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 EcoHealth   [SJR: 1.137]   [H-I: 35]   [4 followers]  Follow         Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)    ISSN (Print) 1612-9210 - ISSN (Online) 1612-9202    Published by Springer-Verlag  [2351 journals]
• Livestock Disease Management for Trading Across Different Regulatory
Regimes
• Authors: Andrew M. Bate; Glyn Jones; Adam Kleczkowski; Rebecca Naylor; Jon Timmis; Piran C. L. White; Julia Touza
Abstract: The maintenance of livestock health depends on the combined actions of many different actors, both within and across different regulatory frameworks. Prior work recognised that private risk management choices have the ability to reduce the spread of infection to trading partners. We evaluate the efficiency of farmers’ alternative biosecurity choices in terms of their own-benefits from unilateral strategies and quantify the impact they may have in filtering the disease externality of trade. We use bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) in England and Scotland as a case study, since this provides an example of a situation where contrasting strategies for BVD management occur between selling and purchasing farms. We use an agent-based bioeconomic model to assess the payoff dependence of farmers connected by trade but using different BVD management strategies. We compare three disease management actions: test-cull, test-cull with vaccination and vaccination alone. For a two-farm trading situation, all actions carried out by the selling farm provide substantial benefits to the purchasing farm in terms of disease avoided, with the greatest benefit resulting from test-culling with vaccination on the selling farm. Likewise, unilateral disease strategies by purchasers can be effective in reducing disease risks created through trade. We conclude that regulation needs to balance the trade-off between private gains from those bearing the disease management costs and the positive spillover effects on others.
PubDate: 2018-02-12
DOI: 10.1007/s10393-018-1312-y

• Environmental Factors Associated with the Carriage of Bacterial Pathogens
in Norway Rats
• Authors: Jamie L. Rothenburger; Chelsea G. Himsworth; Nicole M. Nemeth; David L. Pearl; Claire M. Jardine
Abstract: Worldwide, Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) carry a number of zoonotic pathogens. Many studies have identified rat-level risk factors for pathogen carriage. The objective of this study was to examine associations between abundance, microenvironmental and weather features and Clostridium difficile, antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in urban rats. We assessed city blocks for rat abundance and 48 microenvironmental variables during a trap-removal study, then constructed 32 time-lagged temperature and precipitation variables and fitted multivariable logistic regression models. The odds of C. difficile positivity were significantly lower when mean maximum temperatures were high (≥ 12.89°C) approximately 3 months before rat capture. Alley pavement condition was significantly associated with AMR E. coli. Rats captured when precipitation was low (< 49.40 mm) in the 15 days before capture and those from blocks that contained food gardens and institutions had increased odds of testing positive for MRSA. Different factors were associated with each pathogen, which may reflect varying pathogen ecology including exposure and environmental survival. This study adds to the understanding of how the microenvironment and weather impacts the epidemiology and ecology of zoonotic pathogens in urban ecosystems, which may be useful for surveillance and control activities.
PubDate: 2018-02-09
DOI: 10.1007/s10393-018-1313-x

• Using a Harm Reduction Approach in an Environmental Case Study of Fish and
Wildlife Health
• Authors: Craig Stephen; Julie Wittrock; Joy Wade
PubDate: 2018-01-23
DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1311-4

• Pathogen Transmission from Humans to Great Apes is a Growing Threat to
Primate Conservation
• Authors: Emily Dunay; Kathleen Apakupakul; Stephen Leard; Jamie L. Palmer; Sharon L. Deem
Abstract: All six great ape species are listed as endangered or critically endangered by the IUCN and experiencing decreasing population trends. One of the threats to these non-human primates is the transmission of pathogens from humans. We conducted a literature review on occurrences of pathogen transmission from humans to great apes to highlight this often underappreciated issue. In total, we found 33 individual occurrences of probable or confirmed pathogen transmission from humans to great apes: 23 involved both pathogen and disease transmission, 7 pathogen transmission only, 2 positive antibody titers to zoonotic pathogens, and 1 pathogen transmission with probable disease. Great ape populations were categorized into captive, semi-free-living, and free-living conditions. The majority of occurrences involved chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) (n = 23) or mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) (n = 8). These findings have implications for conservation efforts and management of endangered great ape populations. Future efforts should focus on monitoring and addressing zoonotic pathogen and disease transmission between humans, great ape species, and other taxa to ensure the health of humans, wild and domestic animals, and the ecosystems we share.
PubDate: 2018-01-23
DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1306-1

