for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1342 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (23 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (89 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (555 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (81 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (555 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 201)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Innovación en Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access  
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Düzce Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi / Journal of Duzce University Health Sciences Institute     Open Access  
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Eurasian Journal of Health Technology Assessment     Open Access  
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access  
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastane Öncesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Notions     Open Access  
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Health, Safety and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Healthcare Technology Letters     Open Access  
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Public Health     Open Access  
Infodir : Revista de Información científica para la Dirección en Salud     Open Access  
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Archives of Health Sciences     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover
Geospatial Health
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.554
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1827-1987 - ISSN (Online) 1970-7096
Published by PAGEPress Homepage  [73 journals]
  • Regional variation of alanine aminotransferase serum levels in the
           People's Republic of China

    • Authors: Peng Li, Miao Ge, Jing Jing, Dezhi Wei
      Abstract: The regional variation of the blood concentration of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a sensitive predictor of liver damage, was studied in the People’s Republic of China with reference to its potential association with environmental variables and geographic location. The research results presented are based on 121,977 blood samples from healthy adults in 93 cities in the country using correlation analysis, ridge regression estimation and trend surface analysis that were applied to explore if there was any tendency of spatial variation. A regression formula using a simulation equation under the condition of known local geographic factors was used. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. A positive correlation between ALT concentration altitude and sunshine hours and a negative correlation between ALT concentration and temperature, humidity and precipitation were found. With respect to geographical location, there was a negative correlation between ALT concentration and longitude. Higher ALT values were found in western China compared to eastern regions, dividing the country into three different regions with respect to serum ALT levels.
      PubDate: 2017-11-28
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.472
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Spatial-temporal analysis of prostate cancer incidence from the
           Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, 2000-2011

    • Authors: Ming Wang, Stephen A. Matthews, Khaled Iskandarani, Yimei Li, Zheng Li, Vernon M. Chinchilli, Lijun Zhang
      Abstract: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed among males, and the incidence in Pennsylvania, USA is considerably higher than nationally. Knowledge of regional differences and time trends in prostate cancer incidence may contribute to a better understanding of aetiologic factors and racial disparities in outcomes, and to improvements in preventive intervention and screening efforts. We used Pennsylvania Cancer Registry data on reported prostate cancer diagnoses between 2000 and 2011 to study the regional distribution and temporal trends of prostate cancer incidence in both Pennsylvania White males and Philadelphia metropolitan area Black males. For White males, we generated and mapped county-specific age-adjusted incidence and standardised incidence ratios by period cohort, and identified spatial autocorrelation and local clusters. In addition, we fitted Bayesian hierarchical generalised linear Poisson models to describe the temporal and aging effects separately in Whites state-wide and metropolitan Philadelphia blacks. Incidences of prostate cancer among white males declined from 2000-2002 to 2009-2011 with an increasing trend to some extent in the period 2006-2008 and significant variation across geographic regions, but less variation exists for metropolitan Philadelphia including majority of Black patients. No significant aging effect was detected for White and Black men, and the peak age group for prostate cancer risk varied by race. Future research should seek to identify potential social and environmental risk factors associated with geographical/racial disparities in prostate cancer. As such, there is a need for more effective surveillance so as to detect, reduce and control the cancer burden associated with prostate cancer.
      PubDate: 2017-11-28
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.611
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Mapping displaced populations with reference to social vulnerabilities for
           post-disaster public health management

    • Authors: Junaid Ahmad, Anees Ahmad, Mokbul Morshed Ahmad, Nafees Ahmad
      Abstract: Millions of people are currently displaced from their homes because of local and international conflicts. In the last two decades, a substantial increase in the number of displaced people has been recorded. We measured the social vulnerabilities of displaced populations using a mathematical approach in combination with application of geographical information systems (GIS) tools and techniques to visualise movement and draw attention to the location of significant concentration of vulnerabilities. A retrospective study approach based on datasets collected from governmental and non-governmental organisations working with refugees and internally displaced persons in Pakistan was used. We applied simple mathematical formulas to calculate and map various types of vulnerability, such as refugee population, absorption capacity, unmet needs and overall vulnerability. This approach displays risks and vulnerabilities of displaced populations in an easily understood and straightforward manner that can be replicated in other parts of the world.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.576
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Spatiotemporal transmission and socio-climatic factors related to
           paediatric tuberculosis in north-western Ethiopia

