Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1508 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (86 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (704 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (385 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (106 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (123 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (704 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Adversity and Resilience Science : Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AJOB Empirical Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Akademika     Open Access  
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 263)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences: Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Apuntes Universitarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Suicide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archivos de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atención Primaria Práctica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biosalud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Birat Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Boletin Médico de Postgrado     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
British Journal of Health Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos de Saúde     Open Access  
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Carta Comunitaria     Open Access  
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
CASUS : Revista de Investigación y Casos en Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
CES Salud Pública     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia & Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia & Trabajo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Innovación en Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencia y Salud Virtual     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cities & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical and Experimental Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clocks & Sleep     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuaderno de investigaciones: semilleros andina     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de la Escuela de Salud Pública     Open Access  
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Design for Health     Hybrid Journal  
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Diversity and Equality in Health and Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Diversity of Research in Health Journal     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drogues, santé et société     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Düzce Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi / Journal of Duzce University Health Sciences Institute     Open Access  
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência : Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
EsSEX : Revista Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios sociales : Revista de alimentación contemporánea y desarrollo regional     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethics & Human Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Eurasian Journal of Health Technology Assessment     Open Access  
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Family & Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 14)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare : Finjehew     Open Access  
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Digital Health     Open Access  
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers of Health Services Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ganesha Journal     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gestão e Desenvolvimento     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Advances in Health and Medicine     Open Access  
Global Challenges     Open Access  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Global Health Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Reproductive Health     Open Access  
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Transitions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastane Öncesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
HCU Journal     Open Access  
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Health and Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Equity     Open Access  
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Early Childhood Research Quarterly
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.814
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 23  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0885-2006 - ISSN (Online) 0885-2006
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3203 journals]
  • Fostering the learning of subtraction concepts and the
           subtraction-as-addition reasoning strategy
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Veena Paliwal, Arthur J. Baroody
       
  • Differential impacts of the Incredible Years-Teacher Classroom Management
           program based on young children’s risk profiles
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Sarah C. Neal, Kate E. Norwalk, Mary E. Haskett
       
  • Child care deserts in New York State: Prekindergarten implementation and
           community factors related to the capacity to care for infants and toddlers
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): John W. Sipple, Lisa A. McCabe, Hope G. Casto
       
  • Teacher fidelity to Conscious Discipline and children’s
           executive function skills
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Kirsten L. Anderson, Madison Weimer, Mary Wagner Fuhs
       
  • Parents’ and young children’s attention to mathematical features
           varies across play materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 50, Part 3Author(s): Jenny Yun-Chen Chan, Taylor L. Praus-Singh, Michèle M.M. Mazzocco
       
  • Maternal sensitivity and language in infancy each promotes child core
           language skill in preschool
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Marc H. Bornstein, Diane L. Putnick, Yvonne Bohr, Marette Abdelmaseh, Carol Yookyung Lee, Gianluca EspositoAbstractSupporting language skills in the early years is important because children who begin school with stronger language skills continue to perform well later in their language as well as academic and socioemotional growth. This three-wave longitudinal study of 50 mother-infant dyads reveals that maternal sensitivity and maternal language at 5 months each uniquely predicts child language at 49 months, controlling for age, education, and maternal verbal IQ as well as maternal supportive presence at 49 months. These findings reinforce the importance of maternal sensitivity and maternal language in infancy for child language development and specify that early maternal sensitivity and language, apart from maternal age, education, and IQ as well as later sensitivity, contribute to child language development.
       
  • The early academic resilience of children from low-income, immigrant
           families
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Jessica J. De Feyter, Mayra D. Parada, Suzanne C. Hartman, Timothy W. Curby, Adam WinslerAbstractData from the Miami School Readiness Project were analyzed to examine the early academic achievement of 1638 low-income Black and Latinx children from immigrant and non-immigrant families. Ecologically valid school outcomes from Kindergarten to 4th grade included classroom grades, grade retention, attendance, and standardized math and reading scores. Multivariate and logistic regression analyses conducted in Mplus examined differences by immigrant status (immigrant family vs. not) and generation (1st vs. 2nd) after accounting for child and family background characteristics. Immigrant advantage and paradox was evident in children’s early school outcomes. Children in immigrant families showed better attendance, received higher grades, and scored higher on standardized assessments of reading and math when compared with peers in non-immigrant families. First-generation immigrant children, in particular, outperformed second-generation and non-immigrant children on most measures. Immigrant status effects were similar for Black and Latinx children with the exception of attendance, where the immigrant advantage was larger among Black than Latinx students. Findings suggest early academic resilience and advantage among this important and growing population of children in immigrant families, as well as a need for more investigation into solutions to cultural and societal factors that contribute to generational decline.
       
  • Inside the classroom door: Understanding early care and education
           workforce and classroom characteristics experienced by children in
           subsidized center-based care
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Anna D. Johnson, Anne Martin, Owen N. SchochetAbstractThe federal child care subsidy program is the nation’s largest public early care and education (ECE) program for low-income children, yet little research has documented the workforce and classroom characteristics that affect children’s experiences in subsidized classrooms. Moreover, no existing study has compared the workforce and classroom characteristics in subsidized classrooms to those in classrooms across the range of alternative center-based settings available to low-income children. To fill this knowledge gap, the present study uses data from the newest national survey of child care available – the National Survey of Early Care and Education (NSECE), collected in 2012 – to describe subsidized classrooms on a broad set of workforce and classroom characteristics. Classrooms serving children with child care subsidies are compared to other classrooms serving low-income children, with a distinction between those that receive other public funds (Head Start or school-based pre-k), and those that do not (non-publicly-funded centers). Consistent with prior research, which finds classrooms serving subsidized children to have lower observed global quality than Head Start or pre-k classrooms, our findings reveal that classrooms serving children receiving subsidies typically have a more disadvantaged workforce and fewer classroom characteristics indicative of higher quality and believed to promote child development. Compared to non-publicly-funded center-based classrooms, classrooms serving subsidized children scored lower on several desirable workforce characteristics such as hourly pay and receipt of coaching, but did not differ on classroom characteristics.
       
  • Early care and education among Latino families: Access, utilization, and
           outcomes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2020Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Michael López, Todd Grindal
       
  • Efficacy of focused social and communication intervention practices for
           young children with autism spectrum disorder: A meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Álvaro Bejarano-Martín, Ricardo Canal-Bedia, María Magán-Maganto, Clara Fernández-Álvarez, Sigrídur Lóa-Jónsdóttir, Evald Saemundsen, Astrid Vicente, Catia Café, Célia Rasga, Patricia García-Primo, Manuel PosadaAbstractFocused intervention practices (FIPs) are widely used to improve social communication skills, as they are specifically aimed at enhancing skills identified as being problematic in children with autism spectrum disorder ASD, such as imitation, eye contact, gestures, joint attention and play. This meta-analysis was performed to ascertain the overall effectiveness of FIPs in children with ASD 6 years of age and younger. Five electronic searches were conducted, 1828 references were retrieved, and 43 studies 59 outcome measures were included in the meta-analysis. Studies included 785 participants 41.6 months with ASD. The overall socio-communicative effect size for each specific skill imitation, joint attention, and play was calculated using the Hedges’ g (g) for group design studies, and the Nonoverlap of All Pairs (NAP) for single case design studies. Random-effects metaregression models and correlations were also used to assess whether the results were different according to population and intervention characteristics. The impact of possible publication bias was analysed. The results suggest that, whereas FIPs have medium to large positive effects (g = 0.51; NAP = 0.86), those where caregivers or teachers play an active role (g = 0.50; NAP = 0.89) have medium effect sizes. All social and communicative skills outcomes of FIPs have medium effect sizes (Imitation: g = 0.42, NAP = 0.90; Joint attention: g = 0.54, NAP = 0.86; Play: g = 0.47, NAP = 0.81). Effect sizes were greater when participants’ preintervention ages were lower and treatment dosage was higher. When it comes to achieving substantial improvements, factors to be highlighted are the role of caregivers and adaptation of the programme to the characteristics of the child. Implementation of early intervention programmes should be substantiated by a sufficient amount of information about the characteristics of each participant. Professionals should take this information into account in order to select as accurately as possible those procedures that are most effective and feasible.
       
