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HEALTH AND SAFETY (627 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 240)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences: Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Apuntes Universitarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 7)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Birat Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Boletin Médico de Postgrado     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Carta Comunitaria     Open Access  
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Innovación en Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Salud Virtual     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical and Experimental Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clocks & Sleep     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de la Escuela de Salud Pública     Open Access  
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Diversity of Research in Health Journal     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Düzce Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi / Journal of Duzce University Health Sciences Institute     Open Access  
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Eurasian Journal of Health Technology Assessment     Open Access  
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Family & Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare : Finjehew     Open Access  
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ganesha Journal     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Challenges     Open Access  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Global Reproductive Health     Open Access  
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastane Öncesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
HCU Journal     Open Access  
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 10)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Equity     Open Access  
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Notions     Open Access  
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Health Psychology Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Security     Hybrid Journal  
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Healthcare Technology Letters     Open Access  
Healthy Aging Research     Open Access  
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Early Childhood Research Quarterly
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.814
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 21  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0885-2006
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3183 journals]
  • Preschoolers’ problem behavior, prosocial behavior, and language ability
           in a Latin-American context: The roles of child executive functions and
           socialization environments
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 48Author(s): R.T. Lohndorf, H.J. Vermeer, R.A. Cárcamo, C. De la Harpe, J. Mesman Child executive functions and socialization environments are crucial for the socioemotional and cognitive development of preschoolers. This study examined the role of socioeconomic status (SES), ethnicity, executive functions (EFs), quality of the home environment, quantity of maternal care, and quality and quantity of professional childcare as predictors of five-year-old preschoolers' problem behavior, prosocial behavior, and language ability in 77 low-SES families with a Chilean majority or Mapuche minority background in Chile. Executive functions and the quality of the home environment were positively associated with language ability, whereas quantity of childcare was inversely related to children's language ability. All other associations were non-significant. The results corroborate the vital roles of child executive functioning and stimulating and responsive parenting in child language ability in a Latin-American context. Furthermore, our findings revealed inadequate preschool classroom quality and provide new evidence from southern Chile of the urgent need to improve the quality of Chilean children's preprimary education as a catalyst for reducing social disparities.
  • Examining the validity of a widely-used school readiness assessment:
           Implications for teachers and early childhood programs
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 48Author(s): Jaclyn M. Russo, Amanda P. Williford, Anna J. Markowitz, Virginia E. Vitiello, Daphna Bassok This study explored the validity of a widely-used, performance-based assessment of children’s school readiness skills in the fall and spring of preschool. Using a sample of 1109 children (mean age in the fall = 4.54 years; SD = 3.69 months) in 90 classrooms, we compared children’s school readiness skills as assessed by teachers using Teaching Strategies GOLD (TS GOLD) to readiness skills as assessed by independent data collectors using standardized, direct assessments. Findings indicated evidence of convergent validity: TS GOLD scores were significantly associated with other assessments of similar skills. Evidence of discriminant validity was limited: TS GOLD domains were highly associated with one another and did not show differentiation in predicting direct assessment scores. In addition, comparison of intraclass correlations (ICCs) showed that children’s skills were estimated as being much more similar to one another within a classroom when assessed using TS GOLD as compared to the direct assessments. More research is needed to ensure psychometrically sound readiness assessments, and prior to making strong policy and practice recommendations.
  • Emergent growth patterns of early education self-control problems among
           children from underresourced American families
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 48Author(s): Paul A. McDermott, Marley W. Watkins, Michael J. Rovine, Samuel H. Rikoon, Clare W. Irwin, Roland Reyes, Jessica L. Chao This research examined the latent developmental patterns for early classroom self-control problems among children from the nation’s most underresourced families. Based on standardized teacher observations from the Head Start Impact Study, a nationally representative sample of children (N = 3827) was assessed for manifestations of aggressive and attention seeking behavior over four years spanning prekindergarten through first grade. For each form of self-control problem, latent growth mixture modeling revealed distinct subpopulations of change patterns. Although most children improved over time, some children arrived in prekindergarten with moderate levels of aggression that remained relatively stable throughout the early transition years. Alternatively, some children early manifested more noticeable levels of either aggressive or attention seeking behaviors that increased in severity as they left prekindergarten. These latter subpopulations were associated with child gender, ethnicity, use of English as a secondary language, provision of special needs services, and maternal education. They were also more likely to experience academic difficulties and parent-reported problem behaviors and less likely to manifest positive relationships with teachers by the close of first grade. Decision rules are suggested for early assessments of children and recommendations made for future exploratory research.
  • New benefits of public school pre-kindergarten programs: Early school
           stability, grade promotion, and exit from ELL services
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 48Author(s): Dylan Conger, Chloe R. Gibbs, Yuuko Uchikoshi, Adam Winsler This study explores the short-run effects of state-funded, public school-based pre-kindergarten (pre-K) programs on the early educational outcomes of students in Miami-Dade County Public Schools. Using data on all kindergarten students enrolled in the public schools in years 2006 and 2007, we examine differences in outcomes from pre-K to the early grades – promotion to first grade, school mobility, and exit from English language learner (ELL) status – for students who were enrolled in public school pre-K in the previous year as compared to students who entered the public school system at kindergarten. We find that children who participated in a public school pre-K program had higher rates of promotion to the first grade and higher rates of school stability between kindergarten and first grade. ELL children who enrolled in public school pre-K also had higher exit rates from ELL status by first grade compared to students who entered at kindergarten. Analyses explore the role of kindergarten schools and classrooms as well as school stability between pre-K and kindergarten as possible mediators.
  • Emotions expressed with friends and acquaintances and preschool
           children’s social competence with peers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): Eric W. Lindsey, Penn State Berks Preschool children’s expression of emotion in the context of interaction with friends and acquaintances was examined in relation to teacher rated social behavior. Data were collected from 112 preschool children (54 boys, 58 girls; 66 European American, 19 African American, 17 Hispanic, and 10 other ethnicity). Children’s friends were identified based on mutual liked most nominations. Naturalistic observations of children’s emotional expressiveness during interactions with friends and acquiantances in preschool were conducted. Teachers provided ratings of children’s prosocial behavior, aggression, and withdrawn behavior. Data revealed that children who expressed more positive emotion with friends and acquaintances were rated by teachers as being more prosocial and less aggressive. Boys, but not girls, who expressed more anger with acquaintances were rated by teachers as being less prosocial and more aggressive. Children who displayed more anger with acquaintances were rated by teachers as less withdrawn, and children who displayed more fear with acquaintances were rated by teachers as more withdrawn. The findings suggest that children display different patterns of emotional expressiveness when interacting with friends than they do when interacting with acquaintances, and specific emotions expressed with friends and acquaintance relate in unique ways to teacher’s report of children’s social competence with peers.
  • Kindergartener’s meaning making with multimodal app books: The relations
           amongst reader characteristics, app book characteristics, and
           comprehension outcomes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): Tanya Christ, X. Christine Wang, Ming Ming Chiu, Hyonsuk Cho App books are increasingly being used in classrooms and at home. However, little is known how children effectively make meaning with these. Given that app books substantially differ from print or CD ROM books, research specifically on the meaning making process with app books is needed. Grounded in transactional reading and new literacies theories, this observational study examined the relations amongst reader characteristics, app book characteristics, and comprehension outcomes. Fifty-three children in four kindergarten classrooms across two states were individually observed reading a different app book on an iPad six times across the school year and asked questions to elicit their comprehension. Sessions were video-recorded and coded by two coders with high inter-rater reliability. A multivariate outcome, multilevel cross-classification, mixed response analysis showed that specific reader characteristics and transactions between reader and text were linked to better comprehension outcomes. These findings can guide app book reading instruction in early childhood classrooms.Graphical abstractSummary of a multivariate multilevel cross-classified, mixed response model of students’ unprompted retelling, prompted retelling, inference/critical thinking, vocabulary, and strategic use of hotspots. Observations are nested within both books and children, controlling for each child’s classroom. Solid, black boxes and arrows indicate positive links. Dashed boxes and arrows indicate negative links. Thicker lines indicate larger effect sizes.Graphical abstract for this article
  • Teaching for breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge: Learning from
           explicit and implicit instruction and the storybook texts
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): David K. Dickinson, Kimberly T. Nesbitt, Molly F. Collins, Elizabeth B. Hadley, Katherine Newman, Bretta L. Rivera, Hande Ilgez, Ageliki Nicolopoulou, Roberta Michnick Golinkoff, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek This paper reports results from two studies conducted to examine word learning among preschool children in group book reading while we developed a scalable method of teaching words during book reading. We sought to identify factors that fostered both depth and breadth of learning by varying the type of information children heard about words while holding exposures constant. We also asked whether prior word knowledge affects children’s learning across our different instructional approaches. In Study 1 we evaluated pre-post gains from two types of explicit instruction (Didactic and Conceptual), an implicit instructional approach (Review), and repeated Exposure. For all three instructed conditions growth in receptive knowledge (our measure of breadth) was statistically equivalent when compared to control (d = 0.43) and exposure words (d = 0.41). In Study 2, words were taught using an augmented explicit approach and through repeated exposure. Moderate and statistically significant growth in receptive knowledge was found when comparing instructed to control words (d = 0.48) and large effects were found with an expressive task measure of depth of knowledge (d = 1.19). There also was evidence of learning from exposure. Children’s vocabulary knowledge moderated learning gains. In Study 1 children with limited knowledge of vocabulary (0.75 SD below the group mean) learned fewer words than others. In Study 2, pre-test vocabulary knowledge moderated gains on the expressive measure for directly taught words and gains on the receptive measure for words taught through exposure. Thus, when words were intentionally taught, all children except those with the weakest initial knowledge acquired the initial lexical representations captured by the receptive measure at a similar rate. Those with stronger vocabulary more quickly acquired initial representations from exposure alone and deeper knowledge when they received intentional instruction. We conclude that teachers can build depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge by combining intentional instruction of target words with repeated use of varied words by reading books multiple times and instructional comments that include use of novel words.
  • Effects of socioeconomic status and executive function on school readiness
           across levels of household chaos
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): Lauren Micalizzi, Leslie A. Brick, Megan Flom, Jody M. Ganiban, Kimberly J. Saudino Isolating child attributes and familial characteristics that support school readiness in children on the upper half of the socioeconomic spectrum can complement existing research on lower-socioeconomic status (SES) children and facilitate a more complete understanding of how children’s performance varies across the full SES spectrum. This study examined if relations between SES, two components of executive function (EF; set-shifting and inhibitory control), and school readiness vary as a function of household chaos in 564 four-year-old children, primarily from middle- to upper-middle class families in the Northeast Region of the United States. Structural equation modeling of direct and indirect effects revealed three major findings: (1) higher levels of EF were related to better school readiness regardless of level of household chaos; (2) SES had an indirect effect on school readiness through set-shifting; and (3) household chaos was negatively associated with school readiness.
  • Children’s perceptions and representations of self–other
           overlap with peers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): Delaney A. Collyer, Stuart Marcovitch Self–other overlap is a multi-dimensional construct consisting of Perceived Closeness (claimed similarity with a target other) and Overlapping Representations (cognitive confusion or merging of self and other). However, little is known about the characterization of these dimensions through early to middle childhood. The present work introduced several adapted measures for investigating the early development of these two self–other overlap dimensions. Five- to 6-year-old children (n = 45) and 7- to 8-year-old children (n = 45) completed measures of these dimensions of overlap between themselves and two target others: a best friend and an acquaintance. Children in both age groups had higher Perceived Closeness for a best friend than an acquaintance, but this was more pronounced with the older children. In addition, younger children had higher Overlapping Representations between self and others than older children. These patterns are discussed in terms of social development and trait understanding.
  • Development and cross-national validation of a revised version of the
           Berkeley Parenting Self-efficacy Scale
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): Susan D. Holloway, Sawako Suzuki, Soojung Kim, Ayumi Nagase, Qian Wang, Emily J. Campbell, Maedeh Golshirazi, Kyoko Iwatate, Sayuri Nishizaka Parenting self-efficacy (PSE) pertains to parents’ judgments about their ability to complete important parenting tasks in a successful manner. Numerous studies have shown that parents with high PSE are more likely than those with low PSE to engage in positive parenting behaviors that in turn promote children’s development. However, previous measures assessing PSE with respect to specific tasks and activities have rarely been validated, particularly in cross-national contexts. To address these gaps, a revised version of the Berkeley Parenting Self-Efficacy Scale was developed to provide a psychometrically sound measure for assessing PSE among parents of young children. Confirmatory factor analysis conducted with data provided by 986 parents of children in preprimary and early primary school in the US and Japan indicated strong construct, metric, and scalar equivalence. The Berkeley Parenting Self-Efficacy Scale-Revised (BPSE-R) demonstrated good test–retest reliability and was significantly associated in both national samples with concurrent measures of parent well-being as well as self-reported parenting behavior. In Japan only, the BPSE-R was associated with teacher ratings of children’s school-related competence. These findings indicate that the BPSE-R is a reliable and valid measure of parenting self-efficacy for parents of young children in Japan and the United States.
