Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1535 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (721 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (387 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (108 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (128 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (721 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Adversity and Resilience Science : Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AJOB Empirical Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Akademika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 269)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences: Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Apuntes Universitarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Suicide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archivos de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atención Primaria Práctica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biosafety and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biosalud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Birat Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Boletin Médico de Postgrado     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
British Journal of Health Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos de Saúde     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Carta Comunitaria     Open Access  
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
CASUS : Revista de Investigación y Casos en Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
CES Salud Pública     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia & Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia & Trabajo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Innovación en Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciencia y Salud Virtual     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cities & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical and Experimental Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clocks & Sleep     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuaderno de investigaciones: semilleros andina     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cuadernos de la Escuela de Salud Pública     Open Access  
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Design for Health     Hybrid Journal  
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Diversity and Equality in Health and Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Diversity of Research in Health Journal     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drogues, santé et société     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Düzce Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi / Journal of Duzce University Health Sciences Institute     Open Access  
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência : Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
EsSEX : Revista Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios sociales : Revista de alimentación contemporánea y desarrollo regional     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethics & Human Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Eurasian Journal of Health Technology Assessment     Open Access  
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Family & Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 14)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare : Finjehew     Open Access  
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Digital Health     Open Access  
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers of Health Services Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ganesha Journal     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gestão e Desenvolvimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Advances in Health and Medicine     Open Access  
Global Challenges     Open Access  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Global Health Annual Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Health Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Reproductive Health     Open Access  
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Transitions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastane Öncesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
HCU Journal     Open Access  
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Health and Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health and Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Health Care Analysis
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.445
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 16  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-3394 - ISSN (Online) 1065-3058
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Co-production and Managing Uncertainty in Health Research Regulation: A
           Delphi Study
    • Abstract: Abstract European and international regulation of human health research is typified by a morass of interconnecting laws, diverse and divergent ethical frameworks, and national and transnational standards. There is also a tendency for legislators to regulate in silos—that is, in discrete fields of scientific activity without due regard to the need to make new knowledge as generalisable as possible. There are myriad challenges for the stakeholders—researchers and regulators alike—who attempt to navigate these landscapes. This Delphi study was undertaken in order to provide the first interdisciplinary and crosscutting analysis of health research regulation, as it is experienced by such stakeholders in the UK context. As well as reinforcing existing understandings of the regulatory environment, Delphi participants called for greater collaboration, and even co-production, of processes involved in health research regulation. On the basis of this research, we offer insights about how health research regulation can become a matter with which a wider range of stakeholders—including researchers, regulators, publics and research sponsors—can engage. The evidence supports the normative claim that health research regulation should continue to move away from strict, prescriptive rules-based approaches, and towards flexible principle-based regimes that allow researchers, regulators and publics to co-produce regulatory systems serving core principles. By unpacking thorny concepts and practices at the heart of health research regulation—including the public interest and public engagement—our results have the potential to situate and breathe life into them. The results also demonstrate that while proportionality is well-recognised as a crucial element of flexible regulatory systems, more must be done to operationalise this as an ethical assessment of the values and risks at stake at multiple junctures in the research trajectory. This is required if we are to move beyond proportionality as a mere risk-management tool. Compliance culture no longer accurately reflects the needs and expectations of researchers or regulators, nor does it necessarily produce the best research. Embracing uncertainty—both as a human practice and a regulatory objective—may represent the brighter future for health research.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
       
  • Professional Medical Discourse and the Emergence of Practical Wisdom in
           Everyday Practices: Analysis of a Keyhole Case
    • Abstract: Abstract Recent publications have argued that practical wisdom is increasingly important for medical practices, particularly in complex contexts, to stay focused on giving good care in a moral sense to each individual patient. Our empirical investigation into an ordinary medical practice was aimed at exploring whether the practice would reveal practical wisdom, or, instead, adherence to conventional frames such as guidelines, routines and the dominant professional discourse. We performed a thematic analysis both of the medical files of a complex patient and her daughter’s diary. We did find practical wisdom, but only sporadically, whereas it has proved to be essential for professional care. This deficit appeared to result from several factors like: the organization of the practice; established routines; a hierarchical culture; and a traditional medical discourse. Moreover, we discerned various negative consequences. More empirical research into practical wisdom in everyday medical practices is needed for the benefit of professional and morally good care for every patient.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
       
