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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1278 journals)
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HEALTH AND SAFETY (509 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 175)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription  
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Policy and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Professions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Health Sciences Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Health Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Healthcare Delivery Reform Initiatives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
  [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2352-1546
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • Numbers of neurons as biological correlates of cognitive capability
    • Authors: Suzana Herculano-Houzel
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16
      Author(s): Suzana Herculano-Houzel
      What impact does variation in brain size have on the behavioral or cognitive capabilities of different species? Answering this seemingly simple question has been hampered by difficulties in defining and measuring the relevant variables in the brain, on the one hand, and in quantifying behavior in a way that can be compared across species, on the other. A new method of counting cells has made it easy to obtain direct estimates of the numbers of neurons that compose different brain structures. Crossing these numbers with the first large-scale quantitative studies of cognitive capabilities across species suggests that absolute numbers of neurons in the mammalian cerebral cortex, or in the bird pallium, are good correlates of cognitive diversity: the more the neurons, regardless of brain or body size, the better a species performs at a same task.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T14:13:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Inside the corvid brain—probing the physiology of cognition in crows
    • Authors: Andreas Nieder
      Pages: 8 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16
      Author(s): Andreas Nieder
      A wealth of behavioral data show that songbirds of the corvid family are endowed with exquisite cognitive capabilities. The neurophysiological basis of this behavioral flexibility has been addressed recently by recording single-neuron activity from the associative endbrain area nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL) in behaving crows. NCL neurons encode sensory and cognitive variables during working memory, but also participate in the translation of cognitive signals to motor behaviors. These findings highlight the NCL as the corvid brain’s central executive. Intelligence in birds can be realized with an endbrain design that is radically different from the mammalian neocortex and developed independently via convergent evolution.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T14:13:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Neophilia, innovation and learning in an urbanized world: a critical
           evaluation of mixed findings
    • Authors: Andrea S Griffin; Keilah Netto; Chloe Peneaux
      Pages: 15 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16
      Author(s): Andrea S Griffin, Keilah Netto, Chloe Peneaux
      Conversion of natural environments to cities confronts animals with abundant novel opportunities. Research on perception of threat in urban animals is fast expanding, but analyses of their capacity to exploit novel resources are scant. Experimental predictions regarding urban/non-urban behavioral differences are grounded in disparate statements regarding the ecological conditions that prevail in urban environments. We evaluate critically whether urban habitats favor high neophilia, innovation and learning in established populations. Extreme spatial complexity of urban landscapes coupled with increased resource predictability due to human routine activities should favor neophilia and learning. Cities provide exciting new opportunities to investigate empirically whether variation in these traits is related to variation in environmental complexity and predictability as forecast by a body of theoretical work.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T14:14:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Modeling risky decision-making in nonhuman animals: shared core features
    • Authors: Sarah R Heilbronner
      Pages: 23 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16
      Author(s): Sarah R Heilbronner
      Understanding the neural mechanisms of risky decision-making is critical to developing appropriate treatments for psychiatric disorders, problem gambling, and addiction to drugs of abuse. Probing neurobiological mechanisms requires the use of nonhuman animal models (particularly rhesus macaques, rats, and mice). However, there is considerable variation across species in risk preferences. Nevertheless, there are shared core features of risky decision-making present across species. As demonstrated with a wide variety of behavioral paradigms, modulators of risk preference observed in humans are readily replicated in model species. Thus, risky decision-making represents an important implementation of reward-guided decision-making that is feasibly modeled across species.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T14:49:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Collective decision-making
    • Authors: Thomas Bose; Andreagiovanni Reina; James AR Marshall
      Pages: 30 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16
      Author(s): Thomas Bose, Andreagiovanni Reina, James AR Marshall
      Collective decision-making is the subfield of collective behaviour concerned with how groups reach decisions. Almost all aspects of behaviour can be considered in a decision-making context, but here we focus primarily on how groups should optimally reach consensus, what criteria decision-makers should optimise, and how individuals and groups should forage to optimise their nutrition. We argue for deep parallels between understanding decisions made by individuals and by groups, such as the decision-guiding principle of value-sensitivity. We also review relevant theory and empirical development for the study of collective decision making, including the use of robots.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T14:49:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Apes, feathered apes, and pigeons: differences and similarities
    • Authors: Onur Güntürkün; Felix Ströckens; Damian Scarf; Mike Colombo
      Pages: 35 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16
      Author(s): Onur Güntürkün, Felix Ströckens, Damian Scarf, Mike Colombo
      Apes, corvids, and pigeons differ in their pallial/cortical neuron numbers, with apes ranking first and pigeons third. Do cognitive performances rank accordingly? If they would do, cognitive performance could be explained at a mechanistic level by computational capacity provided by neuron numbers. We discuss five areas of cognition (short-term memory, object permanence, abstract numerical competence, orthographic processing, self-recognition) in which apes, corvids, and pigeons have been tested with highly similar procedures. In all tests apes and corvids were on par, but also pigeons reached identical achievement levels in three tests. We suggest that higher neuron numbers are poor predictors of absolute cognitive ability, but better predict learning speed and the ability to flexibly transfer rules to novel situations.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T14:49:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Human brain evolution
    • Authors: Andrey Verendeev; Chet C Sherwood
      Pages: 41 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16
      Author(s): Andrey Verendeev, Chet C Sherwood
      Although we share evolutionary history with other primates, examples of apparent cognitive and behavioral discontinuity between humans and other species abound. Neuroanatomical and molecular differences that distinguish the human brain are evident at several levels of organization. Changes in overall anatomy include an increase in absolute and relative brain size. In addition, there may be novel parietal lobe areas in humans that are involved in processing of evermore fine-grained visuospatial information. Modifications in microstructure, such as the distribution patterns and morphology of neurons and glial cells are also significant. Finally, changes in expression of both mRNA and proteins reflect increased energy consumption and plasticity. All together, these brain specializations, when coupled with cultural forces, shaped the evolution of human cognition.

