Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1473 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (86 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (676 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (384 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (106 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (117 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (676 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
AJOB Empirical Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 260)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences: Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Apuntes Universitarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Suicide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archivos de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health     Open Access  
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 7)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biosalud     Open Access  
Birat Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Boletin Médico de Postgrado     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
British Journal of Health Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Carta Comunitaria     Open Access  
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
CES Salud Pública     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia & Trabajo     Open Access  
Ciencia e Innovación en Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Salud Virtual     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cities & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clinical and Experimental Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clocks & Sleep     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de la Escuela de Salud Pública     Open Access  
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Design for Health     Hybrid Journal  
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Diversity of Research in Health Journal     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drogues, santé et société     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Düzce Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi / Journal of Duzce University Health Sciences Institute     Open Access  
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Estudios sociales : Revista de alimentación contemporánea y desarrollo regional     Open Access  
Ethics & Human Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Eurasian Journal of Health Technology Assessment     Open Access  
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Family & Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare : Finjehew     Open Access  
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Digital Health     Open Access  
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ganesha Journal     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Advances in Health and Medicine     Open Access  
Global Challenges     Open Access  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Reproductive Health     Open Access  
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastane Öncesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
HCU Journal     Open Access  
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Health and Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Equity     Open Access  
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Notions     Open Access  
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
Health Psychology Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Health & Place
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.506
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 16  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1353-8292 - ISSN (Online) 1873-2054
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • Disabled people's embodied and emotional geographies of (not)belonging in
           Aotearoa New Zealand
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2020Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Carey-Ann Morrison, Esther Woodbury, Lynda Johnston, Robyn LonghurstAbstractThis article addresses embodied and emotional geographies of (not)belonging for disabled people in Aotearoa New Zealand. The concept of ‘embodied belonging’ is used to show that bodies, things, place and space intersect in complex ways to produce contradictory feeling of (not)belonging in ‘disability spaces’. Disability spaces can offer a direct challenge to ableism and create feelings of belonging for disabled people. They can also, however, reinforce normative identities and ideologies within and beyond disability spaces. We draw upon qualitative data collected through individual and focus group interviews, and written responses from 12 disabled people and three family members of disabled people to show that disability spaces are not inherently more inclusive of disabled people but rather bodies, things, place and space combine in various ways to produce shifting exclusionary and/or enabling arrangements. A focus on lived, felt and spatial elements of belonging to and in disability spaces can deepen understandings of what it means for disabled people to feel in and out of place.
       
  • Journeying together: A visual exploration of “engagement” as a journey
           in HIV programming and service delivery
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2020Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Sarah Switzer, Sarah Flicker, Alexander McClelland, Soo Chan Carusone, Tatiana B. Ferguson, Neil Herelle, Derek Yee, Adrian Guta, Carol StrikeAbstractThe experiences of people living with, or impacted by HIV, who participate in research and programming are relatively-well documented. However, how stakeholders within the HIV sector understand engagement, or how it functions discursively, is undertheorized. We used a comparative case study design and photovoice to explore engagement in three community-based organizations providing HIV programs or services in Toronto, Canada. We invited stakeholders to photograph their subjective understandings of engagement. We employ a visual and thematic analysis of our findings, by focusing on participants’ use of journey metaphors to discuss engagement within and across sites. Visual metaphors of journey were employed by participants to make sense of their experience, and demonstrated that for many, engagement was a dynamic, affective and relational process. Our findings illustrate how journey may be an apt metaphor to explore the relational, contingent and socio-spatial/political specificities of engagement within and across HIV organizations. We conclude with a discussion on implications for practice.
       
  • Population-level linkages between urban greenspace and health inequality:
           The case for using multiple indicators of neighbourhood greenspace
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2020Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Meghann Mears, Paul Brindley, Anna Jorgensen, Ravi MaheswaranAbstractExposure to greenspace in urban environments is associated with a range of improved health and well-being outcomes. There is a need to understand which aspects of greenspace influence which components of health. We investigate the relationship of indicators of greenspace quantity (total and specific types of greenspace), accessibility and quality with poor general health, depression, and severe mental illness, in the city of Sheffield, UK. We find complex relationships with multiple greenspace indicators that are different for each health measure, highlighting a need for future studies to include multiple, nuanced indicators of neighbourhood greenspace in order to produce results that can inform planning and policy guidance.
       
  • Placing volunteered geographic health information: Socio-spatial bias in
           311 bed bug report data for New York City
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2020Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Sara McLafferty, Daniel Schneider, Kathryn AbeltAbstractHealth researchers and policy-makers increasingly use volunteered geographic information (VGI) to analyze spatial variation in health and wellbeing and to develop interventions. As socially constructed data, health VGI reflect the people who perceive issues and choose to report them, and the digital systems that structure the reporting process. We propose a conceptual framework that describes the interlocking effects of socioeconomic, behavioral, geographic, and technological processes on VGI accuracy and credibility. GIS and statistical methods are used to analyze social and geographical biases in health-related VGI through a case study of bed bug complaint data from New York City's 311 system. Reports of bed bug infestation from 311 are mapped and modeled to uncover associations with socioeconomic and built environment characteristics. Factors associated with bed bug report credibility are examined by comparing characteristics of confirmed reports with those for reports in which inspectors found no evidence of infestation (negative reports). A multilevel model of credibility incorporating report-, building-, and tract-level variables reveals strong geographical and socioeconomic biases, with negative reports generated more frequently from high-value residential buildings located in high-income neighborhoods with predominately white, non-Hispanic populations. Using 311 data for all bed bug reports, rather than confirmed reports, obscures the burden of these pests in high poverty neighborhoods and diminishes socioeconomic disparities. Mistaken reporting also has economic costs, as each report triggers an inspection by city inspectors that entails time, monetary, and opportunity costs.
       
  • “Just because they aren't human doesn't mean they aren't alive”: The
           methodological potential of photovoice to examine human-nature relations
           as a source of resilience and health among urban Indigenous youth
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2020Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Darrien Morton, Kelley Bird-Naytowhow, Tamara Pearl, Andrew R. HatalaAbstractPhotovoice has been widely used as a participatory visual research methodology within the social sciences and health research. Given photovoice's critical and pedagogical potential, its advancement within Indigenous resilience and health research has been particularly prevalent. However, it has largely failed to problematize the concept of ‘voice’ to the extent of theorizing and engaging with the ‘voices’ of other kinds of life with consequences for theory and method. In this paper we re-examine the methodological potential and utility of photovoice methods to include other-than-human ‘voices’ during the empirical study of place-making, human-nature relations, and resilience and health. We analyze photo-narratives from a community-based, participatory research project involving Indigenous youth in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan in order to revisit 1) what we did to produce those images and 2) what we saw and heard in images. Our results suggest that when photovoice methods consider a relational and affective understanding of subjective reality during research practice, they have the capacity to capture and handle other-than-human ‘voices’. Accordingly, we discuss future directions when adapting photovoice methods for the study of environmental repossession and dispossession within contested contexts of and encounters with methodological complexity, uncertainty, and emergence.
       
  • The utility of conceptualisations of place and belonging in workforce
           retention: A proposal for future rural health research
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Christina Malatzky, Catherine Cosgrave, Judy GillespieAbstractThis paper explores the utility of sense of place, place attachment and belonging-in-place for research into rural health workforce retention. One of the key contributors to health disparities between rural and metropolitan-based residents is inadequate staffing of rural health services, and many rural places around the world struggle to retain health professionals. Despite some recognition of the complex array of factors and circumstances impacting rural workforce retention, research focuses primarily on organisational and role-based causes. Health geography and concepts associated with place currently being used in some rural research may offer much to workforce retention research, especially when applied alongside person-centred approaches.
       
  • Loneliness and depression among older European adults: The role of
           perceived neighborhood built environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2019Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Joan Domènech-Abella, Jordi Mundó, Matilde Leonardi, Somnath Chatterji, Beata Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Seppo Koskinen, Jose Luis Ayuso-Mateos, Josep Maria Haro, Beatriz OlayaAbstractDepression and loneliness act in a synergistic way among older adults. We tested two indicators of the perceived neighborhood built environment (BE) as moderators of the association between these conditions in older European adults. Positive perceptions of neighborhood BE were related to lower levels of loneliness but not to major depressive disorder (MDD). Reporting low BE usability was significantly related to a higher likelihood of feeling lonely except for those suffering from MDD, whereas reporting low BE walkability was significantly related with a high likelihood of loneliness particularly among those with MDD. Therefore, improving neighborhood BE and, specifically, its walkability, might result in a reduction in the prevalence of loneliness.
       
