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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1342 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (23 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (89 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (555 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (382 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (107 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (105 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (81 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (555 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 202)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Innovación en Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access  
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Düzce Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi / Journal of Duzce University Health Sciences Institute     Open Access  
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Eurasian Journal of Health Technology Assessment     Open Access  
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access  
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastane Öncesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Notions     Open Access  
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Health, Safety and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Healthcare Technology Letters     Open Access  
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Public Health     Open Access  
Infodir : Revista de Información científica para la Dirección en Salud     Open Access  
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Archives of Health Sciences     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover
Early Childhood Research Quarterly
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.814
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 17  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0885-2006
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3163 journals]
  • Effects of maternal mentalization-related parenting on toddlers’
           self-regulation
    • Authors: Neda Senehi; Holly E. Brophy-Herb; Claire D. Vallotton
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44
      Author(s): Neda Senehi, Holly E. Brophy-Herb, Claire D. Vallotton
      Little research has examined associations between multiple indicators of parental mentalization and children’s regulatory capacities. This study aimed (1) to examine the validity of a latent mentalization-related parenting construct and (2) to examine the relationship between the mentalization-related parenting construct and toddler’s self-regulation, controlling for maternal depression, emotion disapproving beliefs, warmth, cumulative demographic risk, and child's gender. Mentalization-related parenting behaviors (MRPBs) included maternal use of mental state words, use of emotion bridging (linking emotions and behaviors in child and others), and representational mind-mindedness. Self-regulation was indicated by toddlers’ coping behaviors, effortful control, and delay of gratification. Data were collected for 95 mother–child dyads from low-income families at two time points and included observation of a book share task (Time 1), Early Head Start home visitor assessments of toddlers’ coping behaviors (Time 2), parent ratings of toddlers’ effortful control (Time 2), and direct assessment of toddlers’ delay of gratification (Time 2). Results of confirmatory factor analyses provided evidence for latent mentalization-related parenting (Time 1) and self-regulation (Time 2) constructs. Structural equation models revealed that maternal mentalization-related parenting (Time 1) was related to toddlers’ self-regulation 6 months later (Time 2). Maternal depression and emotion disapproving beliefs were negatively related to mentalization-related parenting. The study’s findings suggest that toddlers’ self-regulatory skills may be supported by maternal efforts to mentalize.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:02:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2018)
       
  • The parent advantage in fostering children's e-book comprehension
    • Authors: Rebecca A. Dore; Brenna Hassinger-Das; Natalie Brezack; Tara L. Valladares; Alexis Paller; Lien Vu; Roberta Michnick Golinkoff; Kathy Hirsh-Pasek
      Pages: 24 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44
      Author(s): Rebecca A. Dore, Brenna Hassinger-Das, Natalie Brezack, Tara L. Valladares, Alexis Paller, Lien Vu, Roberta Michnick Golinkoff, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek
      One potential advantage of e-books is that unlike traditional books, preschoolers can read independent of an adult by using the audio narration feature. However, little research has investigated whether children comprehend a story's content after using an e-book with audio narration. The current study compares preschoolers' comprehension of an e-book in three conditions: (1) parent reading, in which parents read the e-book to their children, (2) independent with audio, in which children see the e-book independently with audio narration, and (3) independent without audio, in which children see the e-book independently but do not have audio narration available. Our results suggest that children comprehend some content from e-books using audio narration, indicating that using e-books independently may be a worthwhile activity for preliterate children while caregivers are otherwise occupied. However, results also show that children recall the most information about the e-book after reading with a parent.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:02:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2018)
       
  • Approaches to learning and science education in Head Start: Examining
           bidirectionality
    • Authors: Andres S. Bustamante; Lisa J. White; Daryl B. Greenfield
      Pages: 34 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44
      Author(s): Andres S. Bustamante, Lisa J. White, Daryl B. Greenfield
      Recent national focus on early childhood science education highlights the need for research on early science, particularly with children from low-income families, as science is the lowest performing school readiness domain in that population. Given this achievement gap, the Office of Head Start has emphasized the development of children’s domain-general skills, such as approaches to learning, because they help children succeed in the classroom regardless of academic content area. Recent research suggests a unique relationship between early science and approaches to learning, in that approaches to learning predicts gains in science readiness more so than math or language readiness. This study further explored this relationship by examining the potential bidirectionality between science and approaches to learning. Results obtained from hierarchical linear modeling suggest a significant bidirectional relationship, such that residualized change approaches to learning across the school year predicted gains in science across the year, and residualized change in science across the year predicted gains in approaches to learning across the year. These results suggest that development of children’s approaches to learning relates to gains science knowledge, and that gains in children’s science knowledge relates to the positive development of approaches to learning across the school year. This study provides support for future research examining the potential of science interventions to serve as a context for developing approaches to learning skills that will in turn help children engage in quality science learning. Such research would leverage the bidirectional relationships between these two constructs and could be a step in the national attempt to narrow the science and school readiness achievement gaps.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:02:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.02.013
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2018)
       
  • Are there differences in parents’ preferences and search processes
           across preschool types' Evidence from Louisiana
    • Authors: Daphna Bassok; Preston Magouirk; Anna J. Markowitz; Daniel Player
      Pages: 43 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44
      Author(s): Daphna Bassok, Preston Magouirk, Anna J. Markowitz, Daniel Player
      A rising proportion of four-year-olds now attend formal, or center-based, early childhood education (ECE) programs. Formal settings, such as Head Start, public preschool, and subsidized child care centers vary significantly in regulation, funding, and service provision. As these differences may have substantial implications for child development and family well-being, understanding how parents search for and select formal programs is critical. Using data from a sample of low-income families with four-year-olds enrolled in publicly-funded programs, we examine whether parents' preferences for ECE and their search processes vary across formal ECE program types. We find little evidence of differences in preferences across preschool types but do find significant differences in parents' search processes. Parents with children in subsidized child care consider more options, consider their search more difficult, and are less likely to call their child's program their “first choice." Implications for policy and future research are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:02:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2018)
       
  • Co- and self-regulation of emotions in the preschool setting
    • Authors: Judith Rebecca Silkenbeumer; Eva-Maria Schiller; Joscha Kärtner
      Pages: 72 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44
      Author(s): Judith Rebecca Silkenbeumer, Eva-Maria Schiller, Joscha Kärtner
      Teachers are important socialization agents as children develop ways to self-regulate their emotions, and this development is considered as an important achievement in preschoolers. The present study investigated two main questions: (1) How preschool teachers change their emotion coaching and co-regulation behavior as children age and as the children’s emotion regulation improves, and (2) how teachers’ co-regulation is linked to children’s self-regulation. Preschoolers aged 4–6 years (n = 28) and their teachers (n = 9) from three preschool classrooms participated in the study. Based on extensive video recordings of everyday interactions in the classroom, the children’s emotionally challenging episodes were identified and analyzed. The results indicated that teachers’ emotion coaching and co-regulation occurred more frequently when the child was younger. For older children, teachers showed more intense co-regulation if co-regulation occurred. The better the emotion regulation of the child, as rated through the teachers, the more often teachers started co-regulation by giving unspecific, meta-cognitive prompts. Furthermore, after controlling for age and reported emotion regulation, co-regulation was systematically related to observed selfregulation within episodes. Overall, the results support the assumption that teachers’ co-regulation is adjusted to children’s developmental level and contributes to their development of self-regulation of emotions.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:02:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.02.014
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2018)
       
