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HEALTH AND SAFETY (524 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 234)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Healthy-Mu Journal     Open Access  
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Early Childhood Research Quarterly
  [SJR: 1.53]   [H-I: 64]   [13 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0885-2006
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Using the early childhood environment rating scale-Revised in high stakes
           contexts: Does evidence warrant the practice'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Claude Messan Setodji, Diana Schaack, Vi-Nhuan Le
      Increasingly, states establish different thresholds on the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale–Revised (ECERS–R), and use these thresholds to inform high-stakes decisions. However, the validity of the ECERS-R for these purposes is not well established. The objective of this study is to identify thresholds on the ECERS-R that are associated with preschool-aged children’s social and cognitive development. Applying non-parametric modeling to the nationally-representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) dataset, we found that once classrooms achieved a score of 3.4 on the overall ECERS-R composite score, there was a leveling-off effect, such that no additional improvements to children’s social, cognitive, or language outcomes were observed. Additional analyses found that ECERS-R subscales that focused on teaching and caregiving processes, as opposed to the physical environment, did not show leveling-off effects. The findings suggest that the usefulness of the ECERS-R for discerning associations with children’s outcome may be limited to certain score ranges or subscales.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T19:16:28Z
  • Multiple child care arrangements and school readiness in kindergarten
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Alejandra Ros Pilarz
      Nationally, nearly one in five children younger than age 5 experiences multiple, concurrent child care arrangements. Yet, it remains unclear whether the use of multiple arrangements contributes to school readiness at kindergarten-entry, or whether these associations vary by the timing of multiple arrangements and the type(s) of care used. Using nationally-representative data (N =6450), this study estimated associations between experiencing multiple arrangements at ages 9 months, 2 years, and 4 years and children’s school readiness in the fall of kindergarten. It also examined whether these associations depend on the type(s) of care combined. Results from OLS and propensity score weighted regression models suggest that multiple arrangements are associated with positive, neutral, or negative school readiness outcomes depending on both the timing and the type(s) of care used.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T19:16:28Z
  • Children’s sports participation and self-regulation: Bi-directional
           longitudinal associations
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Steven J. Howard, Stewart A. Vella, Dylan P. Cliff
      Early self-regulation is essential to positive life outcomes and sports are speculated to generate self-regulatory improvements. Preliminary research supports this assertion, showing some sports might yield short-term self-regulatory improvements and elite athletes tend to excel in cognitive functions underlying self-regulation. What remains unclear is whether sports improve self-regulation or better self-regulators engage in sport. We investigated whether sport participation in early childhood (4–5 years) predicted change in children’s self-regulation two years later; and early self-regulation (4–5 years) predicted change in sports participation two years later. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, which consisted of 4385 children with valid sports participation data at age 4–5 years. Self-regulation was indexed by parent-, teacher-, and observer-report data. Results indicated that young children who participated in individual sports demonstrated marginally but significantly higher self-regulation than those who did not participate. Participation in team sports did not predict change in self-regulation. Moreover, children with poor self-regulation were less likely to participate in sports. The findings provide partial support for hypotheses of bidirectional associations between sport participation and self-regulation in young children.

      PubDate: 2017-10-03T18:45:13Z
  • Preschoolers’ inquisitiveness and science-relevant problem solving
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Maria Fusaro, Maureen C. Smith
      Preschoolers use their emerging scientific inquiry skills, including seeking information through questions, to explore, and solve problems within, the physical world around them. This study examines preschoolers’ attempts to solve novel science-relevant problems and their use of science-relevant ideas within those problem solutions. Four- to five-year-olds (N=24) were presented with seven novel problems, depicted in line drawings (e.g., determining which of two bags holds pillows, rather than rocks). Individual differences were examined in the use of foundational science-relevant concepts and skills within children’s responses (California Department of Education, 2012), as well as in the child’s tendency to ask questions (i.e., inquisitiveness) in a second open-ended task. MANCOVA analyses indicated that inquisitiveness was associated with the accuracy and fluency of children’s problem solutions, even after accounting for differences in receptive vocabulary, gender, and age. Further research is warranted on the interplay of inquisitiveness, science knowledge, as well as other socialization and educational influences, in children’s early science skills, including their ability to engineer solutions to realistic problems.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T07:29:03Z
  • Local adaptation during implementation: A case study of the Fussy Baby
           Network® New Orleans and Gulf Coast initiative
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Leanne Kallemeyn, Amber Evenson, Sherry Scott Heller, Catherine A. Taylor, Linda Gilkerson, Tracy Moran
      Scholars and practitioners recognize that adaptation is necessary, and can enhance program outcomes, when scaling early interventions. This study used a framework for implementation that identified critical elements for understanding the adaptation process including: a) who made the adaptations, such as model developers and staff members, b) what elements were adapted, c) how adaptations occurred, such as adding or removing elements, d) when adaptations took place, such as at the beginning of implementation or as an on-going process, and e) why the adaptations occurred. Erikson Institute’s Fussy Baby Network ® (FBN) service program has been implemented in seven cities across the United States. Implementation of FBN in the New Orleans and Gulf Coast (NOGC) region began in 2012. Using a longitudinal phenomenological study design, FBNNOGC program and institutional staff were interviewed over three years at ten time points. This study identified five adaptations of FBN to NOGC: a) increasing length and intensity of services, b) adding a family advocate, c) integrating academic and clinical contexts, d) changing the program name, branding, and outreach materials, and e) networking with other providers. No adaptations were made to the program model or training, which ensured program fidelity.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T07:29:03Z
  • Reducing child problem behaviors and improving teacher-child interactions
           and relationships: A randomized controlled trial of BEST in CLASS
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Kevin S. Sutherland, Maureen A. Conroy, James Algina, Crystal Ladwig, Gabriel Jessee, Maria Gyure
      Research has consistently linked early problem behavior with later adjustment problems, including antisocial behavior, learning problems and risk for the development of emotional/behavioral disorders (EBDs). Researchers have focused upon developing effective intervention programs for young children who arrive in preschool exhibiting chronic problem behaviors; however, Tier-2 interventions that can be delivered by teachers with fidelity in authentic settings are lacking. This study examined the effect of BEST in CLASS, a Tier-2 intervention delivered by teachers, on child problem behavior, teacher-child interactions and teacher-child relationships using a cluster randomized controlled trial design. Participants were 465 children (3–5year olds) identified at risk for the development of EBDs and their 185 teachers from early childhood programs located in two southeastern states. Significant effects were found across both teacher reported (ES ranging from 0.23 to 0.42) and observed child outcomes (ES ranging form 0.44–0.46), as well as teacher-child relationships (ES ranging from 0.26 to 0.29) and observed teacher-children interactions (ES ranging from 0.26 to 0.45), favoring the BEST in CLASS condition. Results suggest the promise of BEST in CLASS as a Tier-2 intervention for use in authentic early childhood classroom contexts and provide implications for future research on transactional models of teacher and child behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T20:05:44Z
