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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1292 journals)
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HEALTH AND SAFETY (524 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 234)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Healthy-Mu Journal     Open Access  
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover EcoHealth
  [SJR: 1.137]   [H-I: 35]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1612-9210 - ISSN (Online) 1612-9202
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Miasma
    • Authors: Mark Olival-Bartley
      PubDate: 2017-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1260-y
  • Economic Incentives in the Socially Optimal Management of Infectious
           Disease: When $$ R_{0} $$ R 0 is Not Enough
    • Authors: B. R. Morin; A. P. Kinzig; S. A. Levin; C. A. Perrings
      Abstract: Abstract Does society benefit from encouraging or discouraging private infectious disease-risk mitigation' Private individuals routinely mitigate infectious disease risks through the adoption of a range of precautions, from vaccination to changes in their contact with others. Such precautions have epidemiological consequences. Private disease-risk mitigation generally reduces both peak prevalence of symptomatic infection and the number of people who fall ill. At the same time, however, it can prolong an epidemic. A reduction in prevalence is socially beneficial. Prolongation of an epidemic is not. We find that for a large class of infectious diseases, private risk mitigation is socially suboptimal—either too low or too high. The social optimum requires either more or less private mitigation. Since private mitigation effort depends on the cost of mitigation and the cost of illness, interventions that change either of these costs may be used to alter mitigation decisions. We model the potential for instruments that affect the cost of illness to yield net social benefits. We find that where a disease is not very infectious or the duration of illness is short, it may be socially optimal to promote private mitigation effort by increasing the cost of illness. By contrast, where a disease is highly infectious or long lasting, it may be optimal to discourage private mitigation by reducing the cost of disease. Society would prefer a shorter, more intense, epidemic to a longer, less intense epidemic. There is, however, a region in parameter space where the relationship is more complicated. For moderately infectious diseases with medium infectious periods, the social optimum depends on interactions between prevalence and duration. Basic reproduction numbers are not sufficient to predict the social optimum.
      PubDate: 2017-09-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1270-9
  • A Controlled Trial to Reduce the Risk of Human Nipah Virus Exposure in
    • Authors: Nazmun Nahar; Repon C. Paul; Rebeca Sultana; Shariful Amin Sumon; Kajal Chandra Banik; Jaynal Abedin; Mohammad Asaduzzaman; Fernando Garcia; Susan Zimicki; Mahmudur Rahman; Emily S. Gurley; Stephen P. Luby
      Abstract: Abstract Human Nipah virus (NiV) infection, often fatal in Bangladesh, is primarily transmitted by drinking raw date palm sap contaminated by Pteropus bats. We assessed the impact of a behavior change communication intervention on reducing consumption of potentially NiV-contaminated raw sap. During the 2012–2014 sap harvesting seasons, we implemented interventions in two areas and compared results with a control area. In one area, we disseminated a “do not drink raw sap” message and, in the other area, encouraged only drinking sap if it had been protected from bat contamination by a barrier (“only safe sap”). Post-intervention, 40% more respondents in both intervention areas reported knowing about a disease contracted through raw sap consumption compared with control. Reported raw sap consumption decreased in all areas. The reductions in the intervention areas were not significantly greater compared to the control. Respondents directly exposed to the “only safe sap” message were more likely to report consuming raw sap from a protected source than those with no exposure (25 vs. 15%, OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.5–2.6, P < 0.001). While the intervention increased knowledge in both intervention areas, the “only safe sap” intervention reduced exposure to potentially NiV-contaminated sap and should be considered for future dissemination.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1267-4
  • Varicella Coinfection in Patients with Active Monkeypox in the Democratic
           Republic of the Congo
    • Authors: Nicole A. Hoff; Douglas S. Morier; Neville K. Kisalu; Sara C. Johnston; Reena H. Doshi; Lisa E. Hensley; Emile Okitolonda-Wemakoy; Jean Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum; James O. Lloyd-Smith; Anne W. Rimoin
