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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1277 journals)
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HEALTH AND SAFETY (506 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 171)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access  
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription  
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Heart Insight     Full-text available via subscription  
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Policy and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Professions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Health Sciences Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Health Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Healthcare Delivery Reform Initiatives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Healthcare Information Systems and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Healthcare Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Health & Place
  [SJR: 1.559]   [H-I: 71]   [14 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1353-8292
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Geographic regions for assessing built environmental correlates with
           walking trips: A comparison using different metrics and model designs
    • Authors: Calvin P. Tribby; Harvey J. Miller; Barbara B. Brown; Ken R. Smith; Carol M. Werner
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 45
      Author(s): Calvin P. Tribby, Harvey J. Miller, Barbara B. Brown, Ken R. Smith, Carol M. Werner
      There is growing international evidence that supportive built environments encourage active travel such as walking. An unsettled question is the role of geographic regions for analyzing the relationship between the built environment and active travel. This paper examines the geographic region question by assessing walking trip models that use two different regions: walking activity spaces and self-defined neighborhoods. We also use two types of built environment metrics, perceived and audit data, and two types of study design, cross-sectional and longitudinal, to assess these regions. We find that the built environment associations with walking are dependent on the type of metric and the type of model. Audit measures summarized within walking activity spaces better explain walking trips compared to audit measures within self-defined neighborhoods. Perceived measures summarized within self-defined neighborhoods have mixed results. Finally, results differ based on study design. This suggests that results may not be comparable among different regions, metrics and designs; researchers need to consider carefully these choices when assessing active travel correlates.

      PubDate: 2017-02-25T09:16:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 45 (2017)
  • Income inequality widens the existing income-related disparity in
           depression risk in post-apartheid South Africa: Evidence from a nationally
           representative panel study
    • Authors: Jonathan K. Burns; Andrew Tomita; Crick Lund
      Pages: 10 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 45
      Author(s): Jonathan K. Burns, Andrew Tomita, Crick Lund
      Aim Income inequality (II) and poverty are major challenges in South Africa (SA) yet little is known about their interaction on population mental health. We explored relationships between district II, household income (HHI) and depressive symptoms in national panel data. Method We used 3 waves (2008, 2010, 2012) of the SA National Income Dynamics Study (n=25936) in adjusted mixed effects logistic regression to assess if the relationship between HHI and depressive symptoms is dependent on level of II. Depressive symptoms were assessed with Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, and District inequality ratios (P10P90) derived from HHI distributions in 53 districts. Results Lower HHI and increasing II were associated with depressive symptoms. The interaction term between HHI and II on depressive symptoms was significant (β=0.01, 95% CI: <0.01-0.01); with increasing II and decreasing HHI, depression risk increased. Conclusion II widens income-related disparities in depression risk in SA, with policy implications for understanding socioeconomic determinants of mental health and informing global efforts to reduce disparities in high poverty and inequality contexts.

      PubDate: 2017-02-25T09:16:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 45 (2017)
  • Liquor landscapes: Does access to alcohol outlets influence alcohol
           consumption in young adults?
    • Authors: Sarah Foster; Georgina Trapp; Paula Hooper; Wendy H. Oddy; Lisa Wood; Matthew Knuiman
      Pages: 17 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 45
      Author(s): Sarah Foster, Georgina Trapp, Paula Hooper, Wendy H. Oddy, Lisa Wood, Matthew Knuiman
      Few longitudinal studies have examined the impact of liquor licences on alcohol consumption, and none in young adults, the life stage when alcohol intake is at its highest. We examined associations between liquor licences (i.e., general licences, on-premise licences, liquor stores, and club licences) and alcohol consumption at 20-years (n=988) and 22-years (n=893), and whether changes in the licences between time-points influenced alcohol consumption (n=665). Only general licences were associated with alcohol consumption at 20-years (p=0.037), but by 22-years, all licences types were positively associated with alcohol consumption (p<0.05). Longitudinal analyses showed that for each increase in liquor stores over time, alcohol consumption increased by 1.22g/day or 8% (p=0.030), and for each additional club licence, consumption increased by 0.90g/day or 6% (p=0.007). Limiting liquor licences could contribute to a reduction in young adults’ alcohol intake.

      PubDate: 2017-03-04T10:03:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 45 (2017)
  • The role of personal social networks on health inequalities across
           European regions
    • Authors: Daniela Craveiro
      Pages: 24 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 45
      Author(s): Daniela Craveiro
      The role of personal social networks on health inequalities is little understood. Theoretically, the characteristics of social network features can contribute to, both, increase and attenuate health inequalities. Few empirical studies that focus on the interaction between socioeconomic position and social networks provide little insight on the topic. Using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, this study analyses the moderation role of personal social networks on health inequalities in later life among northern, central, and southern European regions. Social advantages of higher socioeconomic individuals are re-enforced by the quality of social connections and the provision of social support. In turn, health inequality is attenuated by marital partnership and participation on social activities that benefits more the health of people at lower socioeconomic positions. Furthermore, results suggest that the influence of social network features on health inequalities is shaped by regions’ different policy commitments to familiarization/defamilialization pressures.

