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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1374 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (23 journals)
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    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (582 journals)
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HEALTH AND SAFETY (582 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 212)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences: Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Birat Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Innovación en Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Salud Virtual     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access  
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Düzce Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi / Journal of Duzce University Health Sciences Institute     Open Access  
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Eurasian Journal of Health Technology Assessment     Open Access  
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Family & Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare : Finjehew     Open Access  
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Challenges     Open Access  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Global Reproductive Health     Open Access  
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastane Öncesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 10)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Notions     Open Access  
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Healthcare Technology Letters     Open Access  
Healthy Aging Research     Open Access  
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
Histoire, médecine et santé     Open Access  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IJS Global Health     Open Access  
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Public Health     Open Access  
Infodir : Revista de Información científica para la Dirección en Salud     Open Access  

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover
Early Childhood Research Quarterly
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.814
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 20  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0885-2006
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • Building number sense among English learners: A multisite randomized
           controlled trial of a Tier 2 kindergarten mathematics intervention
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Christian T. Doabler, Ben Clarke, Derek Kosty, Keith Smolkowski, Evangeline Kurtz-Nelson, Hank Fien, Scott K. Baker English learners (ELs) represent a rapidly growing subgroup in US schools. Yet, converging evidence suggests that a concerning number of ELs struggle to reach proficient levels in mathematics. The purpose of this multi-site randomized controlled trial was to examine the treatment effects of a Tier 2 mathematics intervention on the mathematical outcomes of kindergarten ELs with mathematics difficulties (MD). Additionally, recognizing that students differently benefit from early mathematics interventions, the study also examined whether specific student-level variables predicted ELs’ differential response to the intervention. A total of 295 ELs from 138 kindergarten classrooms participated in the study. Findings indicated overall treatment effects on five mathematics outcome measures. Results also suggested that the intervention worked equally well across a diverse sample of at-risk ELs with varying mathematics skills and English proficiency levels. Implications in terms of using principles of explicit instruction to improve the design of mathematics interventions and furthering the knowledge base of effective instruction for ELs with MD are discussed.
       
  • Relations Among Language Comprehension, Oral Counting, and Numeral
           Knowledge of Ethnic and Racial Minority Young Children from Low-income
           Communities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Kalina Gjicali, Jennifer Astuto, Anastasiya A. Lipnevich This study examined the relationship between language comprehension (receptive, expressive) and numeracy skills (oral counting, number identification, number relations) in a longitudinal sample of ethnic and racial minority (Black = 86%; Latino = 14%) children from low-income communities. Participants were n = 79 children between 1.42 to 3.42 years when early language skills were assessed, and between 4.5 to 6.33 years when school-age language and numeracy skills were assessed. Results indicated strong correlations between language and numeracy skills, independent of age and sex. Components of language comprehension were shown to positively predict numeracy outcomes. The results of subsequent mediation analyses revealed that language comprehension was indirectly related to number identification and number relations through oral counting. The findings are consistent with the perspective that linguistic skills serve as a pathway for the development of numeracy skills. This study adds to the literature by demonstrating the importance of general language comprehension measured in the first few years of life for school-age numeracy skills with a sample of children living in poverty. Implications for early childhood education and future research regarding cross-domain learning and development are discussed.
       
  • What do parents want from preschool' Perspectives of low-income
           Latino/a immigrant families
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Arya Ansari, Lilla K. Pivnick, Elizabeth T. Gershoff, Robert Crosnoe, Diana Orozco-Lapray With a qualitative approach drawing from four focus groups, this study explored what aspects of preschool were valued most by 30 low-income Latino/a immigrant parents with children enrolled in a state-funded preschool program in Texas. Beyond the push and pull factors of necessity, convenience, and supply, parents reported valuing the responsiveness of the school to families’ needs and concerns, the provision of a safe and developmentally appropriate environment, the role of preschool in both care and education, the incorporation of parents within the school, and the school’s capacity for developing parents’ human and navigational capital. Even though parents saw great value in preschool for preparing their children for school and helping themselves as parents, there was also fear and mistrust in neighborhood schools that was rooted in discrimination and long-term educational inequality.
       
  • Parenting quality at two developmental periods in early childhood and
           their association with child development
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Heather A. Knauer, Emily J. Ozer, William H. Dow, Lia C.H. Fernald Parenting quality—a child’s milieu of warmth, responsiveness, and stimulation—promotes a young child’s cognitive, social, and emotional development. An unanswered question, however, is about the relative contributions of parenting quality in infancy and in early childhood to disparities in child cognitive and socioemotional development by age five, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Understanding these relationships could inform better targeting of parenting programs in LMICs to yield greater effect size and consistency in improvements in early childhood development. This longitudinal study examines parenting quality and early childhood development among 603 children from poor, rural communities in Mexico who were assessed during infancy (4–18 months) and prekindergarten (3–5 years). Parenting quality (low, moderate, or high) was measured using the HOME Inventory in infancy and the Family Care Indicators (FCI) during prekindergarten. Child development was assessed in infancy using the Extended Ages and Stages Questionnaire (EASQ) and the ASQ Socioemotional scale, and during prekindergarten with the McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities. We found that parenting quality measures above the 25th percentile during infancy and prekindergarten were independently and significantly associated with a 0.26–0.30 SD increase in McCarthy scores at ages 3–5 years in adjusted analyses. Parental warmth and responsiveness in infancy were significant predictors of child development at ages 3–5 years, but parental stimulating practices and availability of learning materials in the home were not. Conversely, during the prekindergarten period, parental stimulating practices were significant predictors of concurrent child development. Our findings support the importance parenting quality throughout early childhood, and that the effect of aspects of parenting may vary from infancy to prekindergarten. Programs targeting parents of young children should tailor their curriculum to the specific ages of the targeted children.
       
  • Is more time in general music class associated with stronger extra-musical
           outcomes in kindergarten'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 45Author(s): Jillian Hogan, Sara Cordes, Steven Holochwost, Ehri Ryu, Adele Diamond, Ellen Winner Prior research has suggested an association between increased musical training and extra-musical outcomes, but these studies are primarily correlational, focused on instrumental music, and provide limited information about the type of musical intervention. In the current study, we perform the first randomized controlled study investigating whether more time in general music in kindergarten results in better executive functioning, self-perception, and attitudes towards school. Control students received an average of 45 min of general music class per week while treatment students received 2–7 times more minutes per week. Both control and treatment students had applied to attend a school or program of intensive general music study serving primarily low-income students. Analyses from end-of-kindergarten data revealed no significant group differences on our outcome measures. Results fail to show an association between increased time spent in general music learning and stronger extra-musical outcomes.
       
  • The art of Head Start: Intensive arts integration associated with
           advantage in school readiness for economically disadvantaged children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 45Author(s): Eleanor D. Brown, Mallory L. Garnett, Blanca M. Velazquez-Martin, Timothy J. Mellor The present study examined the impact of intensive arts integration on school readiness for economically disadvantaged children attending Head Start preschool. Participants were 265 children, ages 3–5 years. Of these, 197 attended a fully arts-integrated Head Start, where children received daily music, dance, and visual arts classes in addition to homeroom, and 68 attended a matched comparison program that did not include arts classes. The Bracken Basic Concepts Scale, Third Edition- Receptive (BBCS-3:R) was used to measure children’s school readiness at the start and end of a year of preschool attendance. According to a repeated-measures multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), children at the arts-integrated Head Start showed greater gains in school readiness compared to their peers at the comparison program. Univariate tests revealed that attendance at the arts-integrated preschool was associated with greater gains on a general school readiness composite as well as in specific concept areas of texture/material and self/social awareness. Findings suggest that the arts can add value to Head Start preschool. Implications concern the arts as a vehicle for equalizing educational opportunities for young, economically disadvantaged children.
       
  • Cultivating interest in art: Causal effects of arts exposure during early
           childhood
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 45Author(s): Brian Kisida, Daniel H. Bowen, Jay P. Greene Despite a growing body of literature examining the effects of arts exposure and participation for youth, little is known about the development of attitudes toward art in early childhood. In this study, we used an experimental research design to investigate the effect of arts exposure on the development of children’s attitudes toward art. Applicant groups (n = 26) with students in kindergarten through 2nd grade (n = 2,253) were randomly assigned to participate in an art museum’s educational program, which included pre-curricular materials, a visit to an art museum with a guided tour and arts-based activities, and post-curricular classroom materials. We collected original data from students in their classrooms that measured their attitudes toward art museums and art generally, as well as art knowledge. We found that exposure to the arts at an early age produced significant positive effects on the development of students’ attitudes toward the arts. Our findings demonstrate that arts-based exposure facilitated by schools can be an effective strategy for developing positive orientations toward art in young children.
       
  • Preface: The arts & early childhood
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 45Author(s): Melissa Menzer, Adam Winsler
       
  • Mothers’ and Fathers’ Language Input from 6 to 36 Months in Rural
           Two-Parent-Families: Relations to children’s kindergarten achievement
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Elizabeth Reynolds, Lynne Vernon-Feagans, Mary Bratsch-Hines, Claire E. Baker, The Family Life Project Key Investigators Research has highlighted the role of parental language input during early childhood as a way to facilitate children’s early vocabulary skills. However, few studies have examined the relationship between the specific features of both mothers’ and fathers’ early language input during a shared book experience and children’s kindergarten achievement (i.e., vocabulary, literacy, and math). Using an economically and culturally diverse sample of 567 children from the Family Life Project, this study examined whether mothers’ and fathers’ number of different words, mean length of utterance, and wh- questions from 6 to 36 months predicted children’s kindergarten achievement. Multiple regression models, examining mothers’ and fathers’ language separately and in combined models, indicated that both mothers’ and fathers’ language input was related with children’s kindergarten achievement, beyond a host of demographic controls. In the combined models, mothers’ mean length of utterance and wh- questions were significantly associated with vocabulary and their mean length of utterance was significantly associated with math outcomes in kindergarten. Fathers’ mean length of utterance and wh- questions were significantly associated with vocabulary, and their wh- questions were significantly associated with math outcomes in kindergarten. Implications for researchers, practitioners, and policymakers are discussed.
       
  • The home math environment: More than numeracy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Erica L Zippert, Bethany Rittle-Johnson The goal of the current study is to develop a more complete understanding of the early home math environment, encompassing both numeracy and non-numeracy aspects of that environment. Parents of preschoolers (n = 63) were surveyed about their support of three components of early mathematics knowledge (i.e., numeracy, spatial, and pattern) as well as parents’ math-related beliefs about themselves and their children. Children were administered a broad math knowledge assessment which included a numeracy subscale, and individual measures of spatial and patterning skills in the fall (concurrently). Broad math knowledge was measured again in the spring of the preschool year. Parents indicated providing some support of early math development through numeracy, spatial, and patterning activities, with a stronger emphasis on numeracy than pattern and space. Parents’ child-specific ability beliefs were related to their numeracy, pattern, and broad math support, while their parent-specific ability beliefs were related to their spatial support. Parent support was rarely linked to child skills, except that numeracy support related to concurrent numeracy knowledge. Findings suggest that although parents do support a broad range of early math skills at home, parents tend to prioritize supporting early numeracy. Parents’ beliefs, especially about their child’s academic abilities, may influence components of the early home math environment, but future research is needed to better understand the relations between parent’s academic beliefs and the home math environment they create.
       
  • Testing the ‘thresholds’ of preschool education quality on
           child outcomes in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Kejian Li, Peng Zhang, Bi Ying Hu, Margaret R. Burchinal, Xitao Fan, Jinliang Qin Preschool education has expanded rapidly in recent years China, with much more attention to access than quality of care. This raises raises concerns about whether increased preschool enrollment alone will achieve the goal of improving children’s early learning and development. This paper reports on the quality of preschool education and its associations with child outcomes based on a national-wide representative sample of 2110 children (age 3–6 years) attending 428 classrooms of 193 preschools in eight provinces of China. Analyses tested associations between a Chinese preschool quality measure, Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (CECERS) and a Chinese measure of early development, Child Developmental Scale of China (CDSC) language, early math, and social skills scores. Results identified quality thresholds such that the CECERS Teaching and Interactions was a stronger predictor of all outcomes in higher than lower quality classrooms. Subgroup analyses indicated that high quality preschool education had significant compensatory effects on rural children’s developmentFindings are used to argue for the need for clearly defined and rigorously implemented national baseline quality standards for preschool education in China, and that high quality preschool education serving rural children should be prioritized to narrow the achievement gap between rural and urban children.
       
  • Family-centered measures of access to early care and education
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Elizabeth E. Davis, Won F. Lee, Aaron Sojourner This study proposes new family-centered measures of access to early care and education (ECE) services with respect to quantity, cost, and quality and uses them to assess disparities in access across locations and socio-demographic groups in Minnesota. These measures are distance-based and use available geographic data to account for the fact that families can cross arbitrary administrative boundaries, such as census tract or ZIP code lines, and thus better reflect the real experiences of families than conventional area-based measures. Combining synthetic family locations simulated from Census demographic and geographic data and information on ECE provider locations, we calculate travel time between the locations of families with young children and ECE providers to measure families’ access to providers of different types. The results yield a map of areas with low and high relative ECE access. The average family in Minnesota lives in a location where there are nearly two children for every nearby slot of licensed capacity, however, access to ECE supply varies considerably at the local level. The supply measure can also serve as a weight useful in computing family-centered measures of ECE quality and access costs, incorporating both prices and travel costs, to further characterize the local ECE market from the perspective of families. Improving the measures of variation in families’ access to ECE quantity, cost, and quality is valuable as policymakers consider expansions to public supports for early learning and ECE entrepreneurs decide where to invest.
       