  • Beyond landscape's visible realm: Recorded sound, nature, and wellbeing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2019Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Victoria Bates, Clare Hickman, Helen Manchester, Jonathan Prior, Stephanie SingerAbstractThis article draws on an AHRC/EPSRC funded project called ‘A Sense of Place: Exploring nature and wellbeing through the non-visual senses’. The project used sound and smell technologies, as well as material textures and touch, to ask: what does ‘wellbeing’ mean for people in relation to the non-visual aspects of nature, and how might technology play a role in promoting it (if at all)' This article takes recorded sound as a case study. It argues that recorded soundscapes should be understood on their own terms rather than as ‘less than’ or a simulation of natural environments. They have specific value in creating space for imagination, particularly when delivered with care and as part of the co-creation of sensory experience. Overall, the article argues that the value of emerging immersive technologies is not to simulate nature better. An ‘immersive experience’ is richest when it allows for – and reveals – the nuances and complexities of individual responses to natural environments.
       
  • How do perceived changes in inequality affect health'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2019Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Alexi Gugushvili, Aaron Reeves, Ewa JaroszAbstractIndividuals do not possess an entirely accurate assessment of the level of income differences in their society and so changes in quantitative measures of income inequality may not always align with changes in the perceptions of income inequality. This disconnect is partly driven by how people form their opinions about the level of inequality. In this study we explore whether there is an association between perceptions of inequality and health, and if so, how it differs depending on the specific channel through which people formed their opinions about changes in income inequality. Drawing on data from 31 European and Eurasian countries, we find that both men and women are more likely to report bad health when their perceptions of increasing inequality are formed through experiences of inequality in their communities than through media and other channels.
       
  • “I'm a foreigner there”: Landscape, wellbeing and the
           geographies of home
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 December 2019Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Naomi Wood, Daryl MartinAbstractThe experience of migration brings particular challenges for wellbeing, especially as an individual's sense of disconnection from previous homes can persist over many years. This paper reports on how visitors to a Chinese community centre in NW England reflected upon their experiences of being uprooted from their homelands, even in cases where they had lived for more than half of their lives in the UK. Memories of their previous homelands were persistently called upon in understanding their sense of belonging and cultural identities in the present. We use their accounts in dialogue with recent theories of landscape, especially those that argue for an understanding of place as embodied, ambivalent and in a continual process of making and re-making, in order to trace memories of home in contemporary cultures of wellbeing.
       
  • Locating oneself in the past to influence the present: Impacts of
           Neolithic landscapes on mental health well-being
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2019Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Vanessa Heaslip, Mariam Vahdaninia, Martin Hind, Tim Darvill, Yvette Staelens, Daniel O'Donoghue, Laura Drysdale, Sara Lunt, Chris Hogg, Martin Allfrey, Briony Clifton, Toby SutcliffeAbstractThere are well-established links between mental health and the environment. Mental illness is a global issue, and international policies increasingly focus on promoting mental health well-being through community-based approaches, including non-clinical initiatives such as therapeutic landscapes and the use of heritage assets. However, the empirical evidence-base for the impact of such initiatives is limited. This innovative study, known as Human Henge, used a mixed-methods approach to investigate the impact of immersive experiences of prehistoric landscapes on the well-being of participants with mental health issues. Uniquely, the study followed participants for a year after their participation in the project to explore the long-term impact of their experiences on their mental well-being. Findings highlight that, overall, participants experienced improved mental health well-being from baseline to mid- and end-of programme (p = 0.01 & 0.003), as well as one-year post-programme (p = 0.03). Qualitative data indicated the reconnection of participants with local communities, and with other people, in ways that improved their mental health well-being. These data highlight the effectiveness of using heritage as a means of improving the well-being of people with mental health issues.
       
  • Association between telomere length and neighborhood characteristics by
           race and region in US midlife and older adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2019Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Amy D. ThierryAbstractDisadvantaged neighborhoods are correlated with worse health outcomes, particularly among US Blacks. However, less is known about the link between neighborhood characteristics and biomarkers of cellular age, such as telomere length (TL), which may be implicated in racial health inequities. Moreover, this relationship may vary across US region given patterns of racial segregation across the US. Therefore, this study analyzed 2008 Health and Retirement Study data on 3,869 US-born white and Black adults>50 years old to examine race differences in the relationship between salivary TL and (1) neighborhood safety, cleanliness, and social cohesion and (2) interactions between neighborhood characteristics and US region. Neighborhood characteristics were not associated with TL in whites. However, significant associations were found among Blacks with variation by region. Blacks living in less clean neighborhoods in the Northeast (b = −0.03, SE = 0.01, p 
       
  • Evidence for urban design and public health policy and practice: Space
           syntax metrics and neighborhood walking
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2019Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Gavin R. McCormack, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Liam Turley, Tomoki Nakaya, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Akitomo Yasunaga, Koichiro OkaAbstractMost walkability indices do not capture the topological structure of urban forms. Space syntax models these topological relationships. We estimated associations between the space syntax measure of street integration and walkability (SSW) and neighborhood-specific leisure (LW) and transportation (TW) walking among 4422 Canadian adults. Street integration and SSW were found to be positively associated with TW and LW participation in a usual week. A one-unit increase in SSW was associated with a 6-min increase in usual weekly minutes of TW. Street integration and SSW were also positively associated with TW participation in the last week. Higher street integration and walkability conceptualized using space syntax support neighborhood walking.
       
  • Development of a computational modeling laboratory for examining tobacco
           control policies: Tobacco Town
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2019Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Ross A. Hammond, Todd B. Combs, Austen Mack-Crane, Matt Kasman, Amy Sorg, Doneisha Snider, Douglas A. LukeAbstractA key focus of recent policy efforts to curb tobacco product usage has been the role of place—specifically the density of retail and advertising and the resulting spatial pattern of access and exposure for consumers. Policies can alter the environment by reducing density or shifting distribution of tobacco retail and thus limiting access and exposure. Since little empirical evidence exists for the potential impact of these policies across potentially heterogeneous places, we develop and apply an original spatial computational model to simulate place-based retail tobacco control policies. The model is well-grounded in theory and available empirical evidence. We apply the model in four representative settings to demonstrate the utility of this approach as a policy laboratory, to develop general insights on the relationship between retailer density, retail interventions, and tobacco costs incurred by consumers, and to provide a framework to guide future modeling and empirical studies. Our results suggest that the potential impact on costs of reducing tobacco retailer density are highly dependent on context. Projected impacts are also influenced by assumptions made about agent (smoker) purchasing decision-making processes. In the absence of evidence in this area, we tested and compared three alternative decision rules; these interact with environmental properties to produce different results. Agent properties, namely income and cigarettes per day, also shape purchasing patterns before and after policy interventions. We conclude that agent-based modeling in general, and Tobacco Town specifically, hold much potential as a platform for testing and comparing the impact of various retail-based tobacco policies across different communities. Initial modeling efforts uncover important gaps in both data and theory and can provide guidance for new empirical studies in tobacco control.
       
  • An ambivalent atmosphere: Employment training programs and mental health
           recovery
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 December 2019Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Monica Perski, Robert Wilton, Josh EvansAbstractThis article critically examines the role of employment training programs in the personal recovery of adults living with mental illness in community settings. Using Cameron Duff’s (2014) notion of ‘assemblages of recovery,’ we explore how, and to what extent, employment training programs provide the supportive resources linked to personal recovery. Using an ethnographic case study, we describe the ambivalent atmospheres associated with one program. This ambivalence expresses the fundamental tension between the genuine aspirations of personal recovery and the realities of the capitalist labor process.
       