      Abstract: Abstract From 2006 to 2007, an active surveillance program for human monkeypox (MPX) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo identified 151 cases of coinfection with monkeypox virus and varicella zoster virus from 1158 suspected cases of human MPX (13%). Using clinical and socio-demographic data collected with standardized instruments by trained, local nurse supervisors, we examined a variety of hypotheses to explain the unexpectedly high proportion of coinfections among the sample, including the hypothesis that the two viruses occur independently. The probabilities of disease incidence and selection necessary to yield the observed sample proportion of coinfections under an assumption of independence are plausible given what is known and assumed about human MPX incidence. Cases of human MPX are expected to be underreported, and more coinfections are expected with improved surveillance.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1266-5
  • In This Issue
    • PubDate: 2017-09-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1272-7
  • Borrelia miyamotoi , Other Vector-Borne Agents in Cat Blood and Ticks in
           Eastern Maryland
    • Authors: Avery B. Shannon; Renee Rucinsky; Holly D. Gaff; R. Jory Brinkerhoff
      Abstract: Abstract We collected blood and tick samples in eastern Maryland to quantify vector-borne pathogen exposure and infection in healthy cats and to assess occupational disease risk to veterinary professionals and others who regularly interact with household pets. Thirty-six percent of healthy cats parasitized by ticks at time of examination (9/25) were exposed to, and 14% of bloods (7/49) tested PCR-positive for, at least one vector-borne pathogen including several bloods and ticks with Borrelia miyamotoi, a recently recognized tick-borne zoonotic bacterium. There was no indication that high tick burdens were associated with exposure to vector-borne pathogens. Our results underscore the potential importance of cats to human vector-borne disease risk.
      PubDate: 2017-09-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1268-3
  • Vaccines for Conservation: Plague, Prairie Dogs &amp; Black-Footed
           Ferrets as a Case Study
    • Authors: Daniel J. Salkeld
      Abstract: Abstract The endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) is affected by plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, both directly, as a cause of mortality, and indirectly, because of the impacts of plague on its prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) prey base. Recent developments in vaccines and vaccine delivery have raised the possibility of plague control in prairie dog populations, thereby protecting ferret populations. A large-scale experimental investigation across the western US shows that sylvatic plague vaccine delivered in oral baits can increase prairie dog survival. In northern Colorado, an examination of the efficacy of insecticides to control fleas and plague vaccine shows that timing and method of plague control is important, with different implications for long-term and large-scale management of Y. pestis delivery. In both cases, the studies show that ambitious field-work and cross-sectoral collaboration can provide potential solutions to difficult issues of wildlife management, conservation and disease ecology.
      PubDate: 2017-09-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1273-6
  • The Influence of Temperature on Chytridiomycosis In Vivo
    • Authors: Julia M. Sonn; Scott Berman; Corinne L. Richards-Zawacki
      Abstract: Abstract Chytridiomycosis, an amphibian disease caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is an ideal system for studying the influence of temperature on host–pathogen relationships because both host and pathogen are ectothermic. Studies of Bd in culture suggest that optimal growth occurs between 17 and 23°C, and death of the fungus occurs above 29 or below 0°C. Amphibian immune systems, however, are also temperature dependent and often more effective at higher temperatures. We therefore hypothesized that pathogen load, probability of infection and mortality in Bd-exposed frogs would peak at a lower temperature than that at which Bd grows best in vitro. To test this, we conducted a study where Bd- and sham-exposed Northern cricket frogs (Acris crepitans) were incubated at six temperatures between 11 and 26°C. While probability of infection did not differ across temperatures, pathogen load and mortality were inversely related to temperature. Survival of infected hosts was greatest between 20 and 26°C, temperatures where Bd grows well in culture. These results demonstrate that the conditions under which a pathogen grows best in culture do not necessarily reflect patterns of pathogenicity, an important consideration for predicting the threat of this and other wildlife pathogens.
