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HEALTH AND SAFETY (538 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 229)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access  
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access  
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Notions     Open Access  
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Healthy-Mu Journal     Open Access  
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Early Childhood Research Quarterly
  [SJR: 1.53]   [H-I: 64]   [17 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0885-2006
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Effect of the tools of the mind kindergarten program on children’s
           social and emotional development
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 43
      Author(s): Clancy Blair, Rachel D. McKinnon, M. Paula Daneri
      Social-emotional competence in early childhood and the elementary grades is foundational for children’s short- and long-term academic, social, mental health, and employment outcomes. This study examined the effects of a large-scale (N = 715) cluster randomized controlled trial of a comprehensive kindergarten program, Tools of the Mind, on teachers’ reports of children’s social-emotional competence at the end of kindergarten with follow-up in first grade. Results indicated that at the end of kindergarten, children in classrooms in schools randomly assigned to the treatment condition had reduced teacher reported behavior problems and aggression and improved self-regulation, social-emotional competence, and positive teacher-child relationships relative to children in classrooms in schools randomly assigned to the control condition. No differences were detected for teacher-reported academic competence. Sustained effects in first grade were seen only for first grade teachers’ reports of aggression and conduct problems. This study adds to a growing literature demonstrating positive effects of educational programs focusing on children’s social-emotional as well as academic competence.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T09:28:05Z
  • Individual differences in basic arithmetic skills in children with and
           without developmental language disorder: Role of home numeracy experiences
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 43
      Author(s): Tijs Kleemans, Eliane Segers, Ludo Verhoeven
      The present study investigated the role of kindergarten home numeracy experiences in predicting individual differences in second-grade basic arithmetic (i.e., small problem sizes and large problem sizes) among children with developmental language disorders (DLD) and their peers with normal language achievement (NLA), after controlling for kindergarten cognitive and linguistic capacities and first-grade basic arithmetic. Forty children with DLD and 103 children with NLA were tested on cognitive, linguistic, and basic arithmetic skills, and their parents filled in a questionnaire on home numeracy activities and numeracy expectations. The results showed that children with DLD scored below their peers with NLA on basic arithmetic skills, with larger group differences on arithmetic with large problem sizes than small problem sizes. Furthermore, for both groups of children, home numeracy experiences were positively related to arithmetic with large, but not small problem sizes, suggesting that the role of home numeracy in basic arithmetic might be restricted to those arithmetic skills that children have not fully mastered yet.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T09:28:05Z
  • Part C Early Intervention dosage and growth in adaptive skills from early
           childhood through adolescence
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 43
      Author(s): Ashley C. Woodman, Lindsay Demers, Morgan K. Crossman, Marji Erickson Warfield, Penny Hauser-Cram
      The present study explored the association between the dosage level of Part C Early Intervention (EI) services and growth in adaptive behavior from early childhood through adolescence for children with developmental disabilities. Children who received more hours of service than expected based on their characteristics and those of their family measured at EI intake had greater skills in communication, socialization, and daily living skills when they ended EI services at EI. In addition, children who received more hours of service showed greater improvements in all three domains of adaptive behavior over time. The short- and long-term benefits of higher dosage levels of EI services suggest that Part C EI practices and policies should be geared toward increasing service hours, either by increasing the number of hours of scheduled service or minimizing disruptions to scheduled service.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T09:28:05Z
  • Hispanic dual language learning kindergarten students' response to a
           numeracy intervention: A randomized control trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 43
      Author(s): Matthew E. Foster, Jason L. Anthony, Doug H. Clements, Julie Sarama, Jeffrey J. Williams
      This study evaluated the impact of the Spanish version of the Building Blocks software program and vocabulary on kindergarten mathematics outcomes. Participants included 270 Hispanic dual language learners from low-income communities. Relative to children in the computer assisted instruction (CAI) literacy control group, those in the Building Blocks CAI group evidenced higher posttest scores for Spanish mathematics, but not for English mathematics, after controlling for pretest numeracy. There were also main effects of English vocabulary and Spanish vocabulary predicting posttest mathematics scores in English and Spanish, after controlling for covariates. These findings support the use of the Building Blocks software as a supplemental method for improving the mathematics competencies of Hispanic dual language learners from low-income backgrounds.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T09:28:05Z
  • Did the frequency of early elementary classroom arts instruction decrease
           during the no child left behind era' If so, for whom'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly
      Author(s): Taylor V. Gara, Liane Brouillette, George Farkas
      Analyzing teacher reports from two cohorts of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, this study looked at changes in the frequency of early elementary classroom arts instruction from the 1999–2000 to the 2011–12 school year. The majority of classroom teachers surveyed in our study reported on first-grade students (94%–96%). We found that the percentage of children spending no classroom time on arts activities significantly increased for music, visual art, dance, and theater. This decreased participation in classroom arts activities was generally largest for students in the bottom one-third of the social class distribution. Overall, participation in at least some music or visual arts activities continued above 95%. However, participation in at least some dance fell to about 46% and participation in at least some theater to about 40% (compared to 58% and 56% reported in the 1999–2000 school year). In contrast, for music, dance, and theater, among students receiving at least some exposure during regular class time, the amount of time spent on these activities each week significantly increased. This finding was most robust for music; those students who already had at least some participation experienced a 20-min increase in the amount of classroom time spent on music activities. During the No Child Left Behind era many early elementary educators completely eliminated dance and theater activities from their classrooms. However, those teachers who did not completely eliminate music, dance, or theater activities actually increased the time devoted to them. This heterogeneity in teachers’ responses to policy changes must be accounted for in future attempts to project the likely consequences of alternative educational policies.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T09:28:05Z
  • Becoming prosocial: The consistency of individual differences in early
           prosocial behavior
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 43
      Author(s): Abby C.W. Schachner, Emily K. Newton, Ross A. Thompson, Miranda Goodman-Wilson
      Recent research on early prosocial behavior has questioned whether young children show consistency in their prosocial responding across different tasks and over time. Two studies are reported that address this issue, one with 18-month-olds (n = 86) and one with older children studied longitudinally at 4.5 and 6 years (n = 51). In each, children’s responses to multiple age-appropriate prosocial tasks were assessed using both variable-centered and person-centered analyses. Variable-centered analyses revealed generally significant associations between children’s responses across tasks and, in older children, over time. Person-centered analyses revealed that children were distinguished into low prosocial, moderate prosocial, and “frequent helpers” groups with the addition of a high prosocial group in older children. These findings indicate that although situational characteristics are important, their importance varies across children and development. Results suggest that young children tend to show consistency in individual differences in their prosocial responding across situations and distinct dispositional profiles of children can be observed, including those who demonstrate high prosocial responding across situations requiring different cognitive, social and motivational skills.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T17:20:15Z