  • Teacher reflections on using inquiry-based instruction to engage young
           children in conversations about wealth and poverty
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Lindsey Nenadal, Rashmita S. Mistry
      In the midst of growing levels of economic inequality in the United States, elementary school teachers play a critical role in teaching their students about wealth and poverty and what it means to be responsible and justice-oriented citizens. Inquiry-based learning, a student-centered, participatory, and collaborative instructional method, is one approach that can be used to talk with young students about societal issues, but it has not been systematically applied to the study of student learning about issues related to economic inequality. In this qualitative study, we examined the successes and challenges faced by a team of three elementary school teachers as they designed and implemented an arts-infused inquiry unit focused on wealth and poverty with kindergarten, first, and second grade students. Through a series of six interviews, teachers discussed how they planned and implemented the units and shared reflections on engaging in this novel work. Next steps for educational practice and research focused on supporting teachers in teaching about wealth and poverty are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T20:05:44Z
  • Cognitive precursors of word reading versus arithmetic competencies in
           young Chinese children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Xiao Zhang, Dan Lin
      Word reading and arithmetic calculation are foundational to higher level reading (e.g., text comprehension) and mathematics (e.g., fraction), respectively. The present study aims to examine the similarities and differences in the cognitive precursors of word reading and arithmetic competencies in young Chinese children. A total of 75 Hong Kong Chinese children were tested first in the fall (T1) and then in the spring (T2) of their third kindergarten years. Competencies in Chinese word reading, including both single- and double-character word reading, and arithmetic calculation, including nonsymbolic arithmetic, arithmetic word problems, and written arithmetic, were assessed at both T1 and T2. Phonological awareness, orthographic awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), spatial perception, and spatial visualization were assessed at T1. The results showed that phonological awareness predicted later competencies in word reading and symbolic arithmetic, specifically arithmetic word problems and written arithmetic. RAN was predictive of later competencies in word reading and nonsymbolic arithmetic. Orthographic awareness was associated with later competencies in word reading but not arithmetic. Visual-spatial skills predicted later competencies in arithmetic word problems but not word reading. The findings suggest that similarities and differences both exist in the cognitive underpinnings of Chinese word reading and arithmetic competencies at a young age.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T20:05:44Z
  • Dual language learning, inhibitory control, and math achievement in Head
           Start and kindergarten
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Ji Young Choi, Shinyoung Jeon, Christine Lippard
      This study examined whether developmental patterns of inhibitory control (IC) and kindergarten math achievement differed among Head Start children with varying dual language learning status. This study further explored the potential mediation effects of IC development as an explanation of differences in kindergarten math skills across children with varying dual language learning status. Based on their English skills and home language use, children’ dual language learning status was categorized into (1) Spanish-English bilingual children, (2) Spanish-English dual language learners with limited English skills (DLLs-LES), and (3) English-monolingual children. Analyses were conducted using data from the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) 2009 Cohort. Results showed that bilingual children presented greater IC at Head Start entry than DLLs-LES and faster growth in IC through kindergarten (1.5 years) than English-monolingual children. Bilingual children also outperformed monolingual children and DLLs-LES in math at kindergarten, despite the fact that they had lower baseline math skills than monolingual children. DLLs-LES, on average, presented the lowest IC skills and math skills through kindergarten. DLLs-LES, however, presented faster growth in IC than English-monolingual children through kindergarten. The achievement gaps in math among the three groups were explained by relative differences in IC development among the groups. The current study with low-income preschoolers supported emerging literature suggesting the benefits of bilingualism for cognitive skills and learning. Study implications are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T20:05:44Z
  • Linguistic environment of preschool classrooms: What dimensions support
           children’s language growth'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Laura M. Justice, Hui Jiang, Katherine Strasser
      Individual differences in young children’s language acquisition reflect in part the variability in the language-learning environment that they experience, both at home and in the classroom. Studies have examined various dimensions of the preschool classroom language environment, including linguistic responsivity of early childhood educators, data-providing features of teachers’ talk, and characteristics of the systems-level general environment, but no study has examined the unique contribution of each dimension to children’s language growth over time. The goals of this study were to determine how best to represent the dimensionality of the preschool classroom’s linguistic environment and to determine which dimensions are most strongly associated with children’s language development. Participants were teachers in 49 preschool classrooms and a random sample of children from each classroom (330 children between 40 and 60 months of age, M =52months, SD =5.5). Children’s grammar and vocabulary skills were measured at three time-points, and the classroom linguistic environment was assessed with measures representing teachers’ linguistic responsivity, data-providing features of teachers’ talk, and systems-level general quality. Using exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), we determined that the classroom language environment is best characterized by a three-dimensional model. A multilevel latent growth model subsequently showed that only one of the three dimensions, teachers’ communication-facilitating behaviors, predicted growth in children’s vocabulary from preschool to kindergarten. Implications for teacher professional development are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T20:05:44Z
  • Video-feedback intervention in center-based child care: A randomized
           controlled trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Claudia D. Werner, Harriet J. Vermeer, Mariëlle Linting, Marinus H. Van IJzendoorn
      In the current study we aimed to improve center-based child care quality with an attachment-based program: The Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline for Child Care (VIPP-CC). Professional caregivers (N =64) from child care centers in urban areas in the Netherlands participated in our pretest-posttest randomized controlled trial. The VIPP-CC was effective for increased observed sensitive responsiveness in the group setting of the professional caregiver and led to a more positive attitude towards caregiving and limit setting. Post hoc analyses revealed that the intervention effect was apparent for caregiver sensitive responsiveness in structured play situations. The VIPP approach can now be expanded from the family setting to out-of–home group settings with larger groups of children and professional caregivers. This is a promising conclusion for millions of children enrolled in center child care from a very young age.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T20:05:44Z
  • Associations between continuity of care in infant-toddler classrooms and
           child outcomes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Diane M. Horm, Nancy File, Donna Bryant, Margaret Burchinal, Helen Raikes, Nina Forestieri, Amy Encinger, Alan Cobo-Lewis
      Ensuring that young children, especially infants and toddlers, experience consistency in child care providers over time is a practice endorsed by multiple professional organizations. This practice, commonly referred to as continuity of care (CoC), is recommended for center-based group settings to provide infants and toddlers with the sensitive, responsive care needed to promote early development. Despite widespread endorsement, there has been limited empirical examination of CoC. This study examines the extent to which CoC experienced in infant-toddler center-based care is associated with social-emotional and language development. Associations of CoC with children’s social-emotional development during the infant-toddler period and with later social-emotional and language outcomes at age 3 were investigated in a large sample of children attending high-quality early childhood programs designed for young children growing up in poverty. During the infant-toddler years, CoC was related to higher teacher ratings of self-control, initiative, and attachment, and lower ratings of behavior concerns. In addition, a classroom quality×CoC interaction indicated that CoC differences were larger in higher, than lower, quality infant-toddler classrooms. In contrast, CoC in infant-toddler classrooms was not related to rates of change in teacher ratings of social skills during the infant-toddler years nor to children’s vocabulary development or ratings of social skills after they transitioned to preschool. Neither were there quality×CoC interactions at preschool. These findings do not provide clear support for the current widespread recommendations for CoC, but suggest a need for additional research. The need for future research to more fully understand associations with child outcomes as well as to examine potential impacts of CoC on teachers, families, and peers is highlighted.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T20:05:44Z
