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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1391 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (23 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (89 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (596 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (388 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (107 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (106 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (596 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 216)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences: Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Birat Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Boletin Médico de Postgrado     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Innovación en Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Salud Virtual     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Düzce Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi / Journal of Duzce University Health Sciences Institute     Open Access  
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Eurasian Journal of Health Technology Assessment     Open Access  
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Family & Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare : Finjehew     Open Access  
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Challenges     Open Access  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Global Reproductive Health     Open Access  
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastane Öncesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 10)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Notions     Open Access  
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Health Psychology Bulletin     Open Access  
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Healthcare Technology Letters     Open Access  
Healthy Aging Research     Open Access  
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
Histoire, médecine et santé     Open Access  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IJS Global Health     Open Access  
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover
Analytic Methods in Accident Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 4.849
Citation Impact (citeScore): 10
Number of Followers: 5  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2213-6657
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3155 journals]
  • A flexible discrete density random parameters model for count data:
           Embracing unobserved heterogeneity in highway safety analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research, Volume 20Author(s): Shahram Heydari In traffic safety studies, there are almost inevitable concerns about unobserved heterogeneity. As a feasible alternative to current methods, this article proposes a novel crash count model that can address asymmetry and multimodality in the data. Specifically, a Bayesian random parameters model with flexible discrete densities for the regression coefficients is developed, employing a Dirichlet process prior. The approach is illustrated on the Ontario Highway 401, which is one of the busiest North American highways. The results indicate that the proposed model better captures the underlying structure of the data compared to conventional models, improving predictive power examined based on pseudo Bayes factors. Interestingly, the model can identify sites (highway segments, intersections, etc.) with similar risk factor profiles, those that manifest similarity in the heterogeneous effects of their site characteristics (e.g., traffic flow) on traffic safety, providing useful insight towards designing effective countermeasures.
       
  • Investigating varying effect of road-level factors on crash frequency
           across regions: A Bayesian hierarchical random parameter modeling approach
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2018Source: Analytic Methods in Accident ResearchAuthor(s): Chunyang Han, Helai Huang, Jaeyoung Lee, Jie Wang This study aims to quantitatively examine the variations in effect of road-level factors on crash frequency across different regions. Treating the hierarchical structure existing in the crash data that road entity nested within the geographic region, a hierarchical random parameter model, which allows the coefficients of road-level variables to vary with regions, is proposed. A Poisson lognormal model and a hierarchical random intercept model are also built for the purpose of comparison. A specific roadway facility type, urban two-lane two-way roadway segments in Florida, with crash and road level data including traffic volume, road length, surface condition, and access density for three-year period are used for a case study. The result shows that, in the hierarchical-random parameter model, the local regression coefficients and marginal effects of the road level factors vary over a wide range in the selected counties, which clearly illustrates the non-stationary in the relationships between road level factors and crash frequency across the counties. In regard to the model comparison, the hierarchical random parameter model outperforms the Poisson lognormal model and the hierarchical random intercept model in term of deviance information criterion (DIC). This further confirms the necessity of the use of hierarchical random parameter model in analyzing the crash frequency for road entities in different regions. This study provides a potential in guidance of model construction that considers regional variations (heterogeneities) in safety effects of road-level factors.
       
  • Non-decreasing threshold variances in mixed generalized ordered response
           models: A negative correlations approach to variance reduction
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research, Volume 20Author(s): Suryaprasanna Kumar Balusu, Abdul Rawoof Pinjari, Fred L. Mannering, Naveen Eluru Mixed Generalized Ordered Response (MGOR) models, that allow random heterogeneity in thresholds, are widely used to model ordered outcomes such as accident injury severity. This study highlights a potential limitation of these models, as applied in most empirical research, that the variances of the random thresholds are implicitly assumed to be in a non-decreasing order. This restriction is unnecessary and can lead to difficulty in estimation of random parameters in higher order thresholds. In this study, we investigate the use of negative correlations between random parameters as a variance reduction technique to relax the property of non-decreasing variances of thresholds in MGOR models. To this end, a simulation-based approach was used (where multiple datasets were simulated assuming a known negative correlation structure between the true parameters), and two models were estimated on each dataset – one allowing correlations between random parameters and the other not allowing such correlations. Allowing negative correlations helped relax the non-decreasing variance property of MGOR models. However, maximum simulated likelihood estimation of parameters on data with correlations occasionally encountered model convergence and parameter identification issues. Comparison of the models that did converge suggests that ignoring correlations leads to an estimation of fewer random parameters in the higher order thresholds and results in bias and/or loss of precision for a few parameter estimates. However, ignoring correlations leads to an adjustment of other parameter estimates such that overall likelihood values, predicted percentage shares, and the marginal effects are similar to those from the models with correlations.
       