    • Authors: Kefyalew Addis Alene, Kerri Viney, Emma S. McBryde, Archie C.A. Clements
      Abstract: The burden of tuberculosis (TB) in children reflects continuing and recent transmission within a population. This study aimed to identify spatiotemporal and socio-climatic factors associated with paediatric TB in north-western Ethiopia. Multivariate Poisson regression models were computed using a Bayesian framework. Estimates of parameters were generated using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. A total of 2,240 children aged under 15 years diagnosed with TB during the years 2013- 2016 were included in the analysis. The annual TB incidence rates were 44 and 28 per 100,000 children, for children aged under 15 and 5 years, respectively. Spatial clustering of TB was observed in the border area of north-western Ethiopia. The spatio-temporal transmission of childhood TB was found to be associated with district level socio-climatic factors such as urbanisation [relative risk (RR): 1.8; 95% credible interval (CrI): 1.2, 2.6], lower educational status (RR: 1.5; 95% CrI: 1.0, 2.1), a high percentage of internal migration (RR: 1.3; 95% CrI: 1.0, 1.6), high temperature (RR: 1.3; 95% CrI: 1.0, 1.7) and high rainfall (RR: 1.5; 95% CrI: 1.1, 2.0). We conclude that interventions targeting hotspot districts with a high proportion of childhood TB are important to reduce TB transmission in northwest Ethiopia.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.575
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Climate impact on malaria in northern Burkina Faso

    • Authors: Yves M. Tourre, Cécile Vignolles, Christian Viel, Flore Mounier
      Abstract: The Paluclim project managed by the French Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES) found that total rainfall for a 3-month period is a confounding factor for the density of malaria vectors in the region of Nouna in the Sahel administrative territory of northern Burkina Faso. Following the models introduced in 1999 by Craig et al. and in 2003 by Tanser et al., a climate impact model for malaria risk (using different climate indices) was created. Several predictions of this risk at different temporal scales (i.e. seasonal, inter-annual and low-frequency) were assessed using this climate model. The main result of this investigation was the discovery of a significant link between malaria risk and low-frequency rainfall variability related to the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO). This result is critical for the health information systems in this region. Knowledge of the AMO phases would help local authorities to organise preparedness and prevention of malaria, which is of particular importance in the climate change context.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.600
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Spatial analysis of the prevalence of schistosomiasis in an endemic
           coastal area in north-eastern Brazil

    • Authors: Allan D. Santos, Jonhnatas Silva, Ana Caroline Lima, Márcio Santos, Shirley Lima, Monalisa Amor, Carlos Santos, Arthur Vasconcelos, Silvio Dolabella, Karina C.G.M. Araújo
      Abstract: Due to contact and misuse of water drainage channels, schistosomiasis has spread and become a constant concern in northeastern Brazil. The aim of this study was to monitor human cases of Schistosomiasis mansoni and the breeding areas of the snail intermediate host Biomphalaria glabrata through spatial analysis in a community named Invasão do Canal do Guaxinim, located in Barra dos Coqueiros City in an endemic coastal part of the state of Sergipe, Brazil. This research was performed as a cross-sectional epidemiological study conducted with parasitological and malacological surveys. To verify the spatial analysis, a two-year spatial point pattern analysis was performed by means of Kernel intensity estimation using TerraView software 4.2.2. A schistosomiasis prevalence reduction from 8.1% (2013) to 4.9% (2014) was observed but mild infection prevailed in adolescents and/or young adults during the two-year study. In malacological research, 387 specimens of snails of the genus B. glabrata were collected and all were negative with regard to schistosomiasis. Spatial analysis showed a strong, spatial trend of increased transmission risk areas north and south of the community, both in 2013 and 2014. In Invasão do Canal do Guaxinim itself, the increased risk was only seen in the northern part. When combined, the human and the malacological spatial analyses constituted an important methodological approach for monitoring and controlling this parasitic disease.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.570
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Shrinking risk profiles after deworming of children in Port Elizabeth,
           South Africa, with special reference to Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris

    • Authors: Ivan Müller, Stefanie Gall, Lindsey Beyleveld, Markus Gerber, Uwe Pühse, Rosa du Randt, Peter Steinmann, Leyli Zondie, Cheryl Walter, Jürg Utzinger
      Abstract: Risk maps facilitate discussion among different stakeholders and provide a tool for spatial targeting of health interventions. We present maps documenting shrinking risk profiles after deworming with respect to soil-transmitted helminthiasis among schoolchildren from disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Children were examined for soil-transmitted helminth infections using duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears in March 2015, October 2015 and May 2016, and subsequently treated with albendazole after each survey. The mean infection intensities for Ascaris lumbricoides were 9,554 eggs per gram of stool (EPG) in March 2015, 4,317 EPG in October 2015 and 1,684 EPG in March 2016. The corresponding figures for Trichuris trichiura were 664 EPG, 331 EPG and 87 EPG. Repeated deworming shrank the risk of soil-transmitted helminthiasis, but should be complemented by other public health measures.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.601
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Urbanisation and its effect on risk factors associated with childhood
           diarrhoea in Mbour, Senegal: A visualisation

    • Authors: Sokhna Thiam, Samuel Fuhrimann, Aminata Niang-Diène, Ibrahima Sy, Ousmane Faye, Jürg Utzinger, Guéladio Cissé
      Abstract: Rapid urbanisation, particularly in secondary cities in Africa, brings along specific challenges for global health, including the prevention and control of infectious diseases such as diarrhoea. Our purpose was to visualise urbanisation trends and its effect on risk factors associated with childhood diarrhoea, e.g. water supply, sanitation, wastewater and solid waste management in Mbour, a secondary city in south-western Senegal. Our visualisation is facilitated by epidemiological and geographical surveys carried out in 2016. A deeper spatial and visual understanding of the urbanisation trends and the disparities of diarrhoea-associated risk factors might lead to the implementation of suitable health interventions and preventive measures. Our visualisation is aimed to serve as a basis for discussion and as a decision support tool for policymakers, municipal officials and local communities to prioritise interventions related to water, sanitation and waste management with a view to reduce the environmental and health risks in the rapidly growing city of Mbour, which is set as an example for other similar secondary cities across low- and middle-income countries in Africa.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.632
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Evaluating the utility of companion animal tick surveillance practices for
           monitoring spread and occurrence of human Lyme disease in West Virginia,

    • Authors: Brian Hendricks, Miguella Mark-Carew, Jamison Conley
      Abstract: Domestic dogs and cats are potentially effective sentinel populations for monitoring occurrence and spread of Lyme disease. Few studies have evaluated the public health utility of sentinel programmes using geo-analytic approaches. Confirmed Lyme disease cases diagnosed by physicians and ticks submitted by veterinarians to the West Virginia State Health Department were obtained for 2014-2016. Ticks were identified to species, and only Ixodes scapularis were incorporated in the analysis. Separate ordinary least squares (OLS) and spatial lag regression models were conducted to estimate the association between average numbers of Ix. scapularis collected on pets and human Lyme disease incidence. Regression residuals were visualised using Local Moran’s I as a diagnostic tool to identify spatial dependence. Statistically significant associations were identified between average numbers of Ix. scapularis collected from dogs and human Lyme disease in the OLS (β=20.7, P<0.001) and spatial lag (β=12.0, P=0.002) regression. No significant associations were identified for cats in either regression model. Statistically significant (P≤0.05) spatial dependence was identified in all regression models. Local Moran’s I maps produced for spatial lag regression residuals indicated a decrease in model over- and under-estimation, but identified a higher number of statistically significant outliers than OLS regression. Results support previous conclusions that dogs are effective sentinel populations for monitoring risk of human exposure to Lyme disease. Findings reinforce the utility of spatial analysis of surveillance data, and highlight West Virginia’s unique position within the eastern United States in regards to Lyme disease occurrence.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.582
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Spatio-temporal analysis and visualisation of the anthrax epidemic
           situation in livestock in Kazakhstan over the period 1933-2016

