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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1292 journals)
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HEALTH AND SAFETY (521 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 180)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription  
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access  
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Policy and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Professions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Health Sciences Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover EcoHealth
  [SJR: 1.137]   [H-I: 35]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1612-9210 - ISSN (Online) 1612-9202
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2345 journals]
  • Infectious Disease Surveillance in the Woylie ( Bettongia penicillata )
    • Authors: Kim Skogvold; Kristin S. Warren; Bethany Jackson; Carly S. Holyoake; Kathryn Stalder; Joanne M. Devlin; Simone D. Vitali; Adrian F. Wayne; Alistair Legione; Ian Robertson; Rebecca J. Vaughan-Higgins
      Abstract: Wild populations of the critically endangered woylie (Bettongia penicillata) recently declined by 90% in southwest Western Australia. Increased predation is the leading hypothesis for decline, but disease may be playing a role increasing susceptibility to predation. To explore this possibility, we surveyed woylie populations in the wild, in captivity and in a predator-free sanctuary for exposure to, and infection with, four known pathogens of macropods: herpesviruses, Wallal and Warrego orbiviruses, and Toxoplasma gondii. Our study found two of 68 individuals positive for neutralizing antibodies against known macropodid alphaherpesviruses. Three of 45 individuals were PCR positive for a herpesvirus that was shown to be a novel gammaherpesvirus or a new strain/variant of Potoroid Herpesvirus 1. Further sequence information is required to definitively determine its correct classification. There was no evidence of antibodies to orbivirus Wallal and Warrego serogroups, and all serological samples tested for T. gondii were negative. This is the first report of PCR and serological detection of herpesviruses in the woylie. Positive individuals did not demonstrate clinical signs of herpesviral diseases; therefore, the clinical significance of herpesviruses to wild woylie populations remains unclear. Further monitoring for herpesvirus infections will be important to inform disease risk analysis for this virus and determine temporal trends in herpesvirus activity that may relate to population health and conservation outcomes.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1254-9
  • Environmental Factors and Zoonotic Pathogen Ecology in Urban Exploiter
    • Authors: Jamie L. Rothenburger; Chelsea H. Himsworth; Nicole M. Nemeth; David L. Pearl; Claire M. Jardine
      Abstract: Knowledge of pathogen ecology, including the impacts of environmental factors on pathogen and host dynamics, is essential for determining the risk that zoonotic pathogens pose to people. This review synthesizes the scientific literature on environmental factors that influence the ecology and epidemiology of zoonotic microparasites (bacteria, viruses and protozoa) in globally invasive urban exploiter wildlife species (i.e., rock doves [Columba livia domestica], European starlings [Sturnus vulgaris], house sparrows [Passer domesticus], Norway rats [Rattus norvegicus], black rats [R. rattus] and house mice [Mus musculus]). Pathogen ecology, including prevalence and pathogen characteristics, is influenced by geographical location, habitat, season and weather. The prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in mice and rats varies markedly over short geographical distances, but tends to be highest in ports, disadvantaged (e.g., low income) and residential areas. Future research should use epidemiological approaches, including random sampling and robust statistical analyses, to evaluate a range of biotic and abiotic environmental factors at spatial scales suitable for host home range sizes. Moving beyond descriptive studies to uncover the causal factors contributing to uneven pathogen distribution among wildlife hosts in urban environments may lead to targeted surveillance and intervention strategies. Application of this knowledge to urban maintenance and planning may reduce the potential impacts of urban wildlife-associated zoonotic diseases on people.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1258-5
  • Multi-criteria Decision Analysis to Model Ixodes ricinus Habitat
    • Authors: Raphaël Rousseau; Guy McGrath; Barry J. McMahon; Sophie O. Vanwambeke
      Abstract: Tick-borne diseases present a major threat to both human and livestock health throughout Europe. The risk of infection is directly related to the presence of its vector. Thereby it is important to know their distribution, which is strongly associated with environmental factors: the presence and availability of a suitable habitat, of a suitable climate and of hosts. The present study models the habitat suitability for Ixodes ricinus in Ireland, where data on tick distribution are scarce. Tick habitat suitability was estimated at a coarse scale (10 km) with a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method according to four different scenarios (depending on the variables used and on the weights granted to each of them). The western part of Ireland and the Wicklow mountains in the East were estimated to be the most suitable areas for I. ricinus in the island. There was a good level of agreement between results from the MCDA and recorded tick presence. The different scenarios did not affect the spatial outputs substantially. The current study suggests that tick habitat suitability can be mapped accurately at a coarse scale in a data-scarce context using knowledge-based methods. It can serve as a guideline for future countrywide sampling that would help to determine local risk of tick presence and refining knowledge on tick habitat suitability in Ireland.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1247-8