  • Dimensionality of preschoolers’ informal mathematical abilities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Trelani F. Milburn, Christopher J. Lonigan, Lydia DeFlorio, Alice Klein Recent research examining children’s early mathematical abilities has focused primarily on number and operations (e.g., counting, addition) with considerably less attention directed to the role of other possible dimensions of early mathematical abilities, such as, measurement, geometry, and patterning. The current study examined the dimensionality of informal mathematical abilities by conducting categorical confirmatory factor analysis (CCFA) using data from a large sample of preschool children from low-income families (N = 1630; Mean age = 4.46 years, SD = .37) using the Child Math Assessment (CMA; Klein & Starkey, 2004). The best fitting model consisted of four factors that include Number and Operations, Measurement, Geometry, and Patterning, with the Number and Operations factor explaining common variance in three first-order factors of Numbering, Operations, and Relations. These findings support the view that informal mathematical knowledge is a multi-dimensional construct that includes of these separable dimensions. Additionally, a Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes model was used to determine if mathematical ability differed for male and female preschoolers on each of the four factors or on each of the 35 items of the CMA. Results showed no differences for mathematical abilities between males and females at this age. Future research and curricular implications are discussed.
       
  • Do child gender and temperament moderate associations between Head Start
           classroom social-emotional climate and children’s social-emotional
           competencies'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Holly E. Brophy-Herb, Alison L. Miller, Tiffany L. Martoccio, Mildred Horodynski, Neda Senehi, Dawn Contreras, Karen Peterson, Danielle Dalimonte-Merckling, Zachary Favreau, Julie Sturza, Niko Kaciroti, Julie C. Lumeng Little research has examined teachers' classroom social-emotional practices, including how teachers' warmth and their more explicit emotion socialization practices may be associated with children's social-emotional competencies in different but complementary ways. Likewise, there is scant knowledge on how the effects of the classroom climate may vary by child characteristics. We examined the moderating roles of child gender and temperament in the associations between two aspects of the classroom climate, Head Start teachers' warmth and their explicit emotion socialization practices, and preschoolers' (N = 611) social-emotional competencies, including emotion recognition, self-regulation, and positive social behaviors. While no three-way interactions (teachers' warmth and teachers' emotion socialization practices × child gender × temperament) were significantly associated with outcomes, a two-way interaction between teachers' emotion socialization practices and temperament was significant. Specifically, teachers' emotion socialization practices in the fall were associated with greater self-regulation for all children in the spring, including children with more reactive temperaments although effects were most robust for children with the least reactive temperaments. Implications for teacher practices are discussed.
       
  • The effects of the transition from home-based childcare to childcare
           centers on children’s health and development in Colombia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Raquel Bernal, Orazio Attanasio, Ximena Peña, Marcos Vera-Hernández Colombia’s national early childhood strategy launched in 2011 aimed at improving the quality of childcare services offered to socio-economically vulnerable children, and included the possibility that children and their childcare providers could transfer from non-parental family daycare units to large childcare centers in urban areas. This study seeks to understand whether the offer to transfer and the actual transfer from one program to the other had an impact on child cognitive and socioemotional development, and nutrition, using a cluster-randomized control trial with a sample of 2767 children between the ages of 6 and 60 months located in 14 cities in Colombia. The results indicate a negative effect of this initiative on cognitive development, a positive effect on nutrition, and no statistically significant effect of the intervention on socioemotional development. We also explored the extent to which these impacts might be explained by differences in the quality of both services during the transition, and report that quality indicators are low in both programs but are significantly worse in centers compared to community nurseries.
       
  • Preferences for tactile and narrative counting books across parents with
           different education levels
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Shannon M. Gaylord, Connor D. O’Rear, Caroline Byrd Hornburg, Nicole M. McNeil Counting books are a potential source of input for children’s learning of early mathematics concepts. However, little is known about the factors that affect the counting books parents choose for their children. Parents (N = 696) of preschoolers (ages 2;6–4;11) were surveyed about their preferences for two specific counting book features, tactility and narrative quality. These two features were studied both covertly, by experimentally manipulating the types of books parents saw and asking parents why they would choose particular books, and explicitly, by asking parents to rate the importance of various factors when choosing counting books for their children. The a priori hypotheses were that parents would prefer tactile over non-tactile counting books for boys and narrative over non-narrative counting books for girls and that education level would be positively associated with counting book reading. Results did not support these hypotheses. Instead, parents’ preferences for the features depended on their education level. Higher education levels were generally associated with decreased preference for tactility and increased preference for narrative quality. Results raise the question of whether the books parents choose for their children may be one way parent education shapes children's early learning environments.
       
  • Number-based sharing: Conversation about quantity in the context of
           resource distribution
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Nadia Chernyak Recent work suggests a strong connection between our numeracy skills, and our social behavior – in particular, children’s numerical cognition predicts their abilities to understand fairness and to act fairly in their resource distribution behavior. This project investigated how children’s early socio-linguistic contexts help to form the link between numerical cognition and resource distribution. This work analyzed existing transcripts in the CHILDES database for instances of talk about resource distribution. Both adults and children were more likely to talk about numbers and quantifiers within resource distribution contexts than outside of them, suggesting that resource distribution is a fruitful context for evoking quantity talk. Not surprisingly, discussion of discrete items promoted talk about number, and continuous items promoted talk about quantifiers. Somewhat surprisingly, however, adults were more likely to use number words with girls than boys in this context. Additionally, compared with statements and questions, adults’ directives (“give me those two”) and requests (“can you share one with me'”) were more likely to contain number words. As children grew older, they were more likely to use quantifiers, and girls were more likely to use quantifiers than boys. Overall, these results suggest that (a) resource distribution contexts may be a particularly fruitful context to promote quantity talk, and (b) adults discuss numbers differently in these contexts than they might outside of them. Results are discussed with reference to recent work on numeracy skills and sharing and in terms of specific features of resource distribution that promote quantity talk.
       
  • Children’s executive function development and school socio-economic and
           racial/ethnic composition
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Douglas D. Ready, Jeanne L. Reid The links between children’s literacy and mathematics development and school socio-economic and racial/ethnic composition are well documented. This work, however, has generally ignored the potential effects of school demographic characteristics on children’s executive function skills. Using data from ECLS-K: 2011 and piece-wise linear growth-curve models within a three-level hierarchical framework, we explore the associations between children’s executive function development and the socio-economic and racial/ethnic compositions of their schools in kindergarten through second grade. We find somewhat mixed results, with some evidence of school socio-economic compositional effects, particularly for initially lower-skilled children in kindergarten, but stronger indications that school racial/ethnic enrollments influence executive function development across age and skill levels.
       
  • Quality of fathers’ spatial concept support during block building
           predicts their daughters’ early math skills – But not their sons’
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 September 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Dana Thomson, Beth M. Casey, Caitlin M. Lombardi, Hoa Nha Nguyen The goal of this study was to examine fathers’ support of their children’s spatial learning during a joint block-building task at the beginning of first grade as a predictor of their children’s math achievement at the end of first grade. Observational measures of videotaped father–child interactions from the Boston site of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 105) were used to examine the effectiveness of spatial support during a block building task. Trained observers rated fathers’ spatial support by applying two approaches: (a) a qualitative rating scale assessing level of paternal spatial concept support involving encouragement of child spatial learning and enriched spatial explanations, and (b) a measure assessing quantitative paternal spatial location language support. A significant sex by quality of spatial concept support interaction showed that for girls (but not for boys), fathers’ qualitatively higher spatial concept support predicted superior math achievement scores by the end of first grade, even after controlling for a host of variables, including children’s math achievement at age 4.5 years, family income, child intelligence and ratings of fathers’ and mothers’ general cognitive support (e.g., support for a range of perceptual, cognitive, and linguistic development) across all parent–child activities during the first grade home visit. The quantitative measure of frequency of paternal spatial location language support was not predictive of math, but children’s independent accuracy on the block building task did predict math achievement. Though only correlational, findings suggest that fathers may have an important role to play in providing high-quality spatial concept support for their young daughters.
       
  • Differences in the complexity of math and literacy questions parents pose
           during storybook reading
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Colleen Uscianowski, Ma. Victoria Almeda, Herbert P. Ginsburg Parent–child interactions, such as the complexity of their talk during storybook reading, can play a vital role in supporting the development of children’s literacy and math skills. Given that parents may have different beliefs and confidence helping their children learn literacy and math, the present study compares the level of abstraction, or complexity, of questions posed by parents when prompted to help their child learn about math or literacy topics during storybook reading. We also sought to identify factors that influence parents’ use of abstract questions within the story. A total of 172 parents of 3.5–4.5-year-old children named a question they would pose to their child about the character’s actions, numbers, or shapes on 18 storybook pages as part of an online survey. Results revealed that storybook pages without math content evoked questions of significantly higher abstraction than did pages with math content. Parents’ confidence and enjoyment helping their child learn literacy and parents’ educational attainment were found to be significantly and positively related to their use of complex questions for character’s actions, while parents’ reading anxieties had a negative relation to the complexity of their questions. In contrast, parents’ rating of their child’s number ability was significantly and positively related to their use of complex language for number while no significant effects were found for shape. In addition, parents posed more complex questions about number to their sons than daughters. Overall, our findings suggest that parents may benefit from support in engaging their children in challenging and abstract math-related talk about number and shape during storybook reading in order to promote their children’s mathematical development.
       
  • Effects of child care subsidy on school readiness of young children with
           or at-risk for special needs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Amanda L. Sullivan, Andrew J. Thayer, Elyse M. Farnsworth, Amy Susman-Stillman Children with special needs are now a population of special interest under federal child care policy. Findings on the effects of child care subsidy for the general population are mixed, but no studies have considered the effects for children with or at-risk for special needs. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the average effects of child care subsidies on school readiness of children with or at-risk for special needs. Using data for 1250 participants in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Birth Cohort, we applied propensity score matching and regression analyses to estimate subsidy’s effects on kindergarten academic and behavioral competencies of children with or at-risk for special needs who came from low-income families. Results indicated that for the average recipient, subsidized child care had significant negative effects on early literacy (d = 0.21) and numeracy (d = 0.18), and no significant effects on communication, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and prosocial behavior. These findings add to a growing number of largescale analyses showing negative or null effects of subsidized care on early childhood outcomes and highlight the need for continued attention to the appropriateness and effectiveness of subsidized child care, particularly for children with or at-risk for special needs.
       
  • Cumulative years of classroom quality from kindergarten to third grade:
           Prediction to children’s third grade literacy skills
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Lynne Vernon-Feagans, Irina L. Mokrova, Robert C. Carr, Patricia T. Garrett-Peters, Margaret R. Burchinal, The Family Life Project Key Investigators Early literacy skills play an important role in children’s success in school. Especially important to better literacy skills may be the quality of the classroom environment (emotional support, classroom organization, and instructional support) across the early years of schooling. This study used an a priori threshold of quality approach to understanding the possible link between the number of years of better classroom quality over four years, from kindergarten through third grade, in relation to children’s literacy skills by third grade. This study examined a representative sample of 1292 children followed from birth who lived in low-wealth rural counties in the United States. These children were followed into school with classroom observations conducted each year from kindergarten through third grade and literacy related achievement measures in pre-kindergarten and third grade. Findings suggested that even after controlling for poverty related variables, the quality of the home environment, school entry literacy skills, and teacher rated literacy instruction, children who had more years of better classroom quality had higher third grade literacy scores. Additionally, we found an interaction effect, suggesting that children who entered kindergarten with lower emergent literacy skills benefited more from a greater number of years of better classroom quality in relation to reading comprehension in third grade. Thus, more years of better classroom quality may help in narrowing the gap between those who enter kindergarten with higher literacy skills and those who enter with lower literacy skills.
       
  • A longitudinal population study of literacy and numeracy outcomes for
           children identified with speech, language, and communication needs in
           early childhood
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Sharynne McLeod, Linda J. Harrison, Cen Wang Speech and language competence in early childhood can influence academic achievement at school. The aim of this research was to examine longitudinal progress in literacy and numeracy achievement from age 8 through 12 years for children identified as typically developing or with speech and language concern (SLC) based on parent-reported concern about speech and language at ages 4–5 and 6–7 years. Participants were 4322 children in the K(indergarten) cohort and 4073 children in the B(irth) cohort of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). The majority of children identified with SLC had not accessed speech-language pathology services. Linked data from national testing of literacy and numeracy achievement were analysed for the K cohort in Grades 3, 5, and 7, and for the B cohort in Grade 3. Cross-sectional analyses showed that children with SLC achieved lower scores for reading, writing, spelling, grammar, and numeracy at all assessment points than children with typical speech and language skills. Results for all children, however, were above the national minimum standard for each grade level. Longitudinal growth curve analyses showed no difference in the growth trajectories for literacy and numeracy test scores for children in the typically developing and SLC groups, suggesting that SLC children showed typical patterns of progression but did not catch up to the levels achieved by their typically developing peers.
       
