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HEALTH AND SAFETY (520 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 181)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access  
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Policy and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Professions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
  [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2352-1546
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • On the interaction of social affect and cognition: empathy, compassion and
           theory of mind
    • Authors: Katrin Preckel; Philipp Kanske; Tania Singer
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 19
      Author(s): Katrin Preckel, Philipp Kanske, Tania Singer
      Empathy, compassion and Theory of Mind (ToM) are central topics in social psychology and neuroscience. While empathy enables the sharing of others’ emotions and may result in empathic distress, a maladaptive form of empathic resonance, or compassion, a feeling of warmth and concern for others, ToM provides cognitive understanding of someone else's thoughts or intentions. These socio-affective and socio-cognitive routes to understanding others are subserved by separable, independent brain networks. Nonetheless they are jointly required in many complex social situations. A process that is critical for both, empathy and ToM, is self-other distinction, which is implemented in different temporoparietal brain regions. Thus, adaptive social behavior is a result of dynamic interplay of socio-affective and socio-cognitive processes.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T09:17:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.07.010
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2017)
  • Policy and population behavior in the age of Big Data
    • Authors: Kai Ruggeri; Hojeong Yoon; Ondřej Kácha; Sander van der Linden; Peter Muennig
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 18
      Author(s): Kai Ruggeri, Hojeong Yoon, Ondřej Kácha, Sander van der Linden, Peter Muennig
      Policies are large-scale interventions that typically aim to influence behaviors and decision-making across entire populations to obtain a desired outcome. With the rapid increase in Big Data and its growing influence on policy, there is an emerging opportunity to produce meaningful and efficient mechanisms for improving public policy outcomes. However, there are still considerable gaps between existing theories in the behavioral sciences and evidence generated by Big Data, including the representation of key groups within the population. We outline the need for replicating established behavioral insights through Big Data that should coincide with clear ethical standards for implementing such approaches through evidence-based policymaking.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T23:32:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.05.010
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2017)
  • Using Big Data as a window into consumers’ psychology
    • Authors: Sandra C Matz; Oded Netzer
      Pages: 7 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 18
      Author(s): Sandra C Matz, Oded Netzer
      The rise of ‘Big Data’ had a big impact on marketing research and practice. In this article, we first highlight sources of useful consumer information that are now available at large scale and very little or no cost. We subsequently discuss how this information – with the help of new analytical techniques – can be translated into valuable insights on consumers’ psychological states and traits that can, in turn, be used to inform marketing strategy. Finally, we discuss opportunities and challenges related to the use of Big Data as a window into consumers’ psychology, and provide recommendations for how to implement related technologies in a way that benefits both businesses and consumers.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T10:26:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.05.009
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2017)
  • The datafication of talent: how technology is advancing the science of
           human potential at work
    • Authors: Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic; Reece Akhtar; Dave Winsborough; Ryne A Sherman
      Pages: 13 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 18
      Author(s): Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic, Reece Akhtar, Dave Winsborough, Ryne A Sherman
      This article reviews three innovations that not only have the potential to revolutionize the way organizations identify, develop and engage talent, but are also emerging as tools used by practitioners and firms. Specifically, we discuss (a) machine-learning algorithms that can evaluate digital footprints, (b) social sensing technology that can automatically decode verbal and nonverbal behavior to infer personality and emotional states, and (c) gamified assessment tools that focus on enhancing the user-experience in personnel selection. The strengths and limitations of each of these approaches are discussed, and practical and theoretical implications are considered.

      PubDate: 2017-06-08T02:21:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.04.007
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2017)
  • Video capture of human behaviors: toward a Big Data approach
    • Authors: Louis Tay; Andrew T Jebb; Sang Eun Woo
      Pages: 17 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 18
      Author(s): Louis Tay, Andrew T Jebb, Sang Eun Woo
      The lowering costs of cameras and data storage have led to an increasing volume of video data from a wide variety of sources. In this review, we analyze four sources of video data (i.e., traditional laboratory cameras, wearable cameras, public cameras, and private cameras), highlighting the strengths and limitations of each source regarding its utility for capturing human behaviors. While there will be technical and ethical challenges in using video camera data for human behavior research, we see promise in increased fidelity for assessing and analyzing various types of human behaviors, including behavioral occurrence, change, and development, and socio-ecological contexts. We encourage the judicious collection and secure storage of large-scale video data and the development of integrative video analytics for human behavior research.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T20:38:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.05.026
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2017)
  • Big data and student engagement among vulnerable youth: A review
    • Authors: Ryan J Watson; John L Christensen
      Pages: 23 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 18
      Author(s): Ryan J Watson, John L Christensen
      Vulnerable (e.g., LGBTQ, homeless, disabled, racial/ethnic minority, and/or poor) youth disproportionally report challenges at school compared to their majority counterparts, but we are not always sure of the best ways to support these students. How might big data help to ameliorate experiences for vulnerable students who are not part of the majority (e.g., White, middle class, straight)' We review current ways that using big data can promote student engagement specific to school experiences where vulnerable youth share a disproportional amount of burden. We review extant uses of big data to track, involve, and monitor student progress and attendance. Additionally, we review the potential privacy implications and threats to students’ civil liberties.