• Hendra Virus Spillover is a Bimodal System Driven by Climatic Factors
• Authors: Gerardo Martin; Carlos Yanez-Arenas; Raina K. Plowright; Carla Chen; Billie Roberts; Lee F. Skerratt
Abstract: Understanding environmental factors driving spatiotemporal patterns of disease can improve risk mitigation strategies. Hendra virus (HeV), discovered in Australia in 1994, spills over from bats (Pteropus sp.) to horses and thence to humans. Below latitude − 22°, almost all spillover events to horses occur during winter, and above this latitude spillover is aseasonal. We generated a statistical model of environmental drivers of HeV spillover per month. The model reproduced the spatiotemporal pattern of spillover risk between 1994 and 2015. The model was generated with an ensemble of methods for presence–absence data (boosted regression trees, random forests and logistic regression). Presences were the locations of horse cases, and absences per spatial unit (2.7 × 2.7 km pixels without spillover) were sampled with the horse census of Queensland and New South Wales. The most influential factors indicate that spillover is associated with both cold-dry and wet conditions. Bimodal responses to several variables suggest spillover involves two systems: one above and one below a latitudinal area close to − 22°. Northern spillovers are associated with cold-dry and wet conditions, and southern with cold-dry conditions. Biologically, these patterns could be driven by immune or behavioural changes in response to food shortage in bats and horse husbandry. Future research should look for differences in these traits between seasons in the two latitudinal regions. Based on the predicted risk patterns by latitude, we recommend enhanced preventive management for horses from March to November below latitude 22° south.
PubDate: 2018-01-18
DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1309-y

• Brucellosis Risk in Urban and Agro-pastoral Areas in Tanzania
• Authors: Shingo Asakura; George Makingi; Rudovick Kazwala; Kohei Makita
Abstract: Epidemiology of human and animal brucellosis may depend on ecological conditions. A cross-sectional study was conducted to compare prevalence and risk factors of bovine brucellosis, and risky behaviours for the human infection between urban and agro-pastoral areas in Morogoro region, Tanzania. Cattle blood sampling and interviews using a structured questionnaire were conducted with farmers. Rose-Bengal test was conducted for the cattle sera, and positive samples were confirmed with competitive ELISA. Farm-level sero-prevalences were 0.9% (1/106, 95% CI 0.0–5.9%) and 52.9% (9/17, 95% CI 28.5–76.1%) in urban and agro-pastoral areas, respectively. The animal-level-adjusted prevalences were 0.2% (1/667, 95% CI 0.0–1.1%) and 7.0% (28/673, 95% CI 5.7–8.4%) in those areas. The final farm-level model including both areas found two risk factors: history of abortion in the herd (P < 0.01) and cattle grazing (P = 0.07). The animal-level risk factors in agro-pastoral areas were age (P = 0.04) and history of abortion (P = 0.03). No agro-pastoral farmer knew about Brucella vaccine. Agro-pastoralists generally had poorer knowledge on brucellosis and practiced significantly more risky behaviours for human brucellosis such as drinking raw milk (17.6%, P < 0.01) and blood (35.3%, P < 0.01), and helping cattle birth (100%, P = 0.04) than urban farmers (0, 0 and 79.2%, respectively). Intervention programs through education including both human and animal health particularly targeting agro-pastoralists would be needed.
PubDate: 2018-01-17
DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1308-z

• Quantitative Outcomes of a One Health approach to Study Global Health
Challenges
• Authors: Laura C. Falzon; Isabel Lechner; Ilias Chantziaras; Lucie Collineau; Aurélie Courcoul; Maria-Eleni Filippitzi; Riikka Laukkanen-Ninios; Carole Peroz; Jorge Pinto Ferreira; Merel Postma; Pia G. Prestmo; Clare J. Phythian; Eleonora Sarno; Gerty Vanantwerpen; Timothée Vergne; Douglas J. C. Grindlay; Marnie L. Brennan
Abstract: Having gained momentum in the last decade, the One Health initiative promotes a holistic approach to address complex global health issues. Before recommending its adoption to stakeholders, however, it is paramount to first compile quantitative evidence of the benefit of such an approach. The aim of this scoping review was to identify and summarize primary research that describes monetary and non-monetary outcomes following adoption of a One Health approach. An extensive literature search yielded a total of 42,167 references, of which 85 were included in the final analysis. The top two biotic health issues addressed in these studies were rabies and malaria; the top abiotic health issue was air pollution. Most studies described collaborations between human and animal (n = 42), or human and environmental disciplines (n = 41); commonly reported interventions included vector control and animal vaccination. Monetary outcomes were commonly expressed as cost–benefit or cost–utility ratios; non-monetary outcomes were described using disease frequency or disease burden measurements. The majority of the studies reported positive or partially positive outcomes. This paper illustrates the variety of health challenges that can be addressed using a One Health approach, and provides tangible quantitative measures that can be used to evaluate future implementations of the One Health approach.
PubDate: 2018-01-12
DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1310-5