  • Text messaging as an enhancement to home visiting: Building parents’
           capacity to improve child language-learning environments
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Kathryn M. Bigelow, Dale Walker, Fan Jia, Dwight Irvin, Amy TurcotteAbstractThe amount and quality of language-related interactions young children experience is related to their later development. The field has developed strategies to address this need, but in practice, parents rarely use them consistently or with high levels of fidelity. Given the need to modify such interventions so that they are used consistently and with fidelity, the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether text messaging used as an enhancement to the Promoting Communication Tools for Advancing Language in Kids (PC TALK) intervention would result in improvements in parent engagement in a home visiting program, parent fidelity of use of the Promoting Communication (PC) strategies, and child language outcomes. Standard analyses of differences associated with group assignment to text messaging versus a control group did not reveal differences in outcomes; however, secondary analyses within the text messaging group were conducted to determine whether unplanned variations in the number of text messages sent were related to parent engagement, parent strategy use, and consequently, child language outcomes. A greater number of PC strategy-focused text messages and the total number of text messages sent were associated with increases in parent engagement and parent fidelity of implementation of the PC strategies. Text messaging had an indirect effect on child communication outcomes via parent fidelity. Social validity data and implications for practice from these findings are discussed.
       
  • The early writing skills of children identified as at-risk for literacy
           difficulties
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Leiah J.G. Thomas, Hope K. Gerde, Shayne B. Piasta, Jessica A.R. Logan, Laura L. Bailet, Cynthia M. Zettler-GreeleyAbstractExamining children’s early writing skills, particularly for those who have been identified as at-risk for later literacy difficulties, is critical to understanding potential differences in the early writing of these children compared to typically developing peers. Yet, we have an unclear understanding of the writing skills of young children at-risk for literacy difficulties. In this study, we comprehensively assessed the early writing skills of 3- to 5.5-year old children (n = 128) to characterize the writing of young children identified as at-risk for later literacy difficulties and to compare the early writing skills of these children to their non-at risk peers. Results indicated that children who are considered at-risk for later literacy difficulties lag behind their peers in a range of early writing skills, including name writing, letter writing, invented spelling, and story composition in preschool. Findings also suggest that early literacy screeners may identify children experiencing writing difficulties in addition to early reading challenges. Given the burgeoning ability of preschool-aged children, practical implications are discussed.
       
  • Children’s knowledge of single- and multiple-letter grapheme-phoneme
           correspondences: An exploratory study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Linda Larsen, Stefan Kilian Schauber, Saskia Kohnen, Lyndsey Nickels, Genevieve McArthurAbstractIn this study, we examined Australian children’s knowledge of single- and multiple-letter grapheme-phoneme correspondences (GPCs), and the influence of five different factors – GPC complexity, phoneme status, the child’s name, GPC entropy, and GPC frequency – on GPC knowledge. Data from 337 Australian children enrolled in Kindergarten to Grade 3 were included in the study and analyses were performed using mixed effects models. Results indicate that GPC knowledge varied across children and GPCs, children were almost twice as likely to accurately pronounce single-letter graphemes compared to multiple-letter graphemes, and performance was better for GPCs which occur more frequently in text. GPCs with higher entropy values (less consistent) had close to 40% lower odds of being known by children. The study has practical implications by providing an evidence-based guide for the order in which GPCs should be introduced to children in schools.
       
  • Measures of early social communication and vocabulary production to
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Lindee Morgan, Abigail Delehanty, Julie Cleary Dillon, Chris Schatschneider, Amy M. WetherbyAbstractBackgroundLate talkers are a heterogeneous group of toddlers and reliable predictors of persistent language delay have been elusive. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which early social communication and vocabulary production predicted variance in language outcomes at 2 and 3 years of age.MethodsParticipants were 408 typically developing and late-talking toddlers who completed the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Caregiver Questionnaire and Behavior Sample (CSBS CQ and CSBS BS) at a mean of 20 months, the Language Development Survey (LDS) at a mean of 24 months, and the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) at a mean of 25 months. A subgroup of 198 children completed a second MSEL at 3 years of age. Associations among the LDS, CSBS CQ, CSBS BS, and MSEL were examined using correlational and hierarchical linear regression analyses. Logistic regression was used to examine each measure’s contribution to predicting language delay at 2 and 3 years.ResultsModerate to large correlations were observed among all variables. The LDS, CSBS CQ, and CSBS BS added unique contributions to the prediction of 2- and 3-year expressive and receptive language outcomes. Measures of speech and vocabulary production were the strongest predictors of language outcomes at age 2. At age 3, social and symbolic communication played a more significant role in accounting for variance in expressive and receptive language outcome. A similar pattern emerged for the categorical prediction of language delay.ConclusionsMeasures of social communication between 18–21 months added important information to predicting language outcomes at 2 and 3 years, above and beyond parent-reported expressive vocabulary production measured at 24 months, with small effect sizes overall. Implications for identifying younger children who are at risk for continued language delay and recommendations for referral to early intervention programs are discussed.
       
  • Influence of quality credentialing programs on teacher characteristics in
           center-based early care and education settings
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Casey Boyd-Swan, Chris M. HerbstAbstractConsiderable evidence relates the quality of early childhood education (ECE) to children’s developmental outcomes, with teacher qualifications often cited as a critical ingredient for high-quality care. As a result, quality credentialing programs—including Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS) and the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) Early Learning Program—are increasingly prominent vehicles for improving program quality. This study combines a randomized resume audit study with administrative data on provider participation in QRIS (N = 5607) and NAEYC (N = 10,553) to examine whether these quality credentialing programs influence provider behavior during the teacher hiring process. While NAEYC-accredited providers are strongly attracted to job applicants with ECE work experience, education, and other professional credentials, QRIS participants are not.
       
  • More than words: Narrator engagement during storytelling increases
           children’s word learning, story comprehension, and on-task behavior
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Jan Lenhart, Wolfgang Lenhard, Enni Vaahtoranta, Sebastian SuggateAbstractReading stories to children fosters their language development. An approach rarely investigated is narrators telling stories without reading from text (i.e., oral storytelling). Oral storytelling may differ from more commonly employed read-aloud approaches in terms of language complexity and the opportunity to regulate the storytelling process via attention-guiding behavior, such as eye contact and gesticulation. By experimentally separating the influences of language complexity and attention-guiding behavior, the current study tried to shed light on the effect of story-delivery method (oral storytelling vs. read-aloud) and its underlying mechanisms on novel word acquisition, story comprehension, and children’s on-task behavior. In a 4 × 2 mixed-design, with method of story delivery (live read-aloud vs. live oral storytelling vs. audiotaped read-aloud vs. audiotaped oral storytelling) as a between-subjects factor and time (pretest vs. posttest) as a within-subjects factor, a sample of 60 four- to six-year-old children listened to four short stories in one of the four conditions twice. Target-word learning from pre- to posttest as well as story comprehension were measured. Additionally, in the live conditions storyteller and child behavior was coded. Although learning occurred across conditions, live oral storytelling resulted in the largest gains in receptive target-vocabulary and best story comprehension. In addition, children were less restless and more attentive during live oral storytelling.
       
  • (Mis)Alignment of instructional policy supports in Pre-K and kindergarten:
           Evidence from rural districts in North Carolina
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2020Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Lora Cohen-Vogel, James R. Sadler, Michael Little, Becca MerrillAbstractOver the past few decades, instructional policy supports — encompassing standards, curricula, and assessments — have featured centrally in the education reform movement. So, too, have efforts to align them. In this article, we conduct interviews with local educators with responsibility for early education about the alignment of instructional supports in Pre-K and kindergarten. Perceptions among study participants indicate that the degree of alignment among standards, curricula, and assessments is stronger within Pre-K and kindergarten than it is between them. Reported reasons for weak alignment between Pre-K and kindergarten include a debate over the purposes of early childhood education, institutional silos, and procedures that disrupt data sharing and transition practices. We consider what participants identify as the barriers to alignment mean for the development of policies aimed at lifting them.
       