  • Landscape, Climate and Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome Outbreaks
    • Authors: Paula Ribeiro Prist; Paulo Sérgio D´Andrea; Jean Paul Metzger
      Abstract: We performed a literature review in order to improve our understanding of how landscape and climate drivers affect HCPS outbreaks. Anthropogenic landscape changes such as forest loss, fragmentation and agricultural land uses are related with a boost in hantavirus reservoir species abundance and hantavirus prevalence in tropical areas, increasing HCPS risk. Additionally, higher precipitation, especially in arid regions, favors an increase in vegetational biomass, which augments the resources for reservoir rodents, also increasing HCPS risk. Although these relationships were observed, few studies described it so far, and the ones that did it are concentrated in few places. To guide future research on this issue, we build a conceptual model relating landscape and climate variables with HCPS outbreaks and identified research opportunities. We point out the need for studies addressing the effects of landscape configuration, temperature and the interaction between climate and landscape variables. Critical landscape thresholds are also highly relevant, once HCPS risk transmission can increase rapidly above a certain degree of landscape degradation. These studies could be relevant to implement preventive measures, creating landscapes that can mitigate disease spread risk.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1255-8
  • Are Poultry or Wild Birds the Main Reservoirs for Avian Influenza in
    • Authors: Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan; Md. Ahasanul Hoque; Nitish Chandra Debnath; Mat Yamage; Marcel Klaassen
      Abstract: Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are of great socioeconomic and health concern, notably in Southeast Asia where highly pathogenic strains, such as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and other H5 and H7 AIVs, continue to occur. Wild bird migrants are often implicated in the maintenance and spread of AIV. However, little systematic surveillance of wild birds has been conducted in Southeast Asia to evaluate whether the prevalence of AIV in wild birds is higher than in other parts of the world where HPAI outbreaks occur less frequently. Across Bangladesh, we randomly sampled a total of 3585 wild and domestic birds to assess the prevalence of AIV and antibodies against AIV and compared these with prevalence levels found in other endemic and non-endemic countries. Our study showed that both resident and migratory wild birds in Bangladesh do not have a particularly elevated AIV prevalence and AIV sero-prevalence compared to wild birds from regions in the world where H5N1 is not endemic and fewer AIV outbreaks in poultry occur. Like elsewhere, notably wild birds of the orders Anseriformes were identified as the main wild bird reservoir, although we found exceptionally high sero-prevalence in one representative of the order Passeriformes, the house crow (Corvus splendens), importantly living on offal from live bird markets. This finding, together with high sero- and viral prevalence levels of AIV in domestic birds, suggests that wild birds are not at the base of the perpetuation of AIV problems in the local poultry sector, but may easily become victim to AIV spill back from poultry into some species of wild birds, potentially assisting in further spread of the virus.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1257-6
  • Arenavirus Dynamics in Experimentally and Naturally Infected Rodents
    • Authors: Joachim Mariën; Benny Borremans; Sophie Gryseels; Bram Vanden Broecke; Beate Becker-Ziaja; Rhodes Makundi; Apia Massawe; Jonas Reijniers; Herwig Leirs
      Abstract: Infectious diseases of wildlife are typically studied using data on antibody and pathogen levels. In order to interpret these data, it is necessary to know the course of antibodies and pathogen levels after infection. Such data are typically collected using experimental infection studies in which host individuals are inoculated in the laboratory and sampled over an extended period, but because laboratory conditions are controlled and much less variable than natural conditions, the immune response and pathogen dynamics may differ. Here, we compared Morogoro arenavirus infection patterns between naturally and experimentally infected multimammate mice (Mastomys natalensis). Longitudinal samples were collected during three months of bi-weekly trapping in Morogoro, Tanzania, and antibody titer and viral RNA presence were determined. The time of infection was estimated from these data using a recently developed Bayesian approach, which allowed us to assess whether the natural temporal patterns match the previously observed patterns in the laboratory. A good match was found for 52% of naturally infected individuals, while most of the mismatches can be explained by the presence of chronically infected individuals (35%), maternal antibodies (10%), and an antibody detection limit (25%). These results suggest that while laboratory data are useful for interpreting field samples, there can still be differences due to conditions that were not tested in the laboratory.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1256-7