  • Smoking in apartment buildings – Spatiality, meanings and
           understandings
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 December 2019Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Nicola Willand, Megan NethercoteAbstractIncreased higher density urban living may exacerbate exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.Using a social practices lens, this research explored the locations, experiences and governance of smoking in apartment buildings in Melbourne, Australia, through semi-structured interviews in high-rise buildings ranging from subsidised housing to luxury apartments. Tacit rules on acceptable locations, building rules and smoke alarms in public areas consigned smoking to balconies and building entrances. The perceived health threat from second hand smoke and mental stress due to invasion of olfactory and visual privacy undermined the full enjoyment of the home environment. Interventions may benefit from targeting the link between smoking and balconies.
       
  • Restricting alcohol outlet density through cumulative impact provisions in
           planning law: Challenges and opportunities for local governments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2019Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Claire Wilkinson, Sarah MacLean, Robin RoomAbstractIntroductionThere is international interest in how to limit growth in alcohol availability in areas of high outlet density in order to reduce alcohol-related harms. Town planning legislation in Victoria, Australia, allows local government officers to refuse planning permits for new licensed premises on ‘cumulative impact’ grounds (impacts from existing alcohol outlet density). State guidelines (PN61) outline how local government planners should approach cumulative impact assessments. This paper explores officers' views and experience assessing cumulative impact in order to understand whether the legislation assists officers limit alcohol availability in areas of high outlet density.MethodsInterviews with 22 officers from 11 local governments who were recruited with purposive sampling to reflect a range of licensing environments. Interview transcripts were analysed inductively, and content categorized accordingly.FindingsOfficers challenged the definition and relevance of the alcohol outlet density threshold provided in state guidelines. They faced problems securing relevant amenity data for assessing cumulative impact and pointed to the guidelines’ inadequacy for assessing off-premise licences. They pointed to the limits of cumulative impact assessments as a tool for planning and were unconvinced they would lead to reductions in permits granted.ConclusionsA single state-wide density threshold to guide cumulative impact assessments is unlikely to be a relevant measure for several local governments. A greater orientation towards municipal variation and alcohol outlet characteristics is needed. Further research is needed to investigate whether cumulative impact assessments increase restrictions on liquor licence planning permits and whether the adoption of local planning policies strengthens restrictive permit decision-making. International implications of the research are noted.
       
  • “I've always lived in a place with gardens”: Residents' homemaking
           experiences in Australian aged-care gardens
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2019Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Mimi Tsai, Debra Flanders Cushing, Mark BroughAbstractGardens play a vital role in homemaking for many older people living in aged-care facilities. A garden is where residents can assert ownership, agency, and recall significant memories, especially after relocation in later life. This research addresses a gap in literature about aged-care gardens by expanding notions of therapeutic benefits. It adopts a phenomenological framework and applies unstructured interviews, Go-Along videorecording and digital storytelling for data collection. Findings suggest residents are not merely passive users of gardens, they are active creators, shaping their outdoor environment through gardening and creating meanings in their local landscape that contribute to their experience of being ‘home’.
       
  • Editorial: Celebrating 25 years of Health & Place
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 December 2019Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Jamie Pearce, Graham Moon
       
  • Longitudinal effects of urban green space on walking and cycling: A fixed
           effects analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2019Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Martyna Hogendorf, Joost Oude Groeniger, J. Mark Noordzij, Mariëlle A. Beenackers, Frank J. van LentheAbstractThis study examined whether changes in green space within the living environment were associated with changes in walking and cycling frequencies in a cohort of 3,220 Dutch adults between 2004, 2011 and 2014. Data on self-reported weekly time spent walking and cycling for active commute and leisure were linked to geographic information system (GIS) measures of total green areas within 1000 m buffer zones around each participant's home address, and distance to the nearest green space. First, cross-sectional linear regression models showed no statistically significant associations between green space measures and walking and cycling. Second, fixed effects (FE) models were used to analyze whether changes in green space were associated with changes in walking and cycling, using longitudinal data from respondents who did not relocate over time. As distance to the nearest green area increased by 100 m, individuals spent 22.76 fewer (95% CI: −39.92, −5.60) minutes walking for leisure per week and 3.21 more (95% CI: 0.46, 5.96) minutes walking for active commute. Changes in distance to green space were not significantly related to changes in cycling measures. No clear associations between changes in green areas within 1000 m buffers and changes in walking and cycling were observed. Overall, there was weak evidence of an effect of changes in green space area on changes in walking, and no evidence for cycling.
       
  • Neighborhood perceptions and allostatic load: Evidence from Midlife in the
           United States study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2019Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Jason T. CarboneAbstractAllostatic load, which represents the cumulative wear and tear on physiological systems resulting from long-term exposure to stress, provides a theoretical framework that can be applied to understand the association between neighborhood conditions and health outcomes. Within allostatic load theory perception plays a key role, as the cognitive appraisal process associated with one's perceptions determines whether external stimuli—such as neighborhood conditions—are deemed threatening or benign. With data from the Midlife Development in the United States, this study employed structural equation modeling to assess the association between neighborhood perceptions and cumulative, systems-level allostatic load scores. The findings demonstrate that neighborhood perception, as operationalized as a combination of perceived trust in neighbors, perceived neighborhood safety, and perceived neighborhood conditions, was inversely associated with allostatic load even when controlling for objective neighborhood conditions.
       
  • Spatial Lifecourse Epidemiology Reporting Standards (ISLE-ReSt) statement
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2019Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Peng Jia, Chao Yu, Justin V. Remais, Alfred Stein, Yu Liu, Ross C. Brownson, Jeroen Lakerveld, Tong Wu, Lijian Yang, Melody Smith, Sherif Amer, Jamie Pearce, Yan Kestens, Mei-Po Kwan, Shengjie Lai, Fei Xu, Xi Chen, Andrew Rundle, Qian Xiao, Hong XueAbstractSpatial lifecourse epidemiology is an interdisciplinary field that utilizes advanced spatial, location-based, and artificial intelligence technologies to investigate the long-term effects of environmental, behavioural, psychosocial, and biological factors on health-related states and events and the underlying mechanisms. With the growing number of studies reporting findings from this field and the critical need for public health and policy decisions to be based on the strongest science possible, transparency and clarity in reporting in spatial lifecourse epidemiologic studies is essential. A task force supported by the International Initiative on Spatial Lifecourse Epidemiology (ISLE) identified a need for guidance in this area and developed a Spatial Lifecourse Epidemiology Reporting Standards (ISLE-ReSt) Statement. The aim is to provide a checklist of recommendations to improve and make more consistent reporting of spatial lifecourse epidemiologic studies. The STrengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement for cohort studies was identified as an appropriate starting point to provide initial items to consider for inclusion. Reporting standards for spatial data and methods were then integrated to form a single comprehensive checklist of reporting recommendations. The strength of our approach has been our international and multidisciplinary team of content experts and contributors who represent a wide range of relevant scientific conventions, and our adherence to international norms for the development of reporting guidelines. As spatial, location-based, and artificial intelligence technologies used in spatial lifecourse epidemiology continue to evolve at a rapid pace, it will be necessary to revisit and adapt the ISLE-ReSt at least every 2–3 years from its release.
       
  • Obesity among U.S. rural adults: Assessing selection and causation with
           prospective cohort data
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2019Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Mark LeeAbstractRural adults in the U.S. have disproportionately high rates of obesity, but it is unclear whether this association exists because of selective migration or a contextual effect of the rural environment. Using nationally representative longitudinal data, this study investigates: (1) whether people with obesity select into rural counties, and (2) whether living in a rural area increases body weight after accounting for selection bias. Results indicate that people with obesity are less likely to move to a different county than people without obesity even after controlling for individual and household differences. Next, individual fixed effects regression models, which implicitly control for all time-constant variables, are used to produce a more robust estimate of the effect of rural residence on body weight. Rural residence predicts a significant increase in probability of obesity and body mass index. These results suggest that the association between rural residence and obesity in the United States is likely bidirectional.
       