    • Authors: Sarsenbay K. Abdrakhmanov, Yersyn Y. Mukhanbetkaliyev, Fedor I. Korennoy, Bolat Sh. Karatayev, Aizada A. Mukhanbetkaliyeva, Aruzhan S. Abdrakhmanova
      Abstract: An analysis of the anthrax epidemic situation among livestock animals in the Republic of Kazakhstan over the period 1933-2016 is presented. During this time, 4,064 anthrax outbreaks (mainly in cattle, small ruminants, pigs and horses) were recorded. They fall into five historical periods of increase and decrease in the annual anthrax incidence (1933-1953; 1954-1968; 1969-1983; 1984- 2001; and 2002-2016), which has been associated with changes in economic activity and veterinary surveillance. To evaluate the temporal trends of incidence variation for each of these time periods, the following methods were applied: i) spatio-temporal analysis using a space-time cube to assess the presence of hotspots (i.e., areas of outbreak clustering) and the trends of their emergence over time; and ii) a linear regression model that was used to evaluate the annual numbers of outbreaks as a function of time. The results show increasing trends during the first two periods followed by a decreasing trend up to now. The peak years of anthrax outbreaks occurred in 1965-1968 but outbreaks still continue with an average annual number of outbreaks of 1.2 (95% confidence interval: 0.6-1.8). The space-time analysis approach enabled visualisation of areas with statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends of outbreak clustering providing a practical opportunity to inform decision-makers and allowing the veterinary services to concentrate their efforts on monitoring the possible risk factors in the identified locations.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.589
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Spatio-temporal outbreaks of campylobacteriosis and the role of fresh-milk
           vending machines in the Czech Republic: A methodological study

    • Authors: Lukáš Marek, Vít Pászto
      Abstract: Inspired by local outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in the Czech Republic in 2010 linked to the debate about alleged health risks of the raw milk consumption, a detailed study was carried out. Firstly, scanning was utilised to identify spatio-temporal clusters of the disease from 2008 to 2012. Then a spatial method (geographical profiling originally developed for criminology) served as assessment in selecting fresh-milk vending machines that could have contributed to some of the local campylobacteriosis outbreaks. Even though an area of increased relative risk of the disease was identified in the affected city of České Budějovice during January and February 2010, geoprofiling did not identify any vending machines in the area as the potential source. However, possible sources in some nearby cities were suggested. Overall, 14 high-rate clusters including the localisation of 9% of the vending machines installed in the Czech Republic were found in the period 2008-2012. Although the vending machines are subject to strict hygiene standards and regular testing, a potential link between a small number of them and the spatial distribution of campylobacteriosis has been detected in the Czech Republic. This should be taken into account in public health research of the disease.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.572
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • A 24-year exploratory spatial data analysis of Lyme disease incidence rate
           in Connecticut, USA

    • Authors: Abolfazl Mollalo, Jason K. Blackburn, Lillian R. Morris, Gregory E. Glass
      Abstract: Despite efforts to control Lyme disease in Connecticut, USA, it remains endemic in many towns, posing a heavy burden. We examined changes in the spatial distribution of significant spatial clusters of Lyme disease incidence rates at the town level from 1991 to 2014 as an approach for targeted interventions. Lyme disease data were grouped into four discrete time periods and incidence rates were smoothed with Empirical Bayes estimation in GeoDa. Local clustering was measured using a local indicator of spatial autocorrelation (LISA). Elliptic spatial scan statistics (SSS) in different shapes and directions were also performed in SaTScan. The accuracy of these two cluster detection methods was assessed and compared for sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy. There was significant clustering during each period and significant clusters persisted predominantly in western and eastern parts of the state. Generally, the SSS method was more sensitive, while LISA was more specific with higher overall accuracy in identifying clusters. Even though the location of clusters changed over time, some towns were persistently (across all four periods) identified as clusters in LISA and their neighbouring towns (three of four periods) in SSS suggesting these regions should be prioritized for targeted interventions.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.588
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Spatial analysis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Iran
           based on environmental factors

    • Authors: Roghieh Ramezankhani, Nooshin Sajjadi, Roya Nezakati Esmaeilzadeh, Seyed Ali Jozi, Mohammad Reza Shirzadi
      Abstract: Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by different species of protozoan parasites. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is still a great public health problem in Iran, especially in Isfahan Province. Distribution and abundance of vectors and reservoirs of this disease is affected by different factors such as climatic, socioeconomic and cultural. This study aimed to identify the hotspot areas for CL in Isfahan and assess the relations between the climatic and topographic factors with CL incidence using spatial analysis. We collected data on the total number of CL cases, population at risk, vegetation coverage, altitude and climatic data for each district of the province from 2011 to 2015. Global Moran’s Index was used to map clustering of CL cases across districts and the Getis-Ord (Gi*) statistics was used to determine hotspots areas of the disease in Isfahan. We applied overlay analysis to assess the correlation between the climatic and topographic factors with CL incidence. We found the CL distribution significantly clustered (Moran’s Index=0.17, P<0.001) with the Ardestan and Aran va Bidgol (P<0.01) districts along with the Naein and Natanz districts (P<0.05) to be strong hotspot areas. Overlay analysis revealed a high incidence of CL in areas with relative humidity of 27-30%, mean temperature of 15-19°C, mean precipitation of 5-20 mm, maximum wind speed about 12-16 m/s and an altitude of 600-1,800 m. Our study showed that spatial analysis is a feasible approach for identifying spatial disease pattern and detecting hotspots of this infectious disease.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.578
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Balancing geo-privacy and spatial patterns in epidemiological studies