  • Arts-related pedagogies in preschool education: An Asian perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly
      Author(s): Alfredo Bautista, Ana Moreno-Núñez, Rebecca Bull, Farina Amsah, Swee-Fuan Koh
      Compelling research and contemporary early childhood curriculum frameworks have increasingly emphasized the importance of arts education in fostering children’s holistic development. However, there is limited research focused on documenting what arts-related pedagogical practices look like in actual classroom settings, particularly in Asia. Drawing on a large dataset of observations conducted in Kindergarten 1 classrooms (4–5 years), this study describes the arts education landscape in Singapore preschools. Findings show that: (1) Certain art forms are commonly observed (e.g., visual arts 2D, singing, and movement) whereas others are rare (e.g., visual arts 3D, dance); (2) Teachers and students engage with the arts in four different types of settings (integrated learning activities, fillers and transitions, learning center time, and art-focused lessons), in which the presence of the various art forms considerably differs; (3) While classroom climate is generally positive and children seem to enjoy engaging with the arts, teachers focus on providing product-oriented instructions rather than fostering children’s individual creativity and expression; and (4) Although art activities are frequently available to children, there is limited accessibility to art activities and materials due to the rigidity of schedules. We conclude that while arts education plays an important role in Singapore’s preschool education, pedagogical practices –perhaps as a reflection of Asian values and societal expectations– are primarily reproductive and teacher-led. Professional development should enhance teachers’ level of preparation to better foster children’s free exploration and access to resources, creativity and self-expression, and their confidence to utilize certain art forms more often. These findings enrich the limited classroom-based arts education international literature. Similarities and differences with Western studies are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T17:20:15Z
  • Does theatre-in-education promote early childhood development'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly
      Author(s): Wendy K. Mages
      This quasi-experimental, multi-method study examines whether participation in a preschool theatre-in-education (TIE) program can promote emergent literacy, theory of mind, and imaginative development. This research combines quantitative assessments of children’s narrative comprehension, narrative production, vocabulary development, false-belief understanding, and imagination skills with a qualitative descriptive analysis of the implementation of a theatre-in-education program to investigate the effect of a respected preschool TIE program on the development of 155 urban children enrolled in Head Start. Although the measures used were unable to detect a significant effect of the drama intervention, in the current academic climate, in which an increasing focus on academics in preschool curricula can lead to the elimination of arts programming, it is worth noting that the inclusion of a TIE program did not detract from the children’s acquisition of skills that contribute to school readiness; the scores on assessments of language, perspective-taking, and imagination were similar for children in the intervention and comparison conditions. Thus, this study suggests that the inclusion of high-quality theatre arts curricula in early childhood education can provide young children with an entertaining and engaging preschool drama experience while providing academic supports commensurate with those of more traditional early childhood programs.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T17:20:15Z
  • Reliability and validity of a measure of preschool children’s theatre
           arts skills: The Preschool Theatre Arts Rubric
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly
      Author(s): Amy Susman-Stillman, Michelle Englund, Chloe Webb, Amanda Grenell
      The increasing attention to arts integration in early childhood education necessitates assessment of arts skills in order to measure the impact and the mechanisms by which the arts can affect early childhood development. The purpose of this study is to describe and provide initial validation of a newly developed observational measure of preschool children’s theatre arts skills, the Preschool Theatre Arts Rubric (PTAR), which measures five preschool theatre arts skills: independence in role play, use of face and gesture, focus/persistence, collaboration, and theatricality. We present findings regarding internal consistency, inter-rater reliability, construct validity (convergent and divergent), and sensitivity to change of the PTAR using a sample of 158 ethnically and linguistically diverse, low-income preschoolers participating in an early childhood theatre arts program using storytelling and storyacting (ST/SA) in their preschool classrooms. Findings indicate that the PTAR demonstrates acceptable internal consistency and interrater reliability; convergent and divergent validity with a norm-referenced measure of expressive language, an authentic measure of narrative expression, a teacher-rated measure of learning related social skills, and a measure of storytelling quality; and significant sensitivity to change. While more research is needed, results suggest that the PTAR can be reliably and validly used to observe preschool children’s theatre arts skills in research, classroom, and programmatic contexts. Findings suggest that theatre arts skills are valid indicators of expressive language skills and to a degree, learning-related social behaviors.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T17:20:15Z
  • Cultivating interest in art: Causal effects of arts exposure during early
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly
      Author(s): Brian Kisida, Daniel H. Bowen, Jay P. Greene
      Despite a growing body of literature examining the effects of arts exposure and participation for youth, little is known about the development of attitudes toward art in early childhood. In this study, we used an experimental research design to investigate the effect of arts exposure on the development of children’s attitudes toward art. Applicant groups (n = 26) with students in kindergarten through 2nd grade (n = 2,253) were randomly assigned to participate in an art museum’s educational program, which included pre-curricular materials, a visit to an art museum with a guided tour and arts-based activities, and post-curricular classroom materials. We collected original data from students in their classrooms that measured their attitudes toward art museums and art generally, as well as art knowledge. We found that exposure to the arts at an early age produced significant positive effects on the development of students’ attitudes toward the arts. Our findings demonstrate that arts-based exposure facilitated by schools can be an effective strategy for developing positive orientations toward art in young children.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T17:20:15Z
  • Young children’s exploration of the indoor playroom space in
           center-based childcare
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 43
      Author(s): H. (Ine) M.J.A. van Liempd, Ora Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ruben G. Fukkink, Paul P.M. Leseman
      Exploration plays a key role in the development of children. While exploring, children develop new skills by perceiving and acting upon the possibilities for action that are specified in the environment. This study examined the relations between young children’s exploration during free play and the spatial characteristics of the indoor playroom space in childcare centers, using an observation scheme based on Gibson’s theory of perception-action affordances. The study was carried out in mixed-age groups, with ages ranging between 11 and 48 months. The results showed that depth of exploration of space was positively related to the use of tables and activity centers, and also to the child’s task-orientation as rated by the caregivers. Breadth of exploration revealed a reversed pattern of relations. The findings indicate that studying children’s exploration of indoor playroom space as affordances-guided perception-action cycles can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the role of spatial attributes in children’s exploratory play.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T21:01:22Z
  • Is more time in general music class associated with stronger extra-musical
           outcomes in kindergarten'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 December 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly
      Author(s): Jillian Hogan, Sara Cordes, Steven Holochwost, Ehri Ryu, Adele Diamond, Ellen Winner