  • Testing the association between physical activity and executive function
           skills in early childhood
    • Authors: Michael T. Willoughby; Amanda C. Wylie; Diane J. Catellier
      Pages: 82 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44
      Author(s): Michael T. Willoughby, Amanda C. Wylie, Diane J. Catellier
      This study examined the cross-sectional association between multiple aspects of objectively measured physical activity (sedentary, light, moderate to vigorous) and children’s executive function skills. Participants included 85 children, ages 3–5, who were recruited from 10 center-based preschools. On the basis of up to 5 weekdays of accelerometer data, children spent an average of 57.5% of their time in a sedentary state, 30.7% in light physical activity, and 11.8% in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Whereas individual differences in sedentary behavior and light physical activity were unrelated to executive function, contrary to study hypotheses, moderate to vigorous physical activity was inversely related to performance on executive function tasks (β = −.28, 95% CI = −.50 to −.06). Results are discussed with respect to the importance of extending evidence that links increased physical activity to executive function skills, which are based on studies involving older children and adults, to the early childhood period, as well as the design and measurement issues that should inform this work.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:02:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2018)
       
  • Literacy interest and reader self-concept when formal reading instruction
           begins
    • Authors: Bente R. Walgermo; Jan C. Frijters; Oddny Judith Solheim
      Pages: 90 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44
      Author(s): Bente R. Walgermo, Jan C. Frijters, Oddny Judith Solheim
      The present study examines the associations among literacy interest, reader self-concept and emergent literacy skills at the very start of formal reading instruction in 1171 five- and six-year-olds. The results indicate that emergent literacy skills are directly related to reader self-concept but not to literacy interest. Further, interest moderated the relationship between emergent skills and self-concept. School starters with high literacy interest demonstrated strong reader self-concept, even if their emergent literacy skills were poor. These results suggest that the early motivational dynamics associated with the emergence of reading skill may be more complex than previous research has found them to be. The observed dynamics may have implications for the emergence of reading skill during this specific period of changing developmental context.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:02:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2018)
       
  • Effects of an early childhood educator coaching intervention on
           preschoolers: The role of classroom age composition
    • Authors: Arya Ansari; Robert C. Pianta
      Pages: 101 - 113
      Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44
      Author(s): Arya Ansari, Robert C. Pianta
      Heterogeneity in treatment effects of MyTeachingPartner (MTP), a professional development coaching intervention focused on improving teacher–student interactions, was examined for 1407 4-year-old preschoolers who were enrolled in classrooms that served children between the ages of 3 and 5. On average, there were no consistent impacts of MTP coaching on children’s school performance, but there was evidence of moderation in treatment effects as a function of classroom age diversity, defined as the proportion of children who were not 4 years of age. MTP coaching improved children’s expressive vocabulary, literacy skills, and inhibitory control in classrooms that served primarily 4-year-olds and were less age diverse. These effects were in large part due to MTP causing improvements in teachers’ instructional support that in turn was more predictive of children’s skills in less age-diverse classrooms. Results also indicated that the nature of age diversity did not matter; a greater number of 3- or 5-year-old classmates equally reduced the benefits of the MTP intervention for 4-year-olds. The sole exception occurred for receptive vocabulary, in which case, MTP was most effective in classrooms with a larger number of older (but not younger) children. Taken together, these results suggest that under the right circumstances, the benefits of professional development that improve early childhood educators’ teaching practices can also translate into benefits for students.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:02:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2018)
       
  • An observational study of children’s behaviors across two playgrounds:
           Similarities and differences
    • Authors: Tina L. Stanton-Chapman; Sinem Toraman; Audra Morrison; Jacinda K. Dariotis; Eric L. Schmidt
      Pages: 114 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44
      Author(s): Tina L. Stanton-Chapman, Sinem Toraman, Audra Morrison, Jacinda K. Dariotis, Eric L. Schmidt
      The purpose of this study is to explore similarities and differences in physical activity levels for boys and girls in seven areas across two playgrounds. Two playgrounds in a mid-Atlantic state in the United States were purposefully selected based on their playground design and structure. The System for Observing Play and Leisure Activities in Youth was used to document children’s physical activity types, track children’s locations, and code activity type. Playground A had five different areas, and Playground B had three different areas. Across the two playgrounds, data were collected across 416 total 1-minute intervals (morning, afternoon, and evening), spanning 13 days (weekend and weekdays) over a three-month period. The implications of this work are detailed observations of children’s play equipment and activity choices may provide insight into optimal playground equipment design and layout for play and social interactions between peers; fixed contemporary play equipment and open play spaces should be considered when designing new community playgrounds, as they appear to be equally interesting to boys and girls; and girls’ attire on a community playground and more available play space may contribute to more active play in girls than what was found in studies investigating play patterns on school playgrounds.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:02:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2018)
       
  • Neighborhood context and center-based child care use: Does immigrant
           status matter'
    • Authors: Elizabeth A. Shuey; Tama Leventhal
      Pages: 124 - 135
      Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44
      Author(s): Elizabeth A. Shuey, Tama Leventhal
      This study examined associations between individual families’ use of center-based child care and neighborhood structure (concentrated poverty and concentrated affluence, as measured with Census data), processes, and resources (child-centered collective efficacy, presence of friends/kin, and availability of services for children, as measured in a survey of neighborhood residents). The potential moderating role of family immigrant status also was investigated. Data were obtained from the 3-year-old cohort of the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (N = 999; 42% immigrant). Multilevel models accounting for background factors at the individual level revealed that greater neighborhood concentrated affluence was associated with families’ higher likelihood of using center-based child care, whereas greater neighborhood child-centered collective efficacy was associated with their lower likelihood of using this type of care. In addition, among immigrant families only, as the size of neighborhood friends/kin networks increased, the likelihood of participating in center-based child care programs was higher. Findings are discussed in terms of the potential for improving immigrant families’ access to center-based child care by reducing neighborhood structural barriers and fostering neighborhood networks.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:02:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2018)
       
  • Pre-kindergarten attendance matters: Early chronic absence patterns and
           relationships to learning outcomes
    • Authors: Stacy B. Ehrlich; Julia A. Gwynne; Elaine M. Allensworth
      Pages: 136 - 151
      Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44
      Author(s): Stacy B. Ehrlich, Julia A. Gwynne, Elaine M. Allensworth
      Consistent school attendance is a critical component of education. Although research suggests that high rates of absenteeism is a significant issue for many students, minimal evidence exists focusing on absences among the nation’s youngest students − those in pre-kindergarten. This study focused on students in a large, urban district and examined the prevalence of pre-kindergarten chronic absence for different student subgroups, its relationship to learning outcomes during pre-kindergarten, and its association with ongoing attendance patterns and learning outcomes through second grade. Results indicated that absence in pre-kindergarten was widespread, particularly among African American students and those who entered pre-kindergarten with the lowest skills. Chronically absent pre-kindergarten students—those who were absent 10% or more of their enrolled days—displayed lower levels of academic and behavioral kindergarten readiness and were more likely to be chronically absent in subsequent grades. By third grade, students chronically absent for multiple years exhibited the need for significant intervention to read at grade level. These findings suggest that providing supports to improve attendance in pre-kindergarten and early elementary years has the potential to reduce achievement gaps and redirect struggling students onto the pathway toward educational success.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:02:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.02.012
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2018)
       