  • Ensuring Risk Awareness of Vulnerable Patients in the Post- Montgomery
           Era: Treading a Fine Line
    • Abstract: Abstract The 2015 UK Supreme Court judgment in Montgomery v Lanarkshire reinforces the importance of informed consent to medical treatment. This paper suggests that Montgomery recognises the challenge faced by vulnerable individuals in choosing between treatment options and making decisions with appreciation of information about material risks. The judgment endorses a form of weak paternalism to safeguard such persons, which is not disrespectful of the aggregate principles of the Mental Capacity Act 2005. But ethical practice requires professionals to tread carefully between weak and hard paternalism in the context of therapeutic interactions with vulnerable patients, while ensuring their awareness of material risks.
      PubDate: 2020-05-17
       
  • Phronesis in Medical Ethics: Courage and Motivation to Keep on the Track
           of Rightness in Decision-Making
    • Abstract: Abstract Ethical decision making in medicine has recently seen calls to move towards less prescriptive- based approaches that consider the particularities of each case. The main alternative call from the literature is for better understanding of phronesis (practical wisdom) concepts applied to decision making. A well-cited phronesis-based approach is Kaldjian’s five-stage theoretical framework: goals, concrete circumstances, virtues, deliberation and motivation to act. We build on Kaldjian’s theory after using his framework to analyse data collected from a three-year empirical study of phronesis and the medical community. The data are a set of narratives collected in response to asking a medical community (131 doctors at various stages of their careers) what making ethically wise decisions means to them. We found that Kaldjian’s five concepts are present in the accounts to some extent but that one of the elements, motivation, is constructed as playing a different, though still crucial role. Rather than being an end-stage of the process as Kaldjian’s framework suggests, motivation was constructed as initiating the process and maintaining the momentum of taking a phronesis-based approach. The implications for medical ethics decision-making education are significant as motivation itself is a highly complex concept. We therefore theorise that motivation is required for leading in, continuing and completing the actions of the ethical decision taken. Appreciating the central importance of motivation through the whole of Kaldjian’s framework has implications for cultivating the virtues of phronesis and courage to take the right course of action.
      PubDate: 2020-04-30
       
  • Solidarity with Whom' The Boundary Problem and the Ethical Origins of
           Solidarity of the Health System in Taiwan
    • Abstract: Abstract Publicly-funded health systems, including those national health services and social or National Health Insurances, are institutionalized solidarity in health. In Europe, solidarity originated from the legacies of labor movements, the Judeo-Christian traditions, and nationalist sentiments in the re-construction Era after the WWII. In middle-to-high income East Asian countries, such as Japan, Taiwan, Korea, the health systems were built on different grounds and do not have such ethical origins of solidarity. As health systems in Europe and East Asia are both facing sustainability crises due to aging population, stagnant economy, changing boundaries, and advancing medical technologies, how those systems with the European solidaristic ethical traditions can be revived and how those without the European traditions could survive become a matter of theoretical interests and an urgent policy problem to be addressed. Drawing on contemporary theories of solidarity, this essay analyzes the boundary problem and its impact on the sustainability of the health system in Taiwan. It then considers two plausible origins of solidarity in Taiwan. One is the re-emerged civic nationalism, and the other is an ethos of common life. It is argued that after years of implementation, the National Health Insurance in Taiwan might have shaped the social values and people’s habits and formed an ethos of common life. Such ethos could be an ethical origin of solidarity in non-western societies and help the health systems endure the prolonged sustainability crises.
      PubDate: 2020-04-29
       
