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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1453 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (86 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (661 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (382 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (105 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (115 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (661 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AJOB Empirical Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 256)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences: Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Apuntes Universitarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Suicide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 7)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Birat Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Boletin Médico de Postgrado     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
British Journal of Health Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Carta Comunitaria     Open Access  
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Innovación en Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Salud Virtual     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cities & Health     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical and Experimental Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clocks & Sleep     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de la Escuela de Salud Pública     Open Access  
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Design for Health     Hybrid Journal  
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Diversity of Research in Health Journal     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drogues, santé et société     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Düzce Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi / Journal of Duzce University Health Sciences Institute     Open Access  
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Ethics & Human Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Eurasian Journal of Health Technology Assessment     Open Access  
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Family & Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare : Finjehew     Open Access  
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Digital Health     Open Access  
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ganesha Journal     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Advances in Health and Medicine     Open Access  
Global Challenges     Open Access  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Reproductive Health     Open Access  
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastane Öncesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
HCU Journal     Open Access  
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Health and Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Equity     Open Access  
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Notions     Open Access  
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
Health Psychology Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Security     Hybrid Journal  
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Health Policy
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.252
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 45  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0168-8510
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Biases distorting priority setting
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Bjørn HofmannAbstractModern health care faces an ever widening gap between technological possibilities and available resources. To handle this challenge we have constructed elaborate systems for health policy making and priority setting. Despite such systems many health care systems provide a wide range of documented low-value care while being unable to afford emerging high-value care. Accordingly, this article sets out asking why priority setting in health care has so poor outcomes while relevant systems are well developed and readily available. It starts to identify some rational and structural explanations for the discrepancy between theoretical efforts and practical outcomes in priority setting. However, even if these issues are addressed, practical priority setting may still not obtain its goals. This is because a wide range of irrational effects is hampering priority setting: biases. By using examples from the literature the article identifies and analyses a wide range of biases indicating how they can distort priority setting processes. Overuse, underuse, and overinvestment, as well as hampered disinvestment and undermined priority setting principles are but some of the identified implications. Moreover, while some biases are operating mainly on one level, many are active on the micro, meso and on the macro level. Identifying and analyzing biases affecting priority setting is the first, but crucial, step towards improving health policy making and priority setting in health care.
       
  • Ending TB in Australia: Organizational challenges for regional
           tuberculosis programs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Chris Degeling, Jane Carroll, Justin Denholm, Ben Marais, Angus DawsonAbstractThe World Health Organization’s End TB Strategy aims to eliminate tuberculosis (TB) by 2050. Low-burden countries such as Australia are targeted for early elimination (2035), which will require an increase in the intensity and scope of case finding and treatment of people with latent TB infection (LTBI). Because 80% of TB disease in Australia occurs in metropolitan Sydney (New South Wales) and Melbourne (Victoria), the commitment to move towards elimination has major implications for TB programs in these jurisdictions. We report on a case study analysis that compares and contrasts key attributes of each of these healthcare organizations. Such analysis has important implications for all countries seeking to implement international agreements within local health structures. Differences in the organizational structure, culture and systems of care in NSW and Victoria may facilitate or create barriers to changes in organizational system functions, especially the way in which TB prevention and LTBI treatment is delivered. Ratification of global health treaties and the development of national strategies, alone, is insufficient for realizing the promised outcomes. Even in high income countries, global health agendas such as TB elimination can be complicated by differences in local system structure and funding. As the timelines tighten towards 2035, more work must be done to identify the organizational conditions and service models that will facilitate progress towards TB elimination.
       
  • Extreme Under and Overcompensation in Morbidity-Based Health Plan
           Payments: The Case of Switzerland
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Lukas Kauer, Thomas G. McGuire, Konstantin BeckAbstractIn 2020, the Swiss insurer payment model will include a set of sophisticated morbidity indicators in the form of Pharmaceutical Cost Groups (PCGs), added to a payment model currently largely based on age, gender, and a crude morbidity indicator. Adding powerful risk adjustors reduces underpayment for previously highly underpaid groups but creates a new group of the highly overpaid. We characterize the diseases and patterns of health care spending in most extremely under and overpaid in the new Swiss payment model. We define extremely under and overpaid to be those in the top and bottom 1 and .1 percentiles of the distribution of spending less payment, respectively. The under and overpaid share some of the same health conditions, among them kidney disease. The highly underpaid account for a massively disproportionate share of the unexplained variance in the new payment model. Membership in the tails of the distribution of spending residuals after risk adjustment is persistent, implying that the highly over and underpaid merit special attention in design of insurer payment models.
       