  • Analysis of accident injury-severity outcomes: The zero-inflated
           hierarchical ordered probit model with correlated disturbances
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research, Volume 20Author(s): Grigorios Fountas, Panagiotis Ch. Anastasopoulos In accident injury-severity analysis, an inherent limitation of the traditional ordered probit approach arises from the a priori consideration of a homogeneous source for the accidents that result in a no-injury (or zero-injury) outcome. Conceptually, no-injury accidents may be subject to the effect of two underlying injury-severity states, which are more likely to be observed in accident datasets with excessive amounts of no-injury accident observations. To account for this possibility along with the possibility of heterogeneity stemming from the fixed nature of the ordered probability thresholds, a zero-inflated hierarchical ordered probit approach with correlated disturbances is employed, for the first time – to the authors’ knowledge – in accident research. The latter consists of a binary probit and an ordered probit component that are simultaneously modeled in order to identify the influential factors for each underlying injury-severity state. At the same time, the model formulation accounts for possible correlation between the disturbance terms of the two model components, and allows for the ordered thresholds to vary as a function of threshold-specific explanatory variables. Using injury-severity data from single-vehicle accidents that occurred in the State of Washington, from 2011 to 2013, the implementation potential of the proposed approach is demonstrated. The comparative assessment between the zero-inflated hierarchical ordered probit approach with correlated disturbances and its lower-order counterparts highlights the potential of the proposed approach to account for the effect of underlying states on injury-severity outcome probabilities and to explain more with the same amount of information.
       
  • Exploring driver injury severity patterns and causes in low visibility
           related single-vehicle crashes using a finite mixture random parameters
           model
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research, Volume 20Author(s): Zhenning Li, Cong Chen, Qiong Wu, Guohui Zhang, Cathy Liu, Panos D. Prevedouros, David T. Ma Low visibility is consistently considered as a hazardous factor due to its potential leading to severe fatal crashes. However, unlike the other inclement weather conditions that have attracted extensive research interests, only a few studies have been conducted to investigate the impacts of risk factors on driver injury severity outcomes in low visibility related crashes. A three-year crash dataset including all low visibility related crashes from 2010 to 2012 in four South Central states, i.e., Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas, and Oklahoma, is adopted in this study. A finite mixture random parameters approach is developed to interpret both within-class and between-class unobserved heterogeneity among crash data. After a careful comparison, a two-class finite mixture random parameter model with normal distribution assumptions is selected as the final model. Estimation results show that three variables, including young (specific to injury, I), male (specific to serious injury and fatality, F), and large truck (specific to serious injury and fatality, F), are found to be normally distributed and have significant impacts on driver injury severities. Variables with fixed effects including rural, wet, 60 mph or higher, no statutory limit, dark, Sunday, curve, rollover, light truck, old, and drug/alcohol impaired also have significant influences on driver injury severities. This study provides an insightful understanding of the impacts of these variables on driver injury severity outcomes in low visibility related crashes, and a beneficial reference for developing countermeasures and strategies to mitigate driver injury severities under these conditions.
       