      PubDate: 2017-04-05T05:36:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Contemporary topics in fish cognition and behaviour
    • Authors: Catarina Vila Pouca; Culum Brown
      Pages: 46 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16
      Author(s): Catarina Vila Pouca, Culum Brown
      The field of fish cognition and behaviour is now well established and recent developments reflect a shift to mechanistic, comparative and theoretical approaches compared to early work. In this review we briefly summarise recent advances in four major areas of research: spatial learning, social cognition, numerical competency and cognition, consciousness and pain. The debate on whether fish are conscious and able to feel pain is particularly topical, and we discuss recent behavioural and adaptive arguments in favour of fish pain. In this review we also propose interesting avenues of research in which fish have been given little attention in comparison with other vertebrate species.

      PubDate: 2017-04-12T07:44:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • The cognitive basis of individual recognition
    • Authors: Jessica L Yorzinski
      Pages: 53 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16
      Author(s): Jessica L Yorzinski
      Individual recognition allows animals to discriminate among individuals and adjust their behavior accordingly. It involves the production and propagation of individually-distinctive signals or cues and then the perception and recognition of those signals or cues. This review highlights recent work investigating this process, emphasizing the cognitive basis of perception and recognition. It finds that relatively few studies have addressed how signatures propagate through the environment and are processed by the receiver. Given variation across species in the complexity of recognition, this review recommends further comparative studies be conducted to unravel the factors underlying this variation.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T23:09:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Interactions between early life stress and metabolic stress in programming
           of mental and metabolic health
    • Authors: Francesca Cirulli
      Pages: 65 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 14
      Author(s): Francesca Cirulli
      The long-term consequences of psychosocial and socioeconomic challenges are hardly distinguishable from those of inappropriate nutrition, suggesting the existence of common physiological pathways funnelling the effects of early adversity. Obesity and mood disorders are highly prevalent and co-morbid in adult subjects. In order to unravel such co-morbidity, and to gain a more complete understanding of how the programming by early-life stress takes place, it is necessary to describe the common pathways, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms. There is now robust evidence to indicate that the body reacts to stress through changes in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, setting up adult responsiveness to environmental stressors and leading to individual vulnerability/resilience to stress and disease. Glucocorticoids (GCs) and neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), play a critical role in the integration of behavioural and metabolic responses to external challenges, including nutrients availability, and have important effects on brain plasticity. In addition, very recent data indicate the existence of the gut-brain axis as another important target and mediator of the effects of early life stress and nutrition. A complete understanding of these complex regulations needs to take into account multiple intervening variables, such as sex and genetic/epigenetic landscapes, and consider the developmental/life stage in a life-long perspective. Integrative and multidisciplinary approaches will be needed in the future to advance the field and to devise early intervention strategies for a life-long mental and behavioural health.

      PubDate: 2017-01-14T14:37:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.12.009
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2017)
  • Stress and psychiatric disorders: from categorical to dimensional
    • Authors: Francesco Vailati Riboni; Catherine Belzung
      Pages: 72 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 14
      Author(s): Francesco Vailati Riboni, Catherine Belzung
      Stress can occur at any time throughout the lifespan, from the prenatal period to during ageing. It has a long lasting impact on an individual’s behaviour and on the structure and functioning of the brain, particularly regarding the limbic system and the prefrontal cortex. Regarding stressors, a variety of responses have been described, with some subjects being vulnerable and others resilient. Resilience is linked to an active psychological process and to a re-organization of cerebral networks and proteins enabling the subject to cope with environmental challenges; vulnerable subjects are unable to activate these changes and consequently develop psychiatric disorders. Recently, a shift in the classification of psychiatric disorders has been proposed moving from the classical diagnostic groups (depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, addiction and autism) to a more dimensional approach, the Research Domain Criteria (RdoC) project. The scope of this mini-review is to analyse how stress impacts the different constructs of the RdoC approach (valence, cognition, sociality and arousal), thus providing a new perspective on the relationship between stress and psychiatric disorders.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T18:18:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.12.011
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2017)
  • From attachment to independence: stress hormone control of ecologically
           relevant emergence of infants’ responses to threat
    • Authors: Adrienne Santiago; Chiye Aoki; Regina M Sullivan
      Pages: 78 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 14
      Author(s): Adrienne Santiago, Chiye Aoki, Regina M Sullivan
      Young infant rat pups learn to approach cues associated with pain rather than learning amygdala-dependent fear. This approach response is considered caregiver-seeking and ecologically relevant within the context of attachment. With maturation, increases in the stress hormone corticosterone permit amygdala-dependent fear, which is crucial for survival during independent living. During the developmental transition from attachment to fear learning, maternal presence suppresses corticosterone elevation to block amygdala-dependent fear learning and re-engage the attachment circuitry. Early life trauma disrupts this developmental sequence by triggering a precocious increase of corticosterone, which permits amygdala-dependent threat responses. In this review, we explore the importance of the stress hormone corticosterone in infants’ transition from complete dependence on the caregiver to independence, with consideration for environmental influences on threat response ontogeny and mechanistic importance of social buffering of the stress response.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T18:18:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.12.010
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2017)
  • The effects of stress in early life and adolescence on posttraumatic
           stress disorder, depression, and anxiety symptomatology in adulthood
    • Authors: Lauren E Chaby; Li Zhang; Israel Liberzon
      Pages: 86 - 93
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 14
      Author(s): Lauren E Chaby, Li Zhang, Israel Liberzon
      Developmental windows of environmental sensitivity open and close throughout ontogeny, which can lead to vastly different effects of stress that depend upon age at exposure. It is well established that stress in adulthood can catalyze mental illness, but the effects of stress exposure during early life stages on the emergence and persistence of psychopathology remain unclear. Stress response systems undergo maturational changes that differ between early life and adolescence, and stress exposure during these two stages can have varying or even opposing consequences that persist into adulthood. In this review, we discuss clinical and rodent studies of developmental stages that seem to have distinct sensitivities to stress—early life and adolescence. We review the effects of stress during these two developmental periods on adult phenotype and risk for common stress-related disorders: depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder. We conclude by discussing challenges and recommendations for future research to investigate which features of developmental stress, or individual phenotype, may predict relative risk for common psychopathologies.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T18:18:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2017)
  • Individual differences in defensive stress-responses: the potential
           relevance for psychopathology
    • Authors: Hannah CM Niermann; Bernd Figner; Karin Roelofs
      Pages: 94 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 14
      Author(s): Hannah CM Niermann, Bernd Figner, Karin Roelofs
      Alterations in primary freeze and fight-or-flight reactions in animals have been associated with increased vulnerability to develop anxious or aggressive symptomatology. Despite the potential relevance of these primary defensive responses for human stress-coping, they are still largely unexplored in humans. The present paper reviews recent evidence suggesting that individual differences in primary defensive stress responses in humans are associated with individual differences in anxiety and aggression. In addition, we discuss (neuro)endocrine systems that may underlie increased freezing and flight behavior in anxiety and increased fight tendencies in aggression-related disorders. We conclude with a research agenda for the study of human defensive stress-responses as potential behavioral markers for stress-related disorders, including anxiety and aggression.