    • Authors: Chien-Chou Chen, Jen-Hsiang Chuang, Da-Wei Wang, Chien-Min Wang, Bo-Cheng Lin, Ta-Chien Chan
      Abstract: To balance the protection of geo-privacy and the accuracy of spatial patterns, we developed a geo-spatial tool (GeoMasker) intended to mask the residential locations of patients or cases in a geographic information system (GIS). To elucidate the effects of geo-masking parameters, we applied 2010 dengue epidemic data from Taiwan testing the tool’s performance in an empirical situation. The similarity of pre- and post-spatial patterns was measured by D statistics under a 95% confidence interval. In the empirical study, different magnitudes of anonymisation (estimated Kanonymity ≥10 and 100) were achieved and different degrees of agreement on the pre- and post-patterns were evaluated. The application is beneficial for public health workers and researchers when processing data with individuals’ spatial information.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.573
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • A geographical information system for the management of the aquaculture
           data in the Adriatic Sea – the Strengthening of Centres for Aquaculture
           Production and Safety surveillance in the Adriatic countries experience:
           Present capabilities, tools and functions

    • Authors: Susanna Tora, Silvio Sacchini, Eddy Listeš, Tanja Bogdanović, Alessio Di Lorenzo, Muhamed Smajlović, Ahmed Smajlović, Jelena V. Filipović, Vildana Tahirović, Danijela Šuković, Bojan Beljkas, Ardian Xinxo, Renis Maçi, Patrizia Colangeli, Federica Di Giacinto, Annamaria Conte
      Abstract: The European Commission (EC) regulation no. 854/2004 requires a systematic monitoring of chemical and microbiological contaminants in live bivalve molluscs, live echinoderms, live tunicates and live marine gastropods for human consumption through surveillance plans to be implemented in all European Union (EU) countries.A consortium of five Adriatic countries was set up in the framework of the Instrument of Pre-accession Assistance Adriatic Cross-border Cooperation Programme (IPA Adriatic CBC) 2007- 2013 with the aim of collecting data and distribute information on harvesting and production in mollusc areas. A web-based geographical information system (GIS) application was developed to support the partners to manage data and to make these data available to final users, policy makers and to risk assessors. The GIS for the Strengthening of Centres for Aquaculture Production and Safety surveillance in the Adriatic countries (CAPS2) is divided into two levels, the national and the supranational one, and it distributes spatial and epidemiological information coming from various data acquisition and management sites. The great innovation is the possibility for each country to use online drawing, modifying and change of the geographic areas according to national surveillance needs. Currently it hosts data coming from about 230 production and relay areas with more than 29,478 laboratory tests performed on collected samples since August 2014. Data collected are used by each national competent authority to classify production or relay areas according to the EC regulation mentioned and to conduct risk assessment studies to evaluate the level of consumers’ exposure to contaminants in the consumption of bivalve mollusc products.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.593
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Revealed access to haemodialysis facilities in northeastern Iran: Factors
           that matter in rural and urban areas