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T08:03:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2017)
  • Using Big Data to study subjective well-being
    • Authors: Maike Luhmann
      Pages: 28 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 18
      Author(s): Maike Luhmann
      Subjective well-being comprises emotional experiences and life satisfaction. This article reviews how Big Data can be used to measure, study, and change subjective well-being. Most Big Data approaches measure subjective well-being by analyzing language patterns on Twitter or Facebook. These approaches provide satisfactory accuracy for emotional experiences, but not yet for life satisfaction. Other measurement approaches include the analysis of other digital traces such as Facebook profiles and the analysis of mobile phone usage patterns. Big Data can be used to study subjective well-being on individual levels, regional levels, and across time. Potentials and limitations of using Big Data in studies on subjective well-being are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T08:03:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.07.006
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2017)
  • What big data can do for treatment in psychiatry
    • Authors: Claire M .Gillan; Robert Whelan
      Pages: 34 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 18
      Author(s): Claire M .Gillan, Robert Whelan
      Treatments for psychiatric disorders are only as effective as the precision with which we administer them. We have treatments that work; we just cannot always accurately predict who they are going to work for and why. In this article, we discuss how big data can help identify robust, reproducible and generalizable predictors of treatment response in psychiatry. Specifically, we focus on how machine-learning approaches can facilitate a move beyond discovery studies and toward model validation. We will highlight some recent exemplary studies in this area, describe how one can assess the merits of studies reporting treatment biomarkers, and discuss what we consider to be best practice for prediction research in psychiatry.

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T08:03:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2017)
  • Detecting depression and mental illness on social media: an integrative
    • Authors: Sharath Chandra Guntuku; David B Yaden; Margaret L Kern; Lyle H Ungar; Johannes C Eichstaedt
      Pages: 43 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 18
      Author(s): Sharath Chandra Guntuku, David B Yaden, Margaret L Kern, Lyle H Ungar, Johannes C Eichstaedt
      Although rates of diagnosing mental illness have improved over the past few decades, many cases remain undetected. Symptoms associated with mental illness are observable on Twitter, Facebook, and web forums, and automated methods are increasingly able to detect depression and other mental illnesses. In this paper, recent studies that aimed to predict mental illness using social media are reviewed. Mentally ill users have been identified using screening surveys, their public sharing of a diagnosis on Twitter, or by their membership in an online forum, and they were distinguishable from control users by patterns in their language and online activity. Automated detection methods may help to identify depressed or otherwise at-risk individuals through the large-scale passive monitoring of social media, and in the future may complement existing screening procedures.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T09:17:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.07.005
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2017)
  • Music and big data: a new frontier
    • Authors: David M Greenberg; Peter J Rentfrow
      Pages: 50 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 18
      Author(s): David M Greenberg, Peter J Rentfrow
      There is an unprecedented opportunity for psychologists and behavioral scientists to merge prior theory and research with big data to develop profound insights into the way people use and are affected by music. There are now streaming services that store data from millions of people on their day-to-day musical listening habits; song-level data that tags sonic and emotion attributes for millions of songs; wearable devices (e.g. watches and earbuds) that capture physiological metrics including heartrate and galvanic skin response; mobile technologies that track a person's moment-to-moment activity, location, mood, and sociability; and survey instruments and digital footprints that capture personality and other biopsychosocial metrics in just under a minute. We propose that merging these technologies can create a new age in music psychology that exponentially expands the present knowledge and scope of the field. The new data will advance general areas of music psychology, but will also provide an important opportunity to establish new knowledge about health and well-being that can have a direct impact on the public. By scientifically mapping how music changes behavior and health in the short-term and long-term, Big Music Data can lead to future health initiatives including the development of new evidence-based treatment modalities to be utilized by medical physicians and mental health practitioners. Importantly, industry and streaming services can use these new insights to optimize their technologies and develop music-based health and wellness platforms aimed at improving the well-being of its users, ultimately impacting the way music is used by millions of people globally.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T09:17:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.07.007
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2017)
