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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1296 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (18 journals)
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    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (526 journals)
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HEALTH AND SAFETY (526 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 202)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Notions     Open Access  
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Healthy-Mu Journal     Open Access  
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover EcoHealth
  [SJR: 1.137]   [H-I: 35]   [4 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1612-9210 - ISSN (Online) 1612-9202
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2354 journals]
  • What’s New'
    • Authors: Brian Baker
      PubDate: 2017-11-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1290-5
  • Using Gene Transcription to Assess Ecological and Anthropological
           Stressors in Brown Bears
    • Authors: Lizabeth Bowen; A. Keith Miles; Shannon Waters; Dave Gustine; Kyle Joly; Grant Hilderbrand
      Abstract: Increasingly, population- and ecosystem-level health assessments are performed using sophisticated molecular tools. Advances in molecular technology enable the identification of synergistic effects of multiple stressors on the individual physiology of different species. Brown bears (Ursus arctos) are an apex predator; thus, they are ideal candidates for detecting potentially ecosystem-level systemic perturbations using molecular-based tools. We used gene transcription to analyze 130 brown bear samples from three National Parks and Preserves in Alaska. Although the populations we studied are apparently stable in abundance and exist within protected and intact environments, differences in transcript profiles were noted. The most prevalent differences were among locations. The transcript patterns among groups reflect the influence of environmental factors, such as nutritional status, disease, and xenobiotic exposure. However, these profiles also likely represent baselines for each unique environment by which future measures can be made to identify early indication of population-level changes due to, for example, increasing Arctic temperatures. Some of those environmental changes are predicted to be potentially positive for brown bears, but other effects such as the manifestation of disease or indirect effects of oceanic acidification may produce negative impacts.
      PubDate: 2017-11-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1287-0
  • The Era of Human-Induced Diseases
    • Authors: Anne-Lise Chaber
      PubDate: 2017-11-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1299-9
  • Rodent-Borne Bartonella Infection Varies According to Host Species Within
           and Among Cities
    • Authors: Anna C. Peterson; Bruno M. Ghersi; Fernando Alda; Cadhla Firth; Matthew J. Frye; Ying Bai; Lynn M. Osikowicz; Claudia Riegel; W. Ian Lipkin; Michael Y. Kosoy; Michael J. Blum
      Abstract: It is becoming increasingly likely that rodents will drive future disease epidemics with the continued expansion of cities worldwide. Though transmission risk is a growing concern, relatively little is known about pathogens carried by urban rats. Here, we assess whether the diversity and prevalence of Bartonella bacteria differ according to the (co)occurrence of rat hosts across New Orleans, LA (NO), where both Norway (Rattus norvegicus) and roof rats (Rattus rattus) are found, relative to New York City (NYC) which only harbors Norway rats. We detected human pathogenic Bartonella species in both NYC and New Orleans rodents. We found that Norway rats in New Orleans harbored a more diverse assemblage of Bartonella than Norway rats in NYC and that Norway rats harbored a more diverse and distinct assemblage of Bartonella compared to roof rats in New Orleans. Additionally, Norway rats were more likely to be infected with Bartonella than roof rats in New Orleans. Flea infestation appears to be an important predictor of Bartonella infection in Norway rats across both cities. These findings illustrate that pathogen infections can be heterogeneous in urban rodents and indicate that further study of host species interactions could clarify variation in spillover risk across cities.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1291-4
  • Viral Communities Among Sympatric Vampire Bats and Cattle
    • Authors: Marina Escalera-Zamudio; Blanca Taboada; Edith Rojas-Anaya; Ulrike Löber; Elizabeth Loza-Rubio; Carlos F. Arias; Alex D. Greenwood
      Abstract: Vampire bats are the only mammals known to feed exclusively on blood from other animals, often from domestic cattle. We tested the hypothesis that the adaptation of vampire bats to hematophagy would have resulted in shared viral communities among vampire bats and cattle, as a direct result of historic spillover events occurring due to hematophagy. We analyzed the presence of different viruses in sample populations of sympatric bat and prey populations and searched for shared viruses between taxa. A limited number of DNA viral groups were detected within each species. However, there was no evidence for a shared viral community among the vampire bat and cattle populations tested.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1297-y