      PubDate: 2017-03-04T10:03:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 45 (2017)
  • Does equality legislation reduce intergroup differences? Religious
           affiliation, socio-economic status and mortality in Scotland and Northern
           Ireland: A cohort study of 400,000 people
    • Authors: David M. Wright; Michael Rosato; Gillian Raab; Chris Dibben; Paul Boyle; Dermot O’Reilly
      Pages: 32 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 45
      Author(s): David M. Wright, Michael Rosato, Gillian Raab, Chris Dibben, Paul Boyle, Dermot O’Reilly
      Religion frequently indicates membership of socio-ethnic groups with distinct health behaviours and mortality risk. Determining the extent to which interactions between groups contribute to variation in mortality is often challenging. We compared socio-economic status (SES) and mortality rates of Protestants and Catholics in Scotland and Northern Ireland, regions in which interactions between groups are profoundly different. Crucially, strong equality legislation has been in place for much longer and Catholics form a larger minority in Northern Ireland. Drawing linked Census returns and mortality records of 404,703 people from the Scottish and Northern Ireland Longitudinal Studies, we used Poisson regression to compare religious groups, estimating mortality rates and incidence rate ratios. We fitted age-adjusted and fully adjusted (for education, housing tenure, car access and social class) models. Catholics had lower SES than Protestants in both countries; the differential was larger in Scotland for education, housing tenure and car access but not social class. In Scotland, Catholics had increased age-adjusted mortality risk relative to Protestants but variation among groups was attenuated following adjustment for SES. Those reporting no religious affiliation were at similar mortality risk to Protestants. In Northern Ireland, there was no mortality differential between Catholics and Protestants either before or after adjustment. Men reporting no religious affiliation were at increased mortality risk but this differential was not evident among women. In Scotland, Catholics remained at greater socio-economic disadvantage relative to Protestants than in Northern Ireland and were also at a mortality disadvantage. This may be due to a lack of explicit equality legislation that has decreased inequality by religion in Northern Ireland during recent decades.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T10:16:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 45 (2017)
  • Examination of neighborhood disadvantage and sleep in a multi-ethnic
           cohort of adolescents
    • Authors: Wendy M. Troxel; Regina A. Shih; Brett Ewing; Joan S. Tucker; Alvin Nugroho; Elizabeth J. D’Amico
      Pages: 39 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 45
      Author(s): Wendy M. Troxel, Regina A. Shih, Brett Ewing, Joan S. Tucker, Alvin Nugroho, Elizabeth J. D’Amico
      Purpose Neighborhood-level socioeconomic disadvantage and lower individual-level socioeconomic status are associated with poorer sleep health in adults. However, few studies have examined the association between neighborhood-level disadvantage and sleep in adolescents, a population at high-risk for sleep disturbances. Methods The current study is the first to examine how objective (i.e. via census tract-level data) and subjective measures of neighborhood disadvantage are associated with sleep in a racially/ ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of 2493 youth [Non-Hispanic White (20%), Hispanic (46%), Asian (21%), and Multiracial/ Other (13%)]. Results Findings indicated that greater perceived neighborhood-level social cohesion and lower neighborhood-level poverty were associated with better sleep outcomes in adolescents. However, there was some evidence that the magnitude of the associations differed according to family-level socioeconomic status and race/ ethnicity. Conclusions Findings suggest that subjective and objective neighborhood characteristics may affect the sleep health of older adolescents, with certain demographic subgroups being particularly vulnerable.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T10:16:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 45 (2017)
  • The impact of temperature and relative humidity on spatiotemporal patterns
           of infant bronchiolitis epidemics in the contiguous United States
    • Authors: Chantel Sloan; Matthew Heaton; Sorah Kang; Candace Berrett; Pingsheng Wu; Tebeb Gebretsadik; Nicholas Sicignano; Amber Evans; Rees Lee; Tina Hartert
      Pages: 46 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 45
      Author(s): Chantel Sloan, Matthew Heaton, Sorah Kang, Candace Berrett, Pingsheng Wu, Tebeb Gebretsadik, Nicholas Sicignano, Amber Evans, Rees Lee, Tina Hartert
      Infant bronchiolitis is primarily due to infection by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which is highly seasonal. The goal of the study is to understand how circulation of RSV is impacted by fluctuations in temperature and humidity in order to inform prevention efforts. Using data from the Military Health System (MHS) Data Repository (MDR), we calculated rates of infant bronchiolitis for the contiguous US from July 2004 to June 2013. Monthly temperature and relative humidity were extracted from the National Climate Data Center. Using a spatiotemporal generalized linear model for binomial data, we estimated bronchiolitis rates and the effects of temperature and relative humidity while allowing them to vary over location and time. Our results indicate a seasonal pattern that begins in the Southeast during November or December, then spreading in a Northwest direction. The relationships of temperature and humidity were spatially heterogeneous, and we find that climate can partially account for early onset or longer epidemic duration. Small changes in climate may be associated with larger fluctuations in epidemic duration.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T10:16:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 45 (2017)
  • Global health from the outside: The promise of place-based research
    • Authors: Abigail H. Neely; Alex M. Nading
      Pages: 55 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 45
      Author(s): Abigail H. Neely, Alex M. Nading

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T10:16:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 45 (2017)
  • Associations of street layout with walking and sedentary behaviors in an
           urban and a rural area of Japan
    • Authors: Mohammad Javad Koohsari; Takemi Sugiyama; Ai Shibata; Kaori Ishii; Yung Liao; Tomoya Hanibuchi; Neville Owen; Koichiro Oka
      Pages: 64 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 45
      Author(s): Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Takemi Sugiyama, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Yung Liao, Tomoya Hanibuchi, Neville Owen, Koichiro Oka
      We examined whether street layout —a key urban design element— is associated with walking and sedentary behaviors in the context of a non-Western country; and, whether such associations differ between an urban and a rural area. In 2011, 1076 middle-to-older aged adults living in an urban and a rural area of Japan reported their walking and sedentary (sitting) behaviors. Two objective measures of street layout (intersection density and street integration) were calculated. Participants exposed to more-connected street layouts were more likely to walk for commuting and for errands, to meet physical activity recommendations through walking for commuting, and less likely to drive. These relationships differed between the urban and the rural area. This shows that previous findings from Western countries on associations of street connectivity with travel behaviors may also be applicable to Japan.

      PubDate: 2017-03-17T10:22:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 45 (2017)
  • The effect of context in rural mental health care: Understanding
           integrated services in a small town
    • Authors: Scott J. Fitzpatrick; David Perkins; Teresa Luland; Dale Brown; Eamonn Corvan
      Pages: 70 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 45
      Author(s): Scott J. Fitzpatrick, David Perkins, Teresa Luland, Dale Brown, Eamonn Corvan
      Unequal health care outcomes for those with mental illness mean that access to integrated models is critical to supporting good physical and mental health care. This is especially so in rural areas where geographic and structural issues constrain the provision of health services. Guided by a conceptual framework about rural and remote health, this study draws on interviews with health providers and other staff and examines the dynamics of integrated primary and community-based specialist care for people with severe and persistent mental illnesses living in rural Australia. Findings show that the facilitation of sustainable linkages between general practice and community mental health requires the skilful exercise of power, knowledge, and resources by partners in order to address the social and structural factors that influence local health situations. These findings suggest that incremental processes of integration that are responsive to patients’ and stakeholders’ needs and that build on success and increased trust may be more effective than those imposed from the ‘top down’ that pay insufficient attention to local contexts.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T10:16:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 45 (2017)
  • Natural environments and subjective wellbeing: Different types of exposure
           are associated with different aspects of wellbeing
    • Authors: Mathew P. White; Sabine Pahl; Benedict W. Wheeler; Michael H. Depledge; Lora E. Fleming
      Pages: 77 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 45
      Author(s): Mathew P. White, Sabine Pahl, Benedict W. Wheeler, Michael H. Depledge, Lora E. Fleming
      Despite growing interest in the relationships between natural environments and subjective wellbeing (SWB), previous studies have various methodological and theoretical limitations. Focusing on urban/peri-urban residents (n=7272) from a nationally representative survey of the English population, we explored the relationships between three types of exposure: i) ‘neighbourhood exposure’, ii) ‘visit frequency’, and iii) ‘specific visit’; and four components of SWB: i) evaluative, ii) eudaimonic, iii) positive experiential and iv) negative experiential. Controlling for area and individual level socio-demographics and other aspects of SWB, visit frequency was associated with eudaimonic wellbeing and a specific visit with positive experiential wellbeing. People who visited nature regularly felt their lives were more worthwhile, and those who visited nature yesterday were happier. The magnitude of the association between weekly nature visits and eudaimonic wellbeing was similar to that between eudaimonic wellbeing and life circumstances such as marital status. Findings are relevant for policies to protect and promote public access to natural environments.