  • Review of 128 quality of care mechanisms: a framework and mapping for
           health system stewards
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Juan E. Tello, Erica Barbazza, Kerry WaddellAbstractHealth system stewards have the critical task to identify quality of care deficiencies and resolve underlying system limitations. Despite a growing evidence-base on the effectiveness of certain mechanisms for improving quality of care, frameworks to facilitate the oversight function of stewards and the use of mechanisms to improve outcomes remain underdeveloped. This review set out to catalogue a wide range of quality of care mechanisms and evidence on their effectiveness, and to map these in a framework along two dimensions: (i) governance subfunctions; and (ii) targets of quality of care mechanisms. To identify quality of care mechanisms, a series of searches were run in HealthSystems Evidence and PubMed. Additional grey literature was reviewed. A total of 128 quality of care mechanisms were identified. For each mechanism, searches were carried out for systematic reviews on their effectiveness. These findings were mapped in the framework defined. The mapping illustrates the range and evidence for mechanisms varies and is more developed for some target areas such as the health workforce. Across the governance sub-functions, more mechanisms and with evidence of effectiveness are found for setting priorities and standards and organizing and monitoring for action. This framework can support system stewards to map the quality of care mechanisms used in their systems and to uncover opportunities for optimization backed by systems thinking.
       
  • Knowledge management infrastructure to support quality improvement: A
           qualitative study of maternity services in four European hospitals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Anette Karltun, Johan M. Sanne, Karina Aase, Janet E. Anderson, Alexandra Fernandes, Naomi J. Fulop, Per J. Höglund, Boel Andersson-GareAbstractThe influence of multilevel healthcare system interactions on clinical quality improvement (QI) is still largely unexplored. Through the lens of knowledge management (KM) theory, this study explores how hospital managers can enhance the conditions for clinical QI given the specific multilevel and professional interactions in various healthcare systems.The research used an in-depth multilevel analysis in maternity departments in four purposively sampled European hospitals (Portugal, England, Norway and Sweden). The study combines analysis of macro-level policy documents and regulations with semi-structured interviews (96) and non-participant observations (193 hours) of hospital and clinical managers and clinical staff in maternity departments.There are four main conclusions: First, the unique multilevel configuration of national healthcare policy, hospital management and clinical professionals influence the development of clinical QI efforts. Second, these different configurations provide various and often insufficient support and guidance which affect professionals’ action strategies in QI efforts. Third, hospital managers’ opportunities and capabilities for developing a consistent KM infrastructure with reinforcing enabling conditions which merge national policies and guidelines with clinical reality is crucial for clinical QI. Fourth, understanding these interrelationships provides an opportunity for improvement of the KM infrastructure for hospital managers through tailored interventions.
       
  • Levers for integrating social work into primary healthcare networks in
           Austria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 November 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Johannes Kriegel, Clemens Rissbacher, Alois Pölzl, Linda Tuttle-Weidinger, Nanni ReckwitzAbstractBackgroundThe integrated healthcare of patients with support needs in primary healthcare in Austria has insufficient structural and procedural features in terms of the quality and security of care. The aim is therefore to develop solution- and patient-oriented services that take into account both the patients’ requirements as well as the medical, nursing, therapeutic and economic perspectives. The question arises: What relevant levers can support the active participation of social work in the primary healthcare of patients with support needs in Austria'MethodsAn adapted Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to investigate the levers for integrating social work into primary healthcare networks in Austria. In addition to a semi-structured literature search, subjective expert and user priorities were surveyed, cause-and-effect relationships were visualized, an extended cycle of success was developed and relevant control levers were identified by means of a pair comparison matrix and an effectiveness front.ResultsThis results in the targeted development and optimization of the complex integration of social work into primary healthcare in Austria, the relevant levers being the professionalization of social work, competences of social work, communication and cooperation of stakeholders.ConclusionThe identified levers have to be processed conceptually and operationally. For this purpose, an integrated concept has to be developed, which, in addition to innovative organizational instruments, includes special communication approaches as well as inter-professional process and knowledge management.
       
  • Healthcare system performance in continuity of care for patients with
           severe mental illness: a comparison of five European countries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Pablo Nicaise, Domenico Giacco, Bettina Soltmann, Andrea Pfennig, Elisabetta Miglietta, Antonio Lasalvia, Marta Welbel, Jacek Wciórka, Victoria Jane Bird, Stefan Priebe, Vincent LorantAbstractMost healthcare systems struggle to provide continuity of care for people with chronic conditions, such as patients with severe mental illness. In this study, we reviewed how system features in two national health systems (NHS, England and Veneto, Italy) and three regulated-market systems (RMS, Germany, Belgium, and Poland), were likely to affect continuing care delivery and we empirically assessed system performance. 6418 patients recruited from psychiatric hospitals were followed up one year after admission. We collected data on their use of services and contact with professionals and assessed care continuity using indicators on the gap between hospital discharge and outpatient care, access to services, number of contacts with care professionals, satisfaction with care continuity, and helping alliance. Multivariate regressions were used to control for patients' characteristics. Important differences were found between healthcare systems. NHS countries had more effective longitudinal and cross-sectional care continuity than RMS countries, though Germany had similar results to England. Relational continuity seemed less affected by organisational mechanisms. This study provides straightforward empirical indicators for assessing healthcare system performance in care continuity. Despite systems' complexity, findings suggest that stronger regulation of care provision and financing at a local level should be considered for effective care continuity.
       
