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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1353 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (23 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (564 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (384 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (106 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (107 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (564 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 204)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences: Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Innovación en Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access  
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Düzce Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi / Journal of Duzce University Health Sciences Institute     Open Access  
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Eurasian Journal of Health Technology Assessment     Open Access  
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare : Finjehew     Open Access  
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Challenges     Open Access  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastane Öncesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 10)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Notions     Open Access  
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Healthcare Technology Letters     Open Access  
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Public Health     Open Access  
Infodir : Revista de Información científica para la Dirección en Salud     Open Access  
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Archives of Health Sciences     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover
EcoHealth
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.957
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1612-9210 - ISSN (Online) 1612-9202
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2348 journals]
  • Awareness and Practices Relating to Zoonotic Diseases Among Smallholder
           Farmers in Nepal
    • Authors: Terra R. Kelly; David A. Bunn; Nanda P. Joshi; Daniel Grooms; Durga Devkota; Naba R. Devkota; Lok Nath Paudel; Annette Roug; David J. Wolking; Jonna A. K. Mazet
      Abstract: Abstract Increasing livestock production to meet growing demands has resulted in greater interactions at the livestock–wildlife–human interface and more opportunities for zoonotic disease spread. Zoonoses impose enormous burdens on low-income countries like Nepal, where populations are largely dependent on livestock production and access to shared grazing lands, often near protected areas, due to population pressures. Several livestock-associated zoonoses have been reported in Nepal; however, little is known regarding Nepali farmers’ knowledge of zoonoses and opportunities for disease management. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate Nepali farmers’ awareness of zoonoses, assess current health challenges, and evaluate disease prevention and control practices. We found that awareness of zoonotic pathogens was limited, especially in informally educated and illiterate farmers; the majority of which were women. Further, farmers’ preventive herd health, food safety, and sanitation practices were not associated with their awareness. Several farmers reported high-risk practices despite being aware of zoonotic diseases, suggesting a disconnect between the farmers’ awareness and practice. Our study highlights the need for improving Nepali farmers’ knowledge of zoonoses and disease prevention measures. Closing these awareness-practice gaps will require an improved understanding of risk and effective drivers of behavior change, alongside engagement of farmers in development of zoonotic disease prevention programs that encourage participation of both male and female farmers across all levels of education.
      PubDate: 2018-06-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-018-1343-4
       
  • Drought and Distress in Southeastern Australia
    • Authors: Ivan C. Hanigan; Jacki Schirmer; Theophile Niyonsenga
      Abstract: Abstract Droughts may increase the risk of mental health problems, but evidence suggests a complex story with some groups being vulnerable while others are not. Previous studies from Australia have found associations with suicide, depression and distress that vary by age, gender and remoteness. Understanding the effects of drought on mental health is important because drought is predicted to be more intense in some areas in the future. We investigated the associations between drought and distress in a survey of rural Australians by age, gender and farming status. We collected distress data using a survey of 5312 people from across the state of Victoria, Australia, in 2015. Respondents completed the Kessler 10 (K10) Psychological Distress Index, and demographic and general health data were collected. We linked a climatic drought index to the locality of residence of respondents. Associations between distress and drought were analyzed using multivariable regression models with interactions by age, gender and farming occupation. Parts of Victoria were in drought in 2015. Drought duration was associated with higher distress in younger rural women (aged 40–54: odds ratio 1.18 per inter-quartile range increase in drought duration) but not older rural women or men. This pattern did not vary between farmers and non-farmers. Drought was associated with increased distress, but this differed between subgroups. Our results suggest that supporting younger women may be particularly important, and understanding ways older Australian rural women cope may enable us to build adaptive capacity and resilience.
      PubDate: 2018-05-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-018-1339-0
       