  • Unique and compensatory associations of executive functioning and
           visuomotor integration with mathematics performance in early elementary
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Chelsea A.K. Duran, Anthony Byers, Claire E. Cameron, David Grissmer
      Research has illuminated contributions—usually modeled separately—of both executive functioning (EF) and visuomotor integration (VMI) to mathematical development in early elementary school. This study examined simultaneous associations of EF and VMI, measured at the beginning of the school year, with concurrent and later mathematics performance on several mathematics assessments in kindergartners (n =89, M age =5.5years) and first graders (n =73, M age =6.6years) of low socioeconomic status. Both skills were related to concurrent performance on all assessments, as well as improvement through the end of the school year for all but a geometry subtest, which was predicted only by VMI. No significant influence of an interaction between the skills was present, except for concurrently on the geometry subtest and longitudinally on an assessment with a relatively strong emphasis on informal skills. Findings are discussed in the context of supporting mathematics development in early childhood.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T04:49:06Z
  • Crossing the bridge to elementary school: The development of children’s
           working memory components in relation to teacher-student relationships and
           academic achievement
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Loren Vandenbroucke, Karine Verschueren, Annemie Desoete, Pirjo Aunio, Pol Ghesquière, Dieter Baeyens
      Working memory is important for a variety of life domains, including for children’s school functioning. As such, it is crucial to understand its development, antecedents and consequences. The current study investigates the development of different working memory components (phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, central executive), the influence of different aspects of the teacher-student relationship (closeness, conflict, dependency) and its predictive value for academic achievement (reading, spelling, mathematics) across the transition from kindergarten to first grade. The sample consisted of 107 kindergarten children. Working memory tasks were administered at the end of kindergarten and first grade. Teachers reported on teacher-student relationship quality in the middle of first grade. Standardized tests were used to assess academic achievement at the end of first grade. Results indicate moderate to large increases in the phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad and large gains in the central executive. Dependency of the student towards the teacher significantly predicted visuospatial sketchpad performance at the end of first grade. Reading was significantly predicted by the visuospatial sketchpad and phonological loop in kindergarten, while for spelling the visuospatial sketchpad was important. Finally, mathematics was predicted by performance on the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketchpad. The current study indicates the importance of the affective quality of the teacher-student relationship for working memory performance, which in turn is important for academic achievement. It is therefore critical to attend to the early detection and prevention or intervention of working memory problems in the classroom in order to prevent future academic problems. Additionally, maintaining a positive relationship with students and encouraging their independent exploration may be important when preventing such problems, complementary to cognitive or other types of training and intervention.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T03:10:32Z
  • Testing the family investment model in Russia: Estimating indirect effects
           of SES and parental beliefs on the literacy skills of first-graders
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1st Quarter 2018
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42
      Author(s): Marina Vasilyeva, Eric Dearing, Alina Ivanova, Chen Shen, Elena Kardanova
      The family investment model provides a powerful perspective for understanding the processes underlying relations between parents’ SES and children’s achievement. The extant research on the role of parental investments has largely built on U.S. studies. The present work extended this line of investigation to a novel context by testing family investments as a proximal link between SES and child outcomes in Russia. The study focused on predictors of literacy skills in children entering primary school. It examined the pathways from parental education, income and beliefs to children’s literacy skills through family investments: resources available at home, joint parent-child literacy activities and access to outside-home resources and activities. As hypothesized, these investments mediated the relation of parental income and education to child literacy, with education being more strongly related to child outcomes than income. Beliefs about the importance of developing literacy skills prior to school were found to be independent of SES and linked to child outcomes through the same sorts of family investments as SES. The findings show the robustness of the family investment model across diverse contexts and advance our understanding of the model by incorporating parental beliefs in its current framework.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T03:10:32Z
  • Rural families’ use of multiple child care arrangements from 6 to 58
           months and children’s kindergarten behavioral and academic outcomes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 41
      Author(s): Mary E. Bratsch-Hines, Irina Mokrova, Lynne Vernon-Feagans
      Non-parental child care prior to kindergarten is a normative experience for the majority of children in the United States, with children commonly experiencing multiple arrangements, or more than one concurrent child care arrangement. The experience of multiple arrangements has predominantly been shown to be negatively related to young children’s health and behavioral outcomes. The present study examined the use of multiple concurrent arrangements for children in the Family Life Project, a representative sample of families living in six high-poverty rural counties. Using the full sample of 1292 children who were followed from six months to kindergarten, this study examined the associations between the number of child care arrangements averaged across six time points and children’s behavioral and academic outcomes in kindergarten. After including a number of control variables, regression results suggested that a greater number of arrangements prior to kindergarten were related to higher levels of teacher-reported negative behaviors, but not positive behaviors, and letter-word decoding skills, but not mathematics skills, though effect sizes were small. Moderation analyses by child care type and quality were conducted, with no evidence emerging that findings varied by type or quality of care.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T03:10:32Z
  • Emotion Recognition Deficits among Children with Conduct Problems and
           Callous-Unemotional Behaviors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 41
      Author(s): Peter D. Rehder, W. Roger Mills-Koonce, Michael T. Willoughby, Patricia Garrett-Peters, Nicholas J. Wagner
      Deficits in emotion recognition have been associated with psychopathic and callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors among adults, adolescents, and children. However, few previous studies have examined such associations exclusively during early and middle childhood, or demographic differences in emotion recognition that may result from early emotion socialization experiences. The current study used a large, population-stratified, randomly-selected sample of 2nd grade children living in areas of high rural poverty to examine group differences in emotion recognition among children showing no conduct problems or CU behaviors (typical), conduct problems without CU behaviors (CP-only), and both CP and CU behaviors (CP+CU). Primary caregivers reported on children’s conduct problems and callous-unemotional behaviors at 1st grade and children completed a computerized facial emotion recognition task at 2nd grade. Results indicated that CP/CU group differences in emotion recognition accuracy were moderated by child race, with children in the typical group showing better overall accuracy and better recognition of fearful and happy faces among European American children, whereas no group differences were found among African American children. Implications for emotion socialization, etiology of CP and CU behaviors, and future directions for research and treatment are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T03:10:32Z