      Prior research has suggested an association between increased musical training and extra-musical outcomes, but these studies are primarily correlational, focused on instrumental music, and provide limited information about the type of musical intervention. In the current study, we perform the first randomized controlled study investigating whether more time in general music in kindergarten results in better executive functioning, self-perception, and attitudes towards school. Control students received an average of 45 min of general music class per week while treatment students received 2–7 times more minutes per week. Both control and treatment students had applied to attend a school or program of intensive general music study serving primarily low-income students. Analyses from end-of-kindergarten data revealed no significant group differences on our outcome measures. Results fail to show an association between increased time spent in general music learning and stronger extra-musical outcomes.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T21:01:22Z
  • The art of Head Start: Intensive arts integration associated with
           advantage in school readiness for economically disadvantaged children
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly
      Author(s): Eleanor D. Brown, Mallory L. Garnett, Blanca M. Velazquez-Martin, Timothy J. Mellor
      The present study examined the impact of intensive arts integration on school readiness for economically disadvantaged children attending Head Start preschool. Participants were 265 children, ages 3–5 years. Of these, 197 attended a fully arts-integrated Head Start, where children received daily music, dance, and visual arts classes in addition to homeroom, and 68 attended a matched comparison program that did not include arts classes. The Bracken Basic Concepts Scale, Third Edition- Receptive (BBCS-3:R) was used to measure children’s school readiness at the start and end of a year of preschool attendance. According to a repeated-measures multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), children at the arts-integrated Head Start showed greater gains in school readiness compared to their peers at the comparison program. Univariate tests revealed that attendance at the arts-integrated preschool was associated with greater gains on a general school readiness composite as well as in specific concept areas of texture/material and self/social awareness. Findings suggest that the arts can add value to Head Start preschool. Implications concern the arts as a vehicle for equalizing educational opportunities for young, economically disadvantaged children.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T21:01:22Z
  • Modeling the relationships of parents’ expectations, family’s SES, and
           home literacy environment with emergent literacy skills and word reading
           in Chinese
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 43
      Author(s): Cuina Liu, George K. Georgiou, George Manolitsis
      Τhe purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of parents’ expectations, family’s socioeconomic status (SES) and home literacy environment (formal and informal literacy experiences and literacy resources at home) with emergent literacy skills (phonological awareness, vocabulary) and word reading in Chinese. One hundred and forty third-year kindergarten Chinese children (71 girls and 69 boys; mean age=70.54months) were assessed on nonverbal IQ, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading. Parents also filled out a questionnaire on their educational level and income, the frequency of engaging in different home literacy-related activities with their child, and their expectations about their child’s reading/school performance. Results of path analysis showed that formal literacy activities predicted phonological awareness and literacy resources at home predicted vocabulary. In addition, family’s SES was a significant predictor of literacy resources at home and parents’ expectations was a significant predictor of all home literacy aspects and of word reading. Results of multiple mediation analysis further showed that the effects of parents’ expectations on word reading were partly mediated by formal literacy experiences and literacy resources at home. In contrast, the effects of literacy resources at home on word reading were fully mediated by the effects of vocabulary on phonological awareness. Taken together, these findings suggest that the links between home literacy environment (including the factors that shape the quantity and quality of the home literacy experiences) and reading in Chinese are not as straightforward as those previously reported in alphabetic languages.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T01:17:02Z
  • Preschool classroom quality and social-emotional functioning: Findings
           across geographic regions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 43
      Author(s): Sara A. Schmitt, Megan E. Pratt, Irem Korucu, Amy R. Napoli, Katrina L. Schmerold
      This study examined whether classroom quality is related to preschoolers’ social-emotional functioning (social competence and behavior problems) and explored whether urbanicity (variation in geographic region: rural, small city, or large urban living) moderates this relation. Participants included 102 children (51% female) who were approximately 4.5 years old (M =53.57months, SD =5.42). Fifty-one percent of children were enrolled in Head Start. Linear regression models indicated that classroom quality was moderately related to social competence and not significantly associated with behavior problems for the full sample; however, urbanicity moderated relations between quality and social competence and behavior problems. Specifically, higher classroom quality was significantly related to fewer externalizing behaviors and marginally related to fewer internalizing behaviors for children in rural communities, but not for children in small or large urban settings. Similarly, higher quality was associated with stronger social competence for children in small urban cities, but not for children in large urban cities. Discussion addresses the importance of the geographic regions families reside in as a context for children’s development, and how early educational experiences may be particularly important for children living in rural and small urban communities.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T01:17:02Z
  • The role of executive functions in accessing specific autobiographical
           memories in 3- to 6- year-olds
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 43
      Author(s): M. Nieto, L. Ros, J.J. Ricarte, J.M. Latorre
      Autobiographical memory develops gradually across preschool years (ages 3–6 years) through processes of social interaction and cognitive development. This study analyzed the role of executive functions, age, and verbal abilities in the capacity to retrieve specific autobiographical memories in a convenience sample of 228 Spanish 3- to 6- year-olds (ages 3.42–6.50 years). Participants were administered an autobiographical memory test and executive functions and verbal tests. We analyzed the relation between these variables and autobiographical memory specificity. All the variables analyzed were positively related to autobiographical memory specificity. However, using structural equation modeling, our results showed that autobiographical memory specificity was better explained by executive functions and age was indirectly related to higher AM specificity through higher levels of executive functioning. These findings are in agreement with previous research suggesting that specific autobiographical memory occurs with the development of executive functions during preschool years.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T01:17:02Z
  • The classroom language context and English and Spanish vocabulary
           development among dual language learners attending Head Start
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Elisa B. Garcia
      Using a nationally representative sample of dual language learners (DLLs) attending Head Start, this study investigated how the language used for instruction and the proportion of DLLs in the class was associated with English and Spanish receptive vocabulary development between the fall and spring (n =531). Based on teacher report of the language or languages used for instructional activities in the classroom, teachers were categorized as using (1) English only, (2) a mix of English and Spanish, or (3) mostly Spanish. Three-level hierarchical linear models showed that children in classrooms using a mix of English and Spanish had English vocabulary scores that were no different than children in English-only classrooms. Children in mostly Spanish classrooms, however, had significantly lower spring English scores than children in English-only classrooms. In addition, children in English-only classrooms had significantly lower Spanish vocabulary scores than children in the other two categories of classrooms, which did not differ from each other. The higher the proportion of DLLs in a class the lower were spring English scores, but not Spanish vocabulary scores. Findings suggest that using bilingual instruction, and sharing classrooms with English-dominant peers can promote English vocabulary development without a cost to Spanish vocabulary development.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T01:17:02Z