  • Emerging Rodent-Borne Viral Zoonoses in Trento, Italy
    • Authors: Valentina Tagliapietra; Roberto Rosà; Chiara Rossi; Fausta Rosso; Heidi Christine Hauffe; Michele Tommasini; Walter Versini; Attilio Fabio Cristallo; Annapaola Rizzoli
      Abstract: Abstract Rodent-borne hanta- and arenaviruses are an emerging public health threat in Europe; however, their circulation in human populations is usually underestimated since most infections are asymptomatic. Compared to other European countries, Italy is considered ‘low risk’ for these viruses, yet in the Province of Trento, two pathogenic hantaviruses (Puumala and Dobrava-Belgrade virus) and one arenavirus (Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus) are known to circulate in rodent reservoirs. In this paper, we performed a follow-up serological screening in humans to detect variation in the prevalence of these three viruses compared to previous analyses carried out in 2002. We also used a statistical model to link seropositivity to risk factors such as occupational exposure, cutting firewood, hunting, collecting mushrooms, having a garden and owning a woodshed, a dog or a companion rodent. We demonstrate a significant increase in the seroprevalence of all three target viruses between 2002 and 2015, but no risk factors that we considered were significantly correlated with this increase. We conclude that the general exposure of residents in the Alps to these viruses has probably increased during the last decade. These results provide an early warning to public health authorities, and we suggest more detailed diagnostic and clinical investigations on suspected cases.
      PubDate: 2018-05-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-018-1335-4
       
  • The Economic Case for a Pandemic Fund
    • Authors: Kevin Berry; Toph Allen; Richard D. Horan; Jason F. Shogren; David Finnoff; Peter Daszak
      Abstract: Abstract The rapid urban spread of Ebola virus in West Africa in 2014 and consequent breakdown of control measures led to a significant economic impact as well as the burden on public health and wellbeing. The US government appropriated $5.4 Billion for FY2015 and WHO proposed a $100 Million emergency fund largely to curtail the threat of future outbreaks. Using epidemiological analyses and economic modeling, we propose that the best use of these and similar funds would be to serve as global insurance against the continued threat of emerging infectious diseases. An effective strategy would involve the initial investment in strengthening mobile and adaptable capacity to deal with the threat and reality of disease emergence, coupled with repeated investment to maintain what is effectively a ‘national guard’ for pandemic prevention and response. This investment would create a capital stock that could also provide access to safe treatment during and between crises in developing countries, lowering risk to developed countries.
      PubDate: 2018-05-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-018-1338-1
       
  • Life and Death in Bloom
    • Authors: Hongying Li; Peter Daszak
      PubDate: 2018-05-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-018-1333-6
       
  • Impact of Sylvatic Plague Vaccine on Non-target Small Rodents in Grassland
           Ecosystems
    • Authors: Gebbiena M. Bron; Katherine L. D. Richgels; Michael D. Samuel; Julia E. Poje; Faye Lorenzsonn; Jonathan P. Matteson; Jesse T. Boulerice; Jorge E. Osorio; Tonie E. Rocke
      Abstract: Abstract Oral vaccination is an emerging management strategy to reduce the prevalence of high impact infectious diseases within wild animal populations. Plague is a flea-borne zoonosis of rodents that often decimates prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) colonies in the western USA. Recently, an oral sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) was developed to protect prairie dogs from plague and aid recovery of the endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). Although oral vaccination programs are targeted toward specific species, field distribution of vaccine-laden baits can result in vaccine uptake by non-target animals and unintended indirect effects. We assessed the impact of SPV on non-target rodents at paired vaccine and placebo-treated prairie dog colonies in four US states from 2013 to 2015. Bait consumption by non-target rodents was high (70.8%, n = 3113), but anti-plague antibody development on vaccine plots was low (23.7%, n = 266). In addition, no significant differences were noted in combined deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and western harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys megalotis) abundance or community evenness and richness of non-target rodents between vaccine-treated and placebo plots. In our 3-year field study, we could not detect a significant positive or negative effect of SPV application on non-target rodents.
      PubDate: 2018-05-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-018-1334-5
       
  • Global Diversity and Distribution of Hantaviruses and Their Hosts
    • Authors: Matthew T. Milholland; Iván Castro-Arellano; Gerardo Suzán; Gabriel E. Garcia-Peña; Thomas E. Lee; Rodney E. Rohde; A. Alonso Aguirre; James N. Mills
      Abstract: Abstract Rodents represent 42% of the world’s mammalian biodiversity encompassing 2,277 species populating every continent (except Antarctica) and are reservoir hosts for a wide diversity of disease agents. Thus, knowing the identity, diversity, host–pathogen relationships, and geographic distribution of rodent-borne zoonotic pathogens, is essential for predicting and mitigating zoonotic disease outbreaks. Hantaviruses are hosted by numerous rodent reservoirs. However, the diversity of rodents harboring hantaviruses is likely unknown because research is biased toward specific reservoir hosts and viruses. An up-to-date, systematic review covering all known rodent hosts is lacking. Herein, we document gaps in our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of rodent species that host hantaviruses. Of the currently recognized 681 cricetid, 730 murid, 61 nesomyid, and 278 sciurid species, we determined that 11.3, 2.1, 1.6, and 1.1%, respectively, have known associations with hantaviruses. The diversity of hantaviruses hosted by rodents and their distribution among host species supports a reassessment of the paradigm that each virus is associated with a single-host species. We examine these host–virus associations on a global taxonomic and geographical scale with emphasis on the rodent host diversity and distribution. Previous reviews have been centered on the viruses and not the mammalian hosts. Thus, we provide a perspective not previously addressed.
      PubDate: 2018-04-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1305-2
       