  • Parent engagement in a Head Start home visiting program predicts sustained
           growth in children’s school readiness
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 45Author(s): Robert L. Nix, Karen L. Bierman, Mojdeh Motamedi, Brenda S. Heinrichs, Sukhdeep Gill This study examined three components of parent engagement in an enriched Head Start home visiting program: intervention attendance, the working alliance between parents and home visitors, and parents’ use of program materials between sessions. The study identified those family and child characteristics that predicted the different components of parent engagement, and the study tested whether those components predicted sustained growth in children’s school readiness skills across four years, from preschool through second grade. Ninety-five low-income parents with four year-old children attending Head Start (56% white; 26% black; 20% Latino; 44% girls) were randomly assigned to receive the home visiting program. Assessments included home visitor, parent, and teacher ratings, as well as interviewer observations and direct testing of children; data analyses relied on correlations and hierarchical multiple regression equations. Results showed that baseline family characteristics, such as warm parent–child interactions, and child functioning predicted both working alliance and use of program materials, but only race/ethnicity predicted intervention attendance. The use of program materials was the strongest predictor of growth in children’s literacy skills and social adjustment at home during the intervention period itself. In contrast, working alliance emerged as the strongest predictor of growth in children’s language arts skills, attention skills, and social adjustment at school through second grade, two years after the end of the home visiting intervention. To maximize intervention effectiveness across school readiness domains over time, home visiting programs need to support multiple components of parent engagement, particularly working alliance and the use of program materials between sessions.
       
  • The acute effect of community violent crime on maternal engagement in
           cognitive and socioemotional stimulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 45Author(s): Jorge Cuartas, Dana Charles McCoy, Andrés Molano Parental cognitive and socioemotional stimulation in early childhood is a strong predictor of children’s skill development and future life success. At the same time, little work has examined the effect of environmental risk factors on parents’ engagement in stimulation practices. The present study estimates the acute effect of geocoded community violent crime on 491 Colombian mothers’ reported engagement in stimulating activities with their children younger than five. We exploit naturalistic exogenous variation in the timing and location of a violence incident relative to a mothers’ participation in a household survey to identify internally valid estimates.Findings show that mothers reduced their engagement in stimulating activities, on average, by 0.23–0.30 SD following an incident of violent crime in their residential neighborhoods. The estimated effect was larger for mothers living in the poorest neighborhoods and for mothers exposed to domestic violence. Implications for research on the effects of violence on children and their caregivers as well as for interventions at different ecological levels are discussed.
       
  • Extracurricular activities and achievement growth in kindergarten through
           first grade: The mediating role of non-cognitive skills
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 45Author(s): Brian V. Carolan Extracurricular activities (EAs) are thought to foster the development of a host of non-cognitive skills—persistence, communication, and collaboration, among others—that are presumed to facilitate children’s school success. While this logic is intuitively appealing, there have been few formal tests of this idea. This study tests this logic using panel data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergarten Class of 2010–11 (N = 10,422) to assess the extent to which children’s involvement in EAs influences the development of their non-cognitive skills and ultimately their achievement growth from the beginning of kindergarten to the end of first grade. Results from structural equation models indicate that increased EA participation is associated with gains in reading and math achievement, but the evidence provides little support for the claim that these associations are mediated by children’s non-cognitive skills. Implications for policy makers and school and community-based practitioners are discussed.
       
  • Depth, Persistence, and Timing of Poverty and the Development of School
           Readiness Skills in Rural Low-Income Regions: Results from the Family Life
           Project
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 45Author(s): Margaret Burchinal, Robert C. Carr, Lynne Vernon-Feagans, Clancy Blair, Martha Cox, The Family Life Project Key Investigators The gap in school readiness skills between children growing up in poverty and other children has become a major policy issue as increasing proportions of families are living in poverty, especially in low-wealth rural communities. The purpose of this paper was to document the degree to which depth, persistence, and timing of poverty was related to the early development of children in a representative sample of 1,292 families in two of the four poor rural regions in the United States, labeled Appalachia and the Black South. Analyses documented the emergence of the poverty gap in the child’s first 5 years of life, asking when the gap emerged and whether it continued to grow through the early childhood period. Findings indicated that families who experienced poverty during the child’s first 2-years showed substantially lower cognitive, language, executive functioning, and social skills by 2 to 3 years of age (0.5 to 1.0 SD difference) and these gaps appeared to stabilize between 3 and 5 years of age. Transitions into deep poverty during the preschool period (3- to 5-years) were also related to substantially lower scores, and to a lesser extent, transitions out of poverty were related to higher skill levels. Accounting for baseline demographic and maternal characteristics diminished the poverty gap, but did not eliminate it. The poverty gaps at 3-years in language, executive functioning, and social skills accounted for much of the poverty gaps observed at 5-years. Policy implications for early care and education programming are discussed.
       
  • A study of the developing relations between self-regulation and
           mathematical knowledge in the context of an early math intervention
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Lydia DeFlorio, Alice Klein, Prentice Starkey, Paul R. Swank, Heather B. Taylor, Simone E. Halliday, Amber Beliakoff, Christina Mulcahy Many children from low-income families who have received a generally effective pre-k math intervention nevertheless enter kindergarten behind their middle-income peers in math readiness. To better understand why, research has recently begun to examine the role of self-regulation in children’s early mathematical learning and development. The present study examined (1) the directionality of relations between mathematical knowledge and self-regulation skills, specifically inhibitory control and persistence, within the context of a two-year preschool math intervention; (2) whether participation in a math intervention had a direct impact on either inhibitory control or persistence; and (3) whether self-regulation moderates the impact of math interventions on children’s math outcomes. Participants were 526 low-income preschoolers who were participating in an efficacy study of two early math interventions. Children were assessed on early math and self-regulation skills three times over two years of preschool. Results indicated a bidirectional relation between children’s measures of delay inhibitory control and mathematical knowledge, and children’s mathematical knowledge predicted conflict inhibitory control and persistence. Participation in a math intervention had a direct impact on persistence, but self-regulation skills did not moderate the impacts of participation on either math intervention. Thus, a complex set of relations exists between self-regulation and mathematical knowledge in early childhood. This suggests that the effectiveness of early math interventions might be enhanced by concomitant interventions that target self-regulation.
       
  • The effects of prekindergarten for Spanish-speaking dual language
           learners: Evidence from California’s transitional kindergarten program
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Aleksandra Holod, Burhan Ogut, Iliana Brodziak de los Reyes, Heather E. Quick, Karen Manship The impact of California’s transitional kindergarten program on Spanish-speaking dual language learners was examined through two studies. Participants in the two studies included: (1) the statewide population of students who met study inclusion criteria (n = 45,010) and took the California English Language Development Test (CELDT), and (2) a sample of students (n = 1868) in 20 school districts. Findings indicate that TK had moderate to large effects on English proficiency; smaller but statistically significant effects on language, literacy, and math skills; and no effects on social–emotional skills or executive function. The transitional kindergarten program provides participating Spanish-speaking dual language learners with an academic advantage at kindergarten entry, as compared to Spanish-speaking dual language learners who do not attend.
       
  • Construyendo en la Fuerza: Approaches to learning and school readiness
           gains in Latino children served by head start
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Andres S. Bustamante, Annemarie H. Hindman Latino children are the fastest growing minority group in the United States and in order to best serve this population we need research to inform educators on specific cultural strengths that can be fostered and developed. Despite the known academic achievement gap between Latino children and their non-Latino peers, ecocultural strength based research efforts have identified domain general skills like social emotional skills and executive functioning as unique strengths of Latino children. This study used the FACES 2009 dataset to explore approaches to learning as another possible set of domain general skills that may be a strength for Latino children from low-income families. On average, Latino children had higher scores in approaches to learning in the fall and spring of the Head Start year. Additionally, being Latino significantly predicted gains across the Head Start year in approaches to learning (β = 0.153, p = 0.024) (i.e., predicting spring score, controlling for fall), accounting for a constellation of relevant covariates. Conversely, being Latino negatively predicted academic school readiness in the fall (β = −0.175, p = 0.021), yet positively predicted gains in academic school readiness across the year (β = 0.129, p = 0.017), all controlling for the same covariates. However, once approaches to learning is added to the model it became a significant predictor of gains in academic readiness (β = 0.132, p
       
  • Process quality in Portuguese preschool classrooms serving children
           at-risk of poverty and social exclusion and children with disabilities
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 45Author(s): Joana Cadima, Cecília Aguiar, M.Clara Barata This study investigates process quality and structural features of classrooms serving children at-risk of poverty and social exclusion and children with disabilities in Portugal. We examine (a) whether the three-domain structure of a widely used standard observational tool, the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS; Pianta, LaParo, & Hamre, 2008) describes adequately teacher–child interactions in those classrooms and (b) associations between CLASS domains and structural features, including teacher education and group size. The study was conducted in 178 preschool classrooms. Data included classroom observations using the CLASS Pre-K and teacher reports on structural features. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the three domains of teacher–child interactions. In addition, the CLASS domains described teacher–child interactions equally well across classrooms serving children with disabilities and children at-risk of poverty and social exclusion. Finally, we found modest associations between structural features and CLASS organizational and instructional support, suggesting a complex interplay among structural features in predicting levels of teacher–child interactions.
       
  • Affective and Social Mastery Motivation in Preschool as Predictors of
           Early School Success: A Longitudinal Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 45Author(s): Krisztián Józsa, Karen Caplovitz Barrett Recent research has documented the importance of school readiness in young children. Children who start school without basic skills often continue to show lower achievement throughout schooling. Most current assessments of school readiness focus on early measures of academic skills, such as literacy and numeracy. Although these skills are useful in predicting school success, research suggests that socioemotional and motivational factors may be even more important. Moreover, although there is strong evidence supporting the importance of social and emotional competencies, such as emotion understanding and social skills, in school readiness, there is a dearth of research on the role of affective/expressive and social aspects of mastery/competence motivation in early school readiness and achievement. In the present study, we used Structural Equations Modeling to examine the role of affective aspects of mastery motivation, social mastery motivation, Socio-Economic Status (SES), and Intellectual Quotient (IQ) in preschool in longitudinally predicting math achievement, reading achievement, and social skills during grades 1 and 2 in 327 Hungarian children. Results indicated that children’s negative reactions to failure/challenge predicted all of these measures of school performance, over and above the role of child IQ and SES; in addition, mastery pleasure predicted reading, and persistence in peer interaction predicted social skills in the early grades. Results contribute to the growing literature supporting the importance of motivation and of achievement-related emotions in school readiness and school success.
       
  • Promoting code-focused talk: The rhyme and reason for why book style
           matters
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 45Author(s): Jessica Riordan, Elaine Reese, Sarah Rouse, Elizabeth Schaughency Extra-textual talk during shared picture book-reading is hypothesized to scaffold children’s early literacy skills; however, observational research has shown mixed results. This study compared meaning- and code-focused talk in rhyming versus non-rhyming picturebooks in relation to children’s language and literacy skills. Forty-five parents were audio-recorded reading two picturebooks, one rhyming and one non-rhyming, with their preschool-aged children. Children’s concurrent oral language and early literacy skills were also assessed. Parents made higher proportions of inference/predictions in the non-rhyming book, and higher proportions of print- and sound-focused talk in the rhyming book. Further, parents’ meaning-focused talk predicted children’s concurrent oral language skills, and parents’ code-focused talk (both print- and sound-focused) predicted children’s concurrent early literacy skills. These associations differed by book style and were moderated by children’s age, such that parents’ print-focused talk in the rhyming book was positively associated with early literacy only for older children. These results suggest that rhyming picturebooks may elicit code-focused talk, and non-rhyming picturebooks may elicit meaning-focused talk. Moreover, print-focused talk may be more useful for older than for younger pre-schoolers.
       
  • Caregiver cognitive sensitivity: Measure development and validation in
           Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) settings
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 45Author(s): Sharon Pauker, Michal Perlman, Heather Prime, Jennifer Jenkins Cognitive sensitivity refers to a person’s ability to create a cognitively stimulating environment when interacting with a less experienced partner while being attuned to this partner’s emotional state. We developed the Educator Cognitive Sensitivity (ECS) scale to measure the quality of individual educator’s interactions with children in Early Childhood Education and Care settings (ECEC). The ECS scale was designed to be easy to train and quick to administer. Three hundred and fifty educators from 135 classrooms in 69 ECEC providers in Toronto were observed and coded using the ECS scale. Results show that it has excellent internal consistency with all items loading onto a single factor. In terms of concurrent validity, it was moderately correlated to the different subscales of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System and a short form of the Infant/Toddler Environmental Scale-Revised. Variance Component Analysis revealed that the majority of variance in ECS scores is explained by differences between educators, calling into question the practice of assessing quality of interaction at the classroom level. The relatively efficient ECS scale is a promising new measure of interaction in ECEC settings.
       
  • Parental contributors to children’s persistence and school readiness
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 45Author(s): Sarah Prendergast, David MacPhee This study examined whether parental teaching strategies (e.g., scaffolding) are predictive of school readiness competencies through children’s task persistence, and if the strength of the relation varies across two contextual features of parenting (e.g., warmth and harsh discipline). Past research has examined contextual features of parenting or specific parenting practices as being related to children’s achievement, with less attention given to how they might interact. In the present study, a moderated-mediation model was tested to assess whether parental scaffolding skills predict children’s language-cognitive and social–emotional school readiness, mediated by children’s persistence and moderated by parent warmth and harsh discipline. Exploratory analyses assessed whether a competing sequential-mediation model better explained the associations among parenting, children’s persistence, and school readiness than a moderated-mediation model. In a low-income sample of families from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project (N = 2977), parental scaffolding significantly predicted children’s persistence at 36 months, as well as both latent constructs of school readiness before kindergarten. Persistence partially mediated the link between parental scaffolding and both latent constructs of school readiness. Neither warmth nor harsh discipline moderated the mediational model. In the sequential-mediation model, parent scaffolding and children’s persistence mediated the associations between warmth and harsh discipline and both latent constructs of school readiness. The sequential-mediation model provided a similar fit to the data as the moderated-mediation model. The results indicate that parental scaffolding can promote children’s persistence and later school readiness.
       