  • A mixed grouped response ordered logit count model framework
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research, Volume 19Author(s): Shamsunnahar Yasmin, Naveen Eluru The study proposes and estimates a new econometric framework for analysing crash count events labeled as the Mixed Grouped Response Ordered Logit Count model. The proposed framework relates the crash count propensity to the observed counts directly while also accommodating for heteroscedasticity and unobserved heterogeneity. The proposed model is demonstrated by using Traffic Analysis Zone level bicycle crash count data for the Island of Montreal. The model framework employs a comprehensive set of exogenous variables − accessibility measures, exposure measures, built environment, road network characteristics, sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Further, we also compare the performance of the proposed model to the most commonly used negative binomial model and the generalized ordered logit count model by generating a comprehensive set of measures to evaluate model performance and data fit. The alternative modeling approaches considered for the comparison exercise include: (1) negative binomial model without parameterized overdispersion, (2) negative binomial model with parameterized overdispersion, and (3) mixed negative binomial model with parameterized overdispersion, (4) generalized ordered logit count model and (5) mixed generalized ordered logit count model, (6) grouped response ordered logit count model without parameterized variance, (7) grouped response ordered logit count model with parameterized variance and (8) mixed grouped response ordered logit count model with parameterized variance. The comparison exercise clearly highlights that the proposed mixed grouped response ordered logit count model with parameterized variance relative to the mixed negative binomial model with parameterized overdispersion offers either equivalent or superior data fit across various measures in the current study context. The fit measures for comparing the predictive performance also indicate that the proposed grouped response model offers better predictions both at the aggregate and disaggregate levels. Overall, the results from this comparison exercise points out that the grouped response ordered logit count model is a promising alternate econometric framework for examining crash count events.
       
  • Benchmarking regions using a heteroskedastic grouped random parameters
           model with heterogeneity in mean and variance: Applications to grade
           crossing safety analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research, Volume 19Author(s): Shahram Heydari, Liping Fu, Lalita Thakali, Lawrence Joseph Comparing regions while adjusting for differences in characteristics of sites located in those regions is valuable since it identifies possible inter-regional dissimilarities in crash risk propensities according to specific safety performance measures (e.g., crash frequency of a specific type). This paper describes a framework to benchmark different regions (neighborhoods, provinces, etc.) in terms of a selected safety performance measure. To avoid issues relating to aggregated (macro-level) data, we use disaggregate (micro-level) data to draw inferences at a macro/region-level, which is often needed for developing large-scale transportation safety and planning programs and policies. To overcome unobserved heterogeneity, we employ a multilevel Bayesian heteroskedastic Poisson lognormal model with grouped random parameters allowing heterogeneity in both mean and variance parameters. The proposed approach is illustrated through a comprehensive study of highway railway grade crossings across Canada. The results indicate that the proposed model addresses unobserved heterogeneity more efficiently and provides more insight compared to conventional random parameters models. For example, we found that as traffic exposure increases, grade crossing safety deteriorates at a higher rate in the Canadian Prairies than in the other regions. Our benchmarking framework is also affected by different model specifications. The results indicate the need for further in-depth investigations, which could help to identify possible reasons for inter-region differences in terms of specific safety indicators. This study provides valuable guidelines to Canadian transportation authorities, revealing important underlying crash mechanisms at highway railway grade crossings in Canada.
       
  • Developing a grouped random parameters multivariate spatial model to
           explore zonal effects for segment and intersection crash modeling
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Analytic Methods in Accident Research, Volume 19Author(s): Qing Cai, Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Jaeyoung Lee, Ling Wang, Xuesong Wang It is acknowledged that crash occurrence on segments and intersections could be affected by multilevel factors. Omission of important explanatory variables could result in biased and inconsistent parameter estimates. This paper contributes to the literature by examining the zonal effects which are always excluded or ignored in traffic safety research for segments and intersections. A grouped random parameters multivariate spatial model is proposed to identify both observable zonal effects and unobserved heterogeneity at the zonal level by considering the heterogeneous and spatial correlations. The proposed model is evaluated by comparing it with its three counterparts: a fixed parameters univariate spatial model without zonal factors, a random parameters univariate spatial model without zonal factors, and a random parameters univariate spatial model with zonal factors. The results indicate that the three random parameters models could consistently provide better performance than the fixed parameters model and the models including zonal factors outperform the models without zonal factors. Besides, the proposed model has the optimal model performance compared with its counterparts, which validates the concept of adopting the multivariate modeling framework to identify the heterogeneous and spatial correlations of zonal effects. The results confirm the significantly correlated heterogeneous residuals in modeling zonal factors on crash occurrence on segments and intersections. However, the spatial correlations of zonal effects on different types of road entities (segments and intersections) in adjacent zones are not statistically significant. Furthermore, the proposed model provides more valuable insights about the crash occurrence on segments and intersections by revealing segment-/intersection-level factors together with zonal factors.
       
 
 
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