  • The Deer Mouse ( Peromyscus maniculatus ) as an Enzootic Reservoir of
           Plague in California
    • Authors: Mary Danforth; James Tucker; Mark Novak
      Abstract: Abstract It has long been theorized that deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are a primary reservoir of Yersinia pestis in California. However, recent research from other parts of the western USA has implicated deer mice as spillover hosts during epizootic plague transmission. This retrospective study analyzed deer mouse data collected for plague surveillance by public health agencies in California from 1971 to 2016 to help elucidate the role of deer mice in plague transmission. The fleas most commonly found on deer mice were poor vectors of Y. pestis and occurred in insufficient numbers to maintain transmission of the pathogen, while fleas whose natural hosts are deer mice were rarely observed and even more rarely found infected with Y. pestis on other rodent hosts. Seroprevalence of Y. pestis antibodies in deer mice was significantly lower than that of several chipmunk and squirrel species. These analyses suggest that it is unlikely that deer mice play an important role in maintaining plague transmission in California. While they may not be primary reservoirs, results supported the premise that deer mice are occasionally exposed to and infected by Y. pestis and instead may be spillover hosts.
      PubDate: 2018-04-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-018-1337-2
       
  • Land-Use Change Alters Host and Vector Communities and May Elevate Disease
           Risk
    • Authors: Fengyi Guo; Timothy C. Bonebrake; Luke Gibson
      Abstract: Abstract Land-use change has transformed most of the planet. Concurrently, recent outbreaks of various emerging infectious diseases have raised great attention to the health consequences of anthropogenic environmental degradation. Here, we assessed the global impacts of habitat conversion and other land-use changes on community structures of infectious disease hosts and vectors, using a meta-analysis of 37 studies. From 331 pairwise comparisons of disease hosts/vectors in pristine (undisturbed) and disturbed areas, we found a decrease in species diversity but an increase in body size associated with land-use changes, potentially suggesting higher risk of infectious disease transmission in disturbed habitats. Neither host nor vector abundance, however, changed significantly following disturbance. When grouped by subcategories like disturbance type, taxonomic group, pathogen type and region, changes in host/vector community composition varied considerably. Fragmentation and agriculture in particular benefit host and vector communities and therefore might elevate disease risk. Our results indicate that while habitat disturbance could alter disease host/vector communities in ways that exacerbate pathogen prevalence, the relationship is highly context-dependent and influenced by multiple factors.
      PubDate: 2018-04-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-018-1336-3
       
  • Using PhotoVoice to Promote Land Conservation and Indigenous Well-Being in
           Oklahoma
    • Authors: Clint Carroll; Eva Garroutte; Carolyn Noonan; Dedra Buchwald
      Abstract: Abstract Indigenous ancestral teachings commonly present individual and community health as dependent upon relationships between human and nonhuman worlds. But how do persons conversant with ancestral teachings effectively convey such perspectives in contemporary contexts, and to what extent does the general tribal citizenry share them' Can media technology provide knowledge keepers with opportunities to communicate their perspectives to larger audiences' What are the implications for tribal citizens’ knowledge and views about tribal land use policies' Using a PhotoVoice approach, we collaborated with a formally constituted body of Cherokee elders who supply cultural guidance to the Cherokee Nation government in Oklahoma. We compiled photographs taken by the elders and conducted interviews with them centered on the project themes of land and health. We then developed a still-image documentary highlighting these themes and surveyed 84 Cherokee citizens before and after they viewed it. Results from the pre-survey revealed areas where citizens’ perspectives on tribal policy did not converge with the elders’ perspectives; however, the post-survey showed statistically significant changes. We conclude that PhotoVoice is an effective method to communicate elders’ perspectives, and that tribal citizens’ values about tribal land use may change as they encounter these perspectives in such novel formats.
      PubDate: 2018-03-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-018-1330-9
       