  • Ethnic variances in socializing young children’s mastery motivation
           among White, African American, and Hispanic low-income families
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Wen Wang, Claire D. Vallotton, Ryan P. BowlesAbstractMastery motivation is an individual’s drive to master and influence the environment and overcome challenges. Family plays the most important role in fostering children’s mastery motivation development, starting from a young age. However, there is no unique way of socializing children’s mastery motivation. The current study focused on ethnic variations in the patterns of parents’ behaviors (autonomy supportiveness, cognitive stimulation, and intrusiveness) when children encounter challenges, among White, African American, and Hispanic low-income families. Using Latent profile analysis (LPA), the study indicated unique parenting styles in each ethnic groups. Especially, majority of African American and Hispanic parents’ response styles cannot be captured by Self-Determination Theory and empirical studies which based on white sample. Through comparing children’s persistence and frustration across groups within each ethnic group, African American and Hispanic groups have more than one effective parenting styles in supporting children’s mastery motivation. This study indicated the diversity in socializing young children’s mastery motivation, and informed future ethnic adaptive practices in supporting young children’s mastery motivation.
       
  • Parent migration and rural preschool children's early academic and social
           skill trajectories in China: Are ‘left-behind’ children really left
           behind'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Bi Ying Hu, Huiping Wu, Adam Winsler, Xitao Fan, Zhanmei SongAbstractWe examined early trajectories for academic and social skills among four groups of rural, preschool-attending, children in the Guangdong province of China: Village children (N = 176) who remained in a rural village and lived with both parents, Migrant children (N = 79) who migrated with their work-seeking parents to live in an urban area, Partially-left-behind children (N = 63) who lived with one parent in a rural village while the other parent migrated to the city for work, and Completely-left-behind children (N = 57) who stayed in a rural village with relatives while both parents migrated to the city for work. Children (n = 375) were individually assessed for social skills, vocabulary, executive functioning, Chinese character reading, and math at four time points over their last two years before formal schooling. For all academic outcomes at exit of preschool, completely-left-behind children showed the lowest performance compared to other groups. Children who remained at home with their parents did better than completely-leftbehind children on all outcomes at the final time point except for vocabulary. Migrant children generally performed better than other groups. Partially-left-behind children showed strong growth and final performance in executive functioning compared to other groups. In sum, while migration to the city appears to be associated with enhanced early academic learning for rural children, completely-left-behind children appeared to be at greatest risk. Results are interpreted in terms of current policies in China aimed at improving early childhood services in rural areas.
       
  • The association of peer behavioral regulation with motor-cognitive
           readiness skills in preschool
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Natalia Rojas, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, Pamela Morris, Dimitra Kamboukos, Spring Dawson-Mcclure, Laurie BrotmanAbstractAn increasing number of young children nationally participate in preschool education, yet very little is known about the influence of peers' behavioral regulation, such as maintaining focus on a task in the face of distractions and inhibiting a dominant response (attentionimpulse control), and remembering instructions (engagement) on children's motor-cognitive readiness skills (i.e., peer effects). This study determined whether peer effects are present in this earliest sector of schooling. Research has shown that a child's own behavioral regulation is associated with his or her academic outcomes. However, not much is known about how children are affected by classmates with poor behavioural regulation. This study begins to fill the gaps in our understanding of preschool peer effects in the form of peers' behavioral regulation relative to children's motor-cognitive readiness skills. It addresses two research questions: (1) Is the average level and amount of variation of peers' behavioral regulation skills (i.e., engagement and attentionimpulse control) in a classroom associated with growth in children's motor-cognitive readiness outcomes in preschool (motor, content knowledge, and language)' (2) Do these associations differ for children with high and low initial levels of behavioral regulation' The analytic sample is drawn from a cluster (school) randomized controlled trial testing a family-centered, school-based intervention (N=1050 children in 99 classrooms drawn from 10 high-poverty schools). Results indicated that classroom-level peer engagement skills made a unique contribution to children's growth of motor skills during the preschool academic year.Furthermore, children with higher engagement skills at the beginning of the preschool year had higher motor-cognitive readiness skills (motor, content knowledge, and language) at the end of the year when they were in classrooms with peers with high engagement skills. This study extends previous work with older children and indicates that after adjusting for an assortment of demographic, preschool program-related factors, and motor-cognitive readiness at entry into preschool, peers' engagement skills may make a unique contribution to children’s motor-cognitive readiness skills during the preschool academic year.
       
  • Measurement invariance of the English and Spanish BASC-3 behavioral and
           emotional screening system parent preschool forms
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Kelly L. Edyburn, Erin Dowdy, Christine DiStefano, Agustina Bertone, Fred GreerAbstractEarly childhood practitioners are increasingly attending to the unique needs of preschool Latinx dual language learners in an effort to provide culturally and linguistically responsive assessment and services. Universal screening within schools is considered one way to provide equitable access to identification for mental health services; however, investigations of measurement invariance are needed prior to widespread adoption. Measurement invariance analyses allow an examination of whether translations or adaptations of assessment instruments measure the same latent constructs in the same manner across culturally and linguistically divergent populations. This study examined the measurement invariance between English and Spanish versions of the BASC-3 Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Parent Preschool form using a sample of Latinx respondents (N = 351). A two-factor oblique model with a combined Internalizing/Externalizing Risk factor and an Adaptive Skills Risk factor yielded marginally adequate fit in both the English and Spanish samples. Results supported configural, metric, and partial scalar invariance of the two-factor oblique model. Given that previously identified factor structures and full measurement invariance across languages were not supported, additional validity evidence is needed. The Spanish version of the Parent Preschool form should be used with caution and in conjunction with other data on children’s behavioral and emotional functioning. Implications and future directions are discussed.
       
  • Student–teacher relationship quality in children with and without ADHD:
           A cross-sectional community based study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Nardia Zendarski, Kristina Haebich, Sampada Bhide, Jeremy Quek, Jan M. Nicholson, Kate E. Jacobs, Daryl Efron, Emma SciberrasAbstractThe relationships children form with their teachers in early childhood are known to be important in the context of their ongoing learning and development. This study investigated student–teacher relationship quality (STRQ) in grade one students with (n = 177) and without (n = 208) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We also examined whether a range of child and teacher factors were associated with STRQ. Children (M = 7.3 years; SD = 0.4) were recruited through 43 schools and screened for ADHD using parent and teacher screening questionnaires (Conners 3 ADHD index). ADHD cases were confirmed using the diagnostic interview schedule for children version IV. STRQ was rated by teachers using the student–teacher relationship scale — short form. Results showed that children with ADHD experienced poorer STRQ compared to children without ADHD (Cohen’s d = 1.11). STRQ was associated with child sex, medication use, ADHD subtype, cognitive/academic functioning and behavior, teacher experience, and self-efficacy, and parent education and socio-economic status. After controlling for school and teacher clustering, children’s prosocial behavior and teacher years of experience were positively associated with STRQ in both groups. In children with ADHD, conduct problems and child sex (boys) predicted poorer teacher relationship quality. For children without ADHD, higher socio-economic status was associated with better STRQ. Targeting modifiable factors associated with STRQ for children with and without ADHD and their teachers may be one way of improving school outcomes for at-risk children. Promoting prosocial behavior in classrooms may benefit STRQ for all children.
       
  • Evidence for reliability and validity of parent reports of twin
           children’s birth information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Lisabeth Fisher DiLalla, Megan McCrary Trask, Gabriel A. Casher, Sarah S. LongThe purpose of this paper was to assess the reliability and validity of birth information provided by parents and to determine if the age of the child affects the reliability of information collected. This study used data from 105 families of typically developing twin and triplet children whose parents provided this information as part of a larger survey. Families originally participated in a longitudinal study at least once when children were between the ages of 1 and 5 years and were re-tested at least once subsequently between the ages of 2 and 17 years. A subset of 57 families (mean age = 2.58 years, sd = 2.41) also released hospital birth information to compare to parent report to assess validity. Repeated measures MANCOVAs were used to test for significant differences between parent reports at each time point. No differences were found between parent reports provided at different points in time regardless of the age of the child when reports were collected or length of time between collections. Thus, the method of using parent reports to collect data on neonatal birth complications appears to show acceptable test-retest reliability. Correlation analyses comparing parent reports to hospital records showed that parent reports were highly valid, with all correlations highly significant except minor birth complication scores for second born children. These findings have far-reaching implications for data collection in research and clinical work because they suggest that obtaining parent reports of birth complications, even many years after birth, is an acceptable method for assessing this information.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Context influences on task orientation among preschoolers who display
           disruptive behavior problems
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Virginia E. Vitiello, Amanda P. WillifordAbstractVariable elements of the classroom context affect children’s behavior and may enhance or inhibit task orientation among children who display disruptive behaviors. The current study examined within- and across-child variation in children’s task orientation, as well as classroom and child predictors of that variation. The sample included 453 preschool children, ages 30–66 months (mean = 48.8, SD = 6.8), identified by teachers as displaying elevated disruptive behavior problems. Children’s task orientation was observed during multiple, 15-min cycles four times throughout the school year using the inCLASS observation system (Downer, Booren, Hamre, Pianta, & Williford, 2010). Results indicated that task orientation varied substantially from cycle to cycle within a school day. The level of teacher involvement as well as the activity setting (e.g., whole group, free play) significantly predicted child task orientation, with greater teacher involvement and teacher-managed activity settings associated with lower task orientation. Children with higher receptive vocabulary and effortful control showed higher average task orientation. The effects of the situational context factors on task orientation varied from child to child, but there was only limited evidence that child characteristics (disruptiveness, receptive vocabulary, and effortful control) or classroom organization moderated the effects of these situational context variables on child behavior: one interaction indicated that children with higher effortful control showed greater task orientation during whole group, but no other interactions were significant. Results are discussed in relation to supporting greater classroom-based task engagement among young children who display elevated disruptive behaviors.
       