      PubDate: 2017-01-30T20:25:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2017)
  • The role of autonomic nervous system in susceptibility and resilience to
    • Authors: Vitor H Pereira; Isabel Campos; Nuno Sousa
      Pages: 102 - 107
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 14
      Author(s): Vitor H Pereira, Isabel Campos, Nuno Sousa
      Chronic stress increases the risk of neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular and endocrine diseases. Interestingly, the susceptibility to stress among individuals is variable and only some experience stress-related diseases. The determinants of resilience (the concept of resistance to chronic stress) are still not well understood. Their knowledge may contribute to the development of strategies to tackle stress-related disorders from a preventive perspective. Recent evidences show that the autonomic nervous system may play a role in the susceptibility to stress and may be used as a marker of resilience. Departing from that point, this short review will provide a perspective of the role of the autonomic nervous system in the susceptibility to the stress response.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T14:13:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2017)
  • Utilizing a unique animal model to better understand human temperament
    • Authors: Cortney A Turner; Shelly B Flagel; Peter Blandino; Stanley J Watson; Huda Akil
      Pages: 108 - 114
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 14
      Author(s): Cortney A Turner, Shelly B Flagel, Peter Blandino, Stanley J Watson, Huda Akil
      Individual differences in temperament are associated with psychopathology in humans. Moreover, the relationship between temperament and anxiety-, depression-, PTSD- and addiction-related behaviors can be modeled in animals. This review will highlight these relationships with a focus on individual differences in the response to stressors, fear conditioning and drugs of abuse using animals that differ in their response to a novel environment. We will discuss behavioral and neurobiological commonalities amongst these behaviors with a focus on the hippocampus and, in particular, growth factors as promising novel targets for therapeutic intervention.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T14:13:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2017)
  • Norepinephrine effects on the encoding and consolidation of emotional
           memory: improving synergy between animal and human studies
    • Authors: Benno Roozendaal; Erno J Hermans
      Pages: 115 - 122
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 14
      Author(s): Benno Roozendaal, Erno J Hermans
      Noradrenergic activity is important for emotional enhancement of memory. Although findings from both animal and human research provide extensive support for this general conclusion, there are some important, but often ignored, differences between these research lines. Whereas animal experiments mostly employ pharmacological manipulations in the post-learning phase to investigate the effects of sustained noradrenergic activation on the consolidation of long-term memory, neuroimaging studies in humans typically focus on much more dynamic changes in noradrenergic activity during the actual encoding of information. In this paper we discuss the possibility that these two types of noradrenergic effects interact in enhancing memory for emotionally arousing experiences, and explain how elucidating this mechanism might improve synergy between animal and human research.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T14:13:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2017)
  • Immune signaling mechanisms of PTSD risk and symptom development: insights
           from animal models
    • Authors: Jessica Deslauriers; Susan B. Powell; Victoria B Risbrough
      Pages: 123 - 132
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 14
      Author(s): Jessica Deslauriers, Susan B. Powell, Victoria B Risbrough
      Mechanisms underlying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are not well understood; however, a potential role for immune signaling has recently emerged. Although PTSD is consistently associated with inflammatory markers, a causal role of immune signaling in symptom development is not clear. Here we present the most recent evidence for inflammatory dysfunction both preceding and following PTSD, and current evidence for immune-pathway contributions in animal models of PTSD. We address the role of peripheral vs. central immune signaling, single vs. chronic stress models of PTSD, and use of animal models to investigate novel anti-inflammatory treatments. Gaps in the literature including models of TBI/PTSD comorbidity, peripheral markers of inflammation, and inflammatory trajectories after severe stress are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T14:13:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2017)
  • New insights into early-life stress and behavioral outcomes
    • Authors: Jessica L Bolton; Jenny Molet; Autumn Ivy; Tallie Z Baram
      Pages: 133 - 139
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 14
      Author(s): Jessica L Bolton, Jenny Molet, Autumn Ivy, Tallie Z Baram
      Adverse early-life experiences, including various forms of early-life stress, have consistently been linked with vulnerability to cognitive and emotional disorders later in life. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the enduring consequences of early-life stress is an active area of research, because this knowledge is critical for developing potential interventions. Animal models of early-life stress typically rely on manipulating maternal/parental presence and care, because these are the major sources of early-life experiences in humans. Diverse models have been created, and have resulted in a wealth of behavioral outcomes. Here we focus on recent findings highlighting early-life stress-induced behavioral disturbances, ranging from hippocampus-dependent memory deficits to problems with experiencing pleasure (anhedonia). The use of naturalistic animal models of chronic early-life stress provides insight into the spectrum of cognitive and emotional outcomes and enables probing the underlying mechanisms using molecular-, cellular-, and network-level approaches.