  • Multi-tiered systems of support for preschool-aged children: A review and
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): Collin Shepley, Jennifer Grisham-Brown Multi-tiered systems of support have been a prominent focus of research and practice in grade-schools given that they provide a proactive model through which struggling students may receive targeted interventions without the need for a special education label. In early childhood education there are factors that have inhibited the implementation of these tiered support systems. To overcome these obstacles, researchers have developed and are currently evaluating different multi-tiered systems of support that are specific to the settings, service delivery models, and curricula in early childhood education. Given the rate at which departments of education and accreditation agencies are presently creating system-wide tiered support systems for early childhood education, we conducted a review of the available literature on multi-tiered systems of support in early childhood education to provide stakeholders with guidance on development and implementation. Our findings indicate that tiered support systems targeting social–emotional development were most successful. Methodologically rigorous designs evaluating tiered support systems targeting literacy and language outcomes found marginal evidence of effects. Given variable findings, we are cautious in our recommendations for individuals involved with multi-tiered systems of support in early childhood education.
  • Reading interest and family literacy practices from prekindergarten to
           kindergarten: Contributions from a cross-lagged analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): José P. Pezoa, Susana Mendive, Katherine Strasser Most studies investigating the relationship between children’s reading interest and their parents’ literacy practices have assumed that it is the latter that sparks the former. Nevertheless, the transactional model of development (Sameroff, 2010) suggests that the relationship might run the other way as well. This research examined how children’s reading interest (as reported by their parents) and parents’ literacy practices remain stable or change over time, as well as cross-lagged relationships between reading interest and parents’ literacy practices from the beginning of prekindergarten to the end of kindergarten. The 721 participants were drawn from low-SES Chilean families participating in a larger study. The results show that in these low-income Chilean families, it is more likely for reading interest to predict parents’ practices than the other way around. Results suggest that interventions designed to improve the home literacy environment could be attained through improving parents’ perceptions of children’s reading interest rather than seeking only to change parents’ practices directly.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Latina mothers’ engagement in children’s math learning in the early
           school years: Conceptions of math and socialization practices
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): Claudia Galindo, Susan Sonnenschein, Angélica Montoya-Ávila This study addressed the important role that the home plays just prior to or at the start of formal schooling, in facilitating children’s math learning. Although research on home influences is a burgeoning area, there has been limited research, particularly in math socialization, with Latinx families, one of the fastest growing racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. Using a mixed-methods approach and data from 47 foreign-born Latina mothers of children in preschool through first grade, we examined mothers’ conception of math (knowledge and attitudes) and their socialization (beliefs and practices) of children’s math skills. The present study combined two empirical traditions, one based on mainstream conceptualizations of parental involvement and one that builds from cultural approaches to math engagement. The results are pertinent for developing intervention programs to improve young Latino children’s math skills that capitalize on the strengths found within children's homes and that address their challenges.
  • The relative contribution of peer acceptance and individual and
           class-level teacher–child interactions to kindergartners’ behavioral
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): Tessa Weyns, Hilde Colpin, Maaike C. Engels, Sarah Doumen, Karine Verschueren The present longitudinal study examined the relative contribution of peer acceptance and individual and class-level teacher–child interactions to the development of externalizing and internalizing behaviors in kindergarten. A sample of 237 children (49% boys, Mage = 5.19 years) from 36 classrooms was followed during three waves in kindergarten. Individual and class-level teacher–child interactions were observed, while peer ratings were used to assess peer acceptance, and teacher ratings to assess child behavior. Multilevel modelling showed that children’s aggressive and anxious-fearful behavior was stable over time. Children who had more negative individual interactions with their teachers at the start of kindergarten displayed higher levels of externalizing behavior. Children whose teacher displayed more sensitive interactions at the class-level had lower levels of internalizing problems. Our study underscores the importance of including both individual and class-level teacher–child interactions and including several dimensions of the emotional component of teacher–child interactions in future research.
  • Children’s fine motor skills in kindergarten predict reading in
           grade 1
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): Sebastian Suggate, Eva Pufke, Heidrun Stoeger Research points toward the role of children’s fine motor skills (FMS) in reading development but needs to better control for confounding variables and establish explanatory pathways. Three explanations for links between FMS and reading are developed that focus on shared development, functionalism, and shared internalized motor processes. Using a longitudinal cross-lagged design with 120 kindergarteners followed into grade 1, we administered measures of reading, FMS, IQ, executive functions (attention, rapid naming), phonemic awareness, nonword repetition, grapho-motor skills, handwriting, as well as receptive and expressive vocabulary. Structural equation modelling indicated a unique diagonal pathway from kindergarten FMS to grade 1 reading, over and above the control variables. Grapho-motor and handwriting skills did not mediate the link between FMS and reading, as predicted by functionalism. Overall, findings suggest that early FMS are subtly but importantly linked to reading in elementary school.
  • Boosting family child care success in Quality Rating and Improvement
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): Rena A. Hallam, Alison Hooper, Martha Buell, Melissa Ziegler, Myae Han As states develop and revise Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS), more research attention is needed on the implementation of quality improvement strategies that effectively support family child care programs. The aims of the current study were to compare family child care providers who participated in a model of supplemental quality improvement supports (Stars Plus) with family child care providers who participated in QRIS but did not receive the supplemental services. Specifically, we examined the movement trajectories of family child care programs across all five rated levels over a two-year period as well as examined whether Stars Plus participation predicted the attainment of the highest quality levels in Delaware’s QRIS. Results gathered from the application of survival analysis to statewide QRIS administrative data suggested that Stars Plus family child care providers were 1.8 times more likely to move up a star level than family child care providers who participated in the QRIS but did not receive Stars Plus. Further, logistic regression analysis demonstrated that Stars Plus family child care providers were 5.2 times more likely to achieve Star Level 4 or 5 than family child care providers who participated in the QRIS without this intensive support. Findings suggested family child care providers may be more successful in state QRIS when quality improved supports are tailored to meet their needs.
  • Shame on me' Shyness, social experiences at preschool, and young
           children’s self-conscious emotions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): Stefania Sette, Danielle Baldwin, Federica Zava, Emma Baumgartner, Robert J. Coplan In early education contexts, shy children are prone to experiencing difficulties in their relationships with peer and teachers. These negative social experiences may, in turn, reinforce shy children’s feelings of self-consciousness. The aim of the present study was to test a complex model linking shyness with self-conscious emotions (i.e., guilt, shame) through negative social experiences at preschool (i.e., peer difficulties, non-supportive teacher–child relationships). Participants were 131 (64 boys) preschool children (M = 55.89 months, SD = 9.75) and their teachers (two for each classroom). Multi-source assessment was employed, with parents rating children’s shyness and self-conscious emotions (i.e., guilt, shame) and teachers evaluating children’s peer difficulties (i.e., rejection, victimization) and the quality (i.e., closeness) of their relationship with each child. Results from path analysis revealed an indirect effect between shyness and self-conscious emotions through negative peer experiences (but not via close teacher–child relationships). More specifically, shyness predicted peer difficulties, which in turn predicted feelings of guilt and shame. This study highlights the potential role of negative experiences with peers in helping to account for the link between shyness and children’s negative feelings about themselves. Shy children’s positive experiences with peers should be enhanced at preschool in order to help reduce their feelings of guilt and shame.
  • Cumulative classroom quality during pre-kindergarten and kindergarten and
           children’s language, literacy, and mathematics skills
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): Robert C. Carr, Irina L. Mokrova, Lynne Vernon-Feagans, Margaret R. Burchinal Prior research indicates that preschool classroom quality is positively associated with children’s emergent academic skills at the end of the preschool period, but these associations appear to diminish during kindergarten (K). To consider the accumulation of classroom experiences during preschool and K, data were drawn from a sample of children (N = 1015) who participated in state-funded pre-K programs across six states and were followed into the spring of K. We examined if pre-K and K classroom quality were associated with children’s language, literacy, and mathematics skills in the spring of K after controlling for pre-K entry skills, child background demographics, and other classroom covariates. Classroom quality was assessed with the Classroom Assessment Scoring System. We found that additive cumulative effects described associations between classroom quality and children’s language and literacy outcomes. For language skills, higher-quality pre-K Instructional Support predicted better K language skills at all levels of Instructional Support quality in K, but higher-quality K Instructional Support also contributed to the prediction of better K language skills in an additive manner. For literacy skills, higher-quality pre-K Instructional Support, Emotional Support, and Classroom Management predicted better K literacy skills at all levels of K quality, but each domain of K quality also contributed to the prediction of better K literacy skills in an additive manner. In contrast, for mathematics, we found that multiplicative cumulative effects described associations between classroom quality and K mathematics skills such that the positive predictive effect of pre-K Instructional Support and Emotional Support was enhanced as the level of K quality increased in each of these domains, respectively. Moreover, sensitivity analyses revealed that higher-quality pre-K Instructional Support and Emotional Support significantly predicted better K mathematics skills for children who experienced high, but not average or low levels of K quality in these domains, respectively. Implications are discussed in relation to classroom quality alignment during pre-K and the early elementary grades.
  • Observed quality of classroom peer engagement in a sample of preschoolers
           displaying disruptive behaviors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): Michelle L. Yoder, Amanda P. Williford, Virginia E. Vitiello The current study used naturalistic observations to explore the peer engagement of 428 preschoolers whom teachers identified as displaying elevated levels of disruptive behavior. Children’s peer sociability, communication, assertiveness, and conflict were independently observed as they naturally occurred in the classroom throughout the preschool year. Data were analyzed to examine patterns of peer engagement, explore variability across time and classroom context, and identify associations between disruptive behavior type and peer engagement quality. Results showed that, on average, children were not engaging in high-quality peer interactions nor were they displaying significant levels of negative peer engagement. There was no linear change in peer engagement quality across the year, but positive and negative peer engagement patterns varied substantially across children. Children’s peer engagement was of higher quality when in unstructured settings and when teachers were less directive of activities. The relationship between disruptive behavior and peer engagement differed based on the nature of the disruptive behavior displayed – positive peer engagement was positively associated with hyperactivity and negatively associated with inattention, and negative peer engagement was positively associated with oppositionality. Results highlight the low level with which children are interacting with peers (both positively and negatively) in the preschool classroom and suggest that preschoolers who are perceived as disruptive are not yet engaging in a significant degree of negative peer interaction. Implications for the understanding, structure, and management of the preschool classroom are discussed in relation to both practice and research.
  • Identifying profiles of listed home-based child care providers based on
           their beliefs and self-reported practices
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): Alison Hooper, Rena Hallam This study seeks to broaden the knowledge base of the diverse home-based child care provider workforce in the United States. Home-based child care is a crucial part of the child care landscape with approximately seven million children from birth to five receiving care in home-based settings. Through secondary analysis of the National Survey of Early Care and Education data on listed home-based providers (n = 3493), latent profile analysis was used to explore how providers grouped into profiles based on key characteristics related to their caregiving beliefs and their self-reported instructional practices, professional engagement, and family supportive practices. Findings reveal providers aligned into three profiles: Educationally Focused (72.4%), Educationally Aware (15.7%), and Caregiver (11.8%). Frequency of implementing planned educational activities emerged as a particularly salient distinction among the three groups. Results suggest that although listed home-based providers appear somewhat homogeneous in their demographic characteristics, they vary in their instructional practices with children and their own professional engagement. Therefore, they may benefit from a tailored approach to quality improvement that attends to these differences.
