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HEALTH AND SAFETY (521 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 180)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription  
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access  
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Policy and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Professions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Health Sciences Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Early Childhood Research Quarterly
  [SJR: 1.53]   [H-I: 64]   [13 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0885-2006
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • Young children’s use of emotion and behaviour regulation strategies in
           socio-emotionally challenging day-care situations
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 41
      Author(s): Kristiina Kurki, Hanna Järvenoja, Sanna Järvelä, Arttu Mykkänen
      This study investigated the ways in which children conduct and adapt their emotion and behaviour regulation activities in socio-emotionally challenging situations in day-care settings. The data consists of 75 video events of different challenging situations in two- to five-year-old children’s (N=30) day-care activities. Unique strategies, sequential associations in strategy use and children’s abilities to adapt strategy use were explored. Also, the effects of teacher involvement in children’s strategic behaviour were analysed. The results show that children used a variety of strategies to regulate socio-emotionally challenging situations and that the employed strategies were associated with interaction with other children and the teacher: Children used different strategies in situations where a teacher was involved compared to those without a teacher, favouring physical regulation strategies when they acted independently. When the teacher was involved, they most typically redirected their activities and attention. Furthermore when a teacher was involved, the children were more likely to adapt their regulation activities. The findings highlight the importance of external involvement in challenging situations to support children in learning to solve conflicts constructively and adapt self-regulation skills according to the demands of a situation.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T11:25:00Z
  • Parent-school relationships and young adopted children’s psychological
           adjustment in lesbian-, gay-, and heterosexual-parent families
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 40
      Author(s): Abbie E. Goldberg, JuliAnna Z. Smith
      Almost no research has examined the role of parent-school relationships in relation to child psychological functioning in adoptive families or same-sex parent families, much less same-sex adoptive families. Yet adoptive families, and particularly same-sex adoptive families, may be vulnerable to marginalization in the school setting, which could have implications for child adjustment. Using parent reports, in a sample of 106 lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parent families with young children (Mage=3.38years at T1 and 5.42 years at T2), this study examined T1 parent-school relationships (school involvement, parent-teacher relationship quality, parent-school contact about child problems, and perceived acceptance by other parents) and adoption-specific school experiences at T1 (i.e., parent input about classroom inclusion and parent-teacher conflicts related to adoptive family status) in relation to children’s later (T2) internalizing and externalizing symptoms, controlling for T1 symptoms. Follow-up analyses assessed these predictors in relation to concurrent (T1) symptoms. Family context and demographic variables were included as controls. Parents’ school involvement was negatively related to later internalizing symptoms; providing input to teachers about inclusion, and parent-teacher conflicts related to adoption, were both positively related to later internalizing symptoms. Perceived acceptance by other parents was negatively related to later internalizing and externalizing symptoms. School-initiated contact about child problems more strongly predicted higher externalizing symptoms in same-sex parent families than heterosexual parent families. Cross-sectional analyses (T1 predictors in relation to T1 child outcomes) revealed a somewhat different set of findings: most notably, parents’ school involvement was negatively related to externalizing symptoms. Findings have implications for early childhood educators and school administrators who seek to improve diverse family-school partnerships to enhance children’s emotional and behavioral well-being.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T11:15:50Z
  • Preschool expenditures and Chinese children’s academic performance: The
           mediating effect of teacher-child interaction quality
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 41
      Author(s): Bi Ying Hu, Yisu Zhou, Liang Chen, Xitao Fan, Adam Winsler
      This study examined the relationship between investment of financial resources in early childhood education (ECE) and student academic outcomes using survey and observational data from 59 classrooms in Guangdong Province, China (N =589, 50% girls, and M age =5.1±0.42years). We conceptualized the mediating role of teacher-child interaction as an important mechanism that can explain the effects of financial resources. Three types of interactions were considered under the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) framework: emotional support, classroom organization, and instructional support. Our multilevel structural equation models indicated that investing in teacher training has a direct positive effect on student vocabulary development, and that neither teacher salary nor school facility has a direct effect on child vocabulary, math, or science outcomes. Giving higher pay to teachers has an indirect effect through increased quality of teacher-child interactions. In particular, the effect of instructional support is most salient for all three outcomes. We discuss our results in light of the recent push by the Chinese government to invest in ECE. We argue for prioritizing support for raising teacher pay to attract more capable talent to the teaching pool, expanding teacher development programs to increase instructional quality, and spending less on equipment.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T04:11:54Z
  • Bidirectional relations between intrusive caregiving among parents and
           teachers and children’s externalizing behavior problems
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 41
      Author(s): Ni Yan, Arya Ansari
      Informed by the transactional and bioecological theories, this study examined the bidirectional relations between intrusive caregiving and children’s externalizing behaviors across the family and school systems during the early elementary school years. Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care (N=1364), these bidirectional associations were examined from 54 months of age through third grade. Both mothers’ and teachers’ intrusive caregiving behaviors contributed to the development of children’s externalizing behaviors in the first three years of elementary school, and children’s externalizing behaviors consistently predicted mothers’ intrusive caregiving behaviors. Children’s externalizing behaviors mediated the relation between teachers’ intrusiveness and mothers’ intrusive caregiving. These bidirectional associations did not vary across child gender, but tended to be stronger among non-White children than their White peers. These findings suggest that children’s own behaviors can serve as a key connection between the two core institutions of child development—the family and school systems.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T03:39:31Z
  • Peer effects on the development of language skills in Norwegian childcare
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 41
      Author(s): Luisa A. Ribeiro, Henrik D. Zachrisson, Eric Dearing
      Few studies have focused on the importance of peers for child language development in the preschool years. The aim of this study was to assess whether peer expressive language skills predict language ability of preschool-aged children attending Norwegian Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) centers. Data from the Behavior Outlook Norwegian Developmental Study (BONDS) were used, including 539 children in 57 centers. Peer expressive language at age two was not, on average, associated with child’s language ability at age four. However, belonging to a peer group with better language skills seemed to attenuate language differences due to educational background. Implications for researchers and policy makers are discussed, namely with regards to the importance of mixed ability classes and instruction strategies aimed at raising the overall competence in the peer group and not only of the less skilled students.