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T14:13:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.12.012
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2017)
  • Transgenerational paternal transmission of acquired traits: stress-induced
           modification of the sperm regulatory transcriptome and offspring
    • Authors: Terence YC Pang; Annabel K Short; Timothy W Bredy; Anthony J Hannan
      Pages: 140 - 147
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 14
      Author(s): Terence YC Pang, Annabel K Short, Timothy W Bredy, Anthony J Hannan
      In recent years, it has become evident that pre-conceptual exposure of males to various environmental factors induces epigenetic changes in sperm, which can mediate the transmission of acquired traits in their offspring. The most thoroughly examined paternal exposures involve stress and elevated corticosterone, which have been shown to modulate offspring phenotypes in a manner that is relevant to predisposition to brain disorders, and psychiatric illness in particular. Recent seminal studies have demonstrated that key epigenetic information transmitted via the paternal germline involves small non-coding (snc) RNA transcripts such as microRNAs. Following fertilisation, these sncRNAs appear to regulate development so as to modify the phenotype of the offspring. Understanding the mechanisms involved in such transgenerational effects may facilitate future screening of human sperm for ‘epigenetic health’ and the tailoring of therapeutic interventions according to genetic and epigenetic contributions to illness.

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T14:13:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2017)
  • Juvenile adversity and adult threat controllability in translational
           models of stress-related disorders
    • Authors: Gilad Ritov; Ziv Ardi; Omer Horovitz; Anne Albrecht; Gal Richter-Levin
      Pages: 148 - 154
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 14
      Author(s): Gilad Ritov, Ziv Ardi, Omer Horovitz, Anne Albrecht, Gal Richter-Levin
      Only some individuals exposed to a traumatic experience eventually develop stress-related disorders such as anxiety and PTSD, indicating that the development and course of such disorders are influenced considerably by different risk factors. Understanding the way such risk factors contribute to the development of pathology is thus a key issue in understanding the neurobiology of stress-related disorders. Here we review behavioral approaches and evidence from recent studies which utilized innovative fear conditioning procedures in rats aiming to model pre- and peri-exposure risk factors, including pre-exposure to pre-pubertal adversities, and the level of controllability over the stressful experience during the exposure to the trauma. Furthermore, the importance of taking into consideration individual variability in post-exposure stress-related behaviors in order to differentiate between exposed-affected and exposed-unaffected individuals is demonstrated.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T14:14:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2017)
  • Effects of early life stress on rodent hippocampal synaptic plasticity: a
           systematic review
    • Authors: Nienke AV Derks; Harm J Krugers; Casper C Hoogenraad; Marian Joëls; R Angela Sarabdjitsingh
      Pages: 155 - 166
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 14
      Author(s): Nienke AV Derks, Harm J Krugers, Casper C Hoogenraad, Marian Joëls, R Angela Sarabdjitsingh
      Early life stress shapes brain development and animal behavior. Neurophysiological properties such as signal transmission and synaptic plasticity are thought to underlie the animal’s behavioral performance. We carried out a systematic review to determine how early life stress relates to neurophysiology in rodents. We specifically discuss effects on basal transmission and long-term potentiation in the hippocampus, as this brain area undergoes strong developmental changes during the first postnatal weeks. In general, basal transmission does not appear to be affected by early life conditions. Long-term potentiation is mainly increased by mild stress, while it is impaired by more severe early life stressors. The dentate gyrus shows stronger effects than the CA1 area. These changes may impact on hippocampus-dependent behavior. We conclude that rodent early life stress models provide important insights in stressor-dependent effects after human childhood adversity.

      PubDate: 2017-04-12T07:44:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2017)
  • Editorial overview: Stress and behavior
    • Authors: David A Morilak; Carmen Sandi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
      Author(s): David A Morilak, Carmen Sandi

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T23:09:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.03.007
  • Editorial overview: The diverse facets and emerging potential of addiction
    • Authors: Scott Edwards; Karen D. Ersche
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
      Author(s): Scott Edwards, Karen D. Ersche

      PubDate: 2017-01-14T14:37:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.12.008
  • Prefrontal cortex GABAergic deficits and circuit dysfunction in the
           pathophysiology and treatment of chronic stress and depression
    • Authors: Sriparna Ghosal; Brendan D. Hare; Ronald S Duman
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 14
      Author(s): Sriparna Ghosal, Brendan D. Hare, Ronald S Duman
      Psychiatric diseases, notably major depression, are associated with imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and related limbic brain circuitry. In many cases these illnesses are precipitated or exacerbated by chronic stress, which also alters excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter systems. Notably, exposure to repeated uncontrollable stress causes persistent changes in the synaptic integrity and function of the principal glutamatergic excitatory neurons in the PFC, characterized by neuronal atrophy and loss of synaptic connections. This can lead to dysfunction of the PFC circuitry that is necessary for execution of adaptive behavioral responses. In addition, an emerging literature shows that chronic stress causes extensive alterations of GABAergic inhibitory circuits in the PFC, leading to the hypothesis that deficits in inhibitory neurotransmission contribute to changes in PFC neuronal excitability and cognitive impairments. Here we review evidence in rodent and human, which points to the mechanisms underlying stress-induced alterations of GABA transmission in the PFC, and its relevance to circuit dysfunction in mood and stress related disorders. These findings suggest that alterations of GABA interneurons and inhibitory neurotransmission play a causal role in the development of stress-related neurobiological illness, and could identify a new line of GABA related therapeutic targets.