  • Measuring and predicting process quality in Ghanaian pre-primary
           classrooms using the Teacher Instructional Practices and Processes System
           (TIPPS)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 45Author(s): Sharon Wolf, Mahjabeen Raza, Sharon Kim, J. Lawrence Aber, Jere Behrman, Edward Seidman In recent years, there has been an increase in the demand for and supply of early childhood education (ECE) in low- and middle-income countries. There is also growing awareness that unless ECE is of high quality, children may attend school but not learn. There is a large literature on the conceptualization and measurement of ECE quality in the United States that focuses on the nature of teacher-child interactions. Efforts to expand access to high quality ECE in low- and middle-income countries will require similar measurement efforts that are theoretically-grounded and culturally-adapted. This paper assesses the factor structure and concurrent validity of an observational classroom quality tool to assess teacher-child interactions—the Teacher Instructional Practices and Processes System© (TIPPS; Seidman et al., 2013)—in Ghanaian pre-primary classrooms. We find evidence of three conceptually distinct but empirically correlated domains of quality: Facilitating Deeper Learning (FDL), Supporting Student Expression (SSE), and Emotional Support and Behavior Management (ESBM). Teachers’ schooling level, training in early childhood development, and professional well-being positively predict the three quality domains in different ways. SSE and ESBM predict classroom end-of-the-school-year academic outcomes, and SSE predicts classroom end-of-the-school-year social-emotional outcomes. Implications for the field of international education and global ECE policy and research are discussed.
       
  • The language of play: Developing preschool vocabulary through play
           following shared book-reading
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 45Author(s): Tamara Spiewak Toub, Brenna Hassinger-Das, Kimberly Turner Nesbitt, Hande Ilgaz, Deena Skolnick Weisberg, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek, Roberta Michnick Golinkoff, Ageliki Nicolopoulou, David K. Dickinson Two studies explored the role of play in a vocabulary intervention for low-income preschoolers. Both studies presented new vocabulary through book-readings. Study 1 children (N = 249; Mage = 59.19 months) were also randomly assigned to participate in Free Play, Guided Play, or Directed Play with toys relating to the books. Guided and Directed Play conditions involved different styles of adult support. Although children in all conditions showed significant gains in knowledge of target vocabulary words, children in both adult-supported conditions showed significantly greater gains than children experiencing Free Play. In Study 2, classroom teachers implemented our procedures instead of researchers. All children (N = 101; Mage = 58.65 months) reviewed half the vocabulary words through a hybrid of guided and directed play and half the words through a picture card review activity. Children showed significant pre- to post-test gains on receptive and expressive knowledge for both sets of taught words, but they also showed significantly greater expressive vocabulary gains for words reviewed through play. These results suggest that there are unique benefits of adult-supported play-based activities for early vocabulary growth.
       
  • Measuring early childhood development at a global scale: Evidence from the
           Caregiver-Reported Early Development Instruments
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 45Author(s): Dana Charles McCoy, Marcus Waldman, CREDI Field Team, Günther Fink Despite global interest in supporting and monitoring early childhood development (ECD), few valid and reliable tools exist for capturing ECD at scale across cultural contexts. This study describes the development and validation of the Caregiver Reported Early Development Instruments (CREDI) short form, a new tool for measuring the motor, cognitive, language, social–emotional, and mental health skills of children under age three in culturally diverse settings. Results from 8022 children living in 17 low-, middle-, and high-income countries suggest that the CREDI short form is valid, reliable, and acceptable for measuring population-level ECD. Data highlight differences in CREDI scores within and across countries based on maternal education, child nutritional status, and household stimulation practices. Implications for ECD policy and practice are described.
       
  • Neighborhood context and center-based child care use: Does immigrant
           status matter'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44Author(s): Elizabeth A. Shuey, Tama Leventhal This study examined associations between individual families’ use of center-based child care and neighborhood structure (concentrated poverty and concentrated affluence, as measured with Census data), processes, and resources (child-centered collective efficacy, presence of friends/kin, and availability of services for children, as measured in a survey of neighborhood residents). The potential moderating role of family immigrant status also was investigated. Data were obtained from the 3-year-old cohort of the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (N = 999; 42% immigrant). Multilevel models accounting for background factors at the individual level revealed that greater neighborhood concentrated affluence was associated with families’ higher likelihood of using center-based child care, whereas greater neighborhood child-centered collective efficacy was associated with their lower likelihood of using this type of care. In addition, among immigrant families only, as the size of neighborhood friends/kin networks increased, the likelihood of participating in center-based child care programs was higher. Findings are discussed in terms of the potential for improving immigrant families’ access to center-based child care by reducing neighborhood structural barriers and fostering neighborhood networks.
       
  • Occupational stress and well-being among Early Head Start home visitors: A
           mixed methods study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44Author(s): Allison L. West, Lisa J. Berlin, Brenda Jones Harden The current, unprecedented scaling up of evidence-based home visiting makes it crucial to elucidate the factors and processes that promote successful program implementation. One key factor is the well-being of the workforce. Scant attention has been paid to the ways in which early childhood home visitors may be affected by their work with low-income, high-risk families, however. This mixed methods study examined Early Head Start (EHS) home visitors’ compassion satisfaction, secondary traumatic stress, burnout, and job withdrawal, and their associations with home visitor, family, and work characteristics. Data included survey questionnaires (N = 77) and individual interviews (n = 7). A subset of home visitor survey data (n = 27) was linked with data from EHS families (N = 102) to examine the associations between home visitors’ well-being and EHS families’ psychosocial risks. Overall, EHS home visitors demonstrated moderate to high compassion satisfaction and more variable levels of secondary traumatic stress. The home visitors’ occupational stress and well-being were associated with home visitor, family, and work characteristics. For example, home visitors’ secondary traumatic stress was associated with EHS families’ psychosocial risks. Home visitors’ burnout was associated with job withdrawal. Both quantitative and qualitative data showed that home visitors were exposed to varying levels of EHS family risk and trauma, and that some home visitors were deeply affected by this exposure.
       
  • Preschoolers’ alphabet learning: Letter name and sound instruction,
           cognitive processes, and English proficiency
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44Author(s): Theresa A. Roberts, Patricia F. Vadasy, Elizabeth A. Sanders This study investigated: 1) the influence of alphabet instructional content (letter names, letter sounds, or both) on alphabet learning and engagement of English only and dual language learner (DLL) children, and 2) the relation between children’s initial status and growth in three underlying cognitive learning processes (paired-associate, articulation referencing, and orthographic learning) and growth in alphabet learning. Subjects were 83 preschool children in six public preschool classrooms with low-income eligibility thresholds, including 30 DLLs. Children were screened for alphabet knowledge and randomly assigned to small groups and to one of four conditions: experimental letter names or letter sounds only, experimental letter names + sounds (LN + LS), or typical LN + LS. Research assistants provided nine weeks of instruction in each treatment, in 10-min sessions, four days/week. Irrespective of language status, children in the four groups made significant growth from pretest to posttest on measures of alphabet learning. The single-focus letter name or letter sound conditions led to significantly greater growth on taught alphabet content. The experimental LN + LS condition led to greater growth in taught letter names and sounds content compared to the typical LN + LS condition. Pretest vocabulary and alphabet knowledge did not moderate growth, and only limited evidence of differential response to instruction among DLLs was found. Paired associate and articulation referencing learning processes were related to alphabetic growth. Engagement during learning was high in all four treatments. Findings support the benefits of explicit alphabet instruction that enlists cognitive learning processes required for alphabet learning.
       
  • Factor structure and validity of the Early Childhood Environment Rating
           Scale – Third Edition (ECERS-3)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44Author(s): Diane M. Early, John Sideris, Jennifer Neitzel, Doré R. LaForett, Chelsea G. Nehler The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale – Third Edition (ECERS-3) is the latest version of one of the most widely used observational tools for assessing the quality of classrooms serving preschool-aged children. This study was the first assessment of its factor structure and validity, an important step given its widespread use. An ECERS-3 observation was conducted in 1063 preschool classrooms in three states. In a subset of those classrooms (n = 119), Classroom Assessment Scoring System – Pre-K (CLASS Pre-K) and child assessment data were also collected. Analyses of the ECERS-3 suggested that a single factor does not adequately capture item variability. Of the solutions tested, the four-factor (Learning Opportunities, Gross Motor, Teacher Interactions, and Math Activities) provided the best combination of statistical support and theoretical utility. In general, the ECERS-3 Total Score and the four factors were moderately correlated with the three domains of the CLASS Pre-K. ECERS-3 Total Score, Learning Opportunities, and Teacher Interactions were positively related to growth in executive function, as were all three domains of the CLASS Pre-K. However, all significant associations were small, and most tested associations between ECERS-3 scores and children’s growth, and between CLASS Pre-K and children’s growth, were not significant. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for measuring preschool quality.
       
  • Effectiveness of the Building Blocks program for enhancing Ecuadorian
           kindergartners’ numerical competencies
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44Author(s): Gina Bojorque, Joke Torbeyns, Jo Van Hoof, Daniël Van Nijlen, Lieven Verschaffel We investigated the effectiveness of the Building Blocks program for enhancing Ecuadorian kindergartners' early numerical abilities and spontaneous focusing on numerosity (SFON), after controlling for working memory, intelligence, age, and SES. Following a pretest-intervention-posttest design, 18 classes comprising 355 children from varied SES backgrounds were randomly assigned to either an experimental (BB program) or a control (regular mathematics program) condition. Results showed that the children from the experimental group made more progress in their early numerical competencies than those from the control group. Furthermore, the BB program was associated with higher quality mathematics education. We discuss the theoretical and educational implications for early numeracy development in general, and for the Ecuadorian situation in particular.
       
  • Judgments and reasoning about exclusion from counter-stereotypic STEM
           career choices in early childhood
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44Author(s): Kelly Lynn Mulvey, Matthew J. Irvin To investigate young children’s evaluations of counter-stereotypic career choices, children (ages 3–8 years, N = 141) made judgments about the acceptability of pursuing STEM careers that were gender counter-stereotypic (atypical for one’s gender) and about the acceptability of exclusion from such careers. Participants evaluated European-American or African-American girls and boys who wanted to pursue counter-stereotypic careers. Generally, children supported counter-stereotypic career choices and evaluated exclusion from these careers to be unacceptable. However, results indicated that younger children judged counter-stereotypic career choices as less acceptable than did older children, and that parental attitudes and beliefs toward science and math were related to children’s evaluations. Differences in reasoning and based on the gender of the target were also identified. Additionally, results indicate that ethnic minority children may evaluate counter-stereotypic choices as less acceptable than do ethnic majority participants, but no differences based on target ethnicity were found. The findings suggest the importance of discouraging the use of stereotypes about careers among young children.
       
  • The efficacy of a school-based book-reading intervention on vocabulary
           development of young Uyghur children: A randomized controlled trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44Author(s): Si Chen, Joshua F. Lawrence, Jing Zhou, Lanbin Min, Catherine E. Snow In China, a particular educational challenge is designing programs for millions of ethnic minority children who also speak a language other than Mandarin Chinese at home. Since most ethnic minority children living in China come from low-socioeconomic status (SES) families, learning Mandarin as a second language is a crucial milestone for them. However, little research has been conducted to explore how to support the bilingual development of young minority children in China. This study evaluated the efficacy of a randomized controlled book-reading intervention held in Xinjiang Province, a unique Uyghur-Mandarin Chinese bilingual region with the lowest GDP of any Chinese province. The school-based book-reading intervention (hereafter, the Xinjiang Project, or the XJP) included a special focus on Chinese-Uyghur bilingual picture books, curriculum of vocabulary instruction, and teacher training. We recruited 256 Uyghur 4–5-year-old children (96 four-year-olds and 160 five-year-olds) from 31 classes in 12 kindergartens from two cities (Urumqi and Turpan) and randomly assigned 16 classes (134 children) to the experiment group and the other 15 classes to the control group, blocked by city, age and, a kindergarten ranking indicator. Across the one-year intervention, we collected three waves of Chinese and Uyghur vocabulary data. We used an individual growth modeling framework employing generalized linear mixed models and found that the intervention led to a more rapid development of Chinese receptive vocabulary (effect size = 0.68) and Uyghur expressive vocabulary (effect size = 0.38). This study shows that well-designed book-reading programs can benefit language minority children by supporting the development of both home and school languages simultaneously. The implications for bilingual education policy-making in China are discussed.
       
  • Validation of the Head–Toes–Knees–Shoulders task in Native Hawaiian
           and non-Hawaiian children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44Author(s): Puanani J. Hee, Yiyuan Xu, Alexander Krieg The current study examined psychometric properties, as well as convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of the Head–Toes–Knees–Shoulders (HTKS) task with a sample of Native Hawaiian and non-Hawaiian kindergartners from a rural community in Hawaiʻi. There were 120 (58 girls, 62 boys; 71 Native Hawaiian, 49 non-Hawaiian) participants (M = 59.79 months; SD = 5.00). Children completed the 20-item version of the HTKS task in the fall (T1) and spring (T2) semester of kindergarten. The criterion measures for convergent validity included the Peg Tapping Task (PTT), and parent and teacher measures of attention, working memory, and inhibitory control that assessed “cool” aspects of self-regulation, whereas the criterion measures for discriminant validity included parent and teacher measures of emotional control and impulsivity that tapped “hot” aspects of self-regulation. The Test of Preschool Early Literacy (TOPEL) was used as the criterion measure for predictive validity. The results supported the one-factor model of the HTKS. The HTKS items also had satisfactory item properties based on item characteristic curves and most items did not show differential item functions (DIFs) between Native Hawaiian and non-Hawaiian children. In addition, the two-factor model of “cool” and “hot” self-regulation fit the data satisfactorily at T1 but not T2, providing modest evidence for convergent and discriminant validity. With regard to predictive validity, path analyses showed that the HTKS scores at T1 were positively associated with the TOPEL scores at T1, but not at T2 (after controlling for the TOPEL scores at T1). We discuss the importance of developing the self-regulation skills of Native Hawaiian children from at-risk backgrounds as they enter formal schooling.
       