      PubDate: 2017-09-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1269-2
  • Human Exposure to Wild Animals in the Sankuru Province of the Democratic
           Republic of the Congo
    • Authors: Anne W. Rimoin; Vivian Helena Alfonso; Nicole A. Hoff; Reena H. Doshi; Prime Mulembakani; Nevile K. Kisalu; Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Emile W. Okitolonda; Linda L. Wright
      Abstract: Abstract Due to the high level of biological diversity in the Congo Basin and human population dependence on bushmeat, the DRC represents an ideal location for expanding knowledge on wild animal exposures and thus the potential for transmission of zoonotic pathogens. However, limited information exists on patterns and extent of contact with wildlife in such communities. Using a cross-sectional study, 14 villages in the Sankuru Province of the DRC were surveyed between August and September 2007. Villagers ≥ 1 year of age and at home of the time of the survey were eligible and enrolled to describe and assess factors associated with animal exposures (both activity and type of animal). Among respondents, 91% reported exposure to rodents, 89% to duikers, 78% to non-human primates (NHPs), and 32% reported contact with bats in the month prior to the survey. The most frequently reported activities included eating (95%), cooking (70%), and butchering or skinning of animals (55%). The activities and animals to which subjects had contact varied by sex and age. Moreover, we observed a high correlation of the same activities across animal types. In this and other populations that rely on bushmeat, there is a high frequency of exposure to multiple animal species through various modalities. In the event of future zoonotic disease outbreaks, effective public health interventions and campaigns that mitigate the risk of animal contact during outbreaks need to be broad to include various modes of contact and should be directed to both men and women across all age groups. As available information is limited, further studies are necessary to better understand the complex relationships and exposures individuals have with animals.
      PubDate: 2017-08-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1262-9
  • A Delphi Survey and Analysis of Expert Perspectives on One Health in
    • Authors: Chris Degeling; Jane Johnson; Michael Ward; Andrew Wilson; Gwendolyn Gilbert
      Abstract: Abstract One Health (OH) is an interdisciplinary approach aiming to achieve optimal health for humans, animals and their environments. Case reports and systematic reviews of success are emerging; however, discussion of barriers and enablers of cross-sectoral collaboration are rare. A four-phase mixed-method Delphi survey of Australian human and animal health practitioners and policymakers (n = 52) explored areas of consensus and disagreement over: (1) the operational definition of OH; (2) potential for cross-sectoral collaboration; and (3) key priorities for shaping the development of an OH response to significantly elevated zoonotic disease risk. Participants agreed OH is essential for effective infectious disease prevention and control, and on key priorities for outbreak responses, but disagreed over definitions and the relative priority of animal health and welfare and economic considerations. Strong support emerged among Australian experts for an OH approach. There was also recognition of the need to ensure cross-sectoral differences are addressed.
      PubDate: 2017-08-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1264-7
  • Large-Scale Removal of Invasive Honeysuckle Decreases Mosquito and Avian
           Host Abundance
    • Authors: Allison M. Gardner; Ephantus J. Muturi; Leah D. Overmier; Brian F. Allan
      Abstract: Abstract Invasive species rank second only to habitat destruction as a threat to native biodiversity. One consequence of biological invasions is altered risk of exposure to infectious diseases in human and animal populations. The distribution and prevalence of mosquito-borne diseases depend on the complex interactions between the vector, the pathogen, and the human or wildlife reservoir host. These interactions are highly susceptible to disturbance by invasive species, including terrestrial plants. We conducted a 2-year field experiment using a Before–After/Control–Impact design to examine how removal of invasive Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) in a forest fragment embedded within a residential neighborhood affects the abundance of mosquitoes, including two of the most important vectors of West Nile virus, Culex pipiens and Cx. restuans. We also assessed any potential changes in avian communities and local microclimate associated with Amur honeysuckle removal. We found that (1) removal of Amur honeysuckle reduces the abundance of both vector and non-vector mosquito species that commonly feed on human hosts, (2) the abundance and composition of avian hosts is altered by honeysuckle removal, and (3) areas invaded with honeysuckle support local microclimates that are favorable to mosquito survival. Collectively, our investigations demonstrate the role of a highly invasive understory shrub in determining the abundance and distribution of mosquitoes and suggest potential mechanisms underlying this pattern. Our results also give rise to additional questions regarding the general impact of invasive plants on vector-borne diseases and the spatial scale at which removal of invasive plants may be utilized to effect disease control.