      PubDate: 2016-11-04T15:24:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.09.012
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2016)
  • True grit: the role of neuronal microRNAs as mediators of stress
    • Authors: Anand Gururajan; Timothy G Dinan; John F Cryan
      Pages: 9 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 14
      Author(s): Anand Gururajan, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
      Over the last quarter of a century, research in the field of stress resilience has provided a unique perspective of how the brain responds to stress. In particular, it sheds light on the various psychosocial, biological and external factors that determines whether an individual will either be resilient or susceptible in the face of stress. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA sequences with a major role in regulating gene expression at the transcriptional level and a growing body of evidence suggests that they may be key molecular mediators of stress resilience. In this review we argue that an increased understanding of the functional role microRNAs have in relation to various biological determinants of resilience will enable us to develop intervention strategies which could be used to promote resilience in at-risk individuals or individuals who have experienced stress. This approach may attenuate the risk of psychiatric sequelae such as depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorders which currently have a significant economic and social burden on society.

      PubDate: 2016-11-26T07:23:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2016)
  • Integrative analysis of sex differences in the rapid antidepressant
           effects of ketamine in preclinical models for individualized clinical
    • Authors: Samantha K Saland; Florian Duclot; Mohamed Kabbaj
      Pages: 19 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 14
      Author(s): Samantha K Saland, Florian Duclot, Mohamed Kabbaj
      In major depressive disorder, women exhibit higher lifetime prevalence and different antidepressant response rates than men, which illustrates the importance of examining individual differences in the pathophysiology of depression and therapeutic response. In recent years, the consideration of sex in related preclinical research has thus gained interest—particularly in light of novel evidence for rapid-acting antidepressants. Notably, the literature recently revealed a higher sensitivity of females to the antidepressant effects of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine, in both baseline and preclinical conditions. Combined with its fast-acting and relatively sustained properties, this evidence highlights ketamine as a particularly interesting therapeutic alternative for this sensitive population, and supports the value in considering sex as a critical factor for improved individualized therapeutic strategies.

      PubDate: 2016-12-03T01:33:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2016)
  • Large-scale network balances in the transition from adaptive to
           maladaptive stress responses
    • Authors: Judith R Homberg; Tamas Kozicz; Guillén Fernández
      Pages: 27 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 14
      Author(s): Judith R Homberg, Tamas Kozicz, Guillén Fernández
      The stress response allows effective handling of threats, but can become maladaptive in vulnerable individuals causing anxiety. While research so far focused on individual brain regions, the field of human cognitive neuroscience emphasizes a brain organization in large-scale networks that support unique, broad cognitive domains. When threatened the balance between the salience and the executive control network is temporarily shifted towards the salience network allowing individuals to respond adequately, and re-balanced afterwards under the influence of glucocorticoids. Here we explore how risk factors like gender, early life adversity and genetics (5-HTTLPR) affect glucocorticoid release and associated network re-balancing. These risk factors set the balance towards the salience network, leading to insufficient matching to environmental demands and thereby anxiety.

      PubDate: 2016-12-03T01:33:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2016)
  • Stress and decision making: effects on valuation, learning, and
    • Authors: Anthony J Porcelli; Mauricio R Delgado
      Pages: 33 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 14
      Author(s): Anthony J Porcelli, Mauricio R Delgado
      A wide range of stressful experiences can influence human decision making in complex ways beyond the simple predictions of a fight-or-flight model. Recent advances may provide insight into this complicated interaction, potentially in directions that could result in translational applications. Early research suggests that stress exposure influences basic neural circuits involved in reward processing and learning, while also biasing decisions toward habit and modulating our propensity to engage in risk-taking. That said, a substantial array of theoretical and methodological considerations in research on the topic challenge strong cross study comparisons necessary for the field to move forward. In this review we examine the multifaceted stress construct in the context of human decision making, emphasizing stress’ effect on valuation, learning, and risk-taking.

      PubDate: 2016-12-25T10:10:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.11.015
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2016)
  • Stress and memory retrieval: mechanisms and consequences
    • Authors: Oliver T Wolf
      Pages: 40 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 14
      Author(s): Oliver T Wolf
      Stress impairs memory retrieval. Recent findings illustrate the temporal dynamics and the underlying mechanisms of this effect. The effect appears to occur in multiple memory systems, ranging from striatal-based stimulus-response memory to prefrontal-based extinction memory. The effects of stress on memory retrieval might have long-term consequences due to their impact on re-encoding and re-consolidation. These properties could be of interest for future intervention studies.