  • In This Issue
    • PubDate: 2017-11-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1298-x
  • Factors Influencing Uptake of Sylvatic Plague Vaccine Baits by Prairie
    • Authors: Rachel C. Abbott; Robin E. Russell; Katherine L. D. Richgels; Daniel W. Tripp; Marc R. Matchett; Dean E. Biggins; Tonie E. Rocke
      Abstract: Sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) is a virally vectored bait-delivered vaccine expressing Yersinia pestis antigens that can protect prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) from plague and has potential utility as a management tool. In a large-scale 3-year field trial, SPV-laden baits containing the biomarker rhodamine B (used to determine bait consumption) were distributed annually at a rate of approximately 100–125 baits/hectare along transects at 58 plots encompassing the geographic ranges of four species of prairie dogs. We assessed site- and individual-level factors related to bait uptake in prairie dogs to determine which were associated with bait uptake rates. Overall bait uptake for 7820 prairie dogs sampled was 70% (95% C.I. 69.9–72.0). Factors influencing bait uptake rates by prairie dogs varied by species, however, in general, heavier animals had greater bait uptake rates. Vegetation quality and day of baiting influenced this relationship for black-tailed, Gunnison’s, and Utah prairie dogs. For these species, baiting later in the season, when normalized difference vegetation indices (a measure of green vegetation density) are lower, improves bait uptake by smaller animals. Consideration of these factors can aid in the development of species-specific SPV baiting strategies that maximize bait uptake and subsequent immunization of prairie dogs against plague.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1294-1
  • Correction to: Phylogenetic Insight into Zika and Emerging Viruses for a
           Perspective on Potential Hosts
    • Authors: Diana S. Weber; Karen A. Alroy; Samuel M. Scheiner
      Abstract: The article Phylogenetic Insight into Zika and Emerging Viruses for a Perspective on Potential Hosts, written by Diana S. Weber, Karen A. Alroy, and Samuel M. Scheiner, was originally published Online First without open access.
      PubDate: 2017-11-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1279-0
  • Vectors, Hosts, and Control Measures for Zika Virus in the Americas
    • Authors: Sarah J. Thompson; John M. Pearce; Andrew M. Ramey
      Abstract: We examine Zika virus (ZIKV) from an ecological perspective and with a focus on the Americas. We assess (1) the role of wildlife in ZIKV disease ecology, (2) how mosquito behavior and biology influence disease dynamics, and (3) how nontarget species and ecosystems may be impacted by vector control programs. Our review suggests that free-ranging, non-human primates may be involved in ZIKV transmission in the Old World; however, other wildlife species likely play a limited role in maintaining or transmitting ZIKV. In the Americas, a zoonotic cycle has not yet been definitively established. Understanding behaviors and habitat tolerances of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, two ZIKV competent vectors in the Americas, will allow more accurate modeling of disease spread and facilitate targeted and effective control efforts. Vector control efforts may have direct and indirect impacts to wildlife, particularly invertebrate feeding species; however, strategies could be implemented to limit detrimental ecological effects.
      PubDate: 2017-11-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1277-2
  • Implications of Tourist–Macaque Interactions for Disease
    • Authors: Charlotte Carne; Stuart Semple; Ann MacLarnon; Bonaventura Majolo; Laëtitia Maréchal
      Abstract: During wildlife tourism, proximity or actual contact between people and animals may lead to a significant risk of anthropozoonotic disease transmission. In this paper, we use social network analysis, disease simulation modelling and data on animal health and behaviour to investigate such risks at a site in Morocco, where tourists come to see wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). Measures of individual macaques’ network centrality—an index of the strength and distribution of their social relationships and thus potentially their ability to spread disease—did not show clear and consistent relationships with their time spent in close proximity to, or rate of interacting with, tourists. Disease simulation modelling indicated that while higher-ranked animals had a significantly greater ability to spread disease within the group, in absolute terms there was little difference in the size of outbreaks that different individuals were predicted to cause. We observed a high rate of physical contact and close proximity between humans and macaques, including during three periods when the macaques were coughing and sneezing heavily, highlighting the potential risk of disease transmission. We recommend that general disease prevention strategies, such as those aimed at reducing opportunities for contact between tourists and macaques, should be adopted.