  • How best to teach the cardinality principle'
    • Authors: Veena Paliwal; Arthur J. Baroody
      Pages: 152 - 160
      Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44
      Author(s): Veena Paliwal, Arthur J. Baroody
      The cardinality principle (CP), which specifies that the last number word used in the counting process indicates the total number of items in a collection, is a critically important aspect of numeracy. Only one published study has focused on how best to teach the CP, and its results are uncertain (Mix, Sandhofer, Moore, & Russell, 2012). The present study was designed to investigate several modeling procedure to teach the CP. Forty-nine 2–5-year olds were randomly assigned to one of the three interventions: (a) label and then count (label-first), (b) count with an emphasis on the last word and label (count-first), and (c) counting only. At a delayed posttest, the count-first intervention was substantively more efficacious than the other interventions at promoting success on the CP task and a transfer task (as measured by effect size). The results underscore the need for early childhood educators and parents to reinforce the purpose of counting by building on children’s subitizing ability and explicitly labeling the total number of items after a collection is counted.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:02:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.03.012
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2018)
       
  • Measuring the quality of teacher–child interactions at scale: Comparing
           research-based and state observation approaches
    • Authors: Virginia E. Vitiello; Daphna Bassok; Bridget K. Hamre; Daniel Player; Amanda P. Williford
      Pages: 161 - 169
      Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44
      Author(s): Virginia E. Vitiello, Daphna Bassok, Bridget K. Hamre, Daniel Player, Amanda P. Williford
      Use of observational measures to monitor preschool quality is growing rapidly. Although a large body of research has examined the validity of classroom observation tools within the context of researcher-conducted studies, little research to date has examined the extent to which the observations conducted as a part of state accountability efforts correspond to observations collected by research teams. This paper examines the degree of agreement between local and research rater teams using an observational measure of preschool classroom quality. It also explores the extent to which ratings predicted gains in children’s literacy, math, and self-regulation skills. Local ratings were conducted as a part of Louisiana’s quality rating and improvement system. Both rating teams observed 85 classrooms offering publicly funded preschool programs using the Pre-K CLASS, and 820 children from these classrooms (average age = 52.6 months, SD = 3.6 months) were directly assessed in the fall and spring. Results indicated correlations between local and research teams’ scores on corresponding domains, ranging from r = .21 to .43. Both teams’ scores were significantly but modestly related to children’s learning gains, although patterns of association differed. Results are discussed in the context of policies that require observational measures at scale.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:02:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2018)
       
  • Is delayed school entry harmful for children with disabilities'
    • Authors: C. Kevin Fortner; Jade Marcus Jenkins
      Pages: 170 - 180
      Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44
      Author(s): C. Kevin Fortner, Jade Marcus Jenkins
      We examine whether the academic achievement of students with disabilities who delay entry into kindergarten differs from on-time entering students within the categories of students’ identified with disability in a large and representative state using educational administrative data on three cohorts of kindergarten students (N = 262,000). Analyses indicate that the negative association between redshirting (delayed kindergarten entry) as a student later identified as having a disability varies across students with different types of disability. For most disability designations, achievement outcomes were substantially lower for redshirted students compared to students with the same designation who enrolled in kindergarten on time. This supports the hypothesis that schools may provide young children with better access to early identification and intervention services, which outweigh the benefits of maturation experiences during the redshirt year. However, redshirted students with speech–language impairments had slightly higher achievement compared with students with speech–language impairments who entered on time. Study findings suggest that young children with disabilities may benefit from entering kindergarten when first eligible.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:02:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.03.013
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2018)
       
  • Becoming prosocial: The consistency of individual differences in early
           prosocial behavior
    • Authors: Abby C.W. Schachner; Emily K. Newton; Ross A. Thompson; Miranda Goodman-Wilson
      Pages: 42 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 43
      Author(s): Abby C.W. Schachner, Emily K. Newton, Ross A. Thompson, Miranda Goodman-Wilson
      Recent research on early prosocial behavior has questioned whether young children show consistency in their prosocial responding across different tasks and over time. Two studies are reported that address this issue, one with 18-month-olds (n = 86) and one with older children studied longitudinally at 4.5 and 6 years (n = 51). In each, children’s responses to multiple age-appropriate prosocial tasks were assessed using both variable-centered and person-centered analyses. Variable-centered analyses revealed generally significant associations between children’s responses across tasks and, in older children, over time. Person-centered analyses revealed that children were distinguished into low prosocial, moderate prosocial, and “frequent helpers” groups with the addition of a high prosocial group in older children. These findings indicate that although situational characteristics are important, their importance varies across children and development. Results suggest that young children tend to show consistency in individual differences in their prosocial responding across situations and distinct dispositional profiles of children can be observed, including those who demonstrate high prosocial responding across situations requiring different cognitive, social and motivational skills.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T17:20:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2018)
       
  • Effect of the tools of the mind kindergarten program on children’s
           social and emotional development
    • Authors: Clancy Blair; Rachel D. McKinnon; M. Paula Daneri
      Pages: 52 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 43
      Author(s): Clancy Blair, Rachel D. McKinnon, M. Paula Daneri
      Social-emotional competence in early childhood and the elementary grades is foundational for children’s short- and long-term academic, social, mental health, and employment outcomes. This study examined the effects of a large-scale (N = 715) cluster randomized controlled trial of a comprehensive kindergarten program, Tools of the Mind, on teachers’ reports of children’s social-emotional competence at the end of kindergarten with follow-up in first grade. Results indicated that at the end of kindergarten, children in classrooms in schools randomly assigned to the treatment condition had reduced teacher reported behavior problems and aggression and improved self-regulation, social-emotional competence, and positive teacher-child relationships relative to children in classrooms in schools randomly assigned to the control condition. No differences were detected for teacher-reported academic competence. Sustained effects in first grade were seen only for first grade teachers’ reports of aggression and conduct problems. This study adds to a growing literature demonstrating positive effects of educational programs focusing on children’s social-emotional as well as academic competence.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T09:28:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2018)
       
  • Individual differences in basic arithmetic skills in children with and
           without developmental language disorder: Role of home numeracy experiences
           
    • Authors: Tijs Kleemans; Eliane Segers; Ludo Verhoeven
      Pages: 62 - 72
      Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 43
      Author(s): Tijs Kleemans, Eliane Segers, Ludo Verhoeven
      The present study investigated the role of kindergarten home numeracy experiences in predicting individual differences in second-grade basic arithmetic (i.e., small problem sizes and large problem sizes) among children with developmental language disorders (DLD) and their peers with normal language achievement (NLA), after controlling for kindergarten cognitive and linguistic capacities and first-grade basic arithmetic. Forty children with DLD and 103 children with NLA were tested on cognitive, linguistic, and basic arithmetic skills, and their parents filled in a questionnaire on home numeracy activities and numeracy expectations. The results showed that children with DLD scored below their peers with NLA on basic arithmetic skills, with larger group differences on arithmetic with large problem sizes than small problem sizes. Furthermore, for both groups of children, home numeracy experiences were positively related to arithmetic with large, but not small problem sizes, suggesting that the role of home numeracy in basic arithmetic might be restricted to those arithmetic skills that children have not fully mastered yet.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T09:28:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2018)
       
  • Pivoting to the “how”: Moving preschool policy, practice, and
           research forward
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 June 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly
      Author(s): Christina Weiland
      The results of the Tennessee study and the recent Brookings consensus statement present a moment for the field to reflect collectively on the preschool evidence base writ large and on what should come next. In this brief commentary, I review the broader preschool literature and offer seven specific takeaways regarding what we know about public preschool programs and about how to improve them. I argue that making progress requires a pivot in the field to specifically how to create new high-quality programs and improve existing ones. I offer specific directions for policy, practice, and research aimed at guiding this pivot.