      PubDate: 2016-12-25T10:10:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2016)
  • Stress and the trade-off between hippocampal and striatal memory
    • Authors: Elizabeth V Goldfarb; Elizabeth A Phelps
      Pages: 47 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 14
      Author(s): Elizabeth V Goldfarb, Elizabeth A Phelps
      Stress can strongly influence memory, in part by modulating the relative engagement of multiple memory systems. Over the last fifteen years, researchers have demonstrated that stress leads striatal, rather than hippocampal, memory to be dominant in both humans and non-human animals. This shift has been proposed to explain the etiology and maintenance of symptoms of stress-related psychopathology. However, it remains unclear how hippocampal and striatal memory are affected individually in order to facilitate this trade-off. Recent studies provide empirical support for (at least) three different pathways by which stress could modulate these memory systems. Evidence for these diverse effects of stress, and circumstances under which each might occur, are discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-12-25T10:10:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.11.017
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2016)
  • Individual differences in stress susceptibility and stress inhibitory
    • Authors: Karl Ebner; Nicolas Singewald
      Pages: 54 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 14
      Author(s): Karl Ebner, Nicolas Singewald
      Many individuals experience stressful life events, but only a minority develops stress-related pathologies including mental disorders such as depression or anxiety disorders. Such individual differences in stress vulnerability are based on alterations in neural circuits/mechanisms designed to properly tune and terminate stress responses. Recent studies in animal models combining behavioral, molecular, functional imaging and optogenetic techniques reveal maladaptive, dysregulated gene expression and impaired stress-neurocircuit function across multiple brain regions as sources of individual stress-vulnerability. In this review, we focus on novel findings providing evidence for a critical role of stress-inhibitory neural pathways in individual stress-susceptibility. Moreover, we highlight candidate genetic, epigenetic and biochemical factors that characterize vulnerability and may drive maladaptive processes in these stress-inhibitory circuits, as well as at the level of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Finally, possible therapeutic implications of these findings are discussed, also in relation to new candidate risk factors that serve as biomarkers for the prediction of phenotypes vulnerable to develop stress-related syndromes. A better understanding of neurobiological mediators underlying individual stress-susceptibility would be a significant step forward to identify novel prevention and treatment strategies for stress-related disorders.

      PubDate: 2016-12-25T10:10:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.11.016
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2016)
  • Cognitive motor deficits in cannabis users
    • Authors: Shikha Prashad; Francesca M Filbey
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 13
      Author(s): Shikha Prashad, Francesca M Filbey
      Cannabis use affects cortico-striatal networks that are essential for producing movement. In this review, we summarize the literature on motor system dysfunction in cannabis users and provide a rationale for why motor learning should be considered an important area in cannabis research. A majority of studies have addressed cognitive impairments in cannabis users and some have focused on driving performance, motor impulsivity, and motor inhibition. Our review of the literature has found that cannabis use is associated with motor performance impairments; however, there is a gap in the literature regarding impairments in motor learning. The involvement of the cortico-striatal network in both cannabis addiction and movement also suggests potential avenues for treatment and rehabilitation via the motor system.

      PubDate: 2016-07-24T14:47:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2016)
  • Structural neuroimaging in polysubstance users
    • Authors: Dieter J Meyerhoff
      Pages: 13 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 13
      Author(s): Dieter J Meyerhoff
      The simultaneous and/or concurrent use of licit and illicit substances (polysubstance use, PSU) is most common today. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been applied extensively to study individuals ostensibly using a single substance. These studies have produced a picture of regional gray matter and white matter alterations with each substance or class of substances. Very few studies measured regional brain morphometry in today's polysubstance users. This limited data suggest morphometric alterations with PSU that are not simply additive but often different from those of monosubstance users. Specifically, subcortical volume enlargements are observed that may be tied to mechanisms that also oppose volume reductions in cortical brain regions, thereby underestimating actual cortical atrophy. The complex actions of polysubstance use on brain structure and function need greater scrutiny with strong methodological approaches to inform more efficient treatment of polysubstance users.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T17:25:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.07.006
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2016)
  • Interventions aimed at automatic processes in addiction: considering
           necessary conditions for efficacy
    • Authors: Thomas E Gladwin; Corinde E Wiers; Reinout W Wiers
      Pages: 19 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 13
      Author(s): Thomas E Gladwin, Corinde E Wiers, Reinout W Wiers
      Automatic processes related to addiction can be directly targeted in novel training paradigms. First studies have demonstrated that Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) targeting approach biases can enhance treatment outcomes when added to regular treatment. However, the overall efficacy of CBM is debated. We argue that considering the modulating role of motivation and the mediating role of actual bias change are essential to drawing valid conclusions. Findings on mediating cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying clinical effects provide further sources of evidence on CBM. Taken together the literature supports the claim that cognitive bias change can improve clinical outcome, but that there are necessary conditions that must be met. Improved theoretical understanding of changing biases and new techniques such as neuromodulation may be needed to optimally apply CBM to help patients overcome addictive behavior.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-08-18T19:09:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2016)
  • Aberrant decision-making and drug addiction—how strong is the
    • Authors: Hamed Ekhtiari; Teresa A Victor; Martin P Paulus
      Pages: 25 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 13
      Author(s): Hamed Ekhtiari, Teresa A Victor, Martin P Paulus
      There are a growing number of studies with different substance use populations that show evidence for aberrant decision-making, which involves but is not limited to increased temporal discounting, increased risk-taking, and inability to mediate between immediate large gains and long-term larger losses. However, the current literature is inconsistent on how these dysfunctions manifest across different substance use disorders and whether they contribute to the initiation, progression and recovery from these disorders. Moreover, there is an incomplete understanding of the neurocognitive processes that underlie these deficits, the best methods to measure them, and ways to improve dysfunction. Here, recently published literature on aberrant decision-making is reviewed to address these questions using four domains: self-report measures, behavioral tasks, computational modeling, and functional neuroimaging. In conclusion, we provide suggestions to improve the consistency, validity and applicability of these measures to the reduction of decision-making dysfunction as a core component of prevention and recovery for the future of addiction medicine.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-09-23T16:37:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2016)
  • Is biological aging accelerated in drug addiction?
    • Authors: Keren Bachi; Salvador Sierra; Nora D Volkow; Rita Z Goldstein; Nelly Alia-Klein
      Pages: 34 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 13
      Author(s): Keren Bachi, Salvador Sierra, Nora D Volkow, Rita Z Goldstein, Nelly Alia-Klein
      Drug-addiction may trigger early onset of age-related disease, due to drug-induced multi-system toxicity and perilous lifestyle, which remains mostly undetected and untreated. We present the literature on pathophysiological processes that may hasten aging and its relevance to addiction, including: oxidative stress and cellular aging, inflammation in periphery and brain, decline in brain volume and function, and early onset of cardiac, cerebrovascular, kidney, and liver disease. Timely detection of accelerated aging in addiction is crucial for the prevention of premature morbidity and mortality.