• Evaluating Efficacy of Landsat-Derived Environmental Covariates for
Predicting Malaria Distribution in Rural Villages of Vhembe District,
South Africa
• Authors: Oupa E. Malahlela; Jane M. Olwoch; Clement Adjorlolo
Abstract: Malaria in South Africa is still a problem despite existing efforts to eradicate the disease. In the Vhembe District Municipality, malaria prevalence is still high, with a mean incidence rate of 328.2 per 100,0000 persons/year. This study aimed at evaluating environmental covariates, such as vegetation moisture and vegetation greenness, associated with malaria vector distribution for better predictability towards rapid and efficient disease management and control. The 2005 malaria incidence data combined with Landsat 5 ETM were used in this study. A total of nine remotely sensed covariates were derived, while pseudo-absences in the ratio of 1:2 (presence/absence) were generated at buffer distances of 0.5–20 km from known presence locations. A stepwise logistic regression model was applied to analyse the spatial distribution of malaria in the area. A buffer distance of 10 km yielded the highest classification accuracy of 82% at a threshold of 0.9. This model was significant (ρ < 0.05) and yielded a deviance (D2) of 36%. The significantly positive relationship (ρ < 0.05) between the soil-adjusted vegetation index and malaria distribution at all buffer distances suggests that malaria vector (Anopheles arabiensis) prefer productive and greener vegetation. The significant negative relationship between water/moisture index (a1 index) and malaria distribution in buffer distances of 0.5, 10, and 20 km suggest that malaria distribution increases with a decrease in shortwave reflectance signal. The study has shown that suitable habitats of malaria vectors are generally found within a radius of 10 km in semi-arid environments, and this insight can be useful to aid efforts aimed at putting in place evidence-based preventative measures against malaria infections. Furthermore, this result is important in understanding malaria dynamics under the current climate and environmental changes. The study has also demonstrated the use of Landsat data and the ability to extract environmental conditions which favour the distribution of malaria vector (An. arabiensis) such as the canopy moisture content in vegetation, which serves as a surrogate for rainfall.
PubDate: 2018-01-12
DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1307-0

• Armillifer -Infected Snakes Sold at Congolese Bushmeat Markets Represent
an Emerging Zoonotic Threat
• Authors: Richard Hardi; Gergely Babocsay; Dennis Tappe; Mihály Sulyok; Imre Bodó; Lajos Rózsa
Pages: 743 - 749
Abstract: African pythons (Pythonidae) and large vipers (Bitis spp.) act as definitive hosts for Armillifer armillatus and Armillifer grandis parasites (Crustacea: Pentastomida) in the Congo Basin. Since the proportion of snakes in bushmeat gradually increases, human pentastomiasis is an emerging zoonotic disease. To substantiate the significance of this threat, we surveyed snakes offered for human consumption at bushmeat markets in the Kole district, Democratic Republic of the Congo, for the presence of adult pentastomids. In Bitis vipers (n = 40), Armillifer spp. infestations exhibited an 87.5% prevalence and 6.0 median intensity. Parasite abundance covaried positively with viper length, but not with body mass. In pythons (n = 13), Armillifer spp. exhibited a 92.3% prevalence and 3.5 median intensity. The positive correlations between parasite abundance and python length or mass were statistically nonsignificant. Ninety-one percent of A. grandis were discovered in vipers and 97% of infected vipers hosted A. grandis, whereas 81% of A. armillatus specimens were found in pythons and 63% of infected pythons hosted A. armillatus. Thus, challenging the widespread notion of strict host specificity, we found ‘reversed’ infections and even a case of coinfection. In this study, we also gathered information about the snake consumption habits of different tribal cultures in the area. Infective parasite ova likely transmit to humans directly by consumption of uncooked meat, or indirectly through contaminated hands, kitchen tools or washing water.
PubDate: 2017-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1274-5
Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2017)