  • Making Use of Existing International Legal Mechanisms to Manage the Global
           
    • Abstract: Abstract Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an urgent threat to global public health and development. Mitigating this threat requires substantial short-term action on key AMR priorities. While international legal agreements are the strongest mechanism for ensuring collaboration among countries, negotiating new international agreements can be a slow process. In the second article in this special issue, we consider whether harnessing existing international legal agreements offers an opportunity to increase collective action on AMR goals in the short-term. We highlight ten AMR priorities and several strategies for achieving these goals using existing “legal hooks” that draw on elements of international environmental, trade and health laws governing related matters that could be used as they exist or revised to include AMR. We also consider the institutional mandates of international authorities to highlight areas where additional steps could be taken on AMR without constitutional changes. Overall, we identify 37 possible mechanisms to strengthen AMR governance using the International Health Regulations, the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade, the International Convention on the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System, and the Basel, Rotterdam, and Stockholm conventions. Although we identify many shorter-term opportunities for addressing AMR using existing legal hooks, none of these options are capable of comprehensively addressing all global governance challenges related to AMR, such that they should be pursued simultaneously with longer-term approaches including a dedicated international legal agreement on AMR.
      PubDate: 2020-03-31
       
  • Governing the Global Antimicrobial Commons: Introduction to Special Issue
    • Abstract: Abstract Antimicrobial resistance is one of the greatest public health crises of our time. The natural biological process that causes microbes to become resistant to antimicrobial drugs presents a complex social challenge requiring more effective and sustainable management of the global antimicrobial commons—the common pool of effective antimicrobials. This special issue of Health Care Analysis explores the potential of two legal approaches—one long-term and one short-term—for managing the antimicrobial commons. The first article explores the lessons for antimicrobial resistance that can be learned from recent climate change agreements, and the second article explores how existing international laws can be adapted to better support global action in the short-term.
      PubDate: 2020-03-31
       
  • When are Pharmaceuticals Priced Fairly' An Alternative Risk-Sharing
           Model for Pharmaceutical Pricing
    • Abstract: Abstract The most common solutions to the problem of high pharmaceutical prices have taken the form of regulations, price negotiations, or changes in drug coverage by insurers. These measures for the most part transfer the burden of drug expenditures between pharmaceutical companies and payers or between payers. The aim of this study is to propose an alternative model for the relationship between the main stakeholders (the pharmaceutical companies, third party payers, and the public) involved in the price setting and purchasing of pharmaceuticals, one that encourages a more cooperative approach. We draw from principles of ethics and health economics and apply them to the context of the pharmaceutical industry. The model prioritises two objectives, (1) to make drugs financially accessible to the patients who need them, and (2) to keep pharmaceutical companies viable and profitable. It is centered around the sharing of financial risk between the main stakeholders, which we describe as ‘enlightened risk sharing’. After establishing the foundations of this model, we expand on the type of policies that can follow these principles with current day examples.
      PubDate: 2020-03-30
       
  • The Social Construction of Incompetency: Moving Beyond Embedded
           Paternalism Toward the Practice of Respect
    • Abstract: Abstract This article illustrates the less-acknowledged social construction of the concept of ‘incompetency’ and draws attention to the moral concerns it raises in health care encounters in the south Indian city of Chennai. Based on data drawn from qualitative research, this study suggests that surgeons subjectively construct the idea of incompetency through their understanding of the perceived circumstantial characteristics of the patients and family members they serve. The findings indicate that surgeons often underestimate patients and family members’ capacity based on constructed assessments, which leads to paternalistic practice. In this article, I illustrate how these assessments influence the surgeons’ practices and provide the moral and practical justifications for their actions. The constructed knowledge becomes a source for drawing normative justification for surgeons’ actions and, in conjunction with socially enforced power relationships, results in patients and family members to be on the receiving end of disrespectful attitudes. Based on the data analysis and by drawing on philosophical analysis, I emphasize the need to focus on ‘respect for persons,’ to rethink the framework of ‘capacity,’ and to practice respect in hospital settings.
      PubDate: 2020-03-30
       