  • The Conversation Compass © Communication
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): Stephanie M. Curenton, Jacqueline Sims, Shana E. Rochester, Shari L. Gardner During classroom conversations all aspects of children’s developing oral language skills, particularly their discourse and social communication (pragmatic) skills, combine with communicative interpersonal skills to foster school success. Few tools exist for teachers to assess children’s conversation skills in the classroom, but the Conversation Compass© Communication Screener (CCCS) was created to fill this void. This study examined the factor structure of an adapted version of the CCCS, the Conversation Compass© Communication Screener-Revised (CCCS-R). Factor analytic results indicated a four-factor structure that fits the data well. The study also investigated the CCCS-R’s convergent validity with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals—Preschool (CELF-P) Descriptive Pragmatics Profiles subtest and predictive validity with the CELF-P Pre-Literacy Scale subtest. Results indicated the CCCS-R showed both convergent and predictive validity with those subscales. The CCCS-R aims to provide teachers, researchers, and clinicians with insights into preschoolers’ classroom conversation skills.
  • Early childhood education and child development in four countries in East
           Asia and the Pacific
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): Nirmala Rao, Ben Richards, Jin Sun, Ann Weber, Alanna Sincovich This study examined associations between participation, intensity (hours per week), duration (months attended), and total dosage (total hours attended) in early childhood education (ECE) and children’s cognitive, language, and socio-emotional development in Cambodia, China, Mongolia, and Vanuatu using data from the validation sample of the East Asia-Pacific Early Child Development Scales (EAP-ECDS). The total sample analyzed included 4712 ethnic majority children (2336 girls), ranging in age from 36 to 71 months. Controlling for age, gender, parental education and occupation, household wealth, and urbanicity: (i) children who received ECE had significantly better cognitive, language, and socio-emotional development than those who did not; (ii) among children who did not attend ECE, age-adjusted scores were significantly lower for older children than they were for younger children; (iii) increased ECE intensity was associated with higher scores in all developmental domains in Mongolia, higher language scores in Cambodia, and lower socio-emotional scores in Cambodia and China; and (iv) ECE dosage was positively associated with cognitive and socio-emotional scores in China, and language scores in Mongolia. Overall, results indicate that ECE is beneficial for children’s early development, though many children in the region are not able to reap these rewards due to barriers to access. Results suggest efforts to ensure all children have access to quality ECE be exerted so that these benefits can be realized.
  • Early academic gaps and Title I programming in high poverty, high minority
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): Kirsten Kainz Since 1965 the purpose of Title I of the federal Elementary and Secondary Education Act has been to improve the educational outcomes of economically disadvantaged students and reduce achievement gaps. This paper presents analysis of data from a nationally representative sample of African American and Latinx kindergartners who attended public schools operating school-wide Title I programs in the 2010–11 school year. The purpose of analysis was to examine the associations between Title I programming and achievement gaps. The results indicated that African American students in high poverty, high minority schools made greater gains in reading in schools that used Title I for reduced class size. African American and Latinx students in high poverty, high minority schools made greater gains in mathematics in schools that used Title I for professional development. Findings were scrutinized via propensity score weighting, which revealed the tangled nature of school context, child and family characteristics, and student learning. Suggestions for future research include random assignment studies and local partnerships to determine effective uses of Title I monies.
  • Use of the home language in preschool classrooms and first- and
           second-language development among dual-language learners
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): Helen H. Raikes, Lisa White, Sheridan Green, Margaret Burchinal, Kirsten Kainz, Diane Horm, Gary Bingham, Alan Cobo-Lewis, Lisa St. Clair, Daryl Greenfield, Jan Esteraich The number of dual-language learners (DLLs) from low-income backgrounds who attend early education programs in the U.S. is rapidly increasing, leading to a need for research that examines the effects of classroom practices, including whether teachers speak English or the home language, on DLL children’s school readiness. This issue was examined in Educare, an expanded Early Head Start/Head Start program for low-income children that ensures children receive high-quality early education and care. Analyses of 1961 DLL Educare children across 16 sites were conducted to compare the acquisition of language skills in English and Spanish among children in classrooms in which teachers used English and little or no Spanish, English with some Spanish, and both English and Spanish. Findings indicated that DLL children in all groups showed gains in language skills in both English and Spanish, but that DLL children from classrooms with both English and Spanish instruction had significantly higher Spanish auditory comprehension scores than other children. Findings from this study have implications for practice, highlighting the value of all 3 types of classrooms for English-language growth and the additional value of English/Spanish instruction for Spanish language growth.
  • The negotiation of head start teachers’ beliefs in a transborder
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): Sarah Garrity, Alyson Shapiro, Sascha Longstreth, Jillian Bailey Using a cultural communities approach as our guide, the purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the beliefs of early childhood educators in a transborder community located along the U.S./Mexico border and known for its large Latino population. Participants were 77 Head Start associate teachers, teachers, site supervisors, and other education staff. The majority were Latina (83%) and bilingual in both Spanish and English (70%). The Teacher Beliefs Q-Sort was used to examine participants’ beliefs regarding discipline and behavior management, teaching practices, and children. Factor analyses suggested patterns of teacher beliefs that reflected both collectivist and individualistic orientations to teaching and learning. Latina educators scored significantly higher on factors that appeared consistent with a collectivist orientation and seemed to reflect the cultural value of raising children to be bien educado. Participants’ beliefs were also compared with those of faculty exemplars, and participants who prioritized items in way similar to the experts tended to be more educated and were more likely to be non-Latina. Findings point to the need to examine the intersection of education level, ethnicity, and recommended practice and how teachers negotiate these beliefs in transborder settings.
  • Associations between teacher–child relationships, children’s literacy
           achievement, and social competencies for struggling and non-struggling
           readers in early elementary school
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): Cheryl Varghese, Lynne Vernon-Feagans, Mary Bratsch-Hines Teacher–child relationships (TCRs) have been found to play important roles in children’s classroom experiences and learning during the elementary school years. Given the importance of TCRs, the present study examined the associations between conflictual and close TCRs, children’s literacy achievement, and children’s social competencies using a sample of 503 kindergarten and first grade non-struggling and struggling readers and their teachers in ten rural schools in the Southeastern United States. Moderation by struggling reader status was also explored in the associations between conflictual or close TCRs and children’s literacy achievement and social competencies. After controlling for child- and teacher-level characteristics, results from multilevel model analyses indicated that conflictual TCRs were significantly related to lower literacy achievement, more internalizing behaviors, more externalizing behaviors, and fewer prosocial behaviors. Close TCRs were not related to child outcomes, and moderation by struggling reader status was not significant.
  • A descriptive profile of state Child Care and Development Fund policies in
           states with high populations of low-income Hispanic children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): Zoelene Hill, Lisa A. Gennetian, Julia Mendez The Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) serves dual goals of promoting low-income parents' employment, education, and training, and supporting parents’ use of high quality child care and education. While changes in CCDF policies have aimed to improve the accessibility and functionality of CCDF subsidies for all eligible low-income families, utilization among Hispanic families, who represent the highest growing proportion of income poor families, remains low. Our study explores the ways in which the state-level child care policy context may differentially affect utilization among Hispanic families and contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in program utilization. We use the child care accommodation model and administrative exclusion to offer an expanded conceptual framework. We consider how policies and administrative practices may interact with demographic and community characteristics common among low-income Hispanic families and impose differential learning, psychological, and compliance costs for accessing government assistance programs such as CCDF. Our analysis of the 13 states in which over 80% of the low-income Hispanic child population resides, identifies policies around eligibility, documentation requirements, receipt prioritization, and the online user experience that vary across states and may serve to either facilitate or constrain access to a child care subsidy. Implications for the design of child care policies to equitably support economic and child well-being for all eligible families are discussed.
  • Measurement of early literacy skills among monolingual English-speaking
           and Spanish-speaking language-minority children: A differential item
           functioning analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): J. Marc Goodrich, Christopher J. Lonigan, Sarah V. Alfonso A critical issue in psychological and educational testing is whether assessments provide reliable and valid estimates of ability for different populations of individuals. This issue may be particularly relevant for populations who are not native speakers of the language in which the assessment is written. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of a norm-referenced assessment of English early literacy skills for Spanish-speaking language-minority (LM) children. Participants for this study (1221 preschool children, 751 of whom were identified as Spanish-speaking LM children) completed the Phonological Awareness, Print Knowledge, and Definitional Vocabulary subtests of the Test of Preschool Early Literacy (TOPEL). Item response theory analysis was conducted to examine student performance on each subtest, and performance of monolingual English-speaking and Spanish-speaking LM children was compared using differential item functioning (DIF) analysis. Results indicated that there was minimal DIF for the Phonological Awareness and Print Knowledge subtests. Substantially more DIF was evident on the Definitional Vocabulary subtest, although presence of DIF was not consistently in favor of monolingual English-speaking or Spanish-speaking LM children. Moreover, effect size estimates of DIF indicated that, across most test items, the magnitude of DIF was small to moderate. Taken together, these findings indicate that the TOPEL can be used to obtain valid and reliable estimates of Spanish-speaking LM preschoolers’ English early literacy skills.
  • Early growth in expressive communication and behavior problems:
           Differential relations by ethnicity
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): Vanessa V. Volpe, Steven J. Holochwost, Veronica T. Cole, Cathi Propper The current study examined the association between early growth in expressive communication from 18 months (1.5 years: M = 1.59 years, SD = 0.08 years) to 36 months (3 years: M = 3.01 years, SD = 0.05) and internalizing and externalizing problems at 84 months (8 years: M = 7.79 years, SD = 0.31) and the differences in this association by ethnicity. We hypothesized that lower rates of early expressive communication growth from 18 to 36 months would be associated with more behavior problems in childhood, and that this association would be stronger for African American than European American children. The sample included 206 full-term healthy African American and European American children from the Durham Child Health and Development Study. Parents reported family demographics and children’s internalizing and externalizing behaviors via questionnaires, while children completed language assessments in the laboratory. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between growth in expressive communication and ethnicity for internalizing but not externalizing behavior, such that lower rates of expressive language growth were associated with increased internalizing behavior among African American children, but not among their European American peers. These findings suggest that the well-being of children from marginalized ethnic backgrounds may be disproportionately affected by reduced rates of language development, and that the provision of educational or clinical services for African American children in particular should consider the link between language skills and social and emotional well-being.
  • Development of the Home Executive Function Environment (HEFE) Scale:
           Assessing its relation to preschoolers' executive function
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): Irem Korucu, Emily Rolan, Amy R. Napoli, David J. Purpura, Sara A. Schmitt Executive function (EF) skills are important for the development of children’s school readiness and academic achievement. One important context where children may develop these skills is the home environment, and research has found that broad indicators of the home environment and parenting practices are related to the development of children’s EF. However, it is also important to investigate whether parents’ EF-specific practices with their children (e.g., playing concentration games) are related to children’s EF skills. In this study, we developed the Home EF Environment (HEFE) scale and analyzed it using factor analysis with a sample of 120 preschool children and one of their parents in the Unites States. Mean age for children ranged from 38 to 69 months (M = 56.65, SD = 6.54), and 52% were male. Additionally, we analyzed the associations between the parent-reported HEFE scale and children’s EF skills. Factor analysis indicated that EF-specific activities form a distinguishable part of the home environment. Further, a set of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the HEFE scale is related to a global measure of children’s EF over and above the home learning environment and general parenting practices, but not cognitive flexibility or inhibitory control. The potential importance of EF-specific activities in the home environment as well as study implications is addressed in the discussion.
  • Language interventions taught to caregivers in homes and classrooms: A
           review of intervention and implementation fidelity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 March 2019Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Christa Haring Biel, Jay Buzhardt, Jennifer A. Brown, Mollie K. Romano, Ciera M. Lorio, Kelly S. Windsor, Louise A. Kaczmarek, Rachel Gwin, Susan S. Sandall, Howard Goldstein The Bridging the Word Gap Research Network conducted a review of literature to identify effective interventions to facilitate the communication development of young children in hopes of identifying ways to reduce the well-documented word gap among children associated with socio-economic class. As part of this effort, we focused on the ways in which caregivers (teachers, parents, and others) were taught to implement evidence-based practices for facilitating language learning and use. Our goal was to characterize (a) the implementation fidelity, to describe the teaching functions and implementation procedures for teaching those language intervention strategies and (b) the intervention fidelity with which caregivers used strategies for facilitating their children’s language development. Because training procedures are not well described in the implementation and professional development literature, a new framework was developed and its feasibility was assessed in an attempt to characterize the teaching functions and specific implementation procedures used across studies. Among the 270 intervention studies reviewed, there were 124 in which caregivers were taught to implement language intervention strategies. Teaching functions included a variety of implementation procedures, with 95% of studies sharing information, 80% incorporating modeling, 65% providing feedback, and only 18% using prompting/guiding/scaffolding. Seventy-two of these studies (58%) reported intervention fidelity, with an increasing proportion reporting fidelity in recent years. Of these 72 studies, 81% were rated as having a ‘moderate to strong’ description of fidelity measures, and 50% reported high levels of intervention fidelity (i.e.,>70% fidelity). These analyses demonstrate the need for reporting more detailed and precise information on intervention fidelity and the teaching functions and procedures used to teach caregivers to implement language interventions.