  • Relationship building between toddlers and new caregivers in out-of-home
           childcare: Attachment security and caregiver sensitivity
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Katharina Ereky-Stevens, Antonia Funder, Tamara Katschnig, Lars-Erik Malmberg, Wilfried Datler
      The aim of this study was to identify factors that help toddlers form attachment relationships with their caregivers during the transition from sole home care to out-of-home childcare. We investigated relationship building between toddlers and their new caregivers during the first four months in childcare. In a sample of 104 toddlers (aged 10–33 months) in 71 Viennese childcare centres, we assessed attachment security (using the Attachment Q-Sort) at three time points. We also assessed children’s experiences with their new care providers at each time point, focusing on dyadic caregiver sensitivity (a) during one-to-one interactions with the individual target child, and (b) during interactions with all children in the group. We investigated whether attachment security in the early months of childcare differs between girls and boys, to see if gender, in combination with caregiver interaction, has a role in predicting differences between toddlers’ attachment security. Higher attachment security was found in girls, and in those children with caregivers scoring higher on the group-related measure of sensitivity. Dyadic sensitivity did not predict toddlers’ attachment security. Findings support the development of attachment/relationship theory, in the context of childcare for young children, that takes account of children’s experiences in groups rather than only in one-to-one interactions.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T06:44:57Z
  • Does professional development reduce the influence of teacher stress on
           teacher–child interactions in pre-kindergarten classrooms'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Lia E. Sandilos, Priscilla Goble, Sara E. Rimm-Kaufman, Robert C. Pianta
      The present study examines the extent to which participation in a 14-week professional development course designed to improve teacher–child interactions in the classroom moderated the relation between teacher-reported job stress and gains in observed teacher–child interaction quality from the beginning to the end of the intervention. Participants were preschool teachers (N =427; M age=42) with an average of 11 years of experience teaching. Teachers reported how intensely they experienced different sources of stress at pre-test only (i.e., prior to being randomized into the treatment condition [course or control]). Teacher–child interactions were measured through classroom observations at pre and post intervention. Results demonstrated that control teachers reporting higher professional investment stress showed fewer gains in observed emotional support relative to control teachers experiencing less professional investment stress. These findings were not evident for teachers in the course condition. Interestingly, teachers with higher professional investment stress showed fewer gains in instructional support in the control condition and greater gains in the course condition, relative to teachers in their respective treatment groups who reported lower levels of professional investment stress. Findings suggest that participation in the professional development intervention had a buffering effect on the negative association between professional investment stress and emotional support. With regard to instructional support, it is possible that teachers’ heightened awareness and anxiety over their need to develop professionally may have made them more responsive to an intervention designed to improve practice.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T06:44:57Z
  • Combining a kindergarten readiness summer program with a self-regulation
           intervention improves school readiness
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Robert J. Duncan, Sara A. Schmitt, Maura Burke, Megan M. McClelland
      Self-regulation and academic skills in kindergarten are strong predictors of later achievement. However, many children enter kindergarten without adequate levels of these skills, often because of limited participation in early childhood education. The current study examined a kindergarten readiness summer program (Bridge to Kindergarten; B2K) that served children with no prior preschool experience. The first study goal was to examine the effects of adding a self-regulation intervention to the B2K program on children’s self-regulation, math, and literacy. The second study goal was to compare changes in self-regulation, math, and literacy during the kindergarten transition period for children attending the B2K program with the intervention to expected development. Results from a randomized trial indicated that children who participated in the B2K program that included the self-regulation intervention experienced more gains in self-regulation relative to children who participated in the B2K program alone. There were no significant effects on math or literacy at the end of the program. However, when examining change during the kindergarten transition period, participation in the B2K program with the self-regulation intervention was associated with improved growth in self-regulation, math, and literacy into the fall of kindergarten compared to expected development. Collectively, the findings suggest a kindergarten readiness summer program that incorporates a self-regulation intervention leads to improved school readiness in children at higher risk for later school difficulties.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T06:44:57Z
  • Effective language and literacy instruction: Evaluating the importance of
           scripting and group size components
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Dorthe Bleses, Anders Højen, Philip S. Dale, Laura M. Justice, Line Dybdal, Shayne Piasta, Justin Markussen-Brown, Laila Kjærbæk, E.F. Haghish
      Identification of intervention program components most strongly associated with children’s outcomes is essential for designing programs that can be taken to scale. In this effectiveness study, a population-representative sample of 5436 3–6-year-old Danish children from 154 daycare centers participated in a cluster-randomized evaluation of three variations of a language-literacy focused curriculum (LEAP) comprising 40 twice-weekly 30-min lessons. LEAP-LARGE and LEAP-SMALL conditions involved educators’ implementation of a scope and sequence of objectives using scripted lessons provided to whole-class and small groups, respectively. In LEAP-OPEN, educators followed the scope and sequence but were allowed to determine the instructional activities for each of 40 lessons (i.e., they received no scripted lessons). A business-as-usual (BAU) condition served as the control. Overall, the largest effect sizes for children’s language and emergent literacy outcomes were found for LEAP-OPEN, although the other two LEAP conditions had positive effects for literacy outcomes. Analysis of moderation effects showed no moderation effects for children’s socioeconomic status or for non-Danish children. Finally, there was a significant association between children’s amount of exposure to the program and both language and literacy outcomes, with higher exposure associated with better outcomes: specifically, non-Danish children benefitted more than native Danish children from higher exposure for language outcomes. This study indicated that an essential component in language and emerging literacy intervention at scale is an explicit sequence and scope of learning objectives, whereas group-size and provision of scripted lessons may be less important.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T01:09:08Z
  • Using tablets and apps to enhance emergent literacy skills in young
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Michelle M. Neumann
      Touch screen tablets (e.g., iPads) are being increasingly used by young children due to their stimulating multimodal features and intuitive touch-based interface. However, little is known about the effects of tablets and apps on the development of emergent literacy skills. This pre-post-test randomised controlled study explored the effects of using literacy apps on emergent literacy skills in English speaking children aged 2–5 years (N =48). There were 24 children in the iPad group and 24 children in the waitlist control group. The 9-week (30min/week) iPad literacy program focussed on three new alphabet letters each week using three apps (letter matching, letter tracing, and drawing). Following the program, children in the iPad group showed significantly higher letter name and sound knowledge, print concepts and name writing skills than children in the control group. No significant group differences were found for letter writing skills or numeral knowledge. The findings showed that tablets can positively support letter name and sound learning and aspects of emergent writing development. How teachers can best utilise these digital tools in early childhood classrooms to support emergent literacy requires further investigation.

