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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1424 journals)
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HEALTH AND SAFETY (641 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 245)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences: Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Apuntes Universitarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 7)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Birat Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Boletin Médico de Postgrado     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Carta Comunitaria     Open Access  
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Innovación en Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Salud Virtual     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical and Experimental Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clocks & Sleep     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de la Escuela de Salud Pública     Open Access  
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Diversity of Research in Health Journal     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Düzce Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi / Journal of Duzce University Health Sciences Institute     Open Access  
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Ethics & Human Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Eurasian Journal of Health Technology Assessment     Open Access  
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Family & Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare : Finjehew     Open Access  
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ganesha Journal     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Challenges     Open Access  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Global Reproductive Health     Open Access  
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastane Öncesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
HCU Journal     Open Access  
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 10)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Equity     Open Access  
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Notions     Open Access  
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Health Psychology Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Security     Hybrid Journal  
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Healthcare Technology Letters     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Health & Place
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.506
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 15  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1353-8292
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3184 journals]
  • A systematic review of multi-dimensional quality assessment tools for
           urban green spaces
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Pablo Knobel, Payam Dadvand, Roser Maneja-Zaragoza We conducted a systematic review of quality assessment tools for urban green spaces to evaluate their replicability, comparability and validity. We assessed the characteristics of 15 published, multi-dimensional, direct observation tools regarding: publication, development, features and included dimensions. Even though all tools show acceptable inter-rater variability, there is a notable variability in their characteristics, from required time to conduct the assessment to the number of included items. Additionally, some specific dimensions are underrepresented, and the study units’ definitions are feeble. We showcased the need for new tools that are more comprehensive and include more consistent reporting measures.
  • Recession, local employment trends and change in self-reported health of
           individuals: A longitudinal study in England and Wales during the ‘great
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Sarah Curtis, Paul Norman, Richard Cookson, Mark Cherrie, Jamie Pearce
  • Putting the “where” in HIV care: Unpacking narratives of
           antiretroviral therapy adherence among HIV-Positive men who have sex with
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Augil Marie Q. Robles, Nico A. Canoy This study explores the spatial constitution of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) by recasting therapeutic landscapes (Gesler, 1992) and how it structures the exercise of expressive agency (Bowden, 2014). Engagement in antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) is contextualized within the discursive-materiality of emplaced assemblages for HIV Care in the Philippines. Combining qualitative data from field visits and semi-structured interviews, three key spatial narratives were derived illustrating how adherence to ART unfolds in place: (a) an unwelcoming treatment hub, (b) an unsafe and safe home, and (c) a constraining workplace. The results illustrate the spatial, multilayered barriers to ART adherence proposing insights for the theorization of adherence as an emplaced process and the implications of using of place-based interventions in resource-limited countries beyond the discourse of free service and availability.
  • Virtual audits of streetscapes by crowdworkers
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Tomoya Hanibuchi, Tomoki Nakaya, Shigeru Inoue Audits have been used to provide objective ratings of neighborhood environments. Physical audits, however, are time- and resource-intensive. This study examines the efficiency and reliability of virtual auditing using Google Street View and crowdsourcing to conduct walkability audits of streets in Japan. Overall, 830 street segments were physically and virtually audited by two trained auditors; 300 untrained crowdworkers also virtually audited 3 street segments. Statistical analysis found good inter-source and inter-rater reliability. This study helps establish crowdsourced virtual auditing as a valuable method of measuring neighborhood walkability, reducing audit costs as well as enabling large-scale auditor recruitment while maintaining reliability.
  • Changes in perceptions of urban green space are related to changes in
           psychological well-being: Cross-sectional and longitudinal study of
           mid-aged urban residents
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Anne Cleary, Anne Roiko, Nicola W. Burton, Kelly S. Fielding, Zoe Murray, Gavin Turrell
  • County-level housing affordability in relation to risk factors for
           cardiovascular disease among middle-aged adults: The National Longitudinal
           Survey of Youths 1979
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Justin Rodgers, Becky A. Briesacher, Robert B. Wallace, Ichiro Kawachi, Christopher F. Baum, Daniel Kim BackgroundHousing is a fundamental social determinant of health yet housing affordability has diminished over much of the twenty-first century. Research on housing affordability as a determinant of health is limited, but early studies have shown possible correlations with mental health. However, few studies have examined the relationship between housing affordability and risk factors for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among Americans.MethodsUsing a nationally-representative sample of middle-aged adults from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youths 1979 (NLSY79) and exploiting quasi-experimental variation before and after the Great Recession, we estimated the associations between the change in median county-level percentage of household income spent on housing (rent/mortgage) between 2000 and 2008 and individual-level risks of incident hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and depression from 2008 to 2014. We employed conditional fixed effects logistic regression models to reduce bias due to time-invariant confounding.ResultsEach percentage point increase in county-level median percentage of household income spent on housing was associated with a 22% increase in the odds of incident hypertension (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.42; p = 0.01), a 37% increased odds of obesity (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.00–1.87; p = 0.049), and a 15% increased odds of depression (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.01–1.31; p = 0.03), controlling for individual- and area-level factors. These associations were stronger among renters than homeowners, and men compared to women.ConclusionsOur findings suggest that lower levels of housing affordability contribute to worse risk profiles for cardiovascular disease. Policies that make housing more affordable may help reduce the population burden of cardiovascular disease.
  • The effect of urban green space on uncertainty stress and life stress: A
           nationwide study of university students in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Tingzhong Yang, Ross Barnett, Yafeng Fan, Lu Li ObjectiveThe aim of this study is to investigate the impacts of urban green space on stress among Chinese university students.MethodsParticipants were 11,954 students from 50 universities in 42 cities. Each student completed the Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS) on Tobacco Control in China. Regional variables were retrieved from the National Bureau of Statistics database. Both unadjusted and adjusted methods were used in the logistic regression analysis.ResultsAlmost one third of the students (31.1%) suffered from high levels of uncertainty and life stress. The multilevel logistic regression model showed that while certain individual and environmental factors, such as higher family income, having parents with a professional occupation and urban home location, reduced uncertainty stress among students, so did the effects of green space. This was particularly important for reducing uncertainty stress but also had some effects on life stress.ConclusionsThe findings support a wider body of literature on the positive effects of green space on stress and mental health. Future studies need to pay greater attention not only to intra-urban differences in student use of green space, but also to how the natural environment features in stress management policies in Chinese universities.