  • Where do we go from here' Examining pediatric and population-level
           interventions to improve child outcomes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2019Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Ashley Darcy Mahoney, Scott R. McConnell, Anne L. Larson, Amy Becklenberg, Jennifer L. Stapel-Wax This paper summarizes and comments on emerging, but important, developments in practice, policy, and research focused on population-level interventions to address disparities in language development among young American children. This examination draws parallels between the need for broad scale Word Gap interventions and existing public health approaches to prevention and early intervention across many dimensions of child well-being.The authors conducted a review of the literature showing both the limited evidence base and promising aspects that predict efficacious implementation in pediatric and public health systems. Based on the results of a literature search, as well as the authors’ experiences in reviewing and developing interventions designed for implementation at scale, we describe some of the important considerations and challenges associated with designing and implementing a population-level effort. After a summarizing the results of the formal literature review, we present case studies of 2 community-based interventions with an evidence base for addressing the word gap as well as 4 promising programs that suggest innovative and scalable ideas for broader implementation, dissemination and research exploration. Further, we highlight the ways in which these interventions, individually and collectively, are showing promise and evidence for implementation in pediatric and public health settings. Interventions include components of universal contact with populations of interest, early and continuous contact with individuals within these populations, coordinated and aligned messaging and intervention across multiple service sectors, and use of both stakeholder engagement in intervention design and trusted messengers in intervention delivery. We close by providing suggestions for population-level interventions aimed at the word gap, including: universal contact with populations of interest, early and continuous contact.
  • Increasing deictic gesture use to support the language development of
           toddlers from high poverty backgrounds
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2019Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Mollie K. Romano, Kelly S. Windsor This study uses a single-case, multiple probe design to investigate the effects of a naturalistic intervention on deictic gesture use in toddlers who are from low-SES backgrounds. The month-long study included strategies drawn from the literature on early communication interventions to increase the rate of child gesture use in toddlers at-risk for later delays. These strategies include frequent modeling of deictic gestures (points, shows, reaches, and gives), creating opportunities for the child to gesture by using environmental arrangements, choices, and wait time, and by responding and expanding each gesture. All three child participants made gains in their rates of deictic gestures after the onset of intervention with no overlap between the intervention and baseline conditions. Children also made gains to gesture + vocalization combinations and gesture + word combinations in this short-term intervention. This study offers preliminary evidence that prelinguistic interventions for children at-risk can be used to increase rates of communication in toddlers in poverty.
  • Self-regulated learning: Is understanding learning a first step'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2019Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Jeein Jeong, Douglas Frye Preschoolers’ understanding of learning and its relation to their actual learning were tested. Eighty five 3–6-year-olds judged simple stories about whether characters would learn given different knowledge states and judged whether they themselves would learn in similar circumstances. The relations of this understanding to their actual learning in an experimental situation and to their teacher-rated learning behaviors in the classroom were assessed. There was an age related change in the understanding of learning. Also, preschoolers who used knowledge states to understand learning learned more in the test situation and displayed more positive learning behaviors in their classrooms, even with age controlled. The findings indicate that the development of knowledge-based understanding of learning may be important for children’s learning. Implications of the results for children’s self-regulated learning and education are discussed.
  • Effects of embedding decontextualized language during book-sharing
           delivered by fathers in Turkey
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2019Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Yagmur Seven, Howard Goldstein This study investigated the effects of embedding decontextualized language cues during book-sharing delivered by fathers living in low socioeconomic status (SES) in Turkey. A multiple baseline design across behaviors evaluated the effects of intervention on decontextualized language and dyadic interaction outcomes for four father–child dyads. Fathers demonstrated increased decontextualized language utterances in intervention and generalization sessions. All children tended to mirror their fathers decontextualized language utterances. After the intervention was introduced dyads with limited interactions in baseline showed significant increases and the contextualized talk in baseline was replaced with greater decontextualized talk. This study advances our understanding of how fathers can be more effective conversational partners with their preschool-aged children when the training and resources are provided.
  • Integrating metacognition and executive function to enhance young
           children’s perception of and agency in their learning
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2019Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Loren Marie Marulis, Sara T. Baker, David Whitebread Metacognition and executive function have evolved largely in parallel across disparate disciplines. Additionally, limited empirical evidence—particularly in early childhood—exists integrating the two constructs. However, theories of both implicate regulation of lower-order processes providing greater flexibility to cognition and behavior by increasing focus on perceptions and understanding of one’s learning and self-regulatory agency over habitual reactions to the environment and automaticity. Furthermore, considerable research identifies both metacognition and executive function as important processes that predict positive outcomes including academic achievement and learning. In the current paper, we review extant associations between early metacognition and executive function and theorize about their integration with the purpose of informing young children’s ability to be active agents of their own learning and development. In addition, we argue that metacognition and executive function interventions can provide pertinent and important evidence regarding the development of enhanced perceptions of one’s learning and agency. Specifically, we propose that by integrating metacognition and executive function in developmental theory, research, instruction, and interventions, children’s awareness and control, or agency, in relation to their own learning can be enhanced. To this end, ways to study and integrate these skills are suggested, with an emphasis on how researchers and practitioners can bring metacognition and executive function together—in early childhood—to enhance perceptions of learning and agency and contribute to theory and practice across disciplinary boundaries.
  • The developmental landscape of early parent-focused language intervention
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2019Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Lauren B. Adamson, Ann P. Kaiser, Catherine S. Tamis-LaMonda, Margaret Tresch Owen, Nevena Dimitrova This essay stresses the importance of infusing a developmental perspective into the design, implementation, and evaluation of parent-focused language interventions to promote young children’s language success. Guided by Waddington’s (1957) heuristic image of the “epigenetic landscape” and drawing on empirical research, we propose eight premises about early language development and illustrate how each premise might inform interventions. Three premises address the developmental pathways to language; two highlight the essential role of the environment. The final three premises focus on the child and parent as the essential developmental unit and on the collaborative, transactional, developmental processes that facilitate language acquisition. These premises suggest that intervention should begin well before first words, address the social foundations of language, and support parents in their unique role as they directly and indirectly immerse children in the developmental landscape of language intervention.
  • Reconstructing readiness: Young children’s priorities for their
           early school adjustment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2019Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Christine O’Farrelly, Ailbhe Booth, Mimi Tatlow-Golden, Beth Barker Young children in communities facing socioeconomic disadvantage are increasingly targeted by school readiness interventions. Interventions are stronger if they address stakeholders’ priorities, yet children’s priorities for early school adjustment are rarely accounted for in intervention design including selection of outcome measures. The Children’s Thoughts about School Study (CTSS) examined young children’s accounts of their early school experiences, and their descriptions of what a new school starter would need to know. Mixed-method interviews were conducted with 42 kindergarten children in a socioeconomically deprived suburb of Dublin, Ireland. First, inductive thematic analysis identified 25 priorities across four domains: feeling able and enthusiastic for school; navigating friendships and victimisation; supportive environments with opportunities to play; bridging school and family life. Second, deductive analysis compared children’s priorities at item level against a school readiness outcome battery. Children’s priorities were assigned to three groups: (1) assessed by outcome measures (core academic competencies, aspects of self-regulation); (2) partially assessed (self-efficacy, social skills for friendship formation and avoiding victimisation, creative thinking, play); and (3) not assessed by outcome measures (school liking, school environment, family-school involvement). This analysis derived from children’s own perspectives suggests that readiness interventions aiming to support early school adjustment would benefit from considering factors children consider salient. It offers recommendations for advancing conceptual frameworks, improving assessment, and identifying new targets for supporting children and schools. In doing so we provide a platform for children’s priorities to be integrated into the policies and practices that shape their early lives.
  • Using self report surveys to measure PreK children’s academic
           orientations: A psychometric evaluation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2019Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Erik Ruzek, Jamie Jirout, Katerina Schenke, Virginia Vitiello, Jessica Vick Whittaker, Robert Pianta As research continues to show the benefits of high-quality early childhood education, it is important to ensure that measures are available to assess the full impacts of these programs for student outcomes. Many achievement measures and observational measures exist, but there is a need for measures of children’s experiences at the preschool level. Using data from 1102 preschool children, we evaluated the reliability and validity of a new measure of children’s academic orientations, including their feelings about their teacher, school enjoyment, growth mindset, and perceived academic competence. We gave children a one-on-one 12-item assessment in which they responded to survey questions on a 3-point Likert scale. The psychometric qualities of the scale were evaluated using item factor analysis, invariance testing of the scale across important demographic groups, examination of item thresholds, and correlations of the scales with teacher-reported measures. Overall, the measures adhered to the hypothesized factor structure, were invariant across the diverse demographic groups in the sample, and correlated with teacher-reported outcomes in hypothesized ways. Results from the psychometric analysis are being used to update the scale for the next iteration.
  • Enriching home language environment among families from low-SES
           backgrounds: A randomized controlled trial of a home visiting curriculum
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Christy Y.Y. Leung, Marc W. Hernandez, Dana L. Suskind This study evaluated the efficacy of the six-month 3Ts Home Visiting (3Ts-HV) curriculum, designed to empower socioeconomically disadvantaged caregivers with evidence-based knowledge and strategies in order to enrich the home language environment for their young children’s cognitive and language development. Using a matched pairs randomized controlled trial design, caregiver–child dyads were randomized into the 3Ts-HV intervention (n = 79) or Healthy Lifestyle control (n = 78) condition. Analyses of covariance revealed that compared with their control counterparts, the 3Ts-HV caregivers were more knowledgeable about early childhood cognitive and language development, and provided more language exposure for and engaged in more conversational turn-takings with their child. The 3Ts-HV caregivers also utilized more praise, explanations, and open-ended questions but less criticism, physical control, and intrusiveness than their control counterparts when interacting with their child. Findings provided empirical evidence supporting the immediate efficacy of the 3Ts-HV intervention in enhancing caregiver knowledge, the quantity of linguistic inputs, and the quality of caregiver interactions in the context of low-SES households, controlling for caregiver education level, language skills, and marital status.
  • Multi-component professional development for educators in an Early Head
           Start: Explicit vocabulary instruction during interactive shared book
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Ciera M. Lorio, Juliann J. Woods This multiple-baseline, single case design study investigated the effects of a multi-component professional development program to increase educators’ use of explicit vocabulary instruction during small group interactive shared book reading sessions in Early Head Start classrooms. The effects of the program were examined across four educators and 2–3 of their students (n = 9 students). Educators were provided with a professional development program, which included an introduction to content through direct teaching, opportunities for practice during classroom routines, and individualized coaching with feedback. Baseline book reading sessions resulted in consistently low levels of educator intervention fidelity based on fidelity checklists, followed by immediate increases in fidelity upon introduction to the program. Students showed receptive vocabulary gains for words targeted during intervention and maintenance sessions. Educators found the program to be feasible for classroom use, and they planned to continue using the targeted strategies in the future. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
  • Learning to read at home: Kindergarten children’s report in relation to
           observed parent behaviour
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Mary Ann Evans, Laura Hulak In this study 65 kindergarten children in southwestern Ontario, Canada were asked how they were learning to read at home and observed with their parents in shared book reading. How parents responded to their children’s word reading difficulties in these interactions was coded. Children reported that learning to read was important and offered several different ways that they were learning to read at home, most frequently being their parents reading to/with them, telling them the words, and having them sound out words. Home observations showed that the way parents responded to children’s reading errors was in accordance with the child reports. These results suggest that young children can reflect on their learning process and can be useful informants on literacy practices in the home. They also suggest that young children can isolate parental behaviours that help them learn to read, and that in doing so, may incorporate these parental behaviours into their conceptions of parenting to guide their own behaviours as parents in the future.