  • Variation in early cognitive development by maternal immigrant
           documentation status
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 41
      Author(s): Yoonsook Ha, Marci Ybarra, Anna D. Johnson
      Children of Latino immigrants − including children of undocumented Latino immigrants − are among the fastest-growing demographic subgroups in the U.S. Although they possess great strengths and diversity, studies have identified gaps in early reading and math scores between preschool-age children of Latino immigrants and their peers. Little is known about how these early cognitive gaps and suspected predictors vary by maternal immigrant documentation status. The current study explores these unanswered questions using 2001 survey data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhoods Study. We test for differences in 3–5year old children’s reading and math scores according to maternal immigrant documentation status (undocumented Latina; documented Latina; citizen Latina; non-Latina citizen White). We also examine whether associations between an extensive set of family, child, and neighborhood covariates and the reading and math scores of these children vary by maternal immigrant documentation status. Consistent with prior research, findings show a gap in reading and math scores between Latino children regardless of documentation status, and the children of non-Latina White mothers. Yet our findings reveal nuance not detected in prior studies. Specifically, children of undocumented Latina mothers face greater socioeconomic hardships and have the lowest cognitive scores. Results suggest increasing cognitive stimulation in the home and participation in formal non-parental care may help close early learning gaps between Latino children with different documentation statuses and their peers with non-Latino citizen parents.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T03:10:32Z
  • Paternal and maternal education, caregivers’ support for learning, and
           early child development in 44 low- and middle-income countries
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 41
      Author(s): Joshua Jeong, Dana Charles McCoy, Günther Fink
      While the importance of mothers’ education for children’s development has been well-established, relatively little is known regarding the relative importance of maternal versus paternal education for supporting children’s early developmental outcomes in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Using data from 98,464 three- and four-year-old children in 42 LMICs, this study found robust associations between both parents’ education levels and children’s development scores. Parents’ provision of support for learning (i.e., books, stimulating interactions) was a key mechanism through which parental education relates to children’s development – with each parent’s education predicting both his or her own and his or her partner’s efforts to support children’s early learning. Support for learning served as a relatively stronger mechanism in middle-income countries than low-income countries.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T11:55:02Z
  • The selection of preschool for immigrant and native-born Latino families
           in the United States
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 41
      Author(s): Arya Ansari
      With the national push to expand preschool education, there has been growing interest in understanding why Latino families are enrolled in preschool at lower rates than non-Latino families. This study applied the accommodations model by Meyers and Jordan (2006) to the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n =5850) to provide a more nuanced understanding of the preschool selection of U.S.- and foreign-born Latino families. Results from this investigation underscored the similarities and differences that existed in the selection behaviors of different groups of families, while also highlighting important differences within the Latino population. In general, these differences within the Latino population cut across community language use, child factors, and parents’ beliefs about school readiness. Moreover, after accounting for the various selection factors, there were no longer any consistent differences in the preschool enrollment rates between Latino children and their Black and White peers. When taken together, these findings suggest that careful attention must be paid to the heterogeneity in the experiences of Latino families in navigating the preschool market.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T11:55:02Z
  • Beyond bashful: Examining links between social anxiety and young
           children’s socio-emotional and school adjustment
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 41
      Author(s): Laura L. Ooi, Gabriella Nocita, Robert J. Coplan, Jingjing Zhu, Linda Rose-Krasnor
      Socially anxious children experience discomfort in social situations and fear being negatively evaluated by others. The goal of the current study was to examine the predictors and correlates of heightened social anxiety in a community sample of young children. Participants were N =268 children in preschool, kindergarten, and grade 1 classes (M age =68.06 mos, SD =11.30). Mothers rated their own personality, as well as children’s temperamental characteristics and social anxiety. Mothers and teachers provided assessments of children’s adjustment in and outside of school (e.g., social adjustment, peer experiences, academic performance). Overall, results indicated that symptoms of social anxiety were positively associated with social and school maladjustment. The current study provides preliminary evidence that symptoms of social anxiety in early childhood are present, identifiable, and problematic. Findings are discussed in terms of the implications for young socially anxious children’s early adjustment, as well as potential targets for early prevention/intervention.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T10:07:14Z
  • Learning to Read Words on Flashcards: Effects of Sentence Contexts and
           Word Class in Native and Nonnative English-Speaking Kindergartners
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 41
      Author(s): Katharine Pace Miles, Linnea C. Ehri
      This study investigated three questions: 1) Does clarifying the meanings of words during flashcard reading better support word learning over not providing meanings' 2) Does grammatical word class affect word learning' 3) Do these manipulations affect word learning differently in native and nonnative speakers of English' Native (n =40) and nonnative (n =41) English-speaking kindergartners practiced learning to read nouns and function words on flashcards in a repeated measures, counterbalanced design with random assignment. In one condition words were taught in meaningful sentences. In the other condition words were taught in isolation. Results of ANOVAs revealed that both native and nonnative speakers of English were better able to read words when they were taught in isolation than in sentences, and native speakers were better able to spell the words as well. However, both groups showed better ability to express their meanings when words were read in semantically rich sentences than when read in isolation. Children learned to read, spell, and produce sentences for content words more easily than for function words. Results indicate that the way children practice reading words and the type of words being read influence what they learn about the words.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T10:07:14Z
  • Maternal support of young children’s planning and spatial concept
           learning as predictors of later math (and reading) achievement
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 41
      Author(s): Caitlin McPherran Lombardi, Beth M. Casey, Dana Thomson, Hoa Nha Nguyen, Eric Dearing
      The goal of this study was to examine maternal support of spatial concept learning and planning at 36 months as predictors of children’s math achievement at 4 ½ years and first grade. Observational measures of videotaped mother-child interactions from the Boston site of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 140) were used to examine the effectiveness of support for spatial concept learning and planning during a block building play activity. Trained observers rated maternal support of children’s learning of spatial concepts through spatial language and gestures, with higher ratings involving explanations and encouragement of children’s use of spatial concepts. This measure was predictive of math achievement at 4 ½ years when controlling for length of the parent-child observation, child gender, ethnicity, and IQ at 2 years, as well as maternal years of education, verbal intelligence, income-to-needs averaged from 1 to 36 months, parenting stress, general cognitive stimulation, and maternal support of numerical concepts during the same observation. Maternal support of children’s planning skills, also rated by trained observers during the block building activity, involved identifying incremental steps to reach the block building goal, with higher ratings given for encouraging planning on the part of the child. This measure was predictive of math achievement at 4 ½ years, as well as reading achievement at both 4 ½ years and first grade, suggesting that maternal planning support has associations with the two key measures of school readiness, while maternal spatial support may be specific to mathematics.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T10:07:14Z