  • Big Data approaches in social and behavioral science: four key trade-offs
           and a call for integration
    • Authors: J Mahmoodi; M Leckelt; MWH van Zalk; K Geukes; MD Back
      Pages: 57 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 18
      Author(s): J Mahmoodi, M Leckelt, MWH van Zalk, K Geukes, MD Back
      Big Data approaches have given rise to novel methodological tools to investigate human decisions and behaviors beyond what is possible with traditional forms of analysis. Like any other paradigm in the social and behavioral sciences, however, Big Data is not immune to a number of typical trade-offs: (1) Prediction versus explanation, pertaining to the overall research goals; (2) induction versus deduction, regarding the epistemological focus; (3) bigness versus representativeness in sampling approaches; and (4) data access versus scientific independence, addressing the forms of data usage. In this paper, we discuss these trade-offs and how Big Data and traditional approaches typically relate to them, and propose ways to overcome each trade-off by integrating advantages of different research approaches in the social and behavioral sciences with Big Data.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T09:17:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2017)
  • Language-based personality: a new approach to personality in a digital
    • Authors: Ryan L Boyd; James W Pennebaker
      Pages: 63 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 18
      Author(s): Ryan L Boyd, James W Pennebaker
      Personality is typically defined as the consistent set of traits, attitudes, emotions, and behaviors that people have. For several decades, a majority of researchers have tacitly agreed that the gold standard for measuring personality was with self-report questionnaires. Surveys are fast, inexpensive, and display beautiful psychometric properties. A considerable problem with this method, however, is that self-reports reflect only one aspect of personality—people's explicit theories of what they think they are like. We propose a complementary model that draws on a big data solution: the analysis of the words people use. Language use is relatively reliable over time, internally consistent, and differs considerably between people. Language-based measures of personality can be useful for capturing/modeling lower-level personality processes that are more closely associated with important objective behavioral outcomes than traditional personality measures. Additionally, the increasing availability of language data and advances in both statistical methods and technological power are rapidly creating new opportunities for the study of personality at ‘big data’ scale. Such opportunities allow researchers to not only better understand the fundamental nature of personality, but at a scale never before imagined in psychological research.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T09:17:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.07.017
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2017)
  • Manipulating memory in space and time
    • Authors: Dheeraj S Roy; Susumu Tonegawa
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 17
      Author(s): Dheeraj S Roy, Susumu Tonegawa
      One of the most fascinating aspects of an animal’s brain is its ability to acquire new information from experience and retain this information over time as memory. The search for physical correlates of memory, the memory engram, has been a longstanding endeavor in modern neurobiology. Recent advances in transgenic and optogenetic tools have enabled the identification, visualization, and manipulations of natural, sensory-evoked, engram cells for a specific memory residing in specific brain regions. These studies are paving the way not only to understand memory mechanisms in unprecedented detail, but also to repair the abnormal state of mind associated with memory by engineering.

      PubDate: 2017-06-08T02:21:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.05.020
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2017)
  • Predicting the past, remembering the future
    • Authors: Samuel J Gershman
      Pages: 7 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 17
      Author(s): Samuel J Gershman
      Rational analyses of memory suggest that retrievability of past experience depends on its usefulness for predicting the future: memory is adapted to the temporal structure of the environment. Recent research has enriched this view by applying it to semantic memory and reinforcement learning. This paper describes how multiple forms of memory can be linked via common predictive principles, possibly subserved by a shared neural substrate in the hippocampus. Predictive principles offer an explanation for a wide range of behavioral and neural phenomena, including semantic fluency, temporal contiguity effects in episodic memory, and the topological properties of hippocampal place cells.

      PubDate: 2017-06-13T01:33:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.05.025
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2017)
  • Temporal and spatial context in the mind and brain
    • Authors: Marc W Howard
      Pages: 14 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 17
      Author(s): Marc W Howard
      Theories of episodic memory have long hypothesized that recollection of a specific instance from one's life is mediated by recovery of a neural state of spatiotemporal context. This paper reviews recent theoretical advances in formal models of spatiotemporal context and a growing body of neurophysiological evidence from human imaging studies and animal work that neural populations in the hippocampus and other brain regions support a representation of spatiotemporal context.