      PubDate: 2017-06-01T23:09:07Z
  • Understanding relational aggression during early childhood: An examination
           of the association with language and other social and cognitive skills
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 40
      Author(s): Ameneh Shahaeian, Maryam Razmjoee, Cen Wang, Stephen N. Elliott, Claire Hughes
      In two studies, we examined the social and cognitive correlates of relational aggression in preschoolers. Participants were 215 4- to 6-year-olds, recruited from differing socioeconomic regions of a major metropolitan city in Iran. Given the mixed findings in the literature about the association between relational aggression and language, we used latent profile analysis to explore profiles of children with different levels of relational aggression and language skills and examined differences in the children’s levels of social and cognitive skills across profiles. Latent profile analysis indicated the presence of three profiles of children: an Adaptive group who had relatively high language skills and low relational aggression, an Expressive group who had relatively high language skills and high relational aggression, and an Inexpressive group with relatively low language skills and low relational aggression. These results were confirmed in a second study with children from varying socio-economic backgrounds. The overall profile shapes were similar in both studies, though the number of children in each profile differed. These differences were explained by referring to the differences in the socio-economic statuses of families. The results also suggested that preschool children who display higher levels of relational aggression and possess more advanced language skills also partially exhibit more highly developed cognitive skills and higher cooperation than their peers. Thus, we conclude that the exhibition of relational aggression in young children is accompanied by relatively high levels of social and cognitive skills.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T06:59:14Z
  • Early education of dual language learners: An efficacy study of the
           Nuestros Niños School Readiness professional development program
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 40
      Author(s): Dina C. Castro, Cristina Gillanders, Ximena Franco, Donna M. Bryant, Marlene Zepeda, Michael T. Willoughby, Lucía I. Méndez
      The purpose of this experimental study was to assess the efficacy of the Nuestros Niños School Readiness (NNSR) Professional Development Program, a 2-year program that includes an integrative approach to teacher professional development (PD) and a research-based, systematic intervention component aimed to promote language, literacy, and social-emotional development, and mathematics learning in pre-kindergarten Spanish-English dual language learners (DLLs). Across cohorts and experimental conditions, 56 preschool teachers and 340 Spanish-English DLLs from early childhood programs in California, Florida, and North Carolina participated in the study. Results indicate that the NNSR program had positive effects on the overall quality of early childhood classroom practices and on practices specifically focused on DLLs. Positive results were also found for children's outcomes. DLLs in treatment classrooms showed greater gains in expressive vocabulary in English than DLLs in control classrooms, and, when assessed in Spanish, gains were higher in receptive vocabulary, alphabet knowledge, writing and early mathematics. Issues of implementation fidelity and implications for using both languages of DLL children in instruction and assessment are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T06:43:31Z
  • Are structural quality indicators associated with preschool process
           quality in China? An exploration of threshold effects
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 40
      Author(s): Bi Ying Hu, Xitao Fan, Yan Wu, Ning Yang
      In this study, the generalized additive modeling (GAM) was used to explore possible threshold effects on multiple program structure quality indicators (class size, child-to-teacher ratio, teaching experience, teacher salary) in relation to the classroom teacher-child interaction quality indicators as measured by the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) in a sample of Chinese kindergarten classrooms. One hundred eighty classrooms in 60 preschools were selected for the study, based on a stratified sampling procedure. The results were mixed, and revealed threshold effects on some structural indicators. The findings are discussed in the context of Chinese early childhood education practice. As the first study of its kind in a Chinese context, the findings could have some implications for early childhood education policy and practice despite some limitations of the study. Future research may consider better design and more representative sample for studying these issues.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T10:23:42Z
  • The research-based balance in early childhood mathematics: A response to
           Common Core criticisms
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 40
      Author(s): Douglas H. Clements, Karen C. Fuson, Julie Sarama
      We address common criticisms of the Common Core State Standards—Mathematics, evaluating them based on comprehensive reviews of existing documentation and research to better ground future debates and to ameliorate negative effects of possible misconceptions or misinterpretations. The four main criticisms follow. (1) No one who helped develop the standards had any expertise in the education of young children. (2.) The CCSSM dictates scripted curricula and didactic instruction rigidly applied to all children at the same pace. (3.) The standards emphasize academic skills and leave no time for play, exploratory approaches, or social-emotional development. (4.) The standards are too early and therefore developmentally inappropriate for children in the early grades. We conclude that these criticisms are not valid, and that, given the importance of mathematics to academic success in all subjects, all children need and deserve to build a robust knowledge of mathematics in their earliest years and can do so if we use the research knowledge and research-based standards and programs presently available. We summarize and exemplify the research-based balanced approach to teaching based on learning trajectories that can provide guidance for engaging and developmentally appropriate mathematical experiences that have been demonstrated to help all children learn to high standards.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T07:18:51Z
  • One or two years of participation: Is dosage of an enhanced publicly
           funded preschool program associated with the academic and executive
           function skills of low-income children in early elementary school?