  • Teacher–child interaction quality and Chinese children’s academic and
           cognitive development: New perspectives from piecewise growth modeling
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Bi Ying Hu, Xitao Fan, Yan Wu, Jennifer LoCasale-Crouch, Zhanmei SongAbstractThis longitudinal study utilized piecewise growth modeling to examine how teacher–child interaction quality contributed to children’s academic and cognitive growth in a stratified random sample of Chinese children. Data on the classroom teacher–child interaction quality (the three domains of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System: Emotional Support, Classroom Organization, and Instructional Support) and child outcomes (Chinese reading, native vocabulary, math, and executive functioning) were collected three times (T1, T2, and T3) during K2 through K3 years. Findings showed that the Instructional Support (IS) score at the second semester of kindergarten 2 (T1, K2-2) was significantly related to preschool K2-2 children’s initial levels of native vocabulary, math, and executive function scores. More importantly, IS predicted preschoolers’ math growth during Stages 1 (K2-2 to K3-1) and 2 (K3-1 to K3-2), and predicted executive function growth during Stage 2 (K3-1 to K3-2). Findings are discussed in the context of Chinese early childhood education policies and practice, as well as limitations and future research directions.
       
  • Family socioeconomic status and the cognitive competence of very young
           children from migrant and non-migrant Chinese families: The mediating role
           of parenting self-efficacy and parental involvement
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Ting Liu, Xiao Zhang, Yi JiangAbstractThis study explores how family socioeconomic status (SES) is linked to the cognitive competence of very young children (i.e., less than 3 years of age) in migrant and non-migrant Chinese families. It also investigates the mediating role of parenting self-efficacy (PSE) and parental involvement in these associations. Based on a sample of 748 migrant and non-migrant families residing in urban areas, the results from structural equation modelling (SEM) showed that young Chinese children from higher-SES families exhibited stronger cognitive competence. Moreover, this connection was partially mediated by PSE and parental involvement; in particular, higher-SES parents had higher PSE and greater involvement in their children’s home-based activities, which explained their children’s stronger cognitive competence. However, these direct and indirect pathways varied between migrant and non-migrant families. This paper offers valuable insights into the parental beliefs and practises behind SES-related differences in cognitive competence between very young children from migrant and non-migrant Chinese families.
       
  • Factors associated with early school readiness profiles for Black girls
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Iheoma U. Iruka, Stephanie M. Curenton, Jacqueline Sims, Kimberly A. Blitch, Shari GardnerAbstractThis study used pre-academic and socioemotional data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth (ECLS-B) Cohort to examine the profiles of Black girls’ school readiness skills from preschool through kindergarten. In addition to examining profiles that emerged, analyses were conducted to determine whether family socio-economic status (SES), parenting, parental functioning, community social support, neighborhood quality, and early education experiences predicted the likelihood of being in a particular profile. Three profiles emerged: (1) Consistent Learner, (2) Struggling Learner, and (3) Excelling Learner. There was heterogeneity within these prekindergarten-to-kindergarten learning profiles; however, a relatively large group showed low achievement and aggression during these early years. Family demographics, parenting, parental functioning, and early education experiences predicted likelihood of being in a particular profile. Implications of how to support Black girls’ learning and adjustment from preschool through kindergarten are discussed.
       
  • Maternal and non-maternal care in infancy and later child cognitive,
           language and motor development in Chile: Does type of care matter'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Marigen Narea, Claudio O. Toppelberg, Matías Irarrázaval, Jiali XuAbstractGrowing numbers of children across the world start non-maternal care in the first year of life. However, few studies have described how different infant care experiences may relate to later child cognitive, language and motor functioning, and most analyses have focused on samples from historically industrialized regions. Cognitive, language and motor subscores (TEPSI) and receptive vocabulary scores (TVIP) obtained through direct testing of 24-to-48-month-old children (n = 7564) from the Chilean Longitudinal Survey of Early Childhood were compared based on retrospective reports of care received as infants. Children who, as infants, had received one of four types of non-maternal care — center-based, grandparent, other relative, and non-relative care — were compared to those who had exclusively experienced maternal care (71.8%). Series of regressions with propensity score models (PSM) were performed. Compared to maternal care, children in center-based care and grandparent care had higher total TEPSI scores (d = .19, p 
       
  • Narrative dialogic reading with wordless picture books: A
           cluster-randomized intervention study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Lorenz Grolig, Caroline Cohrdes, Simon P. Tiffin-Richards, Sascha SchroederAbstractShared reading has the potential to promote a wide range of language skills that are important for reading acquisition. Dialogic reading interventions in preschool facilitate the acquisition of vocabulary and narrative production skills, but it is unclear (a) whether dialogic reading can also foster inferential and literal narrative comprehension and (b) whether intervention effects are maintained until the beginning of formal reading instruction. To close these two gaps, we designed and conducted a low-dose narrative dialogic reading intervention with wordless picture books. On the child care center level, 201 German preschoolers (Mage = 5;5 years) were randomly assigned to the dialogic reading group, an alternative treatment group, or a no treatment group. Hierarchical linear models showed positive effects of dialogic reading on inferential and literal narrative comprehension and on vocabulary depth and breadth. The effect on inferential narrative comprehension was maintained five months after posttest. Overall, our findings indicate that even a small amount of narrative dialogic reading has small, albeit mostly short-term effects on narrative comprehension and vocabulary skills. We conclude that narrative dialogic reading is a promising approach for supporting the development of preschoolers’ inferential skills. Long-term intervention studies are needed for the evaluation of long-term effects.
       
  • Exploring the unique contributions of teachers’ syntax to
           preschoolers’ and kindergarteners’ vocabulary learning
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): JeanMarie Farrow, Barbara A. Wasik, Annemarie H. HindmanAbstractAdult interactions with young children provide important language experiences necessary for children to develop the early precursor skills to be ready to read. This study examines the complexity of preschool and kindergarten teachers’ syntax and the relations between teachers’ syntax and children’s vocabulary development. Thirty-three teachers’ syntax was examined during three instructional contexts: book reading, morning message, and small-group activities. Results suggest that, in general, few teacher background factors were systematically linked to more complex syntax in the classroom, although teachers of minority backgrounds used more complex syntax. Teachers’ syntax was not related to global classroom quality, suggesting that syntax represents a unique facet of the learning environment. Finally, a significant relation emerged between the complexity of teachers’ syntax and children’s vocabulary development, beyond the effects of a series of teacher and child covariates, including classroom quality. This association was driven particularly by the complexity of teachers’ language during morning message and small groups. Together, the results imply that complex syntax is an important source of linguistic information for word learners, and that teachers’ syntax may be another, often overlooked but potentially malleable dimension of classroom quality.
       
  • Forty years of measuring quality with the Environment Rating Scales
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Richard M. Clifford, Noreen Yazejian, Debby Cryer, Thelma HarmsAbstractEarly childhood classroom quality can be viewed from multiple perspectives—including parents, teachers, administrators, researchers, policymakers, and politicians. From the beginning of our work in the 1970s, we have defined and measured the quality of early learning environments with the Environment Rating Scales (ERS) from the perspective of the children in those environments. As quality definitions and measurement have changed through the decades since then, we have retained a focus on children’s perspectives and have continued to revise the ERS to better capture aspects of caregiver–child interactions and particularly language interactions as research has shown these to be particularly important for children’s development. We have maintained our view of the centrality of children’s needs across a wide range of developmental and personal health and safety domains so that teachers, directors, home-based providers, technical assistance personnel, policymakers, researchers, and others interested in high quality programming have tools to guide their work.
       