  • Managing the performance of general practitioners and specialists referral
           networks: a system for evaluating the heart failure pathway
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Sabina Nuti, Francesca Ferré, Chiara Seghieri, Elisa Foresi, Therese A. StukelAbstractHigh quality chronic disease management requires coordinated care across different healthcare settings, involving multidisciplinary teams of professionals, and performance evaluation systems able to measure this care. Inter-organizational performance should be measured considering the professional relationships between general practitioners (GPs) and specialists, who are usually linked through informal referral networks.The aim of this paper is to identify and evaluate the performance of naturally occurring networks of GPs and hospital-based specialists providing care for congestive heart failure (CHF) patients in Tuscany, Italy. The analysis focuses on the identification and classification of networks, following CHF patients (n = 15,841) through primary care and inpatient care using administrative data, and on the assessment of process and outcome indicators for CHF patients in these referral networks.We demonstrate the existence of informal links between GPs and hospitals based on patterns of patient flow. These networks which are not geographically based vary in the intensity of relationships and quality of care. Such referral networks may represent the most effective accountability level for chronic disease management, since they encompass the multiple care settings experienced by patients. Overall, an integrated approach to evaluation and performance management that considers the naturally occurring links between professionals working in different settings may enable more efficient, integrated care and quality improvements.
       
  • Universal Health Coverage in Italy: lights and shades of the Italian
           National Health Service which celebrated its 40th anniversary
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): C. Signorelli, A. Odone, A. Oradini-Alacreu, G. PelisseroAbstractThe Italian National Health Service (I-NHS) was established in 1978 to guarantee universal access to healthcare. As emerges from international reports, in forty years, the I-NHS has reached a satisfactory level of efficiency and excellent standards of care in many regions. Along the years, I-NHS has developed a structural public-private partnership in health services delivery that in some regions contributes to the achievement of very high standards of healthcare quality. However, the I-NHS is currently facing some major challenges: (a) Italy is experiencing a remarkable aging of its population with increasing health needs; (b) the recent and constant cuts to public expenditures are reducing the budget for welfare. It is of utmost importance to ensure that on-going efforts to contain health system costs do not subsume health care quality. In addition, monitoring of the essential levels of care (Livelli Essenziali di Assistenza, LEA) highlights significant differences in healthcare delivery among Italian regions that, in turns, contribute to the burdensome migration of patients to best-performing regions. Therefore, a more consolidated and ambitious approach to quality monitoring and healthcare improvement at a system level is needed to guarantee its sustainability in the future
       
  • Heterogeneity in the drivers of health expenditures financed by health
           insurance in a fragmented health system: the case of Switzerland
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Yves Eggli, Pierre Stadelmann, Romain Piaget-Rossel, Joachim MartiAbstractSwitzerland is the world’s second largest spender on health care, both per capita and as a share of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The Swiss health care system is a federation of 26 cantonal systems with highly fragmented provision and financing of care, leading to important geographical disparities in expenditures. We propose a simple conceptual framework to guide the decomposition of health care expenditures into five core components (i.e. demography, propensity to use health services, substitution between domains of care, quantity of services delivered, and unit price of these services), with the objective of better understanding the drivers of geographic variation. We illustrate this framework using aggregated insurance data from 85% of the 2006 insured population and measure cross-cantonal variation disaggregated into these five components. Results obtained indicated a West-East gradient of controllable costs after adjusting for demography and propensity to use health services. Moreover, we found specific explanations for cost overruns: visits to physicians in private practice in some cantons, and, e.g., outpatient hospital care or variations in drug related expenses in others. This shows that the simple proposed approach provides interesting insights into the drivers of cost differences between regions, specifically in terms of substitution among health services, quantity of delivered services, and their prices.
       
  • Response to Removing the last billboard for the tobacco industry: Tobacco
           standardized packaging in Ireland
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Frank Houghton
       
  • Pay for performance for specialised care in England: Strengths and
           weaknesses
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Health Policy, Volume 123, Issue 11Author(s): Yan Feng, Søren Rud Kristensen, Paula Lorgelly, Rachel Meacock, Marina Rodes Sanchez, Luigi Siciliani, Matt SuttonAbstractPay-for-Performance (P4P) schemes have become increasingly common internationally, yet evidence of their effectiveness remains ambiguous. P4P has been widely used in England for over a decade both in primary and secondary care. A prominent P4P programme in secondary care is the Commissioning for Quality and Innovation (CQUIN) framework. The most recent addition to this framework is Prescribed Specialised Services (PSS) CQUIN, introduced into the NHS in England in 2013. This study offers a review and critique of the PSS CQUIN scheme for specialised care. A key feature of PSS CQUIN is that whilst it is centrally developed, performance targets are agreed locally. This means that there is variation across providers in the schemes selected from the national menu, the achievement level needed to earn payment, and the proportion of the overall payment attached to each scheme. Specific schemes vary in terms of what is incentivised – structure, process and/or outcome – and how they are incentivised. Centralised versus decentralised decision making, the nature of the performance measures, the tiered payment structure and the dynamic nature of the schemes have created a sophisticated but complex P4P programme which requires evaluation to understand the effect of such incentives on specialised care.
       