      PubDate: 2018-06-07T10:59:33Z
       
  • The language of play: Developing preschool vocabulary through play
           following shared book-reading
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 45
      Author(s): Tamara Spiewak Toub, Brenna Hassinger-Das, Kimberly Turner Nesbitt, Hande Ilgaz, Deena Skolnick Weisberg, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek, Roberta Michnick Golinkoff, Ageliki Nicolopoulou, David K. Dickinson
      Two studies explored the role of play in a vocabulary intervention for low-income preschoolers. Both studies presented new vocabulary through book-readings. Study 1 children (N = 249; Mage  = 59.19 months) were also randomly assigned to participate in Free Play, Guided Play, or Directed Play with toys relating to the books. Guided and Directed Play conditions involved different styles of adult support. Although children in all conditions showed significant gains in knowledge of target vocabulary words, children in both adult-supported conditions showed significantly greater gains than children experiencing Free Play. In Study 2, classroom teachers implemented our procedures instead of researchers. All children (N = 101; Mage  = 58.65 months) reviewed half the vocabulary words through a hybrid of guided and directed play and half the words through a picture card review activity. Children showed significant pre- to post-test gains on receptive and expressive knowledge for both sets of taught words, but they also showed significantly greater expressive vocabulary gains for words reviewed through play. These results suggest that there are unique benefits of adult-supported play-based activities for early vocabulary growth.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T21:39:53Z
       
  • A head-to-toes approach to computerized testing of executive functioning
           in young children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44
      Author(s): Jamie A. Spiegel, Christopher J. Lonigan
      The Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS) task is a commonly used measure of executive functioning (EF) designed for use with young children. Substantial associations between the HTKS task and early academic skills and behavioral outcomes have consistently been reported. Although the HTKS task is a useful measure of EF for young children, the original version of the task has a number of limitations, including ceiling effects toward the end of kindergarten, potential motivational issues with older children, and the possibility of errors in administration and scoring due to the live administration of the task. Lonigan (2013) developed a computerized version of the HTKS task (HTKS-c) as a means of addressing these issues. This study examined the construct, convergent, and divergent validity of the HTKS-c task with important developmental outcomes, to determine its utility as a measure of EF for use with young children. In the current study, 126 preschool-aged children were administered both versions of the HTKS as well as a battery of performance-based EF tasks, measures of pre-literacy and mathematics skills, and a delay task. Parents and teachers completed report-based measures of externalizing behaviors. Findings indicated that the HTKS-c task offered a valid measure of EF, equivalent to that of the original HTKS task, for use with preschool children. Furthermore, the HTKS-c offered the added benefits of standardized administration, more accurate scoring of self-corrected responses, and, although not examined in this study, the capability of response-latency scoring in addition to accuracy scoring.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T21:39:53Z
       
  • Validation of the Head–Toes–Knees–Shoulders task in Native Hawaiian
           and non-Hawaiian children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44
      Author(s): Puanani J. Hee, Yiyuan Xu, Alexander Krieg
      The current study examined psychometric properties, as well as convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of the Head–Toes–Knees–Shoulders (HTKS) task with a sample of Native Hawaiian and non-Hawaiian kindergartners from a rural community in Hawaiʻi. There were 120 (58 girls, 62 boys; 71 Native Hawaiian, 49 non-Hawaiian) participants (M = 59.79 months; SD = 5.00). Children completed the 20-item version of the HTKS task in the fall (T1) and spring (T2) semester of kindergarten. The criterion measures for convergent validity included the Peg Tapping Task (PTT), and parent and teacher measures of attention, working memory, and inhibitory control that assessed “cool” aspects of self-regulation, whereas the criterion measures for discriminant validity included parent and teacher measures of emotional control and impulsivity that tapped “hot” aspects of self-regulation. The Test of Preschool Early Literacy (TOPEL) was used as the criterion measure for predictive validity. The results supported the one-factor model of the HTKS. The HTKS items also had satisfactory item properties based on item characteristic curves and most items did not show differential item functions (DIFs) between Native Hawaiian and non-Hawaiian children. In addition, the two-factor model of “cool” and “hot” self-regulation fit the data satisfactorily at T1 but not T2, providing modest evidence for convergent and discriminant validity. With regard to predictive validity, path analyses showed that the HTKS scores at T1 were positively associated with the TOPEL scores at T1, but not at T2 (after controlling for the TOPEL scores at T1). We discuss the importance of developing the self-regulation skills of Native Hawaiian children from at-risk backgrounds as they enter formal schooling.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T21:39:53Z
       
  • Factor structure and validity of the Early Childhood Environment Rating
           Scale – Third Edition (ECERS-3)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44
      Author(s): Diane M. Early, John Sideris, Jennifer Neitzel, Doré R. LaForett, Chelsea G. Nehler
      The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale – Third Edition (ECERS-3) is the latest version of one of the most widely used observational tools for assessing the quality of classrooms serving preschool-aged children. This study was the first assessment of its factor structure and validity, an important step given its widespread use. An ECERS-3 observation was conducted in 1063 preschool classrooms in three states. In a subset of those classrooms (n = 119), Classroom Assessment Scoring System – Pre-K (CLASS Pre-K) and child assessment data were also collected. Analyses of the ECERS-3 suggested that a single factor does not adequately capture item variability. Of the solutions tested, the four-factor (Learning Opportunities, Gross Motor, Teacher Interactions, and Math Activities) provided the best combination of statistical support and theoretical utility. In general, the ECERS-3 Total Score and the four factors were moderately correlated with the three domains of the CLASS Pre-K. ECERS-3 Total Score, Learning Opportunities, and Teacher Interactions were positively related to growth in executive function, as were all three domains of the CLASS Pre-K. However, all significant associations were small, and most tested associations between ECERS-3 scores and children’s growth, and between CLASS Pre-K and children’s growth, were not significant. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for measuring preschool quality.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T21:39:53Z
       
