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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1292 journals)
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HEALTH AND SAFETY (524 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 220)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Healthy-Mu Journal     Open Access  
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Geospatial Health
  [SJR: 0.65]   [H-I: 24]   [0 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1827-1987 - ISSN (Online) 1970-7096
   Published by PAGEPress Homepage  [76 journals]
  • Spatial analysis of the regional variation of reproductive tract
           infections and spousal migration correlates in Nepal

    • Authors: Derek C. Johnson, Pema Lhaki, Charlotte Buehler Cherry, Mirjam-Colette Kempf, Eric Chamot, Sten H. Vermund, Sadeep Shrestha
      Abstract: Nepal has a diverse geographic landscape that could potentially create clustered subpopulations with regional socio-cultures that could result in differential health outcomes. With an alarming rise in married male populations migrating for work, it is possible that these migrants are engaged in risky sexual behaviour, putting their wives at risk for infectious disease outcomes, including reproductive tract infections (RTI), when they return home. The prevalence of male migration varies by geographic region in Nepal and this variation could potentially contribute to different RTI rates. Using a cross-sectional dataset (the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey) including 9607 married women, we investigated geospatial and socio-cultural factors associated with the symptoms of RTIs with a focus on the husbands’ migration status. Choropleth maps were created to illustrate areas with high percentages of RTIs that correlated with migration patterns. Overall, 31.9% of the husbands were migrating for work. After adjusting for wealth, contraception use, age at first marriage, urban/rural status and husband’s education, women whose husbands had been absent for a year or more in Nepal’s Mid-West region (OR 1.93 95%, CI 1.02-3.67) or Far-West region (OR 2.89 95%, CI 1.24-6.73) were more likely to report RTI-like symptoms than others. Our results suggest a potential association between husbands’ migration status and Nepali women reporting RTI symptoms by geographic regions. However, further research is needed to put this outcome on a stronger footing with respect to this under-studied population, specifically in the context of geographical variation.
      PubDate: 2017-05-30
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.513
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2017)
  • Cystic echinococcosis in cattle dairy farms: spatial distribution and
           epidemiological dynamics

    • Authors: Antonio Scala, Antonio Bosco, Anna Paola Pipia, Claudia Tamponi, Vincenzo Musella, Nicola Costanzo, Francesco Testoni, Antonio Montisci, Giovanni Mocci, Alessandro Longhi, Laura Tilocca, Laura Rinaldi, Giuseppe Cringoli, Antonio Varcasia
      Abstract: A study monitoring cystic echinococcosis (CE) in adult dairy cattle from intensive livestock farms located in the municipality of Arborea (Sardinia, Italy) was carried out between 2012 and 2015. A retrospective study of veterinary reporting forms of post-mortem inspections in 10 different Italian slaughterhouses was also performed. In addition, data on viability and molecular characterisation of hydatid cysts removed from parasitised organs in cattle was carried out. A geographical information system (GIS) with data layers of the study area and the geo-referenced points of 160 cattle farms was constructed. CE was found in 21.9% (35/160) of the surveyed farms. The retrospective study revealed that 0.05% (13/23,656) of adult slaughtered animals (over one year of age) from Arborea had tested positive to CE. The results stratified per year showed the following CE prevalences: 0.09% (5/5673) in 2012; 0.02% (1/5682) in 2013; 0.08% (5/6261) in 2014; and 0.03% (2/6040) in 2015 (χ2 with 3 degrees of freedom=3.81; P=0.282). The E. granulosus sensu stricto (formerly called G1 or sheep strain) was detected in all cysts subjected to molecular analysis. The GIS analysis showed that CE is fairly resilient in the Arborea territory where most of cattle farms are located, while a small cluster of cases was found located in the southeastern part of Arborea, close to districts where sheep farms are situated. The present survey reports the presence of CE in Sardinian dairy cattle intensive farms and suggests that the parasitic pressure of CE in the island continues to be very strong.
      PubDate: 2017-05-29
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.562
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2017)
  • Neonatal mortality in East Africa and West Africa: a geographic analysis
           of district-level demographic and health survey data