  • Objectively measured access to recreational destinations and leisure-time
           physical activity: Associations and demographic moderators in a
           six-country study
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Christopher Gidlow, Ester Cerin, Takemi Sugiyama, Marc A. Adams, Josef Mitas, Muhammad Akram, Rodrigo S. Reis, Rachel Davey, Jens Troelsen, Grant Schofield, James F. Sallis Within the growing body of research linking neighbourhood environmental attributes with physical activity, associations between recreational destinations and non-walking leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) are rarely studied, and to date, not across multiple cities. We examined six potential associations of objectively-measured access to private recreational facilities (e.g., fitness centres, swimming pools) and parks with adults’ non-walking LTPA (e.g., swimming, cycling, tennis), using data gathered with consistent methods from adults living in international cities with a range of environment attributes. The potential effects of socio-demographic moderators and between-city variations were also examined. Data from 6725 adults from 10 cities (6 countries) were gathered. Adults were more likely to engage in non-walking LTPA if they had a greater number of private recreational facilities within 0.5 or 1 km of the home, particularly in women, and if they lived closer to a park. The amount of non-zero LTPA was only associated (positively) with the number of recreational facilities within 1 km. Relationships between amount of LTPA and park proximity appear complex, with likely contextual and cultural differences. Improving access to private recreational facilities could promote non-walking LTPA, especially in women.
  • Mortgage discrimination and preterm birth among African American women: An
           exploratory study
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Nana Matoba, Suzanne Suprenant, Kristin Rankin, Hailin Yu, James W. Collins ObjectiveTo examine whether mortgage discrimination, or redlining, is a risk factor for preterm birth among African American women in Chicago, and how it is related to racial residential segregation.MethodsThis was a retrospective cross-sectional study in Chicago, Illinois, 1989–1991.African American mothers (n = 33,586) in the Illinois Transgenerational Birth File were linked to the 1990 census and the 1990–1995 Home Mortgage Disclosure Act database. Logistic regression models assessed the relationship between redlining and preterm birth rates.ResultsPreterm birth rates were higher among African American women in redlined areas (18.5%) vs. non-redlined areas (17.1%). Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio for preterm birth among African American women in redlined neighborhoods, compared to non-redlined neighborhoods, were 1.08 (95% CI 1.03-1.14) and 1.12 (1.04-1.20), respectively. By level of racial residential segregation, preterm birth rate was elevated (18.2%) in redlined, high-proportion African American areas compared to non-redlined high-proportion African American areas (16.7%), redlined low- (16.2%) and mid-proportion (16.1%) African American areas.ConclusionsMortgage discrimination may be an important measure of institutional racism to be used in understanding racial disparities in preterm birth.
  • The meanings attributed to community gardening: A qualitative study
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Michellee Ong, Amy Baker, Alejandra Aguilar, Mandy Stanley Whilst the geographical, sociological, and ecological roles of community gardens have been explored previously, the meanings associated with community gardening are unclear. This narrative inquiry study aimed to understand the meanings attributed to community gardening from an occupational science perspective. Photo elicitation was used alongside narrative interviewing with eight metropolitan South Australian community gardeners. Narrative analysis highlighted five themes: a sense of community; a chance to share; an opportunity to grow; a therapeutic place; ecological contributions. These themes aligned with four dimensions of meaning theorised in the occupational science literature – doing, being, belonging and becoming – with doing and belonging being most evident in our study. Health professionals are encouraged to consider community gardens as places that provide clients with opportunities for enhancing these dimensions of meaning, through engaging in a range of activities, experiencing a sense of belonging and strengthening their identity. By adopting an occupational science lens, these findings provide a new perspective on the importance of engaging in community gardening.
  • Associations of neighbourhood sociodemographic characteristics with
           depressive and anxiety symptoms in older age: Results from a 5-wave study
           over 15 years
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): I. Motoc, E.J. Timmermans, D. Deeg, B.W.J.H. Penninx, M. Huisman We examined the long-term association between objective neighbourhood sociodemographic characteristics (index of socioeconomic position (SEP), average income, percent low-income earners, average house price, percent immigrants and urban density) with depressive and anxiety symptoms, covering five 3-year waves of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (n = 3,772). Multi-level regression models assessed each neighbourhood-level characteristic separately, adjusting for individual-level covariates. A higher percentage of immigrants and higher urban density, but not other neighbourhood characteristics, were significantly associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms over time in models adjusted for individual SEP. Results of time interaction models indicated that the associations were stable over the 15-year period.
  • A comparative analysis of the impacts of objective versus subjective
           neighborhood environment on physical, mental, and social health
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Lin Zhang, Suhong Zhou, Mei-Po Kwan Research on the relationship between neighborhood context and health outcome has attracted notable attention. However, few studies examine and compare the associations between the objective and subjective neighborhood environment and different dimensions of health. To this end, high-resolution remote sensing images and points-of-interest (POIs) data collected in Guangzhou, China, are used together with questionnaire survey data to measure the objective and subjective characteristics of the neighborhood environment. The sample includes 1029 adults selected from 34 communities in Guangzhou, China. Hierarchical linear modeling is then employed to analyze the associations between the objective and subjective neighborhood environment and three dimensions of health (physical health, mental health, and social health), as well as compare the relative strengths of and moderating mechanisms between these associations. The results indicate that significant variations in health outcomes are observed among neighborhoods, which can be explained by both personal attributes and the neighborhood environment. Although objective and subjective measures of the neighborhood environment are both linked to the three dimensions of health, physical health and social health are influenced more by objective measures, while mental health is affected more by subjective measures. Further, subjective measures have positive moderating effects on the relationship between objective measures and mental health but do not have significant moderating effects on the relationships between objective measures and physical and social health.
  • Using street view data and machine learning to assess how perception of
           neighborhood safety influences urban residents’ mental health
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Ruoyu Wang, Yuan Yuan, Ye Liu, Jinbao Zhang, Penghua Liu, Yi Lu, Yao Yao Previous studies have shown that perceptions of neighborhood safety are associated with various mental health outcomes. However, scant attention has been paid to the mediating pathways by which perception of neighborhood safety affects mental health. In addition, most previous studies have evaluated perception of neighborhood safety with questionnaires or field audits, both of which are labor-intensive and time-consuming. This study is the first attempt to measure perception of neighborhood safety using street view data and a machine learning approach. Four potential mediating pathways linking perception of neighborhood safety to mental health were explored for 1029 participants from 35 neighborhoods of Guangzhou, China. The results of multilevel regression models confirm that perception of neighborhood safety is positively associated with mental health. More importantly, physical activity, social cohesion, stress and life satisfaction mediate this relationship. The results of a moderation analysis suggest that the beneficial effects of physical activity and social cohesion on mental health are strengthened by a perception of neighborhood safety. Our findings suggest the need to increase residents’ perception of neighborhood safety to maintain mental health in urban areas of China.