  • Intervention fidelity of Getting Ready for School: Associations with
           classroom and teacher characteristics and preschooler’s school readiness
           skills
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44
      Author(s): Maria Marti, Samantha Melvin, Kimberly G. Noble, Helena Duch
      Getting Ready for School (GRS) is a new school readiness intervention for teachers and parents, designed to help children develop early literacy, math, and self-regulation skills. GRS was implemented in 19 Head Start classrooms. In the present study we examined variability in different aspects of intervention fidelity including dosage, adherence, and child engagement. In addition, we studied the association among classroom, teacher and student characteristics and fidelity, and whether measures of fidelity were associated with children’s growth in math, early literacy, and self-regulation skills across the preschool year. Findings indicate that on average teachers reported completing almost 80% of the activities assigned, and that they were observed to adhere fairly well to the lessons. Child engagement was observed to be moderate to high across classrooms. Classroom quality, as measured by the CLASS, and age of children were positively associated with adherence. Teachers that had participated in GRS for two years were more likely to complete more activities. Different components of fidelity were associated with child outcomes. Percentage completion of math and literacy activities were positively associated with growth in math and literacy skills. Children in classrooms in which teachers adhered more faithfully to the curriculum made significantly greater gains in literacy, math, and self-regulation skills. Child engagement was positively associated with a measure of executive function. Results highlight the importance of examining implementation fidelity. Implications for preschool teachers are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T21:34:32Z
       
  • Using block play to enhance preschool children’s mathematics and
           executive functioning: A randomized controlled trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44
      Author(s): Sara A. Schmitt, Irem Korucu, Amy R. Napoli, Lindsey M. Bryant, David J. Purpura
      The current study investigated the extent to which a semi-structured block play intervention supported growth in mathematics and executive functioning for preschool children using a randomized controlled design. A secondary aim was to explore whether differential intervention effects emerged for children from various socioeconomic backgrounds, indicated by parental education level. Participants included 59 preschool children. Children ranged in age from 38 to 69 months (M = 55.20, SD = 7.17), and 56% were female. Results from regression models indicated that, although not statistically significant, children who participated in the intervention demonstrated greater gains in three mathematics skills (numeracy, shape recognition, and mathematical language) and two indicators of executive functioning (cognitive flexibility and a measure of global executive functioning) compared to children in a control group. Further, three significant interactions were found, suggesting that for numeracy, cognitive flexibility, and global executive functioning, children of parents with low educational attainment benefited the most from intervention participation. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of a semi-structured block play intervention for improving children’s school readiness and have implications for including intentional instruction using blocks in preschool classrooms.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T21:34:32Z
       
  • The efficacy of a school-based book-reading intervention on vocabulary
           development of young Uyghur children: A randomized controlled trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44
      Author(s): Si Chen, Joshua F. Lawrence, Jing Zhou, Lanbin Min, Catherine E. Snow
      In China, a particular educational challenge is designing programs for millions of ethnic minority children who also speak a language other than Mandarin Chinese at home. Since most ethnic minority children living in China come from low-socioeconomic status (SES) families, learning Mandarin as a second language is a crucial milestone for them. However, little research has been conducted to explore how to support the bilingual development of young minority children in China. This study evaluated the efficacy of a randomized controlled book-reading intervention held in Xinjiang Province, a unique Uyghur-Mandarin Chinese bilingual region with the lowest GDP of any Chinese province. The school-based book-reading intervention (hereafter, the Xinjiang Project, or the XJP) included a special focus on Chinese-Uyghur bilingual picture books, curriculum of vocabulary instruction, and teacher training. We recruited 256 Uyghur 4–5-year-old children (96 four-year-olds and 160 five-year-olds) from 31 classes in 12 kindergartens from two cities (Urumqi and Turpan) and randomly assigned 16 classes (134 children) to the experiment group and the other 15 classes to the control group, blocked by city, age and, a kindergarten ranking indicator. Across the one-year intervention, we collected three waves of Chinese and Uyghur vocabulary data. We used an individual growth modeling framework employing generalized linear mixed models and found that the intervention led to a more rapid development of Chinese receptive vocabulary (effect size = 0.68) and Uyghur expressive vocabulary (effect size = 0.38). This study shows that well-designed book-reading programs can benefit language minority children by supporting the development of both home and school languages simultaneously. The implications for bilingual education policy-making in China are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T21:34:32Z
       
  • Judgments and reasoning about exclusion from counter-stereotypic STEM
           career choices in early childhood
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44
      Author(s): Kelly Lynn Mulvey, Matthew J. Irvin
      To investigate young children’s evaluations of counter-stereotypic career choices, children (ages 3–8 years, N = 141) made judgments about the acceptability of pursuing STEM careers that were gender counter-stereotypic (atypical for one’s gender) and about the acceptability of exclusion from such careers. Participants evaluated European-American or African-American girls and boys who wanted to pursue counter-stereotypic careers. Generally, children supported counter-stereotypic career choices and evaluated exclusion from these careers to be unacceptable. However, results indicated that younger children judged counter-stereotypic career choices as less acceptable than did older children, and that parental attitudes and beliefs toward science and math were related to children’s evaluations. Differences in reasoning and based on the gender of the target were also identified. Additionally, results indicate that ethnic minority children may evaluate counter-stereotypic choices as less acceptable than do ethnic majority participants, but no differences based on target ethnicity were found. The findings suggest the importance of discouraging the use of stereotypes about careers among young children.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T21:34:32Z
       
  • Effectiveness of the Building Blocks program for enhancing Ecuadorian
           kindergartners’ numerical competencies
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44
      Author(s): Gina Bojorque, Joke Torbeyns, Jo Van Hoof, Daniël Van Nijlen, Lieven Verschaffel
      We investigated the effectiveness of the Building Blocks program for enhancing Ecuadorian kindergartners' early numerical abilities and spontaneous focusing on numerosity (SFON), after controlling for working memory, intelligence, age, and SES. Following a pretest-intervention-posttest design, 18 classes comprising 355 children from varied SES backgrounds were randomly assigned to either an experimental (BB program) or a control (regular mathematics program) condition. Results showed that the children from the experimental group made more progress in their early numerical competencies than those from the control group. Furthermore, the BB program was associated with higher quality mathematics education. We discuss the theoretical and educational implications for early numeracy development in general, and for the Ecuadorian situation in particular.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T21:34:32Z
       
  • Preschoolers’ alphabet learning: Letter name and sound instruction,
           cognitive processes, and English proficiency
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44
      Author(s): Theresa A. Roberts, Patricia F. Vadasy, Elizabeth A. Sanders
      This study investigated: 1) the influence of alphabet instructional content (letter names, letter sounds, or both) on alphabet learning and engagement of English only and dual language learner (DLL) children, and 2) the relation between children’s initial status and growth in three underlying cognitive learning processes (paired-associate, articulation referencing, and orthographic learning) and growth in alphabet learning. Subjects were 83 preschool children in six public preschool classrooms with low-income eligibility thresholds, including 30 DLLs. Children were screened for alphabet knowledge and randomly assigned to small groups and to one of four conditions: experimental letter names or letter sounds only, experimental letter names + sounds (LN + LS), or typical LN + LS. Research assistants provided nine weeks of instruction in each treatment, in 10-min sessions, four days/week. Irrespective of language status, children in the four groups made significant growth from pretest to posttest on measures of alphabet learning. The single-focus letter name or letter sound conditions led to significantly greater growth on taught alphabet content. The experimental LN + LS condition led to greater growth in taught letter names and sounds content compared to the typical LN + LS condition. Pretest vocabulary and alphabet knowledge did not moderate growth, and only limited evidence of differential response to instruction among DLLs was found. Paired associate and articulation referencing learning processes were related to alphabetic growth. Engagement during learning was high in all four treatments. Findings support the benefits of explicit alphabet instruction that enlists cognitive learning processes required for alphabet learning.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T21:34:32Z
       