    • Authors: Sue C. Grady, April N. Frake, Qiong Zhang, Matlhogonolo Bene, Demetrice R. Jordan, Joshua Vertalka, Thania C. Dossantos, Ameen Kadhim, Judith Namanya, Lisa-Marie Pierre, Yi Fan, Peiling Zhou, Fatoumata B. Barry, Libbey Kutch
      Abstract: Under-five child mortality declined 47% since 2000 following the implementation of the United Nation’s (UN) Millennium Development Goals. To further reduce under-five child mortality, the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) will focus on interventions to address neonatal mortality, a major contributor of under-five mortality. The African region has the highest neonatal mortality rate (28.0 per 1000 live births), followed by that of the Eastern Mediterranean (26.6) and South-East Asia (24.3). This study used the Demographic and Health Survey Birth Recode data ( to identify high-risk districts and countries for neonatal mortality in two sub-regions of Africa – East Africa and West Africa. Geographically weighted Poisson regression models were estimated to capture the spatially varying relationships between neonatal mortality and dimensions of potential need i) care around the time of delivery, ii) maternal education, and iii) women’s empowerment. In East Africa, neonatal mortality was significantly associated with home births, mothers without an education and mothers whose husbands decided on contraceptive practices, controlling for rural residency. In West Africa, neonatal mortality was also significantly associated with home births, mothers with a primary education and mothers who did not want or plan their last child. Importantly, neonatal mortality associated with home deliveries were explained by maternal exposure to unprotected water sources in East Africa and older maternal age and female sex of infants in West Africa. Future SDG-interventions may target these dimensions of need in priority high-risk districts and countries, to further reduce the burden of neonatal mortality in Africa.
      PubDate: 2017-05-26
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.501
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2017)
  • Point process methods in epidemiology: application to the analysis of
           human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome mortality
           in urban areas

    • Authors: Jose Antonio Quesada, Inmaculada Melchor, Andreu Nolasco
      Abstract: The analysis of spatio-temporal patterns of disease or death in urban areas has been developed mainly from the ecological studies approach. These designs may have some limitations like the ecological fallacy and instability with few cases. The objective of this study was to apply the point process methodology, as a complement to that of aggregated data, to study HIV/AIDS mortality in men in the city of Alicante (Spain). A case-control study in residents in the city during the period 2004-2011 was designed. Cases were men who died from HIV/AIDS and controls represented the general population, matched by age to cases. The risk surfaces of death over the city were estimated using the log-risk function of intensities, and we contrasted their temporal variations over the two periods. High risk significant areas of death by HIV/AIDS, which coincide with the most deprived areas in the city, were detected. Significant spatial change of the areas at risk between the periods studied was not detected. The point process methodology is a useful tool to analyse the patterns of death by HIV/AIDS in urban areas.
      PubDate: 2017-05-26
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.506
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2017)
  • Child mortality inequalities across Rwanda districts: a geoadditive
           continuous-time survival analysis

    • Authors: François Niragire, Thomas N.O. Achia, Alexandre Lyambabaje, Joseph Ntaganira
      Abstract: Child survival programmes are efficient when they target the most significant and area-specific factors. This study aimed to assess the key determinants and spatial variation of child mortality at the district level in Rwanda. Data from the 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey were analysed for 8817 live births that occurred during five years preceding the survey. Out of the children born, 433 had died before survey interviews were carried out. A full Bayesian geo-additive continuous-time hazard model enabled us to maximise data utilisation and hence improve the accuracy of our estimates. The results showed substantial district- level spatial variation in childhood mortality in Rwanda. District-specific spatial characteristics were particularly associated with higher death hazards in two districts: Musanze and Nyabihu. The model estimates showed that there were lower death rates among children from households of medium and high economic status compared to those from low-economic status households. Factors, such as four antenatal care visits, delivery at a health facility, prolonged breastfeeding and mothers younger than 31 years were associated with lower child death rates. Long preceding birth intervals were also associated with fewer hazards. For these reasons, programmes aimed at reducing child mortality gaps between districts in Rwanda should target maternal factors and take into consideration district-specific spatial characteristics. Further, child survival gains require strengthening or scaling-up of existing programmes pertaining to access to, and utilisation of maternal and child health care services as well as reduction of the household gap in the economic status.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.450
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2017)
  • Epidemiological aspects and spatial distribution of human and canine
           visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic area in northeastern Brazil