  • Movement Patterns of Small Rodents in Lassa Fever-Endemic Villages in
           Guinea
    • Authors: Joachim Mariën; Fodé Kourouma; N’Faly Magassouba; Herwig Leirs; Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet
      Abstract: Abstract The Natal multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis) is the reservoir host of Lassa arenavirus, the etiological agent of Lassa fever in humans. Because there exists no vaccine for human use, rodent control and adjusting human behavior are currently considered to be the only options for Lassa fever control. In order to develop efficient rodent control programs, more information about the host’s ecology is needed. In this study, we investigated the spatial behavior of M. natalensis and other small rodents in two capture-mark-recapture and four dyed bait (Rhodamine B) experiments in Lassa fever-endemic villages in Upper Guinea. During the capture-mark-recapture studies, 23% of the recaptured M. natalensis moved between the houses and proximate fields. While M. natalensis was found over the entire study grid (2 ha), other rodent species (Praomys daltoni, Praomys rostratus, Lemniscomys striatus, Mus spp.) were mostly trapped in the surrounding fields. Distances between recapture occasions never exceeded 100 m for all rodent species. During the dyed bait experiments, 11% of M. natalensis and 41% of P. daltoni moved from the fields to houses. We conclude that commensal M. natalensis easily moves between houses and proximate fields in Guinea. We therefore consider occasional domestic rodent elimination to be an unsustainable approach to reduce Lassa virus transmission risk to humans, as M. natalensis is likely to reinvade houses quickly from fields in which rodents are not controlled. A combination of permanent rodent elimination with other control strategies (e.g., make houses rodent proof or attract predators) could be more effective for Lassa fever control, but must be further investigated.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-018-1331-8
       
  • Parasite Tolerance and Host Competence in Avian Host Defense to West Nile
           Virus
    • Authors: Sarah C. Burgan; Stephanie S. Gervasi; Lynn B. Martin
      Abstract: Abstract Competence, or the propensity of a host to transmit parasites, is partly underlain by host strategies to cope with infection (e.g., resistance and tolerance). Resistance represents the ability of hosts to prevent or clear infections, whereas tolerance captures the ability of individuals to cope with a given parasite burden. Here, we investigated (1) whether one easy-to-measure form of tolerance described well the dynamic relationships between host health and parasite burden, and (2) whether individual resistance and tolerance to West Nile virus (WNV) were predictable from single cytokine measures. We exposed house sparrows (HOSP) to WNV and measured subsequent changes in host performance, viral burden, and cytokine expression. We then used two novel approaches (one complex, one simpler) to estimate tolerance within-individual HOSP using four separate host performance traits. We lastly investigated changes in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10). Both approaches to estimating tolerance were equivalent among WNV-infected HOSP; thus, an easy-to-measure tolerance estimation may be successfully applied in field studies. Constitutive expression of IFN-γ and IL-10 were predictive of resistance and tolerance to WNV, implicating these cytokines as viable biomarkers of host competence to WNV.
      PubDate: 2018-03-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-018-1332-7
       
  • Climate Change Could Increase the Geographic Extent of Hendra Virus
           Spillover Risk
    • Authors: Gerardo Martin; Carlos Yanez-Arenas; Carla Chen; Raina K. Plowright; Rebecca J. Webb; Lee F. Skerratt
      Abstract: Abstract Disease risk mapping is important for predicting and mitigating impacts of bat-borne viruses, including Hendra virus (Paramyxoviridae:Henipavirus), that can spillover to domestic animals and thence to humans. We produced two models to estimate areas at potential risk of HeV spillover explained by the climatic suitability for its flying fox reservoir hosts, Pteropus alecto and P. conspicillatus. We included additional climatic variables that might affect spillover risk through other biological processes (such as bat or horse behaviour, plant phenology and bat foraging habitat). Models were fit with a Poisson point process model and a log-Gaussian Cox process. In response to climate change, risk expanded southwards due to an expansion of P. alecto suitable habitat, which increased the number of horses at risk by 175–260% (110,000–165,000). In the northern limits of the current distribution, spillover risk was highly uncertain because of model extrapolation to novel climatic conditions. The extent of areas at risk of spillover from P. conspicillatus was predicted shrink. Due to a likely expansion of P. alecto into these areas, it could replace P. conspicillatus as the main HeV reservoir. We recommend: (1) HeV monitoring in bats, (2) enhancing HeV prevention in horses in areas predicted to be at risk, (3) investigate and develop mitigation strategies for areas that could experience reservoir host replacements.
      PubDate: 2018-03-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-018-1322-9
       