      PubDate: 2017-06-13T01:33:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.05.022
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2017)
  • Short-term memory for spatial, sequential and duration information
    • Authors: Sanjay G. Manohar; Yoni Pertzov; Masud Husain
      Pages: 20 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 17
      Author(s): Sanjay G. Manohar, Yoni Pertzov, Masud Husain
      Space and time appear to play key roles in the way that information is organized in short-term memory (STM). Some argue that they are crucial contexts within which other stored features are embedded, allowing binding of information that belongs together within STM. Here we review recent behavioral, neurophysiological and imaging studies that have sought to investigate the nature of spatial, sequential and duration representations in STM, and how these might break down in disease. Findings from these studies point to an important role of the hippocampus and other medial temporal lobe structures in aspects of STM, challenging conventional accounts of involvement of these regions in only long-term memory.

      PubDate: 2017-06-13T01:33:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.05.023
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2017)
  • Models of spatial and temporal dimensions of memory
    • Authors: Michael E. Hasselmo; James R. Hinman; Holger Dannenberg; Chantal E. Stern
      Pages: 27 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 17
      Author(s): Michael E. Hasselmo, James R. Hinman, Holger Dannenberg, Chantal E. Stern
      Episodic memory involves coding of the spatial location and time of individual events. Coding of space and time is also relevant to working memory, spatial navigation, and the disambiguation of overlapping memory representations. Neurophysiological data demonstrate that neuronal activity codes the current, past and future location of an animal as well as temporal intervals within a task. Models have addressed how neural coding of space and time for memory function could arise, with both dimensions coded by the same neurons. Neural coding could depend upon network oscillatory and attractor dynamics as well as modulation of neuronal intrinsic properties. These models are relevant to the coding of space and time involving structures including the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, retrosplenial cortex, striatum and parahippocampal gyrus, which have been implicated in both animal and human studies.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T02:17:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.05.024
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2017)
  • The pre/parasubiculum: a hippocampal hub for scene-based cognition?
    • Authors: Marshall A Dalton; Eleanor A Maguire
      Pages: 34 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 17
      Author(s): Marshall A Dalton, Eleanor A Maguire
      Internal representations of the world in the form of spatially coherent scenes have been linked with cognitive functions including episodic memory, navigation and imagining the future. In human neuroimaging studies, a specific hippocampal subregion, the pre/parasubiculum, is consistently engaged during scene-based cognition. Here we review recent evidence to consider why this might be the case. We note that the pre/parasubiculum is a primary target of the parieto-medial temporal processing pathway, it receives integrated information from foveal and peripheral visual inputs and it is contiguous with the retrosplenial cortex. We discuss why these factors might indicate that the pre/parasubiculum has privileged access to holistic representations of the environment and could be neuroanatomically determined to preferentially process scenes.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T02:17:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2017)
  • Episodic future thinking: mechanisms and functions
    • Authors: Daniel L Schacter; Roland G Benoit; Karl K Szpunar
      Pages: 41 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 17
      Author(s): Daniel L Schacter, Roland G Benoit, Karl K Szpunar
      Episodic future thinking refers to the capacity to imagine or simulate experiences that might occur in one's personal future. Cognitive, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging research concerning episodic future thinking has accelerated during recent years. This article discusses research that has delineated cognitive and neural mechanisms that support episodic future thinking as well as the functions that episodic future thinking serves. Studies focused on mechanisms have identified a core brain network that underlies episodic future thinking and have begun to tease apart the relative contributions of particular regions in this network, and the specific cognitive processes that they support. Studies concerned with functions have identified several domains in which episodic future thinking produces performance benefits, including decision making, emotion regulation, prospective memory, and spatial navigation.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T20:38:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2017)
  • Remembering goal locations
    • Authors: B Poucet; V Hok
      Pages: 51 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 17
      Author(s): B Poucet, V Hok
      Spatial navigation encompasses the capability to compute various paths leading to one's goal. In order to achieve such a feat, a navigation system must also have access to the animal's current location. Although the latter is well documented with over forty years of research devoted to hippocampal place cells, how the goal location is coded and kept in memory is a much more debated issue. Here, we review evidence that such processing occurs within a small network of structures involving at the very least the hippocampus and the frontal cortex. Indeed, growing evidence suggests that path planning relies on a much more extended neural network, with each of its subcomponent ensuring a specific role in the overall process. We suggest that understanding how goal location is remembered can only be achieved through a better characterization of the time-defined events during path planning at both neural and behavioral levels.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T06:32:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.06.003