      PubDate: 2017-03-22T04:40:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 45 (2017)
  • Identifying adverse effects of area-based health policy: An ethnographic
           study of a deprived neighbourhood in England
    • Authors: Oli Williams
      Pages: 85 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 45
      Author(s): Oli Williams
      Health interventions commonly have adverse effects. Addressing these could significantly improve health outcomes. This paper addresses an adverse effect common in the promotion of health behaviours: exacerbation of health inequalities between low- and high-socioeconomic groups. Health behaviours – particularly, physical activity - are positioned within the context of social inequality and the inequitable spatial distribution of resources. Area-based health policy that targets deprived areas is assessed for its capacity to promote health behaviours without exacerbating inequality. Data are derived from a 16-month ethnography in a deprived English neighbourhood that was the target of area-based intervention that prioritised the promotion of physical activity. Findings provide evidence of adverse intervention effects that further disadvantaged the low-socioeconomic population. Analysis demonstrates how this was ultimately the outcome of localised policy drifting away from initial commitments to equitable service access. These findings increase understanding of the processes through which adverse intervention effects arise and how they can be mitigated.

      PubDate: 2017-03-22T04:40:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.02.011
      Issue No: Vol. 45 (2017)
  • “They treat us like we’re not there”: Queer bodies and the social
           production of healthcare spaces
    • Authors: Talia Meer; Alex Müller
      Pages: 92 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 45
      Author(s): Talia Meer, Alex Müller

      PubDate: 2017-03-22T04:40:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 45 (2017)
  • Individual mental health, life course events and dynamic neighbourhood
           change during the transition to adulthood
    • Authors: Noli Brazil; William A.V. Clark
      Pages: 99 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 45
      Author(s): Noli Brazil, William A.V. Clark
      Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, this study examines the relationship between significant changes in neighbourhood poverty during the transition to adulthood and shifts in depressive symptoms. We found that associations between changes in neighbourhood poverty and mental health disappeared after controlling for contemporaneous life course events, specifically transitions associated with intimate relationship building and human capital formation. The exception is a decrease in depressive symptoms for females moving into lower poverty neighbourhoods across the entire transition to adulthood period. We conclude that the impact of moving into significantly higher or lower poverty neighbourhoods during the transition to adulthood is conditioned on age, period and gender and complicated by the occurrence of other significant life course transitions.

      PubDate: 2017-03-22T04:40:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 45 (2017)
  • Between exposure, access and use: Reconsidering foodscape influences on
           dietary behaviours
    • Authors: Christelle Clary; Stephen Augustus Matthews; Yan Kestens
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 44
      Author(s): Christelle Clary, Stephen Augustus Matthews, Yan Kestens
      Good accessibility to both healthy and unhealthy food outlets is a greater reality than food deserts. Yet, there is a lack of conceptual insights on the contextual factors that push individuals to opt for healthy or unhealthy food outlets when both options are accessible. Our comprehension of foodscape influences on dietary behaviours would benefit from a better understanding of the decision-making process for food outlet choices. In this paper, we build on the fundamental position that outlet choices are conditioned by how much outlets’ attributes accommodate individuals’ constraints and preferences. We further argue that food outlets continuously experienced within individuals’ daily-path help people re-evaluate food acquisition possibilities, push them to form intentions, and shape their preferences for the choices they will subsequently make. Doing so, we suggest differentiating access, defined as the potential for the foodscape to be used at the time when individuals decide to do so, from exposure, which acts as a constant catalyst for knowledge, intention, preferences and routine tendency. We conclude with implications for future research, and discuss consequences for public policy.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T14:44:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2016.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2017)
  • Individual educational attainment, neighborhood-socioeconomic contexts,
           and self-rated health of middle-aged and elderly Chinese: Exploring the
           mediating role of social engagement
    • Authors: Wei Zhang; Yan Yan Wu
      Pages: 8 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 44
      Author(s): Wei Zhang, Yan Yan Wu
      Analyzing the 2011–2013 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study with 14,507 respondents from 393 neighborhoods, and applying generalized linear mixed-effects model, this study examines how individual-level education and neighborhood-socioeconomic contexts affect health through social engagement. Findings reveal that measures of social engagement—social activity and productive activity—are significantly related to self-rated health and partially mediate the effects of individual-level education. Neighborhood-socioeconomic contexts have independent effects on self-rated health beyond individual socio-demographics, and social activity mediates the effects of neighborhood recreational facilities. This study is among the first to simultaneously explore the health effects of individual and neighborhood-level socioeconomic conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T14:53:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2016.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2017)
  • Measures of the food environment: A systematic review of the field,
    • Authors: Leslie A. Lytle; Rebeccah L. Sokol
      Pages: 18 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 44
      Author(s): Leslie A. Lytle, Rebeccah L. Sokol
      Background Many studies have examined the relationship between the food environment and health-related outcomes, but fewer consider the integrity of measures used to assess the food environment. The present review builds on and makes comparisons with a previous review examining food environment measures and expands the previous review to include a more in depth examination of reliability and validity of measures and study designs employed. Methods We conducted a systematic review of studies measuring the food environment published between 2007 and 2015. We identified these articles through: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Global Health databases; tables of contents of relevant journals; and the National Cancer Institute’s Measures of the Food Environment website. This search yielded 11,928 citations. We retained and abstracted data from 432 studies. Results The most common methodology used to study the food environment was geographic analysis (65% of articles) and the domination of this methodology has persisted since the last review. Only 25.9% of studies in this review reported the reliability of measures and 28.2% reported validity, but this was an improvement as compared to the earlier review. Very few of the studies reported construct validity. Studies reporting measures of the school or worksite environment have decreased since the previous review. Only 13.9% of the studies used a longitudinal design. Conclusions To strengthen research examining the relationship between the food environment and population health, there is a need for robust and psychometrically-sound measures and more sophisticated study designs.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T19:29:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2016.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2017)
  • Built environmental correlates of cycling for transport across Europe
    • Authors: Lieze Mertens; Sofie Compernolle; Benedicte Deforche; Joreintje D. Mackenbach; Jeroen Lakerveld; Johannes Brug; Célina Roda; Thierry Feuillet; Jean-Michel Oppert; Ketevan Glonti; Harry Rutter; Helga Bardos; Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij; Delfien Van Dyck
      Pages: 35 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 44
      Author(s): Lieze Mertens, Sofie Compernolle, Benedicte Deforche, Joreintje D. Mackenbach, Jeroen Lakerveld, Johannes Brug, Célina Roda, Thierry Feuillet, Jean-Michel Oppert, Ketevan Glonti, Harry Rutter, Helga Bardos, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Delfien Van Dyck
      This cross-sectional study aimed to determine which objective built environmental factors, identified using a virtual neighbourhood audit, were associated with cycling for transport in adults living in five urban regions across Europe. The moderating role of age, gender, socio-economic status and country on these associations was also investigated. Overall, results showed that people living in neighbourhoods with a preponderance of speed limits below 30km/h, many bicycle lanes, with less traffic calming devices, more trees, more litter and many parked cars forming an obstacle on the road were more likely to cycle for transport than people living in areas with lower prevalence of these factors. Evidence was only found for seven out of 56 possible moderators of these associations. These results suggest that reducing speed limits for motorized vehicles and the provision of more bicycle lanes may be effective interventions to promote cycling in Europe.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T11:51:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2017)
  • Do social relations buffer the effect of neighborhood deprivation on
           health-related quality of life? Results from the LifeLines Cohort Study
    • Authors: Bart Klijs; Carlos F. Mendes de Leon; Eva U.B. Kibele; Nynke Smidt
      Pages: 43 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 44
      Author(s): Bart Klijs, Carlos F. Mendes de Leon, Eva U.B. Kibele, Nynke Smidt
      We investigated whether social relations buffer the effect of neighborhood deprivation on mental and physical health-related quality of life. Baseline data from the LifeLines Cohort Study (N=68,111) and a neighborhood deprivation index were used to perform mixed effect linear regression analyses. Results showed that fewer personal contacts (b, 95%CI: −0.88(−1.08;−0.67)) and lower social need fulfillment (−4.52(−4.67;−4.36)) are associated with lower mental health-related quality of life. Higher neighborhood deprivation was also associated with lower mental health related quality of life (−0.18(−0.24;−0.11)), but only for those with few personal contacts or low social need fulfillment. Our results suggest that social relations buffer the effect of neighborhood deprivation on mental health-related quality of life.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T11:51:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2017)
  • Do neighborhoods matter differently for movers and non-movers? Analysis of
           weight gain in the longitudinal Dallas Heart Study
    • Authors: Tammy Leonard; Colby Ayers; Sandeep R. Das; Ian J. Neeland; Tiffany M. Powell-Wiley
      Pages: 52 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 44
      Author(s): Tammy Leonard, Colby Ayers, Sandeep R. Das, Ian J. Neeland, Tiffany M. Powell-Wiley
      The few available population-based longitudinal studies examining the link between change in neighborhood condition and weight change to date have only examined neighborhood changes generated by residential mobility. Applying a difference-in-difference analytic framework to data from the Dallas Heart Study (DHS), a multi-ethnic, population-based cohort in Dallas County, TX, we evaluated the relationship between changes in neighborhood condition and weight change for both movers and non-movers over an approximate seven-year follow-up period. We employed a novel measure of neighborhood condition based on property appraisal data to capture temporally consistent measures of change in neighborhood condition regardless of residential mobility. We observed an inverse relationship between weight change and change in neighborhood condition which was more pronounced for non-movers (1.9 fewer kilograms gained per 1-standard deviation improvement in neighborhood condition) than for movers (1.5 fewer kilograms gained per 1-standard deviation improvement in neighborhood condition).