  • Finite mixture models in neighbourhoods-to-health research: A systematic
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Peter Lekkas, Ivana Stankov, Mark Daniel, Catherine Paquet A systematic review was conducted, following PRISMA guidelines, to examine the application of finite mixture models (FMMs) in the study of neighbourhoods and health. Two reviewers screened 814-studies identified through database searches and citation tracking. Data were extracted from 19-studies that met the inclusion criteria, and a risk of bias analysis undertaken. Data were synthesised narratively, with a focus on methodological issues idiosyncratic to FMMs. Motivated by a desire to account for neighbourhood heterogeneity, studies sought to identify meaningful neighbourhood-level typologies that explained the distributional nature of health outcomes. Neighbourhood-centred applications of FMMs were promising but there remains scope for advancement. Research-based recommendations are outlined to strengthen prospective neighbourhood-centred studies applying FMMs.
  • From risky places to safe spaces: Re-assembling spaces and places in
           Vancouver's Downtown Eastside
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Andrew Ivsins, Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users, Cecilia Benoit, Karen Kobayashi, Susan Boyd Vancouver's Downtown Eastside (DTES) neighbourhood is commonly associated with stigmatized and criminalized activities and attendant risks and harms. Many spaces/places in this urban neighbourhood are customarily portrayed and experienced as risky and harmful, and are implicated in experiences of structural (and physical) violence and marginalization. Drawing on 50 qualitative interviews, this paper explores how spaces/places frequently used by structurally vulnerable people who use drugs (PWUD) in the DTES that are commonly associated with risk and harm (e.g., alleyways, parks) can be re-imagined and re-constructed as enabling safety and wellbeing. Study participants recounted both negative and positive experiences with particular spaces/places, suggesting the possibility of making these locations less risky and safer. Our findings demonstrate how spaces/places used by PWUD in this particular geographical context can be understood as assemblages, a variety of human and nonhuman forces – such as material objects, actors, processes, affect, temporal elements, policies and practices – drawn together in unique ways that produce certain effects (risk/harm or safety/wellbeing). Conceptualizing these spaces/places as assemblages provides a means to better understand how experiences of harm, or conversely wellbeing, unfold, and sheds light on how risky spaces/places can be re-assembled as spaces/places that enable safety and wellbeing.
  • Activity spaces in place and health research: Novel exposure measures,
           data collection tools, and designs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2019Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Camille Perchoux, Basile Chaix, Yan Kestens Activity space research provides a framework to consider mobility while linking environments to behaviors in the study of neighborhood effects on health. Increased use of wearable location sensors provides new opportunities to observe and analyze fine-grained spatial and temporal information on individuals' mobility patterns, environmental exposures and behaviors; however, these analysis does not easily translate into causal inference. Additional dimensions underlying behavioral decision-making likely influence or even modify environmental effects on behaviors. This commentary discusses how further progresses in exposure measurement, integration of data collection tools, and development of study designs could support future interventions to optimize how environments shape health profiles and inequities.
  • The future of activity space and health research
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2019Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Daniel Fuller, Kevin G. Stanley We discuss the future of activity space and health research in the context of a recently published systematic review. Our discussion outlines a number of elements for reflection among the research community. We need to think beyond activity space and reconceptualize exposure in era of high volume, high precision location data. We need to develop standardized methods for understanding global positioning system data. We must adopt replicable scientific computing processes and machine learning models. Finally, we must embrace modern notions of causality in order to contend with the conceptual challenges faced by our research field.
  • “Clear action requires clear thinking”: A systematic review of
           gentrification and health research in the United States
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Melody Esther Tulier, Carolina Reid, Mahasin S. Mujahid, Amani M. Allen :Gentrification is a process in which formerly declining, under-resourced, neighborhoods experience reinvestment and in-migration of increasingly affluent new residents, with understudied implications for individual health and health-protective community resources for low-income and minority residents. Increased attention on urban health inequities have propelled research on the relationship between gentrification and health. Yet, there are significant challenges inherent in the study of gentrification given its non-linear process occurring at multiple levels and via various mechanisms in a complex web of urban systems. How then have empirical studies addressed questions regarding the relationship between gentrification and health and wellness from a conceptual and methodological standpoint' Applying key search terms to PubMed and Web of Science, we identified 546 papers published in the United States. This review is guided by three foundational premises informing the inclusion and exclusion of articles. These include: 1. a clear definition of gentrification and explicit health outcome; 2. identification of a specific geographic context (United States) in which gentrification occurs, and 3. use of a social determinants of health framework to identify potential health outcomes of interest. 17 papers met our inclusion criteria. Through systematic content analysis using MaxQDA software, we evaluated the included studies using three critical frames: 1. conceptualization of gentrification; 2. mechanisms linking gentrification and health; and 3. spatio-temporal considerations. Based on this analysis, we identify the strengths and limitations of existing research, and offer three methodological approaches to strengthen the current literature on gentrification and health. We recommend that future studies: 1. explicitly identify the mechanisms and levels at which processes can occur and systems are organized; 2. incorporate space and time into the analytical strategy and 3. articulate an epistemological standpoint driven by their conceptualization of the exposure and identification of the relevant mechanism and outcome of interest.
  • Acute exposure to violent neighborhood crime and depressive symptoms among
           older individuals in Colombia
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Philipp Hessel, María Alejandra Martínez Botero, Jorge Cuartas To assess the association between acute exposure to neighborhood violent crimes and depression we combined representative, individual-level and geo-coded data for individuals aged 60 years and above living in four major cities in Colombia from the 2010 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) with objective information on the timing and location of violent crimes. Exploiting spatial and temporal variation in the occurrence of crimes we find that being acutely exposed to a violent crime is positively associated with the number of depressive symptoms.