  • Response to the Letter to the Editor regarding: Removing the last
           billboard for the tobacco industry: Tobacco standardized packaging in
           Ireland
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 October 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Eric Crosbie
       
  • Challenges in the value assessment, pricing and funding of targeted
           combination therapies in oncology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): D. Dankó, J-Y. Blay, L.P. GarrisonAbstractBackgroundThe use of targeted combination therapy (TCT) is becoming the standard of care in oncology as cancers are attacked through multiple inhibition mechanisms. TCTs pose a budget challenge to health systems and an economic return challenge for companies developing them.MethodsWe conducted a systematic literature review to identify challenges specific to TCTs and reviewed publicly available reports by health technology assessment and pricing and reimbursement bodies. We synthesized our findings into a problem map.Results and discussionChallenges and policy solutions linked to TCTs remain almost fully unexplored; we identified few resources that explicitly addressed TCTs. Contributors to the budget challenge are found at different layers; they and include static willingness-to-pay (WTP) for TCTs and inefficiencies in managing prices of backbone therapies. Economic return challenges are related to payer-imposed restrictions, peculiarities of TCT development, and conflicting incentives of pharmaceutical companies that own constituent therapies. Consequences are delayed or restricted patient access to TCTs, disincentives for research and development, and fewer life years gained.ConclusionsMultiple issues will lead to the unsustainability of funding systems and possible conflict between stakeholders around access to TCTs. To manage these, new value assessment and attribution methodologies, modified trial designs and differentiated WTP thresholds can be considered in ways that are customized to the characteristics of different health systems.
       
  • New partnerships, new perspectives: The relevance of sexual and
           reproductive health and rights for sustainable development
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Susannah H. Mayhew, Karen Newman, David Johnson, Emily Clark, Michael Hammer, Vik Mohan, Sarah SsaliAbstractIn the light of the opportunities presented by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) debate is being reignited to understand the connections between human population dynamics (including rapid population growth) and sustainable development. Sustainable development is seriously affected by human population dynamics yet programme planners too often fail to consider them in development programming, casting doubt on the sustainability of such programming. Some innovative initiatives are attempting to cross sector boundaries once again, such as the Population Health and Environment (PHE) programmes, which are integrated programmes encompassing family planning service provision with broader public health services and environmental conservation activities. These initiatives take on greater prominence in the context of the SDGs since they explicitly seek to provide cross-sector programming and governance to improve both human and planetary wellbeing. Yet such initiatives remain under-researched and under promoted.
       
  • Reducing Low Value Services in Surgical Inpatients in Taiwan: Does
           Diagnosis-Related Group Payment Work'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Ling-Chen Chien, Yiing-Jenq Chou, Yu-Chin Huang, Yi-Jung Shen, Nicole HuangAbstractReducing low-value care is a top priority in health care. However, how prospective payment methods such as diagnosis-related group (DRG) payment scheme reduce the use of low-value services is unclear. This study aimed to assess frequency of low-value preoperative testing services among surgical inpatients over time and to investigate whether the 2010 Tw-DRG policy has reduced utilization of these services under the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan. The nationwide National Health Insurance claims data in Taiwan from 2008 to 2013 were used. The difference-in-differences (DID) method was adopted. Utilization of three low-value preoperative testing services (chest x-ray, echocardiogram, and stress testing) were assessed. The prevalence of the three preoperative tests ranged from 0.13 per 100 admissions (preoperative stress testing) to 78.12 per 100 admissions (preoperative chest x-ray). Following the implementation of the Tw-DRG policy, the predicted probability of low-value care use was significantly reduced from 67.91% to 64.93% in the DRG group but remained relatively stable in the comparison group (from 69.44% to 68.43%) in 2010. The use of three selected preoperative tests had only a minor temporary reduction in 2010, but later increased over time. The 2010 Tw-DRG policy did not significantly moderate the growth of low-value preoperative use. Hospital financial incentives alone may be insufficient for reducing the provision of low-value care.
       
  • Barriers and facilitators of patient access to medical devices in Europe:
           A systematic literature review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): ACC Beck, VP Retèl, PA Bhairosing, MWM van den Brekel, WH van HartenABSTRACTA large number of medical devices (MDs) is available in Europe. Procedures for market approval and reimbursement have been adopted over recent years to promote accelerating patient access to innovative MDs. However, there remains uncertainty and non-transparency regarding these procedures. We provide a structured overview of market approval and reimbursement procedures and practices regarding access to MDs in the EU.Market approval procedures were found to be uniformly described. Data on reimbursement procedures and practices was both heterogeneous and incomplete. Time to MD access was mainly determined by reimbursement procedures. The influence of the patient on time to access was not reported. Prescription practices varied among device types.Barriers to and facilitators of early patient access that set the agenda for policy implications were also analyzed. Barriers were caused by unclear European legislation, complex market approval procedures, lack of data collection, inconsistency in evidence requirements between countries, regional reimbursement and provision, and factors influencing physicians’ prescription including the device costs, waiting times and hospital-physician relationships. Facilitators were: available evidence that meets country-specific requirements for reimbursement, diagnosis-related groups, additional payments and research programs.Further research needs to focus on creating a complete overview of reimbursement procedures and practices by extracting further information from sources such as grey literature and interviews with professionals, and defining clear criteria to objectify time to access.
       