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T11:51:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2017)
  • Neighborhoods and racial/ethnic differences in ideal cardiovascular health
           (the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis)
    • Authors: Mahasin S. Mujahid; Latetia V. Moore; Lucia C. Petito; Kiarri N. Kershaw; Karol Watson; Ana V. Diez Roux
      Pages: 61 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 44
      Author(s): Mahasin S. Mujahid, Latetia V. Moore, Lucia C. Petito, Kiarri N. Kershaw, Karol Watson, Ana V. Diez Roux
      Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis baseline sample from 2000 to 2002 (N=5263; mean age=62) we examined cross-sectional racial/ethnic differences in ideal CVH, defined by the American Heart Association 2020 Impact Goals as a summary measure of ideal levels of blood pressure, fasting glucose, cholesterol, body mass index, diet, physical activity, and smoking. Using three different analytical approaches, we examined differences before and after adjustment for neighborhood socioeconomic, physical, and social environments. Significant racial/ethnic differences were present for all indicators of ideal CVH (excluding physical activity). Additional adjustments for neighborhood factors produced modest reductions in racial/ethnic differences. Future research is necessary to better understand the impact of neighborhood context on health disparities using longitudinal study designs.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T11:51:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2017)
  • A prospective investigation of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and
           self-rated health in a large US cohort
    • Authors: Qian Xiao; David Berrigan; Charles E. Matthews
      Pages: 70 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 44
      Author(s): Qian Xiao, David Berrigan, Charles E. Matthews
      Background Neighborhood characteristics play a critical role in health. Self-rated health (SRH) is an important indicator of quality of life and a strong predictor of premature death. Prospective study on neighborhood deprivation and SRH is limited. Methods We examined neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation with reporting fair/poor SRH at follow-up (2004–2006) in 249,265 men and women (age 50–71) who reported SRH as good or better at baseline (1995–1996) in the NIH-AARP Health and Diet Study. Baseline addresses were geocoded and linked to 2000 Census. Census tract level variables were used to generate a socioeconomic deprivation index by principle component analysis. Results Residents of more deprived neighborhoods had a higher risk of developing poor/fair SRH at follow-up, even after adjusting for individual-level factors (Odds ratio (95% confidence interval) Q5 vs Q1: 1.26 (1.20, 1.32), p-trend: <0.0001). The results were largely consistent across subgroups with different demographics, health behaviors, and disease conditions and after excluding participants who moved away from their baseline address. Conclusion Neighborhood disadvantage predicts SRH over 10 years.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T12:04:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2017)
  • The Geography of a rapid rise in elderly mortality in England and Wales,
    • Authors: Mark Green; Danny Dorling; Jon Minton
      Pages: 77 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 44
      Author(s): Mark Green, Danny Dorling, Jon Minton
      Since at least the early 1900s almost all affluent nations in the world have continually experienced improvements in human longevity. Using ONS mid-year population and deaths estimates for Local Authorities for England and Wales, we show that these improvements have recently reversed. We estimate that in England and Wales there were 39,074 more deaths in the year to July 2015 as compared to the year to July 2014 (32,208 of these were of individuals aged 80+). We demonstrate that these increases occurred almost everywhere geographically; in poor and affluent areas, in rural and urban areas. The implications of our findings are profound given what has come before them, combined with the current political climate of austerity.

      PubDate: 2017-02-18T12:13:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2017)
  • Does neighborhood social and environmental context impact race/ethnic
           disparities in childhood asthma?
    • Authors: Mackenzie Brewer; Rachel Tolbert Kimbro; Justin T. Denney; Kristin M. Osiecki; Brady Moffett; Keila Lopez
      Pages: 86 - 93
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 44
      Author(s): Mackenzie Brewer, Rachel Tolbert Kimbro, Justin T. Denney, Kristin M. Osiecki, Brady Moffett, Keila Lopez
      Utilizing over 140,000 geocoded medical records for a diverse sample of children ages 2–12 living in Houston, Texas, we examine whether a comprehensive set of neighborhood social and environmental characteristics explain racial and ethnic disparities in childhood asthma. Adjusting for all individual risk factors, as well as neighborhood concentrated disadvantage, particulate matter, ozone concentration, and race/ethnic composition, reduced but did not fully attenuate the higher odds of asthma diagnosis among black (OR=2.59, 95% CI=2.39, 2.80), Hispanic (OR=1.22, 95% CI=1.14, 1.32) and Asian (OR=1.18, 95% CI=1.04, 1.33) children relative to whites.