  • Conceptualising Surgical Innovation: An Eliminativist Proposal
    • Abstract: Abstract Improving surgical interventions is key to improving outcomes. Ensuring the safe and transparent translation of such improvements is essential. Evaluation and governance initiatives, including the IDEAL framework and the Macquarie Surgical Innovation Identification Tool have begun to address this. Yet without a definition of innovation that allows non-surgeons to identify when it is occurring, these initiatives are of limited value. A definition seems elusive, so we undertook a conceptual study of surgical innovation. This indicated common conceptual areas in discussions of (surgical) innovation, that we categorised alliteratively under the themes of “purpose” (about drivers of innovation), “place” (about contexts of innovation), “process” (about differentiating innovation), “product” (about tangible and intangible results of innovation) and “person” (about personal factors and viewpoint). These conceptual areas are used in varying—sometimes contradictory—ways in different discussions. Highlighting these conceptual areas of surgical innovation may be useful in clarifying what should be reported in registries of innovation. However our wider conclusion was that the term “innovation” carries too much conceptual baggage to inform normative inquiry about surgical practice. Instead, we propose elimination of the term “innovation” from serious discourse aimed at evaluation and regulation of surgery. In our view researchers, philosophers and policy-makers should consider what it is about surgical activity that needs attention and develop robust definitions to identify these areas: for our own focus on transparency and safety, this means finding criteria that can objectively identify certain risk profiles during the development of surgery.
      PubDate: 2020-03-01
       
  • Severity as a Priority Setting Criterion: Setting a Challenging Research
           Agenda
    • Abstract: Abstract Priority setting in health care is ubiquitous and health authorities are increasingly recognising the need for priority setting guidelines to ensure efficient, fair, and equitable resource allocation. While cost-effectiveness concerns seem to dominate many policies, the tension between utilitarian and deontological concerns is salient to many, and various severity criteria appear to fill this gap. Severity, then, must be subjected to rigorous ethical and philosophical analysis. Here we first give a brief history of the path to today’s severity criteria in Norway and Sweden. The Scandinavian perspective on severity might be conducive to the international discussion, given its long-standing use as a priority setting criterion, despite having reached rather different conclusions so far. We then argue that severity can be viewed as a multidimensional concept, drawing on accounts of need, urgency, fairness, duty to save lives, and human dignity. Such concerns will often be relative to local mores, and the weighting placed on the various dimensions cannot be expected to be fixed. Thirdly, we present what we think are the most pertinent questions to answer about severity in order to facilitate decision making in the coming years of increased scarcity, and to further the understanding of underlying assumptions and values that go into these decisions. We conclude that severity is poorly understood, and that the topic needs substantial further inquiry; thus we hope this article may set a challenging and important research agenda.
      PubDate: 2020-03-01
       
  • The Affordable Care Act and Recent Reforms: Policy Implications for
           Equitable Mental Health Care Delivery
    • Abstract: Abstract Controversy exists over how to ethically distribute health care resources and which factors should determine access to health care services. Although the US has traditionally used a market-based private insurance model that does not ensure universal coverage, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) in the United States aims to increase equitable access to health care by increasing the accessibility, affordability, and quality of health care services. This article evaluates the impact of the ACA on equitable mental health care delivery according to access factors that can hinder or facilitate the delivery of mental health services based on need. The ACA has successfully expanded coverage to millions of Americans and promoted coordination and access to mental health care; however, financial and non-financial access barriers to mental health care and access disparities remain. Reform efforts should not undervalue the gains that the ACA has made but should attempt to balance considerations of cost and increasing free-market mechanisms with decreasing remaining health care disparities.
      PubDate: 2020-02-26
       