    • Authors: Behzad Kiani, Nasser Bagheri, Ahmad Tara, Benyamin Hoseini, Hamed Tabesh, Mahmood Tara
      Abstract: Poor access to haemodialysis facilities is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. This study investigated factors affecting revealed access to the haemodialysis facilities considering patients living in rural and urban areas without any haemodialysis facility (Group A) and those living urban areas with haemodialysis facilities (Group B). This study is based on selfreported Actual Access Time (AAT) to referred haemodialysis facilities and other information regarding travel to haemodialysis facilities from patients. All significant variables on univariate analysis were entered into a univariate general linear model in order to identify factors associated with AAT. Both spatial (driving time and distance) and non-spatial factors (sex, income level, caregivers, transportation mode, education level, ethnicity and personal vehicle ownership) influenced the revealed access identified in Group A. The non-spatial factors for Group B patients were the same as for Group A, but no spatial factor was identified in Group B. It was found that accessibility is strongly underestimated when driving time is chosen as accessibility measure to haemodialysis facilities. Analysis of revealed access determinants provides policymakers with an appropriate decision base for making appropriate decisions and finding solutions to decrease the access time for patients under haemodialysis therapy. Driving time alone is not a good proxy for measuring access to haemodialysis facilities as there are many other potential obstacles, such as women's special travel problems, poor other transportation possibilities, ethnicity disparities, low education levels, low caregiver status and low-income.
      PubDate: 2017-11-07
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.584
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Variability of nutrients intake, lipid profile and cardiovascular
           mortality among geographical areas in Spain: The DRECE study

    • Authors: Agustín Gómez de la Cámara, Eva de Andrés Esteban, Gerard Urrútia Cuchí, Enrique Calderón Sandubete, Miguel Ángel Rubio Herrera, Miguel Menéndez Orenga, David Lora Pablos
      Abstract: It has often been suggested that cardiovascular mortality and their geographical heterogeneity are associated with nutrients intake patterns and also lipid profile. The large Spanish study Dieta y Riesgo de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares en España (DRECE) investigated this theory from 1991 to 2010. Out of the 4,783 Spanish individuals making up the DRECE cohort, 220 subjects (148 men and 72 women) died (4.62%) during the course of the study. The mean age of patients who died from cardiovascular causes (32 in all) was 61.08 years 95% CI (57.47-64.69) and 70.91% of them were males. The consumption of nutrients and the lipid profile by geographical area, studied by geospatial models, showed that the east and southern area of the country had the highest fat intake coupled to a high rate of unhealthy lipid profile. It was concluded that the spatial geographical analysis showed a relationship between high fat intake, unhealthy lipid profile and cardiovascular mortality in the different geographical areas, with a high variability within the country.
      PubDate: 2017-11-07
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.524
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • The influence of socioeconomic deprivation, access to healthcare and
           physical environment on old-age survival in Portugal

    • Authors: Ana Isabel Ribeiro, Elias Teixeira Krainski, Marilia Sá Carvalho, Maria de Fátima de Pina
      Abstract: Spatial inequalities in old-age survival exist in Portugal and might be associated with factors pertaining to three distinct domains: socioeconomic, physical environmental and healthcare. We evaluated the contribution of these factors on the old-age survival across Portuguese municipalities deriving a surrogate measure of life expectancy, a 10-year survival rate that expresses the proportion of the population aged 75-84 years old who reached 85-94. As covariates we used two internationally comparable multivariate indexes: the European deprivation index and the multiple physical environmental deprivation index. A national index was developed to evaluate the access to healthcare. Smoothed rates and odds ratios (OR) were estimated using Bayesian spatial models. Socioeconomic deprivation was found to be the most relevant factor influencing old-age survival in Portugal [women: least deprived areas OR=1.132(1.064-1.207); men OR=1.044(1.001- 1.094)] and explained a sizable amount of the spatial variance in survival, especially among women. Access to healthcare was associated with old-age survival in the univariable model only; results lost significance after adjustment for socioeconomic circumstances [women: higher access to healthcare OR=1.020(0.973- 1.072); men OR=1.021(0.989-1.060)]. Physical environmental deprivation was unrelated with old-age survival. In conclusion, socioeconomic deprivation was the most important determinant in explaining spatial disparities in old-age survival in Portugal, which indicates that policy makers should direct their efforts to tackle socioeconomic differentials between regions.
      PubDate: 2017-11-07
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.581
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • The use of geographic information system as a tool for schistosomiasis
           surveillance in the province of Davao del Norte, the Philippines