      PubDate: 2017-02-25T09:16:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2017)
  • Home and away: Area socioeconomic disadvantage and obesity risk
    • Authors: Rachel Tolbert Kimbro; Gregory Sharp; Justin T. Denney
      Pages: 94 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 44
      Author(s): Rachel Tolbert Kimbro, Gregory Sharp, Justin T. Denney
      Although residential context is linked to obesity risk, less is known about how the additional places where we work, shop, play, and worship may influence that risk. We employ longitudinal data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (LAFANS) to derive time-weighted measures of exposure to home and activity space contexts to ascertain the impacts of each on obesity risk for adults. Results show that increased exposure to socioeconomic disadvantage in the residential neighborhood significantly increases obesity risk, and although activity space disadvantage does not directly influence obesity, it reduces the association between residential disadvantage and obesity. We further explore the ways in which residential and activity space disadvantages may interact to influence obesity and discuss the value of integrating personal exposure and activity space contexts to better understand how places contribute to individual health risks.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T10:16:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2017)
  • What predicts children's active transport and independent mobility in
           disadvantaged neighborhoods?
    • Authors: J. Veitch; A. Carver; J. Salmon; G. Abbott; K. Ball; D. Crawford; V. Cleland; A. Timperio
      Pages: 103 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 44
      Author(s): J. Veitch, A. Carver, J. Salmon, G. Abbott, K. Ball, D. Crawford, V. Cleland, A. Timperio
      This study examined two year changes in children's active transport and independent mobility and prospective associations between individual, social and physical environmental predictors of interest and these behaviors two years later. Overall, 43.5% of children (12.0±2.1 years) used active transport on the school journey at T1 and at T2 (p=0.77), and 35.3% engaged in independent mobility on the school journey at T1 and 29.6% at T2 (p=0.07). Enjoyment, parental safety concerns, and proximity to walking tracks were associated with independent mobility on the school journey. Road safety and social norms were associated with active transport and independent mobility to local destinations. These factors provide potential targets for interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-02-25T09:16:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2017)
  • Using Geographic Information Systems to measure retail food environments:
           Discussion of methodological considerations and a proposed reporting
           checklist (Geo-FERN)
    • Authors: Emma L. Wilkins; Michelle A. Morris; Duncan Radley; Claire Griffiths
      Pages: 110 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 44
      Author(s): Emma L. Wilkins, Michelle A. Morris, Duncan Radley, Claire Griffiths
      Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are widely used to measure retail food environments. However the methods used are hetrogeneous, limiting collation and interpretation of evidence. This problem is amplified by unclear and incomplete reporting of methods. This discussion (i) identifies common dimensions of methodological diversity across GIS-based food environment research (data sources, data extraction methods, food outlet construct definitions, geocoding methods, and access metrics), (ii) reviews the impact of different methodological choices, and (iii) highlights areas where reporting is insufficient. On the basis of this discussion, the Geo-FERN reporting checklist is proposed to support methodological reporting and interpretation.

      PubDate: 2017-02-25T09:16:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2017)
  • Pathways from neighborhood poverty to depression among older adults
    • Authors: Spruha Joshi; Stephen J. Mooney; Andrew G. Rundle; James W. Quinn; John R. Beard; Magdalena Cerdá
      Pages: 138 - 143
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 43
      Author(s): Spruha Joshi, Stephen J. Mooney, Andrew G. Rundle, James W. Quinn, John R. Beard, Magdalena Cerdá
      The pathways through which neighborhood poverty can affect resident depression are still unknown. We investigated mechanisms through which neighborhood poverty may influence depression among older adults. Participants were drawn from the New York City Neighborhood and Mental Health in the Elderly Study II, a 3-wave study of adults aged 65–75 (n=3,497) at baseline. Neighborhood poverty and homicide were associated with depressive symptoms at follow-up waves (RR:1.20, 95%CI: 1.05, 1.36; RR: 1.09, 95%CI: 1.02, 1.17, respectively). Homicide accounted for 30% of the effect of neighborhood poverty on depressive symptoms. Neighborhood exposure to violence may be a key mechanism through which neighborhood poverty influences depression among older adults.

      PubDate: 2017-01-06T20:37:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2016.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2017)
  • Associations between perceived neighbourhood problems and quality of life
           in older adults with and without osteoarthritis: Results from the
           Hertfordshire Cohort Study
    • Authors: Erik J. Timmermans; Suzan van der Pas; Laura A. Schaap; Cyrus Cooper; Mark H. Edwards; Catharine R. Gale; Dorly J.H. Deeg; Elaine M. Dennison
      Pages: 144 - 150
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 43
      Author(s): Erik J. Timmermans, Suzan van der Pas, Laura A. Schaap, Cyrus Cooper, Mark H. Edwards, Catharine R. Gale, Dorly J.H. Deeg, Elaine M. Dennison
      This study examined whether the association of quality of life (QoL) with perceived neighbourhood problems is stronger in older adults with osteoarthritis (OA) than in those without OA. Of all 294 participants, 23.8% had OA. More perceived neighbourhood problems were associated with a stronger decrease in QoL over time in participants with OA (B=−0.018; p=0.02) than in those without OA (B=−0.004; p=0.39). Physical activity did not mediate this relationship. Older adults with OA may be less able to deal with more challenging environments.

