticity of cigarettes’ demand is very low. Thus in Spain smokers continue to buy cigarettes when the price of cigarettes increases and when cigarette consumers income declines. Moreover the substitutability relationship of cigarettes for cigars and RYO is weak. Thus, cigarettes smokers in Spain are loyal to this product and consider it a normal good. Moreover, cigar consumption presents high own-price and income elasticities, so cigars are luxury goods. Thus unlike cigarettes, cigar sales fall when cigar prices rise or cigar consumers income falls. Finally, RYO and cigarettes are substitutes goods and RYO and cigars are not substitute ones. That means that RYO and cigarettes can satisfy the same need; then to satisfy it the consumers can use almost indistinctibly the one or the other. This is not the case between RYO and cigars.
  • Erratum to “Adherence to a regulation that aims to prevent and treat
           malnutrition—The case of Swedish elderly care” [Health Policy 123 July
           (7) (2019) 688–694]
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Malin Skinnars Josefsson, Margaretha Nydahl, Inger Persson, Ylva Mattsson Sydner
  • Earlier detection of public health risks – health policy lessons for
           better compliance with the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005).
           Insights from low-, mid- and high-income countries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Bruria Adini, Shepherd Roee Singer, Ronit Ringel, Petra Dickmann The International Health Regulations (IHR 2005) require all Member States to build and maintain the capacities to prevent, detect and respond to public health emergencies. Early detection of public health risks is one of the core functions. In order to improve surveillance and detection, a better understanding of the health system conditions and their influencing factors are needed. The Israeli Ministry of Health/IHR National Focal Point held a workshop to elucidate health system conditions and their influencing factors that enable earlier detection. The workshop methodology employed a stepwise, small working group analysis approach to elucidate the conditions and their influencing factors affecting each stage of recognition, assessment, and reporting of infectious disease outbreaks, at the local, regional and national levels. In order to detect public health risks earlier, the detection process needs to be moved closer to the local communities and start with building capacity within communities. Building capacity and engaging with local and diverse communities requires significant changes in the governance approach and include information sharing, multi-sectoral communication and coordination across various levels before, during and after public health emergencies. Across the regions, low-, mid- and high-income countries seem to struggle more with governance and information sharing rather than with technical capacities and capabilities.
  • “What’s fair to an individual is not always fair to a population”: a
           qualitative study of patients and their health professionals using the
           Cancer Drugs Fund
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Charlotte Chamberlain, Amanda Owen-Smith, Fiona MacKichan, Jenny L. Donovan, William Hollingworth ObjectiveTo understand the values attached to cancer treatment at the end of life(EoL) to inform policy decisions around the Cancer Drugs Fund(CDF) and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence(NICE) EoL criterion.DesignSemi-structured interviews with patients and health professionals.Purposive recruitment was performed iteratively alongside analysis of interview transcripts using constant comparison.ParticipantsPatients with incurable prostate and colorectal cancer(n = 22) who received drugs funded through the CDF and oncologists and palliative care professionals(n = 16) treating patients on CDF drugs.ResultsWhile the majority of patient and oncologist participants expressed gratitude for access to the CDF, some patient participants reported experiencing a sense of guilt, and many oncologists admitted to concern about the justice of a ring-fenced fund solely for anti-cancer drugs. For patient and professional participants, cancer drugs were not necessarily seen as a funding priority over other calls on the NHS purse. Overall,patients and health professionals emphasised prioritising quality over quantity at the end of life, with only a minority describing improved quality of life at the end of life which added value.ConclusionWhile patients and oncologists appreciated the drugs available through the CDF, most expressed concern about its fairness. Competing participant views about the added value of the end of life is challenging for resource allocation.
  • Characteristics of Trials and Regulatory Pathways Leading to US Approval
           of Innovative Vs. Non-Innovative Oncology Drugs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Kerstin Noëlle Vokinger, Aaron S. Kesselheim BackgroundSuccessful first-generation drugs can be converted with small alterations to "second-generation drugs," which are cheaper to develop and may pose less financial risk for manufacturers due to already validated action mechanism and a well-defined consumer market.MethodsWe found four classes of cancer drugs for first- and secondgeneration products approved in the US: BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) for treatment of CML, ALK + TKI for NSCLC, CD20 monoclonal antibodies for CLL, and HER2 monoclonal antibodies for breast cancer. We analyzed the characteristics of the clinical trials and the approval pathways for these 14 drugs.ResultsFirst-generation and 4 out of 5 second-generation BCR-ABL TKI drugs were granted expedited approval, while all drugs were approved based on single-arm trials. Both ALK + TKI drugs were based on single-arm trials and expedited approval. The first-generation CD20 monoclonal antibody drug was approved based on single-arm trials, and one of the second-generation drugs had pivotal trials that were randomized. All benefited from expedited approval. All HER2 monoclonal antibodies in the sample were based on randomized trials and expedited pathways.ConclusionSecond-generation TKI and monoclonal antibodies were often approved through expedited regulatory pathways and studied in single-arm trials. This helps to facilitate the approval for earlier use by patients, but is also associated with greater risk of post-approval safety-related labeling changes or unanticipated adverse events.