  • Tobacco outlet density, neighbourhood stressors and smoking prevalence in
           Toronto, Canada
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 58Author(s): Maritt Kirst, Michael Chaiton, Patricia O'Campo A growing body of research has shown that neighbourhood-level factors, such as the density of retail outlets selling tobacco and neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage affect smoking prevalence, with high levels of outlet density and neighbourhood disadvantage related to higher smoking prevalence.However, few studies have considered the role of other neighbourhood processes like stressors including perceived neighbourhood disorder in these effects. The present study examined the effects of tobacco outlet density, neighbourhood income and perceived neighbourhood disorder on smoking prevalence among a representative sample of 2,412 adult neighbourhood residents in a large urban centre in Canada. Tobacco outlet density and perceived neighbourhood disorder were significantly associated with smoking in an unadjusted multilevel model, but only perceived neighbourhood disorder remained significant in a model adjusting for other confounders. Findings suggest the need for community-based interventions to address the relationship between neighbourhood disorder and smoking, as well as more research on the combined role of tobacco availability and neighbourhood stressors, beyond neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage, on smoking behaviour.
  • The greener the better' Does neighborhood greenness buffer the effects
           of stressful life events on externalizing behavior in late
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 58Author(s): Joyce Weeland, Odilia M. Laceulle, Esther Nederhof, Geertjan Overbeek, Seijmen A. Reijneveld We tested whether neighborhood greenness is a promotive and/or a protective factor in the development of adolescent externalizing behavior problems and explored a possible mechanism of its effects via respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) recovery after stress. Data from a longitudinal multi-method study on adolescents (N = 715) was used. Result showed that neighborhood greenness was neither a promotive nor a protective factor. However, adolescents who reported more stressful life events showed more externalizing behavior and –contrary to our expectation− this effect was stronger for adolescents who grew up in greener neighborhoods (vs. less green neighborhoods).
  • “Surface acquaintances”: Parents’ experiences of social
           connectedness and social capital in Australian high-rise developments
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 58Author(s): Elyse Warner, Fiona J. Andrews Increasing numbers of families in Australian cities are raising their children in private, high-rise, housing. However, with developments often designed for singles and couples without children, there is a need to better understand the lived experiences of families in these settings. This paper draws on photo-narratives from ten parents of pre-school children aged five and under residing in newer, high-rise developments in Melbourne to explore their experiences of social connectedness and capital. Findings showed that parents' social connections were often hindered by physical and social barriers, including the design of developments and space within apartments; the transient nature of other residents; and the need to maintain a level of distance from neighbours given close proximity. However, parents felt social connectedness was enabled through organised groups and activities, and the shared experience of raising a child in the area. Based on parents’ experiences, this paper makes suggestions to improve social connectedness, foster social capital and enhance wellbeing among the increasing number of families living in high-rise developments.
  • Neighbourhood-level air pollution and greenspace and inflammation in
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 58Author(s): Emily Midouhas, Theodora Kokosi, Eirini Flouri Inflammation has been proposed as a pathway from adverse physical environments to poor physical and mental health. We estimated longitudinal associations of neighbourhood-level air pollution and greenspace with individual-level inflammation (measured with C-reactive protein and fibrinogen), using data from over 8000 adults living in England and Wales who participated in Understanding Society. Using linear regression, we found that neighbourhood-level nitrogen dioxide predicted later levels of fibrinogen, but not C-reactive protein. Area air pollution, but not area greenery, appears to predict inflammation, even after accounting for social deprivation in the area.
  • Growing old in New Towns: A call for research on health and ageing in
           planned urban environments
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 58Author(s): Sarah Milton, Alex Mold, Anthea Tinker, Clare Herrick This paper focuses on the planning of New Towns in the UK in order to explore what the design and planning of urban spaces can tell us about which populations and their health matter and are prioritized, at different points in time. We concentrate on how ageing was conceptualized, and what this tells us about how ageing societies and bodies are accounted for and understood. Through the dynamic evolution of people and place, we can also come to see that what was once viewed as health promoting can become entangled with the causes of ill health. We recommend further multidisciplinary research into the planning of future cities and urban environments.
  • Title: Can changing the physical environment promote walking and
           cycling' A systematic review of what works and how
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 58Author(s): Jenna Panter, Cornelia Guell, David Humphreys, David Ogilvie Environmental changes aimed at encouraging walking or cycling may promote activity and improve health, but evidence suggests small or inconsistent effects in practice. Understanding how an intervention works might help explain the effects observed and provide guidance about generalisability. We therefore aimed to review the literature on the effects of this type of intervention and to understand how and why these may or may not be effective. We searched eight electronic databases for existing systematic reviews and mined these for evaluative studies of physical environmental changes and assessed changes in walking, cycling or physical activity. We then searched for related sources including quantitative or qualitative studies, policy documents or reports. We extracted information on the evidence for effects (‘estimation’), contexts and mechanisms (‘explanation’) and assessed credibility, and synthesised material narratively. We identified 13 evaluations of interventions specifically targeting walking and cycling and used 46 related sources. 70% (n = 9 evaluations) scored 3 or less on the credibility criteria for effectiveness. 6 reported significant positive effects, but higher quality evaluations were more likely to report positive effects. Only two studies provided rich evidence of mechanisms. We identified three common resources that interventions provide to promote walking and cycling: (i) improving accessibility and connectivity; (ii) improving traffic and personal safety; and (iii) improving the experience of walking and cycling. The most effective interventions appeared to target accessibility and safety in both supportive and unsupportive contexts. Although the evidence base was relatively limited, we were able to understand the role of context in the success of interventions. Researchers and policy makers should consider the context and mechanisms which might operate before evaluating and implementing interventions.
  • Care farming: Rehabilitation or punishment' A qualitative exploration
           of the use of care farming within community orders
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 58Author(s): Jenni Murray, Joyce F. Coker, Helen Elsey
  • “Leaning in” and “leaning back”: Exploring the spatiality of
           telephone counselling
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 58Author(s): Danielle Davidson, Gai Harrison This paper explores telephone counsellors' experiences of the spatial dimensions of their work. Henri Lefebvre's spatial triad is applied to explore how counsellors conceive, perceive, and experience the spaces and places of this work. Three key findings are outlined: 1) the purpose built telephone counselling space is experienced as noisy and distracting; 2) counsellors engage in spatial practices to manage their depth of caller interaction; and 3) counsellors construct a mental place to foster intimacy with callers. These findings contribute to a novel conceptualisation of telephone counselling, raising implications for how it is performed and understood.