  • Using block play to enhance preschool children’s mathematics and
           executive functioning: A randomized controlled trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44Author(s): Sara A. Schmitt, Irem Korucu, Amy R. Napoli, Lindsey M. Bryant, David J. Purpura The current study investigated the extent to which a semi-structured block play intervention supported growth in mathematics and executive functioning for preschool children using a randomized controlled design. A secondary aim was to explore whether differential intervention effects emerged for children from various socioeconomic backgrounds, indicated by parental education level. Participants included 59 preschool children. Children ranged in age from 38 to 69 months (M = 55.20, SD = 7.17), and 56% were female. Results from regression models indicated that, although not statistically significant, children who participated in the intervention demonstrated greater gains in three mathematics skills (numeracy, shape recognition, and mathematical language) and two indicators of executive functioning (cognitive flexibility and a measure of global executive functioning) compared to children in a control group. Further, three significant interactions were found, suggesting that for numeracy, cognitive flexibility, and global executive functioning, children of parents with low educational attainment benefited the most from intervention participation. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of a semi-structured block play intervention for improving children’s school readiness and have implications for including intentional instruction using blocks in preschool classrooms.
       
  • Is delayed school entry harmful for children with disabilities'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44Author(s): C. Kevin Fortner, Jade Marcus Jenkins We examine whether the academic achievement of students with disabilities who delay entry into kindergarten differs from on-time entering students within the categories of students’ identified with disability in a large and representative state using educational administrative data on three cohorts of kindergarten students (N = 262,000). Analyses indicate that the negative association between redshirting (delayed kindergarten entry) as a student later identified as having a disability varies across students with different types of disability. For most disability designations, achievement outcomes were substantially lower for redshirted students compared to students with the same designation who enrolled in kindergarten on time. This supports the hypothesis that schools may provide young children with better access to early identification and intervention services, which outweigh the benefits of maturation experiences during the redshirt year. However, redshirted students with speech–language impairments had slightly higher achievement compared with students with speech–language impairments who entered on time. Study findings suggest that young children with disabilities may benefit from entering kindergarten when first eligible.
       
  • How best to teach the cardinality principle'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44Author(s): Veena Paliwal, Arthur J. Baroody The cardinality principle (CP), which specifies that the last number word used in the counting process indicates the total number of items in a collection, is a critically important aspect of numeracy. Only one published study has focused on how best to teach the CP, and its results are uncertain (Mix, Sandhofer, Moore, & Russell, 2012). The present study was designed to investigate several modeling procedure to teach the CP. Forty-nine 2–5-year olds were randomly assigned to one of the three interventions: (a) label and then count (label-first), (b) count with an emphasis on the last word and label (count-first), and (c) counting only. At a delayed posttest, the count-first intervention was substantively more efficacious than the other interventions at promoting success on the CP task and a transfer task (as measured by effect size). The results underscore the need for early childhood educators and parents to reinforce the purpose of counting by building on children’s subitizing ability and explicitly labeling the total number of items after a collection is counted.
       
  • Pre-kindergarten attendance matters: Early chronic absence patterns and
           relationships to learning outcomes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44Author(s): Stacy B. Ehrlich, Julia A. Gwynne, Elaine M. Allensworth Consistent school attendance is a critical component of education. Although research suggests that high rates of absenteeism is a significant issue for many students, minimal evidence exists focusing on absences among the nation’s youngest students − those in pre-kindergarten. This study focused on students in a large, urban district and examined the prevalence of pre-kindergarten chronic absence for different student subgroups, its relationship to learning outcomes during pre-kindergarten, and its association with ongoing attendance patterns and learning outcomes through second grade. Results indicated that absence in pre-kindergarten was widespread, particularly among African American students and those who entered pre-kindergarten with the lowest skills. Chronically absent pre-kindergarten students—those who were absent 10% or more of their enrolled days—displayed lower levels of academic and behavioral kindergarten readiness and were more likely to be chronically absent in subsequent grades. By third grade, students chronically absent for multiple years exhibited the need for significant intervention to read at grade level. These findings suggest that providing supports to improve attendance in pre-kindergarten and early elementary years has the potential to reduce achievement gaps and redirect struggling students onto the pathway toward educational success.
       
  • Fit in but stand out: A qualitative study of parents’ and teachers’
           perspectives on socioemotional competence of children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44Author(s): Elena Kwong, Chun Bun Lam, Xiaomin Li, Kevin Kien Hoa Chung, Ryan Yat Ming Cheung, Cynthia Leung This study investigated the conceptualization of children’s socioemotional competence among parents and teachers of preschool children in Hong Kong, China. Focus groups were conducted with 16 parents and 18 teachers from three preschools. Thematic content analysis revealed that, reflecting the cultural as well as contextual characteristics of Hong Kong, parents and teachers expected socioemotionally competent children to master skills in emotion understanding, emotion expressivity, emotion regulation, relationship building, conflict management, and inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility. There was diversity within parents’ and teachers’ interpretations of the characteristics of emotionally regulated and socially skilled children. Findings highlighted the ecosystemic nature of societal ideas about children’s developmental competence, demonstrated the utility of qualitative research in exploring these ideas in culturally sensitive manners, and called for the mobilization of parents and teachers as research-informed scaffolders of holistic development of children.
       
  • An observational study of children’s behaviors across two playgrounds:
           Similarities and differences
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44Author(s): Tina L. Stanton-Chapman, Sinem Toraman, Audra Morrison, Jacinda K. Dariotis, Eric L. Schmidt The purpose of this study is to explore similarities and differences in physical activity levels for boys and girls in seven areas across two playgrounds. Two playgrounds in a mid-Atlantic state in the United States were purposefully selected based on their playground design and structure. The System for Observing Play and Leisure Activities in Youth was used to document children’s physical activity types, track children’s locations, and code activity type. Playground A had five different areas, and Playground B had three different areas. Across the two playgrounds, data were collected across 416 total 1-minute intervals (morning, afternoon, and evening), spanning 13 days (weekend and weekdays) over a three-month period. The implications of this work are detailed observations of children’s play equipment and activity choices may provide insight into optimal playground equipment design and layout for play and social interactions between peers; fixed contemporary play equipment and open play spaces should be considered when designing new community playgrounds, as they appear to be equally interesting to boys and girls; and girls’ attire on a community playground and more available play space may contribute to more active play in girls than what was found in studies investigating play patterns on school playgrounds.
       
  • Effects of an early childhood educator coaching intervention on
           preschoolers: The role of classroom age composition
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44Author(s): Arya Ansari, Robert C. Pianta Heterogeneity in treatment effects of MyTeachingPartner (MTP), a professional development coaching intervention focused on improving teacher–student interactions, was examined for 1407 4-year-old preschoolers who were enrolled in classrooms that served children between the ages of 3 and 5. On average, there were no consistent impacts of MTP coaching on children’s school performance, but there was evidence of moderation in treatment effects as a function of classroom age diversity, defined as the proportion of children who were not 4 years of age. MTP coaching improved children’s expressive vocabulary, literacy skills, and inhibitory control in classrooms that served primarily 4-year-olds and were less age diverse. These effects were in large part due to MTP causing improvements in teachers’ instructional support that in turn was more predictive of children’s skills in less age-diverse classrooms. Results also indicated that the nature of age diversity did not matter; a greater number of 3- or 5-year-old classmates equally reduced the benefits of the MTP intervention for 4-year-olds. The sole exception occurred for receptive vocabulary, in which case, MTP was most effective in classrooms with a larger number of older (but not younger) children. Taken together, these results suggest that under the right circumstances, the benefits of professional development that improve early childhood educators’ teaching practices can also translate into benefits for students.
       
  • Literacy interest and reader self-concept when formal reading instruction
           begins
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44Author(s): Bente R. Walgermo, Jan C. Frijters, Oddny Judith Solheim The present study examines the associations among literacy interest, reader self-concept and emergent literacy skills at the very start of formal reading instruction in 1171 five- and six-year-olds. The results indicate that emergent literacy skills are directly related to reader self-concept but not to literacy interest. Further, interest moderated the relationship between emergent skills and self-concept. School starters with high literacy interest demonstrated strong reader self-concept, even if their emergent literacy skills were poor. These results suggest that the early motivational dynamics associated with the emergence of reading skill may be more complex than previous research has found them to be. The observed dynamics may have implications for the emergence of reading skill during this specific period of changing developmental context.
       
  • Testing the association between physical activity and executive function
           skills in early childhood
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44Author(s): Michael T. Willoughby, Amanda C. Wylie, Diane J. Catellier This study examined the cross-sectional association between multiple aspects of objectively measured physical activity (sedentary, light, moderate to vigorous) and children’s executive function skills. Participants included 85 children, ages 3–5, who were recruited from 10 center-based preschools. On the basis of up to 5 weekdays of accelerometer data, children spent an average of 57.5% of their time in a sedentary state, 30.7% in light physical activity, and 11.8% in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Whereas individual differences in sedentary behavior and light physical activity were unrelated to executive function, contrary to study hypotheses, moderate to vigorous physical activity was inversely related to performance on executive function tasks (β = −.28, 95% CI = −.50 to −.06). Results are discussed with respect to the importance of extending evidence that links increased physical activity to executive function skills, which are based on studies involving older children and adults, to the early childhood period, as well as the design and measurement issues that should inform this work.
       
  • Co- and self-regulation of emotions in the preschool setting
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44Author(s): Judith Rebecca Silkenbeumer, Eva-Maria Schiller, Joscha Kärtner Teachers are important socialization agents as children develop ways to self-regulate their emotions, and this development is considered as an important achievement in preschoolers. The present study investigated two main questions: (1) How preschool teachers change their emotion coaching and co-regulation behavior as children age and as the children’s emotion regulation improves, and (2) how teachers’ co-regulation is linked to children’s self-regulation. Preschoolers aged 4–6 years (n = 28) and their teachers (n = 9) from three preschool classrooms participated in the study. Based on extensive video recordings of everyday interactions in the classroom, the children’s emotionally challenging episodes were identified and analyzed. The results indicated that teachers’ emotion coaching and co-regulation occurred more frequently when the child was younger. For older children, teachers showed more intense co-regulation if co-regulation occurred. The better the emotion regulation of the child, as rated through the teachers, the more often teachers started co-regulation by giving unspecific, meta-cognitive prompts. Furthermore, after controlling for age and reported emotion regulation, co-regulation was systematically related to observed selfregulation within episodes. Overall, the results support the assumption that teachers’ co-regulation is adjusted to children’s developmental level and contributes to their development of self-regulation of emotions.
       
  • Intervention fidelity of Getting Ready for School: Associations with
           classroom and teacher characteristics and preschooler’s school readiness
           skills
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44Author(s): Maria Marti, Samantha Melvin, Kimberly G. Noble, Helena Duch Getting Ready for School (GRS) is a new school readiness intervention for teachers and parents, designed to help children develop early literacy, math, and self-regulation skills. GRS was implemented in 19 Head Start classrooms. In the present study we examined variability in different aspects of intervention fidelity including dosage, adherence, and child engagement. In addition, we studied the association among classroom, teacher and student characteristics and fidelity, and whether measures of fidelity were associated with children’s growth in math, early literacy, and self-regulation skills across the preschool year. Findings indicate that on average teachers reported completing almost 80% of the activities assigned, and that they were observed to adhere fairly well to the lessons. Child engagement was observed to be moderate to high across classrooms. Classroom quality, as measured by the CLASS, and age of children were positively associated with adherence. Teachers that had participated in GRS for two years were more likely to complete more activities. Different components of fidelity were associated with child outcomes. Percentage completion of math and literacy activities were positively associated with growth in math and literacy skills. Children in classrooms in which teachers adhered more faithfully to the curriculum made significantly greater gains in literacy, math, and self-regulation skills. Child engagement was positively associated with a measure of executive function. Results highlight the importance of examining implementation fidelity. Implications for preschool teachers are discussed.
       
  • Are there differences in parents’ preferences and search processes
           across preschool types' Evidence from Louisiana
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44Author(s): Daphna Bassok, Preston Magouirk, Anna J. Markowitz, Daniel Player A rising proportion of four-year-olds now attend formal, or center-based, early childhood education (ECE) programs. Formal settings, such as Head Start, public preschool, and subsidized child care centers vary significantly in regulation, funding, and service provision. As these differences may have substantial implications for child development and family well-being, understanding how parents search for and select formal programs is critical. Using data from a sample of low-income families with four-year-olds enrolled in publicly-funded programs, we examine whether parents' preferences for ECE and their search processes vary across formal ECE program types. We find little evidence of differences in preferences across preschool types but do find significant differences in parents' search processes. Parents with children in subsidized child care consider more options, consider their search more difficult, and are less likely to call their child's program their “first choice." Implications for policy and future research are discussed.
       