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 40
      Author(s): Harshini K. Shah, Celene E. Domitrovich, Nicole R. Morgan, Julia E. Moore, Brittany L. Rhoades, Linda Jacobson, Mark T. Greenberg
      This study extends previous work conducted with a sample of primarily low-income children attending an enhanced, publicly funded preschool program and assesses the effect of preschool dosage (i.e., receiving one or two years of preschool) on children’s academic and executive function (EF) outcomes at first and second grade. Because random assignment of children to receive one or two years of preschool was not possible, we used propensity score one-to-one matching to create two groups of equal size—a one-year group (i.e., those who attended preschool for one year and represented low preschool dosage, N =144) and a two-year group (i.e., those who attended preschool for two years and represented high preschool dosage, N =144) to control for potential selection bias. With respect to academic skills, children in the two-year group had higher scores on receptive vocabulary (as assessed by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Third Edition) and math skills (as assessed by the Applied Problems subtest of the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Test Battery-Revised [WJ-R]). They also had higher Broad Reading composite scores on the WJ-R at second grade. With respect to EF skills, at both first and second grade, children in the two-year group had higher scores on a working memory task (Backward Digit Span); they also made fewer perseverative errors and completed more categories on a task assessing set-shifting (Wisconsin Card Sort Task-64). Finally, children in the two-year group were better adjusted in school (i.e., they were less likely to have been retained or have received special education services by second grade). Effect sizes ranged from 0.22 to 0.40, suggesting that providing low-income children with an extra year of high-quality preschool continues to benefit students into elementary school. We discuss implications of the findings for public policy.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T06:54:05Z
  • Is full-day kindergarten linked to children’s physical activity?
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 40
      Author(s): Michael Gottfried, Vi-Nhuan Le
      Although there has been much research assessing the role of full-day kindergarten (FDK) versus part-day kindergarten (PDK) in relation to academic achievement, considerably less attention has been paid to whether FDK or PDK might be linked to children's physical activity. Applying fixed-effects models and propensity score matching to a nationally-representative dataset, we found that relative to children in FDK programs, children in FDK programs had lower BMI, had more outdoor play time, had longer physical education sessions, and had higher parental ratings of participation in rapid exercise. Children in FDK programs were also less likely to watch television during the week than children in PDK programs. There were no differences in television watching on the weekends, providing evidence that weekday activities were shifted by FDK versus PDK attendance. Policy implications are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T06:54:05Z
  • Language and literacy instruction in preschool classes that serve Latino
           dual language learners
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 40
      Author(s): Jennifer Wallace Jacoby, Nonie K. Lesaux
      The present investigation builds off prior empirical work to describe the quality of the language and literacy instruction Latino dual language learning (DLL) children receive in Head Start. Specifically, we measured the frequency and duration of language and literacy lessons in classes that enrolled large numbers of Latino DLLs. We also investigated children’s opportunities to participate in high-quality language and literacy experiences as a part of their everyday instructional experience. In total we observed 398 lessons in 20 classes. Results revealed (a) that the frequency and duration of instruction was variable, with some children enrolled in classes that implemented language- and literacy-based lessons for 23min (10%) of the 4-h day and others in classes that fit in up to 82min (34%) of instruction per day; (b) when language and literacy instruction occurred in these classes, it was most frequently delivered in a whole group and featured an instructional style that was characterized by the teacher directing the children to answer basic questions with a one- or two-word response; and (c) that high-quality instruction, which we operationalized as instruction that promoted language development, was predicted by characteristic features of the lessons—not features of the classroom. These results provide information that is useful to inform the design of policy- and practice-based interventions that might improve the characteristics of the language and literacy environments that serve Latino DLL children.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T06:20:20Z
  • Elementary students’ effortful control and academic achievement: The
           mediating role of teacher–student relationship quality
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 40
      Author(s): Maciel M. Hernández, Carlos Valiente, Nancy Eisenberg, Rebecca H. Berger, Tracy L. Spinrad, Sarah K. VanSchyndel, Kassondra M. Silva, Jody Southworth, Marilyn S. Thompson
      This study evaluated the association between effortful control in kindergarten and academic achievement one year later (N =301), and whether teacher–student closeness and conflict in kindergarten mediated the association. Parents, teachers, and observers reported on children’s effortful control, and teachers reported on their perceived levels of closeness and conflict with students. Students completed the passage comprehension and applied problems subtests of the Woodcock–Johnson tests of achievement, as well as a behavioral measure of effortful control. Analytical models predicting academic achievement were estimated using a structural equation model framework. Effortful control positively predicted academic achievement even when controlling for prior achievement and other covariates. Mediation hypotheses were tested in a separate model; effortful control positively predicted teacher–student closeness and strongly, negatively predicted teacher–student conflict. Teacher–student closeness and effortful control, but not teacher–student conflict, had small, positive associations with academic achievement. Effortful control also indirectly predicted higher academic achievement through its positive effect on teacher–student closeness and via its positive relation to early academic achievement. The findings suggest that teacher–student closeness is one mechanism by which effortful control is associated with academic achievement. Effortful control was also a consistent predictor of academic achievement, beyond prior achievement levels and controlling for teacher–student closeness and conflict, with implications for intervention programs on fostering regulation and achievement concurrently.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T06:20:20Z
  • Evaluation of an intervention using cross-race friend storybooks to reduce
           prejudice among majority race young children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 40
      Author(s): Philip Jai Johnson, Frances E. Aboud