  • No unmet needs without needs! Assessing the role of social capital using
           data from European Social Survey 2014
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Carlota Quintal, Óscar Lourenço, Luís Moura Ramos, Micaela Antunes This paper examines the determinants of unmet healthcare needs in Europe. Special emphasis is put on the impact of social capital.Data come from the European Social Survey, 2014. Our study includes 32,868 respondents in 20 countries. Because unmet needs are observed only in those individuals who are exposed to, and recognise, the need of medical care, sample selection can be an issue. To address it, we analyse the data using the bivariate sample selection model. When there is no need, there is no assessment of access to healthcare. Accordingly, in this situation, our model assumes that unmet need is unobserved.The magnitude and statistical significance of the error correlation support our modelling strategy. A high proportion (18.4%) of individuals in need in Europe reported unmet needs. Informal connections seem to mitigate barriers to access as well as trust in other people and institutions, particularly in health services. Financial strain still is a strong predictor of unmet needs. Other vulnerable groups include informal carers, minorities and individuals feeling discriminated. Unmet needs might also arise due to persistent needs of healthcare as it seems to be the case of individuals with lower health status and chronic conditions. A result that merits further research concerns the positive impact of civic engagement on unmet needs.
  • Understanding the impetus for major systems change: A multiple case study
           of decisions and non-decisions to reconfigure emergency and urgent care
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Sheena McHugh, E. Droog, C. Foley, M. Boyce, O. Healy, J.P. Browne ObjectiveThe optimal organisation of emergency and urgent care services (EUCS) is a perennial problem internationally. Similar to other countries, the Health Service Executive in Ireland pursued EUCS reconfiguration in response to quality and safety concerns, unsustainable costs and workforce issues. However, the implementation of reconfiguration has been inconsistent at a regional level. Our aim was to identify the factors that led to this inconsistency.MethodsUsing a multiple case study design, six case study regions represented full, partial and little/no reconfiguration at emergency departments (EDs). Data from documents and key stakeholder interviews were analysed using a framework approach with cross-case analysis.ResultsThe impetus to reconfigure ED services was triggered by patient safety events, and to a lesser extent by having a region-specific plan and an obvious starting point for changes. However, the complexity of the next steps and political influence impeded reconfiguration in several regions. Implementation was more strategic in regions that reconfigured later, facilitated by clinical leadership and “lead-in time” to plan and sell changes.ConclusionWhile the global shift towards centralisation of EUCS is driven by universal challenges, decisions about when, where and how much to implement are influenced by local drivers including context, people and politics. This can contribute to a public perception of inequity and distrust in proposals for major systems change.
  • Physical exercise versus shorter life expectancy' An investigation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 May 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Trine Kjær, Betina Højgaard, Dorte Gyrd-Hansen The positive life-prolonging effect of physical activity is often used as a promotion argument to motivate people to change their behaviour. Yet the decision of investing in health by exercising depends not only on the potential health effect but also on the costs of physical activity including time costs and the individual’s (dis)utility of performing physical activity. The objective of this study was to investigate the trade-off between costs and benefits of engaging in physical activity. A web-based stated preference experiment was conducted to elicit individual preferences for physical activity among a representative sample of the Danish population, 18-60 years of age, categorised as moderately physically active or physically inactive. The results of the study suggest that perceived negative quality of life impact of physical activity is an important predictor of the choice of not attending physical activity, and hence should be acknowledged as a barrier to engaging in physical activity. Furthermore, we find time costs to have a significant impact on stated uptake. For individuals categorised as moderately active, the marginal health effect of physical activity is significant but minor. For inactive individuals, this effect is insignificant suggesting that information on long-term health effects does not work as motivation for engaging in exercise for this group. Instead, focus should be on reducing the perceived disutility of physical activity.