    • Authors: Roseane Campos, Márcio Santos, Gabriel Tunon, Luana Cunha, Lucas Magalhães, Juliana Moraes, Danielle Ramalho, Sanmy Lima, José Antônio Pacheco, Michael Lipscomb, Amélia Ribeiro de Jesus, Roque Pacheco de Almeida
      Abstract: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a systemic disease endemic in tropical countries and transmitted through sand flies. In particular, Canis familiaris (or domesticated dogs) are believed to be a major urban reservoir for the parasite causing the disease Leishmania. The average number of human VL cases was 58 per year in the state of Sergipe. The city of Aracaju, capital of Sergipe in Northeastern Brazil, had 159 cases of VL in humans. Correlatively, the percentage of serologically positive dogs for leishmaniasis increased from 4.73% in 2008 to 12.69% in 2014. Thus, these studies aimed to delineate the spatial distribution and epidemiological aspects of human and canine VL as mutually supportive for increased incidence. The number of human cases of VL and the frequency of canine positive serology for VL both increased between 2008 and 2014. Spatial distribution analyses mapped areas of the city with the highest concentration of human and canine VL cases. The neighbourhoods that showed the highest disease frequency were located on the outskirts of the city and in urbanised areas or subjected to development. Exponential increase in VL-positive dogs further suggests that the disease is expanding in urban areas, where it can serve as a reservoir for transmission of dogs to humans via the sand fly vector.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.503
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2017)
  • Fine scale mapping of malaria infection clusters by using routinely
           collected health facility data in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    • Authors: Yeromin P. Mlacha, Prosper P. Chaki, Alpha D. Malishee, Victoria M. Mwakalinga, Nicodem J. Govella, Alex J. Limwagu, John M. Paliga, Daniel F. Msellemu, Zawadi D. Mageni, Dianne J. Terlouw, Gerry F. Killeen, Stefan Dongus
      Abstract: This study investigated whether passively collected routine health facility data can be used for mapping spatial heterogeneities in malaria transmission at the level of local government housing cluster administrative units in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. From June 2012 to January 2013, residential locations of patients tested for malaria at a public health facility were traced based on their local leaders’ names and geo-referencing the point locations of these leaders’ houses. Geographic information systems (GIS) were used to visualise the spatial distribution of malaria infection rates. Spatial scan statistics was deployed to detect spatial clustering of high infection rates. Among 2407 patients tested for malaria, 46.6% (1121) could be traced to their 411 different residential housing clusters. One small spatially aggregated cluster of neighbourhoods with high prevalence was identified. While the home residence housing cluster leader was unambiguously identified for 73.8% (240/325) of malaria-positive patients, only 42.3% (881/2082) of those with negative test results were successfully traced. It was concluded that recording simple points of reference during routine health facility visits can be used for mapping malaria infection burden on very fine geographic scales, potentially offering a feasible approach to rational geographic targeting of malaria control interventions. However, in order to tap the full potential of this approach, it would be necessary to optimise patient tracing success and eliminate biases by blinding personnel to test results.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.494
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2017)
  • Geographic clustering of elderly people with above-norm anthropometric
           measurements and blood chemistry

    • Authors: Carlos Mena, Eduardo Fuentes, Yony Ormazábal, Iván Palomo
      Abstract: The global percentage of people over 60 is strongly increasing and estimated to exceed 20% by 20,150, which means that there will be an increase in many pathological conditions related to aging. Mapping of the location of aging people and identification of their needs can be extremely valuable from a social-economic point of view. Participants in this study were 148 randomly selected adults from Talca City, Chile aged 60-74 at baseline. Geographic information systems (GIS) analyses were performed using ArcGIS software through its module Spatial Autocorrelation. In this study, we demonstrated that elderly people show geographic clustering according to above-norm results of anthropometric measurements and blood chemistry. The spatial identifications found would facilitate exploring the impact of treatment programmes in communities where many aging people live, thereby improving their quality of life as well as reducing overall costs.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.523
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2017)
  • Use of geographical information systems for delimiting health service
           areas in China

    • Authors: Xuechen Xiong, Li Luo
      Abstract: With the objective of choosing a practical and valid method to delimit health service areas of regional health service centres to build a regional basic health service network, we first drew lessons from traditional geographic methods of delimiting trade areas and then applied two methods to delimit health service areas, i.e. the proximal method and the gravity method. We verified the effectiveness of these methods by an index of similarity with the aid of real in-patient data. Calculation of the similarity indices shows that health service areas delimited by the proximal method has an 87.3% similarity to the real health service area, while the gravity method gives 88.6%. Our conclusion is that both methods are suitable for delimiting health service areas at regional health service centres, but find that the proximal method is more practicable in operational terms for delimiting health service areas in region health planning.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.486
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2017)
  • An analysis of the process and results of manual geocode correction