      We tested a cross-race friendship picture book intervention under two conditions that aimed to facilitate the reduction of racial prejudice that children of two age groups ascribe to adults reading the book (communicators) and their own prejudice. White majority children, 113 kindergarteners (M=5.97years) and 103second graders (M=7.93years) were randomly assigned to an ingroup (White) or outgroup (Black) communicator and skill training. They were pretested on racial attitudes they ascribed to their photographed communicator and then trained in reconciliation or classification. They heard four cross-race friend stories; then were retested on communicator attitudes, own attitudes and cognitive elaboration. Results indicated only second graders, and those able to reconcile differences in perspectives, predicted on the basis of their photo alone that outgroup communicators would hold positive attitudes toward Blacks. After communicators read the stories and explicitly stated their antibias attitude, reports changed among second graders who now rated both communicators as holding more positive Black attitudes. Second graders also held more positive Black attitudes themselves. Kindergarteners consistently assumed both ingroup and outgroup communicators were pro-White. Children elaborated more about the Black story characters when read to by an outgroup (Black) communicator. In conclusion, cross-race friend storybooks are a promising way to expose children to other racial groups and to antibias attitudes, under certain conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T06:20:20Z
  • Wordless picture books boost preschoolers’ language production
           during shared reading
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 40
      Author(s): Leydi Johana Chaparro-Moreno, Florencia Reali, Carolina Maldonado-Carreño
      Prior research shows that shared book reading promotes preschoolers’ language and literacy skills. However, little is known about the potential role of books’ features – in particular, the role of using wordless picture books compared with books with text – in children’s spontaneous language production and teachers’ instructional support. In this study, we transcribed verbal interactions of thirteen Colombian teachers reading to groups of children (aged 43–55 months) during reading sessions in Spanish using a wordless picture book (condition 1) and a prototypical storybook with text (condition 2). Books were matched for page length, type and theme. Using Computerized Language Analysis (CLAN), we found that in the wordless-picture-book condition children produced significantly more word tokens, word types and utterances, and teachers showed higher levels of instructional support. Regression analyses revealed a significant association between children’s language production and teachers’ quality of feedback during literacy instruction, suggesting that wordless picture books may boost children’s language by enhancing instructional support.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T10:37:17Z
  • Grocery games: How ethnically diverse low-income mothers support
           children’s reading and mathematics
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 40
      Author(s): Diana Leyva, Catherine S. Tamis-LeMonda, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, Carmen Jimenez-Robbins, Lauren Malachowski
      Parent-child interactions are an important source of variability in children’s learning. We asked: (1) to what extent do low-income and ethnically diverse mothers engage in maternal writing support, math support, and directiveness in a grocery shopping game; (2) do these maternal behaviors predict gains in children’s reading and mathematics from age 5 (T1) to first grade (T2), and (3) what role do ethnicity and children’s baseline skills (T1) play in these associations. Participants were 212 low-income African American, Dominican, Mexican, and Chinese mothers and their 5-year-old children. Maternal writing support predicted gains in children’s reading skills but math support did not predict gains in children’s mathematics. Maternal directiveness negatively predicted gains in both children’s reading and mathematics. Ethnicity and children’s baseline skills did not moderate these associations. Implications for family-focused interventions serving low-income and ethnically diverse populations are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T10:37:17Z
  • Impacts of a literacy-focused preschool curriculum on the early literacy
           skills of language-minority children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 40
      Author(s): J. Marc Goodrich, Christopher J. Lonigan, Jo Ann M. Farver
      Spanish-speaking language-minority (LM) children are at an elevated risk of struggling academically and display signs of that risk during early childhood. Therefore, high-quality research is needed to identify instructional techniques that promote the school readiness of Spanish-speaking LM children. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that utilized an experimental curriculum and two professional development models for the development of English and Spanish early literacy skills among LM children. We also evaluated whether LM children’s proficiency in one language moderated the effect of the intervention on early literacy skills in the other language, as well as whether the intervention was differentially effective for LM and monolingual English-speaking children. Five hundred twenty-six Spanish-speaking LM children and 447 monolingual English-speaking children enrolled in 26 preschool centers in Los Angeles, CA participated in this study. Results indicated that the intervention was effective for improving LM children’s code-related but not language-related English early literacy skills. There were no effects of the intervention on children’s Spanish early literacy skills. Proficiency in Spanish did not moderate the effect of the intervention for any English early literacy outcomes; however, proficiency in English significantly moderated the effect of the intervention for Spanish oral language skills, such that the effect of the intervention was stronger for children with higher proficiency in English than it was for children with lower proficiency in English. In general, there were not differential effects of the intervention for LM and monolingual children. Taken together, these findings indicate that high-quality, evidence-based instruction can improve the early literacy skills of LM children and that the same instructional techniques are effective for enhancing the early literacy skills of LM and monolingual children.

      PubDate: 2017-03-13T03:56:34Z
  • Linguistic and social cues for vocabulary learning in Dual Language
           Learners and their English-only peers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 40
      Author(s): Perla B. Gámez, Sabina Rak Neugebauer, Michael D. Coyne, D. Betsy McCoach, Sharon Ware
      This study examined teachers’ (n=29) linguistic and social cues and the vocabulary skills of Dual Language Learners (DLLs) and their English-only peers (5- to 6-year-olds; n=226). Videotaped observations of classrooms serving high numbers of children from low-income and ethnic-minority backgrounds were coded for syntactic complexity (linguistic cues) and gestures (social cues). Students’ expressive vocabulary was measured in kindergarten (fall, spring); receptive vocabulary was used to determine risk status. Results revealed that, controlling for fall scores, teachers’ syntactic complexity positively predicted spring scores for DLLs and EO students. Follow up analyses revealed that teachers’ syntactic complexity positively predicted spring scores for children not at risk for language and literacy difficulties. Gestures also positively predicted students’ vocabulary outcomes. Findings suggest that the classroom language environment can be experienced as promoting to the extent it provides responsive language support for word learning.