  • The role of executive functioning and theory of mind in children’s lies
           for another and for themselves
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 41
      Author(s): Victoria Talwar, Angela Crossman, Joshua Wyman
      In the current study, children’s abilities to lie both for themselves and for another were examined in relation to executive functioning skills and theory of mind understanding. A total of 160 preschoolers (ages 4–5 years) participated. Their willingness to tell self-motivated lies and other-motivated lies were measured using two different experimental paradigms. Children’s lie-telling was compared to their performance on measures of executive functioning and theory of mind. Results revealed that the majority of children (69%) told lies for themselves, while less than half of children (45%) told lies for others. Although there was a modest degree of consistency in children’s lie-telling behavior for the two lies, different executive functioning measures and theory of mind abilities were found to support self and other related lie-telling. Specifically, higher performance on tasks of inhibitory control (Whispers task) and first-order ToM were associated with self-oriented lies. Yet, other motivated lies were related to performance on tasks of inhibitory control (Stroop task) and cognitive flexibility. Further, higher cognitive flexibility and ToM scores were associated with an overall greater willingness to lie in both contexts. Taken together, the findings suggest that children’s lie-telling abilities are multi-faceted in nature and vary as a function of motivational context and cognitive skill development.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T10:07:14Z
  • Selective attention relates to the development of executive functions in
           2,5- to 3-year-olds: A longitudinal study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 41
      Author(s): Ilona M. Veer, Hans Luyten, Hanna Mulder, Cathy van Tuijl, Peter J.C. Sleegers
      To study the central role of selective attention in the early development of executive functions (EFs), longitudinal relationships between selective attention, working memory, and simple response inhibition were explored. Selective attention, working memory, and simple response inhibition were assessed twice in our preschool sample (N =273), which included a relatively large number of children from low SES families. The tasks were administered between age 2.5 (time 1) and 3 years (time 2). An analytical path model was tested to analyse the relationships simultaneously. The results indicate that selective attention at age 2.5 years predicts working memory and response inhibition at age 3 years. Controlling for gender, SES, home language, verbal ability, and age did not affect the strengths of these relationships.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T07:20:53Z
  • The effects of guilt on preschoolers’ cognitive flexibility and
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 41
      Author(s): Candace Lapan, Janet J. Boseovski
      The current study examined the effects of guilt on two aspects of children’s cognitive functioning: cognitive inhibition and flexibility. Three- to 5-year olds were induced into a guilt state or a neutral state and then completed the Shape School task and the Dimensional Change Card Sort. Results indicated that 3- to 4.5-year-olds in the guilt condition had worse inhibitory control scores than those in the neutral condition; however, the two groups’ flexibility scores did not differ significantly. Further, the effect of guilt on cognitive inhibition was only evident for the younger children; no significant effects emerged for 4.5- to 5.9-year-olds. We discuss the implications of the current findings for developmental models of emotion and cognition.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T07:20:53Z
  • Children’s task-oriented patterns in early childhood: A latent
           transition analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 41
      Author(s): Feihong Wang, James Algina, Patricia Snyder, Martha Cox
      We examined individual differences and predictions of children’s patterns in behavioral, emotional and attentional efforts toward challenging puzzle tasks at 24 and 35 months using data from a large longitudinal rural representative sample. Using latent transition analysis, we found four distinct task-oriented patterns in problem-solving tasks within parent-toddler/preschooler dyads representing different levels of regulatory strengths and weaknesses. We also found the relatively more positive and adaptive task-oriented patterns (i.e., the positive-motivated pattern and the content-compliant pattern) were more stable, but the relatively negative patterns (i.e., the negative-disengaged pattern and the emotional-mixed pattern) had much more variability and change from 24 to 35 months. Finally, infant attention, positive parenting, and family economic strains also significantly predicted children’s task-oriented patterns at 24 months after controlling for child gender, race and maternal education. These findings contribute to prevention/intervention strategies for young children’s optimal performance during challenging problem solving and their later school success.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T11:32:41Z
  • Young children’s use of emotion and behaviour regulation strategies in
           socio-emotionally challenging day-care situations
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 41
      Author(s): Kristiina Kurki, Hanna Järvenoja, Sanna Järvelä, Arttu Mykkänen
      This study investigated the ways in which children conduct and adapt their emotion and behaviour regulation activities in socio-emotionally challenging situations in day-care settings. The data consists of 75 video events of different challenging situations in two- to five-year-old children’s (N=30) day-care activities. Unique strategies, sequential associations in strategy use and children’s abilities to adapt strategy use were explored. Also, the effects of teacher involvement in children’s strategic behaviour were analysed. The results show that children used a variety of strategies to regulate socio-emotionally challenging situations and that the employed strategies were associated with interaction with other children and the teacher: Children used different strategies in situations where a teacher was involved compared to those without a teacher, favouring physical regulation strategies when they acted independently. When the teacher was involved, they most typically redirected their activities and attention. Furthermore when a teacher was involved, the children were more likely to adapt their regulation activities. The findings highlight the importance of external involvement in challenging situations to support children in learning to solve conflicts constructively and adapt self-regulation skills according to the demands of a situation.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T11:25:00Z
  • Parent-school relationships and young adopted children’s psychological
           adjustment in lesbian-, gay-, and heterosexual-parent families
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 40
      Author(s): Abbie E. Goldberg, JuliAnna Z. Smith
      Almost no research has examined the role of parent-school relationships in relation to child psychological functioning in adoptive families or same-sex parent families, much less same-sex adoptive families. Yet adoptive families, and particularly same-sex adoptive families, may be vulnerable to marginalization in the school setting, which could have implications for child adjustment. Using parent reports, in a sample of 106 lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parent families with young children (Mage=3.38years at T1 and 5.42 years at T2), this study examined T1 parent-school relationships (school involvement, parent-teacher relationship quality, parent-school contact about child problems, and perceived acceptance by other parents) and adoption-specific school experiences at T1 (i.e., parent input about classroom inclusion and parent-teacher conflicts related to adoptive family status) in relation to children’s later (T2) internalizing and externalizing symptoms, controlling for T1 symptoms. Follow-up analyses assessed these predictors in relation to concurrent (T1) symptoms. Family context and demographic variables were included as controls. Parents’ school involvement was negatively related to later internalizing symptoms; providing input to teachers about inclusion, and parent-teacher conflicts related to adoption, were both positively related to later internalizing symptoms. Perceived acceptance by other parents was negatively related to later internalizing and externalizing symptoms. School-initiated contact about child problems more strongly predicted higher externalizing symptoms in same-sex parent families than heterosexual parent families. Cross-sectional analyses (T1 predictors in relation to T1 child outcomes) revealed a somewhat different set of findings: most notably, parents’ school involvement was negatively related to externalizing symptoms. Findings have implications for early childhood educators and school administrators who seek to improve diverse family-school partnerships to enhance children’s emotional and behavioral well-being.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T11:15:50Z