      PubDate: 2017-10-25T11:17:55Z
  • Growth in inhibitory control among low-income, ethnic-minority
           preschoolers: A group-based modeling approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Daniel Pacheco, Margaret Owen, Margaret Caughy
      The emergence of self-regulation skills such as inhibitory control in children is an important developmental process associated with adjustment across multiple domains. Individual differences in inhibitory control are associated with family socioeconomic status but have not been studied in relation to variations in risk found within a low-income (i.e., high risk) sample (N = 407). Using a group-based modeling approach, change in inhibitory control was examined from 30 to 42 months of age in a sample of low-income Hispanic and African-American children. Patterns of change in inhibitory control were examined in relation to cumulative risk and child externalizing behavior using the Child Behavior Checklist measured at 42 months. A three-group solution was identified as optimally fitting the data, representing patterns of change in inhibitory control: a normative group, exhibiting increasing inhibitory control (48%); a low-stable group (40%); and a high-stable group (12%). Group membership did not differ by child ethnicity or gender. Higher cumulative risk was found among the children in the low-stable group than in the other groups. Mothers reported more externalizing problems at 42 months for children in the low-stable group than in the other groups, even controlling for the effect of cumulative risk. Intervention and policy implications are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-10-25T11:17:55Z
  • Family context and children’s early literacy skills: The role of
           marriage quality and emotional expressiveness of mothers and fathers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Haruka Konishi, Laura C. Froyen, Lori E. Skibbe, Ryan P. Bowles
      The marital relationship is critical for the emotional structure of the family and has implications for children’s socioemotional and behavioral outcomes. However, little is known about the effect that the marital relationship has on children’s academic achievement. The current study considers whether the family emotional environment and the home learning environment (HLE) that parents provide are mediators in the relation between marital functioning and preschool-aged children’s early literacy skills. Results suggest that the marital relationship relates to children’s early literacy skills through the influence of both positive and negative emotional expressiveness on the HLE. We also found that some of these family processes are different for mothers and fathers. The impact of the marital relationship on positive expressiveness and the effect of emotional expressiveness on HLE-related parenting were greater for fathers than mothers. These findings underscore the significance of marital and family processes when considering children’s early literacy skills.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T18:40:55Z
  • Longitudinal associations between self-regulation and the academic and
           behavioral adjustment of young children born preterm
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Janean E. Dilworth-Bart, Julie A. Poehlmann-Tynan, Amy Taub, Carolyn A. Liesen, Daniel Bolt
      Much of the research to date about the structure of self-regulation in early childhood has been conducted with low medical risk samples, with the general conclusion that self-regulation can be separated into overlapping executive function and effortful control factors that differentially predict child outcomes. We examined the factor structure of 36-month self-regulation among children born prematurely (n =168) and the extent to which self-regulation predicted maternal ratings of children’s socioemotional and academic competence when they were six years of age. Statistical analyses revealed a single self-regulation factor for this high neonatal risk sample, and this self-regulation factor mediated associations between early sociodemographic risk and mothers’ ratings of academic competence and externalizing problems. Our findings suggest that early intervention research with children born preterm should focus on promoting supportive early environments, particularly parental sensitivity to infant cues.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T18:40:55Z
  • Bidirectionality in preschool children’s executive functions and
           language skills: Is one developing skill the better predictor of the
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Pauline L. Slot, Antje von Suchodoletz
      Executive functions and language skills play a critical role for children’s school readiness. The present study examined reciprocal relations between these two sets of skills among three-to-four-year-old children attending German preschools (N =227). Multiple tasks assessed executive functions and language skills twice over the one-year study period. Data was analyzed in a cross-lagged model with latent constructs. Findings provided support for bidirectionality between executive functions and language skills with language being a stronger predictor of executive function development than vice versa. Contrary to the hypothesis, no gender differences in executive functions and language skills were detected. Moreover, there were no statistically significant differences in the cross-lagged paths between executive functions and language skills between boys and girls. Together, our findings point to the importance of supporting children’s language development for enhancing executive function development for both boys and girls.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T18:40:55Z
  • Classroom quality and children’s academic skills in child care centers:
           Understanding the role of teacher qualifications
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Ying-Chun Lin, Katherine A. Magnuson
      This study examines the associations of teachers’ levels of education and professional training with observed classroom quality and children’s school readiness in community-based child care centers. Prior research provides mixed evidence about whether teachers’ education predicts early childhood education (ECE) classroom quality and children’s outcomes. Data are drawn from a Midwestern study of community child care centers (typically private pay non-profit or for-profit child care centers that are not directly funded by government programs) and the children ages 3–5 in their care (N=189 centers and 661 children). This study takes advantage of a very detailed set of teacher training measures that includes information on education degrees, ECE credit-based training, and placement on the state’s 17-level professional career ladder (the Registry). Using these measures, the current study is able to examine whether variations in degrees and ECE credit-based training for teachers predict observed classroom quality and children’s school readiness skills. Analyses control for a rich set of variables, including children’s demographic information and fall assessment scores, teachers’ work-related characteristics (e.g., motivation for ECE work), and classrooms and programs’ features. Results from regression models suggest few associations between teachers’ education level, ECE credits, or level on the professional career ladder and observed classroom quality. The key exception is that teachers who do not have any postsecondary education and training in ECE are in classrooms of significantly lower quality compared with teachers who have a college degree. Results from hierarchical linear models indicate that teachers’ education does not predict children’s early academic skills.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T18:40:55Z
  • Home literacy practices and preschool children’s emergent writing
           skills: An initial investigation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Cynthia S. Puranik, Beth M. Phillips, Christopher J. Lonigan, Erin Gibson
      Home literacy practices are known to facilitate children’s oral language and reading skills. In this study, we extend previous work by examining the amount and types of writing-related home practices that parents engage in with their young preschool children. Next, we examined the relation between these home practices and the development of writing skills in 4- and 5-year old preschool children. Correlations between parental teaching activities and child independent activities and letter writing, spelling, and spontaneous writing were statistically significant. Results from the multi-level modeling indicated that parental teaching predicted a child’s letter writing, spelling, and spontaneous writing skills whereas child independent practices predicted letter writing and spontaneous writing but not spelling. Results of the current study clearly indicate that practices in the home include writing related activities and that these activities have an impact on children’s writing development. Implications of this research and directions for future research are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T18:40:55Z
  • Using the early childhood environment rating scale-Revised in high stakes
           contexts: Does evidence warrant the practice'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Claude Messan Setodji, Diana Schaack, Vi-Nhuan Le