      PubDate: 2017-03-13T03:56:34Z
  • Improving school readiness of high-risk preschoolers: Combining high
           quality instructional strategies with responsive training for teachers and
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 40
      Author(s): Susan H. Landry, Tricia A. Zucker, Jeffrey M. Williams, Emily C. Merz, Cathy L. Guttentag, Heather B. Taylor
      This study evaluated whether the combination of two proven interventions, one in Head Start classrooms (The Early Education Model, TEEM) and one in the home (Play and Learning Strategies, PALS) resulted in enhanced effects on at-risk 3- to 5-year-old children’s school readiness skills when compared to either of these interventions alone. Teachers and parents were trained to use a responsive style and strategies that supported children’s school readiness skills with the goal of providing children consistency in responsive practices across the school and home environments. The study was conducted in 77 classrooms with teachers randomized to either the TEEM (n =39) or No TEEM (i.e., control or business as usual, n =38) conditions. Six to eight children in each classroom were randomly assigned to either have their parents receive PALS (n =314; 210 after attrition) or to a No PALS condition (n =309; 221 after attrition) resulting in four conditions: TEEM/PALS, TEEM/No PALS, No TEEM/PALS, and No TEEM/No PALS. Results showed greater gains in the TEEM teachers’ language and literacy instructional practices and sensitivity compared to control teachers, but there were few significant findings for child cognitive outcomes. Parents receiving PALS, as compared to those without PALS, showed greater increases across play and book reading contexts in numerous responsive behaviors linked to the attachment and socio-cultural theories. Children whose parents received PALS versus those whose parents did not showed greater gains in direct measures of print knowledge and self-regulation and in social and language skills observed during interactions with their parent. Interactive effects of TEEM plus PALS were seen for increased engagement in shared book reading but not for other cognitive or social outcomes.

      PubDate: 2017-03-13T03:56:34Z
  • The effect of alphabet eBooks and paper books on preschoolers’ behavior:
           An analysis over repeated readings
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 40
      Author(s): Mary Ann Evans, Sarah Nowak, Brittany Burek, David Willoughby
      Preschoolers’ behavior was examined over repeated sessions when interacting with one of two types of alphabet books – traditional alphabet books in paper format or interactive alphabet books in an eBook format – to determine the extent to which each type of book elicited behavior relating to alphabet knowledge. Data are reported from 63 3 and 4-year-old children who were assessed on letter knowledge and phonemic awareness. They were randomly assigned to conditions in which they used either paper books representing a variety of text and illustration styles, or eBooks representing a variety of audio and interactive features. Orientation to the books and letter-related behaviors in independent reading were coded in 16 sessions occurring over 8 weeks, and summarized across 2-week blocks. Children in the eBook condition spent more time oriented to the books. However, they generally engaged in less letter-related behavior (saying letter names, saying object names). In half of the observations they activated object hotspots. Moreover, their overall letter-related behavior declined over sessions. Implications for parents, educators and publishers are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T08:48:50Z
  • Examining early childhood teachers’ writing practices: Associations
           between pedagogical supports and children’s writing skills
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 39
      Author(s): Gary E. Bingham, Margaret F. Quinn, Hope K. Gerde
      Despite a wide recognition about the importance of young children’s language and literacy environments to later achievement, little is known about teachers’ supportive approaches to early writing in preschool classroom contexts and the ways in which these supportive approaches relate to children’s writing development. This study examined how teachers support writing in their classrooms and how these supports related to children’s expressions of early writing skill. Forty-one preschool and Pre-K teachers in three US states and their students (N=488) participated. Teachers were observed in their classrooms and instances of writing support were recorded and qualitatively coded and analyzed. Findings indicated that teachers supported children’s use of writing, however, the scope and focus of the supportive strategies used were limited. Examinations of teachers’ supportive writing practices revealed that teachers were much more likely to focus on children’s handwriting and spelling skills, with less attention to composing. Analyses examining associations between teachers’ pedagogical practice and children’s writing skills indicated that children from classrooms with teachers who supported composing exhibited stronger writing skills. Results are discussed in relation to early childhood curricular and teaching practices as well as to broader policy issues.

      PubDate: 2017-01-30T00:18:19Z
  • Child care subsidies and the stability and quality of child care
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 39
      Author(s): Caroline Krafft, Elizabeth E. Davis, Kathryn Tout
      Each month, the child care subsidy program helps nearly a million low-income families pay for child care. The financial support of a child care subsidy might be expected to increase stability and quality of care, which are characteristics of care that support child development. However, there are concerns that short durations of subsidy receipt may increase child care instability. Further, there is debate about whether subsidy receipt leads to the use of higher or lower quality care. In this study we use longitudinal survey data on low-income families and linked administrative data on subsidy receipt to investigate the stability and reported quality of child care arrangements. Because we observe the same children repeatedly over time, both when they are and are not receiving child care subsidies, we use child fixed-effects models to address the selection problems that otherwise would bias the relationships among subsidy, stability, and quality. We find that when children received child care subsidies they experienced higher quality care as reported by parents. Yet there was no difference in the stability of care arrangements while receiving subsidy compared to when not receiving subsidy. Additionally, children often had multiple providers concurrently, regardless of subsidy receipt. These results suggest that child care subsidy receipt may promote positive child outcomes due to increased access to higher quality care without worsening the stability of care.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T08:54:47Z
  • Positively biased processing of mother's emotions predicts children's
           social and emotional functioning
    • Authors: Meghan Rose Donohue; Sherryl H. Goodman; Erin C. Tully
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 38
      Author(s): Meghan Rose Donohue, Sherryl H. Goodman, Erin C. Tully
      Risk for internalizing problems and social skills deficits likely emerges in early childhood when emotion processing and social competencies are developing. Positively biased processing of social information is typical during early childhood and may be protective against poorer psychosocial outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that young children with relatively less positively biased attention to, interpretations of, and attributions for their mother's emotions would exhibit poorer prosocial skills and more internalizing problems. A sample of 4- to 6-year-old children (N =82) observed their mothers express happiness, sadness and anger during a simulated emotional phone conversation. Children’s attention to their mother when she expressed each emotion was rated from video. Immediately following the phone conversation, children were asked questions about the conversation to assess their interpretations of the intensity of mother’s emotions and misattributions of personal responsibility for her emotions. Children’s prosocial skills and internalizing problems were assessed using mother-report rating scales. Interpretations of mother’s positive emotions as relatively less intense than her negative emotions, misattributions of personal responsibility for her negative emotions, and lack of misattributions of personal responsibility for her positive emotions were associated with poorer prosocial skills. Children who attended relatively less to mother’s positive than her negative emotions had higher levels of internalizing problems. These findings suggest that children’s attention to, interpretations of, and attributions for their mother’s emotions may be important targets of early interventions for preventing prosocial skills deficits and internalizing problems.