    • Authors: Yolanda J. McDonald, Michael Schwind, Daniel W. Goldberg, Amanda Lampley, Cosette M. Wheeler
      Abstract: Geocoding is the science and process of assigning geographical coordinates (i.e. latitude, longitude) to a postal address. The quality of the geocode can vary dramatically depending on several variables, including incorrect input address data, missing address components, and spelling mistakes. A dataset with a considerable number of geocoding inaccuracies can potentially result in an imprecise analysis and invalid conclusions. There has been little quantitative analysis of the amount of effort (i.e. time) to perform geocoding correction, and how such correction could improve geocode quality type. This study used a low-cost and easy to implement method to improve geocode quality type of an input database (i.e. addresses to be matched) through the processes of manual geocode intervention, and it assessed the amount of effort to manually correct inaccurate geocodes, reported the resulting match rate improvement between the original and the corrected geocodes, and documented the corresponding spatial shift by geocode quality type resulting from the corrections. Findings demonstrated that manual intervention of geocoding resulted in a 90% improvement of geocode quality type, took 42 hours to process, and the spatial shift ranged from 0.02 to 151,368 m. This study provides evidence to inform research teams considering the application of manual geocoding intervention that it is a low-cost and relatively easy process to execute.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.526
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2017)
  • Comparing the accuracy of food outlet datasets in an urban environment

    • Authors: Michelle S. Wong, Jennifer M. Peyton, Timothy M. Shields, Frank C. Curriero, Kimberly A. Gudzune
      Abstract: Studies that investigate the relationship between the retail food environment and health outcomes often use geospatial datasets. Prior studies have identified challenges of using the most common data sources. Retail food environment datasets created through academic-government partnership present an alternative, but their validity (retail existence, type, location) has not been assessed yet. In our study, we used ground-truth data to compare the validity of two datasets, a 2015 commercial dataset (InfoUSA) and data collected from 2012 to 2014 through the Maryland Food Systems Mapping Project (MFSMP), an academic-government partnership, on the retail food environment in two low-income, inner city neighbourhoods in Baltimore City. We compared sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of the commercial and academic-government partnership data to ground-truth data for two broad categories of unhealthy food retailers: small food retailers and quick-service restaurants. Ground-truth data was collected in 2015 and analysed in 2016. Compared to the ground-truth data, MFSMP and InfoUSA generally had similar sensitivity that was greater than 85%. MFSMP had higher PPV compared to InfoUSA for both small food retailers (MFSMP: 56.3% vs InfoUSA: 40.7%) and quick-service restaurants (MFSMP: 58.6% vs InfoUSA: 36.4%). We conclude that data from academic-government partnerships like MFSMP might be an attractive alternative option and improvement to relying only on commercial data. Other research institutes or cities might consider efforts to create and maintain such an environmental dataset. Even if these datasets cannot be updated on an annual basis, they are likely more accurate than commercial data.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.546
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2017)
  • Spatial accessibility to basic public health services in South Sudan

    • Authors: Peter M. Macharia, Paul O. Ouma, Ezekiel G. Gogo, Robert W. Snow, Abdisalan M. Noor
      Abstract: At independence in 2011, South Sudan’s health sector was almost non-existent. The first national health strategic plan aimed to achieve an integrated health facility network that would mean that 70% of the population were within 5 km of a health service provider. Publically available data on functioning and closed health facilities, population distribution, road networks, land use and elevation were used to compute the fraction of the population within 1 hour walking distance of the nearest public health facility offering curative services. This metric was summarised for each of the 78 counties in South Sudan and compared with simpler metrics of the proportion of the population within 5 km of a health facility. In 2016, it is estimated that there were 1747 public health facilities, out of which 294 were non-functional in part due to the on-going civil conflict. Access to a service provider was poor with only 25.7% of the population living within one-hour walking time to a facility and 28.6% of the population within 5 km. These metrics, when applied sub-nationally, identified the same high priority, most vulnerable counties. Simple metrics based upon population distribution and location of facilities might be as valuable as more complex models of health access, where attribute data on travel routes are imperfect or incomplete and sparse. Disparities exist in South Sudan among counties and those with the poorest health access should be targeted for priority expansion of clinical services.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.510
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2017)
  • Assessing effects of structural zeros on models of canine cancer
           incidence: a case study of the Swiss Canine Cancer Registry