      PubDate: 2017-01-06T20:37:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2016.11.013
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2017)
  • Association of environmental indicators with teen alcohol use and problem
           behavior: Teens' observations vs. objectively-measured indicators
    • Authors: Hilary F. Byrnes; Brenda A. Miller; Christopher N. Morrison; Douglas J. Wiebe; Marcie Woychik; Sarah E. Wiehe
      Pages: 151 - 157
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 43
      Author(s): Hilary F. Byrnes, Brenda A. Miller, Christopher N. Morrison, Douglas J. Wiebe, Marcie Woychik, Sarah E. Wiehe
      Most prior studies use objectively measured data (e.g., census-based indicators) to assess contextual risks. However, teens' observations might be more important for their risk behavior. Objectives: 1) determine relationships between observed and objective indicators of contextual risks 2) determine relations of observed and objective indicators with teen alcohol use and problem behavior. Teens aged 14–16 (N=170) carried GPS-enabled smartphones for one month, with locations documented. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) measured teens' observations via texts regarding risk behaviors and environmental observations. Objective indicators of alcohol outlets and disorganization were spatially joined to EMAs based on teens' location at the time of the texts. Observed and objective disorganization, and objective indicators of alcohol outlets were related to alcohol use. Observed disorganization was related to problem behavior, while objective indicators were unrelated. Findings suggest the importance of considering teens' observations of contextual risk for understanding influences on risk behavior and suggest future directions for research and prevention strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-01-06T20:37:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2016.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2017)
  • Place, green exercise and stress: An exploration of lived experience and
           restorative effects
    • Authors: Gunnthora Olafsdottir; Paul Cloke; Claus Vögele
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017
      Source:Health & Place
      Author(s): Gunnthora Olafsdottir, Paul Cloke, Claus Vögele
      This paper reports on inter-disciplinary research designed to investigate the stress-buffering effects of green exercise, and the importance of the context in which exercise takes place. This investigation of context effects examines both individual physiological responses (salivary cortisol) and the phenomenological interpretation of lived experiences of the intervention, reported by a subsample of participants in a randomized, controlled trial, in which healthy, physically inactive university students were randomly allocated to three activities: walking on a treadmill in a gym, walking in semi-natural recreational area, and sitting and watching nature-based videos on TV. The study found clear indications of context effects, notably in the connections between positive appraisals of perceived circumstances, enjoyment in the enacted context, and physiological stress-reduction.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T10:16:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.02.006
  • Competing geographies of recreational running: The case of the “jogging
           wave” in Sweden in the late 1970s
    • Authors: Mattias
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2017
      Source:Health & Place
      Author(s): Mattias Qviström
      Recreational running encompasses more than one type of exercise. Different running practices offer different, even opposing, conceptualisations of the role of the environment. As illustrated in this paper, historical studies can uncover and explain these variations. By studying the clash between two practices in Sweden in the 1970s – the newly translated idea of North American jogging and an already established tradition of fitness running – this paper qualifies the difference between them and illustrates how they assembled competing geographies. The paper argues that current planning would benefit from acknowledging this multiplicity because different forms of running offer complementary strategies for inclusivity.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T14:53:47Z
  • Gambling machine annexes as enabling spaces for addictive engagement
    • Authors: Peter J. Adams; Janine Wiles
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 43
      Author(s): Peter J. Adams, Janine Wiles
      The widespread proliferation of electronic gambling machines and improvements to their design have contributed to rising levels of gambling-related harm including harms associated with addictive behaviour and other impacts on health and wellbeing. Research into their addictive potential has focused mainly on the interface between gamblers and the machines themselves. We shift the focus onto the spatial contexts, the rooms and the venues, in which gambling machines are positioned. By examining a series of common layouts we identify the division of venues into two main areas: one for the main social activities of the venue (the “main hall”) and the other a partitioned area (the “annex”) in which gambling machines are tightly clumped in ways that discourage social interaction. Other features of the annex that encourage uninterrupted and solitary play include the absence of tables to socialize around, dimmed lighting and entry pathways that minimize scrutiny. We argue that these features promote a style of play more oriented towards heavy and problematic gambling. We also explore explanations for the nature of these annexes and discuss implications for public health.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T00:29:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2016.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2016)
  • Negotiating and valuing spaces: The discourse of space and
           ‘home’ in care homes
    • Authors: Andrea Kenkmann; Fiona Poland; Diane Burns; Paula Hyde; Anne Killett
      Pages: 8 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 43
      Author(s): Andrea Kenkmann, Fiona Poland, Diane Burns, Paula Hyde, Anne Killett
      This paper examines how space in care homes is experienced and negotiated by people who live and work in them. The analysis of qualitative data of five in-depth case studies of care homes in England revealed three key ways in which space is negotiated: a) the way in which values affect interactions inside versus outside the care home environment, b) the negotiation of boundaries and domains within the homes, and c) the sense of being at ‘home’. The paper illuminates how the design of the buildings and organisational factors can reinforce or bridge dichotomies between inside and outside spaces. Residents’ abilities to re-negotiate boundaries, domains and communal spaces within homes are shown to be affected by organisational factors such as priorities of staff members. Despite ‘home’ being a common discourse, the spaces within care homes were often organised, ordered and experienced as two distinct, co-present worlds: the dwelling place of residents and the workplace of staff.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T00:29:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2016.11.006
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2016)
  • Examining associations between area-level spatial measures of housing with
    • Authors: Hannah Badland; Sarah Foster; Rebecca Bentley; Carl Higgs; Rebecca Roberts; Christopher Pettit; Billie Giles-Corti
      Pages: 17 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 43
      Author(s): Hannah Badland, Sarah Foster, Rebecca Bentley, Carl Higgs, Rebecca Roberts, Christopher Pettit, Billie Giles-Corti
      Adequate and affordable housing is a major social determinant of health; yet no work has attempted to conceptually map and spatially test area-level measures of housing with selected health and wellbeing outcomes. Sourcing data from 7,753 adults from Melbourne, Australia, we tested associations between area-level measures of housing density, tenure, and affordability with individual-level measures of neighbourhood safety, community satisfaction, and self-rated health. Compared with the reference groups, the odds of: feeling unsafe was higher for residents living in areas with less affordable housing; community dissatisfaction was ~30% higher in those living in areas with >36% residential properties assigned as rentals, and was significantly higher in the least affordable areas (OR =1.57). Compared with the reference groups, as dwelling density, proportion of rental properties, and housing unaffordability increased, the odds of reporting poorer self-rated health increased; however these associations did not always reach statistical significance. This work highlights the benefits of evidenced-based planning spatial measures to support health and wellbeing.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T00:29:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2016.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2016)
  • Adolescents who engage in active school transport are also more active in
           other contexts: A space-time investigation
    • Authors: Tom Stewart; Scott Duncan; Jasper Schipperijn
      Pages: 25 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 43
      Author(s): Tom Stewart, Scott Duncan, Jasper Schipperijn
      Background Although active school travel (AST) is important for increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), it is unclear how AST is related to context-specific physical activity and non-school travel. This study investigated how school travel is related to physical activity and travel behaviours across time- and space-classified domains. Methods A total of 196 adolescents wore a Global Positioning System receiver and an accelerometer for 7 days. All data were classified into one of four domains: home, school, transport, or leisure. Generalized linear mixed models were used to compare domain-specific PA and non-school trips between active and passive school travellers. Results Active travellers accumulated 13 and 14 more min of MVPA on weekdays and weekend days, respectively. They also spent 15min less time in vehicular travel during non-school trips, and accrued an additional 9min of MVPA while walking on weekend days. However, those with no AST still achieved most of their MVPA in the transport domain. Conclusions AST is related to out-of-school physical activity and transportation, but transport is also important for those who do not use AST. As such, future studies should consider overall mobility and destinations other than school when assessing travel and physical activity behaviours.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T00:29:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2016.11.009
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2016)
  • The regional geography of alcohol consumption in England: Comparing
           drinking frequency and binge drinking
    • Authors: Javier Malda Castillo; Stephen Jivraj; Linda Ng Fat
      Pages: 33 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 43
      Author(s): Javier Malda Castillo, Stephen Jivraj, Linda Ng Fat
      Alcohol consumption frequency and volume are known to be related to health problems among drinkers. Most of the existing literature that analyses regional variation in drinking behaviour uses measures of consumption that relate only to volume, such as ’binge drinking’. This study compares the regional association of alcohol consumption using measures of drinking frequency (daily drinking) and volume (binge drinking) using a nationally representative sample of residents using the Health Survey for England, 2011–2013. Results suggest the presence of two differentiated drinking patterns with relevant policy implications. We find that people in northern regions are more likely to binge drink, whereas people in southern regions are more likely to drink on most days. Regression analysis shows that regional variation in binge drinking remains strong when taking into account individual and neighbourhood level controls. The findings provide support for regional targeting of interventions that aim to reduce the frequency as well as volume of drinking.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T00:29:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2016.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2016)
  • Managing mosquito spaces: Citizen self-governance of disease vectors in a
           desert landscape
    • Authors: Nicolena vonHedemann; Paul Robbins; Melinda K. Butterworth; Katheryn Landau; Cory W. Morin
      Pages: 41 - 48
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 43
      Author(s): Nicolena vonHedemann, Paul Robbins, Melinda K. Butterworth, Katheryn Landau, Cory W. Morin
      Public health agencies’ strategies to control disease vectors have increasingly included “soft” mosquito management programs that depend on citizen education and changing homeowner behaviors. In an effort to understand public responses to such campaigns, this research assesses the case of Tucson, Arizona, where West Nile virus presents a serious health risk and where management efforts have focused on public responsibility for mosquito control. Using surveys, interviews, and focus groups, we conclude that citizens have internalized responsibilities for mosquito management but also expect public management of parks and waterways while tending to reject the state's interference with privately owned parcels. Resident preferences for individualized mosquito management hinge on the belief that mosquito-borne diseases are not a large threat, a pervasive distrust of state management, and a fear of the assumed use of aerial pesticides by state managers. Opinions on who is responsible for mosquitoes hinge on both perceptions of mosquito ecology and territorial boundaries, with implications for future disease outbreaks.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T00:29:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2016.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2016)
  • Premature mortality resilience and wellbeing within urban Māori
    • Authors: Andrew M. Waa; Amber L. Pearson; John L. Ryks
      Pages: 49 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 43
      Author(s): Andrew M. Waa, Amber L. Pearson, John L. Ryks
      Māori (the indigenous peoples of Aotearoa New Zealand) experience of colonisation has negatively affected access to many of the resources (e.g. income, adequate housing) that enable health and well-being. However Māori have actively responded to the challenges they have faced. With the majority of the Māori population now living in urban settings this exploratory study aimed to understand factors contributing to mortality resilience despite exposure to socio-economic adversity with reference to Māori well-being. Resilient urban neighborhoods were defined as those that had lower than expected premature mortality among Māori residents despite high levels of socio-economic adversity. Selected resilience indicators theoretically linked to a Māori well-being framework were correlated with the novel Māori_RINZ resilience index. Of the selected indicators, only exposure to crime showed a clear gradient across the resilience index as predicted by the Māori well-being framework. Future research is needed as unclear trends for other indicators may reflect limitations in the indicators used or the need to develop a more comprehensive measure of well-being.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T00:29:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2016.11.010
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2016)
  • Effects of living near a new urban motorway on the travel behaviour of
           local residents in deprived areas: Evidence from a natural experimental
    • Authors: Louise Foley; Richard Prins; Fiona Crawford; Shannon Sahlqvist; David Ogilvie
      Pages: 57 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 43
      Author(s): Louise Foley, Richard Prins, Fiona Crawford, Shannon Sahlqvist, David Ogilvie
      We evaluated the effects of a new motorway built through deprived neighbourhoods on travel behaviour in residents. This natural experiment comprised a longitudinal cohort (n=365) and two cross-sectional samples (baseline n=980; follow-up n=978) recruited in 2005 and 2013. Adults from one of three study areas - surrounding the new motorway (South), an existing motorway (East), or no motorway (North) - completed a previous day travel record. Adjusted two-part regression models examined associations between exposure and outcome. Compared to the North, cohort participants in the South were more likely to undertake travel by any mode (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.0–4.2) at follow-up. Within the South study area, cohort participants living closer to a motorway junction were more likely to travel by any mode at follow-up (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.1–19.7), and cross-sectional participants living closer were more likely to use a car at follow-up (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.1–10.7), compared to those living further away. Overall, the new motorway appeared to promote travel and car use in those living nearby, but did not influence active travel. This may propagate socioeconomic inequalities in non-car owners.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T00:29:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2016.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2016)
  • Wellbeing in the aftermath of floods
    • Authors: Kate Walker-Springett; Catherine Butler; W. Neil Adger
      Pages: 66 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 43
      Author(s): Kate Walker-Springett, Catherine Butler, W. Neil Adger
      The interactions between flood events, their aftermath, and recovery leading to health and wellbeing outcomes for individuals are complex, and the pathways and mechanisms through which wellbeing is affected are often hidden and remain under-researched. This study analyses the diverse processes that explain changes in wellbeing for those experiencing flooding. It identifies key pathways to wellbeing outcomes that concern perceptions of lack of agency, dislocation from home, and disrupted futures inducing negative impacts, with offsetting positive effects through community networks and interactions. The mixed method study is based on data from repeated qualitative semi-structured interviews (n=60) and a structured survey (n=1000) with individuals that experienced flooding directly during winter 2013/14 in two UK regions. The results show for the first time the diversity and intersection of pathways to wellbeing outcomes in the aftermath of floods. The findings suggest that enhanced public health planning and interventions could focus on the precise practices and mechanisms that intersect to produce anxiety, stress, and their amelioration at individual and community levels.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T00:29:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2016.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2016)
  • Optimising measurement of health-related characteristics of the built
           environment: Comparing data collected by foot-based street audits, virtual
           street audits and routine secondary data sources
    • Authors: Triantafyllos Pliakas; Sophie Hawkesworth; Richard J. Silverwood; Kiran Nanchahal; Chris Grundy; Ben Armstrong; Juan Pablo Casas; Richard W. Morris; Paul Wilkinson; Karen Lock
      Pages: 75 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 43
      Author(s): Triantafyllos Pliakas, Sophie Hawkesworth, Richard J. Silverwood, Kiran Nanchahal, Chris Grundy, Ben Armstrong, Juan Pablo Casas, Richard W. Morris, Paul Wilkinson, Karen Lock
      The role of the neighbourhood environment in influencing health behaviours continues to be an important topic in public health research and policy. Foot-based street audits, virtual street audits and secondary data sources are widespread data collection methods used to objectively measure the built environment in environment-health association studies. We compared these three methods using data collected in a nationally representative epidemiological study in 17 British towns to inform future development of research tools. There was good agreement between foot-based and virtual audit tools. Foot based audits were superior for fine detail features. Secondary data sources measured very different aspects of the local environment that could be used to derive a range of environmental measures if validated properly. Future built environment research should design studies a priori using multiple approaches and varied data sources in order to best capture features that operate on different health behaviours at varying spatial scales.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T12:30:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2016.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2016)
  • Individual exposure estimates may be erroneous when spatiotemporal
           variability of air pollution and human mobility are ignored
    • Authors: Yoo Min Park; Mei-Po Kwan
      Pages: 85 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 43
      Author(s): Yoo Min Park, Mei-Po Kwan
      This study aims to empirically demonstrate the necessity to consider both the spatiotemporal variability of air pollution and individual daily movement patterns in exposure and health risk assessment. It compares four different types of exposure estimates generated by using (1) individual movement data and hourly air pollution concentrations; (2) individual movement data and daily average air pollution data; (3) residential location and hourly pollution levels; and (4) residential location and daily average pollution data. These four estimates are significantly different, which supports the argument that ignoring the spatiotemporal variability of environmental risk factors and human mobility may lead to misleading results in exposure assessment. Additionally, three-dimensional (3D) geovisualization presented in the paper shows how person-specific space-time context is generated by the interactions between air pollution and an individual, and how the different individualized contexts place individuals at different levels of health risk.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T12:30:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2016.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2016)
  • Understanding the local food environment: A participatory photovoice
           project in a low-income area in Madrid, Spain
    • Authors: Julia Díez; Paloma Conde; María Sandin; María Urtasun; Remedios López; José Luis Carrero; Joel Gittelsohn; Manuel Franco
      Pages: 95 - 103
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 43
      Author(s): Julia Díez, Paloma Conde, María Sandin, María Urtasun, Remedios López, José Luis Carrero, Joel Gittelsohn, Manuel Franco
      There is a need to partner between researchers, practitioners and residents to increase our understanding of environmental influences on dietary behaviors. We used the participatory method of Photovoice to understand key determinants of the local food environment influencing residents' diets. This project was conducted in Villaverde, a low-income area located in Madrid, Spain. From February to May 2015, 24 residents working in four Photovoice groups, took photographs related to their local food environment. Each group analyzed and critically discussed their photographs in small group sessions. Through a consensus-building process, participants identified 30 emerging categories, which followed five conceptual themes related to their food environment: 1) eating in moderation, 2) cultural diversity, 3) food stores, 4) social relationships and 5) economic crisis and poverty. Participants, researchers and practitioners successfully collaborated in analyzing, writing, disseminating the project results, and directly informing local policy-makers, media, and other residents. The project results may guide community-generated interventions for promoting a healthier food environment.