  • Solutions to tackle the mental health consequences of the economic
           recession: A qualitative study integrating primary health care users and
           professionals’ perspectives
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Ana Antunes, Diana Frasquilho, Joana R. Zózimo, Manuela Silva, Graça Cardoso, João Ferrão, José Miguel Caldas-de-AlmeidaAbstractThis qualitative study explores solutions proposed by primary health care users and professionals to address the consequences of the economic recession and austerity measures on populations' mental health and delivery of care in Portugal. Qualitative data were collected in three primary health care centres in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area. Five focus groups with 26 users and semistructured interviews with 27 health professionals were conducted. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and underwent thematic analysis.Solutions proposed by users focused on improvements in accessibility and management of services, socioeconomic and living conditions, human resources for health, and investment in mental health. Health professionals focused on improvements in integration and articulation of services, infrastructure and structural barriers to primary care, recruitment and retention of human resources, and socioeconomic and living conditions. The themes from both groups were integrated and organized into three axes for action: 1) increasing investment and reversing austerity measures in health and social sectors; 2) coordination and integration of mental health care; and 3) tackling the social determinants of mental health.The findings provide an assessment of the needs and priorities set by primary health care users and professionals, reflecting their contextspecific experiences. These complementary perspectives highlight the need for inter-sectoral efforts in policy-making to improve delivery of care and to mitigate social inequalities in health across the Portuguese population.
       
  • WHAT DRIVES HOSPITAL WARDS’ AMBIDEXTERITY: INSIGHTS ON THE DETERMINANTS
           OF EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Emanuela Foglia, Lucrezia Ferrario, Emanuele Lettieri, Emanuele Porazzi, Luca GastaldiAbstractObjectivesHospital wards are required to exploit current knowledge and explore for new knowledge. Ambidexterity (i.e., the capability to combine both exploitation and exploration) is a major issue in healthcare as result of the growing expectations that hospitals wards have the capability to manage the trade-off between high-quality delivery of care and cost-containment. This study sheds novel light on the determinants of ambidextrous behaviours in hospital wards.MethodsA theoretical framework has been built on the extant literature. The main determinants of ambidexterity are opening/closing leadership, organisational support, organisational creativity and environmental dynamism. The model has been tested empirically through data collected via survey administered to head physicians in charge of hospital wards. After the quality check, 80 questionnaires were available for the statistical analysis based on a hierarchical sequential linear regression model (with enter methodology).ResultsResults showed that opening (β = 0.389;p 
       
  • The Dutch chaos case: a scoping review of knowledge and decision support
           tools available to clinicians in the Netherlands
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Dunja Dreesens, Leontien Kremer, Trudy van der WeijdenAbstractBackgroundTo keep clinicians up-to-date with the latest evidence, clinical practice and patient preferences, more and more knowledge tools – aiming to synthesise knowledge and support (shared) decision-making – are being developed. Unfortunately, it seems that in the Netherlands, and possibly elsewhere, the amount of different knowledge tool types makes it difficult to see the forest through the trees.MethodsA scoping review, exploring types of knowledge tools available to Dutch clinicians (and patients) and how these tools are described. The search terms were collected from thesauri and textbooks, and used to search the websites and documents of selected national tool developing organisations.ResultsThe review yielded 126 tool types. We included 67 different tool types, such as guidelines, protocols, standards and clinical pathways. Half of those tool types were aimed at clinicians, 14 at patients and 18 at both. In general, descriptions of the tool types were hard to find or incomplete.ConclusionsThere exists a myriad of knowledge tool types is and their descriptions are mostly unclear. The information overload experienced by clinicians is not addressed effectively by developing numerous unclearly defined knowledge tools. We recommend limiting the number of tool types and making a greater effort in clearly defining them. This abundance of poorly defined tools does not seem to be restricted to the Netherlands.
       
  • Erlang could have told you so—A case study of health policy without
           maths
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Meetali Kakad, Martin Utley, Jorun Rugkåsa, Fredrik A. DahlAbstractLittle consideration is given to the operational reality of implementing national policy at local scale. Using a case study from Norway, we examine how simple mathematical models may offer powerful insights to policy makers when planning policies. Our case study refers to a national initiative requiring Norwegian municipalities to establish acute community beds (municipal acute units or MAUs) to avoid hospital admissions. We use Erlang loss queueing models to estimate the total number of MAU beds required nationally to achieve the original policy aim. We demonstrate the effect of unit size and patient demand on anticipated utilisation. The results of our model imply that both the average demand for beds and the current number of MAU beds would have to be increased by 34% to achieve the original policy goal of transferring 240 000 patient days to MAUs. Increasing average demand or bed capacity alone would be insufficient to reach the policy goal. Day-to-day variation and uncertainty in the numbers of patients arriving or leaving the system can profoundly affect health service delivery at the local level. Health policy makers need to account for these effects when estimating capacity implications of policy. We demonstrate how a simple, easily reproducible, mathematical model could assist policy makers in understanding the impact of national policy implemented at the local level.
       