  • Increased Parasitic Load in Captive-Released European Bison ( Bison
           bonasus ) has Important Implications for Reintroduction Programs
    • Authors: Marta Kołodziej-Sobocińska; Aleksadner W. Demiaszkiewicz; Anna M. Pyziel; Rafał Kowalczyk
      Abstract: Abstract Captive-bred animals, widely used in reintroduction programmes, are often immunologically naïve and more susceptible to pathogens. We analysed infection of invasive blood-sucking nematode Ashworthius sidemi in captive-bred European bison (Bison bonasus) released to the wild in the Białowieża Forest (Poland). Mean A. sidemi infection intensity of released bison (29,137 nematodes) was over threefold higher than in wild bison (8756). It indicates a rapid acquisition and increase in the infection intensity in previously dewormed bison released from captivity. Thus, reintroduction programmes should consider the impact of pathogens and involve controlled exposure of captive animals to specific parasites prior to release.
      PubDate: 2018-03-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-018-1327-4
       
  • Managing Disease Risks from Trade: Strategic Behavior with Many Choices
           and Price Effects
    • Authors: Piyayut Chitchumnong; Richard D. Horan
      Abstract: Abstract An individual’s infectious disease risks, and hence the individual’s incentives for risk mitigation, may be influenced by others’ risk management choices. If so, then there will be strategic interactions among individuals, whereby each makes his or her own risk management decisions based, at least in part, on the expected decisions of others. Prior work has shown that multiple equilibria could arise in this setting, with one equilibrium being a coordination failure in which individuals make too few investments in protection. However, these results are largely based on simplified models involving a single management choice and fixed prices that may influence risk management incentives. Relaxing these assumptions, we find strategic interactions influence, and are influenced by, choices involving multiple management options and market price effects. In particular, we find these features can reduce or eliminate concerns about multiple equilibria and coordination failure. This has important policy implications relative to simpler models.
      PubDate: 2018-03-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-018-1329-2
       
  • Mapping Potential Amplification and Transmission Hotspots for MERS-CoV,
           Kenya
    • Authors: Stephen Gikonyo; Tabitha Kimani; Joseph Matere; Joshua Kimutai; Stella G. Kiambi; Austine O. Bitek; K. J. Z. Juma Ngeiywa; Yilma J. Makonnen; Astrid Tripodi; Subhash Morzaria; Juan Lubroth; Gabriel Rugalema; Folorunso Oludayo Fasina
      Abstract: Abstract Dromedary camels have been implicated consistently as the source of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) human infections and attention to prevent and control it has focused on camels. To understanding the epidemiological role of camels in the transmission of MERS-CoV, we utilized an iterative empirical process in Geographic Information System (GIS) to identify and qualify potential hotspots for maintenance and circulation of MERS-CoV, and produced risk-based surveillance sites in Kenya. Data on camel population and distribution were used to develop camel density map, while camel farming system was defined using multi-factorial criteria including the agro-ecological zones (AEZs), production and marketing practices. Primary and secondary MERS-CoV seroprevalence data from specific sites were analyzed, and location-based prevalence matching with camel densities was conducted. High-risk convergence points (migration zones, trade routes, camel markets, slaughter slabs) were profiled and frequent cross-border camel movement mapped. Results showed that high camel-dense areas and interaction (markets and migration zones) were potential hotspot for transmission and spread. Cross-border contacts occurred with in-migrated herds at hotspot locations. AEZ differential did not influence risk distribution and plausible risk factors for spatial MERS-CoV hotspots were camel densities, previous cases of MERS-CoV, high seroprevalence and points of camel convergences. Although Kenyan camels are predisposed to MERS-CoV, no shedding is documented to date. These potential hotspots, determined using anthropogenic, system and trade characterizations should guide selection of sampling/surveillance sites, high-risk locations, critical areas for interventions and policy development in Kenya, as well as instigate further virological examination of camels.
      PubDate: 2018-03-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-018-1317-6
       