      PubDate: 2016-12-19T20:35:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2016.11.012
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2016)
  • Racial and ethnic residential segregation and access to health care in
           rural areas
    • Authors: Julia T. Caldwell; Chandra L. Ford; Steven P. Wallace; May C. Wang; Lois M. Takahashi
      Pages: 104 - 112
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 43
      Author(s): Julia T. Caldwell, Chandra L. Ford, Steven P. Wallace, May C. Wang, Lois M. Takahashi
      This study examined the relationship between racial/ethnic residential segregation and access to health care in rural areas. Data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey were merged with the American Community Survey and the Area Health Resources Files. Segregation was operationalized using the isolation index separately for African Americans and Hispanics. Multi-level logistic regression with random intercepts estimated four outcomes. In rural areas, segregation contributed to worse access to a usual source of health care but higher reports of health care needs being met among African Americans (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 1.42, CI: 0.96-2.10) and Hispanics (AOR: 1.25, CI: 1.05-1.49). By broadening the spatial scale of segregation beyond urban areas, findings showed the complex interaction between social and spatial factors in rural areas.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T20:36:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2016.11.015
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2016)
  • Does contextual unemployment matter for health status across the life
           course? A longitudinal multilevel study exploring the link between
           neighbourhood unemployment and functional somatic symptoms
    • Authors: Anna Brydsten; Per E. Gustafsson; Anne Hammarström; Miguel San Sebastian
      Pages: 113 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 43
      Author(s): Anna Brydsten, Per E. Gustafsson, Anne Hammarström, Miguel San Sebastian
      This study examines whether neighbourhood unemployment is related to functional somatic symptoms, independently of the individual employment, across the life course and at four specific life course periods (age 16, 21, 30 and 42). Self-reported questioner data was used from a 26-year prospective Swedish cohort (n=1010) with complementary neighbourhood register data. A longitudinal and a set of age-specific cross-sectional hierarchal linear regressions was carried out. The results suggest that living in a neighbourhood with high unemployment has implications for residents’ level of functional somatic symptoms, regardless of their own unemployment across time, particularly at age 30.