  • The indelible weight of place: Childhood neighborhood disadvantage, timing
           of exposure, and obesity across adulthood
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 58Author(s): Steven Elías Alvarado I use 28 (1986–2014) years of restricted geocoded NLSY tract-level data and find positive associations between exposure to childhood neighborhood disadvantage and adult obesity and BMI among individuals growing up and entering adulthood during the rise of obesity in the United States. Sibling fixed effects and cousin fixed effects models partially address unobserved confounding nested in the nuclear as well as extended family. Furthermore, exposure to neighborhood disadvantage in adolescence is most salient, providing insight into when policy intervention may be most effective. Results are robust to alternative specifications for neighborhood disadvantage, ages of exposure, and to alternative sampling strategies.
  • Natural environments and craving: The mediating role of negative affect
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 58Author(s): Leanne Martin, Sabine Pahl, Mathew P. White, Jon May This paper presents a novel investigation of a conceptual model, proposing that increased nature exposure may be associated with lower cravings, through reductions in negative affect. A cross-sectional online survey (N = 149) provided an initial exploration of the relationships between various aspects of nature exposure, craving and negative affect. Access to gardens/allotments and residential views incorporating more than 25% greenspace were both associated with reductions in the strength and frequency of cravings. These associations were mediated, to varying degrees, by reductions in negative affect. This novel link could have implications for public health and environmental protection programmes.
  • Men's perceptions of women's reproductive health in South Sudan
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 58Author(s): Paul Mkandawire, Katie MacPherson, Kon Madut, Odwa D. Atari, Andrea Rishworth, Isaac Luginaah This paper draws on a qualitative study (n = 52) and applies a political ecology of health framework to examine men's perceptions of women's reproductive health in South Sudan. The findings suggest that political practices of place making configure men's views of women's reproductive roles in this new nation state. In particular, masculinity intertwines with fears of losing traditional culture, and with lingering concerns about sovereignty to underpin men's deep aversion to modern family planning methods. In addition, the use of tribal militia to control territory and leverage political power places women's reproduction at the centre of South Sudan's post-secession politics. Improving health in such a fragile environment may require more than rebuilding the health infrastructure and guaranteeing financial access to health care.
  • The influence of environmental and health indicators on premature
           mortality: An empirical analysis of the City of Toronto's 140
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 58Author(s): Luckrezia Awuor, Stephanie Melles The objective of this paper was to assess the link between premature mortality and a combination of neighbourhood contextual (environmental and health) and compositional (socioeconomic and demographic) characteristics. We statistically and spatially examined six environmental variables (ultrafine particles, carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic pollutants, pollution released to air, tree cover, and walkability index), six health service indicators (number health providers, breast, colorectal and cervical cancer screening uptake rates, student nutrition program uptake rates, and healthy food index), and eight socioeconomic indicators (total income, Gini coefficient, two age categories – below and above 40 years, proportion of females to males, visible minorities, Indigenous peoples, education, less than grade 9) among 140 neighbourhoods of the City of Toronto in Ontario (Canada). We applied principal component analysis to identify patterns and to reduce the number of explanatory variables into combined component axes that represent unique variation in these confounded and overlapping factors. We then applied regression analysis to model the relationship between the indices of enviro-health and socioeconomics and their potential relationship with premature mortality. Residual spatial analysis was used to investigate any remaining spatial structure (such as neighbourhoods with higher residual premature mortality rates). Neighbourhood Equity Index was correlated with our enviro-health and socioeconomic indices. Premature mortality within neighbourhoods was predicted by poor cancer screenings, pollution, lack of tree canopy, increased uptake of student nutrition programs and high walkability index. A negative association between premature mortality and pollution was associated low walkability index and presence of visible minorities within neighbourhoods. There was some unexplained residual spatial variation in our model of premature mortality - especially along the shores of Lake Ontario and in neighbourhoods with major highways or road corridors: premature mortality in Toronto neighbourhoods was higher than expected along highway-corridor neighbourhoods and shorelines. Our analysis revealed a significant relationship between neighbourhood contextual features – both environmental and health – and premature mortality, suggesting that these contextual components of neighbourhoods can predict rates of urban premature mortality in Toronto.
  • Residential self-selection, perceived built environment and type 2
           diabetes incidence: A longitudinal analysis of 36,224 middle to older age
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 58Author(s): Tashi Dendup, Thomas Astell-Burt, Xiaoqi Feng Much of the existing studies on the built environment and type 2 diabetes are cross-sectional and prone to residential self-selection bias. Using multilevel logistic regression analysis of 36,224 participants from a longitudinal study, we examined whether perceived built environment characteristics are associated with type 2 diabetes. We found that the odds of diabetes incidence varied geographically. Those who reported that there were no local amenities and reported day- and night-time crime rates made walking unsafe in the neighbourhood had higher odds of developing incident type 2 diabetes. These associations persisted after accounting for some predictors of residential self-selection. More longitudinal studies are needed to corroborate the findings. Changing the features of the residential built environment may be an important point of intervention for type 2 diabetes prevention.
  • New physical activity spaces in deprived neighborhoods: Does it change
           outdoor play and sedentary behavior' A natural experiment
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 58Author(s): Famke J.M. Mölenberg, J.Mark Noordzij, Alex Burdorf, Frank J. van Lenthe BackgroundWe used the introduction of dedicated physical activity (PA) spaces in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, to study the impact of reducing distance to dedicated PA spaces on outdoor play and sedentary behavior, and to evaluate if these effects were similar between population subgroups.MethodsWe included 1841 Dutch children from the Generation R Study who participated at two subsequent measurement waves when the children were, on average, 6.0 and 9.7 years old. None of these children lived within 600 m of a dedicated PA space at baseline, and during follow-up 171 children became exposed to 13 new PA spaces within 600 m from home. Individual-level fixed-effects models were used to evaluate changes in distances (determined by Geographical Information Systems (GIS)) from home to the nearest new dedicated PA space, to parent-reported outdoor play and sedentary behavior.ResultsThe introduction of a dedicated PA space within 600 m from home, and the reduction of the distance per 100 m, did not affect outdoor play or sedentary behaviors. At p 
  • Long-term neighborhood ethnic composition and weight-related outcomes
           among immigrants: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 58Author(s): Félice Lê-Scherban, Sandra S. Albrecht, Theresa L. Osypuk, Brisa N. Sánchez, Ana V. Diez Roux Weight among immigrants in the United States (US) is lower than among the US-born on average, but higher among long-term immigrants than the newly arrived. Neighborhood coethnic concentration—the proportion of neighborhood residents of the same ethnic background—may influence weight among immigrants via behavioral norms and market-driven community resources. However, the relevant exposure timeframe may be far longer than is captured by existing cross-sectional and short-term studies. Using detailed historical residential address information on 1449 older Latino and Chinese long-term immigrants, we investigated associations of 10–20-year neighborhood coethnic concentration trajectories with current waist circumference and weight-related behaviors (diet, physical activity, and sedentary time). Among Chinese participants, compared to persistent low coethnic concentration, increasing coethnic concentration was associated with higher waist circumference (difference = 1.45 cm [0.51, 2.39]). In contrast, both increasing coethnic concentration and persistent high coethnic concentration were associated with a healthier diet. Among Latino participants, trajectories characterized by higher coethnic concentration were associated with higher waist circumference (e.g., difference = 2.11 cm [0.31, 3.91] for persistent high vs. persistent low) and low physical activity. Long-term patterns of neighborhood coethnic concentration may affect weight-related outcomes among immigrants in complex ways that differ by ethnicity and outcome.