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2017)
  • Temporal context in human fMRI
    • Authors: Fang Wang; Rachel A Diana
      Pages: 57 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 17
      Author(s): Fang Wang, Rachel A Diana
      Memory for personally experienced events includes temporal context that allows organization and retrieval according to sequence. This review compares fMRI studies of temporal context, assessing the processes required within each paradigm. Prefrontal cortex is important for temporal sequence memory, perhaps due to its role in organizing information online, and relative recency judgments, perhaps due to its role in evaluating familiarity. Hippocampal and parahippocampal regions are also involved in these tasks but make reduced contributions to relative recency when familiarity is diagnostic. Parahippocampal cortex contributions to accurate sequence memory are also reduced when multiple encoding repetitions are used. Finally, implicit temporal memory paradigms show that hippocampal and parahippocampal representations are sensitive to temporal context in the absence of mnemonic task demands.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T06:32:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.06.004
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2017)
  • Hippocampal hierarchical networks for space, time, and memory
    • Authors: Silvy HP Collin; Branka Milivojevic; Christian F Doeller
      Pages: 71 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 17
      Author(s): Silvy HP Collin, Branka Milivojevic, Christian F Doeller
      The hippocampus is critically involved in both mapping space as well as the formation of memories for events. Here, we propose that common coding principles in the hippocampus enable spatial, temporal and episodic representations. We discuss recent studies employing novel cognitive tasks as well as newly developed representational analysis techniques which show that both spatial and mnemonic representations can be thought of as networks of interlinked elements, be it locations in space or events in memory. These mnemonic networks share certain characteristics, such as plasticity and hierarchical organisation, which enable structured representation of information while also allowing simultaneous assimilation of new elements. We conclude by outlining possibilities of how neural mechanisms underlying the formation of such networked representations can support the organisation of interlinked information beyond time and space.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T07:44:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.06.007
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2017)
  • Evidence from amnesia and ageing inform the organization of space and time
           in hippocampal relational representations
    • Authors: Renante Rondina; Jennifer D Ryan
      Pages: 77 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 17
      Author(s): Renante Rondina, Jennifer D Ryan
      Neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings suggest that spatial and temporal information are supported by distinct, yet overlapping networks that feed information forward to the hippocampus. Oscillatory dynamics may determine whether the hippocampus is biased towards communication with a spatial (slower frequencies) or temporal (faster frequencies) processing network. Behavioural evidence, including explicit reports and findings from eye movement monitoring, reveals that memory for temporal relations influences memory for spatial relations, but spatial memory does not affect memory for temporal relations. Further, the shift in oscillatory frequencies in ageing from slower to faster frequencies may bias the brain towards the encoding and storage of temporal relations, leading to age-related deficits in spatial memory. All together, research suggests that relational information is organized hierarchically in memory, and temporal relations provide the foundation.

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T08:03:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.06.009
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2017)
  • Numbers of neurons as biological correlates of cognitive capability
    • Authors: Suzana Herculano-Houzel
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16
      Author(s): Suzana Herculano-Houzel
      What impact does variation in brain size have on the behavioral or cognitive capabilities of different species? Answering this seemingly simple question has been hampered by difficulties in defining and measuring the relevant variables in the brain, on the one hand, and in quantifying behavior in a way that can be compared across species, on the other. A new method of counting cells has made it easy to obtain direct estimates of the numbers of neurons that compose different brain structures. Crossing these numbers with the first large-scale quantitative studies of cognitive capabilities across species suggests that absolute numbers of neurons in the mammalian cerebral cortex, or in the bird pallium, are good correlates of cognitive diversity: the more the neurons, regardless of brain or body size, the better a species performs at a same task.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T14:13:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Inside the corvid brain—probing the physiology of cognition in crows
    • Authors: Andreas Nieder
      Pages: 8 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16
      Author(s): Andreas Nieder