      PubDate: 2016-12-19T20:35:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2016.11.014
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2016)
  • Typologies of neighbourhood environments and children's physical activity,
           sedentary time and television viewing
    • Authors: Anna Timperio; David Crawford; Kylie Ball; Jo Salmon
      Pages: 121 - 127
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 43
      Author(s): Anna Timperio, David Crawford, Kylie Ball, Jo Salmon
      This study examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between clusters of neighbourhood attributes (typologies) and non-school moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time (objectively measured) and proxy-reported television viewing among children aged 5–6 and 10–12 years. Four distinct clusters were identified from seven objectively-measured neighbourhood attributes (land use mix, traffic exposure, playgrounds, sports venues, intersections and cul-de-sacs within 800m, crime/postcode). Some cross-sectional associations with behavior were found. Longitudinally, the cluster characterised by mixed land use and many playgrounds and sport venues was associated with less television viewing on weekends three years later. Considering the aggregate effects of urban form elements may help understand how combinations of neighbourhood attributes influence behavior.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T20:36:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2016.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2016)
  • Neighborhood social and physical environments and type 2 diabetes mellitus
           in African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study
    • Authors: Samson Y. Gebreab; DeMarc A. Hickson; Mario Sims; Sharon B. Wyatt; Sharon K. Davis; Adolfo Correa; Ana V. Diez-Roux
      Pages: 128 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Health & Place, Volume 43
      Author(s): Samson Y. Gebreab, DeMarc A. Hickson, Mario Sims, Sharon B. Wyatt, Sharon K. Davis, Adolfo Correa, Ana V. Diez-Roux
      Using data from Jackson Heart Study, we investigated the associations of neighborhood social and physical environments with prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in African Americans (AA). Among non-diabetic participants at baseline (n=3670), 521 (14.2%) developed T2DM during a median follow-up of 7.3 years. Measures of neighborhood social environments, and food and physical activity resources were derived using survey-and GIS-based methods. Prevalence ratios (PR) and Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using generalized estimating equations and Cox proportional hazards models. Higher neighborhood social cohesion was associated with a 22% lower incidence of T2DM while higher density of unfavorable food stores was associated with a 34% higher incidence of T2DM after adjusting for individual-level risk factors (HR=0.78 [95% CI:0.62, 0.99] and HR=1.34 [1.12, 1.60], respectively). In addition, neighborhood problems was also associated with prevalence of T2DM (PR=1.12 [1.03, 1.21]) independent of individual-level risk factors. Our findings suggest that efforts to strengthen community ties or to attract healthy food retail outlets might be important strategies to consider for prevention of T2DM in AA.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T20:36:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2016.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2016)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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