  • Preschool expenditures and Chinese children’s academic performance: The
           mediating effect of teacher-child interaction quality
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 41
      Author(s): Bi Ying Hu, Yisu Zhou, Liang Chen, Xitao Fan, Adam Winsler
      This study examined the relationship between investment of financial resources in early childhood education (ECE) and student academic outcomes using survey and observational data from 59 classrooms in Guangdong Province, China (N =589, 50% girls, and M age =5.1±0.42years). We conceptualized the mediating role of teacher-child interaction as an important mechanism that can explain the effects of financial resources. Three types of interactions were considered under the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) framework: emotional support, classroom organization, and instructional support. Our multilevel structural equation models indicated that investing in teacher training has a direct positive effect on student vocabulary development, and that neither teacher salary nor school facility has a direct effect on child vocabulary, math, or science outcomes. Giving higher pay to teachers has an indirect effect through increased quality of teacher-child interactions. In particular, the effect of instructional support is most salient for all three outcomes. We discuss our results in light of the recent push by the Chinese government to invest in ECE. We argue for prioritizing support for raising teacher pay to attract more capable talent to the teaching pool, expanding teacher development programs to increase instructional quality, and spending less on equipment.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T04:11:54Z
  • Bidirectional relations between intrusive caregiving among parents and
           teachers and children’s externalizing behavior problems
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 41
      Author(s): Ni Yan, Arya Ansari
      Informed by the transactional and bioecological theories, this study examined the bidirectional relations between intrusive caregiving and children’s externalizing behaviors across the family and school systems during the early elementary school years. Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care (N=1364), these bidirectional associations were examined from 54 months of age through third grade. Both mothers’ and teachers’ intrusive caregiving behaviors contributed to the development of children’s externalizing behaviors in the first three years of elementary school, and children’s externalizing behaviors consistently predicted mothers’ intrusive caregiving behaviors. Children’s externalizing behaviors mediated the relation between teachers’ intrusiveness and mothers’ intrusive caregiving. These bidirectional associations did not vary across child gender, but tended to be stronger among non-White children than their White peers. These findings suggest that children’s own behaviors can serve as a key connection between the two core institutions of child development—the family and school systems.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T03:39:31Z
  • Peer effects on the development of language skills in Norwegian childcare
    • Abstract: Publication date: 4th Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 41
      Author(s): Luisa A. Ribeiro, Henrik D. Zachrisson, Eric Dearing
      Few studies have focused on the importance of peers for child language development in the preschool years. The aim of this study was to assess whether peer expressive language skills predict language ability of preschool-aged children attending Norwegian Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) centers. Data from the Behavior Outlook Norwegian Developmental Study (BONDS) were used, including 539 children in 57 centers. Peer expressive language at age two was not, on average, associated with child’s language ability at age four. However, belonging to a peer group with better language skills seemed to attenuate language differences due to educational background. Implications for researchers and policy makers are discussed, namely with regards to the importance of mixed ability classes and instruction strategies aimed at raising the overall competence in the peer group and not only of the less skilled students.

      PubDate: 2017-06-01T23:09:07Z
  • Early education of dual language learners: An efficacy study of the
           Nuestros Niños School Readiness professional development program
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 40
      Author(s): Dina C. Castro, Cristina Gillanders, Ximena Franco, Donna M. Bryant, Marlene Zepeda, Michael T. Willoughby, Lucía I. Méndez
      The purpose of this experimental study was to assess the efficacy of the Nuestros Niños School Readiness (NNSR) Professional Development Program, a 2-year program that includes an integrative approach to teacher professional development (PD) and a research-based, systematic intervention component aimed to promote language, literacy, and social-emotional development, and mathematics learning in pre-kindergarten Spanish-English dual language learners (DLLs). Across cohorts and experimental conditions, 56 preschool teachers and 340 Spanish-English DLLs from early childhood programs in California, Florida, and North Carolina participated in the study. Results indicate that the NNSR program had positive effects on the overall quality of early childhood classroom practices and on practices specifically focused on DLLs. Positive results were also found for children's outcomes. DLLs in treatment classrooms showed greater gains in expressive vocabulary in English than DLLs in control classrooms, and, when assessed in Spanish, gains were higher in receptive vocabulary, alphabet knowledge, writing and early mathematics. Issues of implementation fidelity and implications for using both languages of DLL children in instruction and assessment are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T06:43:31Z
  • Are structural quality indicators associated with preschool process
           quality in China? An exploration of threshold effects
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 40
      Author(s): Bi Ying Hu, Xitao Fan, Yan Wu, Ning Yang
      In this study, the generalized additive modeling (GAM) was used to explore possible threshold effects on multiple program structure quality indicators (class size, child-to-teacher ratio, teaching experience, teacher salary) in relation to the classroom teacher-child interaction quality indicators as measured by the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) in a sample of Chinese kindergarten classrooms. One hundred eighty classrooms in 60 preschools were selected for the study, based on a stratified sampling procedure. The results were mixed, and revealed threshold effects on some structural indicators. The findings are discussed in the context of Chinese early childhood education practice. As the first study of its kind in a Chinese context, the findings could have some implications for early childhood education policy and practice despite some limitations of the study. Future research may consider better design and more representative sample for studying these issues.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T10:23:42Z
  • The research-based balance in early childhood mathematics: A response to
           Common Core criticisms
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 40
      Author(s): Douglas H. Clements, Karen C. Fuson, Julie Sarama
      We address common criticisms of the Common Core State Standards—Mathematics, evaluating them based on comprehensive reviews of existing documentation and research to better ground future debates and to ameliorate negative effects of possible misconceptions or misinterpretations. The four main criticisms follow. (1) No one who helped develop the standards had any expertise in the education of young children. (2.) The CCSSM dictates scripted curricula and didactic instruction rigidly applied to all children at the same pace. (3.) The standards emphasize academic skills and leave no time for play, exploratory approaches, or social-emotional development. (4.) The standards are too early and therefore developmentally inappropriate for children in the early grades. We conclude that these criticisms are not valid, and that, given the importance of mathematics to academic success in all subjects, all children need and deserve to build a robust knowledge of mathematics in their earliest years and can do so if we use the research knowledge and research-based standards and programs presently available. We summarize and exemplify the research-based balanced approach to teaching based on learning trajectories that can provide guidance for engaging and developmentally appropriate mathematical experiences that have been demonstrated to help all children learn to high standards.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T07:18:51Z
  • One or two years of participation: Is dosage of an enhanced publicly
           funded preschool program associated with the academic and executive
           function skills of low-income children in early elementary school?