  • Fit in but stand out: A qualitative study of parents’ and teachers’
           perspectives on socioemotional competence of children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44
      Author(s): Elena Kwong, Chun Bun Lam, Xiaomin Li, Kevin Kien Hoa Chung, Ryan Yat Ming Cheung, Cynthia Leung
      This study investigated the conceptualization of children’s socioemotional competence among parents and teachers of preschool children in Hong Kong, China. Focus groups were conducted with 16 parents and 18 teachers from three preschools. Thematic content analysis revealed that, reflecting the cultural as well as contextual characteristics of Hong Kong, parents and teachers expected socioemotionally competent children to master skills in emotion understanding, emotion expressivity, emotion regulation, relationship building, conflict management, and inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility. There was diversity within parents’ and teachers’ interpretations of the characteristics of emotionally regulated and socially skilled children. Findings highlighted the ecosystemic nature of societal ideas about children’s developmental competence, demonstrated the utility of qualitative research in exploring these ideas in culturally sensitive manners, and called for the mobilization of parents and teachers as research-informed scaffolders of holistic development of children.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T21:34:32Z
       
  • The positive impacts of public pre-K fade quickly, and sometimes reverse:
           What does this portend for future research and policy'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly
      Author(s): Grover J. Whitehurst
      Lipsey, Farran, Durkin, and Hofer (2018) report the results from the third-grade follow-up of children who, as four-year-olds, were in the treatment and control groups of the Tennessee Voluntary Prekindergarten Program (TVPK). Results include an intent-to-treat analysis of state test scores based on a randomized trial (RCT). TVPK produced substantive positive impacts on children during the pre-K year, but differences between treatment and control children faded to zero, and, for state test scores, turned negative as children moved through elementary school. The negative outcomes, although not without precedent, are surprising to many. The more general finding of very rapid fadeout of preschool impacts is consistent with a large number of studies. Researchers and policymakers can respond to the Lipsey et al. findings in several ways. These include dismissing the findings because of the assertion that TVPK is a low-quality program, or arguing that the research design was flawed, or claiming that the results of other strong studies of preschool interventions conflict with results reported for TVPK. Each of these lines of attack does not survive close inspection of their empirical entailments. Three paths forward are respectful of the findings: (1) continuing the priority of advancing public pre-K for four-year-olds, coupled with efforts to improve longer-term program effects by capitalizing on findings from research on heterogeneity of impacts; (2) reframing the purpose and metrics for success of pre-K away from affecting children’s achievement in later grades to providing positive and engaging experiences for children when they are enrolled; and (3) pursuing new models of policy that shift the focus from school readiness to family support. Significant additional investments in research and evaluation will be required to pursue the effectiveness of new policy frameworks for early care and learning.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T21:34:32Z
       
  • The Relation between Executive Functions and Reading Comprehension in
           Primary-School Students: A Cross-Lagged-Panel Analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly
      Author(s): Johannes M. Meixner, Greta J. Warner, Nele Lensing, Ulrich Schiefele, Birgit Elsner
      Higher-order cognitive skills are necessary prerequisites for reading and understanding words, sentences and texts. In particular, research on executive functions in the cognitive domain has shown that good executive functioning in children is positively related to reading comprehension skills and that deficits in executive functioning are related to difficulties with reading comprehension. However, developmental research on literacy and self-regulation in the early school years suggests that the relation between higher-order cognitive skills and reading might not be unidirectional, but mutually interdependent in nature. Therefore, the present longitudinal study explored the bidirectional relations between executive functions and reading comprehension during primary school across a 1-year period. At two time points (T1, T2), we assessed reading comprehension at the word, sentence, and text levels as well as three components of executive functioning, that is, updating, inhibition, and attention shifting. The sample consisted of three sequential cohorts of German primary school students (N = 1657) starting in first, second, and third grade respectively (aged 6–11 years at T1). Using a latent cross-lagged-panel design, we found bidirectional longitudinal relations between executive functions and reading comprehension for second and third graders. However, for first graders, only the path from executive functioning at T1 to reading comprehension at T2 attained significance. Succeeding analyses revealed updating as the crucial component of the effect from executive functioning on later reading comprehension, whereas text reading comprehension was most predictive of later executive functioning. The potential processes underlying the observed bidirectional relations are discussed with respect to developmental changes in reading comprehension across the primary years.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T21:34:32Z
       
  • Thresholds of resilience and within- and cross-domain academic achievement
           among children in poverty
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly
      Author(s): Kierra Sattler, Elizabeth Gershoff
      Growing up in poverty increases the likelihood of maladaptive development. Yet, some children are able to overcome the adversity of poverty and demonstrate resilience. Currently, there is limited agreement among researchers about how to operationalize resilience, both in terms of who should be the comparison group against whom at-risk children are compared and in terms of what developmental domains of resilience are most predictive of later positive development. The present study investigated how different thresholds and domains of resilience at school entry were associated with within-domain and cross-domain academic achievement across elementary school. Using a nationally representative and longitudinal sample, the results demonstrated that children who reached a high threshold of resilience at entry to kindergarten had similar mathematics and literacy achievement throughout elementary school as academically competent children not in poverty. Additionally, cross-domain associations were found for both mathematics and literacy resilience predicting later achievement. These findings have important research and intervention implications for promoting positive academic development among children in poverty.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T21:34:32Z
       
  • Letter sound characters and imaginary narratives: Can they enhance
           motivation and letter sound learning'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly
      Author(s): Theresa A. Roberts, Carol D. Sadler
      A total of thirty-eight preschool children were randomly assigned to one of two explicit teaching treatments to teach alphabet letter sounds. One treatment was designed to enhance motivation and learning by utilizing letters with letter sound characters integrated into the letter shapes (integrated mnemonics) and short narratives about the letter sound characters. In the treated control, plain letters and alphabet books were the foundation of instruction. There were no significant treatment effects on children’s perceptions of ability or desire/interest for school tasks (cross-domain) or letters (domain-specific). Children’s motivation increased significantly from pretest to posttest on three of four motivation measures including interest/desire for letters (domain-specific), and interest/desire and ability perceptions for school tasks (cross-domain). Effect sizes were dz  = 0.50, dz  = 0.34, and dz  = 0.40, respectively. There were significant treatment effects in favor of integrated mnemonics on identifying letter sounds, identifying initial consonants, and blending. Treatment effect sizes were d = 1.31 for letter sounds, d = 0.61 for initial phoneme identification (ID), and d = 0.62 for blending phonemes. Self-reports of ability and desire/interest for school tasks and letters were correlated with learning. Results are interpreted as suggesting that (a) identifying features of instruction that enhance motivation may require stronger instructional elements, increased alignment between features of instruction and measures, and improved measures, (b) small differences in the nature of letter sound instruction matter for learning with superiority for instruction including letter characters integrated into letter forms and imaginary narratives, and (c) relationships among motivation, learning, and instruction are discernible in preschool children.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T21:34:32Z
       