  • Precariously placed: Home, housing and wellbeing for older renters
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 58Author(s): Laura Bates, Janine Wiles, Robin Kearns, Tara Coleman Older renters may encounter a wide range of challenges and constraints in their experiences of ageing, housing and community life that influence their wellbeing. We employ a two-part conceptualisation of precarity and resilience to investigate how housing-related precarities may impact upon experiences of ageing and home during later life. We draw on narratives collected through in-depth interviews with 13 older renters living in a particularly high-pressure housing market within the greater Auckland area. We ground our analysis in ideas of precarity and resilience evident in participants' experiences of being ‘at home’ at the scale of both the dwelling and wider community. Results show that experiences of renting and ageing can be complicated and compromised in diverse ways by interrelated aspects of precarity and resilience related to housing, community, health, financial and personal circumstances. Distance or isolation from services and healthcare, tourism-related infrastructural pressures, and community changes can intensify precarious experiences of home, and can have implications for older people's wellbeing, as well as their ongoing opportunities to age well in place. In addition to these potential precarities, older renters appear to draw strength from their familiarity with, attachment to, and enjoyment of, place and community. These responses demonstrate older renters' capacity for resilience to challenge and adversity when ageing in rented places.
  • The role of the physical environment in adolescent mental health
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 58Author(s): Marie A.E. Mueller, Eirini Flouri, Theodora Kokosi The existing literature suggests an association between the physical environment and mental health but also complex relationships between the social and the physical environment as well as between objective and subjective measures of the environment. In this study, we attempted to explore the role of the residential neighbourhood's physical environment in adolescent mental health, taking this complexity into account. Using data on 3683 ten- to 15-year-olds from England and Wales who participated in Understanding Society, we investigated the role of neighbourhood greenspace and air pollution in adolescent mental health (measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) while controlling for measures of neighbourhood and family socio-economic disadvantage as well as subjective perceptions of social cohesion, crime, safety, and noise in the neighbourhood. In linear regression models, greenspace and air pollution could not predict mental health. However, fear of being a victim of crime was a consistent predictor of mental health and behaviour, indicating the essential role of young people's subjective experience of their neighbourhoods for their mental health and well-being.
  • Hukou system, mechanisms, and health stratification across the life course
           in rural and urban China
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 58Author(s): Qian Song, James P. Smith The literature on rural-urban health disparities have mostly focused on de facto rural/urban differences, and its intersections with de jure rural-urban divide are less understood. This research provides a comprehensive investigation of how the intersection of rural\urban residence and rural\urban household registration (hukou) status is associated with a range of health outcomes in later life. We investigate major mechanisms in accounting for these health disparities across the life span. Results show that rural hukouers in rural areas were exposed to highest level of hardships and adversities throughout life and are disadvantaged in a variety of health measures. In urban areas, those who have obtained urban hukou are better off than rural hukouers in psychological well-being but have higher risks of diabetes. These differences are mainly explained by disparities in socioeconomic status between the two groups. We discuss these results in a life course perspective and in the context of China's unique social, economic, and political settings.
  • Neighborhood social and economic change and diabetes incidence: The
           HeartHealthyHoods study
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 58Author(s): Usama Bilal, Thomas A. Glass, Isabel del Cura-Gonzalez, Luis Sanchez-Perruca, David D. Celentano, Manuel Franco We studied the association between neighborhood social and economic change and type 2 diabetes incidence in the city of Madrid (Spain). We followed 199,621 individuals living in 393 census tracts for diabetes incidence for 6 years using electronic health records, starting in 2009. We measured neighborhood social and economic change from 2005 to 2009 using a finite mixture model with 16 indicators that resulted in four types of neighborhood change. Adjusted results showed an association between neighborhood change and diabetes incidence: compared to those living in Aging/Stable areas, people living in Declining SES, New Housing and Improving SES areas have an 8% (HR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.87 to 0.99), 9% (HR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.01) and 11% (HR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.98) decrease in diabetes incidence. This evidence can help guide policies for diabetes prevention by focusing efforts on specific urban areas.
  • Creating a dementia-friendly environment through the use of outdoor
           natural landscape design intervention in long-term care facilities: A
           narrative review
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 58Author(s): Parinaz Motealleh, Wendy Moyle, Cindy Jones, Karine Dupre There is an increasing volume of literature on the positive effects of outdoor natural landscapes on health and well-being. However, to date, there is a paucity of research on the effect of outdoor natural landscapes designed for people with dementia living in long-term care (LTC) facilities, in particular, those which have incorporated the characteristics of a dementia-friendly environment (DFE). This narrative literature review synthesizes current knowledge on the effect of outdoor natural landscape design, which is aligned with the characteristics of a DFE, to improve agitation, apathy and engagement of people with dementia living in LTC facilities. The reviewed studies predominantly support the positive effects of outdoor natural landscapes on agitation, apathy and engagement of people with dementia. However, there are concerns about the methodological approaches, principles incorporated in the applied outdoor natural landscapes' designs, and the environmental assessment. Further rigorous research is required to understand the impact of the outdoor natural landscapes, with the application of DFE characteristics in the design, on agitation, apathy and engagement of people with dementia living in LTC facilities.