    • Authors: Vicente Y. Belizario, John Paul Caesar R. delos Trinos, Berne Silawan, Chiqui M. De Veyra, Agapito Hornido, Hansel Amoguis, Dominic Basalo, Cherry Dema-ala, Irenn Mantilla, Rosele Layan
      Abstract: Schistosomiasis (SCH) in The Philippines is caused by Schistosoma japonicum and remains endemic in 28 provinces in 12 regions. Effective SCH control requires describing areas at risk where control efforts may be focused. This study aims at demonstrating the utility of geographical information system (GIS) as a tool for SCH surveillance in the province of Davao del Norte. Qualitative and quantitative data on SCH determinants, obtained from local government offices, partner agencies and institutions, were standardised, formatted and incorporated into a GIS map. Atrisk areas are described in terms of determinants and (variables), which included geography and climate (topography, temperature and flood-prone areas), agriculture (irrigation and land use), poverty (percentage of households with income below the poverty threshold), sanitation level (percentage of households with sanitary toilets), intermediate and reservoir hosts (presence of snail colonies and reservoir hosts) as well as prevalence and treatment coverage. Endemic villages (barangays) were generally found to be located in flood-prone areas in the lowlands near major rivers. New Corella has the highest poverty index among the SCH-endemic areas studied as well as the highest number of confirmed snail colonies. Among known endemic localities in Davao del Norte, Tagum City was found to be the only city meeting the poverty index target of <16.6%. Clustering of SCH cases were reported in six barangays ranging from 0.48% (8 out of 1,655) in Braulio Dujali to 2% (25 out of 1,405) in Asuncion. This study demonstrates the utility of GIS in predicting and assessing SCH risk, which allows prioritisation and allocation of control resources and delivery of services in areas at the highest risk for SCH.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.540
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Detecting space-time disease clusters with arbitrary shapes and sizes
           using a co-clustering approach

    • Authors: Sami Ullah, Hanita Daud, Sarat C. Dass, Habib Nawaz Khan, Alamgir Khalil
      Abstract: Ability to detect potential space-time clusters in spatio-temporal data on disease occurrences is necessary for conducting surveillance and implementing disease prevention policies. Most existing techniques use geometrically shaped (circular, elliptical or square) scanning windows to discover disease clusters. In certain situations, where the disease occurrences tend to cluster in very irregularly shaped areas, these algorithms are not feasible in practise for the detection of space-time clusters. To address this problem, a new algorithm is proposed, which uses a co-clustering strategy to detect prospective and retrospective space-time disease clusters with no restriction on shape and size. The proposed method detects space-time disease clusters by tracking the changes in space–time occurrence structure instead of an in-depth search over space. This method was utilised to detect potential clusters in the annual and monthly malaria data in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan from 2012 to 2016 visualising the results on a heat map. The results of the annual data analysis showed that the most likely hotspot emerged in three sub-regions in the years 2013-2014. The most likely hotspots in monthly data appeared in the month of July to October in each year and showed a strong periodic trend.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.567
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • CutL: an alternative to Kulldorff’s scan statistics for cluster
           detection with a specified cut-off level

    • Authors: Barbara Więckowska, Justyna Marcinkowska
      Abstract: When searching for epidemiological clusters, an important tool can be to carry out one’s own research with the incidence rate from the literature as the reference level. Values exceeding this level may indicate the presence of a cluster in that location. This paper presents a method of searching for clusters that have significantly higher incidence rates than those specified by the investigator. The proposed method uses the classic binomial exact test for one proportion and an algorithm that joins areas with potential clusters while reducing the number of multiple comparisons needed. The sensitivity and specificity are preserved by this new method, while avoiding the Monte Carlo approach and still delivering results comparable to the commonly used Kulldorff’s scan statistics and other similar methods of localising clusters. A strong contributing factor afforded by the statistical software that makes this possible is that it allows analysis and presentation of the results cartographically.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.556
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Analytical report of the 2016 dengue outbreak in Córdoba city,

    • Authors: Camilo Rotela, Laura Lopez, María Frías Céspedes, Gabriela Barbas, Andrés Lighezzolo, Ximena Porcasi, Mario A. Lanfri, Carlos M. Scavuzzo, David E. Gorla
      Abstract: After elimination of the Aedes aegypti vector in South America in the 1960s, dengue outbreaks started to reoccur during the 1990s; strongly in Argentina since 1998. In 2016, Córdoba City had the largest dengue outbreak in its history. In this article we report this outbreak including spatio-temporal analysis of cases and vectors in the city. A total of 653 dengue cases were recorded by the laboratory-based dengue surveillance system and georeferenced by their residential addresses. Case maps were generated from the epidemiological week 1 (beginning of January) to week 19 (mid-May). Dengue outbreak temporal evolution was analysed globally and three specific, high-incidence zones were detected using Knox analysis to characterising its spatio-temporal attributes. Field and remotely sensed data were collected and analysed in real time and a vector presence map based on the MaxEnt approach was generated to define hotspots, towards which the pesticide- based strategy was then targeted. The recorded pattern of cases evolution within the community suggests that dengue control measures should be improved.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.564
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • A concise, straightforward presentation can be worth more than a thousand