  • Approaches to learning and science education in Head Start: Examining
           bidirectionality
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44Author(s): Andres S. Bustamante, Lisa J. White, Daryl B. Greenfield Recent national focus on early childhood science education highlights the need for research on early science, particularly with children from low-income families, as science is the lowest performing school readiness domain in that population. Given this achievement gap, the Office of Head Start has emphasized the development of children’s domain-general skills, such as approaches to learning, because they help children succeed in the classroom regardless of academic content area. Recent research suggests a unique relationship between early science and approaches to learning, in that approaches to learning predicts gains in science readiness more so than math or language readiness. This study further explored this relationship by examining the potential bidirectionality between science and approaches to learning. Results obtained from hierarchical linear modeling suggest a significant bidirectional relationship, such that residualized change approaches to learning across the school year predicted gains in science across the year, and residualized change in science across the year predicted gains in approaches to learning across the year. These results suggest that development of children’s approaches to learning relates to gains science knowledge, and that gains in children’s science knowledge relates to the positive development of approaches to learning across the school year. This study provides support for future research examining the potential of science interventions to serve as a context for developing approaches to learning skills that will in turn help children engage in quality science learning. Such research would leverage the bidirectional relationships between these two constructs and could be a step in the national attempt to narrow the science and school readiness achievement gaps.
       
  • The parent advantage in fostering children's e-book comprehension
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44Author(s): Rebecca A. Dore, Brenna Hassinger-Das, Natalie Brezack, Tara L. Valladares, Alexis Paller, Lien Vu, Roberta Michnick Golinkoff, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek One potential advantage of e-books is that unlike traditional books, preschoolers can read independent of an adult by using the audio narration feature. However, little research has investigated whether children comprehend a story's content after using an e-book with audio narration. The current study compares preschoolers' comprehension of an e-book in three conditions: (1) parent reading, in which parents read the e-book to their children, (2) independent with audio, in which children see the e-book independently with audio narration, and (3) independent without audio, in which children see the e-book independently but do not have audio narration available. Our results suggest that children comprehend some content from e-books using audio narration, indicating that using e-books independently may be a worthwhile activity for preliterate children while caregivers are otherwise occupied. However, results also show that children recall the most information about the e-book after reading with a parent.
       
  • A head-to-toes approach to computerized testing of executive functioning
           in young children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44Author(s): Jamie A. Spiegel, Christopher J. Lonigan The Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS) task is a commonly used measure of executive functioning (EF) designed for use with young children. Substantial associations between the HTKS task and early academic skills and behavioral outcomes have consistently been reported. Although the HTKS task is a useful measure of EF for young children, the original version of the task has a number of limitations, including ceiling effects toward the end of kindergarten, potential motivational issues with older children, and the possibility of errors in administration and scoring due to the live administration of the task. Lonigan (2013) developed a computerized version of the HTKS task (HTKS-c) as a means of addressing these issues. This study examined the construct, convergent, and divergent validity of the HTKS-c task with important developmental outcomes, to determine its utility as a measure of EF for use with young children. In the current study, 126 preschool-aged children were administered both versions of the HTKS as well as a battery of performance-based EF tasks, measures of pre-literacy and mathematics skills, and a delay task. Parents and teachers completed report-based measures of externalizing behaviors. Findings indicated that the HTKS-c task offered a valid measure of EF, equivalent to that of the original HTKS task, for use with preschool children. Furthermore, the HTKS-c offered the added benefits of standardized administration, more accurate scoring of self-corrected responses, and, although not examined in this study, the capability of response-latency scoring in addition to accuracy scoring.
       
  • Effects of maternal mentalization-related parenting on toddlers’
           self-regulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44Author(s): Neda Senehi, Holly E. Brophy-Herb, Claire D. Vallotton Little research has examined associations between multiple indicators of parental mentalization and children’s regulatory capacities. This study aimed (1) to examine the validity of a latent mentalization-related parenting construct and (2) to examine the relationship between the mentalization-related parenting construct and toddler’s self-regulation, controlling for maternal depression, emotion disapproving beliefs, warmth, cumulative demographic risk, and child's gender. Mentalization-related parenting behaviors (MRPBs) included maternal use of mental state words, use of emotion bridging (linking emotions and behaviors in child and others), and representational mind-mindedness. Self-regulation was indicated by toddlers’ coping behaviors, effortful control, and delay of gratification. Data were collected for 95 mother–child dyads from low-income families at two time points and included observation of a book share task (Time 1), Early Head Start home visitor assessments of toddlers’ coping behaviors (Time 2), parent ratings of toddlers’ effortful control (Time 2), and direct assessment of toddlers’ delay of gratification (Time 2). Results of confirmatory factor analyses provided evidence for latent mentalization-related parenting (Time 1) and self-regulation (Time 2) constructs. Structural equation models revealed that maternal mentalization-related parenting (Time 1) was related to toddlers’ self-regulation 6 months later (Time 2). Maternal depression and emotion disapproving beliefs were negatively related to mentalization-related parenting. The study’s findings suggest that toddlers’ self-regulatory skills may be supported by maternal efforts to mentalize.
       
  • Measuring the quality of teacher–child interactions at scale: Comparing
           research-based and state observation approaches
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2018Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 44Author(s): Virginia E. Vitiello, Daphna Bassok, Bridget K. Hamre, Daniel Player, Amanda P. Williford Use of observational measures to monitor preschool quality is growing rapidly. Although a large body of research has examined the validity of classroom observation tools within the context of researcher-conducted studies, little research to date has examined the extent to which the observations conducted as a part of state accountability efforts correspond to observations collected by research teams. This paper examines the degree of agreement between local and research rater teams using an observational measure of preschool classroom quality. It also explores the extent to which ratings predicted gains in children’s literacy, math, and self-regulation skills. Local ratings were conducted as a part of Louisiana’s quality rating and improvement system. Both rating teams observed 85 classrooms offering publicly funded preschool programs using the Pre-K CLASS, and 820 children from these classrooms (average age = 52.6 months, SD = 3.6 months) were directly assessed in the fall and spring. Results indicated correlations between local and research teams’ scores on corresponding domains, ranging from r = .21 to .43. Both teams’ scores were significantly but modestly related to children’s learning gains, although patterns of association differed. Results are discussed in the context of policies that require observational measures at scale.
       
  • Kindergarten components of executive function and third grade achievement:
           A national study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 June 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Tutrang Nguyen, Greg J. Duncan The present study uses nationally-representative data to estimate longitudinal associations between core executive function (EF) components—working memory, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility—at kindergarten entry and third grade academic achievement. We focus on one key question: to what extent do EF components uniquely contribute to children’s subsequent reading and math achievement over and above academic skills, social-emotional behaviors, and learning-related behaviors' Study findings indicated that the three core EF components have differential associations with third grade achievement. Evidence of associations across domains of math and reading achievement are strongest for working memory, and these associations are stronger for math than reading achievement. Early working memory was also shown to be just as predictive of academic achievement as were learning-related behaviors. The evidence for achievement associations was weaker for inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility, with estimated effect sizes on reading and math achievement of less than a tenth of a standard deviation. We discuss implications for future studies and consider the measurement issues that arise in examining EF and its relations to longitudinal achievement.
       
  • What happens next' Delivering on the promise of preschool
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Arya Ansari, Kelly M. Purtell Although scientific research has clearly shown that preschool programs prepare children for kindergarten, increasing attention has been drawn to whether these early investments in children’s education have long-term impacts. Here, we argue that long-term impacts of preschool cannot be viewed in isolation from children’s subsequent experiences and, in fact, are unlikely absent of continued investments in children’s education. In this commentary, we focus on the following two key themes: (a) What we can expect from one year of preschool education'; and (b) What happens after children enter elementary school. In addressing these themes, we contextualize the work of Lipsey et al. (2018) in the existing evidence base and discuss areas in need of continued empirical attention.
       
  • Pivoting to the “how”: Moving preschool policy, practice, and
           research forward
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 June 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Christina Weiland The results of the Tennessee study and the recent Brookings consensus statement present a moment for the field to reflect collectively on the preschool evidence base writ large and on what should come next. In this brief commentary, I review the broader preschool literature and offer seven specific takeaways regarding what we know about public preschool programs and about how to improve them. I argue that making progress requires a pivot in the field to specifically how to create new high-quality programs and improve existing ones. I offer specific directions for policy, practice, and research aimed at guiding this pivot.
       
  • The positive impacts of public pre-K fade quickly, and sometimes reverse:
           What does this portend for future research and policy'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Grover J. Whitehurst Lipsey, Farran, and Durkin (2018) report the results from the third-grade follow-up of children who, as four-year-olds, were in the treatment and control groups of the Tennessee Voluntary Prekindergarten Program (TVPK). Results include an intent-to-treat analysis of state test scores based on a randomized trial (RCT). TVPK produced substantive positive impacts on children during the pre-K year, but differences between treatment and control children faded to zero, and, for state test scores, turned negative as children moved through elementary school. The negative outcomes, although not without precedent, are surprising to many. The more general finding of very rapid fadeout of preschool impacts is consistent with a large number of studies. Researchers and policymakers can respond to the Lipsey et al. findings in several ways. These include dismissing the findings because of the assertion that TVPK is a low-quality program, or arguing that the research design was flawed, or claiming that the results of other strong studies of preschool interventions conflict with results reported for TVPK. Each of these lines of attack does not survive close inspection of their empirical entailments. Three paths forward are respectful of the findings: (1) continuing the priority of advancing public pre-K for four-year-olds, coupled with efforts to improve longer-term program effects by capitalizing on findings from research on heterogeneity of impacts; (2) reframing the purpose and metrics for success of pre-K away from affecting children’s achievement in later grades to providing positive and engaging experiences for children when they are enrolled; and (3) pursuing new models of policy that shift the focus from school readiness to family support. Significant additional investments in research and evaluation will be required to pursue the effectiveness of new policy frameworks for early care and learning.
       
  • The Relation between Executive Functions and Reading Comprehension in
           Primary-School Students: A Cross-Lagged-Panel Analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Johannes M. Meixner, Greta J. Warner, Nele Lensing, Ulrich Schiefele, Birgit Elsner Higher-order cognitive skills are necessary prerequisites for reading and understanding words, sentences and texts. In particular, research on executive functions in the cognitive domain has shown that good executive functioning in children is positively related to reading comprehension skills and that deficits in executive functioning are related to difficulties with reading comprehension. However, developmental research on literacy and self-regulation in the early school years suggests that the relation between higher-order cognitive skills and reading might not be unidirectional, but mutually interdependent in nature. Therefore, the present longitudinal study explored the bidirectional relations between executive functions and reading comprehension during primary school across a 1-year period. At two time points (T1, T2), we assessed reading comprehension at the word, sentence, and text levels as well as three components of executive functioning, that is, updating, inhibition, and attention shifting. The sample consisted of three sequential cohorts of German primary school students (N = 1657) starting in first, second, and third grade respectively (aged 6–11 years at T1). Using a latent cross-lagged-panel design, we found bidirectional longitudinal relations between executive functions and reading comprehension for second and third graders. However, for first graders, only the path from executive functioning at T1 to reading comprehension at T2 attained significance. Succeeding analyses revealed updating as the crucial component of the effect from executive functioning on later reading comprehension, whereas text reading comprehension was most predictive of later executive functioning. The potential processes underlying the observed bidirectional relations are discussed with respect to developmental changes in reading comprehension across the primary years.
       
  • Thresholds of resilience and within- and cross-domain academic achievement
           among children in poverty
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Kierra Sattler, Elizabeth Gershoff Growing up in poverty increases the likelihood of maladaptive development. Yet, some children are able to overcome the adversity of poverty and demonstrate resilience. Currently, there is limited agreement among researchers about how to operationalize resilience, both in terms of who should be the comparison group against whom at-risk children are compared and in terms of what developmental domains of resilience are most predictive of later positive development. The present study investigated how different thresholds and domains of resilience at school entry were associated with within-domain and cross-domain academic achievement across elementary school. Using a nationally representative and longitudinal sample, the results demonstrated that children who reached a high threshold of resilience at entry to kindergarten had similar mathematics and literacy achievement throughout elementary school as academically competent children not in poverty. Additionally, cross-domain associations were found for both mathematics and literacy resilience predicting later achievement. These findings have important research and intervention implications for promoting positive academic development among children in poverty.
       
  • Letter sound characters and imaginary narratives: Can they enhance
           motivation and letter sound learning'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Theresa A. Roberts, Carol D. Sadler A total of thirty-eight preschool children were randomly assigned to one of two explicit teaching treatments to teach alphabet letter sounds. One treatment was designed to enhance motivation and learning by utilizing letters with letter sound characters integrated into the letter shapes (integrated mnemonics) and short narratives about the letter sound characters. In the treated control, plain letters and alphabet books were the foundation of instruction. There were no significant treatment effects on children’s perceptions of ability or desire/interest for school tasks (cross-domain) or letters (domain-specific). Children’s motivation increased significantly from pretest to posttest on three of four motivation measures including interest/desire for letters (domain-specific), and interest/desire and ability perceptions for school tasks (cross-domain). Effect sizes were dz = 0.50, dz = 0.34, and dz = 0.40, respectively. There were significant treatment effects in favor of integrated mnemonics on identifying letter sounds, identifying initial consonants, and blending. Treatment effect sizes were d = 1.31 for letter sounds, d = 0.61 for initial phoneme identification (ID), and d = 0.62 for blending phonemes. Self-reports of ability and desire/interest for school tasks and letters were correlated with learning. Results are interpreted as suggesting that (a) identifying features of instruction that enhance motivation may require stronger instructional elements, increased alignment between features of instruction and measures, and improved measures, (b) small differences in the nature of letter sound instruction matter for learning with superiority for instruction including letter characters integrated into letter forms and imaginary narratives, and (c) relationships among motivation, learning, and instruction are discernible in preschool children.
       