      PubDate: 2017-11-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1284-3
  • Rethinking Human–Nonhuman Primate Contact and Pathogenic Disease
    • Authors: Victor Narat; Lys Alcayna-Stevens; Stephanie Rupp; Tamara Giles-Vernick
      Abstract: Zoonotic transmissions are a major global health risk, and human–animal contact is frequently raised as an important driver of transmission. A literature examining zooanthroponosis largely agrees that more human–animal contact leads to more risk. Yet the basis of this proposition, the term contact, has not been rigorously analyzed. To understand how contact is used to explain cross-species spillovers, we conducted a multi-disciplinary review of studies addressing human–nonhuman primate (NHP) engagements and pathogenic transmissions and employing the term contact. We find that although contact is frequently invoked, it is employed inconsistently and imprecisely across these studies, overlooking the range of pathogens and their transmission routes and directions. We also examine a related but more expansive approach focusing on human and NHP habitats and their spatial overlap, which can potentially facilitate pathogenic transmission. Contact and spatial overlap investigations cannot, however, explain the processes that bring together people, animals and pathogens. We therefore examine another approach that enhances our understanding of zoonotic spillovers: anthropological studies identifying such historical, social, environmental processes. Comparable to a One Health approach, our ongoing research in Cameroon draws contact, spatial overlap and anthropological–historical approaches into dialog to suggest where, when and how pathogenic transmissions between people and NHPs may occur. In conclusion, we call for zoonotic disease researchers to specify more precisely the human–animal contacts they investigate and to attend to how broader ecologies, societies and histories shape pathogen–human–animal interactions.
      PubDate: 2017-11-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1283-4
  • Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans and the Risk of a Second Amphibian
    • Authors: Tiffany A. Yap; Natalie T. Nguyen; Megan Serr; Alexander Shepack; Vance T. Vredenburg
      Abstract: Amphibians are experiencing devastating population declines globally. A major driver is chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease caused by the fungal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal). Bd was described in 1999 and has been linked with declines since the 1970s, while Bsal is a more recently discovered pathogen that was described in 2013. It is hypothesized that Bsal originated in Asia and spread via international trade to Europe, where it has been linked to salamander die-offs. Trade in live amphibians thus represents a significant threat to global biodiversity in amphibians. We review the current state of knowledge regarding Bsal and describe the risk of Bsal spread. We discuss regional responses to Bsal and barriers that impede a rapid, coordinated global effort. The discovery of a second deadly emerging chytrid fungal pathogen in amphibians poses an opportunity for scientists, conservationists, and governments to improve global biosecurity and further protect humans and wildlife from a growing number of emerging infectious diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1278-1
  • Common Cutaneous Bacteria Isolated from Snakes Inhibit Growth of
           Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola
    • Authors: Aubree J. Hill; Jacob E. Leys; Danny Bryan; Fantasia M. Erdman; Katherine S. Malone; Gabrielle N. Russell; Roger D. Applegate; Heather Fenton; Kevin Niedringhaus; Andrew N. Miller; Matthew C. Allender; Donald M. Walker
      Abstract: There is increasing concern regarding potential impacts of snake fungal disease (SFD), caused by Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola (Oo), on free-ranging snake populations in the eastern USA. The snake cutaneous microbiome likely serves as the first line of defense against Oo and other pathogens; however, little is known about microbial associations in snakes. The objective of this study was to better define the composition and immune function of the snake cutaneous microbiome. Eight timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) and four black racers (Coluber constrictor) were captured in Arkansas and Tennessee, with some snakes exhibiting signs of SFD. Oo was detected through real-time qPCR in five snakes. Additional histopathological techniques confirmed a diagnosis of SFD in one racer, the species’ first confirmed case of SFD in Tennessee. Fifty-eight bacterial and five fungal strains were isolated from skin swabs and identified with Sanger sequencing. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and PERMANOVA analyses indicated that the culturable microbiome does not differ between snake species. Fifteen bacterial strains isolated from rattlesnakes and a single strain isolated from a racer inhibited growth of Oo in vitro. Results shed light on the culturable cutaneous microbiome of snakes and probiotic members that may play a role in fighting an emergent disease.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1289-y
  • A Qualitative Stakeholder Analysis of Avian Influenza Policy in Bangladesh
    • Authors: Kaushik Chattopadhyay; Guillaume Fournié; Md. Abul Kalam; Paritosh K. Biswas; Ahasanul Hoque; Nitish C. Debnath; Mahmudur Rahman; Dirk U. Pfeiffer; David Harper; David L. Heymann