      PubDate: 2017-08-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1265-6
  • What’ s New'
    • PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1259-4
  • A Severe Ranavirus Outbreak in Captive, Wild-Caught Box Turtles
    • Authors: Steven J. A. Kimble; April J. Johnson; Rod N. Williams; Jason T. Hoverman
      Abstract: Abstract A Ranavirus outbreak in a captive population of wild-caught individuals was monitored using clinical evaluations and real-time PCR in 317 wild box turtles held in captivity during translocation. During the 2-year study period, the population experienced 71.6% mortality, suggesting that ranaviruses can rapidly attenuate populations. Wide variation in infection rate (7–94% per sampling period) was observed, which may have been driven by clearing and reinfection, adaptive immunity, or imperfect detection using noninvasive samples. Only nasal clinical signs were significantly related to infection status, and agreement among sample types was low. Subsequent to the initial outbreak, low mortality but high real-time PCR prevalence of Ranavirus was observed, suggesting that surviving individuals might be tolerant.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1263-8
  • Host Responses to Pathogen Priming in a Natural Songbird Host
    • Authors: Ariel E. Leon; Dana M. Hawley
      Abstract: Abstract Hosts in free-living populations can experience substantial variation in the frequency and dose of pathogen exposure, which can alter disease progression and protection from future exposures. In the house finch–Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) system, the pathogen is primarily transmitted via bird feeders, and some birds may be exposed to frequent low doses of MG while foraging. Here we experimentally determined how low dose, repeated exposures of house finches to MG influence host responses and protection from secondary high-dose challenge. MG-naive house finches were given priming exposures that varied in dose and total number. After quantifying host responses to priming exposures, all birds were given a secondary high-dose challenge to assess immunological protection. Dose, but not the number of exposures, significantly predicted both infection and disease severity following priming exposure. Furthermore, individuals given higher priming doses showed stronger protection upon secondary, high-dose challenge. However, even single low-dose exposures to MG, a proxy for what some birds likely experience in the wild while feeding, provided significant protection against a high-dose challenge. Our results suggest that bird feeders, which serve as sources of infection in the wild, may in some cases act as “immunizers,” with important consequences for disease dynamics.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1261-x
  • Seasonal Bushmeat Hunger in the Congo Basin
    • Authors: Edmond Dounias; Mitsuo Ichikawa
      Abstract: Abstract Unlike the Sudano-sahelian regions, which are confronted to severe periods of food shortage, tropical rainforests are known to provide a constant supply of a great diversity of food resources that mitigates the risk of food starvation for omnivorous humans. Nevertheless, several African forest ethnic groups suffer from a seasonal hunger induced by depletion in the procurement of bushmeat, which is a food of paramount importance. Although the diet remains well balanced and meets all the nutritional needs, the bushmeat cravers loose weight and experience a stress that affects their well-being. Bushmeat hunger is a psychocultural form of hunger that generates several mental disorders. We present results from nutritional anthropology studies carried out among various Congo Basin forest peoples, which regularly suffer from bushmeat hunger. We expose the physiological risks that result from this psychological unrest, we argue that this type of unsatisfied compiling desire for meat should be considered as a factor of food insecurity and we conclude on its incidence on bushmeat trade. The immoderate craving for bushmeat compromises the attempts to replace bushmeat by other sources of meat and is a persisting obstacle to conservation initiatives that fail to take the psychocultural values of bushmeat into consideration.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1252-y
  • Burrow Dusting or Oral Vaccination Prevents Plague-Associated Prairie Dog
           Colony Collapse
    • Authors: Daniel W. Tripp; Tonie E. Rocke; Jonathan P. Runge; Rachel C. Abbott; Michael W. Miller