  • Increasing preschoolers’ vocabulary development through a streamlined
           teacher professional development intervention
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Barbara A. Wasik, Annemarie H. Hindman Preschool teachers from a high-poverty, urban school district were trained to implement Story Talk, a book reading intervention designed to increase children’s vocabulary and language development using supportive materials and strategic individualized coaching. Thirty-five teachers were randomly assigned by site to the intervention (20) or the control condition (15). Teachers in the intervention were provided with training; one-to-one, bi-monthly coaching; and Story Maps that included target vocabulary, open-ended questions to promote conversations during book reading, and suggested extension activities that support use of target vocabulary. The results suggested that teachers in the intervention increased on the global quality of their instruction, as well as on their fidelity to the project’s strategies and their use of target vocabulary words. In addition, children in the intervention classrooms performed significantly better on measures of taught vocabulary words, and HLM analyses found gains on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-4 (d = 0.19) and the Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test-4 (d = 0.14), both standardized measures of vocabulary development. The results suggest that Story Talk holds promise as a relatively resource-conservative PD intervention that can be implemented with fidelity and can significantly improve children’s vocabulary development, especially among children in high-poverty schools.
  • Evaluating socioeconomic gaps in preschoolers’ vocabulary, syntax and
           language process skills with the Quick Interactive Language Screener
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Dani Levine, Amy Pace, Rufan Luo, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek, Roberta Michnick Golinkoff, Jill de Villiers, Aquiles Iglesias, Mary Sweig Wilson Early language competence is a reliable and powerful predictor of children’s success in school, and word gaps linked to socioeconomic status disparities have cascading effects on academic outcomes. While early research – such as the work of Hart and Risley (1995) – focused on gaps in vocabulary, growing evidence reveals wide gaps in syntax as well. Language is an interdependent developing system of vocabulary, syntax, and language processes, yet existing research has not evaluated how SES gaps compare for these language components or how these components are linked for children from lower- and higher-SES families. Such a profile is sorely needed to understand the course of language development in all children. A new language measure, the Quick Interactive Language Screener (QUILS), expands on other measures by evaluating preschoolers’ vocabulary and syntax knowledge, along with their language-learning process skills. This screener was administered to a large, diverse sample of English-speaking children ages 3 through 5. Results indicated that the effect of SES was significant and comparable for all three language components, at all ages tested. Additionally, correlations among syntax, vocabulary and process were robust for low- and mid-SES children. These findings highlight the importance of looking beyond vocabulary to language syntax and process to better understand the SES gap in language.
  • Encouraging parent–child book sharing: Potential additive benefits of
           literacy promotion in health care and the community
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Caitlin F. Canfield, Anne Seery, Adriana Weisleder, Catherine Workman, Carolyn Brockmeyer Cates, Erin Roby, Rachel Payne, Shari Levine, Leora Mogilner, Benard Dreyer, Alan Mendelsohn Children from low-income families are more likely than their higher income peers to show delays in language and literacy skills, both at school entry and across the lifespan. Programs aimed at promoting language and literacy activities in the home, particularly programs that combine distribution of print materials with support and guidance for using them, have been effective in decreasing the word gap, leading to increased school readiness and early literacy. The current study examined the impact of such a program based in pediatric healthcare, Reach Out and Read (ROR), on parents’ use of community resources that also provide access to print—namely, the public library—in the context of a citywide initiative to link literacy resources for low-income families. Effects of both ROR and the library, both individually and combined, on parents’ literacy activities at home were then examined. Significant associations between receiving ROR, using the public library, and parent–child book sharing were found. Implications for intervention and policy are discussed.
  • Measuring cultural aspects of teacher–child interactions to foster
           equitable developmental opportunities for young Latino children
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 December 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Bryant Jensen, Rebeca Mejía-Arauz, Sara Grajeda, Sara García Toranzo, Jorge Encinas, Ross Larsen Debates continue about how to teach young Latinos and other minoritized children in the US. Latinos are a compelling case because of (1) their size and (2) their paradoxical development: strong social competencies yet relatively weak academic development. A suggestion is to provide young Latinos with classroom experiences that resonate with the ways they are socialized at home, yet cultural dimensions of teaching in early education are underspecified and reliable and valid measures do not exist. We frame equitable teacher–child interactions as the combination of generic and cultural aspects, and as a way to utilize the social assets of Latinos in classrooms to enhance their academic development. We refine an observation protocol—the Classroom Assessment of Sociocultural Interactions (CASI)—by integrating cultural concepts from the Learning by Observing and Pitching In (LOPI) paradigm with videos of K-1 classrooms in Central Mexico, and conduct a series of psychometric analyses. We find good model fit and moderate reliability for the CASI and discuss research and practice implications to foster equitable developmental opportunities for Latino children across early education settings.
  • Toward an ecobehavioral model of early language development
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Andrea L.B. Ford, Marianne Elmquist, Alyssa M. Merbler, Amanda Kriese, Kelsey K. Will, Scott R. McConnell Language development is an important milestone in early childhood that has implications for later achievement. Although a variety of contemporary models have been offered to describe the process of language acquisition, ecobehavioral models provide descriptive and actionable information on both the causal mechanisms of behavior change and development, as well as variables of influence (e.g., settings, environment, policies). Grounded within sociolinguistic theory and empirical literature, we propose and describe an ecobehavioral model of language development that assumes language is learned through the opportunities afforded by caregiver–child interactions. Functional variables of (a) caregiver knowledge, beliefs, and behavior, (b) environmental components and resource availability, and (c) policies and practices are further described as increasingly distal influences on the timing, frequency, and quality of these interactions. Implications and future directions are discussed.
  • Randomized control trial of an internet-based parenting intervention for
           mothers of infants
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Edward G. Feil, Kathleen Baggett, Betsy Davis, Susan Landry, Lisa Sheeber, Craig Leve, Ursula Johnson Early parenting home-visiting interventions have been found to be highly effective in promoting child development. Yet, there are many obstacles in the implementation of home-visiting programs, including travel and access to trained providers. Internet-based interventions can reach many parents of infants to overcome these barriers. The objective of this randomized control trial was to evaluate the impact of the Internet-adaptation of the Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) program, a preventive intervention program to strengthen effective parenting practices that promote early language, cognitive, and social development. Mothers in low-income environments (N = 164) of infants were randomized to either (a) an Internet-facilitated PALS parenting intervention or (b) an Internet-facilitated attention control condition. Measures included direct observations of maternal behavior with her infant, questionnaires about maternal functioning and parenting knowledge, and real-time program usage. Experimental participants demonstrated significantly greater increases in parenting knowledge and observed language-supportive parenting behaviors with a correlated positive change in infant language behaviors. Effects were pronounced when participants received a greater dosage of the intervention. Results suggest that the Internet-based translation of the PALS program is effective as a remotely delivered intervention for economically disadvantaged families to strengthen early parenting behaviors that promote infant social communication and child language development.
  • Community contexts and utilization of early childhood care and education
           among Mexican-origin children
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 December 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Elizabeth Ackert, Robert Ressler, Arya Ansari, Robert Crosnoe Children of Mexican origin are under-enrolled in early childhood education programs relative to Black and White children, which is problematic given the potential benefits of early childhood education. To better understand this under-enrollment in ways that can inform efforts to change it in the future, this study examined how utilization of early care and education programs varied among Mexican-origin families according to the community contexts where they lived. Integrating data on Mexican-origin children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n = 1100) with community data from the U.S. Census Bureau, logistic regressions revealed that the odds of enrollment in early care and education programs among Mexican-origin children increased as the supply of childcare centers in their counties increased. Holding childcare center supply constant, their enrollment also increased as the percent of co-ethnic Latinos/as in the county increased, especially for children from the least acculturated Mexican-origin families. Overall, these results suggest that ethnic enclaves might link Mexican-origin families to early childhood care and education programs for their children and that this role might be most important for families least likely to be connected to U.S. institutions.
  • Beliefs, values, and practices of Mexican immigrant families towards
           language and learning in toddlerhood: Setting the foundation for early
           childhood education
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Lauren M. Cycyk, Carol Scheffner Hammer In order to enhance the cultural responsivity of supports offered by ECE programs to the rising numbers of children from Latino backgrounds, a foundational understanding of the culturally-nuanced beliefs, values, and reported practices of Latino families towards early language and learning is needed. The purpose of this qualitative study was to provide this information for the largest subgroup of young Latinos in the US: children of Mexican immigrant families from lower-income homes. Thirty-Five Mexican mothers of toddler-aged children participated in semi-structured interviews to gather information on children’s everyday socialization experiences. Themes relevant to children’s development were identified for each of the components of the activity setting framework (Gallimore, Goldenberg, & Weisner, 1993): underlying cultural values and beliefs regarding language and learning, activity types, activity participants, activity goals, and social scripts of the activities. The findings offer new information on how families support early development of children’s communication skills, in particular, and also align with and extend previous research with Mexican families. Moreover, several strengths of families in supporting development were revealed, including a focus on tight-knit families that supported collective child rearing, conduct and social behavior, personal identities, educational success, language learning, and Spanish and English language acquisition. This study has implications for ECE programs that serve families of Mexican immigrant origin, in terms of addressing families’ strengths in ways that appreciate their sociocultural and linguistic backgrounds and best prepare their children for the expectations of the mainstream educational system in the US.
  • Enriched early childhood experiences: Latina mothers’ perceptions and
           use of center-Based child care
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Elizabeth A. Shuey, Tama Leventhal Latino children in the U.S., particularly from immigrant families, are less likely than their peers to attend early care and education (ECE) programs, but this trend may be shifting. This study used longitudinal, ethnographic data from Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three City Study to explore low-income Latina immigrant mothers’ ECE decisions, including how they learn about, perceive, and select ECE (N = 31). Results of analysis employing grounded theory and narrative approaches revealed two interesting paradoxes. First, for many mothers, center-based child care was viewed as distinctly different from more informal types of non-maternal care and thus, not perceived as a barrier to family time. Second, mothers praised the learning opportunities and education their children received in formal center-based programs, but rarely linked it to preparation for elementary school or the transition to kindergarten. These results are discussed in terms of consistencies with prior quantitative and qualitative research and new directions for research and policy aimed at promoting the well-being of Latino immigrant children and families.
  • It’s more than just fun and games: Play-based mathematics activities
           for Head Start families
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Geetha B. Ramani, Nicole R. Scalise Discrepancies in early mathematical knowledge between children from different socioeconomic backgrounds have been found before the start of kindergarten. The early home environment is one context that can address these discrepancies. This study examined whether an informal mathematical activity that has been successful at promoting children’s numerical knowledge could be translated into a home activity for families from lower-income backgrounds. Families from Head Start programs (n = 39) were randomly assigned to play either a numerical magnitude comparison game or a shape and color matching game. Results showed that playing the numerical magnitude comparison game did not improve children’s numerical knowledge, although playing the shape and color matching game did improve children’s shape knowledge. However, parental reports of the frequency of game playing at home related to children’s learning from both games. Analyses of audio recordings of the families playing the games at home revealed there was wide variability in how parents assisted the children during the card game play. Results are discussed in terms of the benefits and challenges of mathematical interventions targeting the home context.
  • Availability of preschool in Chicago’s Hispanic-concentrated
           communities: A study of supply and directors’ support for universal
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Anna C. Colaner I use multiple datasets to examine disparities in the availability of preschool across Hispanic-concentrated and non-Hispanic-concentrated Chicago ZIP Codes. First, I examine levels of preschool supply in Chicago ZIPs (n = 55). I find that communities with higher shares of Hispanic populations and higher rates of child poverty have had fewer slots per child than other communities across time (2008–2013). Using a separate but complementary dataset, I then explore Chicago area preschool directors’ preference for universal, state-funded preschool (n = 225). Directors serving in majority Hispanic communities are over 20% more likely to support universal public preschool than those serving in majority White communities. Together, these results suggest that there is room to increase the availability of state-funded preschool options for Hispanic-concentrated communities, and that directors serving such communities are open to increasing universal state-funded public preschool.
  • Frequency of instructional practices in rural prekindergarten classrooms
           and associations with child language and literacy skills
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): Mary E. Bratsch-Hines, Margaret Burchinal, Ellen Peisner-Feinberg, Ximena Franco Although publicly-funded prekindergarten (pre-k) programs have been designed to promote children’s school readiness, programs have tended to support early literacy skills to a greater degree than early language skills. Given the importance of both language and literacy skills for children’s reading acquisition and academic achievement, the present study sought to understand whether different pre-k classroom instructional practices were related to gains in language and/or literacy skills. Teacher–child language exchanges, children’s engagement in domain-specific learning activities, and the use of different types of activity settings were examined in 63 pre-k classrooms for 455 children living in six rural counties in the Southeastern United States. Hierarchical linear models showed that gains in expressive language were positively associated with teacher–child language exchanges and negatively associated with large-group activities. Gains in phonemic awareness and initial-sound knowledge were positively related to sound-focused activities and small-group settings. Gains in reading decoding skills were also positively associated with small-group settings. Implications for research, teacher practice, and professional development are discussed.