• A Severe Ranavirus Outbreak in Captive, Wild-Caught Box Turtles
• Authors: Steven J. A. Kimble; April J. Johnson; Rod N. Williams; Jason T. Hoverman
Pages: 810 - 815
Abstract: A Ranavirus outbreak in a captive population of wild-caught individuals was monitored using clinical evaluations and real-time PCR in 317 wild box turtles held in captivity during translocation. During the 2-year study period, the population experienced 71.6% mortality, suggesting that ranaviruses can rapidly attenuate populations. Wide variation in infection rate (7–94% per sampling period) was observed, which may have been driven by clearing and reinfection, adaptive immunity, or imperfect detection using noninvasive samples. Only nasal clinical signs were significantly related to infection status, and agreement among sample types was low. Subsequent to the initial outbreak, low mortality but high real-time PCR prevalence of Ranavirus was observed, suggesting that surviving individuals might be tolerant.
PubDate: 2017-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1263-8
Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2017)

• Borrelia miyamotoi , Other Vector-Borne Agents in Cat Blood and Ticks in
Eastern Maryland
• Authors: Avery B. Shannon; Renee Rucinsky; Holly D. Gaff; R. Jory Brinkerhoff
Pages: 816 - 820
Abstract: We collected blood and tick samples in eastern Maryland to quantify vector-borne pathogen exposure and infection in healthy cats and to assess occupational disease risk to veterinary professionals and others who regularly interact with household pets. Thirty-six percent of healthy cats parasitized by ticks at time of examination (9/25) were exposed to, and 14% of bloods (7/49) tested PCR-positive for, at least one vector-borne pathogen including several bloods and ticks with Borrelia miyamotoi, a recently recognized tick-borne zoonotic bacterium. There was no indication that high tick burdens were associated with exposure to vector-borne pathogens. Our results underscore the potential importance of cats to human vector-borne disease risk.
PubDate: 2017-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1268-3
Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2017)

• Transactions of the Linnean
• Authors: Mark Olival-Bartley
Pages: 870 - 872
PubDate: 2017-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1300-7
Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2017)

• Forecasting the 2001 Foot-and-Mouth Disease Epidemic in the UK
• Authors: David W. Shanafelt; Glyn Jones; Mauricio Lima; Charles Perrings; Gerardo Chowell
Abstract: Near real-time epidemic forecasting approaches are needed to respond to the increasing number of infectious disease outbreaks. In this paper, we retrospectively assess the performance of simple phenomenological models that incorporate early sub-exponential growth dynamics to generate short-term forecasts of the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in the UK. For this purpose, we employed the generalized-growth model (GGM) for pre-peak predictions and the generalized-Richards model (GRM) for post-peak predictions. The epidemic exhibits a growth-decelerating pattern as the relative growth rate declines inversely with time. The uncertainty of the parameter estimates $$(r{\text{ and }}p)$$ narrows down and becomes more precise using an increasing amount of data of the epidemic growth phase. Indeed, using only the first 10–15 days of the epidemic, the scaling of growth parameter (p) displays wide uncertainty with the confidence interval for p ranging from values ~ 0.5 to 1.0, indicating that less than 15 epidemic days of data are not sufficient to discriminate between sub-exponential (i.e., p < 1) and exponential growth dynamics (i.e., p = 1). By contrast, using 20, 25, or 30 days of epidemic data, it is possible to recover estimates of p around 0.6 and the confidence interval is substantially below the exponential growth regime. Local and national bans on the movement of livestock and a nationwide cull of infected and contiguous premises likely contributed to the decelerating trajectory of the epidemic. The GGM and GRM provided useful 10-day forecasts of the epidemic before and after the peak of the epidemic, respectively. Short-term forecasts improved as the model was calibrated with an increasing length of the epidemic growth phase. Phenomenological models incorporating generalized-growth dynamics are useful tools to generate short-term forecasts of epidemic growth in near real time, particularly in the context of limited epidemiological data as well as information about transmission mechanisms and the effects of control interventions.
PubDate: 2017-12-13
DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1293-2