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 40
      Author(s): Harshini K. Shah, Celene E. Domitrovich, Nicole R. Morgan, Julia E. Moore, Brittany L. Rhoades, Linda Jacobson, Mark T. Greenberg
      This study extends previous work conducted with a sample of primarily low-income children attending an enhanced, publicly funded preschool program and assesses the effect of preschool dosage (i.e., receiving one or two years of preschool) on children’s academic and executive function (EF) outcomes at first and second grade. Because random assignment of children to receive one or two years of preschool was not possible, we used propensity score one-to-one matching to create two groups of equal size—a one-year group (i.e., those who attended preschool for one year and represented low preschool dosage, N =144) and a two-year group (i.e., those who attended preschool for two years and represented high preschool dosage, N =144) to control for potential selection bias. With respect to academic skills, children in the two-year group had higher scores on receptive vocabulary (as assessed by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Third Edition) and math skills (as assessed by the Applied Problems subtest of the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Test Battery-Revised [WJ-R]). They also had higher Broad Reading composite scores on the WJ-R at second grade. With respect to EF skills, at both first and second grade, children in the two-year group had higher scores on a working memory task (Backward Digit Span); they also made fewer perseverative errors and completed more categories on a task assessing set-shifting (Wisconsin Card Sort Task-64). Finally, children in the two-year group were better adjusted in school (i.e., they were less likely to have been retained or have received special education services by second grade). Effect sizes ranged from 0.22 to 0.40, suggesting that providing low-income children with an extra year of high-quality preschool continues to benefit students into elementary school. We discuss implications of the findings for public policy.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T06:54:05Z
  • Is full-day kindergarten linked to children’s physical activity?
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 40
      Author(s): Michael Gottfried, Vi-Nhuan Le
      Although there has been much research assessing the role of full-day kindergarten (FDK) versus part-day kindergarten (PDK) in relation to academic achievement, considerably less attention has been paid to whether FDK or PDK might be linked to children's physical activity. Applying fixed-effects models and propensity score matching to a nationally-representative dataset, we found that relative to children in FDK programs, children in FDK programs had lower BMI, had more outdoor play time, had longer physical education sessions, and had higher parental ratings of participation in rapid exercise. Children in FDK programs were also less likely to watch television during the week than children in PDK programs. There were no differences in television watching on the weekends, providing evidence that weekday activities were shifted by FDK versus PDK attendance. Policy implications are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T06:54:05Z
  • Language and literacy instruction in preschool classes that serve Latino
           dual language learners
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 40
      Author(s): Jennifer Wallace Jacoby, Nonie K. Lesaux
      The present investigation builds off prior empirical work to describe the quality of the language and literacy instruction Latino dual language learning (DLL) children receive in Head Start. Specifically, we measured the frequency and duration of language and literacy lessons in classes that enrolled large numbers of Latino DLLs. We also investigated children’s opportunities to participate in high-quality language and literacy experiences as a part of their everyday instructional experience. In total we observed 398 lessons in 20 classes. Results revealed (a) that the frequency and duration of instruction was variable, with some children enrolled in classes that implemented language- and literacy-based lessons for 23min (10%) of the 4-h day and others in classes that fit in up to 82min (34%) of instruction per day; (b) when language and literacy instruction occurred in these classes, it was most frequently delivered in a whole group and featured an instructional style that was characterized by the teacher directing the children to answer basic questions with a one- or two-word response; and (c) that high-quality instruction, which we operationalized as instruction that promoted language development, was predicted by characteristic features of the lessons—not features of the classroom. These results provide information that is useful to inform the design of policy- and practice-based interventions that might improve the characteristics of the language and literacy environments that serve Latino DLL children.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T06:20:20Z
  • Elementary students’ effortful control and academic achievement: The
           mediating role of teacher–student relationship quality
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 40
      Author(s): Maciel M. Hernández, Carlos Valiente, Nancy Eisenberg, Rebecca H. Berger, Tracy L. Spinrad, Sarah K. VanSchyndel, Kassondra M. Silva, Jody Southworth, Marilyn S. Thompson
      This study evaluated the association between effortful control in kindergarten and academic achievement one year later (N =301), and whether teacher–student closeness and conflict in kindergarten mediated the association. Parents, teachers, and observers reported on children’s effortful control, and teachers reported on their perceived levels of closeness and conflict with students. Students completed the passage comprehension and applied problems subtests of the Woodcock–Johnson tests of achievement, as well as a behavioral measure of effortful control. Analytical models predicting academic achievement were estimated using a structural equation model framework. Effortful control positively predicted academic achievement even when controlling for prior achievement and other covariates. Mediation hypotheses were tested in a separate model; effortful control positively predicted teacher–student closeness and strongly, negatively predicted teacher–student conflict. Teacher–student closeness and effortful control, but not teacher–student conflict, had small, positive associations with academic achievement. Effortful control also indirectly predicted higher academic achievement through its positive effect on teacher–student closeness and via its positive relation to early academic achievement. The findings suggest that teacher–student closeness is one mechanism by which effortful control is associated with academic achievement. Effortful control was also a consistent predictor of academic achievement, beyond prior achievement levels and controlling for teacher–student closeness and conflict, with implications for intervention programs on fostering regulation and achievement concurrently.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T06:20:20Z
  • Evaluation of an intervention using cross-race friend storybooks to reduce
           prejudice among majority race young children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 40
      Author(s): Philip Jai Johnson, Frances E. Aboud
      We tested a cross-race friendship picture book intervention under two conditions that aimed to facilitate the reduction of racial prejudice that children of two age groups ascribe to adults reading the book (communicators) and their own prejudice. White majority children, 113 kindergarteners (M=5.97years) and 103second graders (M=7.93years) were randomly assigned to an ingroup (White) or outgroup (Black) communicator and skill training. They were pretested on racial attitudes they ascribed to their photographed communicator and then trained in reconciliation or classification. They heard four cross-race friend stories; then were retested on communicator attitudes, own attitudes and cognitive elaboration. Results indicated only second graders, and those able to reconcile differences in perspectives, predicted on the basis of their photo alone that outgroup communicators would hold positive attitudes toward Blacks. After communicators read the stories and explicitly stated their antibias attitude, reports changed among second graders who now rated both communicators as holding more positive Black attitudes. Second graders also held more positive Black attitudes themselves. Kindergarteners consistently assumed both ingroup and outgroup communicators were pro-White. Children elaborated more about the Black story characters when read to by an outgroup (Black) communicator. In conclusion, cross-race friend storybooks are a promising way to expose children to other racial groups and to antibias attitudes, under certain conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T06:20:20Z
  • Wordless picture books boost preschoolers’ language production
           during shared reading
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 40
      Author(s): Leydi Johana Chaparro-Moreno, Florencia Reali, Carolina Maldonado-Carreño