  • Measuring and improving quality in early care and education
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Robert C. Pianta, Bridget K. Hamre, Tutrang NguyenAbstractFor decades, research on the quality of early care and education has helped identify features of those settings that play some role in promoting children’s learning and development. We offer this brief commentary as a framework for considering not only the topic and papers in this special issue, but more importantly, as a motivating heuristic for next generation of research and development on the assessment and improvement of measuring quality. First, we present some observations on the contemporary debates about quality, including a discussion of effect sizes, causality, conducting "horse race" analyses, and bringing measures to scale. We then argue that making progress towards measuring quality requires the field to think carefully about the focus of assessment, tradeoffs between reliability and validity, the diversity of the classroom and teachers, and scientific and technical advances. Absent these considerations, individually and in terms of their integrative links, discussions or presentations of "new and improved" measures of quality will not help advance the understanding and appropriate use of such instruments.
       
  • Cross-domain associations of key cognitive correlates of early reading and
           early arithmetic in 5-year-olds
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Kiran Vanbinst, Elsje van Bergen, Pol Ghesquière, Bert De SmedtAbstractDisabilities in reading and arithmetic often co-occur, but (dis)abilities in reading and arithmetic have mostly been studied in isolation from each other. This study explicitly focused on the co-development of early reading and early arithmetic before primary education. The Multiple Deficit Model was used as theoretical framework (Pennington, 2006). According to this model, the overlap between early reading and early arithmetic is due to a constellation of shared and unique cognitive correlates. Therefore, we investigated whether key cognitive correlates of one academic ability also correlate with the other. Participants were 188 five-year-old kindergartners who had not yet been formally instructed in reading and arithmetic. Phonological awareness was selected as reading-specific cognitive correlate and (non)symbolic numerical magnitude processing and numeral recognition were considered as arithmetic-specific cognitive correlates. We administered a productive letter knowledge task as a proxy of early reading. Early arithmetic was assessed with simple problems such as 2 + 3 =' . Regression analyses and Bayesian hypothesis testing revealed significant correlations between early reading and early arithmetic before children start primary education. Phonological awareness predicted not only early reading but also, early arithmetic, even when controlling for early reading and arithmetic-specific cognitive correlates. Likewise, numeral recognition predicted not only early arithmetic, but also early reading, even when controlling for early arithmetic and phonological awareness. Phonological awareness and numeral recognition can be considered shared cognitive correlates of both academic domains. In contrast, non-symbolic and symbolic numerical magnitude processing skills were specifically correlated to early arithmetic, and not to early reading, indicating that they are unique to only one academic domain. In line with the Multiple Deficit Model, our data suggest that early reading and early arithmetic have a shared as well as unique underlying cognitive basis. Further unravelling what these academic abilities have in common can be of high value for detecting children at risk already before their transition to formal primary education.
       
  • Preschoolers with developmental speech and/or language impairment:
           Efficacy of the Teaching Early Literacy and Language (TELL) curriculum
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): M. Jeanne Wilcox, Shelley Gray, Mark ReiserAbstractYoung children with developmental speech and/or language impairment (DSLI) often fail to develop oral language and early literacy skills that are foundational for subsequent schooling and reading success. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the efficacy of the Teaching Early Literacy and Language (TELL) curriculum and associated evidence-based teaching practices. Participants included 91 preschool classroom teachers and 202 male and 87 female preschoolers with DSLI who were enrolled in their classes. Children ranged in age from 43 to 63 months. In this cluster RCT, classroom teachers were randomly assigned to implement the TELL curriculum or to continue with their business-as-usual (BAU) curriculum. Proximal outcomes were assessed with investigator developed curriculum-based measures (CBMs) administered six times over the school year. Distal tests (pre-post) of oral language and early literacy skills included an investigator-developed pre-post expressive and receptive vocabulary test, two additional standardized measures (Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool 2nd Edition, the Test of Preschool Early Literacy). A benchmarked early literacy assessment, the Phonological Awareness and Literacy Screening PreK, was also administered. Results indicated a significant TELL effect for all CBMs at later measurement points with Cohen's ds in the medium (0.43) to very large (1.25) range. TELL effects were also noted for the distal vocabulary measure with small to medium between-group effect sizes (Cohen’s f^2 range from 0.02 to 0.44). There were no significant TELL effects for the standardized distal measures. Based on progress measures, the TELL curriculum was effective for improving the oral language and early literacy skills of young children with DSLI.
       
  • Choosing what is best for one’s children' Experimental evidence on
           parents’ responsiveness to childcare subsidies and their preferences for
           different childcare arrangements
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Christoph Zangger, Janine WidmerAbstractHow do various levels of subsidies shape parental preferences for different childcare arrangements' Using data collected in a choice experiment that was conducted with 540 parents in the city of Bern, Switzerland, this study demonstrates how parental preferences for adequate childcare arrangements for their preschool-aged children are crucially mediated by the offered subsidies. Focusing on center-based care, we further investigate whether these preferences differ across individual social status, earnings, migration background, and gender. The results show that subsidizing high-quality childcare centers seems to fulfill the underlying policy goal of shifting parents’ preferences toward formal, center-based care arrangements. We also observe that this effect is more pronounced for individuals who are less likely to resort to this type of childcare in the first place, namely, families with fewer monetary resources, individuals with a migration background, and men.
       
  • Direct and indirect pathways to early school adjustment: Roles of young
           children’s mental representations and peer victimization
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Pamela W. Garner, Julie C. Dunsmore, Hideko Hamada BassettAbstractWe examined direct and indirect associations among preschool-age children’s attachment-related mental representations of mothers and peer relationships with their early school adjustment. One hundred and eighteen preschoolers attending Head Start programs were administered a story stem completion task to measure prosocial and antisocial themes in their attachment representations. Approximately two months later, teachers reported on children’s physical and relational peer victimization and prosocial attention from peers. Another three months later, trained observers rated preschoolers’ school adjustment. Children’s prosocial themes in their attachment-related mental representations were negatively related to reported experiences of physical and relational peer victimization. Physical peer victimization was associated with poorer school adjustment and prosocial attention from peers was associated with better school adjustment. Children’s prosocial themes in their attachment-related mental representations were indirectly associated with better school adjustment via lower physical peer victimization. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research and intervention on peer victimization in early childhood.
       
  • Trends in preschool attendance in Australia following major policy reform:
           Updated evidence six years following a commitment to universal access
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Meredith O’Connor, Elodie O’Connor, Sarah Gray, Sharon GoldfeldAbstractMajor policy reforms were instigated in 2008 in Australia to ensure that all children have access to a preschool program in the year before starting school. The Australian Early Development Census (AEDC) provides a means of monitoring the impact of these reforms at the population level, as teachers of all children in their first year of school retrospectively report on children’s preschool experiences every three years. Early indications from AEDC data spanning the preschool years of 2008–2011 indicated that the proportion of children attending preschool remained relatively stable over this period. In this short communication, we update this with analysis of preschool trends from 2008 to 2014. We find evidence of increasing preschool attendance over this longer time frame (80.43% in 2008, compared to 91.30% in 2014; OR 2.53, 99% CI 2.44–2.62). Consistent with earlier data, children from disadvantaged communities had higher odds of non-attendance, compared to those living in the most advantaged communities (OR 2.94, 99% CI 2.74–3.15). In 2014, children who did not attend preschool were also disproportionately Indigenous and from non-English speaking backgrounds. Findings suggest that participation in preschool appears to have increased, concurrent to government efforts to promote participation through universal access. Engaging the most vulnerable families in preschool programs remains a major challenge that requires continued policy focus.
       