  • Using decision trees to understand the influence of individual- and
           neighborhood-level factors on urban diabetes and asthma
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 58Author(s): Hillary A. Cuesta, Donna L. Coffman, Charles Branas, Heather M. Murphy ObjectiveTo determine the influence of individual and neighborhood factors that combined are associated with asthma and diabetes in a sample of urban Philadelphians using data mining, a novel technique in public health research.MethodsWe obtained secondary data collected between May 2011 and November 2014 on individual's health and perception of neighborhood characteristics (N = 450) and Philadelphia LandCare Program data that provided relevant environmental data for the analysis (N = 676). RapidMiner open access data mining software was used to perform decision tree analyses.ResultsIndividual- and neighborhood-level environmental factors were intricately related in the decision tree models, having varying influence on the outcomes of asthma and diabetes. The decision trees had high specificity (95–100) and classified factors that were associated with an absence of disease (diabetes/asthma).ConclusionImproved neighborhood-level conditions related to social and physical disorder were consistently found to be associated with an absence of both asthma and diabetes in this urban population.Policy implicationsThis study illustrates the potential utility of applying data mining techniques for understanding complex public health issues.
  • “Don't smoke in public, you look like trash”: An exploratory study
           about women's experiences of smoking-related stigmatisation and the
           connection to neighbourhood-level deprivation
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 58Author(s): Geneviève McCready, Nicole M. Glenn, Katherine L. Frohlich In this exploratory qualitative study we used Goffman's theory of stigmatisation to examine how women experience smoking-related stigma in relation to neighbourhood-level deprivation. From an existing cohort, we recruited fifteen women who smoked. We found differences in the women's experiences and abilities to negotiate and avoid a stigmatised smoking identity based on neighbourhood-level deprivation. Women in high-deprivation neighbourhoods described limited access to such places and this restricted their abilities to ‘pass’ as non- or not-quite-smokers and avoid smoking-related stigmatisation. We discuss the implications of the findings in relation to social-spatial inequalities in health and public health policy.
  • The influence of alcohol outlet density and advertising on youth drinking
           in urban Tanzania
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 58Author(s): Mobolaji Ibitoye, Sylvia Kaaya, Richard Parker, Samuel Likindikoki, Leonida Ngongi, Marni Sommer Despite the detrimental effects of alcohol on adolescent health, high rates of alcohol use are reported among Tanzanian youth. We conducted systematic community mapping and participatory group activities with 177 adolescents in Dar es Salaam to explore how alcohol outlet density and advertising may contribute to adolescent drinking in urban Tanzania. Findings revealed a high density of alcohol-selling outlets and outdoor advertisements. The abundance of alcohol-related cues, including their close proximity to places where youth congregate, may facilitate and increase adolescent alcohol use in Tanzania. Participants recommended several changes to the alcohol environment to reduce adolescent drinking. Structural interventions that reduce adolescents' access and exposure to alcohol are needed in Tanzania.
  • A simple multilevel approach for analysing geographical inequalities in
           public health reports: The case of municipality differences in obesity
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 58Author(s): Juan Merlo, Philippe Wagner, George Leckie The epidemiological analysis of geographical inequalities in individual outcomes is a fundamental theme in public health research. However, many traditional studies focus on analysing area differences in averages outcomes, disregarding individual variation around such averages. In doing so, these studies may produce misleading information and lead researchers to draw incorrect conclusions. Analysing individual and municipality differences in body mass index (BMI) and overweight/obesity status, we apply an analytical approach based on the multilevel analysis of individual heterogeneity and discriminatory accuracy (MAIHDA). This analytical approach may be viewed as a reorganization of existing multilevel modelling concepts in order to provide a systematic approach to simultaneously considering both differences between area averages and individual heterogeneity around those averages. In doing so, MAIHDA provides an improved approach to the quantification and understanding of geographical inequalities as compared with traditional approaches.
  • Neighbourhood built environment and physical function among mid-to-older
           aged adults: A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 58Author(s): Jerome N. Rachele, Takemi Sugiyama, Sasha Davies, Venurs H.Y. Loh, Gavin Turrell, Alison Carver, Ester Cerin This systematic review included 23 quantitative studies that estimated associations between aspects of the neighbourhood built environment and physical function among adults aged ≥45 years. Findings were analysed according to nine aspects of the neighbourhood built environment: walkability, residential density, street connectivity, land use mix, public transport, pedestrian infrastructure, aesthetics, safety and traffic. Evidence was found for a positive association of pedestrian infrastructure and aesthetics with physical function, while weaker evidence was found for land use mix, and safety from crime and traffic. There was an insufficient number of studies for walkability, residential density, street connectivity and access to public transport.
  • Relative deprivation of assets defined at multiple geographic scales,
           perceived stress and self-rated health in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 58Author(s): Yosuke Inoue, Annie Green Howard, Aki Yazawa, Naoki Kondo, Penny Gordon-Larsen Relative deprivation (RD) may increase psychosocial stress, which could result in poor health. We examined the associations between asset-based RD indicators, defined at multiple geographic scales (i.e., within community; within area (urban/rural) of a province; within province; and across country), and self-rated health in China. A generalized structural equation model was used to estimate both the direct association between RD and self-related health and the indirect association through psychological stress measures. Results showed that higher RD was associated with the higher odds of reporting poor or very poor health, both directly and indirectly through psychological stress. This association was observed irrespective of the geographic scale at which reference groups were defined.
  • Neighborhood environment and cognitive function in older adults: A
           multilevel analysis in Hong Kong
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 58Author(s): Yingqi Guo, Chee Hon Chan, Qingsong Chang, Tianyin Liu, Paul S.F. Yip In considering the influence of the neighborhood environment on cognitive function, little research has looked beyond the individual factors. Here, we conducted a study on 21,008 older adults aged 65 years and above in Hong Kong to examine the cross-sectional associations of neighborhood economic disadvantage, recreational resources, walkability, library accessibility and physical activities on cognitive function and dementia. Both smaller and larger census tracts were adopted as proxies for neighborhoods. Using multilevel regression, neighborhood economic disadvantage was found to be associated with cognitive decline, net of individual features. This association was not explained by neighborhood built environment. Recreational environment was not a significant factor for older adults' cognitive function while library accessibility was. Neighborhood walkability was only related to dementia but not the cognitive function score. Physical activity can partly explain the relationship between neighborhood environment and cognitive function. No significant interaction effect was identified except on the educational level and neighborhood library accessibility. To conclude, late life residential environments are important contexts for aging. Aging-in-place interventions in Hong Kong should thus address neighborhood poverty, improve accessibility of libraries and walkability to reduce future risks of cognitive decline.