      PubDate: 2016-10-10T08:24:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2016.08.006
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2016)
  • Validity of the first two subtests of the preschool language assessment
           scale as a language screener for Spanish-speaking preschool children
    • Authors: Stefano Rainelli; Rebecca J. Bulotsky-Shearer; Veronica A. Fernandez; Daryl B. Greenfield; Michael López
      Pages: 10 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 38
      Author(s): Stefano Rainelli, Rebecca J. Bulotsky-Shearer, Veronica A. Fernandez, Daryl B. Greenfield, Michael López
      Large-scale early childhood studies use the first two subscales of the Preschool Language Assessment Scale, “Simon Says” and “Art Show” (PreLAS2000; Duncan & De Avila, 1998) to guide decisions about the most appropriate language (or languages) researchers should use when directly assessing the academic skills of dual language learner (DLL) children. Large-scale studies use a cut-score derived from a total score on the two PreLAS subscales in English and/or Spanish in combination with parent or teacher reports of children’s language abilities, to route children into the most appropriate language of assessment. However, limited research exists to support the use of these cut-scores as part of a language routing procedure with Spanish-speaking DLL preschool children from low-income backgrounds. The current study examined the validity of the two English PreLAS subscale scores for a local sample of children enrolled in Head Start (N =872) and Hispanic children from the national FACES 2006 sample (N =935). Rasch and DIF analyses supported the invariance of item difficulty values across the three- and four-year-old age groups in the overall sample. For a subsample of Spanish-speaking DLL children, receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses identified the most appropriate cut-scores on the PreLAS screener for both age groups. Findings provided evidence to support the validity of the use of the English PreLAS language screener score as part of a more comprehensive language routing procedure. Implications for policy, practice, and measurement development are discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-10-10T08:24:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2016.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2016)
  • Activity settings in full-day kindergarten classrooms and children’s
           early learning
    • Authors: Arya Ansari; Kelly M. Purtell
      Pages: 23 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 38
      Author(s): Arya Ansari, Kelly M. Purtell
      Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Class of 2010–2011 (n =10,620), we examined the diversity in full-day kindergarten activity settings across the nation. Recognizing that patterns of activity use may be more important than any single activity, we used person-centered modeling to identify five activity profiles: high whole group, high small group, high individual, distributed activities, and high child selected. Children enrolled in the high whole group classrooms demonstrated the greatest gains in literacy skills during kindergarten, whereas for mathematics, children in both the high small group and high whole group classrooms demonstrated greater gains. Classrooms that had more opportunities for child-selected activities, however, promoted greater improvements in children’s cognitive flexibility. These findings point to the potential of person-centered methods in identifying different groups of classrooms that share common practices.

      PubDate: 2016-10-10T08:24:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2016.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2016)
  • Identification and validation of school readiness profiles among high-risk
    • Authors: Rachel M. Abenavoli; Mark T. Greenberg; Karen L. Bierman
      Pages: 33 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 38
      Author(s): Rachel M. Abenavoli, Mark T. Greenberg, Karen L. Bierman
      Person-oriented methods recently have been used to examine school readiness patterns of strengths and weaknesses across multiple domains, but more research in high-risk samples is needed. The current study used latent profile analysis to examine whether teacher ratings could be used to identify distinct and valid readiness profiles among 301 high-risk, low-income kindergartners. Four profiles were identified: (1) Well-Adjusted, with strengths in every domain (42%), (2) Competent-Aggressive, with above-average academic abilities and elevated disruptive behavior (19%), (3) Academically Disengaged, with weaknesses in most domains but no disruptive behavior (22%), and (4) Multi-Risk, with severe weaknesses in every domain (17%). These four profiles differed on concurrent direct assessments of language and executive functioning, as well as on peer ratings of behavior. Results highlight heterogeneity among children at risk for poor school adjustment and indicate that valid profiles of school readiness can be derived from teacher ratings. Further, this study suggests that a person-oriented approach can provide a useful framework for researchers, interventionists, and teachers as they consider which different classroom practices or programs may be required to best meet the unique learning and developmental needs of different subgroups of children as they transition to school.

      PubDate: 2016-10-10T08:24:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2016.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2016)
  • Kindergarten redshirting: Motivations and spillovers using census-level
    • Authors: C. Kevin Fortner; Jade Marcus Jenkins
      Pages: 44 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 38
      Author(s): C. Kevin Fortner, Jade Marcus Jenkins
      Kindergarten redshirting may affect a child’s own outcomes and also has implications for school administration, classroom management, and peer learning. We use statewide micro-level census data to examine selection into redshirting, potential spillover effects, and its association with third grade outcomes. We find evidence of both negative and positive selection into redshirting, where children with disabilities are much more likely to be redshirted. We find small positive associations between redshirting and both math and reading achievement in third grade for students without identified disabilities. However, redshirting students with an identified disability score statistically significantly lower on mathematics assessments compared to similar non-redshirting students with identified disabilities. We do not find evidence of spillover effects from redshirting when students attend third grade classes with higher proportions of redshirted children.