  • School readiness among children of Hispanic immigrants and their peers:
           The role of parental cognitive stimulation and early care and education
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Christina M. Padilla, Rebecca M. Ryan The present study estimated the independent and joint influence of early home and education contexts on three school readiness outcomes for children with Hispanic immigrant parents. These associations were compared to those for children whose parents differed by ethnicity and immigration status − children of non-Hispanic immigrants and children of Hispanic native-born parents − to determine if associations were distinct for children of Hispanic immigrants. Data were drawn from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010–2011 (ECLS-K: 2011) (N ≈ 3480). Outcome measures at kindergarten entry included direct assessments of math and reading skills, as well as teacher reports of approaches to learning (ATL). Results indicated that parental provision of cognitive stimulation and center-based ECE both predicted outcomes among children of Hispanic immigrants and their peers, with some variation in patterns by developmental domain and subgroup. Specifically, participation in center-based care predicted math and reading scores for children of Hispanic immigrant and Hispanic native-born parents, but not children of non-Hispanic immigrants. Furthermore, center-based care participation predicted ATL scores more strongly for children of Hispanic immigrants than their peers. Some trend-level evidence of moderation of early home and education environments emerged, again with patterns varying by outcome and subgroup. Findings highlight the importance of policies that seek to enhance both the home and ECE environments for young children with Hispanic immigrant parents and their peers.
       
  • Latino children’s academic and behavioral trajectories in early
           elementary school: Examining home language differences within preschool
           types
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Heather J. Bachman, Leanne Elliott, Paul W. Scott, Monica G. Navarro The present study examined early academic, social, and behavioral trajectories from kindergarten to third grade for Latino children from English- or Spanish-speaking homes who experienced public pre-k, Head Start, private center care, or no preschool experience. Using a nationally representative sample of Latino children (N = 3650) from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten 2010–2011 cohort (ECLS-K:2011), associations of home language and preschool experience were examined for trajectories of reading and math achievement, social skills, and externalizing behavior problems. At kindergarten entry, Latino children from English-speaking households attained higher scores in reading and math than children from Spanish-speaking families across public pre-k, Head Start, and no preschool groups. However, these early home language differences greatly diminished by third grade. In contrast, for Latino children who attended private center-based care, home language comparisons were nonsignificant for early reading skills in the fall of kindergarten. By third grade, home language differences were evident among the Latino children who attended private centers, such that children from English-speaking homes scored significantly higher in reading than children from Spanish-speaking homes. Few home language differences were detected in social or behavioral skill ratings at fall of kindergarten or in trajectories within preschool types. Nonetheless, home language differences in externalizing problems grew by third grade among Latino children who had attended Head Start, such that children from English-speaking homes received higher behavior problem ratings from teachers than peers from Spanish-speaking homes.
       
  • Developing together: The role of executive function and motor skills in
           children’s early academic lives
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Megan M. McClelland, Claire E. Cameron A considerable body of research indicates that children’s executive function (EF) skills and related school readiness constructs are important for early learning and long-term academic success. This review focuses on EF and a related construct, motor skills with a focus on visuomotor integration, as being foundational for learning, and describes how these skills codevelop in young children in bidirectional and synergistic ways. The review discusses definitional and conceptual issues, connects EF and visuomotor integration to relevant theoretical perspectives, discusses measurement issues and advancements, and reviews intervention evidence to support the malleability of these skills in young children. Discussion emphasizes how these skills develop together and suggests that research examining children’s learning from a codevelopment perspective can help promote children’s health and well-being.
       
  • Measuring success: Within and cross-domain predictors of academic and
           social trajectories in elementary school
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Amy Pace, Rebecca Alper, Margaret R. Burchinal, Roberta Michnick Golinkoff, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek Children’s skill levels in language, mathematics, literacy, self-regulation, and social–emotional adjustment at kindergarten entry are believed to play an important role in determining school success through their long-term association with academic and social skills in primary and secondary education. Hence, children’s school readiness is a national priority. To date, there is some evidence that specific individual school readiness skills relate to specific outcomes, but much of that research has not addressed concerns regarding generalization due to the high levels of correlations among the school readiness skills. The interrelationships among school readiness domains and patterns of skill acquisition – during the first three years of primary education in which basic skills are the focus and in the later years of primary or secondary education when higher-order skills are the focus – have not been explored adequately. Using the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development dataset (n = 1364), this research conducted growth curve analyses to examine a comprehensive set of readiness indicators in kindergarten and identify which domains were stronger predictors of academic and social trajectories through grade 3 and from grades 3 to 5. Results highlight the importance of examining multiple school readiness domains simultaneously rather than separately, and moving beyond outcomes (skill levels) at a particular grade to consider which kindergarten skills predict gains over time (skill acquisition) both within- and across-domains. Empirical and methodological implications are considered for educational research, policy, and practice.
       
  • Bidirectional associations between vocabulary and self-regulation in
           preschool and their interplay with teacher–child closeness and autonomy
           support
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Joana Cadima, Sílvia Barros, Tiago Ferreira, Marina Serra-Lemos, Teresa Leal, Karine Verschueren In the present study, we examine the bidirectional associations between child vocabulary and self-regulation and their interplay with two relational dimensions, teacher–child closeness and autonomy support in preschool. Participants were 208 young children (50% boys; M = 4 years and 11 months, SD = 0.71) from socially disadvantaged areas in Portugal. Self-regulation and vocabulary were assessed at the beginning and end of the year. Teachers reported on levels of teacher–child closeness and autonomy support. A series of path analyses were conducted and tests of direct and indirect effects were included in the models. Results showed bidirectional effects between self-regulation and vocabulary, such that self-regulation at the beginning of preschool was a significant predictor of expressive vocabulary at the end of preschool year, and receptive vocabulary skills at the beginning of preschool year predicted self-regulation at the end of preschool year, controlling for earlier receptive vocabulary and self-regulation skills. In addition, teacher–child closeness uniquely predicted expressive vocabulary, whereas teacher autonomy support uniquely predicted self-regulation.
       
  • Effects of the Tennessee Prekindergarten Program on children’s
           achievement and behavior through third grade
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Mark W. Lipsey, Dale C. Farran, Kelley Durkin This report presents results of a randomized trial of a state prekindergarten program. Low-income children (N = 2990) applying to oversubscribed programs were randomly assigned to receive offers of admission or remain on a waiting list. Data from pre-k through 3rd grade were obtained from state education records; additional data were collected for a subset of children with parental consent (N = 1076). At the end of pre-k, pre-k participants in the consented subsample performed better than control children on a battery of achievement tests, with non-native English speakers and children scoring lowest at baseline showing the greatest gains. During the kindergarten year and thereafter, the control children caught up with the pre-k participants on those tests and generally surpassed them. Similar results appeared on the 3rd grade state achievement tests for the full randomized sample – pre-k participants did not perform as well as the control children. Teacher ratings of classroom behavior did not favor either group overall, though some negative treatment effects were seen in 1st and 2nd grade. There were differential positive pre-k effects for male and Black children on a few ratings and on attendance. Pre-k participants had lower retention rates in kindergarten that did not persist, and higher rates of school rule violations in later grades. Many pre-k participants received special education designations that remained through later years, creating higher rates than for control children. Issues raised by these findings and implications for pre-k policy are discussed.
       
  • Head Start, two-generation ESL services, and parent engagement
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 April 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Teresa Eckrich Sommer, Celia J. Gomez, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, Terri Sabol, Elise Chor, Amy Sanchez, P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn Innovation in English as a Second Language (ESL) services to support Latino immigrant parents and their children is needed, and this study examines a novel program that suggests future directions for the field. The Community Action Project of Tulsa County, Oklahoma’s two-generation ESL program recruits parents of children enrolled in Head Start and delivers an ESL curriculum that is contextualized to child development and children’s early school experiences. This mixed methods study explores the progress and the perspectives of parents and staff in this ESL program over two semesters (n = 35). Among enrollees in each semester, parents had high levels of completion (83% in semester 1; 70% in semester 2) and class attendance (94% in semester 1; 88% in semester 2). Yet, only about half (46%) of the parents completed both semesters 1 and 2. Parents who completed either semester 1 or semesters 1 and 2 did exhibit advancement in their English language skills, moving on average from beginner ESL levels to high intermediate levels based on National Reporting System benchmarks. Data from focus groups with parents and staff suggest that involvement in a two-generation ESL program can support parents’ focus on their children, including: (a) alignment of parent curriculum with child development, (b) bidirectional parent and child learning, and (c) an improved sense of parent agency with their children’s schooling and other child-related domains. Implications for future two-generation ESL programming are discussed.
       
  • Evidence for a physiologic home–school gap in children of Latina
           immigrants
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Elly M. Miles, Julia Dmitrieva, Eliana Hurwich-Reiss, Lisa Badanes, Marina M. Mendoza, Krista M. Perreira, Sarah Enos Watamura The “Latino Health Paradox” denotes a well-established trend wherein foreign-born Latino immigrants arrive with protective health benefits which dissipate and sometimes reverse into health disparities in the second and subsequent generations. The origins and mechanism behind this paradox remain poorly understood. This study investigates whether physiological stress profiles in children of Latina immigrants (CoLIs) as compared with the children of Latina Americans (CoLAs) and of non-Latina Americans (ConLAs) might help explain how health advantages can be lost during acculturation to even result in health disparities. Because studies of ethnicity/nativity often confound poverty and ethnicity/nativity groups, we also examine differences in physiologic stress profiles by income. We focus on physiologic profile differences between ethnicity/nativity groups and by poverty category at home and in Early Childhood Education (ECE) environments. Using multi-level modeling, we compare morning and afternoon salivary cortisol levels between ECE and home environments in 256 children (32% CoLIs), while controlling for child, child care, and teacher characteristics. Results demonstrated that overall, cortisol on child care mornings was lower than on home mornings, and that among children living in poverty home and child care morning cortisol differed less than for children not living in poverty. We find that CoLIs exhibit a flatter slope on child care days than do ConLAs. We also find that among children in classrooms with lower average poverty exposure, cortisol decline across the day is steeper on child care days. Importantly, teacher language may act as a buffer to CoLIs on child care days, resulting in a steeper decline at child care. Implications for policy and practice, including supporting the availability of bilingual teachers are discussed.
       
  • Bidirectional relations among executive function, teacher–child
           relationships, and early reading and math achievement: A cross-lagged
           panel analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Rachel D. McKinnon, Clancy Blair Though prior research has examined the links between executive function (EF) – the higher order cognitive processes involved in self-regulation – and academic achievement, and between teacher–child relationships and academic achievement, few studies have examined the extent to which EF, teacher–child conflict, and academic achievement are related. The present study explores the longitudinal, bidirectional relations among direct assessments of children’s EF and early reading and math achievement and teacher-reports of relationship closeness and conflict with target children. Data were collected with N = 759 children in fall and spring of kindergarten and in fall of first grade. The results confirm bidirectional associations between EF and math achievement. Moreover, the study finds that conflict with teachers predicts EF and reading achievement, but not math achievement, though the relations are not bidirectional.
       
  • Self-regulation and the development of literacy and language achievement
           from preschool through second grade
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Lori E. Skibbe, Janelle J. Montroy, Ryan P. Bowles, Frederick J. Morrison Previous research has established that higher levels of behavioral self-regulation are associated with higher levels of language and literacy. In this study, we take a more developmental perspective by considering how trajectories of self-regulation development (early, intermediate, late) predict the way literacy and language skills develop from preschool through second grade. Children (n = 351) were assessed twice per year for up to four years on indicators of decoding, reading comprehension, phonological awareness, and vocabulary. Using non-linear growth curve models, we found that children who demonstrated self-regulation earlier had higher language and literacy skills throughout preschool to second grade. More specifically, earlier self-regulation trajectories were associated with both higher levels and earlier development of both decoding and reading comprehension, but not faster development. Children with early self-regulation trajectories developed phonological awareness earlier than those with late self-regulation trajectories. Finally, children with early self-regulation trajectories had higher levels of vocabulary than children with intermediate trajectories, but did not differ on the rate or timing of vocabulary development. Findings point to the enduring and interconnected nature of self-regulation and children’s language and literacy development.
       
  • Prediction of English and Spanish kindergarten mathematics from English
           and Spanish cognitive and linguistic abilities in Hispanic dual language
           learners
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Matthew E. Foster, Jason L. Anthony, Tricia A. Zucker, Lee Branum-Martin This study with dual language learners builds on research within monolingual samples that explore important cross- domain links between mathematics and cognitive and linguistic skills. We use a series of univariate multiple regression models to examine the prediction of end-of-year kindergarten numeracy and applied problem solving from autoregressive numeracy and cognitive and linguistic abilities measured at the beginning of kindergarten (Wave 1). Participants included 270 Hispanic dual language learners. In addition to nonverbal IQ, pretest abilities were assessed at the beginning of kindergarten in English and Spanish, including numeracy, vocabulary, phonological short-term memory (STM), rapid autonomized naming, and phonological awareness. Results provided evidence of strong within language relations; however, English and Spanish Wave 1abilities were similarly predictive of English numeracy and applied problems solving at the end of kindergarten. From among Wave 1 abilities, autoregressive numeracy, nonverbal IQ, phonological STM, and vocabulary were the most consistent and strongest predictors of mathematics at the end of kindergarten.
       