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 May 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Alessandra Buja, Riccardo Fusinato, Mirko Claus, Rosa Gini, Mario Braga, Mimma Cosentino, Giovanna Boccuzzo, Paolo Francesconi, Vincenzo Baldo, Valeria D. Tozzi, Verdiana Morando, Mariadonata Bellentani, Gianfranco Damiani BackgroundDemographic changes and chronicity are posing new challenges to health care systems. Our study aimed to examine how effectively the three different types of proactive primary care models adopted by three different regional health care systems in Italy were improving the quality of diabetes management by general practitionersMethodsA coordinated Italian nationwide project to compare systematically the new proactive organizational models implemented at regional and local level (the MEDINA Project) involved several regions and their local health units (LHUs). A quasi-experimental study was conducted on a large dataset obtained by processing administrative databases. A combined indicator was developed to assess the quality of care delivered by primary care physicians, based on adherence to recommendations concerning patient monitoring and treatment.ResultThe study concerned 602 Italian general practitioners (GPs), 174 of them female, who were caring for a total of 753,366 patients (47,575 of them diabetic). Analyzing a total score, representing global adherence to a quality management of patients with diabetes, confirmed that GPs who had adopted the new model of care for their diabetic patients obtained better results than those who had not, so the new policy was generally effective.ConclusionOur study showed that introducing new, proactive primary care models could sustain efforts made around the world to guarantee good-quality chronic disease management in the primary care setting.
  • Cost-utility of screening for depression among asylum seekers: a modelling
           study in Germany
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Louise Biddle, Alec Miners, Kayvan Bozorgmehr BackgroundAsylum seekers have a high burden of mental illness owing to traumatic experiences before, during and after flight. Screening has been suggested to identify asylum seekers with psychosocial needs. However, little is known about the costs of screening relative to expected gains. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of population-based screening for depression in German asylum reception centres compared to case-finding by self-referral.MethodsExplorative modelling study using a decision tree over 15 months to estimate the incremental cost per Quality-Adjusted Life-Year gained. Data points were taken from the published literature. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were used to address uncertainty around parameter estimates. Value of information analyses were performed to indicate the value of future research.ResultsThe model demonstrates a high probability (p = 83%) of the screening intervention being cost-effective at a Є 50,000/QALY threshold. Cost-utility depends on the process of care following screening: when acceptability and adherence parameters were decreased by 40%, the resulting ICER increased by 27-131%. Eliminating uncertainty was most valuable for the screening process and cost parameters, at Є 3·0 and Є 4·4 million respectively.ConclusionsScreening asylum seekers for depression may be a cost-effective strategy to identify those in need of care. However, there is considerable value in conducting further research in this area, especially regarding resource requirements and the process of care following screening.
  • New partnerships, new perspectives: the relevance of sexual and
           reproductive health and rights for sustainable development
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Susannah H. Mayhew, Karen Newman, David Johnson, Emily Clark, Michael Hammer, Vik Mohan, Sarah Ssali In the light of the opportunities presented by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) debate is being reignited to understand the connections between human population dynamics (including rapid population growth) and sustainable development. Sustainable development is seriously affected by human population dynamics yet programme planners too often fail to consider them in development programming, casting doubt on the sustainability of such programming. Some innovative initiatives are attempting to cross sector boundaries once again, such as the Population Health and Environment (PHE) programmes, which are integrated programmes encompassing family planning service provision with broader public health services and environmental protection activities. These initiatives take on greater prominence in the context of the SDGs since they explicitly seek to provide cross-sector programming and governance to improve both human and planetary wellbeing. Yet such initiatives remain under-researched and under promoted.
  • Barriers to Health Care Access and Service Utilization of Refugees in
           Austria: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Survey
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Judith Kohlenberger, Isabella Buber-Ennser, Bernhard Rengs, Sebastian Leitner, Michael Landesmann This paper provides evidence on (1) refugees’ subjective well-being, (2) their access and barriers to health care utilization and (3) their perception of health care provision in Austria, one of the countries most heavily affected by the European ‘refugee crisis.’ It is based on primary data from the Refugee Health and Integration Survey (ReHIS), a cross-sectional survey of roughly five hundred Syrian, Iraqi and Afghan refugees. Results indicate that refugees’ self-rated health falls below the resident population’s, in particular for female and Afghan refugees. Whereas respondents state overall high satisfaction with the Austrian health system, two in ten male and four in ten female refugees report unmet health needs. Most frequently cited barriers include scheduling conflicts, long waiting lists, lack of knowledge about doctors, and language. Although treatment costs were not frequently considered as barriers, consultation of specialist medical services frequently associated with co-payment by patients, in particular dental care, are significantly less often consulted by refugees than by Austrians. Refugees reported comparably high utilization of hospital services, with daycare treatment more common than inpatient stays. We recommend to improve refugees’ access to health care in Austria by a) improving the information flow about available treatment, in particular specialists, b) fostering dental health care for refugees, and c) addressing language barriers by providing (web-based) interpretation services.
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