  • Peer victimization, aggression, and depression symptoms in preschoolers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): Amanda Krygsman, Tracy Vaillancourt Our primary aim was to test the developmentally-based interpersonal model of depression in preschool-age children. Socio-behavioural deficits (i.e., non-normative use of physical and relational aggression) were expected to interact with relationship disturbances (i.e., physical and relational peer victimization) in relation to depression symptoms in preschool-age children. We tested this theory using multiple regression in a sample of 198 preschool children (Mage 33.61 months, SDage = 5 months) using a multi-informant approach. Depression symptoms and physical aggression were measured by the Caregiver–Teacher Report form and relational aggression was measured by the Preschool Social Behaviour Scale. Physical and relational victimization were measured by the Preschool Peer Victimization Measure — Teacher Report and observations of peer victimization and aggression from the Early Childhood Play Project observation system. As a secondary aim, we examined the moderating role of sex. When children were relationally victimized by peers, engaging in high relational aggression was related to depression symptoms in the teacher-reported model; whereas physical aggression did not moderate the relation between physical peer victimization and depression symptoms. These findings were not replicated across reporters. No sex differences were found. Results supported the application of the developmentally-based interpersonal model of depression in preschool-aged children. Those experiencing relational victimization and engaging in relational aggression in preschool may be at risk for heightened concurrent depression symptoms.
  • The effects of questions during shared-reading: Do demand-level and
           placement really matter'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): Jan Lenhart, Wolfgang Lenhard, Enni Vaahtoranta, Sebastian Suggate Shared-reading fosters vocabulary development, although research has yielded mixed results regarding the effects of both demand-level (i.e., level of abstraction) and question placement on word learning. Different hypotheses drawing on broader theoretical frameworks have been proposed to explain individual findings. To test predictions made by these hypotheses, we read short stories to a sample of four- to six-year-old children (N = 86) in one-to-one reading sessions. We conducted a 2 × 3 mixed experiment with question placement (within the story vs. after the story) as within-subjects and demand-level (low vs. high vs. scaffolding-like by increasing from low to high) as a between-subjects factor. As additional controls, we utilized: (a) a control group in a just-reading condition without questions, and (b) control-words that were never accompanied by questions. Measures included receptive and expressive target- and control-vocabulary at the pre-and post-test along with general vocabulary and phonological working memory. Results indicate that question conditions were associated with higher gains for target-words at immediate and delayed post-test, but not for control-words. Contrary to proposed hypotheses, question placement or demand-level did not exert significant effects and they did not interact with language skills. However, children with greater general vocabulary showed most learning gains across conditions.
  • Children’s physical activity and the preschool physical environment: The
           moderating role of gender
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): Suvi Määttä, Jessica Gubbels, Carola Ray, Leena Koivusilta, Mari Nislin, Nina Sajaniemi, Maijaliisa Erkkola, Eva Roos The physical environment in preschool, covering all indoor and outdoor equipment, and the surfaces of the preschool yard, may have a large potential for increasing children’s physical activity (PA). However, it is less clear which specific physical environmental factors are associated with children’s PA. Cross-sectional associations between the individual observed items (e.g. fixed and portable equipment, surfaces, terrain in the grounds) as well as composite scores for the PA equipment on the one hand, and children’s PA, measured by accelerometers, on the other, were investigated in a sample of 3–6 year old children (N = 778) attending preschool in Finland. Having balance equipment and trampolines in group facilities, having balance equipment, gym mats and sticks in the gym and having skipping ropes, sand and mostly hilly terrain on the outdoor playground were associated with children’s higher PA, regardless of gender. On the contrary, having gravel as the terrain in the playground and having a seesaw outdoors were associated with lower PA levels, regardless of gender. Four significant interactions with gender were found, but none of the environmental predictors remained significant in the post-hoc gender-stratified analyses. Variety in PA equipment and playground terrain may be beneficial for increasing children’s PA in preschools.
  • Child temperamental anger, mother–child interactions, and
           socio-emotional functioning at school entry
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): Marie-Soleil Sirois, Annie Bernier, Jean-Pascal Lemelin This study investigated the role of temperamental anger in toddlerhood in the prediction of child socio-emotional functioning at school entry and the moderating function of mother–child interactions in these predictive associations. The sample included 86 children. To assess child temperamental anger, mothers and fathers completed the Anger proneness scale of the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire when children were aged 2 years. The quality of mother–child interactions was also assessed when children were 2 years old with the Mutually Responsive Orientation scale. Child internalizing, externalizing and prosocial behaviors were reported by parents in kindergarten and first grade with the Child Behavior Checklist and the Socio-Affective Profile. The results indicated that anger proneness predicted higher internalizing and externalizing behavior, and lower prosocial behavior. In the case of internalizing behavior, the effect of anger was qualified by an interaction with the quality of mother–child interaction: anger proneness predicted higher internalizing behavior only among children who had higher-quality interactions with their mothers. These findings suggest that simultaneous consideration of temperament and parent–child relationships early on in development may help identify children at risk for experiencing adjustment difficulties at school entry, allowing for prompt intervention before difficulties crystallize.
  • Promoting narrative competence in kindergarten: An intervention study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): Giuliana Pinto, Christian Tarchi, Lucia Bigozzi Oral narratives are an early and pervasive aspect of children’s life in both, family and educational contexts, and children’s narrative competence should be recognised as an aspect to be promoted through targeted interventions. This study analyses the efficacy of an original narrative competence intervention for kindergarten children, based on an embedded-explicit approach. The participants in this study were 470 children attending the last year of kindergarten, assigned to two groups. Children’s narrative competence (structure, coherence and cohesion) were assessed twice, at the pre- and post-test stage. Children’s conceptual knowledge of the writing system was also assessed and included as a covariate. The experimental group received a 3-month narrative competence intervention targeting genre awareness, and both macro-structural and micro-structural components of narrative competence. According to the results of the complex samples GLMs conducted on 376 children, the experimental group displayed a higher improvement in narrative competence, in all three components, structure, coherence and cohesion. Overall, the study confirms the beneficial impact of a multi-componential intervention on narrative competence that targets both, macro- and micro-structural components, and improves children's knowledge of the conventional rules that characterise the specific genre.
  • Guatemalan Mayan book-sharing styles and their relation to parents’
           schooling and children’s narrative contributions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Ana María Nieto, Diana Leyva, Hirokazu Yoshikawa Little is known about parents' book-sharing styles in indigenous communities undergoing social and cultural change. This study investigated Guatemalan Mayan parents' book-sharing styles and their relation to parents' schooling experience and children's narrative contributions. Thirty parents and their first-grade children (ages 7–9) were audiotaped sharing a worded picture book. Most parents either adopted the role of the sole narrator (40%) or shared the role of the narrator with their children (40%); other parents focused on teaching literacy skills (20%). Guatemalan Mayan parents with greater schooling experience were more likely to adopt the sole-narrator style than other styles. Children whose parents adopted the sole-narrator style contributed significantly less to the story (both in amount and type of new information provided) than children whose parents adopted other styles. Implications for family literacy programs working with Guatemalan Mayan and other indigenous communities are discussed.
  • Measurement of self-regulation in early childhood: Relations between
           laboratory and performance-based measures of effortful control and
           executive functioning
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2nd Quarter 2019Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 47Author(s): Brenna Lin, Jeffrey Liew, Marisol Perez Effortful control (EC) and executive functioning (EF) are two focal constructs in the study of self-regulation in early childhood. Given a number of conceptual and empirical overlaps between EC and EF, this study examined the associations between commonly used laboratory and performance-based measures of EC and EF in early childhood. Children (N = 244; age 4–6 years) completed the Shape Stroop, Snack Delay and Toy Delay tasks, as well as the Conner’s Kiddie-Continuous Performance Task (KCPT). Partial correlations and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were conducted to assess the relations between performance on the EC and EF tasks and the factor structure of self-regulation. Convergent and divergent validity were found amongst the performance-based measures. In addition, results from CFA support a one-factor model of self-regulation with “hot” EC and “cool” EF loading onto a general self-regulation factor. Study results highlight the similarities that exist between EC and EF during early childhood and the need for integrative, whole-child approaches in order to understand the neurophysiological and behavioral underpinnings of self-regulation and its development.
  • Building number sense among English learners: A multisite randomized
           controlled trial of a Tier 2 kindergarten mathematics intervention
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Christian T. Doabler, Ben Clarke, Derek Kosty, Keith Smolkowski, Evangeline Kurtz-Nelson, Hank Fien, Scott K. Baker English learners (ELs) represent a rapidly growing subgroup in US schools. Yet, converging evidence suggests that a concerning number of ELs struggle to reach proficient levels in mathematics. The purpose of this multi-site randomized controlled trial was to examine the treatment effects of a Tier 2 mathematics intervention on the mathematical outcomes of kindergarten ELs with mathematics difficulties (MD). Additionally, recognizing that students differently benefit from early mathematics interventions, the study also examined whether specific student-level variables predicted ELs’ differential response to the intervention. A total of 295 ELs from 138 kindergarten classrooms participated in the study. Findings indicated overall treatment effects on five mathematics outcome measures. Results also suggested that the intervention worked equally well across a diverse sample of at-risk ELs with varying mathematics skills and English proficiency levels. Implications in terms of using principles of explicit instruction to improve the design of mathematics interventions and furthering the knowledge base of effective instruction for ELs with MD are discussed.
  • What do parents want from preschool' Perspectives of low-income
           Latino/a immigrant families
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Arya Ansari, Lilla K. Pivnick, Elizabeth T. Gershoff, Robert Crosnoe, Diana Orozco-Lapray With a qualitative approach drawing from four focus groups, this study explored what aspects of preschool were valued most by 30 low-income Latino/a immigrant parents with children enrolled in a state-funded preschool program in Texas. Beyond the push and pull factors of necessity, convenience, and supply, parents reported valuing the responsiveness of the school to families’ needs and concerns, the provision of a safe and developmentally appropriate environment, the role of preschool in both care and education, the incorporation of parents within the school, and the school’s capacity for developing parents’ human and navigational capital. Even though parents saw great value in preschool for preparing their children for school and helping themselves as parents, there was also fear and mistrust in neighborhood schools that was rooted in discrimination and long-term educational inequality.
  • Parenting quality at two developmental periods in early childhood and
           their association with child development
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Heather A. Knauer, Emily J. Ozer, William H. Dow, Lia C.H. Fernald Parenting quality—a child’s milieu of warmth, responsiveness, and stimulation—promotes a young child’s cognitive, social, and emotional development. An unanswered question, however, is about the relative contributions of parenting quality in infancy and in early childhood to disparities in child cognitive and socioemotional development by age five, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Understanding these relationships could inform better targeting of parenting programs in LMICs to yield greater effect size and consistency in improvements in early childhood development. This longitudinal study examines parenting quality and early childhood development among 603 children from poor, rural communities in Mexico who were assessed during infancy (4–18 months) and prekindergarten (3–5 years). Parenting quality (low, moderate, or high) was measured using the HOME Inventory in infancy and the Family Care Indicators (FCI) during prekindergarten. Child development was assessed in infancy using the Extended Ages and Stages Questionnaire (EASQ) and the ASQ Socioemotional scale, and during prekindergarten with the McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities. We found that parenting quality measures above the 25th percentile during infancy and prekindergarten were independently and significantly associated with a 0.26–0.30 SD increase in McCarthy scores at ages 3–5 years in adjusted analyses. Parental warmth and responsiveness in infancy were significant predictors of child development at ages 3–5 years, but parental stimulating practices and availability of learning materials in the home were not. Conversely, during the prekindergarten period, parental stimulating practices were significant predictors of concurrent child development. Our findings support the importance parenting quality throughout early childhood, and that the effect of aspects of parenting may vary from infancy to prekindergarten. Programs targeting parents of young children should tailor their curriculum to the specific ages of the targeted children.