    • Authors: Robert Bergquist
      Abstract: Not available.
      PubDate: 2017-11-03
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.637
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Impact of walkability with regard to physical activity in the prevention
           of diabetes

    • Authors: Carlos Mena, César Sepúlveda, Yony Ormazábal, Eduardo Fuentes, Iván Palomo
      Abstract: Walkability, a component of urban design intended to facilitate pedestrian traffic, depends on parameters associated with the connectivity of routes, population density and availability of destinations in the neighbourhood. The aim is to achieve levels of physical activity related to the prevention of risk factors associated with diseases, such as diabetes and the improvement of glycaemia control. It is important to consider that the effects of walkability depend on its relation with other variables present in the neighbourhood, e.g., environmental and socioeconomic factors. Considering this, improving walkability levels could be an effective strategy to reduce disease, the prevalence of diabetes in particular, in the population and thus reduce public spending. To investigate these relationships, PUBMED and ScienceDirect databases were searched using the following key words: Diabetes, Walkability and Physical activity.
      PubDate: 2017-11-03
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.595
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Physical inactivity displays a mediator role in the association of
           diabetes and poverty: A spatiotemporal analysis

    • Authors: Lung-Chang Chien, Xiao Li, Amanda Staudt
      Abstract: Physical inactivity is one of the risk factors of diabetes. In addition, physical inactivity is attributed to urbanization-related factors, such as poverty, which is also one of the risk factors of diabetes. We hypothesized that physical inactivity is a mediator in the association between diabetes and poverty, and that spatial heterogeneity exists in these relationships. This study adopted a spatiotemporal modelling approach to conduct this mediator analysis. From 2004-2011, data were collected at the county level in 48 contiguous states (with a total of 3,109 counties) from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and American Community Survey. Poverty percentage significantly affected physical inactivity prevalence and diabetes prevalence in two separate models. Using a model with both physical inactivity and poverty percentages as independent variables, we verified that physical inactivity prevalence is a significant mediator. In this model, physical inactivity prevalence resulted in a significant positive association with diabetes prevalence, and the influence of poverty percentage on diabetes prevalence was significantly reduced (P=0.0009). An advanced spatiotemporal analysis revealed that 32.65% of counties having a significant positive association between diabetes prevalence and physical inactivity prevalence also had a significant positive association between physical inactivity prevalence and poverty percentage. Those counties were also likely located in the South and Southeast of USA. In summary, the findings of this study demonstrate the mediating effect of physical inactivity between diabetes and poverty. When implementing diabetes prevention in communities with higher poverty, appropriate strategies to reduce the cost burden of physical activity programmes should be considered.
      PubDate: 2017-11-03
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.528
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Spread of Ebola virus disease based on the density of roads in West Africa

    • Authors: Diana Gomez-Barroso, Emilia Velasco, Carmen Varela, Inmaculada Leon, Rosa Cano
      Abstract: On March 23rd 2014 the World Health Organization announced that a new Ebola outbreak had appeared in West Africa involving three countries. The objective of this study was to show how a road density index (RDI) could be constructed and a study of its association with Ebola cases during the outbreak. The study was carried out at the district level across the affected countries. RDI was calculated by km2 of territory as a proxy for the mobility of the population. To calculate this index, the number of km of road constructed in each district was estimated and subsequently divided by the area of each district expressed in km2. The accumulated incidence of Ebola was calculated per district. A generalised linear model with a Poisson distribution was used. The RDI varied from 0.12 to 0.84 between the districts. An RDI increase of 0.01 indicates a 3% increase in Ebola infection risk (RR is 1.03; CI 1.03-1.04). The density of the road network can influence the increased incidence of Ebola cases in the affected zone. An exhaustive mapping of the area could help the relevant organisations to manage another outbreak in the future and it could help the distribution of resources in an emergency situation.
      PubDate: 2017-11-03
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.552
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Your IP address:
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-