  • My partner and my neighbourhood: The built environment and social
           networks’ impact on alcohol consumption during early pregnancy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2019Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Juan A. Ortega-García, Fernando A. López-Hernández, Maria Luisa Azurmendi Funes, Miguel F. Sánchez Sauco, Rebeca RamisAbstractMaternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy is responsible for negative health outcomes. The literature shows that socio-economic and lifestyle factors are both related with alcohol consumption during pregnancy; nevertheless, the role of other factors is unclear. The objective of this study is to assess the role that partners' alcohol consumption plays, that played by accessibility to alcohol, and by social influence – when considering pregnant women's behaviour as regards alcohol. It presents the results from a follow-up study of children at risk of negative health outcomes associated with prenatal alcohol exposure; it shows that 68% of pregnant women included in the study reported alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. Results of the analysis showed association with partners' alcohol use, with density of bars and/or restaurants and with the number of pregnant women who drank in the neighbourhood. We concluded that the involvement of men in pregnancy healthcare, and urban policies which target the built environment and improve social networks could be important aspects for the control and prevention alcohol consumption during pregnancy in public health programs. Interventions and recommendations should include an ecological perspective on prenatal community-health programs – focusing on individual, social, and natural factors as well as the built environment.
       
  • Building the evidence for an ecological model of cognitive health
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 60Author(s): Ester CerinAbstractThis is a commentary on Besser and colleagues’ article “Associations between neighbourhood built environment and cognition vary by apolipoprotein E genotype: Multi-Ethnic Study on Atherosclerosis” published in Health & Place. Unlike previous studies, the authors found significant environment-cognition associations in apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε2 carriers and no significant associations in ε4 carriers. This commentary discusses the possible reasons for these findings and, in doing so, proposes an ecological model of cognitive health. The model highlights the importance of accounting for multiple environmental influences including the built and natural environment and air and noise pollution indicators. It also stresses the importance of studying the underlying biological mechanisms explaining differences in environment-cognition associations across APOE genotype categories.
       
  • Methodologies for assessing contextual exposure to the built environment
           in physical activity studies: A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 60Author(s): Li Yi, John P. Wilson, Tyler B. Mason, Rima Habre, Shirlene Wang, Genevieve F. DuntonAbstractGrowing research has integrated Global Positioning Systems (GPS), Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and accelerometry in studying effects of built environment on physical activity outcomes. This systematic review aimed to summarize current geospatial methods of assessing contextual exposure to the built environment in these studies. Based on reviewing 79 eligible articles, methods were identified and grouped into three main categories based on similarities in their approaches as follows: domain-based (67% of studies), buffer-based (22%), and activity space-based (11%). Additionally, technical barriers and potential sources of uncertainties in each category were discussed and recommendations on methodological improvements were made.
       
  • Associations between neighborhood built environment and cognition vary by
           apolipoprotein E genotype: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 60Author(s): Lilah Besser, James E. Galvin, Daniel Rodriguez, Teresa Seeman, Walter Kukull, Stephen R. Rapp, Jennifer SmithAbstractWe examined whether neighborhood built environment (BE) and cognition associations in older adults vary by apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, a genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 4091 participants. Neighborhood characteristics included social and walking destination density (SDD, WDD), intersection density, and proportion of land dedicated to retail. Individuals were categorized as APOE ε2 (lower AD risk), APOE ε4 (higher AD risk), or APOE ε3 carriers. Among APOE ε2 carriers, greater proportion of land dedicated to retail was associated with better global cognition, and greater SDD, WDD, intersection density, and proportion of land dedicated to retail was associated with better processing speed. These associations were not observed in APOE ε3 or ε4 carriers. APOE ε2 carriers may be more susceptible to the potentially beneficial effects of denser neighborhood BEs on cognition; however, longitudinal studies are needed.
       
  • How daily environments and situations shape behaviors and health:
           Momentary studies of mobile sensing and smartphone survey data
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 November 2019Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Basile Chaix
       
  • The temporalities of policymaking: The case of HIV test-and-treat policy
           adoption in Zimbabwe
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 November 2019Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Meg Moran, Morten Skovdal, Edith Mpandaguta, Rufurwokuda Maswera, Noah Kadzura, Freedom Dzamatira, Constance Nyamukapa, Simon Gregson, Malebogo TlhajoaneAbstractDespite calls for “rapid adoption” of global health policies and treatment guidelines; there is little understanding of the factors that help accelerate their adoption and implementation. Drawing on in-depth interviews with sixteen Zimbabwean policymakers, we unpack how different factors, rhythmic experiences and epochal practices come together to shape the speeding up and slowing down of test-and-treat implementation in Zimbabwe. We present an empirically derived framework for the temporal analysis of policy adoption and argue that such analysis can help highlight the multiple and messy realities of policy adoption and implementation - supporting future calls for ‘rapid’ policy adoption.
       
  • Exploring the histories of health and deprivation in Britain,
           1971–2011
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 November 2019Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Emily K. Dearden, Christopher D. Lloyd, Mark Green
       
  • Extending multilevel spatial models to include spatially varying
           coefficients
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 60Author(s): Mark Janko, Varun Goel, Michael EmchAbstractMultilevel models have long been used by health geographers working on questions of space, place, and health. Similarly, health geographers have pursued interests in determining whether or not the effect of an exposure on a health outcome varies spatially. However, relatively little work has sought to use multilevel models to explore spatial variability in the effects of a contextual exposure on a health outcome. Methodologically, extending multilevel models to allow intercepts and slopes to vary spatially is straightforward. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to show how multilevel spatial models can be extended to include spatially varying covariate effects. We provide an empirical example on the effect of agriculture on malaria risk in children under 5 years of age in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
       
  • Intergenerational photovoice perspectives of place and health in public
           housing: Participatory coding, theming, and mapping in/of the “structure
           struggle”
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 60Author(s): Ryan J. PettewayAbstractThis paper details an intergenerational photovoice project exploring spatial and perceptual differences of “place” and health among adult and youth public housing residents in a small urban rustbelt city in the Midwestern United States. It specifically highlights the value of fully participatory photovoice processes—participatory narrative-coding and digital web-based photo-mapping—in furthering conceptual and analytical understanding of “place” and health. Results indicate the critical import of accounting for non-residential locations (i.e. activity spaces), and the significance of engaging the generationally- and spatially-specific social and physical landscapes of residents’ lived “place” to improve health opportunities within place-based strategies involving public housing.
       
  • Geographical inequalities in healthcare utilisation and the contribution
           of compositional factors: A multilevel analysis of 497 districts in
           Indonesia
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 60Author(s): Joko Mulyanto, Anton E. Kunst, Dionne S. KringosAbstractSubstantial inequalities in healthcare utilisation are reported in Indonesia. To develop appropriate health policies and interventions, we need to better understand geographical patterns in inequalities and any contributing factors. This study investigates geographical inequalities in healthcare utilisation across 497 districts in Indonesia and whether compositional factors – wealth, education, health insurance – contribute to such inequalities. Using data from a nationally representative Basic Health Research survey, from 2013 (N = 694,625), we applied multilevel logistic regressions, adjusted for need, to estimate associations of compositional factors with outpatient and inpatient care utilisation and to assess variability at province and district levels. We observed large variation of healthcare utilisation at district level and smaller variations at province level. Cities had higher utilisation rates than rural districts. Compositional factors contributed only modestly to geographical inequalities in healthcare utilisation. The effect of compositional factors on individual healthcare utilisation was stronger in rural areas as compared to cities and other areas with higher population densities. Unexplained district variation was substantial, comparable to that associated with health insurance. In policies to tackle inequalities in healthcare utilisation, addressing geographical factors such as service availability and infrastructures may be as important as improving compositional factors like health insurance.
       
  • Stranger danger' The intersectional impacts of shared housing on young
           people's health & wellbeing
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 60Author(s): Eleanor Wilkinson, Iliana Ortega-AlcázarAbstractRecent housing welfare reform in Britain has left many younger welfare claimants with no choice but to move into a shared rental property with strangers. In this paper we take an intersectional approach to analyzing the impact of housing welfare reform, by examining how certain protected equalities groups may be particularly at risk from the potential harms of shared living with strangers. Drawing upon in-depth biographical interview data, we outline how young people often spoke of their share houses as places that were detrimental to their health and wellbeing. Our analysis focuses on two key themes: physical safety and violence, followed by mental health and isolation. Ultimately the paper examines whether housing welfare reform in Britain has resulted in placing already vulnerable people into potentially dangerous and unhealthy housing situations.
       