      PubDate: 2016-10-07T09:59:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.09.007
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2016)
  • Neurocognitive impairment in addiction and opportunities for intervention
    • Authors: Victoria Manning; Antonio Verdejo-Garcia; Dan I Lubman
      Pages: 40 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 13
      Author(s): Victoria Manning, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia, Dan I Lubman
      There is consistent evidence of impairments in cognitive functioning, as well as structural and neural processing abnormalities among substance-dependent populations. In this review, we summarise recent neurocognitive and neuroimaging research, particularly focussing on studies that examine the impact of faulty cognition and mechanisms on treatment outcomes, as well as the efficacy of novel neurocognitive interventions. Our review highlights growing evidence of neuroplasticity and recovery of cognitive deficits with abstinence, and the potential for targeted neurocognitive interventions to enhance clinical outcomes. Improved neurocognition appears to be a valuable therapeutic target for addiction treatment, and approaches targeting both top-down and bottom-up mechanisms have the potential to generate meaningful and sustained clinical outcomes.

      PubDate: 2016-11-04T15:24:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2016)
  • Cannabinoid regulation of opiate motivational processing in the mesolimbic
           system: the integrative roles of amygdala, prefrontal cortical and ventral
           hippocampal input pathways
    • Authors: Steven R Laviolette
      Pages: 46 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 13
      Author(s): Steven R Laviolette
      Opiates, like many drugs of abuse, possess both rewarding and aversive stimulus properties. Nevertheless, the precise neurobiological mechanisms controlling these different motivational aspects of opiates are not well understood. The brains cannabinoid receptor system shares considerable functional and anatomical overlap with the opiate receptor system and importantly, has been shown to modulate functional inputs from neural regions controlling mesolimbic-dependent regulation of associative opiate reward memory. This review will focus on three of these regions: the basolateral amygdala (BLA), prefrontal cortex (PFC) and ventral hippocampus (vHIPP). Recent evidence demonstrates that all of these regions contain populations of output neurons that target mesolimbic areas including the dopamine (DA) containing neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and neuronal sub-populations in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Importantly, signalling through the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) system within these circuits has been shown to powerfully regulate the affective and memory-related processing of opiate-dependent motivational signals.

      PubDate: 2016-11-12T16:51:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2016)
  • Social cognition and interaction in stimulant use disorders
    • Authors: Boris B Quednow
      Pages: 55 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 13
      Author(s): Boris B Quednow
      Beyond impairments in attention, memory, and executive functions, chronic users of stimulant drugs also display specific disturbances in social cognition, which are contributing to social dysfunctions in their daily life. Recent studies have shown overlapping alterations in fear recognition from faces, emotion recognition from complex visual stimuli, emotional empathy, and mental and emotional perspective-taking (Theory-of-Mind) in stimulant users. Additionally, stimulant users often have smaller social networks and show less prosocial behaviour in game-theoretical social decision-making tasks. In social interaction and social feedback tasks during functional imaging cocaine users revealed decreased activation of the medial-frontal reward system. In conclusion, training of social reward and social cognition might improve social functioning including therapeutic relationships and, thus, enhance treatment success in stimulant addiction.

      PubDate: 2016-11-12T16:51:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2016)
  • Beyond sensation seeking: a conceptual framework for individual
           differences in psychostimulant drug effects in healthy humans
    • Authors: Tara L. White
      Pages: 63 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 13
      Author(s): Tara L. White
      Psychostimulant addiction is an important, relapsing condition for which there is no effective pharmacological treatment. Countering this problem requires an understanding of the specific risk factors that predispose individuals to initial misuse of these drugs. Healthy individuals display marked individual differences in emotional, behavioral and brain responses to low and moderate doses of stimulant drugs. These between-person differences have been most often studied using personality measures of sensation seeking. However, a growing body of work in healthy adults indicates potentially unique sources of variance in these responses that are related to four dissociable personality domains: extraversion, fearlessness, impulsivity and absorption. These four domains are empirically dissociable and can serve as endophenotypic markers of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin function in healthy individuals. The relationship between normal variation in these traits and the pharmacological effects of these drugs is here proposed as a framework for better understanding the specific sources of between-person variation in stimulant drug effects on mood, behavior and brain responses in healthy humans.

      PubDate: 2016-11-12T16:51:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.10.008
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2016)
  • Tripping up addiction: the use of psychedelic drugs in the treatment of
           problematic drug and alcohol use
    • Authors: Celia Morgan; Amy McAndrew; Tobias Stevens; David Nutt; Will Lawn
      Pages: 71 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 13
      Author(s): Celia Morgan, Amy McAndrew, Tobias Stevens, David Nutt, Will Lawn
      Psychedelic drugs have been used as treatments in indigenous cultures for thousands of years. Yet, due to their legal status, there has been limited scientific research into the therapeutic potential of these compounds for psychiatric disorders. In the absence of other effective treatments however, researchers have begun again to systematically investigate such compounds and there is now evidence pointing to the use of psychedelic drugs in the treatment of addiction. In this review we focus on human evidence for the effectiveness of preparations used by indigenous cultures in the Amazon (ayahausca) and Africa (ibogaine) and worldwide (psilocybin), and more recently synthetised drugs such as the serotonergic hallucinogen LSD and the dissociative anaesthetic ketamine. Potential mechanisms explored are anti-depressant effects, changes in neuroplasticity and existential psychological effects of these drugs.