  • Change in language and literacy knowledge for Spanish–English dual
           language learners at school-entry: Analyses from three studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Carol Scheffner Hammer, Margaret Burchinal, Sandra Soliday Hong, Doré R. LaForett, Mariela Páez, Virginia Buysse, Linda Espinosa, Dina Castro, Lisa M. LópezAbstractOver 30% of children in the U.S. are dual language learners (DLLs) who are learning two languages. Understanding the development of both languages for young DLL children in early care and education is critical. However, few have simultaneously examined development of skills in both languages for children in preschool. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the language and literacy skills among Spanish–English DLL preschoolers and to directly compare change over time in language and literacy skills in both Spanish and English in secondary data analyses of three studies of DLL children. Hierarchical linear model analyses compared acquisition of language skills in English and Spanish in three studies. Using language and time as nesting factors, these models allow for direct contrast of level and rate of acquisition across languages. Results showed that Spanish-English DLL children made gains in their English abilities while being exposed to Spanish at home. Also, gains in English vocabulary skills were observed when children’s Spanish skills were higher than the English skills. Gains in children’s Spanish language abilities were not realized and children’s English language abilities did not appear to support children’s Spanish skills. Cross-language relations were observed in literacy.
       
  • School-entry skills predicting school-age academic and
           social–emotional trajectories
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Margaret Burchinal, Tiffany Jamie Foster, Kylie Garber Bezdek, Mary Bratsch-Hines, Clancy Blair, Lynne Vernon-Feagans, the Family Life Project InvestigatorsAbstractIdentifying skills at entry to school that promote academic success has been a major goal for policy and research. The current study categorized school-entry skills as academic (i.e., math and reading skills), cognitive (i.e., language and executive functioning), and social–emotional (i.e., externalizing and internalizing problems) skills and asked to what extent each predicted school-age skills. Data were drawn from the Family Life Project, a representative birth cohort study of 1292 children living in low-wealth rural communities. Children’s academic, cognitive, and social–emotional skills were assessed prior to kindergarten and used to predict longitudinal trajectories in math, reading, language, and social–emotional skills from kindergarten through third grade. Findings indicate that school-entry skills within a given domain were the strongest predictor of the level of school-age skills within that domain, but the magnitude of those associations diminished over time. Higher levels of language and executive function, and lower levels of internalizing problems were the only school-entry skills to predict larger gains in skills during the first four years of elementary school. These results suggest that greater focus on both cognitive and social–emotional skills during early childhood may be warranted.
       
  • Computerized social-emotional assessment measures for early childhood
           settings
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Susanne A. Denham, Hideko H. Bassett, Katherine M. Zinsser, Isabel S. Bradburn, Craig S. Bailey, Elizabeth A. Shewark, David E. Ferrier, Kristi H. Liverette, Jessica Steed, Samantha P. Karalus, Saeid KianpourAbstractSocial-emotional competence (SEC) is increasingly acknowledged by parents, educators, and lawmakers as central to school success. Given the tremendous SEC gains made by preschoolers, early childhood educators need access to sensitive assessment tools that enable them to monitor and tailor instruction to individual children’s needs. Computerized direct assessment tools have several advantages to meet these needs, including inherent interest to children and ease of use for teachers. Thus, we evaluated the psychometric adequacy of computerized assessment tools measuring two key aspects of preschoolers’ SEC: emotion knowledge and social problem solving. Participants included 450 preschoolers from three regions. We used two versions each of two measures widely used in research: The Affect Knowledge Test, Shortened (AKT-S) and Challenging Situations Task (CST). Both were administered via in-person and computerized modes, in counterbalanced orders. For each computerized administration, observers rated children’s computer competence and interest in the assessment process. Analyses examined internal consistency reliability of the computerized measures. Interrelations and mean differences between computerized and in-person modes for each measure were used to demonstrate concurrent validity of the computerized measures. Because of the importance of SEC for early school success, associations of the computerized measures with aggregate teacher ratings of social-emotional behavior and learning behaviors/attitudes were used as indicators of predictive validity. Findings showed that the computerized AKT-S and CST appear reliable. Further, for concurrent validity, both are related to, and do not differ from, the in-person mode. Predictive validity relations were stronger for the AKT-S than the CST, therefore validity of the CST should be probed further. Discussion centers on advantages of using these computerized measures, and how teachers could be supported to use them.
       
  • Screening approaches for determining the language of assessment for dual
           language learners: Evidence from Head Start and a universal preschool
           initiative
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Nikki Aikens, Jerry West, Kelsey McKee, Emily Moiduddin, Sally Atkins-Burnett, Yange XueAbstractThis study conducted analyses that examined the performance of the Preschool Language Assessment Scale (preLAS) and the Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (EOWPVT-3: SBE), a conceptually scored vocabulary measure, for determining dual language learner (DLL) children’s language path through a direct assessment battery. We draw on data from two studies of programs serving linguistically-diverse children, the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) and the Universal Preschool Child Outcomes Study (UPCOS), both of which used the preLAS for routing. Several key findings should inform future language routing procedures. Findings suggested that, beyond use for language screening purposes, the preLAS could be used to help differentiate DLL children’s scores on other measures of development. In addition, the items are not ordered in terms of difficulty, which has implications for how preLAS scores should be used. We also find that language of response on the EOWPVT-3: SBE signals Spanish-English DLLs’ readiness to respond to language-specific assessments in English. This research suggests that, when using the preLAS to route children appropriately, assessment procedures should consider using total rather than consecutive errors. It also suggests that other assessment measures, such as the EOWPVT-3: SBE, can be considered for use in language routing specifically with Spanish-English DLLs.
       
  • Maternal support for infant learning: Findings from a randomized
           controlled trial of doula home visiting services for young mothers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Renee C. Edwards, Yadira Vieyra, Sydney L. HansAbstractThis randomized controlled trial examined the impact of a doula home visiting intervention on maternal stimulation and support for learning during infancy. In this intervention, evidence-based home visiting programs incorporate community doulas, who provide support and education to mothers around pregnancy, childbirth, and fetal and infant development. In this study, 312 young, low income mothers from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds and from four geographic locations were interviewed during pregnancy and then randomized to receive either doula home visiting services or low intensity case management services. At 3 weeks, 3 months, and 13 months postpartum, mothers were again interviewed and were video-recorded while interacting with their infants. Results showed that mothers assigned to the intervention were more likely to read to their infants and engage them in activities that foster cognitive development during early infancy. Additionally, moderation analyses revealed that mothers of boys and mothers with high levels of social support experienced additional benefits of the program. These findings add to a growing literature that community doulas, working in family homes, can positively affect the parenting behavior of low-income mothers.
       
  • Thirty years later: Locating and interviewing participants of the Chicago
           Longitudinal Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Suh-Ruu Ou, Christina F. Mondi, Sangok Yoo, Kyungin Park, Brianne Warren, Arthur J. ReynoldsAbstractRetaining study participants over time is essential for longitudinal studies to prevent selection bias and to achieve their long-term goals. The present paper examines the extent to which participants can be retained in a 30-year longitudinal study when a multi-pronged approach is employed. The paper specifically describes the approach that was used to locate and interview participants of the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), three decades after the study began. The CLS is a prospective cohort investigation that examines the effects of the Child–Parent Center (CPC) program, a school-based intervention for low-income children from preschool through 3rd grade. The original CLS sample included a complete cohort of 1539 children who were born in low-income areas in 1979–1980 and attended kindergarten in 1985–1986 at Chicago Public Schools. The CLS conducted a follow-up survey when participants were approximately age 35. After relatively slow initial progress, CLS researchers developed a comprehensive strategy to locate and interview participants, including: (a) adoption of detailed, manualized tracking protocol, (b) utilization of multiple search platforms, ranging from public search engines to social media, (c) assistance from state correctional facilities, and (d) neighborhood canvassing and in-person interviews. This tracking and interview process facilitated 735 completed interviews within 27 months, compared to 370 completed interviews in the 32 months prior to the launch of the comprehensive tracking protocol. Altogether, 1105 interviews were conducted, representing an effective completion rate of 76.5%. Recommendations for strengthening response rates in other longitudinal studies are discussed.
       