      A wealth of behavioral data show that songbirds of the corvid family are endowed with exquisite cognitive capabilities. The neurophysiological basis of this behavioral flexibility has been addressed recently by recording single-neuron activity from the associative endbrain area nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL) in behaving crows. NCL neurons encode sensory and cognitive variables during working memory, but also participate in the translation of cognitive signals to motor behaviors. These findings highlight the NCL as the corvid brain’s central executive. Intelligence in birds can be realized with an endbrain design that is radically different from the mammalian neocortex and developed independently via convergent evolution.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T14:13:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Neophilia, innovation and learning in an urbanized world: a critical
           evaluation of mixed findings
    • Authors: Andrea S Griffin; Keilah Netto; Chloe Peneaux
      Pages: 15 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16
      Author(s): Andrea S Griffin, Keilah Netto, Chloe Peneaux
      Conversion of natural environments to cities confronts animals with abundant novel opportunities. Research on perception of threat in urban animals is fast expanding, but analyses of their capacity to exploit novel resources are scant. Experimental predictions regarding urban/non-urban behavioral differences are grounded in disparate statements regarding the ecological conditions that prevail in urban environments. We evaluate critically whether urban habitats favor high neophilia, innovation and learning in established populations. Extreme spatial complexity of urban landscapes coupled with increased resource predictability due to human routine activities should favor neophilia and learning. Cities provide exciting new opportunities to investigate empirically whether variation in these traits is related to variation in environmental complexity and predictability as forecast by a body of theoretical work.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T14:14:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Modeling risky decision-making in nonhuman animals: shared core features
    • Authors: Sarah R Heilbronner
      Pages: 23 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16
      Author(s): Sarah R Heilbronner
      Understanding the neural mechanisms of risky decision-making is critical to developing appropriate treatments for psychiatric disorders, problem gambling, and addiction to drugs of abuse. Probing neurobiological mechanisms requires the use of nonhuman animal models (particularly rhesus macaques, rats, and mice). However, there is considerable variation across species in risk preferences. Nevertheless, there are shared core features of risky decision-making present across species. As demonstrated with a wide variety of behavioral paradigms, modulators of risk preference observed in humans are readily replicated in model species. Thus, risky decision-making represents an important implementation of reward-guided decision-making that is feasibly modeled across species.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T14:49:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Collective decision-making
    • Authors: Thomas Bose; Andreagiovanni Reina; James AR Marshall
      Pages: 30 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16
      Author(s): Thomas Bose, Andreagiovanni Reina, James AR Marshall
      Collective decision-making is the subfield of collective behaviour concerned with how groups reach decisions. Almost all aspects of behaviour can be considered in a decision-making context, but here we focus primarily on how groups should optimally reach consensus, what criteria decision-makers should optimise, and how individuals and groups should forage to optimise their nutrition. We argue for deep parallels between understanding decisions made by individuals and by groups, such as the decision-guiding principle of value-sensitivity. We also review relevant theory and empirical development for the study of collective decision making, including the use of robots.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T14:49:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Apes, feathered apes, and pigeons: differences and similarities
    • Authors: Onur Güntürkün; Felix Ströckens; Damian Scarf; Mike Colombo
      Pages: 35 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16
      Author(s): Onur Güntürkün, Felix Ströckens, Damian Scarf, Mike Colombo
      Apes, corvids, and pigeons differ in their pallial/cortical neuron numbers, with apes ranking first and pigeons third. Do cognitive performances rank accordingly? If they would do, cognitive performance could be explained at a mechanistic level by computational capacity provided by neuron numbers. We discuss five areas of cognition (short-term memory, object permanence, abstract numerical competence, orthographic processing, self-recognition) in which apes, corvids, and pigeons have been tested with highly similar procedures. In all tests apes and corvids were on par, but also pigeons reached identical achievement levels in three tests. We suggest that higher neuron numbers are poor predictors of absolute cognitive ability, but better predict learning speed and the ability to flexibly transfer rules to novel situations.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T14:49:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Human brain evolution
    • Authors: Andrey Verendeev; Chet C Sherwood
      Pages: 41 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16
      Author(s): Andrey Verendeev, Chet C Sherwood
      Although we share evolutionary history with other primates, examples of apparent cognitive and behavioral discontinuity between humans and other species abound. Neuroanatomical and molecular differences that distinguish the human brain are evident at several levels of organization. Changes in overall anatomy include an increase in absolute and relative brain size. In addition, there may be novel parietal lobe areas in humans that are involved in processing of evermore fine-grained visuospatial information. Modifications in microstructure, such as the distribution patterns and morphology of neurons and glial cells are also significant. Finally, changes in expression of both mRNA and proteins reflect increased energy consumption and plasticity. All together, these brain specializations, when coupled with cultural forces, shaped the evolution of human cognition.