  • Unmet needs across Europe: disclosing knowledge beyond the ordinary
           measure
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Luís Moura Ramos, Carlota Quintal, Óscar Lourenço, Micaela AntunesAbstractUnmet healthcare needs (or foregone healthcare) is a widely used intermediate indicator to evaluate healthcare systems attainment since it relates to health outcomes, financial risk protection, improved efficiency and responsiveness to the individuals’ legitimate expectations. This paper discusses the ordinary measure of this indicator used so far, prevalence of unmet needs in the whole population, based on the level of healthcare needs among the population. The prevalence of needs and the prevalence of unmet needs among those in need are key aspects that have not yet been fully explored when it comes to foregone healthcare. We break down the ordinary measure into prevalence of needs and prevalence of unmet needs among those in need based on data taken from the European Social Survey 2014. Afterwards, we analyse these different measures in a cross-country perspective. We also discuss the link between them and the implicit relative assessment of healthcare systems considering the whole population and the sub-group of the population aged 65 or more. Comparisons across countries show different attainment levels unveiling varying challenges across European countries, depending on the combination of levels of need and levels of unmet needs for those in need.
       
  • Corrigendum to “The cyclicality of government health expenditure and its
           effects on population health” [Health Policy 123 (2019) 96–103]
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Li-Lin Liang, A. Dale Tussing
       
  • Effect of financial incentives on breast, cervical and colorectal cancer
           screening delivery rates: results from a systematic literature review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Marianna Mauro, Giorgia Rotundo, Monica GiancottiAbstractPreventive care, such as screening, is important for reducing the risk of cancer, a leading cause of death worldwide. Indeed, some type of cancers are detected through screening programs, which in most countries run for colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. In this context, general practitioners play a key role in increasing the participation rate in cancer screening programs. To improve cancer screening delivery rates, performance incentives have increasingly been implemented in primary care by healthcare payers and organizations in different countries. The effects of these tools are still not clear.We conducted a systematic literature review in order to answer the following research question: What is the evidence in the literature for the effects of financial incentives on the delivery rates of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening in general practice'We performed a literature search in Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar, according to the PRISMA guidelines. 18 studies were selected, classified and discussed according to the health preventive services investigated.Most of studies showed partial or no effects of financial incentives on breast and cervical cancer screening delivery rates. Few positive or partial effects were found regarding colorectal cancer screening.Ongoing monitoring of incentive programs is critical to determining the effectiveness of financial incentives and their effects on the improvement of cancer screening delivery rates.
       
  • Exploring improvement plans of fourteen European integrated care sites for
           older people with complex needs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Annerieke Stoop, Simone R. de Bruin, Gerald Wistow, Jenny Billings, Georg Ruppe, Kai Leichsenring, Konrad Obermann, Caroline A. Baan, Giel NijpelsAbstractIntegrated care programmes are increasingly being put in place to provide care to older people living at home. However, knowledge about further improving integrated care is limited. In fourteen integrated care sites in Europe, plans to improve existing ways of working were designed, implemented and evaluated to enlarge the understanding of what works and with what outcomes when improving integrated care. This paper provides insight into the existing ways that the sites were working with respect to integrated care, their perceived difficulties and their plans for working towards improvement. The seven components of the Expanded Chronic Care Model provided a conceptual framework for describing the fourteen sites. Although sites were spread across Europe and differed in basic characteristics and existing ways of working, a number of difficulties in delivering integrated care were similar. Existing ways of working and improvement plans mostly focused on three components of the Expanded Chronic Care Model: delivery system design; decision support; self-management. Two components were represented less frequently in existing ways of working and improvement plans: building healthy public policy; building community capacity. These findings suggest that broadly-based prevention efforts, population health promotion and community involvement remain limited. From the Expanded Chronic Care Model perspective, therefore, opportunities for improving integrated care outcomes may continue to be restricted by the narrow focus of developed improvement plans.
       
  • How will recent trade agreements that extend market protections for
           brand-name prescription pharmaceuticals impact expenditures and generic
           access in Canada'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Reed F. Beall, Lorian Hardcastle, Fiona Clement, Aidan HollisAbstractCanada recently entered into two multinational trade agreements (i.e., the Canada, United States, and Mexico Trade Agreement; and the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement with the European Union). The resulting federal policy changes will prolong periods of market protection afforded to eligible brand-name prescription drugs by extending competition-blocking patent and data exclusivity terms. While previous studies have analysed these two policy changes in isolation, it remains unknown what the total combined impact will be in a typical year. Our objective was to design an analytic approach that can assess more than one change to a country’s market protections and then to apply this methodology to the Canadian context. We find that the collective impact of these policy changes will be to extend the regulatory protection period for new drugs from an average of 10.0 years to 11.1 years. Depending upon the model’s assumptions and all contingencies considered, an 11% increase equated to an average of $410 million annually (with a minimum estimate of $40 million and a maximum of $1.4 billion). Despite this uncertainty, we conclude that such methodological approaches could be useful for rapidly evaluating potential policy changes prior to adoption, which may further assist in budget planning to mitigate the possibility of increased cost to the downstream health authorities most impacted by these trade concessions.
       