  • The interrelationship between place and critical life transitions in later
           life social exclusion: A scoping review
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 60Author(s): Anna Urbaniak, Kieran WalshAbstractUnderstanding the role of place in protecting against social exclusion (SE) and risk during critical life transitions (CLTs) in older age is essential to create effective community-level ageing policies. However, existing knowledge is diffuse across a range of literatures and lacks coherency. Through a two-stage scoping review, this paper aims to synthesise state-of-the-art international research linking place, old-age SE and CLTs. Findings show that: (1) place serves as a setting for, and as a mediator of exclusion resulting from CLTs and (2) theoretical conceptualisation to address the intersection of CLTs, place and SE in later life is underdeveloped. The implications of the state of scientific knowledge on this topic are discussed in relation to future research needs and ageing in place policy.
       
  • Activity-based air pollution exposure assessment: Differences between
           homemakers and cycling commuters
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 60Author(s): Meng Lu, Oliver Schmitz, Ilonca Vaartjes, Derek KarssenbergAbstractLong-term air pollution exposure may lead to an increase in incidences and mortality rates of chronic diseases and adversely affect human health. The effects of long-term air pollution exposure have not been comprehensively studied due to the lack of human mobility data collected over a long period. In this study, we develop and apply a personal mobility model to long-term hourly air pollution concentration predictions to quantify personal long-term air pollution exposure for all individuals. We implement our model assuming mobility patterns for commuters and homemakers, and separate between weekdays and weekend. Our results show that NO2 exposure of commuters are on average slightly higher and vary less spatially as they are exposed to NO2 at multiple locations.
       
  • MI-Environment: Geospatial patterns and inequality of relative heat stress
           vulnerability in Michigan
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 60Author(s): Patricia D. Koman, Frank Romo, Peter Swinton, Graciela B. Mentz, Ricardo F. de Majo, Natalie R. Sampson, Michael J. Battaglia, Kimberly Hill-Knott, Guy O. Williams, Marie S. O'Neill, Amy J. SchulzAbstractHeat stress causes morbidity and mortality and is increasing with climate change. Heat stress can pose particular challenges in northern regions not well adapted to heat. To assist decision makers, we identified the relative vulnerability of census tracts within Michigan to factors that increase exposure to heat stress or reflect susceptibilities in the population based on a California heat vulnerability index. In the MI-Environment assessment, we used a Geographic Information System (GIS) to combine future ensemble climate model projections to create a total of 9 geospatial and demographic variables. As part of a broader planned cumulative environmental exposure assessment, the statewide heat vulnerability index (HVI) maps display the location and relative magnitude of exposure on three metrics: built environment (Place), future expected long-term temperature averages (Temperature), and population susceptibility (People). We observed varied and distinct patterns for each of the three component indices. We assessed how equitably those exposures are distributed by racial and socioeconomic factors. This analysis showed that each of the component indices and the aggregate HVI are disproportionately distributed along racial and socioeconomic lines in Michigan. Census tracts with higher percentages of people of color had larger exposure to HVI factors with a deviation from equity of -0.115 [95% CI -0.108, -0.122]. Similarly, for census tracts with higher percentage of people experiencing poverty, the deviation from equity was -0.101 [95% CI -0.094, -0.107]. The MI-Environment visualization tool can help communities prepare for climate change and resolve inequities by identifying census tracts with the most vulnerable residents and highest potential exposures.
       
  • The spatial dimensions of medication management by home-dwelling older
           adults after hospital discharge
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 60Author(s): Pauline Roux, Henk Verloo, Marie Santiago-Delefosse, Filipa PereiraAbstractAgeing in place raises pressing questions about medication practices at home. Understanding how medication practices are integrated into older adults’ domestic settings requires an interest in where activities linked to medication take place and why. This study aimed to describe the medication practices and spatial dimensions of medication management for home-dwelling older adults after hospital discharge, using a qualitative research design. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with ten older adults aged 65 years old or more and discharged home from hospital, together with nine informal caregivers. Thematic content analysis identified two main themes dealing with the spatial dimensions of medication management in this specific context: the process of integrating medication changes into routines and familiar spaces, and the individual and collective management of medication changes linked to a renegotiation of the boundaries between public and private spaces.
       
  • How context matters: Demonstrating microgeographical differences in social
           capital and its implications for mental wellbeing in pregnancy with a
           novel bubble diagram technique
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 60Author(s): Thilini Agampodi, Suneth Agampodi, Nicholas Glozier, Chithrani WMS, Warnasekara YPJN, Sisira SiribaddanaAbstractThere has been limited exploration of social capital at the contextual level in relation to maternal health, and in particular with the “obstetric transition” and associated mental health problems. In the North Central Province of Sri Lanka, with socio-culturally diverse communities, and a recent history of major conflict, the leading cause of maternal death is suicide. The objective of this study was to identify contextual patterns of social capital constructs that lead to poor maternal mental wellbeing, using a novel bubble visualisation technique, to demonstrate the use of data derived from qualitative approaches. We conducted a qualitative study of pregnant women based on diary entries (n = 41) and interviews (n = 38) in eight different communities of the Anuradhapura district of Sri Lanka. Bubble diagrams were constructed to visualize each context using the frequency and weight of responses given in diaries. Marital, family and neighbourhood cohesion were not homogenous in the district and the bubble diagrams displayed clear microgeographical patterns in which women living in specific communities had poorer mental wellbeing. Such techniques can be used to convey complex social capital implications in digestible way for policy makers and planners to enact locally specific strategies addressing health inequalities.
       
  • Closure of ‘third places’' Exploring potential consequences for
           collective health and wellbeing
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 60Author(s): Jessica Finlay, Michael Esposito, Min Hee Kim, Iris Gomez-Lopez, Philippa ClarkeAbstractIn unassuming neighborhood locales, such as coffee shops, hair salons, and malls, people meet to socialize, express themselves, and support one another. These ‘third places’ enrich social interaction, sense of community, and belonging outside of the home and workplace. Yet third places are closing across the United States. Americans may be losing access to key services, goods, and amenities, in addition to community sites that help buffer against loneliness, stress, and alienation. The relevance of third places to health and quality life is under-researched. These sites may support wellbeing through mechanisms of stimulation, support, protection, and care. We call on researchers to investigate how third places contribute to wellbeing and consider the consequences that the disappearance of such places has for public health. Future research on third places may be mobilized to innovatively reduce health disparities and improve quality of life.
       
  • ‘A lot better than medicine’ - Self-organised ocean swimming groups as
           facilitators for healthy ageing
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 60Author(s): Leesa Costello, Marie-Louise McDermott, Purvi Patel, Julie DareAbstractExercise, spending time in nature and feeling part of a supportive community all contribute to better physical and mental health and to healthy ageing. This focused ethnography investigates how participation in self-organised ocean swimming groups contributes to healthy ageing amongst older men and women in the Australian coastal city of Perth. It explores the ways marine life, personal experiences and social connectedness mediate their group use of public blue space, and highlights that group membership promotes participants’ enhanced health and wellbeing, and supports development of self-efficacy and resilience. These findings suggest that more inclusive access to ocean swimming and other forms of active or adventure-based leisure activities should be advocated from a public health perspective.
       
  • Health geography and the 'performative' turn: making space for the
           audio-visual in ethnographic health research
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 60Author(s): Alexandra Kaley, Chris Hatton, Christine MilliganAbstractThe purpose of this paper is to critically reflect on the added value of video in ethnographic research that seeks to understand peoples' lived experiences of health and place. Of particular interest is the potential for video to elicit the embodied, multisensory and relational nature of people's place experiences that are the focus of much recent health geography research. We draw on our experiences of using video in an ethnographic study that sought to explore the experiences of people with intellectual disabilities engaged in nature based (or 'green care') therapeutic interventions for health and wellbeing. We argue that video has the potential to capture aspects of people's wellbeing experiences that may be lost using other methods, such as observational field noting. Consideration is also given to how researchers using video methods should seek to (re)present people's wellbeing experiences, as well as the practical and ethical challenges that this approach has for those working in the field of health geography.
       