  • Governing the Global Antimicrobial Commons: Call for Commentaries
    • PubDate: 2020-02-19
       
  • A Disability Bioethics Reading of the FDA and EMA Evaluations on the
           Marketing Authorisation of Growth Hormone for Idiopathic Short Stature
           Children
    • Abstract: Abstract The diagnosis of idiopathic short stature (ISS) refers to children who are considerably shorter than average without any identified medical reason. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authorised marketing of recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) for ISS in 2003, while the European Medicines Agency (EMA) refused it in 2007. This paper examines the arguments for these decisions as detailed in selected FDA and EMA documents. It combines argumentative analysis with an approach to policy analysis called ‘What’s the problem represented to be’. It argues that the FDA presents its approval as an argument for equity of access to the treatment (given that hGH was already authorised for other indications), describing short stature as a potential disadvantage, and assuming that height normalisation is a clinically meaningful result. The EMA, instead, refuses marketing authorisation with an argument that there is an imbalance of risks and benefits, describing ISS as a healthy condition, and arguing that hGH should provide some psychosocial and/or quality of life benefits to children with ISS other than height gain. This paper then discusses how these arguments could be read through different models of disability, particularly through the medical model of disability and the relational, experiential, and cultural understandings of disability.
      PubDate: 2020-02-13
       
  • Exploring Models for an International Legal Agreement on the Global
           Antimicrobial Commons: Lessons from Climate Agreements
    • Abstract: Abstract An international legal agreement governing the global antimicrobial commons would represent the strongest commitment mechanism for achieving collective action on antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Since AMR has important similarities to climate change—both are common pool resource challenges that require massive, long-term political commitments—the first article in this special issue draws lessons from various climate agreements that could be applicable for developing a grand bargain on AMR. We consider the similarities and differences between the Paris Climate Agreement and current governance structures for AMR, and identify the merits and challenges associated with different international forums for developing a long-term international agreement on AMR. To be effective, fair, and feasible, an enduring legal agreement on AMR will require a combination of universal, differentiated, and individualized requirements, nationally determined contributions that are regularly reviewed and ratcheted up in level of ambition, a regular independent scientific stocktake to support evidence informed policymaking, and a concrete global goal to rally support.
      PubDate: 2020-01-21
       
  • ‘Effective’ at What' On Effective Intervention in Serious
           Mental Illness
    • Abstract: Abstract The term “effective,” on its own, is honorific but vague. Interventions against serious mental illness may be “effective” at goals as diverse as reducing “apparent sadness” or providing housing. Underexamined use of “effective” and other success terms often obfuscates differences and incompatibilities in interventions, degrees of effectiveness, key omissions in effectiveness standards, and values involved in determining what counts as “effective.” Yet vague use of such success terms is common in the research, clinical, and policy realms, with consequences that negatively affect the care offered to individuals experiencing serious mental illness. A pragmatist-oriented solution to these problems suggests that when people use success terms, they need to explain and defend the goals and supporting values embedded in the terms, asking and answering the questions, “Effective at what' For whom' How effective' And why that goal'” Practical and epistemic standards for effectiveness will likely remain plural for good reasons, but each standard should be well explained and well justified.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Barriers to Implementing Patient-Centred Care: An Exploration of Guidance
           Provided by Ontario’s Health Regulatory Colleges
    • Abstract: Abstract The philosophy of patient-centred care has become widely embraced but its implementation is dependent on interrelated factors. A factor that has received limited attention is the role of policy tools. In Ontario, one method government can use to promote healthcare priorities is through health regulatory colleges, which set the standard of practice for health professionals. The degree to which government policy in support of patient-centered care has influenced the direction provided by health regulatory colleges to their members, and ultimately impacted actual patient care, remains unclear. This study investigates the extent to which Ontario’s health regulatory colleges have provided explicit written guidance to members related to the importance of patient-centred care. It also explores applied and theoretical explanations that may further our understanding of why patient-centred care has not been more fully embraced. Findings reveal that guidance provided by Ontario’s health regulatory colleges varies widely. Institutional barriers and the choice of policy tools for disseminating government preferences may hinder full implementation of the principles of patient-centred care. More fully understanding the role health regulatory colleges’ play in facilitating the implementation of health policy will contribute positively to dialogue and to efforts to achieve positive health system reforms.
      PubDate: 2019-10-19
       