  • Interdisciplinary team working in the Irish primary healthcare system:
           Analysis of ‘invisible’ bottom up innovations using Normalisation
           Process Theory
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Edel Tierney, Ailish Hannigan, Libby Kinneen, Carl May, Madeleine O’Sullivan, Rachael King, Norelee Kennedy, Anne MacFarlaneAbstractInterdisciplinary team working in primary care is a key policy goal across healthcare jurisdictions. The National Primary Care Strategy (2001) in Ireland is a top down policy for primary healthcare reform, which prioritised the development and implementation of interdisciplinary Primary Care Teams. The number of Primary Care Teams and features of their clinical meetings have been the key metric in Ireland for appraising progress with the implementation of the strategy. However, these have been challenging to organise in practice. The aim of this paper is to analyse empirical evidence of other forms of interdisciplinary working in Irish primary care, using Normalisation Process Theory.Drawing on data from an on-line survey (71 GPs and 498 other healthcare professionals), and an interview study (37 participants;8 GPs, 7 practice managers/admin support and 22 health care professionals) in three of the four Health Service Executive (HSE) regions in Ireland, we analyse the nature of these other forms of interdisciplinary working and describe innovations for service delivery that have been developed ‘from the ground up’ as a result. We examine levers and barriers to the implementation of these bottom up innovations. The levers are that these innovations make sense to professionals, are based on local needs and focus on preventive patient-centred care. They are driven forward by small groups of professionals from different backgrounds with complementary skills. The evaluations show positive impacts of the innovative services for patients, however, many have ceased to operate due to negative effects of the recent economic recession on the Irish healthcare system.These flexible and localised innovations were shaped in part by the reforms set out in the 2001 Primary Care Strategy but also represent unintended effects of that policy because they are the result of bottom up interdisciplinary working that occurs alongside, or instead of, Primary Care Team clinical meetings. Furthermore, as they not captured by existing metrics, the interdisciplinary work and resultant services have been ‘invisible’ to senior management and policy makers. If appropriately acknowledged and supported, they can shape primary care in the future.
       
  • The migration of UK trained GPs to Australia: Does risk attitude
           matter'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Marjon van der Pol, Anthony Scott, Alastair IrvineAbstractBackgroundLittle is known about the drivers of migration of GPs. Risk attitude may play an important role as migration is fundamentally a risky decision that balances the risks of staying with the risks associated with leaving. This paper examines the association between risk attitudes and the migration of UK GPs to Australia.MethodsGPs who qualified in the UK but work in Australia and who responded to the Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL) national longitudinal survey of doctors, were compared with GPs based in Scotland who responded to a survey. Risk attitudes were elicited for financial risks, career and professional risks and clinical risks on a scale from 1 to 5.ResultsGPs in Scotland and UK trained GPs in Australia have similar risk attitudes for financial risk. However, UK trained GPs in Australia are less willing to take clinical and career risks.ConclusionGPs who migrated to Australia after qualifying in the UK were more risk averse about their career and clinical risks. This may suggest that more risk averse GPs migrate to Australia due to pull factors such as less uncertainty around career and clinical outcomes in Australia. The uncertain NHS climate may push more risk averse doctors away from the UK.
       
  • A new clinical complexity model for the Australian Refined Diagnosis
           Related Groups
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Vera Dimitropoulos, Trent Yeend, Qingsheng Zhou, Stuart McAlister, Michael Navakatikyan, Philip Hoyle, John Pilla, Carol Loggie, Anne Elsworthy, Ric Marshall, Richard MaddenAbstractBackgroundThe Australian Refined Diagnosis Related Groups underwent a major review in 2014 with changes implemented in Version 8.0 of the classification.The core to the changes was the development of a new methodology to estimate the Diagnosis Complexity Level (DCL) and to aggregate the complexity level of individual diagnoses to the complexity of an entire episode (ECCS). This paper provides an overview of the new methodology and its application in Version 8.0.MethodThe AR-DRG V8.0 refinement project was overseen by a Classifications Clinical Advisory Group and a DRG Technical Group. Admitted Patient Care National Minimum Dataset and the National Hospital Cost Data Collection were used for complexity modelling and analysis.ResultIn total, Version 8.0 comprised 807 DRGs, including 3 error DRGs. Of the 321 ADRGs that had a split, 315 ADRGs used ECCS as the only splitting variable while the remaining 6 ADRGs used splitting variables other than ECCS: 2 used age and 4 used transfer.Discussion and conclusionA new episode clinical complexity model was developed and introduced in AR-DRG V8.0, replacing the original model introduced in the 1990s. Clear AR-DRG structure principles were established for revising the system. The new complexity model is conceptually based and statistically derived, and results in an improved relationship with actual variations in resource use due to episode complexity.
       