  • The importance of social capital for young People's active transport and
           independent mobility in rural Otago, New Zealand
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 60Author(s): Tessa Porskamp, Christina Ergler, Eva Pilot, Preeti Sushama, Sandra MandicAbstractSocial capital influences adolescents' licenses for active transport and independent mobility, through parental decision making and safety concerns, and may contribute to increasing adolescents' physical activity. Drawing on 20 parental interviews and 11 focus groups (73 adolescents) from rural New Zealand, this paper shows the importance of social capital and social trust for active transport and independent mobility in an under researched rural context. Change over time in social capital, social trust and parental safety concerns limited adolescents' active transport and independent mobility. Health policy should incorporate social capital measures to increase adolescents’ active transport, independent mobility and physical activity.
       
  • Using community-based system dynamics modeling to understand the complex
           systems that influence health in cities: The SALURBAL study
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 60Author(s): Brent A. Langellier, Jill A. Kuhlberg, Ellis A. Ballard, S. Claire Slesinski, Ivana Stankov, Nelson Gouveia, Jose D. Meisel, Maria F. Kroker-Lobos, Olga L. Sarmiento, Waleska Teixeira Caiaffa, Ana V. Diez Roux, SALURBAL GroupAbstractWe discuss the design, implementation, and results of a collaborative process designed to elucidate the complex systems that drive food behaviors, transport, and health in Latin American cities and to build capacity for systems thinking and community-based system dynamics (CBSD) methods among diverse research team members and stakeholders. During three CBSD workshops, 62 stakeholders from 10 Latin American countries identified 98 variables and a series of feedback loops that shape food behaviors, transportation and health, along with 52 policy levers. Our findings suggest that CBSD can engage local stakeholders, help them view problems through the lens of complex systems and use their insights to prioritize research efforts and identify novel solutions that consider mechanisms of complexity.
       
  • Where do teens smoke' Smoking locations of adolescents in Europe in
           relation to smoking bans in bars, schools and homes
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 60Author(s): Naomi A. Lagerweij, Anton E. Kunst, Nora Mélard, Arja Rimpelä, Joana Alves, Laura Hoffmann, Matthias Richter, Mirte A.G. KuipersAbstractThis study aimed to assess where European adolescents smoke. Data of 2,140 13-19-year-olds from 55 secondary schools in seven European cities was analysed using multilevel logistic regression analyses. Adolescents most often reported regularly smoking in ‘other public locations (e.g., streets and parks)’ (69%) and friends’ homes (50%). Adolescents were less likely to smoke in bars, at school or at home when exposed to strong smoking bans at these locations. Bans on smoking in bars or at home were associated with regular smoking in other public locations, suggesting that smoking may have displaced towards these locations.
       
  • Coastal proximity and mental health among urban adults in England: The
           moderating effect of household income
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 October 2019Source: Health & PlaceAuthor(s): Joanne K. Garrett, Theodore J. Clitherow, Mathew P. White, Benedict W. Wheeler, Lora E. FlemingAbstractAfter adjusting for covariates, self-reported general health in England is higher among populations living closer to the coast, and the association is strongest amongst more deprived groups. We explored whether similar findings were present for mental health using cross-sectional data for urban adults in the Health Survey for England (2008–2012, N ≥25,963). For urban adults, living ≤1 km from the coast, in comparison to>50 km, was associated with better mental health as measured by the GHQ12. Stratification by household income revealed this was only amongst the lowest-earning households, and extended to ≤5 km. Our findings support the contention that, for urban adults, coastal settings may help to reduce health inequalities in England.
       
  • Reintegrating contexts into quantitative intersectional analyses of health
           inequalities
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 60Author(s): Clare R. EvansAbstractQuantitative intersectional analyses often overlook the roles of contexts in shaping intersectional experiences and outcomes. This study advances a novel approach for integrating quantitative intersectional methods with models of contextual-level determinants of health inequalities. Building on recent methodological advancements, I propose an adaptation of intersectional MAIHDA (multilevel analysis of individual heterogeneity and discriminatory accuracy) where respondents are nested hierarchically in social strata defined by gender, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic classifications interacted with contextual classifications. To demonstrate this approach I examine past-month adolescent cigarette use intersectionally by school- and neighborhood-poverty status in Wave 1 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 17,234). I conclude by discussing the adaptability of this approach to a variety of research questions, including intersectional effects that vary by contextual exposures over time, positions in social networks, and exposures to social policies.
       
  • Understanding children's spatiality in cancer care environments:
           Untangling everyday practices around an IV-stand in a paediatric day-care
           ward
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 60Author(s): Piet Tutenel, Stefan Ramaekers, Ann HeylighenAbstractSince the turn of the 21st century we see a renewed interest in the impact of hospital environments on children's well-being. In this article, we study the spatiality of children affected by cancer, i.e., their encounters with the day-care ward they are situated in. First we elaborate on these encounters through Schatzki's practice theory and Gibson's theory of affordances. Then we clarify our thinking in a case study and turn as empirical focus to a ‘thing’, an intravenous-pump and stand (IV-stand). The data used are field notes and videos shot by two children in a day-care ward, tinged with examples from literature and coincidental encounters with the IV-stand. Through carefully untangling everyday practices around the IV-stand, we show their complexity and offer a more nuanced understanding of child-friendly environments.
       
  • The effect of neighbourhood social capital on child injuries: A
           gender-stratified analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 60Author(s): Malin Eriksson, Urban Lindgren, Anneli Ivarsson, Nawi NgAbstractWe designed a longitudinal retrospective cohort study to analyse the associations between neighbourhood social capital and child injures. Register data from the Umeå Simsam Lab in Sweden was used to measure child injuries and demographic and socioeconomic factors at individual, household and neighbourhood level. A social capital score from a previous survey was used to measure neighbourhood social capital. We conducted a three-level multilevel negative binomial regression analysis, with children (level 1, N = 77,193) nested within households (level 2, N = 10,465), and households nested within neighbourhoods (level 3, N = 49). The incidence rate of child injuries was lower in high social capital neighbourhoods. When controlling for factors at individual, household and neighbourhood levels, living in a high social capital neighbourhood was protective of injuries among girls, but not among boys. Promoting social capital in local neighbourhoods could be seen as a prevention strategy for injuries among girls.
       
  • ‘A level playing field’: Young people's experiences of wheelchair
           basketball as an enabling place.
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 60Author(s): Laura Bates, Robin Kearns, Karen Witten, Penelope CarrollAbstractUsing a novel case-study of a youth wheelchair basketball team in Auckland, New Zealand, we investigate the experiences of young people with physical disabilities in recreational sports places. We consider the ‘enabling places’ created by this sport, which can enhance disabled young people's wellbeing and social inclusion. Semi-structured interviews with the team's players and coordinators revealed logistical and societal challenges associated with facilitating youth-oriented sports, as well as those encountered by team members personally. They also identified physical health and social benefits experienced through involvement in wheelchair basketball. The material, social and affective dimensions of participants' experiences of wheelchair basketball elucidate the capacity for the sport, and its team members and settings, to affirm young people's identity and place-in-the-world. We conclude that youth-specific, inclusive sports generate enabling places that enhance young people's social inclusion, wellbeing and life enjoyment.
       
  • A systematic review of multi-dimensional quality assessment tools for
           urban green spaces
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Pablo Knobel, Payam Dadvand, Roser Maneja-ZaragozaAbstractWe conducted a systematic review of quality assessment tools for urban green spaces to evaluate their replicability, comparability and validity. We assessed the characteristics of 15 published, multi-dimensional, direct observation tools regarding: publication, development, features and included dimensions. Even though all tools show acceptable inter-rater variability, there is a notable variability in their characteristics, from required time to conduct the assessment to the number of included items. Additionally, some specific dimensions are underrepresented, and the study units’ definitions are feeble. We showcased the need for new tools that are more comprehensive and include more consistent reporting measures.
       