      Abstract: Abstract Plague impacts prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), the endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) and other sensitive wildlife species. We compared efficacy of prophylactic treatments (burrow dusting with deltamethrin or oral vaccination with recombinant “sylvatic plague vaccine” [RCN-F1/V307]) to placebo treatment in black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus) colonies. Between 2013 and 2015, we measured prairie dog apparent survival, burrow activity and flea abundance on triplicate plots (“blocks”) receiving dust, vaccine or placebo treatment. Epizootic plague affected all three blocks but emerged asynchronously. Dust plots had fewer fleas per burrow (P < 0.0001), and prairie dogs captured on dust plots had fewer fleas (P < 0.0001) than those on vaccine or placebo plots. Burrow activity and prairie dog density declined sharply in placebo plots when epizootic plague emerged. Patterns in corresponding dust and vaccine plots were less consistent and appeared strongly influenced by timing of treatment applications relative to plague emergence. Deltamethrin or oral vaccination enhanced apparent survival within two blocks. Applying insecticide or vaccine prior to epizootic emergence blunted effects of plague on prairie dog survival and abundance, thereby preventing colony collapse. Successful plague mitigation will likely entail strategic combined uses of burrow dusting and oral vaccination within large colonies or colony complexes.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1236-y
  • Sylvatic Plague Vaccine Partially Protects Prairie Dogs ( Cynomys spp.) in
           Field Trials
    • Authors: Tonie E. Rocke; Daniel W. Tripp; Robin E. Russell; Rachel C. Abbott; Katherine L.D. Richgels; Marc R. Matchett; Dean E. Biggins; Randall Griebel; Greg Schroeder; Shaun M. Grassel; David R. Pipkin; Jennifer Cordova; Adam Kavalunas; Brian Maxfield; Jesse Boulerice; Michael W. Miller
      Abstract: Abstract Sylvatic plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, frequently afflicts prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), causing population declines and local extirpations. We tested the effectiveness of bait-delivered sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) in prairie dog colonies on 29 paired placebo and treatment plots (1–59 ha in size; average 16.9 ha) in 7 western states from 2013 to 2015. We compared relative abundance (using catch per unit effort (CPUE) as an index) and apparent survival of prairie dogs on 26 of the 29 paired plots, 12 with confirmed or suspected plague (Y. pestis positive carcasses or fleas). Even though plague mortality occurred in prairie dogs on vaccine plots, SPV treatment had an overall positive effect on CPUE in all three years, regardless of plague status. Odds of capturing a unique animal were 1.10 (95% confidence interval [C.I.] 1.02–1.19) times higher per trap day on vaccine-treated plots than placebo plots in 2013, 1.47 (95% C.I. 1.41–1.52) times higher in 2014 and 1.19 (95% C.I. 1.13–1.25) times higher in 2015. On pairs where plague occurred, odds of apparent survival were 1.76 (95% Bayesian credible interval [B.C.I.] 1.28–2.43) times higher on vaccine plots than placebo plots for adults and 2.41 (95% B.C.I. 1.72–3.38) times higher for juveniles. Our results provide evidence that consumption of vaccine-laden baits can protect prairie dogs against plague; however, further evaluation and refinement are needed to optimize SPV use as a management tool.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1253-x
  • Infectious Disease Surveillance in the Woylie ( Bettongia penicillata )
    • Authors: Kim Skogvold; Kristin S. Warren; Bethany Jackson; Carly S. Holyoake; Kathryn Stalder; Joanne M. Devlin; Simone D. Vitali; Adrian F. Wayne; Alistair Legione; Ian Robertson; Rebecca J. Vaughan-Higgins