  • School readiness among children of Hispanic immigrants and their peers:
           The role of parental cognitive stimulation and early care and education
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly
      Author(s): Christina M. Padilla, Rebecca M. Ryan
      The present study estimated the independent and joint influence of early home and education contexts on three school readiness outcomes for children with Hispanic immigrant parents. These associations were compared to those for children whose parents differed by ethnicity and immigration status − children of non-Hispanic immigrants and children of Hispanic native-born parents − to determine if associations were distinct for children of Hispanic immigrants. Data were drawn from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010–2011 (ECLS-K: 2011) (N ≈ 3480). Outcome measures at kindergarten entry included direct assessments of math and reading skills, as well as teacher reports of approaches to learning (ATL). Results indicated that parental provision of cognitive stimulation and center-based ECE both predicted outcomes among children of Hispanic immigrants and their peers, with some variation in patterns by developmental domain and subgroup. Specifically, participation in center-based care predicted math and reading scores for children of Hispanic immigrant and Hispanic native-born parents, but not children of non-Hispanic immigrants. Furthermore, center-based care participation predicted ATL scores more strongly for children of Hispanic immigrants than their peers. Some trend-level evidence of moderation of early home and education environments emerged, again with patterns varying by outcome and subgroup. Findings highlight the importance of policies that seek to enhance both the home and ECE environments for young children with Hispanic immigrant parents and their peers.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T21:34:32Z
       
  • Latino children’s academic and behavioral trajectories in early
           elementary school: Examining home language differences within preschool
           types
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly
      Author(s): Heather J. Bachman, Leanne Elliott, Paul W. Scott, Monica G. Navarro
      The present study examined early academic, social, and behavioral trajectories from kindergarten to third grade for Latino children from English- or Spanish-speaking homes who experienced public pre-k, Head Start, private center care, or no preschool experience. Using a nationally representative sample of Latino children (N = 3650) from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten 2010–2011 cohort (ECLS-K:2011), associations of home language and preschool experience were examined for trajectories of reading and math achievement, social skills, and externalizing behavior problems. At kindergarten entry, Latino children from English-speaking households attained higher scores in reading and math than children from Spanish-speaking families across public pre-k, Head Start, and no preschool groups. However, these early home language differences greatly diminished by third grade. In contrast, for Latino children who attended private center-based care, home language comparisons were nonsignificant for early reading skills in the fall of kindergarten. By third grade, home language differences were evident among the Latino children who attended private centers, such that children from English-speaking homes scored significantly higher in reading than children from Spanish-speaking homes. Few home language differences were detected in social or behavioral skill ratings at fall of kindergarten or in trajectories within preschool types. Nonetheless, home language differences in externalizing problems grew by third grade among Latino children who had attended Head Start, such that children from English-speaking homes received higher behavior problem ratings from teachers than peers from Spanish-speaking homes.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T21:34:32Z
       
  • Developing together: The role of executive function and motor skills in
           children’s early academic lives
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly
      Author(s): Megan M. McClelland, Claire E. Cameron
      A considerable body of research indicates that children’s executive function (EF) skills and related school readiness constructs are important for early learning and long-term academic success. This review focuses on EF and a related construct, motor skills with a focus on visuomotor integration, as being foundational for learning, and describes how these skills codevelop in young children in bidirectional and synergistic ways. The review discusses definitional and conceptual issues, connects EF and visuomotor integration to relevant theoretical perspectives, discusses measurement issues and advancements, and reviews intervention evidence to support the malleability of these skills in young children. Discussion emphasizes how these skills develop together and suggests that research examining children’s learning from a codevelopment perspective can help promote children’s health and well-being.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T21:34:32Z
       
  • Measuring success: Within and cross-domain predictors of academic and
           social trajectories in elementary school
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly
      Author(s): Amy Pace, Rebecca Alper, Margaret R. Burchinal, Roberta Michnick Golinkoff, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek
      Children’s skill levels in language, mathematics, literacy, self-regulation, and social–emotional adjustment at kindergarten entry are believed to play an important role in determining school success through their long-term association with academic and social skills in primary and secondary education. Hence, children’s school readiness is a national priority. To date, there is some evidence that specific individual school readiness skills relate to specific outcomes, but much of that research has not addressed concerns regarding generalization due to the high levels of correlations among the school readiness skills. The interrelationships among school readiness domains and patterns of skill acquisition – during the first three years of primary education in which basic skills are the focus and in the later years of primary or secondary education when higher-order skills are the focus – have not been explored adequately. Using the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development dataset (n = 1364), this research conducted growth curve analyses to examine a comprehensive set of readiness indicators in kindergarten and identify which domains were stronger predictors of academic and social trajectories through grade 3 and from grades 3 to 5. Results highlight the importance of examining multiple school readiness domains simultaneously rather than separately, and moving beyond outcomes (skill levels) at a particular grade to consider which kindergarten skills predict gains over time (skill acquisition) both within- and across-domains. Empirical and methodological implications are considered for educational research, policy, and practice.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T21:34:32Z
       
  • Bidirectional associations between vocabulary and self-regulation in
           preschool and their interplay with teacher–child closeness and autonomy
           support
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly
      Author(s): Joana Cadima, Sílvia Barros, Tiago Ferreira, Marina Serra-Lemos, Teresa Leal, Karine Verschueren
      In the present study, we examine the bidirectional associations between child vocabulary and self-regulation and their interplay with two relational dimensions, teacher–child closeness and autonomy support in preschool. Participants were 208 young children (50% boys; M = 4 years and 11 months, SD = 0.71) from socially disadvantaged areas in Portugal. Self-regulation and vocabulary were assessed at the beginning and end of the year. Teachers reported on levels of teacher–child closeness and autonomy support. A series of path analyses were conducted and tests of direct and indirect effects were included in the models. Results showed bidirectional effects between self-regulation and vocabulary, such that self-regulation at the beginning of preschool was a significant predictor of expressive vocabulary at the end of preschool year, and receptive vocabulary skills at the beginning of preschool year predicted self-regulation at the end of preschool year, controlling for earlier receptive vocabulary and self-regulation skills. In addition, teacher–child closeness uniquely predicted expressive vocabulary, whereas teacher autonomy support uniquely predicted self-regulation.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T21:34:32Z
       
  • Effects of the Tennessee Prekindergarten Program on children’s
           achievement and behavior through third grade
    • Authors: Mark W. Lipsey; Dale C. Farran; Kelley Durkin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly
      Author(s): Mark W. Lipsey, Dale C. Farran, Kelley Durkin
      This report presents results of a randomized trial of a state prekindergarten program. Low-income children (N = 2990) applying to oversubscribed programs were randomly assigned to receive offers of admission or remain on a waiting list. Data from pre-k through 3rd grade were obtained from state education records; additional data were collected for a subset of children with parental consent (N = 1076). At the end of pre-k, pre-k participants in the consented subsample performed better than control children on a battery of achievement tests, with non-native English speakers and children scoring lowest at baseline showing the greatest gains. During the kindergarten year and thereafter, the control children caught up with the pre-k participants on those tests and generally surpassed them. Similar results appeared on the 3rd grade state achievement tests for the full randomized sample – pre-k participants did not perform as well as the control children. Teacher ratings of classroom behavior did not favor either group overall, though some negative treatment effects were seen in 1st and 2nd grade. There were differential positive pre-k effects for male and Black children on a few ratings and on attendance. Pre-k participants had lower retention rates in kindergarten that did not persist, and higher rates of school rule violations in later grades. Many pre-k participants received special education designations that remained through later years, creating higher rates than for control children. Issues raised by these findings and implications for pre-k policy are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:02:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.03.005
       