  • What do parents value in a child care provider' Evidence from Yelp
           consumer reviews
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 51Author(s): Chris M. Herbst, Kevin C. Desouza, Saud Al-Ashri, Srinivasa Srivatsav Kandala, Mayank Khullar, Vikash BajajAbstractThis paper exploits novel data and empirical methods to examine parental preferences for child care. Specifically, we analyze consumer reviews of child care businesses posted on the website Yelp.com. A key advantage of Yelp is that it contains a large volume of unstructured information about a broad set of child care programs located in demographically and economically diverse communities. Thus our analysis relies on a combination of theory- and data-driven methodologies to organize and classify the characteristics of child care that are assessed by parents. We also use natural language processing techniques to examine the affect and psychological tones expressed in the reviews. Our main results are threefold. First, conditional on contributing a Yelp review, consumers overall are highly satisfied with their child care provider, although those in higher-income markets are substantially more satisfied than their counterparts in lower-income markets. Second, the program characteristics most commonly evaluated by consumers relate to safety, quality of the learning environment, and child-teacher interactions. However, those in lower- and higher-income markets evaluate different characteristics in their reviews. The former is more likely to comment on a program’s practical features, such as its pricing and accessibility, while the latter is more likely to focus on the learning environment. Finally, we find that consumers in lower-income markets are more likely to display negative psychological tones such as anxiety and anger in their reviews, especially when discussing the nature of their interactions with program managers and their child’s interactions with teachers.
       
  • Expanding the Home Numeracy Model to Chilean children: Relations among
           parental expectations, attitudes, activities, and children’s
           mathematical outcomes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 50, Part 3Author(s): María Inés Susperreguy, Heather Douglas, Chang Xu, Natalia Molina-Rojas, Jo-Anne LeFevreAbstractWe used structural equation modeling to evaluate an enhanced version of the Home Numeracy Model proposed by Skwarchuk and colleagues (2014, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 121, 63–84). Participants were 390 Chilean preschool children and their parents. Children completed numeracy and literacy tasks at the beginning of preschool (mean age: 4 years and 7 months) and approximately 8 months later. Parents reported on the home numeracy activities they engaged in with their children, including formal (i.e., mapping and operational), informal (i.e., parents’ number-game knowledge), and home literacy activities (i.e., code-related and meaning-related), as well as on numeracy and literacy attitudes and expectations for children’s performance prior to Grade 1. We found that parents with more positive numeracy attitudes and higher academic expectations reported a higher frequency of formal numeracy (mapping and operational) activities. In turn, formal operational activities predicted number line estimation and applied problem-solving skills. In contrast, informal activities (i.e., parents’ number-game knowledge) predicted children’s non-symbolic arithmetic and non-symbolic number comparison tasks, as well as their applied problem-solving skills. The links between home activities and numeracy outcomes were domain specific: Parents’ reports of literacy activities did not predict early numeracy skills. We discuss how our results support the enhanced Home Numeracy Model and thus provide a more complete framework connecting parents’ engagement in numeracy activities and children’s mathematical outcomes.
       
  • Introduction to the Special Issue: Parents supporting early mathematical
           thinking
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 50, Part 3Author(s): Michèle M.M. Mazzocco, Amy Claessens
       
  • Understanding alignment in children’s early learning experiences:
           Policies and practices from across the United States
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2019Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Jessica F. Harding, Dana Charles McCoy, Meghan P. McCormick
       
  • Observing individual children in early childhood classrooms using
           Optimizing Learning Opportunities for Students (OLOS): A feasibility study
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2019Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Carol McDonald Connor, Ashley Adams, Elham Zargar, Taffeta S. Wood, Belinda E. Hernandez, Deborah Lowe VandellAbstractIn this feasibility study, we present a newly developed observational system, Optimizing Learning Opportunities for Students (OLOS). OLOS is designed to elucidate the learning opportunities afforded to individual children within early childhood classrooms and as they transition to formal schooling (kindergarten through third grade). OLOS records the time spent in different types of learning opportunities (e.g., play, literacy, math) and the frequency of specific discourse moves children and teachers use (child talk and teacher talk). Importantly, it is designed to be used validly and reliably by practitioners. Using OLOS, we explored individual children’s experiences (n = 68 children in 12 classrooms) in four different types of early childhood programs; state-funded pre-kindergarten (PK), state-funded PK serving children with disabilities, Head Start, and a tuition-based (non-profit) preschool. Results of our feasibility study revealed that coders achieved adequate inter-rater reliability with about 10 h of training and 5 h of practice. We could feasibly and reliably use OLOS in these very different kinds of pre-kindergarten programs but with some changes. In analyzing the observations, we found that individual children’s learning opportunities varied significantly both within and between classrooms. In general, we observed that most of the PK day (or half day) was spent in language and literacy activities and non-instructional activities (e.g., transitions). Very little time in math and science was observed yet children were generally more likely to actively participate (i.e., more child talk) during academic learning opportunities (literacy, math, and science). The frequency of teacher talk also varied widely between classrooms and across programs. Plus, the more teacher talk we observed, the more child talk we observed. Our long-term aim is that OLOS can inform policy and provide information that supports practitioners in meeting the learning and social-behavioral needs of the children they serve.
       
  • Examining how rural ecological contexts influence children’s early
           learning opportunities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Iheoma U. Iruka, Mark DeKraai, Janell Walther, Susan M. Sheridan, Tarik Abdel-MonemAbstractAccording to Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological theory (Bronfenbrenner & Evans, 2000), children’s early development and learning are influenced by multiple systems, including the microsystem (e.g., family poverty level), mesosystem (e.g., home-school partnership), exosystem (e.g., community type, early education policies), and macrosystem (e.g., rural culture). Given the lack of early education studies focused on rural communities, we sought to explore how these ecological systems are linked to children’s early learning experiences, with a particular focus on educators’ perceptions of how these ecosystems influence children’s learning environments and opportunities. Based on interviews and focus groups with school leaders, educators, and parents in 10 rural school districts, we found that children in one rural state experienced diversity in ecological systems that may impact their opportunities for learning. In particular, there was a range in the level of familial poverty, early education access, family-school engagement, available community resources, and cultural diversity in these rural communities. Implications for policies and practices to support children’s early learning in rural communities in light of their unique challenges and assets are discussed.
       
  • Alignment and misalignment of classroom experiences from Pre-K to
           kindergarten
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2019Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Virginia E. Vitiello, Robert C. Pianta, Jessica E. Whittaker, Erik A. RuzekAbstractAreas of misalignment between children's experiences in preschool and kindergarten are increasingly viewed as contributing to the fade-out of preschool effects. The current study examined alignment and misalignment of classroom experiences across the transition from public pre-k into kindergarten. As part of a longitudinal cohort study, we examined structural features, process features, and teacher beliefs and practices in 295 public kindergarten classrooms and 117 public pre-K classrooms that feed into them. Analyses revealed a number of differences indicative of potential misalignment, including fewer ethnically and linguistically diverse teachers, more time in teacher-structured activities, and less effective teacher–child interactions in kindergarten. Potential alignment was indicated in some areas, such as more time in kindergarten spent on academics; progression toward more advanced literacy and math content from pre-k to kindergarten; and teachers across both grades reported similarly child-centered ideas about children. Exploratory results by pre-K auspice comparing school-based and center-based pre-K raised further questions about what the meaningful components of alignment are. The field lacks a robust empirical base for defining “good” alignment, thus these descriptive results are discussed in terms of implications for future, predictive research.
       
  • Understanding policies and practices that support successful transitions
           to kindergarten
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 September 2019Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Kelly M. Purtell, Anne Valauri, Anna Rhoad-Drogalis, Hui Jiang, Laura M. Justice, Tzu-Jung Lin, Jessica A.R. LoganAbstractThe entry into kindergarten is a key transition children experience and has lasting consequences for their academic development. In light of this, many schools have implemented transition practices designed to foster positive development for children during this time. This study uses qualitative interview data to examine the policies, practices, and barriers that shape how school districts support children during the kindergarten transition. Data from interviews with teachers and administrators in eleven school districts reveal a diversity in the number of kindergarten transition practices implemented and a number of structural barriers related to communication and collaboration that prevent more intensive transition efforts. These barriers included a lack of communication about children’s experiences prior to kindergarten and practical challenges related to bringing early childhood educators and elementary personnel together. They also highlighted external policy factors, such as quality rating systems, that shaped transition practices. These findings point to a number of future directions for both research and policy related to the kindergarten transition.
       