      Abstract: Abstract Wild populations of the critically endangered woylie (Bettongia penicillata) recently declined by 90% in southwest Western Australia. Increased predation is the leading hypothesis for decline, but disease may be playing a role increasing susceptibility to predation. To explore this possibility, we surveyed woylie populations in the wild, in captivity and in a predator-free sanctuary for exposure to, and infection with, four known pathogens of macropods: herpesviruses, Wallal and Warrego orbiviruses, and Toxoplasma gondii. Our study found two of 68 individuals positive for neutralizing antibodies against known macropodid alphaherpesviruses. Three of 45 individuals were PCR positive for a herpesvirus that was shown to be a novel gammaherpesvirus or a new strain/variant of Potoroid Herpesvirus 1. Further sequence information is required to definitively determine its correct classification. There was no evidence of antibodies to orbivirus Wallal and Warrego serogroups, and all serological samples tested for T. gondii were negative. This is the first report of PCR and serological detection of herpesviruses in the woylie. Positive individuals did not demonstrate clinical signs of herpesviral diseases; therefore, the clinical significance of herpesviruses to wild woylie populations remains unclear. Further monitoring for herpesvirus infections will be important to inform disease risk analysis for this virus and determine temporal trends in herpesvirus activity that may relate to population health and conservation outcomes.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1254-9
  • Environmental Factors and Zoonotic Pathogen Ecology in Urban Exploiter
    • Authors: Jamie L. Rothenburger; Chelsea H. Himsworth; Nicole M. Nemeth; David L. Pearl; Claire M. Jardine
      Abstract: Abstract Knowledge of pathogen ecology, including the impacts of environmental factors on pathogen and host dynamics, is essential for determining the risk that zoonotic pathogens pose to people. This review synthesizes the scientific literature on environmental factors that influence the ecology and epidemiology of zoonotic microparasites (bacteria, viruses and protozoa) in globally invasive urban exploiter wildlife species (i.e., rock doves [Columba livia domestica], European starlings [Sturnus vulgaris], house sparrows [Passer domesticus], Norway rats [Rattus norvegicus], black rats [R. rattus] and house mice [Mus musculus]). Pathogen ecology, including prevalence and pathogen characteristics, is influenced by geographical location, habitat, season and weather. The prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in mice and rats varies markedly over short geographical distances, but tends to be highest in ports, disadvantaged (e.g., low income) and residential areas. Future research should use epidemiological approaches, including random sampling and robust statistical analyses, to evaluate a range of biotic and abiotic environmental factors at spatial scales suitable for host home range sizes. Moving beyond descriptive studies to uncover the causal factors contributing to uneven pathogen distribution among wildlife hosts in urban environments may lead to targeted surveillance and intervention strategies. Application of this knowledge to urban maintenance and planning may reduce the potential impacts of urban wildlife-associated zoonotic diseases on people.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1258-5
  • Multi-criteria Decision Analysis to Model Ixodes ricinus Habitat
    • Authors: Raphaël Rousseau; Guy McGrath; Barry J. McMahon; Sophie O. Vanwambeke
      Abstract: Abstract Tick-borne diseases present a major threat to both human and livestock health throughout Europe. The risk of infection is directly related to the presence of its vector. Thereby it is important to know their distribution, which is strongly associated with environmental factors: the presence and availability of a suitable habitat, of a suitable climate and of hosts. The present study models the habitat suitability for Ixodes ricinus in Ireland, where data on tick distribution are scarce. Tick habitat suitability was estimated at a coarse scale (10 km) with a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method according to four different scenarios (depending on the variables used and on the weights granted to each of them). The western part of Ireland and the Wicklow mountains in the East were estimated to be the most suitable areas for I. ricinus in the island. There was a good level of agreement between results from the MCDA and recorded tick presence. The different scenarios did not affect the spatial outputs substantially. The current study suggests that tick habitat suitability can be mapped accurately at a coarse scale in a data-scarce context using knowledge-based methods. It can serve as a guideline for future countrywide sampling that would help to determine local risk of tick presence and refining knowledge on tick habitat suitability in Ireland.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1247-8
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