      PubDate: 2017-04-05T05:36:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Contemporary topics in fish cognition and behaviour
    • Authors: Catarina Vila Pouca; Culum Brown
      Pages: 46 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16
      Author(s): Catarina Vila Pouca, Culum Brown
      The field of fish cognition and behaviour is now well established and recent developments reflect a shift to mechanistic, comparative and theoretical approaches compared to early work. In this review we briefly summarise recent advances in four major areas of research: spatial learning, social cognition, numerical competency and cognition, consciousness and pain. The debate on whether fish are conscious and able to feel pain is particularly topical, and we discuss recent behavioural and adaptive arguments in favour of fish pain. In this review we also propose interesting avenues of research in which fish have been given little attention in comparison with other vertebrate species.

      PubDate: 2017-04-12T07:44:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • The cognitive basis of individual recognition
    • Authors: Jessica L Yorzinski
      Pages: 53 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16
      Author(s): Jessica L Yorzinski
      Individual recognition allows animals to discriminate among individuals and adjust their behavior accordingly. It involves the production and propagation of individually-distinctive signals or cues and then the perception and recognition of those signals or cues. This review highlights recent work investigating this process, emphasizing the cognitive basis of perception and recognition. It finds that relatively few studies have addressed how signatures propagate through the environment and are processed by the receiver. Given variation across species in the complexity of recognition, this review recommends further comparative studies be conducted to unravel the factors underlying this variation.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T23:09:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Perspectives on assessing the emotional behavior of animals with behavior
    • Authors: Daniel S Mills
      Pages: 66 - 72
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16
      Author(s): Daniel S Mills
      The field of clinical animal behavior has a growing scientific basis, with three main paradigms having different perspectives on the assessment of animal emotion. The Behavioral approach, grounded in classical behaviorism, makes little reference to emotion in assessment, despite covert recognition of its importance. The Medical approach, drawing on human psychiatric approaches, emphasizes the importance of physical evidence (behavior descriptions and physiological parameters) for validation of diagnoses centred on abnormality and disorder. The more recent Psychobiological approach synthesizes affective neuroscience, ethology and psychology to propose a systematic and rational framework for making inferences about emotion, that result in the construction of testable (falsifiable) hypotheses relating to four domains derived from component process theory using field-based evidence.​

      PubDate: 2017-04-27T01:18:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Why learn? The adaptive value of associative learning in wild
    • Authors: Julie Morand-Ferron
      Pages: 73 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16
      Author(s): Julie Morand-Ferron
      The ability to associatively learn is highly conserved, having been evidenced in all bilateral animals tested to date. This general cognitive process has been shown to play a role in a wide diversity of behaviours, including interactions with predators, prey, rivals and mates. Learning is thus expected to be essential for survival and reproduction in many species, but because of associated costs, it is also predicted to be fine-tuned to prevailing conditions by selective processes. Considering the importance of learning in determining populations’ response to environmental changes as well as potential impacts on evolutionary rates, there is still a paucity of evolutionary studies on learning, especially in natural populations. Here I review recent progress in our understanding of the evolutionary causes and consequences of intra-specific variation in associative learning abilities in wild populations, and discuss areas for further investigation.

      PubDate: 2017-04-27T01:18:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Integrating social ecology in explanations of wolf–dog behavioral
    • Authors: Sarah Marshall-Pescini; Simona Cafazzo; Zsófia Virányi; Friederike Range
      Pages: 80 - 86
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16
      Author(s): Sarah Marshall-Pescini, Simona Cafazzo, Zsófia Virányi, Friederike Range
      Whereas studies in comparative cognition normally invoke ecology and social organization to account for differences in social behaviour and cognition across species, dog–wolf differences have so far been explained mostly as a result of direct human selection for desirable traits (e.g., tameness, attention to humans, sociability). Yet, as will be reviewed in this paper, dogs and wolves also differ considerably in both their feeding niche and social organization (which together we refer to as ‘social ecology’). We suggest that observed wolf–dog differences especially in their interaction with the environment (e.g., neophobia, persistence, risk taking) and conspecifics (e.g., tolerance, cooperation, communication) need to be considered also in regard to their social ecology. We propose that social ecology alongside human selection should be recognized as a potentially important factor affecting dogs’ behaviour, and suggest a number of potential avenues for future research, which can more directly test the relative importance of these selection forces.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T14:15:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • From sensory to social: the information that impacts animal foraging
    • Authors: Danielle Sulikowski
      Pages: 93 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16
      Author(s): Danielle Sulikowski