  • Promoting content-enriched alignment across the early grades: A study of
           policies & practices in the Boston Public Schools
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2019Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Meghan P. McCormick, Christina Weiland, JoAnn Hsueh, Michelle Maier, Rama Hagos, Catherine Snow, Nicole Leacock, Laura SchickAbstractAs states and districts expand access to publicly funded PreK programs, researchers and policymakers have been grappling with experimental evidence demonstrating that the benefits of PreK on academic skills are not likely to last into early elementary school. A leading hypothesis to explain this phenomenon is that PreK and the elementary grades are not aligned with respect to content and mode of instruction. The Boston Public Schools Department of Early Childhood has begun to implement an aligned curriculum and professional development model called Focus on Early Learning to address this issue. The current study describes the components of this aligned model, identifies the facilitators and barriers to implementation, and examines the extent to which the model has been implemented to date. Findings demonstrate that a critical component of Focus on Early Learning is a combination of aligned structures and rich instructional content. A number of structural and process factors have facilitated implementation, but the district has also faced barriers, including funding and the challenge of creating a culture that supports alignment. Although survey and observational data suggest that PreK and kindergarten teachers are implementing the curriculum at moderate levels, there was significant variation in implementation across the study sample. In addition, teachers were less likely to receive professional development to support implementation. Although teachers generally supported the idea of aligning instruction across grades, they were less likely to engage in specific activities to do so, such as having common planning meetings with teachers across grades. Implications are discussed.
       
  • It’s more than just fun and games: Play-based mathematics activities
           for Head Start families
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Geetha B. Ramani, Nicole R. ScaliseAbstractDiscrepancies in early mathematical knowledge between children from different socioeconomic backgrounds have been found before the start of kindergarten. The early home environment is one context that can address these discrepancies. This study examined whether an informal mathematical activity that has been successful at promoting children’s numerical knowledge could be translated into a home activity for families from lower-income backgrounds. Families from Head Start programs (n = 39) were randomly assigned to play either a numerical magnitude comparison game or a shape and color matching game. Results showed that playing the numerical magnitude comparison game did not improve children’s numerical knowledge, although playing the shape and color matching game did improve children’s shape knowledge. However, parental reports of the frequency of game playing at home related to children’s learning from both games. Analyses of audio recordings of the families playing the games at home revealed there was wide variability in how parents assisted the children during the card game play. Results are discussed in terms of the benefits and challenges of mathematical interventions targeting the home context.
       
  • The home math environment: More than numeracy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Erica L Zippert, Bethany Rittle-JohnsonAbstractThe goal of the current study is to develop a more complete understanding of the early home math environment, encompassing both numeracy and non-numeracy aspects of that environment. Parents of preschoolers (n = 63) were surveyed about their support of three components of early mathematics knowledge (i.e., numeracy, spatial, and pattern) as well as parents’ math-related beliefs about themselves and their children. Children were administered a broad math knowledge assessment which included a numeracy subscale, and individual measures of spatial and patterning skills in the fall (concurrently). Broad math knowledge was measured again in the spring of the preschool year. Parents indicated providing some support of early math development through numeracy, spatial, and patterning activities, with a stronger emphasis on numeracy than pattern and space. Parents’ child-specific ability beliefs were related to their numeracy, pattern, and broad math support, while their parent-specific ability beliefs were related to their spatial support. Parent support was rarely linked to child skills, except that numeracy support related to concurrent numeracy knowledge. Findings suggest that although parents do support a broad range of early math skills at home, parents tend to prioritize supporting early numeracy. Parents’ beliefs, especially about their child’s academic abilities, may influence components of the early home math environment, but future research is needed to better understand the relations between parent’s academic beliefs and the home math environment they create.
       
  • Preferences for tactile and narrative counting books across parents with
           different education levels
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Shannon M. Gaylord, Connor D. O’Rear, Caroline Byrd Hornburg, Nicole M. McNeilAbstractCounting books are a potential source of input for children’s learning of early mathematics concepts. However, little is known about the factors that affect the counting books parents choose for their children. Parents (N = 696) of preschoolers (ages 2;6–4;11) were surveyed about their preferences for two specific counting book features, tactility and narrative quality. These two features were studied both covertly, by experimentally manipulating the types of books parents saw and asking parents why they would choose particular books, and explicitly, by asking parents to rate the importance of various factors when choosing counting books for their children. The a priori hypotheses were that parents would prefer tactile over non-tactile counting books for boys and narrative over non-narrative counting books for girls and that education level would be positively associated with counting book reading. Results did not support these hypotheses. Instead, parents’ preferences for the features depended on their education level. Higher education levels were generally associated with decreased preference for tactility and increased preference for narrative quality. Results raise the question of whether the books parents choose for their children may be one way parent education shapes children's early learning environments.
       
  • Number-based sharing: Conversation about quantity in the context of
           resource distribution
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Nadia ChernyakAbstractRecent work suggests a strong connection between our numeracy skills, and our social behavior – in particular, children’s numerical cognition predicts their abilities to understand fairness and to act fairly in their resource distribution behavior. This project investigated how children’s early socio-linguistic contexts help to form the link between numerical cognition and resource distribution. This work analyzed existing transcripts in the CHILDES database for instances of talk about resource distribution. Both adults and children were more likely to talk about numbers and quantifiers within resource distribution contexts than outside of them, suggesting that resource distribution is a fruitful context for evoking quantity talk. Not surprisingly, discussion of discrete items promoted talk about number, and continuous items promoted talk about quantifiers. Somewhat surprisingly, however, adults were more likely to use number words with girls than boys in this context. Additionally, compared with statements and questions, adults’ directives (“give me those two”) and requests (“can you share one with me'”) were more likely to contain number words. As children grew older, they were more likely to use quantifiers, and girls were more likely to use quantifiers than boys. Overall, these results suggest that (a) resource distribution contexts may be a particularly fruitful context to promote quantity talk, and (b) adults discuss numbers differently in these contexts than they might outside of them. Results are discussed with reference to recent work on numeracy skills and sharing and in terms of specific features of resource distribution that promote quantity talk.
       
  • Quality of fathers’ spatial concept support during block building
           predicts their daughters’ early math skills – But not their sons’
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 September 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Dana Thomson, Beth M. Casey, Caitlin M. Lombardi, Hoa Nha NguyenAbstractThe goal of this study was to examine fathers’ support of their children’s spatial learning during a joint block-building task at the beginning of first grade as a predictor of their children’s math achievement at the end of first grade. Observational measures of videotaped father–child interactions from the Boston site of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 105) were used to examine the effectiveness of spatial support during a block building task. Trained observers rated fathers’ spatial support by applying two approaches: (a) a qualitative rating scale assessing level of paternal spatial concept support involving encouragement of child spatial learning and enriched spatial explanations, and (b) a measure assessing quantitative paternal spatial location language support. A significant sex by quality of spatial concept support interaction showed that for girls (but not for boys), fathers’ qualitatively higher spatial concept support predicted superior math achievement scores by the end of first grade, even after controlling for a host of variables, including children’s math achievement at age 4.5 years, family income, child intelligence and ratings of fathers’ and mothers’ general cognitive support (e.g., support for a range of perceptual, cognitive, and linguistic development) across all parent–child activities during the first grade home visit. The quantitative measure of frequency of paternal spatial location language support was not predictive of math, but children’s independent accuracy on the block building task did predict math achievement. Though only correlational, findings suggest that fathers may have an important role to play in providing high-quality spatial concept support for their young daughters.
       
  • Differences in the complexity of math and literacy questions parents pose
           during storybook reading
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Colleen Uscianowski, Ma. Victoria Almeda, Herbert P. GinsburgParent–child interactions, such as the complexity of their talk during storybook reading, can play a vital role in supporting the development of children’s literacy and math skills. Given that parents may have different beliefs and confidence helping their children learn literacy and math, the present study compares the level of abstraction, or complexity, of questions posed by parents when prompted to help their child learn about math or literacy topics during storybook reading. We also sought to identify factors that influence parents’ use of abstract questions within the story. A total of 172 parents of 3.5–4.5-year-old children named a question they would pose to their child about the character’s actions, numbers, or shapes on 18 storybook pages as part of an online survey. Results revealed that storybook pages without math content evoked questions of significantly higher abstraction than did pages with math content. Parents’ confidence and enjoyment helping their child learn literacy and parents’ educational attainment were found to be significantly and positively related to their use of complex questions for character’s actions, while parents’ reading anxieties had a negative relation to the complexity of their questions. In contrast, parents’ rating of their child’s number ability was significantly and positively related to their use of complex language for number while no significant effects were found for shape. In addition, parents posed more complex questions about number to their sons than daughters. Overall, our findings suggest that parents may benefit from support in engaging their children in challenging and abstract math-related talk about number and shape during storybook reading in order to promote their children’s mathematical development.
       
 
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