  • Substituting Emergency Services: Primary Care vs. Hospital Care
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Krämer Jonas, Schreyögg JonasAbstractOvercrowding in emergency departments (EDs) is inefficient, especially if it is caused by inappropriate visits for which primary care physicians could be equally effective as a hospital ED. Our paper investigates the extent to which both ambulatory ED visits and inpatient ED admissions are substitutes for primary care emergency services (PCES) in Germany. We use extensive longitudinal data and fixed effects models. Moreover, we add interaction terms to investigate the influence of various determinants on the strength of the substitution. Our results show significant substitution between PCES and ambulatory ED visits. Regarding the determinants, we find the largest substitution for younger patients. The more accessible the hospital ED is, the significantly larger the substitution. Moreover, substitution is larger among better-educated patients. For inpatient ED admission, we find significant substitution that is eight times smaller than the substitution for ambulatory ED visits. With regard to the determinants, we find the strongest substitution for non-urgent, short-stay admission and elderly patients. Countries with no gate-keeping system (such as Germany) have difficulties redirecting the patients streaming to EDs. Our estimated elasticities can help policy makers to resolve this issue, as our findings indicate where incentivizing the utilization of PCES is particularly effective.
       
  • A spatial analysis to evaluate the impact of deregulation policies in the
           pharmacy sector: evidence from the case of Navarre
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Ilaria Barbarisi, Giuseppe Bruno, Antonio Diglio, Javier Elizalde, Carmela PiccoloAbstractCommunity pharmacies represent unusual enterprises as their main function is intrinsically related to the provision of healthcare services. Hence, market competition in this sector needs to be regulated, in order to ensure equitable accessibility, efficiency and quality of services. However, recently a general deregulation trend may be observed in Europe. In this paper, we focus on location restrictions, i.e. on demographic and geographic constraints to open new pharmacies, and we evaluate the impact of their relaxation. In particular, we analyze the case of the city of Pamplona (ES), where a striking increase in the number of pharmacies occurred, after the introduction of a new regulatory system in 2000. We evaluate, thanks to an in-depth spatial analysis, the evolution of the system to date and the effects produced on the consumers, in terms of accessibility, and on the competitors, in terms of market shares distribution. By comparing the obtained results with the ones related to the case of a second Spanish city, characterized by more strict restrictions, it emerges that the deregulation risks to produce a limited improvement in terms of accessibility and to exacerbate differences among consumers. Moreover, an increasing number of competitors does not necessarily imply a more equitable distribution of market shares, thus putting at risk the desired effects in terms of cost reduction and service quality improvement.
       
  • Drug Price, Dosage and Safety: Real-World Evidence of Oral Hypoglycemic
           Agents
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Yu-Shiuan Lin, Min-Ting Lin, Shou-Hsia ChengAbstractObjectivesDrug price reduction is one of the major policies to restrain pharmaceutical expenses worldwide. This study explores whether there is a relationship between drug price and clinical quality using real-world data.MethodsPatients with newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetes receiving metformin or sulfonylureas during 2001 and 2010 were identified using the claim database of the Taiwan universal health insurance system. Propensity score matching was performed to obtain comparable subjects for analysis. Pharmaceutical products were categorized as brand-name agents (BD), highpriced generics (HP) or low-priced generics (LP). Indicators of clinical quality were defined as the dosage of cumulative oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA), exposure to other pharmacological classes of OHA, hospitalization or urgent visit for hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia, insulin utilization and diagnosis of diabetic complications within 1 year after diagnosis.ResultsA total of 40,152 study subjects were identified. A generalized linear mix model showed that HP and BD users received similar OHA dosages with comparable clinical outcomes. By contrast, LP users had similar outcomes to BD users but received a 39% greater OHA dosage. A marginally higher risk of poor glycemic control in LP users was also observed.ConclusionsDrug price is related to indicators of clinical quality. Clinicians and health authorities should monitor the utilization, effectiveness and clinical safety indicators of generic drugs, especially those with remarkably low prices.
       
  • Using national electronic health care registries for comparing the risk of
           psychiatric re-hospitalisation in six European countries: opportunities
           and limitations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2019Source: Health PolicyAuthor(s): Heinz Katschnig, Christa Straßmayr, Florian Endel, Michael Berger, Günther Zauner, Jorid Kalseth, Raluca Sfetcu, Kristian Wahlbeck, Federico Tedeschi, Lilijana Šprah, on behalf of the CEPHOS-LINK study groupAbstractPsychiatric re-hospitalisation rates have been of longstanding interest as health care quality metric for planners and policy makers, but are criticized for not being comparable across hospitals and countries due to measurement unclarities. The objectives of the present study were to explore the interoperability of national electronic routine health care registries of six European countries (Austria, Finland, Italy, Norway, Romania, Slovenia) and, by using variables found to be comparable, to calculate and compare re-hospitalisation rates and the associated risk factors. A “Methods Toolkit” was developed for exploring the interoperability of registry data and protocol led pilot studies were carried out. Problems encountered in this process are described. Using restricted but comparable data sets, up to twofold differences in psychiatric re-hospitalisation rates were found between countries for both a 30- and 365-day follow-up period. Cumulative incidence curves revealed noteworthy additional differences. Health system characteristics are discussed as potential causes for the differences. Using logistic regression analyses younger age and a diagnosis of schizophrenia/mania/bipolar disorder consistently increased the probability of psychiatric re-hospitalisation across countries. It is concluded that the advantage of having large unselected study populations of national electronic health care registries needs to be balanced against the considerable efforts to examine the interoperability of databases in cross-country comparisons.
       
 
 
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