      Increasingly, states establish different thresholds on the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale–Revised (ECERS–R), and use these thresholds to inform high-stakes decisions. However, the validity of the ECERS-R for these purposes is not well established. The objective of this study is to identify thresholds on the ECERS-R that are associated with preschool-aged children’s social and cognitive development. Applying non-parametric modeling to the nationally-representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) dataset, we found that once classrooms achieved a score of 3.4 on the overall ECERS-R composite score, there was a leveling-off effect, such that no additional improvements to children’s social, cognitive, or language outcomes were observed. Additional analyses found that ECERS-R subscales that focused on teaching and caregiving processes, as opposed to the physical environment, did not show leveling-off effects. The findings suggest that the usefulness of the ECERS-R for discerning associations with children’s outcome may be limited to certain score ranges or subscales.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T19:16:28Z
  • Multiple child care arrangements and school readiness in kindergarten
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Alejandra Ros Pilarz
      Nationally, nearly one in five children younger than age 5 experiences multiple, concurrent child care arrangements. Yet, it remains unclear whether the use of multiple arrangements contributes to school readiness at kindergarten-entry, or whether these associations vary by the timing of multiple arrangements and the type(s) of care used. Using nationally-representative data (N =6450), this study estimated associations between experiencing multiple arrangements at ages 9 months, 2 years, and 4 years and children’s school readiness in the fall of kindergarten. It also examined whether these associations depend on the type(s) of care combined. Results from OLS and propensity score weighted regression models suggest that multiple arrangements are associated with positive, neutral, or negative school readiness outcomes depending on both the timing and the type(s) of care used.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T19:16:28Z
  • Children’s sports participation and self-regulation: Bi-directional
           longitudinal associations
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Steven J. Howard, Stewart A. Vella, Dylan P. Cliff
      Early self-regulation is essential to positive life outcomes and sports are speculated to generate self-regulatory improvements. Preliminary research supports this assertion, showing some sports might yield short-term self-regulatory improvements and elite athletes tend to excel in cognitive functions underlying self-regulation. What remains unclear is whether sports improve self-regulation or better self-regulators engage in sport. We investigated whether sport participation in early childhood (4–5 years) predicted change in children’s self-regulation two years later; and early self-regulation (4–5 years) predicted change in sports participation two years later. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, which consisted of 4385 children with valid sports participation data at age 4–5 years. Self-regulation was indexed by parent-, teacher-, and observer-report data. Results indicated that young children who participated in individual sports demonstrated marginally but significantly higher self-regulation than those who did not participate. Participation in team sports did not predict change in self-regulation. Moreover, children with poor self-regulation were less likely to participate in sports. The findings provide partial support for hypotheses of bidirectional associations between sport participation and self-regulation in young children.

      PubDate: 2017-10-03T18:45:13Z
  • Preschoolers’ inquisitiveness and science-relevant problem solving
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Maria Fusaro, Maureen C. Smith
      Preschoolers use their emerging scientific inquiry skills, including seeking information through questions, to explore, and solve problems within, the physical world around them. This study examines preschoolers’ attempts to solve novel science-relevant problems and their use of science-relevant ideas within those problem solutions. Four- to five-year-olds (N=24) were presented with seven novel problems, depicted in line drawings (e.g., determining which of two bags holds pillows, rather than rocks). Individual differences were examined in the use of foundational science-relevant concepts and skills within children’s responses (California Department of Education, 2012), as well as in the child’s tendency to ask questions (i.e., inquisitiveness) in a second open-ended task. MANCOVA analyses indicated that inquisitiveness was associated with the accuracy and fluency of children’s problem solutions, even after accounting for differences in receptive vocabulary, gender, and age. Further research is warranted on the interplay of inquisitiveness, science knowledge, as well as other socialization and educational influences, in children’s early science skills, including their ability to engineer solutions to realistic problems.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T07:29:03Z
  • Local adaptation during implementation: A case study of the Fussy Baby
           Network® New Orleans and Gulf Coast initiative
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Leanne Kallemeyn, Amber Evenson, Sherry Scott Heller, Catherine A. Taylor, Linda Gilkerson, Tracy Moran
      Scholars and practitioners recognize that adaptation is necessary, and can enhance program outcomes, when scaling early interventions. This study used a framework for implementation that identified critical elements for understanding the adaptation process including: a) who made the adaptations, such as model developers and staff members, b) what elements were adapted, c) how adaptations occurred, such as adding or removing elements, d) when adaptations took place, such as at the beginning of implementation or as an on-going process, and e) why the adaptations occurred. Erikson Institute’s Fussy Baby Network ® (FBN) service program has been implemented in seven cities across the United States. Implementation of FBN in the New Orleans and Gulf Coast (NOGC) region began in 2012. Using a longitudinal phenomenological study design, FBNNOGC program and institutional staff were interviewed over three years at ten time points. This study identified five adaptations of FBN to NOGC: a) increasing length and intensity of services, b) adding a family advocate, c) integrating academic and clinical contexts, d) changing the program name, branding, and outreach materials, and e) networking with other providers. No adaptations were made to the program model or training, which ensured program fidelity.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T07:29:03Z
  • Reducing child problem behaviors and improving teacher-child interactions
           and relationships: A randomized controlled trial of BEST in CLASS
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Kevin S. Sutherland, Maureen A. Conroy, James Algina, Crystal Ladwig, Gabriel Jessee, Maria Gyure
      Research has consistently linked early problem behavior with later adjustment problems, including antisocial behavior, learning problems and risk for the development of emotional/behavioral disorders (EBDs). Researchers have focused upon developing effective intervention programs for young children who arrive in preschool exhibiting chronic problem behaviors; however, Tier-2 interventions that can be delivered by teachers with fidelity in authentic settings are lacking. This study examined the effect of BEST in CLASS, a Tier-2 intervention delivered by teachers, on child problem behavior, teacher-child interactions and teacher-child relationships using a cluster randomized controlled trial design. Participants were 465 children (3–5year olds) identified at risk for the development of EBDs and their 185 teachers from early childhood programs located in two southeastern states. Significant effects were found across both teacher reported (ES ranging from 0.23 to 0.42) and observed child outcomes (ES ranging form 0.44–0.46), as well as teacher-child relationships (ES ranging from 0.26 to 0.29) and observed teacher-children interactions (ES ranging from 0.26 to 0.45), favoring the BEST in CLASS condition. Results suggest the promise of BEST in CLASS as a Tier-2 intervention for use in authentic early childhood classroom contexts and provide implications for future research on transactional models of teacher and child behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T20:05:44Z
  • Teacher reflections on using inquiry-based instruction to engage young
           children in conversations about wealth and poverty
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Lindsey Nenadal, Rashmita S. Mistry
      In the midst of growing levels of economic inequality in the United States, elementary school teachers play a critical role in teaching their students about wealth and poverty and what it means to be responsible and justice-oriented citizens. Inquiry-based learning, a student-centered, participatory, and collaborative instructional method, is one approach that can be used to talk with young students about societal issues, but it has not been systematically applied to the study of student learning about issues related to economic inequality. In this qualitative study, we examined the successes and challenges faced by a team of three elementary school teachers as they designed and implemented an arts-infused inquiry unit focused on wealth and poverty with kindergarten, first, and second grade students. Through a series of six interviews, teachers discussed how they planned and implemented the units and shared reflections on engaging in this novel work. Next steps for educational practice and research focused on supporting teachers in teaching about wealth and poverty are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T20:05:44Z