    • Authors: Gianluca Boo, Stefan Leyk, Sara Irina Fabrikant, Andreas Pospischil, Ramona Graf
      Abstract: Epidemiological research of canine cancers could inform comparative studies of environmental determinants for a number of human cancers. However, such an approach is currently limited because canine cancer data sources are still few in number and often incomplete. Incompleteness is typically due to under-ascertainment of canine cancers. A main reason for this is because dog owners commonly do not seek veterinary care for this diagnosis. Deeper knowledge on under-ascertainment is critical for modelling canine cancer incidence, as an indication of zero incidence might originate from the sole absence of diagnostic examinations within a given sample unit. In the present case study, we investigated effects of such structural zeros on models of canine cancer incidence. In doing so, we contrasted two scenarios for modelling incidence data retrieved from the Swiss Canine Cancer Registry. The first scenario was based on the complete enumeration of incidence data for all Swiss municipal units. The second scenario was based on a filtered sample that systematically discarded structural zeros in those municipal units where no diagnostic examination had been performed. By means of cross-validation, we assessed and contrasted statistical performance and predictive power of the two modelling scenarios. This analytical step allowed us to demonstrate that structural zeros impact on the generalisability of the model of canine cancer incidence, thus challenging future comparative studies of canine and human cancers. The results of this case study show that increased awareness about the effects of structural zeros is critical to epidemiological research.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.539
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2017)
  • Haemodialysis services in the northeastern region of Iran

    • Authors: Behzad Kiani, Nasser Bagheri, Ahmad Tara, Benyamin Hoseini, Mahmoud Tara
      Abstract: Chronic kidney disease is growing and the current estimated global prevalence exceeds 13%. As the use of haemodialysis machines for patients with end stage renal disease increases survival considerably, it is critical to plan correctly for the allocation of these machines. This study aimed to develop a geographical information systems (GIS)-based approach to predict the need for this service in the northeastern region of Iran taking into account where patients live and where haemodialysis is the most needed and identifying areas with poor access to haemodialysis centres. Patients were interviewed to obtain self-reported actual travel time and the inverse distance-weighting algorithm was used to determine access in each area. The prediction is based on the domestic growth rate for haemodialysis services and the estimated active hours of machine use for the next five years. We estimate that six new haemodialysis machines are required in northeastern Iran at the present time with 50 machines required over the next five years. Ashkhane City was identified to have the least access to haemodialysis centres in the study area. Our GIS-based model can be used to investigate not only the need for new haemodialysis machines but also to examine geographic disparities in the allocation of haemodialysis centres and to identify areas most in need of this service. It is important that policymakers consider both spatial and non-spatial dimensions of access to enable better allocation of haemodialysis services ensuring they are targeted to reach those in need.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.561
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2017)
  • Climate and the distribution of vector-borne diseases: what’s in

    • Authors: Robert Bergquist
      Abstract: Not available.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.549
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2017)
  • Estimating small area health-related characteristics of populations: a
           methodological review

    • Authors: Azizur Rahman
      Abstract: Estimation of health-related characteristics at a fine local geographic level is vital for effective health promotion programmes, provision of better health services and population-specific health planning and management. Lack of a micro-dataset readily available for attributes of individuals at small areas negatively impacts the ability of local and national agencies to manage serious health issues and related risks in the community. A solution to this challenge would be to develop a method that simulates reliable small-area statistics. This paper provides a significant appraisal of the methodologies for estimating health-related characteristics of populations at geographical limited areas. Findings reveal that a range of methodologies are in use, which can be classified as three distinct set of approaches: i) indirect standardisation and individual level modelling; ii) multilevel statistical modelling; and iii) micro-simulation modelling. Although each approach has its own strengths and weaknesses, it appears that microsimulation- based spatial models have significant robustness over the other methods and also represent a more precise means of estimating health-related population characteristics over small areas.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.495
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2017)
  • Spatial epidemiology of cancer: a review of data sources, methods and risk

    • Authors: Rita Roquette, Marco Painho, Baltazar Nunes
      Abstract: Cancer is a major concern among chronic diseases today. Spatial epidemiology plays a relevant role in this matter and we present here a review of this subject, including a discussion of the literature in terms of the level of geographic data aggregation, risk factors and methods used to analyse the spatial distribution of patterns and spatial clusters. For this purpose, we performed a websearch in the Pubmed and Web of Science databases including studies published between 1979 and 2015. We found 180 papers from 63 journals and noted that spatial epidemiology of cancer has been addressed with more emphasis during the last decade with research based on data mostly extracted from cancer registries and official mortality statistics. In general, the research questions present in the reviewed papers can be classified into three different sets: i) analysis of spatial distribution of cancer and/or its temporal evolution; ii) risk factors; iii) development of data analysis methods and/or evaluation of results obtained from application of existing methods. This review is expected to help promote research in this area through the identification of relevant knowledge gaps. Cancer’s spatial epidemiology represents an important concern, mainly for public health policies design aimed to minimise the impact of chronic disease in specific populations.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.504
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2017)
  • Impact of climate variability on the occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis
           in Khuzestan Province, southwestern Iran