  • In This Issue
    • PubDate: 2017-06-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1250-0
  • How Program Monitoring Drives Innovation
    • Authors: Helen Petach
      PubDate: 2017-06-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1251-z
  • An Integrative Eco-Epidemiological Analysis of West Nile Virus
    • Authors: Annelise Tran; Grégory L’Ambert; Gilles Balança; Sophie Pradier; Vladimir Grosbois; Thomas Balenghien; Thierry Baldet; Sylvie Lecollinet; Agnès Leblond; Nicolas Gaidet-Drapier
      Abstract: West Nile disease, caused by the West Nile virus (WNV), is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease affecting humans and horses that involves wild birds as amplifying hosts. The mechanisms of WNV transmission remain unclear in Europe where the occurrence of outbreaks has dramatically increased in recent years. We used a dataset on the competence, distribution, abundance, diversity and dispersal of wild bird hosts and mosquito vectors to test alternative hypotheses concerning the transmission of WNV in Southern France. We modelled the successive processes of introduction, amplification, dispersal and spillover of WNV to incidental hosts based on host–vector contact rates on various land cover types and over four seasons. We evaluated the relative importance of the mechanisms tested using two independent serological datasets of WNV antibodies collected in wild birds and horses. We found that the same transmission processes (seasonal virus introduction by migratory birds, Culex modestus mosquitoes as amplifying vectors, heterogeneity in avian host competence, absence of ‘dilution effect’) best explain the spatial variations in WNV seroprevalence in the two serological datasets. Our results provide new insights on the pathways of WNV introduction, amplification and spillover and the contribution of bird and mosquito species to WNV transmission in Southern France.
      PubDate: 2017-06-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1249-6
  • Bunjil’s Charge
    • Authors: Mark Olival-Bartley
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1241-1
  • Non-human Hosts and Zika Virus Maintenance
    • Authors: Sora Yasri; Viroj Wiwanitkit
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1246-9
  • Epidemiological Risk Factors for Animal Influenza A Viruses Overcoming
           Species Barriers
    • Authors: Kate A. Harris; the FLURISK Consortium; Gudrun S. Freidl; Olga S. Munoz; Sophie von Dobschuetz; Marco De Nardi; Barbara Wieland; Marion P. G. Koopmans; Katharina D. C. Stärk; Kristien van Reeth; Gwen Dauphin; Adam Meijer; Erwin de Bruin; Ilaria Capua; Andy A. Hill; Rowena Kosmider; Jill Banks; Kim Stevens; Sylvie van der Werf; Vincent Enouf; Karen van der Meulen; Ian H. Brown; Dennis J. Alexander; Andrew C. Breed
      Abstract: Drivers and risk factors for Influenza A virus transmission across species barriers are poorly understood, despite the ever present threat to human and animal health potentially on a pandemic scale. Here we review the published evidence for epidemiological risk factors associated with influenza viruses transmitting between animal species and from animals to humans. A total of 39 papers were found with evidence of epidemiological risk factors for influenza virus transmission from animals to humans; 18 of which had some statistical measure associated with the transmission of a virus. Circumstantial or observational evidence of risk factors for transmission between animal species was found in 21 papers, including proximity to infected animals, ingestion of infected material and potential association with a species known to carry influenza virus. Only three publications were found which presented a statistical measure of an epidemiological risk factor for the transmission of influenza between animal species. This review has identified a significant gap in knowledge regarding epidemiological risk factors for the transmission of influenza viruses between animal species.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1244-y
  • Examining the Role of Transmission of Chelonid Alphaherpesvirus 5
    • Authors: Andrea Chaves; A. Alonso Aguirre; Kinndle Blanco-Peña; Andrés Moreira-Soto; Otto Monge; Ana M. Torres; José L. Soto-Rivas; Yuanan Lu; Didiher Chacón; Luis Fonseca; Mauricio Jiménez; Gustavo Gutiérrez-Espeleta; Michael Lierz
      Abstract: Marine turtle fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a devastating neoplastic disease characterized by single or multiple cutaneous and visceral fibrovascular tumors. Chelonid alphaherpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) has been identified as the most likely etiologic agent. From 2010 to 2013, the presence of ChHV5 DNA was determined in apparently normal skin, tumors and swab samples (ocular, nasal and cloacal) collected from 114 olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) and 101 green (Chelonia mydas) turtles, with and without FP tumors, on the Pacific coasts of Costa Rica and Nicaragua. For nesting olive ridley turtles from Costa Rica without FP, 13.5% were found to be positive for ChHV5 DNA in at least one sample, while in Nicaragua, all olive ridley turtles had FP tumors, and 77.5% tested positive for ChHV5 DNA. For green turtles without FP, 19.8% were found to be positive for ChHV5 DNA in at least one of the samples. In turtles without FP tumors, ChHV5 DNA was detected more readily in skin biopsies than swabs. Juvenile green turtles caught at the foraging site had a higher prevalence of ChHV5 DNA than adults. The presence of ChHV5 DNA in swabs suggests a possible route of viral transmission through viral secretion and excretion via corporal fluids.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1248-7