  • Cognitive precursors of word reading versus arithmetic competencies in
           young Chinese children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Xiao Zhang, Dan Lin
      Word reading and arithmetic calculation are foundational to higher level reading (e.g., text comprehension) and mathematics (e.g., fraction), respectively. The present study aims to examine the similarities and differences in the cognitive precursors of word reading and arithmetic competencies in young Chinese children. A total of 75 Hong Kong Chinese children were tested first in the fall (T1) and then in the spring (T2) of their third kindergarten years. Competencies in Chinese word reading, including both single- and double-character word reading, and arithmetic calculation, including nonsymbolic arithmetic, arithmetic word problems, and written arithmetic, were assessed at both T1 and T2. Phonological awareness, orthographic awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), spatial perception, and spatial visualization were assessed at T1. The results showed that phonological awareness predicted later competencies in word reading and symbolic arithmetic, specifically arithmetic word problems and written arithmetic. RAN was predictive of later competencies in word reading and nonsymbolic arithmetic. Orthographic awareness was associated with later competencies in word reading but not arithmetic. Visual-spatial skills predicted later competencies in arithmetic word problems but not word reading. The findings suggest that similarities and differences both exist in the cognitive underpinnings of Chinese word reading and arithmetic competencies at a young age.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T20:05:44Z
  • Dual language learning, inhibitory control, and math achievement in Head
           Start and kindergarten
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Ji Young Choi, Shinyoung Jeon, Christine Lippard
      This study examined whether developmental patterns of inhibitory control (IC) and kindergarten math achievement differed among Head Start children with varying dual language learning status. This study further explored the potential mediation effects of IC development as an explanation of differences in kindergarten math skills across children with varying dual language learning status. Based on their English skills and home language use, children’ dual language learning status was categorized into (1) Spanish-English bilingual children, (2) Spanish-English dual language learners with limited English skills (DLLs-LES), and (3) English-monolingual children. Analyses were conducted using data from the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) 2009 Cohort. Results showed that bilingual children presented greater IC at Head Start entry than DLLs-LES and faster growth in IC through kindergarten (1.5 years) than English-monolingual children. Bilingual children also outperformed monolingual children and DLLs-LES in math at kindergarten, despite the fact that they had lower baseline math skills than monolingual children. DLLs-LES, on average, presented the lowest IC skills and math skills through kindergarten. DLLs-LES, however, presented faster growth in IC than English-monolingual children through kindergarten. The achievement gaps in math among the three groups were explained by relative differences in IC development among the groups. The current study with low-income preschoolers supported emerging literature suggesting the benefits of bilingualism for cognitive skills and learning. Study implications are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T20:05:44Z
  • Linguistic environment of preschool classrooms: What dimensions support
           children’s language growth'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Laura M. Justice, Hui Jiang, Katherine Strasser
      Individual differences in young children’s language acquisition reflect in part the variability in the language-learning environment that they experience, both at home and in the classroom. Studies have examined various dimensions of the preschool classroom language environment, including linguistic responsivity of early childhood educators, data-providing features of teachers’ talk, and characteristics of the systems-level general environment, but no study has examined the unique contribution of each dimension to children’s language growth over time. The goals of this study were to determine how best to represent the dimensionality of the preschool classroom’s linguistic environment and to determine which dimensions are most strongly associated with children’s language development. Participants were teachers in 49 preschool classrooms and a random sample of children from each classroom (330 children between 40 and 60 months of age, M =52months, SD =5.5). Children’s grammar and vocabulary skills were measured at three time-points, and the classroom linguistic environment was assessed with measures representing teachers’ linguistic responsivity, data-providing features of teachers’ talk, and systems-level general quality. Using exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), we determined that the classroom language environment is best characterized by a three-dimensional model. A multilevel latent growth model subsequently showed that only one of the three dimensions, teachers’ communication-facilitating behaviors, predicted growth in children’s vocabulary from preschool to kindergarten. Implications for teacher professional development are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T20:05:44Z
  • Video-feedback intervention in center-based child care: A randomized
           controlled trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Claudia D. Werner, Harriet J. Vermeer, Mariëlle Linting, Marinus H. Van IJzendoorn
      In the current study we aimed to improve center-based child care quality with an attachment-based program: The Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline for Child Care (VIPP-CC). Professional caregivers (N =64) from child care centers in urban areas in the Netherlands participated in our pretest-posttest randomized controlled trial. The VIPP-CC was effective for increased observed sensitive responsiveness in the group setting of the professional caregiver and led to a more positive attitude towards caregiving and limit setting. Post hoc analyses revealed that the intervention effect was apparent for caregiver sensitive responsiveness in structured play situations. The VIPP approach can now be expanded from the family setting to out-of–home group settings with larger groups of children and professional caregivers. This is a promising conclusion for millions of children enrolled in center child care from a very young age.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T20:05:44Z
  • Associations between continuity of care in infant-toddler classrooms and
           child outcomes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Diane M. Horm, Nancy File, Donna Bryant, Margaret Burchinal, Helen Raikes, Nina Forestieri, Amy Encinger, Alan Cobo-Lewis
      Ensuring that young children, especially infants and toddlers, experience consistency in child care providers over time is a practice endorsed by multiple professional organizations. This practice, commonly referred to as continuity of care (CoC), is recommended for center-based group settings to provide infants and toddlers with the sensitive, responsive care needed to promote early development. Despite widespread endorsement, there has been limited empirical examination of CoC. This study examines the extent to which CoC experienced in infant-toddler center-based care is associated with social-emotional and language development. Associations of CoC with children’s social-emotional development during the infant-toddler period and with later social-emotional and language outcomes at age 3 were investigated in a large sample of children attending high-quality early childhood programs designed for young children growing up in poverty. During the infant-toddler years, CoC was related to higher teacher ratings of self-control, initiative, and attachment, and lower ratings of behavior concerns. In addition, a classroom quality×CoC interaction indicated that CoC differences were larger in higher, than lower, quality infant-toddler classrooms. In contrast, CoC in infant-toddler classrooms was not related to rates of change in teacher ratings of social skills during the infant-toddler years nor to children’s vocabulary development or ratings of social skills after they transitioned to preschool. Neither were there quality×CoC interactions at preschool. These findings do not provide clear support for the current widespread recommendations for CoC, but suggest a need for additional research. The need for future research to more fully understand associations with child outcomes as well as to examine potential impacts of CoC on teachers, families, and peers is highlighted.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T20:05:44Z
  • Unique and compensatory associations of executive functioning and
           visuomotor integration with mathematics performance in early elementary