    • Authors: Farideh Azimi, Sadegh Shirian, Saranaz Jangjoo, Arman Ai, Tahereh Abbasi
      Abstract: Leishmaniasis, one of the most important parasitic diseases worldwide, is frequently cited with respect to health risks related to climate change. The current variability of the climate may have different impacts on the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) depending on the various Leishmania species. The number and distribution of CL cases in Khuzestan Province, Southwestern Iran was analysed over the 2010-2014 period with regard to temperature, humidity, rainfall, sunshine hours, evaporation and wind-related climate issues. During the study period, there were 4672 recorded clinical cases of CL, the incidence of which was found to fall into three types of areas, such as high, intermediate and low-level endemic areas. Compared to the intermediate and low-endemic areas, the hyper-endemic areas showed significantly variable meteorological data with regard to rainy days, maximum/minimum temperature and humidity. Decreased temperatures in the eastern part of this province were found to promote the disease towards its centre. We conclude that the meteorological variables and incidence data of CL indicate that the number of rainy days, maximum and minimum temperatures and relative humidity are significant variables that can predict CL incidence. Indeed, the substantial climatic variability occurring during the recent 5-year period (2010-2014) in Khuzestan Province could be the main reason for the change in epidemiology and transmission of CL.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.478
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2017)
  • Spatio-temporal dynamics of schistosomiasis in Rwanda between 2001 and

    • Authors: Elias Nyandwi, Tom Veldkamp, Frank Badu Osei, Sherif Amer
      Abstract: Schistosomiasis is recognised as a major public health problem in Rwanda. We aimed to identify the spatio-temporal dynamics of its distribution at a fine-scale spatial resolution and to explore the impact of control programme interventions. Incidence data of Schistosoma mansoni infection at 367 health facilities were obtained for the period 2001-2012. Disease cluster analyses were conducted using spatial scan statistics and geographic information systems. The impact of control interventions was assessed for three distinct sub-periods. Findings demonstrated persisting, emerging and re-emerging clusters of schistosomiasis infection across space and time. The control programme initially caused an abrupt increase in incidence rates during its implementation phase. However, this was followed by declining and disappearing clusters when the programme was fully in place. The findings presented should contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics of schistosomiasis distribution to be used when implementing future control activities, including prevention and elimination efforts.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.514
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2017)
  • Comparison of the spatial patterns of schistosomiasis in Zimbabwe at two
           points in time, spaced twenty-nine years apart: is climate variability of

    • Authors: Ulrik B. Pedersen, Dimitrios-Alexios Karagiannis-Voules, Nicholas Midzi, Tkafira Mduluza, Samson Mukaratirwa, Rasmus Fensholt, Birgitte J. Vennervald, Thomas K. Kristensen, Penelope Vounatsou, Anna-Sofie Stensgaard
      Abstract: Temperature, precipitation and humidity are known to be important factors for the development of schistosome parasites as well as their intermediate snail hosts. Climate therefore plays an important role in determining the geographical distribution of schistosomiasis and it is expected that climate change will alter distribution and transmission patterns. Reliable predictions of distribution changes and likely transmission scenarios are key to efficient schistosomiasis intervention-planning. However, it is often difficult to assess the direction and magnitude of the impact on schistosomiasis induced by climate change, as well as the temporal transferability and predictive accuracy of the models, as prevalence data is often only available from one point in time. We evaluated potential climate-induced changes on the geographical distribution of schistosomiasis in Zimbabwe using prevalence data from two points in time, 29 years apart; to our knowledge, this is the first study investigating this over such a long time period. We applied historical weather data and matched prevalence data of two schistosome species (Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni). For each time period studied, a Bayesian geostatistical model was fitted to a range of climatic, environmental and other potential risk factors to identify significant predictors that could help us to obtain spatially explicit schistosomiasis risk estimates for Zimbabwe. The observed general downward trend in schistosomiasis prevalence for Zimbabwe from 1981 and the period preceding a survey and control campaign in 2010 parallels a shift towards a drier and warmer climate. However, a statistically significant relationship between climate change and the change in prevalence could not be established.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08
      DOI: 10.4081/gh.2017.505
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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