  • Selecting Treatment Options and Choosing Between them: Delineating Patient
           and Professional Autonomy in Shared Decision-Making
    • Abstract: Abstract Professional control in the selection of treatment options for patients is changing. In light of social and legal developments emphasising patient choice and autonomy, and restricting medical paternalism and judicial deference, this article examines how far patients and families can demand NHS treatment in England and Wales. It considers situations where the patient is an adult with capacity, an adult lacking capacity and a child. In all three cases, there is judicial support for professional autonomy, but there are also inconsistencies that have potential to elevate the importance of patient and family preferences. In combination, they may be perceived by healthcare professionals as an obligation to follow patient preferences, even where doing so conflicts with other professional obligations. It is argued that a more nuanced approach to shared decision-making could help clarify the boundaries of decision-making responsibility.
      PubDate: 2019-09-21
       
  • Quality of Life and Value Assessment in Health Care
    • Abstract: Abstract Proposals for health care cost containment emphasize high-value care as a way to control spending without compromising quality. When used in this context, ‘value’ refers to outcomes in relation to cost. To determine where health spending yields the most value, it is necessary to compare the benefits provided by different treatments. While many studies focus narrowly on health gains in assessing value, the notion of benefit is sometimes broadened to include overall quality of life. This paper explores the implications of using subjective quality of life measures for value assessment. This approach is claimed to be more respectful of patients and better capture the perspectival nature of quality of life. Even if this is correct, though, subjective measurement also raises challenging issues of interpersonal comparability when used to study health outcomes. Because such measures do not readily distinguish benefits due to medical interventions from benefits due to personal or other factors, they are not easily applied to the assessment of treatment value. I argue that when the outcome of interest in value assessment is broadened to include quality of life, the cost side of these measures should also be broadened. I show how one philosophical theory of well-being, Jason Raibley’s “agential flourishing” theory, can be adapted for use in quality of life research to better fit the needs and aims of value assessment in health care. Finally, I briefly note some implications of this argument for debates about fairness in health care allocations.
      PubDate: 2019-07-23
       
  • A Capabilities Approach to Prenatal Screening for Fetal Abnormalities
    • Abstract: Abstract International guidelines recommend that prenatal screening for fetal abnormalities should only be offered within a non-directive framework aimed at enabling women in making meaningful reproductive choices. Whilst this position is widely endorsed, developments in cell-free fetal DNA based Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing are now raising questions about its continued suitability for guiding screening policy and practice. This issue is most apparent within debates on the scope of the screening offer. Implied by the aim of enabling meaningful reproductive choices is the idea that screening services should support women in accessing prenatal tests that best enable them to realize the types of reproductive choice that they find important. However, beyond whatever options meet the quality standards required for facilitating an informed decision, the remaining criteria of facilitating autonomous choice is strictly non-directive. As a result, policy makers receive little indication prior to consultation with each individual woman, about what conditions should be prioritized during the offer of screening. In this paper we try to address this issue by using the capabilities approach to further specify the non-directive aim of enabling meaningful reproductive choice. The resulting framework is then used to assess the relative importance of offering prenatal screening where concerning different types of genetic condition. We conclude that greater priority may be ascribed to offering prenatal screening for conditions that more significantly diminish a woman’s central capabilities. It follows that serious congenital and earlier-onset conditions are more likely to fulfill these criteria.
      PubDate: 2019-07-15
       
 
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