  • Estimating Loss of Brucella Abortus Antibodies from Age-Specific
           Serological Data In Elk
    • Authors: J. A. Benavides; D. Caillaud; B. M. Scurlock; E. J. Maichak; W. H. Edwards; P. C. Cross
      Abstract: Serological data are one of the primary sources of information for disease monitoring in wildlife. However, the duration of the seropositive status of exposed individuals is almost always unknown for many free-ranging host species. Directly estimating rates of antibody loss typically requires difficult longitudinal sampling of individuals following seroconversion. Instead, we propose a Bayesian statistical approach linking age and serological data to a mechanistic epidemiological model to infer brucellosis infection, the probability of antibody loss, and recovery rates of elk (Cervus canadensis) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We found that seroprevalence declined above the age of ten, with no evidence of disease-induced mortality. The probability of antibody loss was estimated to be 0.70 per year after a five-year period of seropositivity and the basic reproduction number for brucellosis to 2.13. Our results suggest that individuals are unlikely to become re-infected because models with this mechanism were unable to reproduce a significant decline in seroprevalence in older individuals. This study highlights the possible implications of antibody loss, which could bias our estimation of critical epidemiological parameters for wildlife disease management based on serological data.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1235-z
  • Are Reptiles Reservoirs of Leptospirosis? A Brief Discussion Based on
           Serological Studies
    • Authors: Felipe Fornazari
      PubDate: 2017-05-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1243-z
  • Seasonal Fluctuations of Astrovirus, But Not Coronavirus Shedding in Bats
           Inhabiting Human-Modified Tropical Forests
    • Authors: Anne Seltmann; Victor M. Corman; Andrea Rasche; Christian Drosten; Gábor Á. Czirják; Henry Bernard; Matthew J. Struebig; Christian C. Voigt
      Abstract: Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are considered a major threat to global health. Most EIDs appear to result from increased contact between wildlife and humans, especially when humans encroach into formerly pristine habitats. Habitat deterioration may also negatively affect the physiology and health of wildlife species, which may eventually lead to a higher susceptibility to infectious agents and/or increased shedding of the pathogens causing EIDs. Bats are known to host viruses closely related to important EIDs. Here, we tested in a paleotropical forest with ongoing logging and fragmentation, whether habitat disturbance influences the occurrence of astro- and coronaviruses in eight bat species. In contrast to our hypothesis, anthropogenic habitat disturbance was not associated with corona- and astrovirus detection rates in fecal samples. However, we found that bats infected with either astro- or coronaviruses were likely to be coinfected with the respective other virus. Additionally, we identified two more risk factors influencing astrovirus shedding. First, the detection rate of astroviruses was higher at the beginning of the rainy compared to the dry season. Second, there was a trend that individuals with a poor body condition had a higher probability of shedding astroviruses in their feces. The identification of risk factors for increased viral shedding that may potentially result in increased interspecies transmission is important to prevent viral spillovers from bats to other animals, including humans.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1245-x
  • Pathogen Exposure in Cattle at the Livestock-Wildlife Interface
    • Authors: Malavika Rajeev; Mathew Mutinda; Vanessa O. Ezenwa
      Abstract: Land use is an important driver of variation in human infectious disease risk, but less is known about how land use affects disease risk in livestock. To understand how land use is associated with disease risk in livestock, we examined patterns of pathogen exposure in cattle across two livestock ranching systems in rural Kenya: private ranches with low- to medium-intensity cattle production and high wildlife densities, and group ranches with high-intensity cattle production and low wildlife densities. We surveyed cattle from six ranches for three pathogens: Brucella spp., bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and Leptospira serovar Hardjo. We found that exposure risk for Leptospira was higher on private ranches than on group ranches, but there was no difference in exposure by ranch type for Brucella or BVDV. We hypothesize that variation in livestock and wildlife contact patterns between ranch types may be driving the pattern observed for Leptospira exposure and that the different relationships we found between exposure risk and ranch type by pathogen may be explained by differences in transmission mode. Overall, our results suggest that wildlife–livestock contact patterns may play a key role in shaping pathogen transmission to livestock and that the magnitude of such effects likely depend on characteristics of the pathogen in question.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1242-0
  • Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and the Decline and Survival of the Relict
           Leopard Frog
    • Authors: Jef R. Jaeger; Anthony W. Waddle; Rebeca Rivera; D. Tyler Harrison; Silas Ellison; Matthew J. Forrest; Vance T. Vredenburg; Frank van Breukelen
      Abstract: Epizootic disease caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a major driver of amphibian declines, yet many amphibians declined before the pathogen was described. The Relict Leopard Frog, Rana onca (=Lithobates onca), was nearly extinct, with the exception of populations within a few geothermal springs. Growth of Bd, however, is limited by high water temperature, and geothermal springs may have provided refuge during outbreaks of chytridiomycosis. We conducted field surveys and laboratory experiments to assess the susceptibility of R. onca to Bd. In the field, we found Bd at one of the two areas where remnant populations of R. onca still occur, but not in the other. In the laboratory, we infected juvenile frogs from these two areas with two hypervirulent Bd isolates associated with declines in other ranid species. In our experiments, these Bd isolates did not affect survivorship of R. onca and most infections (64%) were cleared by the end of the experiments. We propose that R. onca either has inherent resistance to Bd or has recently evolved such resistance. These results may be important for conservation efforts aimed at establishing new populations of R. onca across a landscape where Bd exists. Resistance, however, varies among life stages, and we also did not assess Bd from the local environment. We caution that the resistance we observed for young frogs under laboratory conditions may not translate to the situation for R. onca in the wild.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1240-2
  • Enteroparasitoses and Toxocarosis Affecting Children from Mar del Plata
           City, Argentina
    • Authors: Carla Lavallén; Beatriz Brignani; Karina Riesgo; Amalia Rojas; Gabriela Colace; Martín Biscaychipi; Estela Chicote; Cristian Giuntini; Mariela Kifer; María Eugenia del Río; Guillermo Denegri; Marcela Dopchiz
      Abstract: This study evaluated the existence of enteroparasitoses and toxocarosis in children of peripheral (PC) and urban communities (UC) from Mar del Plata city (Argentina) and their associations with socio-environmental conditions. A Parasite Vulnerability Index (PVI) was elaborated using variables such as overcrowding, floor type, drinking water source, wastewater disposal, solid waste disposal, presence of animals and schooling level. The PC evidenced statistically significant higher frequencies of families with high (38.9%) and medium (55.5%) PVI, while in the UC low PVI (93%) was the most frequent. A statistically significant higher frequency of PC children was parasitized (30.2 vs. 14.5%; χ 2 Pearson = 5.21; P < 0.05), presented higher parasite frequencies, specific richness, parasitic loads, and they also evidenced polyparasitism. The Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) showed associations between PC-parasitized children, overcrowding and contact with pets and farm animals. The ELISA test to the specified determination of Toxocara canis IgG was reactive in a statistically significant higher proportion of PC children than the UC (55 vs. 8.5%; χ 2 = 30.5; P < 0.01). The MCA associated PC reactive children, not adequate hand washing, moderate and hypereosinophilia and contact with pets and farm animals. Deficient socio-environmental conditions became children more vulnerable to get enteroparasitoses and toxocarosis in the PC than in the UC.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1238-9
  • Phylogenetic Insight into Zika and Emerging Viruses for a Perspective on
           Potential Hosts
    • Authors: Diana S. Weber; Karen A. Alroy; Samuel M. Scheiner
      Abstract: Global viral diversity is substantial, but viruses that contribute little to the public health burden or to agricultural damage receive minimal attention until a seemingly unimportant virus becomes a threat. The Zika virus (ZIKV) illustrated this, as there was limited information and awareness of the virus when it was identified as a public health emergency in February 2016. Predicting which virus may pose a future threat is difficult. This is in part because significant knowledge gaps in the basic biology and ecology of an emerging virus can impede policy development, delay decision making, and hinder public health action. We suggest using a phylogenetic framework of pathogens and their infected host species for insight into which animals may serve as reservoirs. For example, examining flaviviruses closely related to ZIKV, the phylogenetic framework indicates New World monkeys are the most likely candidates to be potential reservoirs for ZIKV. Secondarily, mammals that are in close proximity to humans should be considered because of the increased opportunity for pathogen exchange. The increase in human-mediated environmental change is accelerating the probability of another previously overlooked virus becoming a significant concern. By investing in basic science research and organizing our knowledge into an evolutionary framework, we will be better prepared to respond to the next emerging infectious disease.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1237-x
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