      Prior research shows that shared book reading promotes preschoolers’ language and literacy skills. However, little is known about the potential role of books’ features – in particular, the role of using wordless picture books compared with books with text – in children’s spontaneous language production and teachers’ instructional support. In this study, we transcribed verbal interactions of thirteen Colombian teachers reading to groups of children (aged 43–55 months) during reading sessions in Spanish using a wordless picture book (condition 1) and a prototypical storybook with text (condition 2). Books were matched for page length, type and theme. Using Computerized Language Analysis (CLAN), we found that in the wordless-picture-book condition children produced significantly more word tokens, word types and utterances, and teachers showed higher levels of instructional support. Regression analyses revealed a significant association between children’s language production and teachers’ quality of feedback during literacy instruction, suggesting that wordless picture books may boost children’s language by enhancing instructional support.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T10:37:17Z
  • Grocery games: How ethnically diverse low-income mothers support
           children’s reading and mathematics
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 40
      Author(s): Diana Leyva, Catherine S. Tamis-LeMonda, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, Carmen Jimenez-Robbins, Lauren Malachowski
      Parent-child interactions are an important source of variability in children’s learning. We asked: (1) to what extent do low-income and ethnically diverse mothers engage in maternal writing support, math support, and directiveness in a grocery shopping game; (2) do these maternal behaviors predict gains in children’s reading and mathematics from age 5 (T1) to first grade (T2), and (3) what role do ethnicity and children’s baseline skills (T1) play in these associations. Participants were 212 low-income African American, Dominican, Mexican, and Chinese mothers and their 5-year-old children. Maternal writing support predicted gains in children’s reading skills but math support did not predict gains in children’s mathematics. Maternal directiveness negatively predicted gains in both children’s reading and mathematics. Ethnicity and children’s baseline skills did not moderate these associations. Implications for family-focused interventions serving low-income and ethnically diverse populations are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T10:37:17Z
  • Impacts of a literacy-focused preschool curriculum on the early literacy
           skills of language-minority children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 40
      Author(s): J. Marc Goodrich, Christopher J. Lonigan, Jo Ann M. Farver
      Spanish-speaking language-minority (LM) children are at an elevated risk of struggling academically and display signs of that risk during early childhood. Therefore, high-quality research is needed to identify instructional techniques that promote the school readiness of Spanish-speaking LM children. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that utilized an experimental curriculum and two professional development models for the development of English and Spanish early literacy skills among LM children. We also evaluated whether LM children’s proficiency in one language moderated the effect of the intervention on early literacy skills in the other language, as well as whether the intervention was differentially effective for LM and monolingual English-speaking children. Five hundred twenty-six Spanish-speaking LM children and 447 monolingual English-speaking children enrolled in 26 preschool centers in Los Angeles, CA participated in this study. Results indicated that the intervention was effective for improving LM children’s code-related but not language-related English early literacy skills. There were no effects of the intervention on children’s Spanish early literacy skills. Proficiency in Spanish did not moderate the effect of the intervention for any English early literacy outcomes; however, proficiency in English significantly moderated the effect of the intervention for Spanish oral language skills, such that the effect of the intervention was stronger for children with higher proficiency in English than it was for children with lower proficiency in English. In general, there were not differential effects of the intervention for LM and monolingual children. Taken together, these findings indicate that high-quality, evidence-based instruction can improve the early literacy skills of LM children and that the same instructional techniques are effective for enhancing the early literacy skills of LM and monolingual children.

      PubDate: 2017-03-13T03:56:34Z
  • Linguistic and social cues for vocabulary learning in Dual Language
           Learners and their English-only peers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 40
      Author(s): Perla B. Gámez, Sabina Rak Neugebauer, Michael D. Coyne, D. Betsy McCoach, Sharon Ware
      This study examined teachers’ (n=29) linguistic and social cues and the vocabulary skills of Dual Language Learners (DLLs) and their English-only peers (5- to 6-year-olds; n=226). Videotaped observations of classrooms serving high numbers of children from low-income and ethnic-minority backgrounds were coded for syntactic complexity (linguistic cues) and gestures (social cues). Students’ expressive vocabulary was measured in kindergarten (fall, spring); receptive vocabulary was used to determine risk status. Results revealed that, controlling for fall scores, teachers’ syntactic complexity positively predicted spring scores for DLLs and EO students. Follow up analyses revealed that teachers’ syntactic complexity positively predicted spring scores for children not at risk for language and literacy difficulties. Gestures also positively predicted students’ vocabulary outcomes. Findings suggest that the classroom language environment can be experienced as promoting to the extent it provides responsive language support for word learning.

      PubDate: 2017-03-13T03:56:34Z
  • Improving school readiness of high-risk preschoolers: Combining high
           quality instructional strategies with responsive training for teachers and
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 40
      Author(s): Susan H. Landry, Tricia A. Zucker, Jeffrey M. Williams, Emily C. Merz, Cathy L. Guttentag, Heather B. Taylor
      This study evaluated whether the combination of two proven interventions, one in Head Start classrooms (The Early Education Model, TEEM) and one in the home (Play and Learning Strategies, PALS) resulted in enhanced effects on at-risk 3- to 5-year-old children’s school readiness skills when compared to either of these interventions alone. Teachers and parents were trained to use a responsive style and strategies that supported children’s school readiness skills with the goal of providing children consistency in responsive practices across the school and home environments. The study was conducted in 77 classrooms with teachers randomized to either the TEEM (n =39) or No TEEM (i.e., control or business as usual, n =38) conditions. Six to eight children in each classroom were randomly assigned to either have their parents receive PALS (n =314; 210 after attrition) or to a No PALS condition (n =309; 221 after attrition) resulting in four conditions: TEEM/PALS, TEEM/No PALS, No TEEM/PALS, and No TEEM/No PALS. Results showed greater gains in the TEEM teachers’ language and literacy instructional practices and sensitivity compared to control teachers, but there were few significant findings for child cognitive outcomes. Parents receiving PALS, as compared to those without PALS, showed greater increases across play and book reading contexts in numerous responsive behaviors linked to the attachment and socio-cultural theories. Children whose parents received PALS versus those whose parents did not showed greater gains in direct measures of print knowledge and self-regulation and in social and language skills observed during interactions with their parent. Interactive effects of TEEM plus PALS were seen for increased engagement in shared book reading but not for other cognitive or social outcomes.

      PubDate: 2017-03-13T03:56:34Z
  • The effect of alphabet eBooks and paper books on preschoolers’ behavior:
           An analysis over repeated readings
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3rd Quarter 2017
      Source:Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 40
      Author(s): Mary Ann Evans, Sarah Nowak, Brittany Burek, David Willoughby
      Preschoolers’ behavior was examined over repeated sessions when interacting with one of two types of alphabet books – traditional alphabet books in paper format or interactive alphabet books in an eBook format – to determine the extent to which each type of book elicited behavior relating to alphabet knowledge. Data are reported from 63 3 and 4-year-old children who were assessed on letter knowledge and phonemic awareness. They were randomly assigned to conditions in which they used either paper books representing a variety of text and illustration styles, or eBooks representing a variety of audio and interactive features. Orientation to the books and letter-related behaviors in independent reading were coded in 16 sessions occurring over 8 weeks, and summarized across 2-week blocks. Children in the eBook condition spent more time oriented to the books. However, they generally engaged in less letter-related behavior (saying letter names, saying object names). In half of the observations they activated object hotspots. Moreover, their overall letter-related behavior declined over sessions. Implications for parents, educators and publishers are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T08:48:50Z
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