  • The roles of patterning and spatial skills in early mathematics
           development
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Bethany Rittle-Johnson, Erica L. Zippert, Katherine L. Boice Because math knowledge begins to develop at a young age to varying degrees, it is important to identify foundational cognitive and academic skills that might contribute to its development. The current study focused on two important, but often overlooked skills that recent evidence suggests are important contributors to early math development: patterning and spatial skills. We assessed preschool children’s repeating patterning skills, spatial skills, general cognitive skills and math knowledge at the beginning of the pre-kindergarten year. We re-assessed their math knowledge near the end of the school year, with complete data for 73 children. Children’s repeating patterning and spatial skills were related and were each unique predictors of children’s math knowledge at the same time point and seven months later. Further, repeating patterning skills predicted later math knowledge even after controlling for prior math knowledge. Thus, although repeating patterning and spatial skills are related, repeating patterning skills are a unique predictor of math knowledge and growth. Both theories of early math development and early math standards should be expanded to incorporate a role for repeating patterning and spatial skills.
       
  • Executive function in Chilean preschool children: Do short-term memory,
           working memory, and response inhibition contribute differentially to early
           academic skills'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Maria Fernanda Montoya, Maria Ines Susperreguy, Lelys Dinarte, Frederick J. Morrison, Ernesto San Martín, Cristian A. Rojas-Barahona, Carla E. Förster A large body of literature demonstrates that different cognitive components related to executive function (EF), such as short-term memory, working memory, and response inhibition, are linked to early academic skills in preschool children. Nevertheless, few studies have focused on the unique contributions of these components to distinctive early numeracy and literacy skills in preschool children. Moreover, most studies have not considered the covariance between these early academic skills in preschool-aged children. The present study examined whether there are differential contributions of visual–spatial and verbal short-term memory, working memory, and response inhibition to specific early numeracy and literacy skills in preschool-aged children, taking into account the covariance among these outcomes. Several seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) analyses were conducted with 419 Chilean preschool-aged children (M = 53.9 months; SD = 4.22). The results show that both response inhibition and verbal short-term memory uniquely predicted all academic outcomes; working memory predicted all early academic skills (with the exception of verbal counting); and visual–spatial short-term memory predicted all numeracy skills and receptive vocabulary. When comparing the marginal effects of the EFs on the outcomes, response inhibition more strongly predicted applied problems than did working memory. Both visual–spatial short-term memory and response inhibition had a greater effect on explaining applied problems, compared to early decoding skills. Implications for teachers and interventions are discussed.
       
  • Digging deeper: Shared deep structures of early literacy and mathematics
           involve symbolic mapping and relational reasoning
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Melissa A. Collins, Elida V. Laski This study was based on the hypothesis that symbolic mapping and relational reasoning are part of the deep structure of both early literacy and mathematics. Eighty-six preschool children completed a range of symbolic, relational, literacy, and mathematics measures, as well as a measure of their receptive vocabulary. Results were consistent with the study’s hypothesis. Symbolic and relational scores were related to performance in both literacy and mathematics. Literacy and mathematics tasks grouped together in factor analyses according to hypothesized symbolic and relational demands. Further, the resulting cross-domain factor scores were related to symbolic and relational factor scores as predicted. Thus, symbolic mapping and relational reasoning were found to be cognitive processes related to both early literacy and mathematics, suggesting potential target areas for future intervention research. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for better understanding the relation between literacy and mathematics and for early childhood instruction.
       
  • Examining language and early numeracy skills in young Latino dual language
           learners
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Lucía I. Méndez, Carol Scheffner Hammer, Lisa M. Lopez, Clancy Blair This study examined the association of oral language, including expressive vocabulary and grammar comprehension, with early numeracy skills within and across languages in Spanish–English speaking Latino children who are dual language learners (DLLs) at the beginning of preschool. Three hundred and forty-two typically developing Spanish–English speaking DLLs from urban preschool centers serving low-income families participated in this multisite study. Oral language and early numeracy skills were assessed in both Spanish and English at the beginning of the preschool year using standardized assessments. Step-wise regressions using baseline cross-sectional data were completed to determine the association of language skills in Spanish and English with early numeracy skills both within and across languages. Results revealed that a large percentage of the variance in the early numeracy skills of these Latino DLL preschoolers was explained by same language variables including expressive vocabulary and grammar comprehension. These findings suggest a strong association of oral language abilities and early numeracy skills within the same language in Latino Preschool DLLs at the beginning of preschool.
       
  • Stability and instability in the co-development of mathematics, executive
           function skills, and visual-motor integration from prekindergarten to
           first grade
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Kimberly Turner Nesbitt, Mary Wagner Fuhs, Dale Clark Farran Correlational and short-term longitudinal studies both demonstrate significant associations between children’s executive function skills and visual-motor integration and their mathematics achievement in early childhood. Our current understanding of the development of these skills in early childhood is limited, however, by a lack of clarity concerning whether the associations between them are causal in nature or could be explained by other unmeasured stable characteristics shared among the constructs. Using a latent state-trait approach, we examined the development of executive function skills, visual-motor integration, and children’s mathematics achievement from the beginning of prekindergarten to the end of first grade (N = 1138). Findings of stability and instability in relative rankings in children’s skills across four time points suggest that children’s growth in mathematics skills is a product of both persistent unmeasured stable influences and time-specific effects of prior executive function skills and visual-motor integration. Specifically, visual-motor integration related to subsequent mathematics achievement and executive function skills in prekindergarten, and executive function and mathematics achievement were bidirectionally related through first grade, even when accounting for stability in each construct. These results suggest that future experimental research should consider executive function skills and visual-motor integration as well as specific mathematics skills as potential targets for early mathematics instruction.
       
  • Language domains differentially predict mathematics performance in young
           children
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 March 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Jason C. Chow, Eric Ekholm The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between child language ability and mathematics performance. First- and second-grade children (N = 365) were assessed on language ability and mathematics performance. Structural equation models revealed that receptive syntax and a broad screening tool significantly predicted math performance, while vocabulary did not. Path analyses corroborate these findings, with receptive syntax emerging as the only significant predictor of all indicators of mathematics performance. We conclude that syntax is a strong predictor of mathematics performance while vocabulary is not. Further, although many studies use receptive vocabulary to index language, it may not be the most predictive of or the best proxy for language ability in young children in the context of mathematics learning.
       
  • Integrating the arts into head start classrooms produces positive impacts
           on kindergarten readiness
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Mary Lou Greene, Shlomo Sawilowsky Arts enrichment may provide important opportunities for the development of pre-academic skills, since much of what young children do as play, including singing, drawing, and dancing, engages the senses and primes the brain for learning. The Wolf Trap’s Early Learning Through the Arts program, a national program that is designed to integrate performing arts into the early childhood education (ECE) curriculum and provide instructional training on delivery strategies, is an exemplar program that provides this type of experiential learning; and program implementation and teacher training approaches vary for each individualized program.
       
  • Relations between self-regulation and early writing: Domain specific or
           task dependent'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Cynthia S. Puranik, Emily Boss, Shannon Wanless Research has established that self-regulation plays an important role in early academic skills such as math and reading, but has focused less on relations with other early skill domains such as writing. The purpose of the present study was to extend that line of research by assessing the relation between self-regulation and early writing. Participants for Study 1 included 161 preschool and 139 kindergarten children. Participants for Study 2 included 274 kindergarten children. Participants in both studies were assessed using a direct measure of self-regulation (Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task; Cameron Ponitz et al., 2009) and a variety of writing measures. Results indicated that self-regulation was significantly and positively related to aspects of early writing; however, there are grade differences in the aspects of writing to which it relates. Most importantly, the pattern of results indicated that the relation between self-regulation and early writing is dependent on the specific type of task and the nature of the task used to measure a given skill. This finding has important implications not only for examining the role of self-regulation and writing, but also for other academic skills.
       
  • Did the frequency of early elementary classroom arts instruction decrease
           during the no child left behind era' If so, for whom'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Taylor V. Gara, Liane Brouillette, George Farkas Analyzing teacher reports from two cohorts of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, this study looked at changes in the frequency of early elementary classroom arts instruction from the 1999–2000 to the 2011–12 school year. The majority of classroom teachers surveyed in our study reported on first-grade students (94%–96%). We found that the percentage of children spending no classroom time on arts activities significantly increased for music, visual art, dance, and theater. This decreased participation in classroom arts activities was generally largest for students in the bottom one-third of the social class distribution. Overall, participation in at least some music or visual arts activities continued above 95%. However, participation in at least some dance fell to about 46% and participation in at least some theater to about 40% (compared to 58% and 56% reported in the 1999–2000 school year). In contrast, for music, dance, and theater, among students receiving at least some exposure during regular class time, the amount of time spent on these activities each week significantly increased. This finding was most robust for music; those students who already had at least some participation experienced a 20-min increase in the amount of classroom time spent on music activities. During the No Child Left Behind era many early elementary educators completely eliminated dance and theater activities from their classrooms. However, those teachers who did not completely eliminate music, dance, or theater activities actually increased the time devoted to them. This heterogeneity in teachers’ responses to policy changes must be accounted for in future attempts to project the likely consequences of alternative educational policies.
       
  • Arts-related pedagogies in preschool education: An Asian perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Alfredo Bautista, Ana Moreno-Núñez, Rebecca Bull, Farina Amsah, Swee-Fuan Koh Compelling research and contemporary early childhood curriculum frameworks have increasingly emphasized the importance of arts education in fostering children’s holistic development. However, there is limited research focused on documenting what arts-related pedagogical practices look like in actual classroom settings, particularly in Asia. Drawing on a large dataset of observations conducted in Kindergarten 1 classrooms (4–5 years), this study describes the arts education landscape in Singapore preschools. Findings show that: (1) Certain art forms are commonly observed (e.g., visual arts 2D, singing, and movement) whereas others are rare (e.g., visual arts 3D, dance); (2) Teachers and students engage with the arts in four different types of settings (integrated learning activities, fillers and transitions, learning center time, and art-focused lessons), in which the presence of the various art forms considerably differs; (3) While classroom climate is generally positive and children seem to enjoy engaging with the arts, teachers focus on providing product-oriented instructions rather than fostering children’s individual creativity and expression; and (4) Although art activities are frequently available to children, there is limited accessibility to art activities and materials due to the rigidity of schedules. We conclude that while arts education plays an important role in Singapore’s preschool education, pedagogical practices –perhaps as a reflection of Asian values and societal expectations– are primarily reproductive and teacher-led. Professional development should enhance teachers’ level of preparation to better foster children’s free exploration and access to resources, creativity and self-expression, and their confidence to utilize certain art forms more often. These findings enrich the limited classroom-based arts education international literature. Similarities and differences with Western studies are discussed.
       
  • Reliability and validity of a measure of preschool children’s theatre
           arts skills: The Preschool Theatre Arts Rubric
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Amy Susman-Stillman, Michelle Englund, Chloe Webb, Amanda Grenell The increasing attention to arts integration in early childhood education necessitates assessment of arts skills in order to measure the impact and the mechanisms by which the arts can affect early childhood development. The purpose of this study is to describe and provide initial validation of a newly developed observational measure of preschool children’s theatre arts skills, the Preschool Theatre Arts Rubric (PTAR), which measures five preschool theatre arts skills: independence in role play, use of face and gesture, focus/persistence, collaboration, and theatricality. We present findings regarding internal consistency, inter-rater reliability, construct validity (convergent and divergent), and sensitivity to change of the PTAR using a sample of 158 ethnically and linguistically diverse, low-income preschoolers participating in an early childhood theatre arts program using storytelling and storyacting (ST/SA) in their preschool classrooms. Findings indicate that the PTAR demonstrates acceptable internal consistency and interrater reliability; convergent and divergent validity with a norm-referenced measure of expressive language, an authentic measure of narrative expression, a teacher-rated measure of learning related social skills, and a measure of storytelling quality; and significant sensitivity to change. While more research is needed, results suggest that the PTAR can be reliably and validly used to observe preschool children’s theatre arts skills in research, classroom, and programmatic contexts. Findings suggest that theatre arts skills are valid indicators of expressive language skills and to a degree, learning-related social behaviors.
       
  • Does theatre-in-education promote early childhood development': The
           effect of drama on language, perspective-taking, and imagination
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Wendy K. Mages This quasi-experimental, multi-method study examines whether participation in a preschool theatre-in-education (TIE) program can promote emergent literacy, theory of mind, and imaginative development. This research combines quantitative assessments of children’s narrative comprehension, narrative production, vocabulary development, false-belief understanding, and imagination skills with a qualitative descriptive analysis of the implementation of a theatre-in-education program to investigate the effect of a respected preschool TIE program on the development of 155 urban children enrolled in Head Start. Although the measures used were unable to detect a significant effect of the drama intervention, in the current academic climate, in which an increasing focus on academics in preschool curricula can lead to the elimination of arts programming, it is worth noting that the inclusion of a TIE program did not detract from the children’s acquisition of skills that contribute to school readiness; the scores on assessments of language, perspective-taking, and imagination were similar for children in the intervention and comparison conditions. Thus, this study suggests that the inclusion of high-quality theatre arts curricula in early childhood education can provide young children with an entertaining and engaging preschool drama experience while providing academic supports commensurate with those of more traditional early childhood programs.
       
 
 
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