      PubDate: 2016-11-18T17:10:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.10.009
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2016)
  • Punishment models of addictive behavior
    • Authors: Louk JMJ Vanderschuren; A Maryse Minnaard; Johanna AS Smeets; Heidi MB Lesscher
      Pages: 77 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 13
      Author(s): Louk JMJ Vanderschuren, A Maryse Minnaard, Johanna AS Smeets, Heidi MB Lesscher
      Substance addiction is a chronic relapsing brain disorder, characterized by loss of control over substance use. In recent years, there has been a lively interest in animal models of loss of control over substance use, using punishment paradigms. We provide an overview of punishment models of addiction, that use quinine, histamine, lithium chloride and footshocks as aversive stimuli, and we discuss the merits and drawbacks of these approaches. Importantly, many studies have demonstrated that under certain conditions, animals are willing to endure punishment during the pursuit of substances of abuse, which captures an essential component of addictive behavior. We conclude that punishment models of addiction represent a valuable contribution to the study of addiction.

      PubDate: 2016-11-26T07:23:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.10.007
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2016)
  • Dysregulation of brain stress systems mediates compulsive alcohol drinking
    • Authors: Brendan J Tunstall; Stephanie A Carmack; George F Koob; Leandro F Vendruscolo
      Pages: 85 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 13
      Author(s): Brendan J Tunstall, Stephanie A Carmack, George F Koob, Leandro F Vendruscolo
      The transition from moderate to compulsive alcohol drinking is driven by increasingly dysfunctional reward and stress systems. We review behavioral and pharmacological studies of alcohol self-administration in rats that were mainly conducted within the framework of the alcohol vapor model of dependence. We discuss neurotransmitter systems that are implicated in alcohol drinking, with a focus on contrasting those neurotransmitter systems that drive behavior in the dependent versus nondependent states. We hypothesize that the identification of systems that become increasingly dysfunctional in alcohol dependence will reveal possible targets for successful interventions to reduce the motivation that drives compulsive alcohol drinking. In our opinion, drugs that normalize, rather than block, a hypofunctional reward system by restoring the function of hypothalamic stress systems and desensitize extrahypothalamic stress systems have the potential to selectively and effectively curb compulsive alcohol drinking.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-11-26T07:23:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.10.006
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2016)
  • Cognitive mechanisms and therapeutic targets of addiction
    • Authors: Marc L Copersino
      Pages: 91 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 13
      Author(s): Marc L Copersino
      Fundamental to cognitive models of addiction is the gradual strengthening of automatic, urge-related responding that develops in tandem with the diminution of self-control-related processes aimed at inhibiting impulses. Recent conceptualizations of addiction also include a third set of cognitive processes related to self-awareness and superordinate regulation of self-control and other higher brain function. This review describes new human research evidence and theoretical developments related to the multicausal strengthening of urge-related responding and failure of self-control in addiction, and the etiology of disrupted self-awareness and rational decision-making associated with continued substance use. Recent progress in the development of therapeutic strategies targeting these mechanisms of addiction is reviewed, including cognitive bias modification, mindfulness training, and neurocognitive rehabilitation.

      PubDate: 2016-11-26T07:23:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2016)
  • Preclinical models and neurocircuitry of gambling and impulsive behavior
    • Authors: Michael M Barrus; Catharine A Winstanley
      Pages: 99 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 13
      Author(s): Michael M Barrus, Catharine A Winstanley
      Impulsivity is thought to contribute to the development and maintenance of gambling disorder, but the mechanistic relationship between these complex and multifaceted behaviors is unclear. Animal models have been developed to examine various aspects of each, and have provided insight into the specific contributions of individual brain regions. Silencing distinct cortical and striatal regions within the affective corticostriatal loop can increase impulsivity and risky decision making, but the correspondence between various forms of both impulsivity and choice is imperfect. Instead, it appears that different facets of impulsivity and gambling-like behavior result from constellations of component processes. Such information may prove useful in understanding how risky decision making and impulsive behaviors interact in clinical conditions such as gambling disorder.

      PubDate: 2016-12-03T01:33:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.11.009
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2016)
  • Reinforcement related behaviors and adolescent alcohol abuse: from
           localized brain structures to coordinated networks
    • Authors: Gabriel H Robert; Gunter Schumann
      Pages: 106 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 13
      Author(s): Gabriel H Robert, Gunter Schumann
      Alcohol is the most prevalent drug used in adolescents, and research on underlying reinforcement mechanisms, such as reward processing, executive control and emotional processing has increased substantially in this age group. We review recent neuroimaging studies related to adolescent alcohol abuse, beginning with region of interest analyses and describing their evolution to the investigation of coordinated network activities. These include examples from the adolescent imaging genetics cohort IMAGEN that led to the identification of distributed and coordinated networks engaged in reinforcement behaviour. We discuss multimodal approaches to characterise and predict alcohol-related symptoms and propose that modeling brain networks, polygenic data and environmental factors using representative statistical models may facilitate the identification of predictors for alcohol use disorders at the individual level. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences 2017, 13:106–116 This review comes from a themed issue on Addiction Edited by Scott Edwards and Karen D Ersche 2352-1546/© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

      PubDate: 2016-12-03T01:33:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2016)
  • The neuropathology of drug abuse
    • Authors: Andreas
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 13
      Author(s): Andreas Büttner
      The predominantly abused illicit substances include cannabis, opiates, cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine and their derivatives. Recently, the abuse of new psychoactive substances has become an increasing problem. In human drug abusers a broad spectrum of changes affecting the central nervous system are seen. The main alterations have been assumed to result from the consequences of ischemia and cerebrovascular diseases. However, detailed post-mortem investigations have shown widespread morphological alterations in the brains drug abusers. Further studies related drug abuse with the risk of accelerated brain aging and the development of neurodegenerative conditions.

      PubDate: 2016-07-24T14:47:43Z
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