  • Recession, local employment trends and change in self-reported health of
           individuals: A longitudinal study in England and Wales during the ‘great
           recession’
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Sarah Curtis, Paul Norman, Richard Cookson, Mark Cherrie, Jamie Pearce
       
  • Putting the “where” in HIV care: Unpacking narratives of
           antiretroviral therapy adherence among HIV-Positive men who have sex with
           men
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Augil Marie Q. Robles, Nico A. CanoyAbstractThis study explores the spatial constitution of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) by recasting therapeutic landscapes (Gesler, 1992) and how it structures the exercise of expressive agency (Bowden, 2014). Engagement in antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) is contextualized within the discursive-materiality of emplaced assemblages for HIV Care in the Philippines. Combining qualitative data from field visits and semi-structured interviews, three key spatial narratives were derived illustrating how adherence to ART unfolds in place: (a) an unwelcoming treatment hub, (b) an unsafe and safe home, and (c) a constraining workplace. The results illustrate the spatial, multilayered barriers to ART adherence proposing insights for the theorization of adherence as an emplaced process and the implications of using of place-based interventions in resource-limited countries beyond the discourse of free service and availability.
       
  • Virtual audits of streetscapes by crowdworkers
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Tomoya Hanibuchi, Tomoki Nakaya, Shigeru InoueAbstractAudits have been used to provide objective ratings of neighborhood environments. Physical audits, however, are time- and resource-intensive. This study examines the efficiency and reliability of virtual auditing using Google Street View and crowdsourcing to conduct walkability audits of streets in Japan. Overall, 830 street segments were physically and virtually audited by two trained auditors; 300 untrained crowdworkers also virtually audited 3 street segments. Statistical analysis found good inter-source and inter-rater reliability. This study helps establish crowdsourced virtual auditing as a valuable method of measuring neighborhood walkability, reducing audit costs as well as enabling large-scale auditor recruitment while maintaining reliability.
       
  • Changes in perceptions of urban green space are related to changes in
           psychological well-being: Cross-sectional and longitudinal study of
           mid-aged urban residents
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Anne Cleary, Anne Roiko, Nicola W. Burton, Kelly S. Fielding, Zoe Murray, Gavin Turrell
       
  • County-level housing affordability in relation to risk factors for
           cardiovascular disease among middle-aged adults: The National Longitudinal
           Survey of Youths 1979
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Justin Rodgers, Becky A. Briesacher, Robert B. Wallace, Ichiro Kawachi, Christopher F. Baum, Daniel KimAbstractBackgroundHousing is a fundamental social determinant of health yet housing affordability has diminished over much of the twenty-first century. Research on housing affordability as a determinant of health is limited, but early studies have shown possible correlations with mental health. However, few studies have examined the relationship between housing affordability and risk factors for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among Americans.MethodsUsing a nationally-representative sample of middle-aged adults from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youths 1979 (NLSY79) and exploiting quasi-experimental variation before and after the Great Recession, we estimated the associations between the change in median county-level percentage of household income spent on housing (rent/mortgage) between 2000 and 2008 and individual-level risks of incident hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and depression from 2008 to 2014. We employed conditional fixed effects logistic regression models to reduce bias due to time-invariant confounding.ResultsEach percentage point increase in county-level median percentage of household income spent on housing was associated with a 22% increase in the odds of incident hypertension (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.42; p = 0.01), a 37% increased odds of obesity (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.00–1.87; p = 0.049), and a 15% increased odds of depression (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.01–1.31; p = 0.03), controlling for individual- and area-level factors. These associations were stronger among renters than homeowners, and men compared to women.ConclusionsOur findings suggest that lower levels of housing affordability contribute to worse risk profiles for cardiovascular disease. Policies that make housing more affordable may help reduce the population burden of cardiovascular disease.
       
  • The effect of urban green space on uncertainty stress and life stress: A
           nationwide study of university students in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Tingzhong Yang, Ross Barnett, Yafeng Fan, Lu LiAbstractObjectiveThe aim of this study is to investigate the impacts of urban green space on stress among Chinese university students.MethodsParticipants were 11,954 students from 50 universities in 42 cities. Each student completed the Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS) on Tobacco Control in China. Regional variables were retrieved from the National Bureau of Statistics database. Both unadjusted and adjusted methods were used in the logistic regression analysis.ResultsAlmost one third of the students (31.1%) suffered from high levels of uncertainty and life stress. The multilevel logistic regression model showed that while certain individual and environmental factors, such as higher family income, having parents with a professional occupation and urban home location, reduced uncertainty stress among students, so did the effects of green space. This was particularly important for reducing uncertainty stress but also had some effects on life stress.ConclusionsThe findings support a wider body of literature on the positive effects of green space on stress and mental health. Future studies need to pay greater attention not only to intra-urban differences in student use of green space, but also to how the natural environment features in stress management policies in Chinese universities.
       
  • Objectively measured access to recreational destinations and leisure-time
           physical activity: Associations and demographic moderators in a
           six-country study
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Christopher Gidlow, Ester Cerin, Takemi Sugiyama, Marc A. Adams, Josef Mitas, Muhammad Akram, Rodrigo S. Reis, Rachel Davey, Jens Troelsen, Grant Schofield, James F. SallisAbstractWithin the growing body of research linking neighbourhood environmental attributes with physical activity, associations between recreational destinations and non-walking leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) are rarely studied, and to date, not across multiple cities. We examined six potential associations of objectively-measured access to private recreational facilities (e.g., fitness centres, swimming pools) and parks with adults’ non-walking LTPA (e.g., swimming, cycling, tennis), using data gathered with consistent methods from adults living in international cities with a range of environment attributes. The potential effects of socio-demographic moderators and between-city variations were also examined. Data from 6725 adults from 10 cities (6 countries) were gathered. Adults were more likely to engage in non-walking LTPA if they had a greater number of private recreational facilities within 0.5 or 1 km of the home, particularly in women, and if they lived closer to a park. The amount of non-zero LTPA was only associated (positively) with the number of recreational facilities within 1 km. Relationships between amount of LTPA and park proximity appear complex, with likely contextual and cultural differences. Improving access to private recreational facilities could promote non-walking LTPA, especially in women.
       
  • Mortgage discrimination and preterm birth among African American women: An
           exploratory study
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Nana Matoba, Suzanne Suprenant, Kristin Rankin, Hailin Yu, James W. CollinsAbstractObjectiveTo examine whether mortgage discrimination, or redlining, is a risk factor for preterm birth among African American women in Chicago, and how it is related to racial residential segregation.MethodsThis was a retrospective cross-sectional study in Chicago, Illinois, 1989–1991.African American mothers (n = 33,586) in the Illinois Transgenerational Birth File were linked to the 1990 census and the 1990–1995 Home Mortgage Disclosure Act database. Logistic regression models assessed the relationship between redlining and preterm birth rates.ResultsPreterm birth rates were higher among African American women in redlined areas (18.5%) vs. non-redlined areas (17.1%). Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio for preterm birth among African American women in redlined neighborhoods, compared to non-redlined neighborhoods, were 1.08 (95% CI 1.03-1.14) and 1.12 (1.04-1.20), respectively. By level of racial residential segregation, preterm birth rate was elevated (18.2%) in redlined, high-proportion African American areas compared to non-redlined high-proportion African American areas (16.7%), redlined low- (16.2%) and mid-proportion (16.1%) African American areas.ConclusionsMortgage discrimination may be an important measure of institutional racism to be used in understanding racial disparities in preterm birth.
       
  • The meanings attributed to community gardening: A qualitative study
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Michellee Ong, Amy Baker, Alejandra Aguilar, Mandy StanleyAbstractWhilst the geographical, sociological, and ecological roles of community gardens have been explored previously, the meanings associated with community gardening are unclear. This narrative inquiry study aimed to understand the meanings attributed to community gardening from an occupational science perspective. Photo elicitation was used alongside narrative interviewing with eight metropolitan South Australian community gardeners. Narrative analysis highlighted five themes: a sense of community; a chance to share; an opportunity to grow; a therapeutic place; ecological contributions. These themes aligned with four dimensions of meaning theorised in the occupational science literature – doing, being, belonging and becoming – with doing and belonging being most evident in our study. Health professionals are encouraged to consider community gardens as places that provide clients with opportunities for enhancing these dimensions of meaning, through engaging in a range of activities, experiencing a sense of belonging and strengthening their identity. By adopting an occupational science lens, these findings provide a new perspective on the importance of engaging in community gardening.
       