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Chelsea A.K. Duran, Anthony Byers, Claire E. Cameron, David Grissmer
      Research has illuminated contributions—usually modeled separately—of both executive functioning (EF) and visuomotor integration (VMI) to mathematical development in early elementary school. This study examined simultaneous associations of EF and VMI, measured at the beginning of the school year, with concurrent and later mathematics performance on several mathematics assessments in kindergartners (n =89, M age =5.5years) and first graders (n =73, M age =6.6years) of low socioeconomic status. Both skills were related to concurrent performance on all assessments, as well as improvement through the end of the school year for all but a geometry subtest, which was predicted only by VMI. No significant influence of an interaction between the skills was present, except for concurrently on the geometry subtest and longitudinally on an assessment with a relatively strong emphasis on informal skills. Findings are discussed in the context of supporting mathematics development in early childhood.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T04:49:06Z
  • Crossing the bridge to elementary school: The development of children’s
           working memory components in relation to teacher-student relationships and
           academic achievement
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Loren Vandenbroucke, Karine Verschueren, Annemie Desoete, Pirjo Aunio, Pol Ghesquière, Dieter Baeyens
      Working memory is important for a variety of life domains, including for children’s school functioning. As such, it is crucial to understand its development, antecedents and consequences. The current study investigates the development of different working memory components (phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, central executive), the influence of different aspects of the teacher-student relationship (closeness, conflict, dependency) and its predictive value for academic achievement (reading, spelling, mathematics) across the transition from kindergarten to first grade. The sample consisted of 107 kindergarten children. Working memory tasks were administered at the end of kindergarten and first grade. Teachers reported on teacher-student relationship quality in the middle of first grade. Standardized tests were used to assess academic achievement at the end of first grade. Results indicate moderate to large increases in the phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad and large gains in the central executive. Dependency of the student towards the teacher significantly predicted visuospatial sketchpad performance at the end of first grade. Reading was significantly predicted by the visuospatial sketchpad and phonological loop in kindergarten, while for spelling the visuospatial sketchpad was important. Finally, mathematics was predicted by performance on the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketchpad. The current study indicates the importance of the affective quality of the teacher-student relationship for working memory performance, which in turn is important for academic achievement. It is therefore critical to attend to the early detection and prevention or intervention of working memory problems in the classroom in order to prevent future academic problems. Additionally, maintaining a positive relationship with students and encouraging their independent exploration may be important when preventing such problems, complementary to cognitive or other types of training and intervention.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T03:10:32Z
  • Testing the family investment model in Russia: Estimating indirect effects
           of SES and parental beliefs on the literacy skills of first-graders
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Marina Vasilyeva, Eric Dearing, Alina Ivanova, Chen Shen, Elena Kardanova
      The family investment model provides a powerful perspective for understanding the processes underlying relations between parents’ SES and children’s achievement. The extant research on the role of parental investments has largely built on U.S. studies. The present work extended this line of investigation to a novel context by testing family investments as a proximal link between SES and child outcomes in Russia. The study focused on predictors of literacy skills in children entering primary school. It examined the pathways from parental education, income and beliefs to children’s literacy skills through family investments: resources available at home, joint parent-child literacy activities and access to outside-home resources and activities. As hypothesized, these investments mediated the relation of parental income and education to child literacy, with education being more strongly related to child outcomes than income. Beliefs about the importance of developing literacy skills prior to school were found to be independent of SES and linked to child outcomes through the same sorts of family investments as SES. The findings show the robustness of the family investment model across diverse contexts and advance our understanding of the model by incorporating parental beliefs in its current framework.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T03:10:32Z
  • Preschool expenditures and Chinese children’s academic performance: The
           mediating effect of teacher-child interaction quality
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 41
      Author(s): Bi Ying Hu, Yisu Zhou, Liang Chen, Xitao Fan, Adam Winsler
      This study examined the relationship between investment of financial resources in early childhood education (ECE) and student academic outcomes using survey and observational data from 59 classrooms in Guangdong Province, China (N =589, 50% girls, and M age =5.1±0.42years). We conceptualized the mediating role of teacher-child interaction as an important mechanism that can explain the effects of financial resources. Three types of interactions were considered under the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) framework: emotional support, classroom organization, and instructional support. Our multilevel structural equation models indicated that investing in teacher training has a direct positive effect on student vocabulary development, and that neither teacher salary nor school facility has a direct effect on child vocabulary, math, or science outcomes. Giving higher pay to teachers has an indirect effect through increased quality of teacher-child interactions. In particular, the effect of instructional support is most salient for all three outcomes. We discuss our results in light of the recent push by the Chinese government to invest in ECE. We argue for prioritizing support for raising teacher pay to attract more capable talent to the teaching pool, expanding teacher development programs to increase instructional quality, and spending less on equipment.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T04:11:54Z
  • Bidirectional relations between intrusive caregiving among parents and
           teachers and children’s externalizing behavior problems
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 41
      Author(s): Ni Yan, Arya Ansari
      Informed by the transactional and bioecological theories, this study examined the bidirectional relations between intrusive caregiving and children’s externalizing behaviors across the family and school systems during the early elementary school years. Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care (N=1364), these bidirectional associations were examined from 54 months of age through third grade. Both mothers’ and teachers’ intrusive caregiving behaviors contributed to the development of children’s externalizing behaviors in the first three years of elementary school, and children’s externalizing behaviors consistently predicted mothers’ intrusive caregiving behaviors. Children’s externalizing behaviors mediated the relation between teachers’ intrusiveness and mothers’ intrusive caregiving. These bidirectional associations did not vary across child gender, but tended to be stronger among non-White children than their White peers. These findings suggest that children’s own behaviors can serve as a key connection between the two core institutions of child development—the family and school systems.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T03:39:31Z
  • Peer effects on the development of language skills in Norwegian childcare
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 41
      Author(s): Luisa A. Ribeiro, Henrik D. Zachrisson, Eric Dearing
      Few studies have focused on the importance of peers for child language development in the preschool years. The aim of this study was to assess whether peer expressive language skills predict language ability of preschool-aged children attending Norwegian Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) centers. Data from the Behavior Outlook Norwegian Developmental Study (BONDS) were used, including 539 children in 57 centers. Peer expressive language at age two was not, on average, associated with child’s language ability at age four. However, belonging to a peer group with better language skills seemed to attenuate language differences due to educational background. Implications for researchers and policy makers are discussed, namely with regards to the importance of mixed ability classes and instruction strategies aimed at raising the overall competence in the peer group and not only of the less skilled students.

      PubDate: 2017-06-01T23:09:07Z
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