  • Mothers’ and Fathers’ Language Input from 6 to 36 Months in Rural
           Two-Parent-Families: Relations to children’s kindergarten achievement
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Elizabeth Reynolds, Lynne Vernon-Feagans, Mary Bratsch-Hines, Claire E. Baker, The Family Life Project Key Investigators Research has highlighted the role of parental language input during early childhood as a way to facilitate children’s early vocabulary skills. However, few studies have examined the relationship between the specific features of both mothers’ and fathers’ early language input during a shared book experience and children’s kindergarten achievement (i.e., vocabulary, literacy, and math). Using an economically and culturally diverse sample of 567 children from the Family Life Project, this study examined whether mothers’ and fathers’ number of different words, mean length of utterance, and wh- questions from 6 to 36 months predicted children’s kindergarten achievement. Multiple regression models, examining mothers’ and fathers’ language separately and in combined models, indicated that both mothers’ and fathers’ language input was related with children’s kindergarten achievement, beyond a host of demographic controls. In the combined models, mothers’ mean length of utterance and wh- questions were significantly associated with vocabulary and their mean length of utterance was significantly associated with math outcomes in kindergarten. Fathers’ mean length of utterance and wh- questions were significantly associated with vocabulary, and their wh- questions were significantly associated with math outcomes in kindergarten. Implications for researchers, practitioners, and policymakers are discussed.
  • The home math environment: More than numeracy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Erica L Zippert, Bethany Rittle-Johnson The goal of the current study is to develop a more complete understanding of the early home math environment, encompassing both numeracy and non-numeracy aspects of that environment. Parents of preschoolers (n = 63) were surveyed about their support of three components of early mathematics knowledge (i.e., numeracy, spatial, and pattern) as well as parents’ math-related beliefs about themselves and their children. Children were administered a broad math knowledge assessment which included a numeracy subscale, and individual measures of spatial and patterning skills in the fall (concurrently). Broad math knowledge was measured again in the spring of the preschool year. Parents indicated providing some support of early math development through numeracy, spatial, and patterning activities, with a stronger emphasis on numeracy than pattern and space. Parents’ child-specific ability beliefs were related to their numeracy, pattern, and broad math support, while their parent-specific ability beliefs were related to their spatial support. Parent support was rarely linked to child skills, except that numeracy support related to concurrent numeracy knowledge. Findings suggest that although parents do support a broad range of early math skills at home, parents tend to prioritize supporting early numeracy. Parents’ beliefs, especially about their child’s academic abilities, may influence components of the early home math environment, but future research is needed to better understand the relations between parent’s academic beliefs and the home math environment they create.
  • Testing the ‘thresholds’ of preschool education quality on
           child outcomes in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Kejian Li, Peng Zhang, Bi Ying Hu, Margaret R. Burchinal, Xitao Fan, Jinliang Qin Preschool education has expanded rapidly in recent years China, with much more attention to access than quality of care. This raises raises concerns about whether increased preschool enrollment alone will achieve the goal of improving children’s early learning and development. This paper reports on the quality of preschool education and its associations with child outcomes based on a national-wide representative sample of 2110 children (age 3–6 years) attending 428 classrooms of 193 preschools in eight provinces of China. Analyses tested associations between a Chinese preschool quality measure, Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (CECERS) and a Chinese measure of early development, Child Developmental Scale of China (CDSC) language, early math, and social skills scores. Results identified quality thresholds such that the CECERS Teaching and Interactions was a stronger predictor of all outcomes in higher than lower quality classrooms. Subgroup analyses indicated that high quality preschool education had significant compensatory effects on rural children’s developmentFindings are used to argue for the need for clearly defined and rigorously implemented national baseline quality standards for preschool education in China, and that high quality preschool education serving rural children should be prioritized to narrow the achievement gap between rural and urban children.
  • Family-centered measures of access to early care and education
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Elizabeth E. Davis, Won F. Lee, Aaron Sojourner This study proposes new family-centered measures of access to early care and education (ECE) services with respect to quantity, cost, and quality and uses them to assess disparities in access across locations and socio-demographic groups in Minnesota. These measures are distance-based and use available geographic data to account for the fact that families can cross arbitrary administrative boundaries, such as census tract or ZIP code lines, and thus better reflect the real experiences of families than conventional area-based measures. Combining synthetic family locations simulated from Census demographic and geographic data and information on ECE provider locations, we calculate travel time between the locations of families with young children and ECE providers to measure families’ access to providers of different types. The results yield a map of areas with low and high relative ECE access. The average family in Minnesota lives in a location where there are nearly two children for every nearby slot of licensed capacity, however, access to ECE supply varies considerably at the local level. The supply measure can also serve as a weight useful in computing family-centered measures of ECE quality and access costs, incorporating both prices and travel costs, to further characterize the local ECE market from the perspective of families. Improving the measures of variation in families’ access to ECE quantity, cost, and quality is valuable as policymakers consider expansions to public supports for early learning and ECE entrepreneurs decide where to invest.
  • Dimensionality of preschoolers’ informal mathematical abilities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Trelani F. Milburn, Christopher J. Lonigan, Lydia DeFlorio, Alice Klein Recent research examining children’s early mathematical abilities has focused primarily on number and operations (e.g., counting, addition) with considerably less attention directed to the role of other possible dimensions of early mathematical abilities, such as, measurement, geometry, and patterning. The current study examined the dimensionality of informal mathematical abilities by conducting categorical confirmatory factor analysis (CCFA) using data from a large sample of preschool children from low-income families (N = 1630; Mean age = 4.46 years, SD = .37) using the Child Math Assessment (CMA; Klein & Starkey, 2004). The best fitting model consisted of four factors that include Number and Operations, Measurement, Geometry, and Patterning, with the Number and Operations factor explaining common variance in three first-order factors of Numbering, Operations, and Relations. These findings support the view that informal mathematical knowledge is a multi-dimensional construct that includes of these separable dimensions. Additionally, a Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes model was used to determine if mathematical ability differed for male and female preschoolers on each of the four factors or on each of the 35 items of the CMA. Results showed no differences for mathematical abilities between males and females at this age. Future research and curricular implications are discussed.
  • Do child gender and temperament moderate associations between Head Start
           classroom social-emotional climate and children’s social-emotional
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Holly E. Brophy-Herb, Alison L. Miller, Tiffany L. Martoccio, Mildred Horodynski, Neda Senehi, Dawn Contreras, Karen Peterson, Danielle Dalimonte-Merckling, Zachary Favreau, Julie Sturza, Niko Kaciroti, Julie C. Lumeng Little research has examined teachers' classroom social-emotional practices, including how teachers' warmth and their more explicit emotion socialization practices may be associated with children's social-emotional competencies in different but complementary ways. Likewise, there is scant knowledge on how the effects of the classroom climate may vary by child characteristics. We examined the moderating roles of child gender and temperament in the associations between two aspects of the classroom climate, Head Start teachers' warmth and their explicit emotion socialization practices, and preschoolers' (N = 611) social-emotional competencies, including emotion recognition, self-regulation, and positive social behaviors. While no three-way interactions (teachers' warmth and teachers' emotion socialization practices × child gender × temperament) were significantly associated with outcomes, a two-way interaction between teachers' emotion socialization practices and temperament was significant. Specifically, teachers' emotion socialization practices in the fall were associated with greater self-regulation for all children in the spring, including children with more reactive temperaments although effects were most robust for children with the least reactive temperaments. Implications for teacher practices are discussed.
  • The effects of the transition from home-based childcare to childcare
           centers on children’s health and development in Colombia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Raquel Bernal, Orazio Attanasio, Ximena Peña, Marcos Vera-Hernández Colombia’s national early childhood strategy launched in 2011 aimed at improving the quality of childcare services offered to socio-economically vulnerable children, and included the possibility that children and their childcare providers could transfer from non-parental family daycare units to large childcare centers in urban areas. This study seeks to understand whether the offer to transfer and the actual transfer from one program to the other had an impact on child cognitive and socioemotional development, and nutrition, using a cluster-randomized control trial with a sample of 2767 children between the ages of 6 and 60 months located in 14 cities in Colombia. The results indicate a negative effect of this initiative on cognitive development, a positive effect on nutrition, and no statistically significant effect of the intervention on socioemotional development. We also explored the extent to which these impacts might be explained by differences in the quality of both services during the transition, and report that quality indicators are low in both programs but are significantly worse in centers compared to community nurseries.
  • Preferences for tactile and narrative counting books across parents with
           different education levels
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Shannon M. Gaylord, Connor D. O’Rear, Caroline Byrd Hornburg, Nicole M. McNeil Counting books are a potential source of input for children’s learning of early mathematics concepts. However, little is known about the factors that affect the counting books parents choose for their children. Parents (N = 696) of preschoolers (ages 2;6–4;11) were surveyed about their preferences for two specific counting book features, tactility and narrative quality. These two features were studied both covertly, by experimentally manipulating the types of books parents saw and asking parents why they would choose particular books, and explicitly, by asking parents to rate the importance of various factors when choosing counting books for their children. The a priori hypotheses were that parents would prefer tactile over non-tactile counting books for boys and narrative over non-narrative counting books for girls and that education level would be positively associated with counting book reading. Results did not support these hypotheses. Instead, parents’ preferences for the features depended on their education level. Higher education levels were generally associated with decreased preference for tactility and increased preference for narrative quality. Results raise the question of whether the books parents choose for their children may be one way parent education shapes children's early learning environments.
  • Number-based sharing: Conversation about quantity in the context of
           resource distribution
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Nadia Chernyak Recent work suggests a strong connection between our numeracy skills, and our social behavior – in particular, children’s numerical cognition predicts their abilities to understand fairness and to act fairly in their resource distribution behavior. This project investigated how children’s early socio-linguistic contexts help to form the link between numerical cognition and resource distribution. This work analyzed existing transcripts in the CHILDES database for instances of talk about resource distribution. Both adults and children were more likely to talk about numbers and quantifiers within resource distribution contexts than outside of them, suggesting that resource distribution is a fruitful context for evoking quantity talk. Not surprisingly, discussion of discrete items promoted talk about number, and continuous items promoted talk about quantifiers. Somewhat surprisingly, however, adults were more likely to use number words with girls than boys in this context. Additionally, compared with statements and questions, adults’ directives (“give me those two”) and requests (“can you share one with me'”) were more likely to contain number words. As children grew older, they were more likely to use quantifiers, and girls were more likely to use quantifiers than boys. Overall, these results suggest that (a) resource distribution contexts may be a particularly fruitful context to promote quantity talk, and (b) adults discuss numbers differently in these contexts than they might outside of them. Results are discussed with reference to recent work on numeracy skills and sharing and in terms of specific features of resource distribution that promote quantity talk.
  • Children’s executive function development and school socio-economic and
           racial/ethnic composition
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Douglas D. Ready, Jeanne L. Reid The links between children’s literacy and mathematics development and school socio-economic and racial/ethnic composition are well documented. This work, however, has generally ignored the potential effects of school demographic characteristics on children’s executive function skills. Using data from ECLS-K: 2011 and piece-wise linear growth-curve models within a three-level hierarchical framework, we explore the associations between children’s executive function development and the socio-economic and racial/ethnic compositions of their schools in kindergarten through second grade. We find somewhat mixed results, with some evidence of school socio-economic compositional effects, particularly for initially lower-skilled children in kindergarten, but stronger indications that school racial/ethnic enrollments influence executive function development across age and skill levels.
  • Quality of fathers’ spatial concept support during block building
           predicts their daughters’ early math skills – But not their sons’
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 September 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Dana Thomson, Beth M. Casey, Caitlin M. Lombardi, Hoa Nha Nguyen The goal of this study was to examine fathers’ support of their children’s spatial learning during a joint block-building task at the beginning of first grade as a predictor of their children’s math achievement at the end of first grade. Observational measures of videotaped father–child interactions from the Boston site of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 105) were used to examine the effectiveness of spatial support during a block building task. Trained observers rated fathers’ spatial support by applying two approaches: (a) a qualitative rating scale assessing level of paternal spatial concept support involving encouragement of child spatial learning and enriched spatial explanations, and (b) a measure assessing quantitative paternal spatial location language support. A significant sex by quality of spatial concept support interaction showed that for girls (but not for boys), fathers’ qualitatively higher spatial concept support predicted superior math achievement scores by the end of first grade, even after controlling for a host of variables, including children’s math achievement at age 4.5 years, family income, child intelligence and ratings of fathers’ and mothers’ general cognitive support (e.g., support for a range of perceptual, cognitive, and linguistic development) across all parent–child activities during the first grade home visit. The quantitative measure of frequency of paternal spatial location language support was not predictive of math, but children’s independent accuracy on the block building task did predict math achievement. Though only correlational, findings suggest that fathers may have an important role to play in providing high-quality spatial concept support for their young daughters.