      Abstract: Avian influenza is a major animal and public health concern in Bangladesh. A decade after development and implementation of the first national avian influenza and human pandemic influenza preparedness and response plan in Bangladesh, a two-stage qualitative stakeholder analysis was performed in relation to the policy development process and the actual policy. This study specifically aimed to identify the future policy options to prevent and control avian influenza and other poultry-related zoonotic diseases in Bangladesh. It was recommended that the policy should be based on the One Health concept, be evidence-based, sustainable, reviewed and updated as necessary. The future policy environment that is suitable for developing and implementing these policies should take into account the following points: the need to formally engage multiple sectors, the need for clear and acceptable leadership, roles and responsibilities and the need for a common pool of resources and provision for transferring resources. Most of these recommendations are directed towards the Government of Bangladesh. However, other sectors, including research and poultry production stakeholders, also have a major role to play to inform policy making and actively participate in the multi-sectoral approach.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1285-2
  • Plant Phenology Supports the Multi-emergence Hypothesis for Ebola
           Spillover Events
    • Authors: Katharina C. Wollenberg Valero; Raphael D. Isokpehi; Noah E. Douglas; Seenith Sivasundaram; Brianna Johnson; Kiara Wootson; Ayana McGill
      Abstract: Ebola virus disease outbreaks in animals (including humans and great apes) start with sporadic host switches from unknown reservoir species. The factors leading to such spillover events are little explored. Filoviridae viruses have a wide range of natural hosts and are unstable once outside hosts. Spillover events, which involve the physical transfer of viral particles across species, could therefore be directly promoted by conditions of host ecology and environment. In this report, we outline a proof of concept that temporal fluctuations of a set of ecological and environmental variables describing the dynamics of the host ecosystem are able to predict such events of Ebola virus spillover to humans and animals. We compiled a data set of climate and plant phenology variables and Ebola virus disease spillovers in humans and animals. We identified critical biotic and abiotic conditions for spillovers via multiple regression and neural network-based time series regression. Phenology variables proved to be overall better predictors than climate variables. African phenology variables are not yet available as a comprehensive online resource. Given the likely importance of phenology for forecasting the likelihood of future Ebola spillover events, our results highlight the need for cost-effective transect surveys to supply phenology data for predictive modelling efforts.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1288-z
  • Avian Viral Pathogens in Swallows, Zimbabwe
    • Authors: A. Caron; N. Chiweshe; J. Mundava; C. Abolnik; A. Capobianco Dondona; M. Scacchia; N. Gaidet
      Abstract: We sampled 417 swallows in a wetland ecosystem of Zimbabwe in February 2010 and October 2011. RT-PCR tests revealed circulation of avian paramyxovirus type I, avian influenza and West Nile disease viruses in these populations. We discuss the relevance of these findings in relation to what is known on the epidemiology of these viruses in these hosts and in relation to the host ecology. We conclude with recommendations to focus more research on Passeriformes in disease ecology and in particular on the hirundinidae family.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1282-5
  • Pastoralists’ Vulnerability to Trypanosomiasis in Maasai Steppe
    • Authors: Happiness J. Nnko; Paul S. Gwakisa; Anibariki Ngonyoka; Meshack Saigilu; Moses Ole-Neselle; William Kisoka; Calvin Sindato; Anna Estes
      Abstract: Trypanosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease of both livestock and humans. Although pastoral communities of the Maasai Steppe have been able to adapt to trypanosomiasis in the past, their traditional strategies are now constrained by changes in climate and land regimes that affect their ability to move with their herds and continually shape the communities’ vulnerability to trypanosomiasis. Despite these constraints, information on communities’ vulnerability and adaptive capacity to trypanosomiasis is limited. A cross-sectional study was therefore conducted in Simanjiro and Monduli districts of the Maasai Steppe to establish pastoralists’ vulnerability to animal trypanosomiasis and factors that determined their adaptation strategies. A weighted overlay approach in ArcGIS 10.4 was used to analyze vulnerability levels while binomial and multinomial logistic regressions in R 3.3.2 were used to analyze the determinants of adaptation. Simanjiro district was the most vulnerable to trypanosomiasis. The majority (87.5%, n = 136) of the respondents were aware of trypanosomiasis in animals, but only 7.4% (n = 136) knew about the human form of the disease. Reported impacts of animal trypanosomiasis were low milk production (95.6%, n = 136), death of livestock (96.8%, n = 136) and emaciation of animals (99.9%, n = 136). Crop farming was the most frequently reported animal trypanosomiasis adaptation strategy (66%, n = 136). At a 95% confidence interval, accessibility to livestock extension services (β = 7.61, SE = 3.28, df = 135, P = 0.02), years of livestock keeping experience (β = 6.17, SE = 1.95, df = 135, P = 0.001), number of cattle owned (β = 5.85, SE = 2.70, df = 135, P = 0.03) and membership in associations (β = − 4.11, SE = 1.79, df = 135, P = 0.02) had a significant impact on the probability of adapting to animal trypanosomiasis.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1275-4