  • Where I live: A qualitative analysis of renters living in poor housing
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 58Author(s): Erika Marquez, Carolee Dodge Francis, Shawn Gerstenberger This article examines the lived experiences of 17 renters residing in Clark County, Nevada. Using a phenomenological study design, we used semistructured interviews to investigate how renters navigate living in substandard housing. The qualitative analysis revealed four main themes: (a) housing serves as a mediator with one's sense of well-being and good health, (b) housing insecurity and displacement occur through various pathways, (c) housing quality can lead to a sense of powerlessness over where one lives, and (d) social networks are key in low-opportunity neighborhoods. The findings support numerous studies that connect housing quality and insecurity to health and well-being, but the findings also highlight the mediating factors to limited housing choices such as the landlord and tenant relationship. Studies of this nature are essential in identifying the various pathways by which housing inequities and disparities can occur, particularly among low-income communities.
  • “To me, policy is government”: Creating a locally driven healthy food
           environment in the Canadian Arctic
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 58Author(s): Bonnie Fournier, Kaysi Eastlick Kushner, Kim Raine
  • Smoking in the temple of the holy spirit' Geographic location matters
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 58Author(s): Fanhao Nie, Xiaozhao Yousef Yang Smoking at a young age poses significant risks to one's health and is linked with a wide range of deviant conducts. While prior research has looked into the ways in which individual religious characteristics may influence smoking, much less is known about how the overall religious context in which individuals are embedded may affect smoking during adolescence and early adulthood. In this study, multilevel regression analyses were used on nationally representative panel data to explore this understudied area. The results suggest that when a county has higher population share of conservative Protestants, youth living there are more likely to smoke. A similar robust relationship is also found for county-level mainline Protestant population share and smoking. By simultaneously examining both the individual and contextual religious effects on smoking, this study contributes to a renewed, more comprehensive understanding of an important public health and youth deviance issue.
  • Natural movement: A space syntax theory linking urban form and function
           with walking for transport
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2019Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Koichiro Oka, Neville Owen, Takemi Sugiyama Walking to get to and from local destinations including shops, services, and transit stops is a major source of adults’ health-related physical activity. Research has been using space syntax measures in examining how urban form is related to such routine walking for transport. This paper proposes to apply a theory of space syntax, natural movement, which posits street layout as a primary factor influencing pedestrian movement. Discussing how this theory can link urban form (street layout) and function (land use) with walking for transport, we propose a research agenda to produce new insights and advance methods in active living research.
  • Assessing exposure to food and beverage advertisements surrounding schools
           in Vancouver, BC
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2019Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Cayley E. Velazquez, Madeleine I.G. Daepp, Jennifer L. Black Recent policy initiatives call for restricting food marketing to children, yet little is known about children's current exposure to outdoor advertisements. This paper describes the prevalence and characteristics of food- or beverage-related advertisements surrounding 25 public elementary and secondary schools in Vancouver, Canada and assesses whether the informational food environment differs by neighbourhood or school characteristics. All but four schools had at least one food- or beverage-related advertisement within 400 m (median: 18, range: 0–96) and approximately 90% of food or beverage advertisements were for items not recommended for frequent consumption by provincial school food guidelines. After controlling for commercial density, secondary schools were associated with more outdoor food and beverage advertisements overall in comparison with elementary schools. The presence of an additional limited-service food outlet within 400 m was associated with a 7% increase in the number of overall advertisements (p 
  • Tobacco use in the sexual borderlands: The smoking contexts and practices
           of bisexual young adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2019Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Julia McQuoid, Johannes Thrul, Emily Ozer, Danielle Ramo, Pamela M. Ling Little is known about why bisexual people use tobacco at higher rates than any other sexual identity group. Non-binary sexualities, such as bisexuality, exist within the socially constructed borderland between homosexuality and heterosexuality. Exploration of the everyday smoking contexts and practices of bisexual individuals may reveal unique mechanisms driving tobacco use. We employed a novel mixed method, integrating real-time, smartphone-administered surveys of (non)smoking situations, location tracking, spatial visualization of participant data, and subsequent map-led interviews. Participants (n = 17; ages 18–26, California) identified as bisexual, pansexual, and/or queer. Most were cisgender women. Survey smoking patterns and situational predictors were similar to other young adults’. However, interviews revealed unique roles of tobacco use in participants’ navigation of differently sexualized spaces in everyday life: 1) stepping away from uncomfortable situations related to bisexual identity; 2) facilitating belonging to LGBTQ+ community; and 3) recovering from bisexual identity perception management. Similar studies can examine the place-embedded practices and spatio-temporal patterns of other substance use and other stigmatized identity experiences.
  • Impacts of migration on health and well-being in later life in China:
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2019Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Bo Hou, James Nazroo, James Banks, Alan Marshall Unprecedented internal migration to urban areas has happened in China over the last few decades. While, we know that migration has a bidirectional relationship with health, this relationship has only been studied to a limited extent in China. In particular, the exiting literature has neglected the effects of migration on health and well-being in later life, instead focusing on the relationship between these outcomes over the short term, and also have only focused on temporary rural-to-urban migrants with a rural hukou rather than the broader range of internal migration flows. The hukou system, also known as the Chinese household system, an institutional feature with the power to restrict population mobility and access to local welfare resources.Using an inter-disciplinary approach, drawing on literature from economics, epidemiology and sociology, this paper conceptualises and examines the association between different forms of internal migration and their relationship with later-life health and well-being in China. It then attempts to draw conclusions on likely mechanisms through which migration affects health and well-being, including taking account of the selective nature of migration. To do this, we use the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), a nationally representative and multi-disciplinary dataset that examines the circumstances of the Chinese population aged over 45 years old.The results show that there are strong associations between migration status and later life health and well-being in China, with migrants to or within urban areas report the greatest health. Even after controlling for the selective nature of migration and other post-migration factors, there is still an unexplained, positive and statistically significant association between temporary rural-to-urban migration and depression scores. In addition, there are no differences between rural-to-rural migrants and rural non-migrants across all models. In terms of relevant mechanisms, selection of migrants seems to be particularly important in explaining the health and mental health differences between non-migrants and migrants to or within urban areas. Current socioeconomic circumstances and post-migration adaptation also explain some health differences between migrant groups and non-migrants.
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