  • Differences in the complexity of math and literacy questions parents pose
           during storybook reading
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Colleen Uscianowski, Ma. Victoria Almeda, Herbert P. Ginsburg Parent–child interactions, such as the complexity of their talk during storybook reading, can play a vital role in supporting the development of children’s literacy and math skills. Given that parents may have different beliefs and confidence helping their children learn literacy and math, the present study compares the level of abstraction, or complexity, of questions posed by parents when prompted to help their child learn about math or literacy topics during storybook reading. We also sought to identify factors that influence parents’ use of abstract questions within the story. A total of 172 parents of 3.5–4.5-year-old children named a question they would pose to their child about the character’s actions, numbers, or shapes on 18 storybook pages as part of an online survey. Results revealed that storybook pages without math content evoked questions of significantly higher abstraction than did pages with math content. Parents’ confidence and enjoyment helping their child learn literacy and parents’ educational attainment were found to be significantly and positively related to their use of complex questions for character’s actions, while parents’ reading anxieties had a negative relation to the complexity of their questions. In contrast, parents’ rating of their child’s number ability was significantly and positively related to their use of complex language for number while no significant effects were found for shape. In addition, parents posed more complex questions about number to their sons than daughters. Overall, our findings suggest that parents may benefit from support in engaging their children in challenging and abstract math-related talk about number and shape during storybook reading in order to promote their children’s mathematical development.
  • Effects of child care subsidy on school readiness of young children with
           or at-risk for special needs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Amanda L. Sullivan, Andrew J. Thayer, Elyse M. Farnsworth, Amy Susman-Stillman Children with special needs are now a population of special interest under federal child care policy. Findings on the effects of child care subsidy for the general population are mixed, but no studies have considered the effects for children with or at-risk for special needs. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the average effects of child care subsidies on school readiness of children with or at-risk for special needs. Using data for 1250 participants in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Birth Cohort, we applied propensity score matching and regression analyses to estimate subsidy’s effects on kindergarten academic and behavioral competencies of children with or at-risk for special needs who came from low-income families. Results indicated that for the average recipient, subsidized child care had significant negative effects on early literacy (d = 0.21) and numeracy (d = 0.18), and no significant effects on communication, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and prosocial behavior. These findings add to a growing number of largescale analyses showing negative or null effects of subsidized care on early childhood outcomes and highlight the need for continued attention to the appropriateness and effectiveness of subsidized child care, particularly for children with or at-risk for special needs.
  • Cumulative years of classroom quality from kindergarten to third grade:
           Prediction to children’s third grade literacy skills
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Lynne Vernon-Feagans, Irina L. Mokrova, Robert C. Carr, Patricia T. Garrett-Peters, Margaret R. Burchinal, The Family Life Project Key Investigators Early literacy skills play an important role in children’s success in school. Especially important to better literacy skills may be the quality of the classroom environment (emotional support, classroom organization, and instructional support) across the early years of schooling. This study used an a priori threshold of quality approach to understanding the possible link between the number of years of better classroom quality over four years, from kindergarten through third grade, in relation to children’s literacy skills by third grade. This study examined a representative sample of 1292 children followed from birth who lived in low-wealth rural counties in the United States. These children were followed into school with classroom observations conducted each year from kindergarten through third grade and literacy related achievement measures in pre-kindergarten and third grade. Findings suggested that even after controlling for poverty related variables, the quality of the home environment, school entry literacy skills, and teacher rated literacy instruction, children who had more years of better classroom quality had higher third grade literacy scores. Additionally, we found an interaction effect, suggesting that children who entered kindergarten with lower emergent literacy skills benefited more from a greater number of years of better classroom quality in relation to reading comprehension in third grade. Thus, more years of better classroom quality may help in narrowing the gap between those who enter kindergarten with higher literacy skills and those who enter with lower literacy skills.
  • A longitudinal population study of literacy and numeracy outcomes for
           children identified with speech, language, and communication needs in
           early childhood
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Sharynne McLeod, Linda J. Harrison, Cen Wang Speech and language competence in early childhood can influence academic achievement at school. The aim of this research was to examine longitudinal progress in literacy and numeracy achievement from age 8 through 12 years for children identified as typically developing or with speech and language concern (SLC) based on parent-reported concern about speech and language at ages 4–5 and 6–7 years. Participants were 4322 children in the K(indergarten) cohort and 4073 children in the B(irth) cohort of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). The majority of children identified with SLC had not accessed speech-language pathology services. Linked data from national testing of literacy and numeracy achievement were analysed for the K cohort in Grades 3, 5, and 7, and for the B cohort in Grade 3. Cross-sectional analyses showed that children with SLC achieved lower scores for reading, writing, spelling, grammar, and numeracy at all assessment points than children with typical speech and language skills. Results for all children, however, were above the national minimum standard for each grade level. Longitudinal growth curve analyses showed no difference in the growth trajectories for literacy and numeracy test scores for children in the typically developing and SLC groups, suggesting that SLC children showed typical patterns of progression but did not catch up to the levels achieved by their typically developing peers.
  • The effects of prekindergarten for Spanish-speaking dual language
           learners: Evidence from California’s transitional kindergarten program
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Aleksandra Holod, Burhan Ogut, Iliana Brodziak de los Reyes, Heather E. Quick, Karen Manship The impact of California’s transitional kindergarten program on Spanish-speaking dual language learners was examined through two studies. Participants in the two studies included: (1) the statewide population of students who met study inclusion criteria (n = 45,010) and took the California English Language Development Test (CELDT), and (2) a sample of students (n = 1868) in 20 school districts. Findings indicate that TK had moderate to large effects on English proficiency; smaller but statistically significant effects on language, literacy, and math skills; and no effects on social–emotional skills or executive function. The transitional kindergarten program provides participating Spanish-speaking dual language learners with an academic advantage at kindergarten entry, as compared to Spanish-speaking dual language learners who do not attend.
  • Construyendo en la Fuerza: Approaches to learning and school readiness
           gains in Latino children served by head start
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Andres S. Bustamante, Annemarie H. Hindman Latino children are the fastest growing minority group in the United States and in order to best serve this population we need research to inform educators on specific cultural strengths that can be fostered and developed. Despite the known academic achievement gap between Latino children and their non-Latino peers, ecocultural strength based research efforts have identified domain general skills like social emotional skills and executive functioning as unique strengths of Latino children. This study used the FACES 2009 dataset to explore approaches to learning as another possible set of domain general skills that may be a strength for Latino children from low-income families. On average, Latino children had higher scores in approaches to learning in the fall and spring of the Head Start year. Additionally, being Latino significantly predicted gains across the Head Start year in approaches to learning (β = 0.153, p = 0.024) (i.e., predicting spring score, controlling for fall), accounting for a constellation of relevant covariates. Conversely, being Latino negatively predicted academic school readiness in the fall (β = −0.175, p = 0.021), yet positively predicted gains in academic school readiness across the year (β = 0.129, p = 0.017), all controlling for the same covariates. However, once approaches to learning is added to the model it became a significant predictor of gains in academic readiness (β = 0.132, p
  • School readiness among children of Hispanic immigrants and their peers:
           The role of parental cognitive stimulation and early care and education
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Christina M. Padilla, Rebecca M. Ryan The present study estimated the independent and joint influence of early home and education contexts on three school readiness outcomes for children with Hispanic immigrant parents. These associations were compared to those for children whose parents differed by ethnicity and immigration status − children of non-Hispanic immigrants and children of Hispanic native-born parents − to determine if associations were distinct for children of Hispanic immigrants. Data were drawn from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010–2011 (ECLS-K: 2011) (N ≈ 3480). Outcome measures at kindergarten entry included direct assessments of math and reading skills, as well as teacher reports of approaches to learning (ATL). Results indicated that parental provision of cognitive stimulation and center-based ECE both predicted outcomes among children of Hispanic immigrants and their peers, with some variation in patterns by developmental domain and subgroup. Specifically, participation in center-based care predicted math and reading scores for children of Hispanic immigrant and Hispanic native-born parents, but not children of non-Hispanic immigrants. Furthermore, center-based care participation predicted ATL scores more strongly for children of Hispanic immigrants than their peers. Some trend-level evidence of moderation of early home and education environments emerged, again with patterns varying by outcome and subgroup. Findings highlight the importance of policies that seek to enhance both the home and ECE environments for young children with Hispanic immigrant parents and their peers.
  • Latino children’s academic and behavioral trajectories in early
           elementary school: Examining home language differences within preschool
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Heather J. Bachman, Leanne Elliott, Paul W. Scott, Monica G. Navarro The present study examined early academic, social, and behavioral trajectories from kindergarten to third grade for Latino children from English- or Spanish-speaking homes who experienced public pre-k, Head Start, private center care, or no preschool experience. Using a nationally representative sample of Latino children (N = 3650) from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten 2010–2011 cohort (ECLS-K:2011), associations of home language and preschool experience were examined for trajectories of reading and math achievement, social skills, and externalizing behavior problems. At kindergarten entry, Latino children from English-speaking households attained higher scores in reading and math than children from Spanish-speaking families across public pre-k, Head Start, and no preschool groups. However, these early home language differences greatly diminished by third grade. In contrast, for Latino children who attended private center-based care, home language comparisons were nonsignificant for early reading skills in the fall of kindergarten. By third grade, home language differences were evident among the Latino children who attended private centers, such that children from English-speaking homes scored significantly higher in reading than children from Spanish-speaking homes. Few home language differences were detected in social or behavioral skill ratings at fall of kindergarten or in trajectories within preschool types. Nonetheless, home language differences in externalizing problems grew by third grade among Latino children who had attended Head Start, such that children from English-speaking homes received higher behavior problem ratings from teachers than peers from Spanish-speaking homes.
  • Head Start, two-generation ESL services, and parent engagement
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 April 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Teresa Eckrich Sommer, Celia J. Gomez, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, Terri Sabol, Elise Chor, Amy Sanchez, P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn Innovation in English as a Second Language (ESL) services to support Latino immigrant parents and their children is needed, and this study examines a novel program that suggests future directions for the field. The Community Action Project of Tulsa County, Oklahoma’s two-generation ESL program recruits parents of children enrolled in Head Start and delivers an ESL curriculum that is contextualized to child development and children’s early school experiences. This mixed methods study explores the progress and the perspectives of parents and staff in this ESL program over two semesters (n = 35). Among enrollees in each semester, parents had high levels of completion (83% in semester 1; 70% in semester 2) and class attendance (94% in semester 1; 88% in semester 2). Yet, only about half (46%) of the parents completed both semesters 1 and 2. Parents who completed either semester 1 or semesters 1 and 2 did exhibit advancement in their English language skills, moving on average from beginner ESL levels to high intermediate levels based on National Reporting System benchmarks. Data from focus groups with parents and staff suggest that involvement in a two-generation ESL program can support parents’ focus on their children, including: (a) alignment of parent curriculum with child development, (b) bidirectional parent and child learning, and (c) an improved sense of parent agency with their children’s schooling and other child-related domains. Implications for future two-generation ESL programming are discussed.
  • Evidence for a physiologic home–school gap in children of Latina
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018Source: Early Childhood Research QuarterlyAuthor(s): Elly M. Miles, Julia Dmitrieva, Eliana Hurwich-Reiss, Lisa Badanes, Marina M. Mendoza, Krista M. Perreira, Sarah Enos Watamura The “Latino Health Paradox” denotes a well-established trend wherein foreign-born Latino immigrants arrive with protective health benefits which dissipate and sometimes reverse into health disparities in the second and subsequent generations. The origins and mechanism behind this paradox remain poorly understood. This study investigates whether physiological stress profiles in children of Latina immigrants (CoLIs) as compared with the children of Latina Americans (CoLAs) and of non-Latina Americans (ConLAs) might help explain how health advantages can be lost during acculturation to even result in health disparities. Because studies of ethnicity/nativity often confound poverty and ethnicity/nativity groups, we also examine differences in physiologic stress profiles by income. We focus on physiologic profile differences between ethnicity/nativity groups and by poverty category at home and in Early Childhood Education (ECE) environments. Using multi-level modeling, we compare morning and afternoon salivary cortisol levels between ECE and home environments in 256 children (32% CoLIs), while controlling for child, child care, and teacher characteristics. Results demonstrated that overall, cortisol on child care mornings was lower than on home mornings, and that among children living in poverty home and child care morning cortisol differed less than for children not living in poverty. We find that CoLIs exhibit a flatter slope on child care days than do ConLAs. We also find that among children in classrooms with lower average poverty exposure, cortisol decline across the day is steeper on child care days. Importantly, teacher language may act as a buffer to CoLIs on child care days, resulting in a steeper decline at child care. Implications for policy and practice, including supporting the availability of bilingual teachers are discussed.
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