  • Molecular Epidemiology of Trypanosomatids and Trypanosoma cruzi in
           Primates from Peru
    • Authors: Esar Aysanoa; Pedro Mayor; A. Patricia Mendoza; Carlos M. Zariquiey; E. Angelo Morales; Jocelyn G. Pérez; Mark Bowler; Julio A. Ventocilla; Carlos González; G. Christian Baldeviano; Andrés G. Lescano
      Abstract: We determined the prevalence rate and risk of infection of Trypanosoma cruzi and other trypanosomatids in Peruvian non-human primates (NHPs) in the wild (n = 126) and in different captive conditions (n = 183). Blood samples were collected on filter paper, FTA cards, or EDTA tubes and tested using a nested PCR protocol targeting the 24Sα rRNA gene. Main risk factors associated with trypanosomatid and T. cruzi infection were genus and the human–animal context (wild vs captive animals). Wild NHPs had higher prevalence of both trypanosomatids (64.3 vs 27.9%, P < 0.001) and T. cruzi (8.7 vs 3.3%, P = 0.057), compared to captive NHPs, suggesting that parasite transmission in NHPs occurs more actively in the sylvatic cycle. In terms of primate family, Pitheciidae had the highest trypanosomatid prevalence (20/22, 90.9%) and Cebidae had the highest T. cruzi prevalence (15/117, 12.8%). T. cruzi and trypanosomatids are common in Peruvian NHPs and could pose a health risk to human and animals that has not been properly studied.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1271-8
  • Subterranean Mammals: Reservoirs of Infection or Overlooked Sentinels of
           Anthropogenic Environmental Soiling'
    • Authors: Liezl Retief; Nigel C. Bennett; Jennifer U. M. Jarvis; Armanda D. S. Bastos
      Abstract: Global reports of emergent pathogens in humans have intensified efforts to identify wildlife reservoirs. Subterranean mammals, such as bathyergid mole rats, are largely overlooked, despite their high-level exposure to soil-dwelling microbes. Initial assessment of bathyergid reservoir potential was determined using a broad-range 16S rRNA PCR approach, which revealed an 83% PCR-positivity for the 234 bathyergid lung samples evaluated. The presence of the Bacillus cereus complex, a ubiquitous bacterial assemblage, containing pathogenic and zoonotic species, was confirmed through nucleotide sequencing, prior to group- and species-specific PCR sequencing. The latter allowed for enhanced placement and prevalence estimations of Bacillus in four bathyergid species sampled across a range of transformed landscapes in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Two novel Bacillus strains (1 and 2) identified on the basis of the concatenated 16S rRNA-groEL-yeaC data set (2066 nucleotides in length), clustered with B. mycoides (ATCC 6462) and B. weihenstephanensis (WSBC 10204), within a well-supported monophyletic lineage. The levels of co-infection, evaluated with a groEL strain-specific assay, developed specifically for this purpose, were high (71%). The overall Bacillus presence of 17.95% (ranging from 0% for Georychus capensis to 45.35% for Bathyergus suillus) differed significantly between host species (χ2 = 69.643; df = 3; P < 0.05), being significantly higher in bathyergids sampled near an urban informal settlement (χ2 = 70.245; df = 3; P < 0.05). The results highlight the sentinel potential of soil-dwelling mammals for monitoring anthropogenically introduced, opportunistic pathogens and the threats they pose to vulnerable communities, particularly in the developing world.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1281-6
  • Interactions Between Carnivores in Madagascar and the Risk of Disease
    • Authors: Fidisoa Rasambainarivo; Zach J. Farris; Hertz Andrianalizah; Patricia G. Parker
      Abstract: Introduced carnivores exert considerable pressure on native predators through predation, competition and disease transmission. Recent research shows that exotic carnivores negatively affect the distribution and abundance of the native and endangered carnivores of Madagascar. In this study, we provide information about the frequency and distribution of interactions between exotic (dogs and cats) and native carnivores (Eupleridae) in the Betampona Natural Reserve (BNR), Madagascar, using noninvasive camera trap surveys. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) were the most frequently detected carnivore species within the BNR, and we found that indirect interactions between exotic and native carnivores were frequent (n = 236). Indirect interactions were more likely to occur near the research station (incidence rate ratio = 0.91), which may constitute a disease transmission hot spot for carnivores at BNR. The intervals between capture of native and exotic carnivores suggest that there is potential for pathogen transmission between species in BNR. These capture intervals were significantly shorter near the edge of the reserve (P = 0.04). These data could be used to implement biosecurity measures to monitor interactions and prevent disease transmission between species at the domestic animal and wildlife interface.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1280-7
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