  • Head Start, two-generation ESL services, and parent engagement
    • Authors: Teresa Eckrich Sommer; Celia J. Gomez; Hirokazu Yoshikawa; Terri Sabol; Elise Chor; Amy Sanchez; P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale; Jeanne Brooks-Gunn
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 April 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly
      Author(s): Teresa Eckrich Sommer, Celia J. Gomez, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, Terri Sabol, Elise Chor, Amy Sanchez, P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn
      Innovation in English as a Second Language (ESL) services to support Latino immigrant parents and their children is needed, and this study examines a novel program that suggests future directions for the field. The Community Action Project of Tulsa County, Oklahoma’s two-generation ESL program recruits parents of children enrolled in Head Start and delivers an ESL curriculum that is contextualized to child development and children’s early school experiences. This mixed methods study explores the progress and the perspectives of parents and staff in this ESL program over two semesters (n = 35). Among enrollees in each semester, parents had high levels of completion (83% in semester 1; 70% in semester 2) and class attendance (94% in semester 1; 88% in semester 2). Yet, only about half (46%) of the parents completed both semesters 1 and 2. Parents who completed either semester 1 or semesters 1 and 2 did exhibit advancement in their English language skills, moving on average from beginner ESL levels to high intermediate levels based on National Reporting System benchmarks. Data from focus groups with parents and staff suggest that involvement in a two-generation ESL program can support parents’ focus on their children, including: (a) alignment of parent curriculum with child development, (b) bidirectional parent and child learning, and (c) an improved sense of parent agency with their children’s schooling and other child-related domains. Implications for future two-generation ESL programming are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:02:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.03.008
       
  • Bidirectional relations among executive function, teacher–child
           relationships, and early reading and math achievement: A cross-lagged
           panel analysis
    • Authors: Rachel D. McKinnon; Clancy Blair
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly
      Author(s): Rachel D. McKinnon, Clancy Blair
      Though prior research has examined the links between executive function (EF) – the higher order cognitive processes involved in self-regulation – and academic achievement, and between teacher–child relationships and academic achievement, few studies have examined the extent to which EF, teacher–child conflict, and academic achievement are related. The present study explores the longitudinal, bidirectional relations among direct assessments of children’s EF and early reading and math achievement and teacher-reports of relationship closeness and conflict with target children. Data were collected with N = 759 children in fall and spring of kindergarten and in fall of first grade. The results confirm bidirectional associations between EF and math achievement. Moreover, the study finds that conflict with teachers predicts EF and reading achievement, but not math achievement, though the relations are not bidirectional.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:02:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.03.011
       
  • Self-regulation and the development of literacy and language achievement
           from preschool through second grade
    • Authors: Lori E. Skibbe; Janelle J. Montroy; Ryan P. Bowles; Frederick J. Morrison
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly
      Author(s): Lori E. Skibbe, Janelle J. Montroy, Ryan P. Bowles, Frederick J. Morrison
      Previous research has established that higher levels of behavioral self-regulation are associated with higher levels of language and literacy. In this study, we take a more developmental perspective by considering how trajectories of self-regulation development (early, intermediate, late) predict the way literacy and language skills develop from preschool through second grade. Children (n = 351) were assessed twice per year for up to four years on indicators of decoding, reading comprehension, phonological awareness, and vocabulary. Using non-linear growth curve models, we found that children who demonstrated self-regulation earlier had higher language and literacy skills throughout preschool to second grade. More specifically, earlier self-regulation trajectories were associated with both higher levels and earlier development of both decoding and reading comprehension, but not faster development. Children with early self-regulation trajectories developed phonological awareness earlier than those with late self-regulation trajectories. Finally, children with early self-regulation trajectories had higher levels of vocabulary than children with intermediate trajectories, but did not differ on the rate or timing of vocabulary development. Findings point to the enduring and interconnected nature of self-regulation and children’s language and literacy development.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:02:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.02.005
       
  • Evidence for a physiologic home–school gap in children of Latina
           immigrants
    • Authors: Elly M. Miles; Julia Dmitrieva; Eliana Hurwich-Reiss; Lisa Badanes; Marina M. Mendoza; Krista M. Perreira; Sarah Enos Watamura
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly
      Author(s): Elly M. Miles, Julia Dmitrieva, Eliana Hurwich-Reiss, Lisa Badanes, Marina M. Mendoza, Krista M. Perreira, Sarah Enos Watamura
      The “Latino Health Paradox” denotes a well-established trend wherein foreign-born Latino immigrants arrive with protective health benefits which dissipate and sometimes reverse into health disparities in the second and subsequent generations. The origins and mechanism behind this paradox remain poorly understood. This study investigates whether physiological stress profiles in children of Latina immigrants (CoLIs) as compared with the children of Latina Americans (CoLAs) and of non-Latina Americans (ConLAs) might help explain how health advantages can be lost during acculturation to even result in health disparities. Because studies of ethnicity/nativity often confound poverty and ethnicity/nativity groups, we also examine differences in physiologic stress profiles by income. We focus on physiologic profile differences between ethnicity/nativity groups and by poverty category at home and in Early Childhood Education (ECE) environments. Using multi-level modeling, we compare morning and afternoon salivary cortisol levels between ECE and home environments in 256 children (32% CoLIs), while controlling for child, child care, and teacher characteristics. Results demonstrated that overall, cortisol on child care mornings was lower than on home mornings, and that among children living in poverty home and child care morning cortisol differed less than for children not living in poverty. We find that CoLIs exhibit a flatter slope on child care days than do ConLAs. We also find that among children in classrooms with lower average poverty exposure, cortisol decline across the day is steeper on child care days. Importantly, teacher language may act as a buffer to CoLIs on child care days, resulting in a steeper decline at child care. Implications for policy and practice, including supporting the availability of bilingual teachers are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:02:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.03.010
       
  • Prediction of English and Spanish kindergarten mathematics from English
           and Spanish cognitive and linguistic abilities in Hispanic dual language
           learners
    • Authors: Matthew E. Foster; Jason L. Anthony; Tricia A. Zucker; Lee Branum-Martin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly
      Author(s): Matthew E. Foster, Jason L. Anthony, Tricia A. Zucker, Lee Branum-Martin
      This study with dual language learners builds on research within monolingual samples that explore important cross- domain links between mathematics and cognitive and linguistic skills. We use a series of univariate multiple regression models to examine the prediction of end-of-year kindergarten numeracy and applied problem solving from autoregressive numeracy and cognitive and linguistic abilities measured at the beginning of kindergarten (Wave 1). Participants included 270 Hispanic dual language learners. In addition to nonverbal IQ, pretest abilities were assessed at the beginning of kindergarten in English and Spanish, including numeracy, vocabulary, phonological short-term memory (STM), rapid autonomized naming, and phonological awareness. Results provided evidence of strong within language relations; however, English and Spanish Wave 1abilities were similarly predictive of English numeracy and applied problems solving at the end of kindergarten. From among Wave 1 abilities, autoregressive numeracy, nonverbal IQ, phonological STM, and vocabulary were the most consistent and strongest predictors of mathematics at the end of kindergarten.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:02:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.02.007
       
 
 
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