      PubDate: 2016-10-10T08:24:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2016.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2016)
  • My teacher is wrong: Preschoolers’ opposition to non-conventional
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 39
      Author(s): Silvia Guerrero, Cristina Cascado, Melisa Sausa, Ileana Enesco
      We examined the influence of teachers’ conflicting opinions on preschoolers’ decisions in two contexts: (a) alternative, non-conventional uses of common objects (e.g., using a fork to comb hair), and (b) labeling new objects. In the first context, teachers’ conflicting claims involved the acceptability of the alternative use of objects, either rejecting them (conventional view) or accepting them (non-conventional view). In Study 1 (N=36, 3 and 5 year-olds), the aim was to evaluate the pressure of a familiar epistemic authority: Children were presented with the opposing claims of their own teacher and a stranger. In Study 2 (N=91, 5-year-olds), the aim was to evaluate the pressure of a majority of teachers and the role of dissenters. Children were assigned to two conditions: in the dissenter condition (DC), they faced the conflicting opinions of three teachers vs. one teacher, and in the non-dissenter condition (NDC), they faced the unanimous opinion of three teachers. The general results showed that the responses of the 3- year-old children (study 1) were not influenced neither by their teacher nor by the context. By contrast, the 5-year-olds strongly opposed the teachers when they supported a non-conventional way to use common objects, regardless of the informant’s familiarity with the informant (their own teacher, study 1), and the degree of consensus among teachers (unanimous or partial majority, study 2). Most children only sided with the informant/s whose claims were conventional (disapproving the alternative use of objects). In the labeling context, 5-year-olds’ decisions were influenced more by the unanimous majority of teachers (NDC) than by the partial majority (DC), or by their own teacher. Overall, the findings show that children’s previous beliefs have more strength than their compliance with the authority represented by teachers. Moreover, this work provides evidence of preschoolers’ resistance – or indifference- to majority pressure.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T19:47:46Z
  • Are content and structural features of counting books aligned with
           research on numeracy development?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 December 2016
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly
      Author(s): Jenna M. Ward, Michèle M. Mazzocco, Allison M. Bock, Nicole A. Prokes
      In this study, we assessed how well children’s counting books are aligned with current research on children’s emerging numeracy. We coded structural and content features of 120 readily available counting books, focusing on features of how numbers were presented, features of items and sets to be counted, and structural features that varied across books. We found that several features that may support learning to count—such as presenting numbers in ascending sequence—were frequently identified in the books we coded; but we also found that features that may interfere with learning to count also occurred frequently, such as presenting multiple distractors on pages with items to be counted. Explicit or even implicit emphasis on counting principles such as cardinality were quite infrequent across most books, and nearly half of all books had at least some pages depicting inconsistencies between the number of items in an illustrated set and the numeral or number word accompanying the set. There was some co-occurrence of select features: Books with many distractors were more likely to have obstructed items within sets to be counted, and were less likely to explicitly draw links between sets and numerals or number words, compared to books that were relatively distractor-free. Considered together, these findings highlight the need for research on how features of counting books and other early mathematics-related books may affect shared-reading and the development of children’s numerical and mathematical thinking.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T19:47:46Z
  • Child-centred educational practice in different early education settings:
           Associations with professionals’ attitudes, self-efficacy, and
           professional background
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 38
      Author(s): Sonja Perren, Sandra Herrmann, Irina Iljuschin, Doris Frei, Carolin Körner, Fabio Sticca
      The present study investigated whether teacher beliefs (self-efficacy and attitudes) mediate the impact of professional background on child-centred educational practice. We specifically investigated whether teacher beliefs related to self (self-efficacy) are a stronger predictor of educational practice than teacher beliefs related to teaching approach (attitudes). A total of 265 professionals from different early education and care settings (i.e., centre-based daycare, family-based daycare, and educational playgroups) in Switzerland participated in the study. A self-report questionnaire was developed to assess professionals’ self-efficacy, attitudes and educational practice in terms of child-centredness. The results confirm the factorial validity of the questionnaire. Self-efficacy positively predicted educational practice, while professionals’ attitudes were not associated with educational practice. Further, the positive effect of domain-specific knowledge on educational practice was mediated by self-efficacy. Finally, family daycare providers reported lower self-efficacy and lower levels of child-centred educational practice than other professionals. The present study emphasises the role of professionals’ self-efficacy in the context of delivering high-quality childcare and child-centred education in early childhood. The results suggest that promoting knowledge of teaching approaches may be a promising way to promote early childhood educators’ child-centred educational practice through increasing their self-efficacy.

      PubDate: 2016-11-14T09:01:19Z
  • Reciprocity between maternal questions and child contributions during
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 38
      Author(s): Rufan Luo, Catherine S. Tamis-LeMonda
      We examined reciprocal associations between maternal questions and children’s narrative contributions during book-sharing. Participants were 235 U.S. mothers and their 4-year-old children from low-income, African American, Dominican, Mexican, and Chinese backgrounds. Maternal questions and child narrative contributions were coded for their cognitive level and contingency. For example, the question “What’s that?” was coded as a basic referential question and the question “What will happen next?” was coded as a more advanced inferential question. Contingency was indicated when child contributions preceded (child-to-mother sequence) or followed (mother-to-child sequence) maternal questions at likelihoods greater than chance. Across all ethnic groups, maternal questions and child contributions were contingent on one another, with the magnitudes of mother-to-child effects being larger than child-to-mother effects. Children’s responsive contributions and mothers’ responsive questions were matched in their cognitive level. Children actively shape the inputs they receive during book-sharing interactions, and in turn benefit from questions at different cognitive levels.