  • Associations of neighbourhood sociodemographic characteristics with
           depressive and anxiety symptoms in older age: Results from a 5-wave study
           over 15 years
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): I. Motoc, E.J. Timmermans, D. Deeg, B.W.J.H. Penninx, M. HuismanAbstractWe examined the long-term association between objective neighbourhood sociodemographic characteristics (index of socioeconomic position (SEP), average income, percent low-income earners, average house price, percent immigrants and urban density) with depressive and anxiety symptoms, covering five 3-year waves of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (n = 3,772). Multi-level regression models assessed each neighbourhood-level characteristic separately, adjusting for individual-level covariates. A higher percentage of immigrants and higher urban density, but not other neighbourhood characteristics, were significantly associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms over time in models adjusted for individual SEP. Results of time interaction models indicated that the associations were stable over the 15-year period.
       
  • A comparative analysis of the impacts of objective versus subjective
           neighborhood environment on physical, mental, and social health
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Lin Zhang, Suhong Zhou, Mei-Po KwanAbstractResearch on the relationship between neighborhood context and health outcome has attracted notable attention. However, few studies examine and compare the associations between the objective and subjective neighborhood environment and different dimensions of health. To this end, high-resolution remote sensing images and points-of-interest (POIs) data collected in Guangzhou, China, are used together with questionnaire survey data to measure the objective and subjective characteristics of the neighborhood environment. The sample includes 1029 adults selected from 34 communities in Guangzhou, China. Hierarchical linear modeling is then employed to analyze the associations between the objective and subjective neighborhood environment and three dimensions of health (physical health, mental health, and social health), as well as compare the relative strengths of and moderating mechanisms between these associations. The results indicate that significant variations in health outcomes are observed among neighborhoods, which can be explained by both personal attributes and the neighborhood environment. Although objective and subjective measures of the neighborhood environment are both linked to the three dimensions of health, physical health and social health are influenced more by objective measures, while mental health is affected more by subjective measures. Further, subjective measures have positive moderating effects on the relationship between objective measures and mental health but do not have significant moderating effects on the relationships between objective measures and physical and social health.
       
  • Using street view data and machine learning to assess how perception of
           neighborhood safety influences urban residents’ mental health
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Ruoyu Wang, Yuan Yuan, Ye Liu, Jinbao Zhang, Penghua Liu, Yi Lu, Yao YaoAbstractPrevious studies have shown that perceptions of neighborhood safety are associated with various mental health outcomes. However, scant attention has been paid to the mediating pathways by which perception of neighborhood safety affects mental health. In addition, most previous studies have evaluated perception of neighborhood safety with questionnaires or field audits, both of which are labor-intensive and time-consuming. This study is the first attempt to measure perception of neighborhood safety using street view data and a machine learning approach. Four potential mediating pathways linking perception of neighborhood safety to mental health were explored for 1029 participants from 35 neighborhoods of Guangzhou, China. The results of multilevel regression models confirm that perception of neighborhood safety is positively associated with mental health. More importantly, physical activity, social cohesion, stress and life satisfaction mediate this relationship. The results of a moderation analysis suggest that the beneficial effects of physical activity and social cohesion on mental health are strengthened by a perception of neighborhood safety. Our findings suggest the need to increase residents’ perception of neighborhood safety to maintain mental health in urban areas of China.
       
  • Finite mixture models in neighbourhoods-to-health research: A systematic
           review
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Peter Lekkas, Ivana Stankov, Mark Daniel, Catherine PaquetAbstractA systematic review was conducted, following PRISMA guidelines, to examine the application of finite mixture models (FMMs) in the study of neighbourhoods and health. Two reviewers screened 814-studies identified through database searches and citation tracking. Data were extracted from 19-studies that met the inclusion criteria, and a risk of bias analysis undertaken. Data were synthesised narratively, with a focus on methodological issues idiosyncratic to FMMs. Motivated by a desire to account for neighbourhood heterogeneity, studies sought to identify meaningful neighbourhood-level typologies that explained the distributional nature of health outcomes. Neighbourhood-centred applications of FMMs were promising but there remains scope for advancement. Research-based recommendations are outlined to strengthen prospective neighbourhood-centred studies applying FMMs.
       
  • From risky places to safe spaces: Re-assembling spaces and places in
           Vancouver's Downtown Eastside
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Andrew Ivsins, Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users, Cecilia Benoit, Karen Kobayashi, Susan BoydAbstractVancouver's Downtown Eastside (DTES) neighbourhood is commonly associated with stigmatized and criminalized activities and attendant risks and harms. Many spaces/places in this urban neighbourhood are customarily portrayed and experienced as risky and harmful, and are implicated in experiences of structural (and physical) violence and marginalization. Drawing on 50 qualitative interviews, this paper explores how spaces/places frequently used by structurally vulnerable people who use drugs (PWUD) in the DTES that are commonly associated with risk and harm (e.g., alleyways, parks) can be re-imagined and re-constructed as enabling safety and wellbeing. Study participants recounted both negative and positive experiences with particular spaces/places, suggesting the possibility of making these locations less risky and safer. Our findings demonstrate how spaces/places used by PWUD in this particular geographical context can be understood as assemblages, a variety of human and nonhuman forces – such as material objects, actors, processes, affect, temporal elements, policies and practices – drawn together in unique ways that produce certain effects (risk/harm or safety/wellbeing). Conceptualizing these spaces/places as assemblages provides a means to better understand how experiences of harm, or conversely wellbeing, unfold, and sheds light on how risky spaces/places can be re-assembled as spaces/places that enable safety and wellbeing.
       
  • “Clear action requires clear thinking”: A systematic review of
           gentrification and health research in the United States
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Melody Esther Tulier, Carolina Reid, Mahasin S. Mujahid, Amani M. AllenAbstract:Gentrification is a process in which formerly declining, under-resourced, neighborhoods experience reinvestment and in-migration of increasingly affluent new residents, with understudied implications for individual health and health-protective community resources for low-income and minority residents. Increased attention on urban health inequities have propelled research on the relationship between gentrification and health. Yet, there are significant challenges inherent in the study of gentrification given its non-linear process occurring at multiple levels and via various mechanisms in a complex web of urban systems. How then have empirical studies addressed questions regarding the relationship between gentrification and health and wellness from a conceptual and methodological standpoint' Applying key search terms to PubMed and Web of Science, we identified 546 papers published in the United States. This review is guided by three foundational premises informing the inclusion and exclusion of articles. These include: 1. a clear definition of gentrification and explicit health outcome; 2. identification of a specific geographic context (United States) in which gentrification occurs, and 3. use of a social determinants of health framework to identify potential health outcomes of interest. 17 papers met our inclusion criteria. Through systematic content analysis using MaxQDA software, we evaluated the included studies using three critical frames: 1. conceptualization of gentrification; 2. mechanisms linking gentrification and health; and 3. spatio-temporal considerations. Based on this analysis, we identify the strengths and limitations of existing research, and offer three methodological approaches to strengthen the current literature on gentrification and health. We recommend that future studies: 1. explicitly identify the mechanisms and levels at which processes can occur and systems are organized; 2. incorporate space and time into the analytical strategy and 3. articulate an epistemological standpoint driven by their conceptualization of the exposure and identification of the relevant mechanism and outcome of interest.
       
  • Acute exposure to violent neighborhood crime and depressive symptoms among
           older individuals in Colombia
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Health & Place, Volume 59Author(s): Philipp Hessel, María Alejandra Martínez Botero, Jorge CuartasAbstractTo assess the association between acute exposure to neighborhood violent crimes and depression we combined representative, individual-level and geo-coded data for individuals aged 60 years and above living in four major cities in Colombia from the 2010 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) with objective information on the timing and location of violent crimes. Exploiting spatial and temporal variation in the occurrence of crimes we find that being acutely exposed to a violent crime is positively associated with the number of depressive symptoms.
       
 
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