• Translating Predictions of Zoonotic Viruses for Policymakers
• Authors: Seth D. Judson; Matthew LeBreton; Trevon Fuller; Risa M. Hoffman; Kevin Njabo; Timothy F. Brewer; Elsa Dibongue; Joseph Diffo; Jean-Marc Feussom Kameni; Severin Loul; Godwin W. Nchinda; Richard Njouom; Julius Nwobegahay; Jean Michel Takuo; Judith N. Torimiro; Abel Wade; Thomas B. Smith
Abstract: Recent outbreaks of Ebola virus disease and Zika virus disease highlight the need for disseminating accurate predictions of emerging zoonotic viruses to national governments for disease surveillance and response. Although there are published maps for many emerging zoonotic viruses, it is unknown if there is agreement among different models or if they are concordant with national expert opinion. Therefore, we reviewed existing predictions for five high priority emerging zoonotic viruses with national experts in Cameroon to investigate these issues and determine how to make predictions more useful for national policymakers. Predictive maps relied primarily on environmental parameters and species distribution models. Rift Valley fever virus and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus predictions differed from national expert opinion, potentially because of local livestock movements. Our findings reveal that involving national experts could elicit additional data to improve predictions of emerging pathogens as well as help repackage predictions for policymakers.
PubDate: 2017-12-11
DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1304-3

• Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Migratory Birds Inhabiting Remote
• Authors: Andrew M. Ramey; Jorge Hernandez; Veronica Tyrlöv; Brian D. Uher-Koch; Joel A. Schmutz; Clara Atterby; Josef D. Järhult; Jonas Bonnedahl
Abstract: We explored the abundance of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli among migratory birds at remote sites in Alaska and used a comparative approach to speculate on plausible explanations for differences in detection among species. At a remote island site, we detected antibiotic-resistant E. coli phenotypes in samples collected from glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens), a species often associated with foraging at landfills, but not in samples collected from black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), a more pelagic gull that typically inhabits remote areas year-round. We did not find evidence for antibiotic-resistant E. coli among 347 samples collected primarily from waterfowl at a second remote site in western Alaska. Our results provide evidence that glaucous-winged gulls may be more likely to be infected with antibiotic-resistant E. coli at remote breeding sites as compared to sympatric black-legged kittiwakes. This could be a function of the tendency of glaucous-winged gulls to forage at landfills where antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections may be acquired and subsequently dispersed. The low overall detection of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in migratory birds sampled at remote sites in Alaska is consistent with the premise that anthropogenic inputs into the local environment or the relative lack thereof influences the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among birds inhabiting the area.
PubDate: 2017-12-11
DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1302-5

• Impacts of Pathogen Introduction Risk on Importer Behavior and Gains from
• Authors: Katherine D. Lee; David Finnoff; Peter Daszak
Abstract: Trade eliminates geographic barriers, allowing for novel exchange of goods and services, but also creates pathways for the unintentional spread of infectious pathogens such as foot and mouth disease. In the absence of trade regulation, a producer’s choice of import origin depends on relative prices and costs associated with trading partners. This paper develops a framework for exploring importer behavior in a non-regulated economy, allowing for price and risk heterogeneity among potential import sources. In the model, importers determine the risk of introducing foot and mouth disease to home soil and choose import volumes using risk and market data. When importers consider the possibility of unreported or undetected outbreaks, they choose to import from multiple sources to minimize risk and simultaneously create gains from trade over the regulated outcome. Our results have implications for the development of import and inspection policies that could be specifically designed to target highest risk imports of livestock.
PubDate: 2017-12-11
DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1292-3

• What’s New'
• Authors: Brian Baker
PubDate: 2017-11-22
DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1290-5

• In This Issue
• PubDate: 2017-11-20
DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1298-x

• Correction to: Phylogenetic Insight into Zika and Emerging Viruses for a
Perspective on Potential Hosts
• Authors: Diana S. Weber; Karen A. Alroy; Samuel M. Scheiner
Abstract: The article Phylogenetic Insight into Zika and Emerging Viruses for a Perspective on Potential Hosts, written by Diana S. Weber, Karen A. Alroy, and Samuel M. Scheiner, was originally published Online First without open access.
PubDate: 2017-11-17
DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1279-0

• Avian Viral Pathogens in Swallows, Zimbabwe
• Authors: A. Caron; N. Chiweshe; J. Mundava; C. Abolnik; A. Capobianco Dondona; M. Scacchia; N. Gaidet
Abstract: We sampled 417 swallows in a wetland ecosystem of Zimbabwe in February 2010 and October 2011. RT-PCR tests revealed circulation of avian paramyxovirus type I, avian influenza and West Nile disease viruses in these populations. We discuss the relevance of these findings in relation to what is known on the epidemiology of these viruses in these hosts and in relation to the host ecology. We conclude with recommendations to focus more research on Passeriformes in disease ecology and in particular on the hirundinidae family.
PubDate: 2017-11-02
DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1282-5

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