  • One Health and Antibiotic Resistance in Agroecosystems
    • Authors: Lisa M. Durso; Kimberly L. Cook
      Abstract: Abstract Agriculture reflects One Health principals, with the job of the farmer being to sustainably balance human, animal, and soil health. It is imperative to include an agricultural perspective when addressing antibiotic resistance (AR) from a One Health perspective, as the farmers, ranchers, and agricultural professionals have an intimate working knowledge of these complex systems, and they will be on the front lines of implementing on-farm control measures. Currently, communication across the One Health triad (humans, animals, environment) regarding agricultural AR is hindered by ambiguous language, complicated by cultural and linguistic differences that can lead to the conclusion that the other participant is not aware of the facts, or has ulterior motives. This work explores and identifies the language and vocabulary of AR in the context of supporting strategic short- and long-term problem solving in a One Health context.
      PubDate: 2018-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-018-1324-7
       
  • Acknowledgements
    • PubDate: 2018-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-018-1328-3
       
  • West African Cattle Farmers’ Perception of Tick-Borne Diseases
    • Authors: Safiou B. Adehan; Hassane Adakal; Donald Gbinwoua; Daté Yokossi; Sébastien Zoungrana; Patrice Toé; Mathieu Ouedraogo; A. Michel Gbaguidi; Camus Adoligbé; A. Belarmin Fandohan; Gildas Hounmanou; Romain Glèlè Kakaï; Souaïbou Farougou; Eva M. De Clercq
      Abstract: Abstract Worldwide, cattle production is struggling to face the negative impacts caused by ticks and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most harmful ticks for livestock. Most of the people in West Africa depend on cattle farming and subsistence agriculture. The presence of ticks on cattle is a major problem faced by smallholder farmers who fight for their livelihood. National and regional tick control programs could assist these rural communities in protecting their livelihoods against ticks and tick-borne diseases, but only if they take into account the targeted herders and their perception on cattle management and tick control. This paper aims to provide a better insight in the socio-economic characteristics of Beninese cattle farmers, and their perception on tick burden, as well as to document common tick control strategies. Different tick species and their seasonality are well understood by cattle herders. For tick control, many still use manual tick removal, especially in the north of the country. The high cost of acaricides, the lack of financial means of African farmers, and of the local stockbreeders in particular, limits the use of acaricides in livestock breeding in Benin. While aiming to increase the meat or milk production of their animals, stockbreeders who can afford it sometimes turn to an abusive use of acaricides, which might in time lead to an increase in tick resistance. This study remains one of the rare studies to report extensively on the perceptions of West African cattle herders.
      PubDate: 2018-03-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-018-1323-8
       
  • Vaccination Against Porcine Circovirus-2 Reduces Severity of Tuberculosis
           in Wild Boar
    • Authors: David Risco; María Bravo; Remigio Martínez; Almudena Torres; Pilar Gonçalves; Jesús Cuesta; Waldo García-Jiménez; Rosario Cerrato; Rocío Iglesias; Javier Galapero; Emmanuel Serrano; Luis Gómez; Pedro Fernández-Llario; Javier Hermoso de Mendoza
      Abstract: Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) in wild boar (Sus scrofa) may be affected by coinfections with other pathogens, such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). Therefore, sanitary measures focused on controlling PCV2 could be useful in reducing the impact of TB in this wild suid. The aim of this study was to explore whether vaccination against PCV2 targeting young animals affects TB prevalence and TB severity in wild boar. The study was conducted on a game estate in mid-western Spain. Seventy animals of ages ranging from 4 to 8 months were captured, individually identified, vaccinated against PCV2 and released, forming a vaccinated group. Not-captured animals cohabiting with the vaccinated wild boar constituted the control group. Animals from both groups were hunted between 2013 and 2016 and a TB diagnosis based on pathological assessment and microbiological culture was made in all of them. The effect of PCV2 vaccination on TB prevalence and severity was explored using generalized lineal models. Whereas TB prevalence was similar in vaccinated and control groups (54.55 vs. 57.78%), vaccinated animals showed less probabilities to develop generalized TB lesions. Furthermore, mean TB severity score was significantly lower in vaccinated animals (1.55 vs. 2.42) suggesting a positive effect of PCV2 vaccination.
      PubDate: 2018-03-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10393-018-1321-x
       
 
 
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