      PubDate: 2016-10-31T04:01:51Z
  • I think I can: Preschoolers’ private speech and motivation in playful
           versus non-playful contexts
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 38
      Author(s): Jeremy Sawyer
      Vygotskian theory and empirical evidence suggest that children’s private speech and pretend play contribute to their development of motivational processes. Given current U.S. preschool expansion, and resurgent debates over the merits of play-based vs. non-play-based approaches to early childhood education, this study conducted an experimental investigation of the relative impact of these contexts on preschoolers’ private speech and mastery motivation (performance and persistence). 38 preschool children engaged in a challenging fishing activity in two experimental conditions (playful and non-playful) simulating pedagogical and motivational (intrinsic vs. extrinsic) characteristics of common preschool settings. Private speech was categorized as cognitive, motivational, metacognitive, playful or partially internalized, and the emotional valence of private speech was marked as positive or negative. Results indicated that preschoolers in the playful condition displayed higher mastery motivation than preschoolers in the non-playful condition. Children in the playful condition used more frequent private speech, including more frequent cognitive, playful, and positively valenced private speech. Mastery motivation was positively correlated with playful, partially internalized, and positively valenced private speech, but negatively related to motivational private speech. Mastery motivation components (performance and persistence) related to different types of private speech. Performance related positively to metacognitive private speech and negatively to motivational private speech. Persistence related positively to playful private speech. The playful condition elicited private speech categories that were associated with higher motivation levels. Findings support the use of playful and play-based pedagogy in early childhood education, and teacher modeling of motivationally beneficial forms of private speech.

      PubDate: 2016-10-31T04:01:51Z
  • The effects of language- and literacy-focused professional development on
           early educators and children: A best-evidence meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 38
      Author(s): Justin Markussen-Brown, Carsten B. Juhl, Shayne B. Piasta, Dorthe Bleses, Anders Højen, Laura M. Justice
      Professional development (PD) is increasingly used to improve early childhood educators’ skills and knowledge in providing quality language and emergent literacy environments for children. However, the literature does not clearly indicate the extent to which such efforts reach their goals, or whether improvements in educator outcomes translate to learning gains for children. In the current synthesis, we conducted meta-analyses to evaluate the effects of language- and literacy-focused PD on process quality, structural quality, and educator knowledge as primary outcomes. Furthermore, we estimated effects for three child outcomes: receptive vocabulary, phonological awareness, and alphabet knowledge. PD produced a medium effect for process quality and a large effect for structural quality but no effect for educator knowledge. PD also produced a small to medium effect for phonological awareness and a small effect for alphabet knowledge, but these were not predicted by gains in educator outcomes. Although course and coaching intensity and duration were related to effect sizes, the total number of PD components was the strongest predictor of process quality. The results suggested that PD is a viable method of improving language and literacy processes and structures in preschools, but effects may need to be substantial if they are to translate into higher child outcomes.

      PubDate: 2016-10-31T04:01:51Z
  • Does attending a state-funded preschool program improve letter name
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 38
      Author(s): Francis L. Huang
      This study investigated the causal impact of attending a state-funded pre-K program, the Virginia Preschool Initiative (VPI), on letter name knowledge using a regression discontinuity (RD) design. Children who attended VPI (n =9,689) had higher letter name knowledge (9 letters higher) compared to students who had just begun VPI (n =10,897). Findings were robust across various model specifications and imputation methods used. Effect sizes were large (ES =0.89–1.01) and comparable to other statewide pre-K evaluations using an RD design with a similar outcome.

      PubDate: 2016-10-31T04:01:51Z
  • Earthquake effects: Estimating the relationship between exposure to the
           2010 Chilean earthquake and preschool children’s early cognitive and
           executive function skills
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 38
      Author(s): Celia J. Gomez, Hirokazu Yoshikawa
      Little is known about how the experience of an earthquake affects young children's cognitive outcomes. On February 27, 2010, a severe earthquake shook southern Chile. The earthquake occurred during the course of a large-scale evaluation of an early childhood education intervention (child average age=53 months) in Santiago, such that one cohort of children (n =698) experienced baseline data collection 3–12 weeks after the earthquake occurred, while a different cohort of children (n =720) did not. In this paper, we used these available evaluation data to conduct two sets of analyses that explore the relationship between preschool children’s exposure to the 2010 Chilean earthquake and their early language, pre-literacy, mathematics and executive function outcomes. In the first set of analyses, we employed a propensity score analysis to estimate the short-term effect of the earthquake on preschool- aged children’s early learning and executive function outcomes. Results suggest that children who experienced the earthquake had lower scores on some early language and pre-literacy assessments than those who did not, with effect sizes of approximately 20% of a standard deviation. Results from the second set of analyses suggest that among the families who experienced the earthquake, children whose parents reported more earthquake- related stressors performed significantly lower on some early language and pre-literacy outcomes. Implications of these findings for disaster relief efforts and future research are discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-10-31T04:01:51Z
  • Improving teacher-child interactions: A randomized control trial of Making
           the Most of Classroom Interactions and My Teaching Partner professional
           development models
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 38
      Author(s): Diane M. Early, Kelly L. Maxwell, Bentley D. Ponder, Yi Pan
      The effectiveness of two professional development interventions, each designed to strengthen teacher-child interactions in preschool classrooms, was tested using a teacher-level randomized controlled trial. Georgia’s Pre-K teachers (n =486 in 336 schools/centers) were randomly selected from specified regions and randomly assigned to one of three conditions: 1) Making the Most of Classroom Interactions (MMCI), a cohort-model where small groups of teachers met for five days of instruction and support; 2) My Teaching Partner (MTP), in which teachers worked one-on-one with a coach using cycles of videotaped observations of teaching, review, and feedback; or 3) control. Each participating teacher received a Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS; Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008) visit before and after the intervention from a trained, independent, blinded observer. Posttest scores were estimated as a linear function of condition and pretest score, using 2-level hierarchical linear models (HLMs). Findings indicated MMCI resulted in significantly higher posttest scores on Emotional Support and Instructional Support, and marginally higher posttest scores on Classroom Organization, as compared to controls. MTP resulted in significantly higher scores on Emotional Support. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for large-scale interventions to improve teacher-child interactions in early childhood programs.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T07:49:18Z
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