      Foraging decisions reflect cost-benefit trade-offs. Costs arise from missed opportunities, ingestion (such as if prey are toxic), and acquisition (time and energy through exploration). Benefits arise from acquiring energy, nutrients and information. I present a collection of recent findings from vertebrates and invertebrates, demonstrating the breadth of information – sensory, social, nutritional, spatial and physiological, to name a few – that impacts animal foraging decisions. I also consider key challenges facing the study of foraging cognition, namely misgivings arising from observations of suboptimal foraging decisions in laboratory studies, and a lack of transferability between information use in the laboratory and that in the world. I conclude that an emphasis on custom experimental designs is key to continued empirical progress in the field.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T14:15:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Cognitive research in zoos
    • Authors: Lydia M Hopper
      Pages: 100 - 110
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16
      Author(s): Lydia M Hopper
      Many zoos are committed to conservation efforts and answering applied questions about veterinary care and welfare. It is less common, however, for basic science to be conducted in zoos. Comparative cognitive research run in zoos is gaining momentum, with more zoos becoming involved and a greater diversity of species being studied. The majority of cognitive research in zoos is conducted with primates, bears, and elephants. There is less cognitive research run with other species, in particular birds, reptiles and insects, or with zoo visitors. Given the number and variety of animals they house, zoos offer a unique forum to expand the taxonomic focus of cognitive research, especially via multi-institutional collaborations, whilst creating an opportunity to foster public engagement with research.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T14:15:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.04.006
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • The frontiers of insect cognition
    • Authors: Clint J Perry; Andrew B Barron; Lars Chittka
      Pages: 111 - 118
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16
      Author(s): Clint J Perry, Andrew B Barron, Lars Chittka
      Insects have often been thought to display only the simplest forms of learning, but recent experimental studies, especially in social insects, have suggested various forms of sophisticated cognition. Insects display a variety of phenomena involving simple forms of tool use, attention, social learning of non-natural foraging routines, emotional states and metacognition, all phenomena that were once thought to be the exclusive domain of much larger-brained animals. This will require re-evaluation of what precise computational advantages might be gained by larger brains. It is not yet clear whether insects solve nominally similar tasks by fundamentally simpler mechanisms compared to vertebrates, though there might be differences in terms of the amount of parallel information processing that can be performed by various organisms.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T10:26:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.05.011
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Object play in parrots and corvids
    • Authors: Mark O’Hara; Alice MI Auersperg
      Pages: 119 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16
      Author(s): Mark O’Hara, Alice MI Auersperg
      Play behaviour may be subdivided into social play, locomotor play and object play. Object play has been proposed to constitute an important factor in developing skills concerned with physical problem solving. Especially tool using species seem to benefit from object play during their ontogeny. However, object play is not easily distinguished from exploration as both behaviours seem to serve no immediate benefit. Here we try to discuss proposed definitional differentiations and their implications. Further, we provide examples of how object play might be adaptive for problem solving proficiency in some bird species, indicating similar ecological factors driving the evolution of object play in primates and birds.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T06:32:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.05.008
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Cold-blooded cognition: new directions in reptile cognition
    • Authors: Satoko Matsubara; D Charles Deeming; Anna Wilkinson
      Pages: 126 - 130
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16
      Author(s): Satoko Matsubara, D Charles Deeming, Anna Wilkinson
      The field of comparative psychology has traditionally focussed on investigating the cognitive abilities of a small number of mammal and bird species, but in order to understand the evolution of cognition, it is essential to examine cognitive abilities across a large range of vertebrates. Reptiles are particularly interesting in this context as they represent a key amniotic Class that do not develop under high, stable temperatures, which can produce phenotypic variation in the population. As their patterns of development differ substantially from those of birds and mammals reptiles can be used to investigate fundamental questions relating to factors shaping cognition; questions that cannot be asked in mammals and birds. In this review, we highlight some of these areas of interest and consider how the emerging field of reptile cognition can address crucial questions in cognitive science.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T07:44:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.06.006
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Cephalopod complex cognition
    • Authors: Jennifer A Mather; Ludovic Dickel
      Pages: 131 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16
      Author(s): Jennifer A Mather, Ludovic Dickel
      Cephalopods, especially octopuses, offer a different model for the development of complex cognitive operations. They are phylogenetically distant from the mammals and birds that we normally think of as ‘intelligent’ and without the pervasive social interactions and long lives that we associate with this capacity. Additionally, they have a distributed nervous system—central brain, peripheral coordination of arm actions and a completely separate skin appearance system based on muscle-controlled chromatophores. Recent research has begun to show how these apparently separate systems are coordinated. Learning and cognition are used toward prey, in antipredator actions and in courtship. These examples show how they attain complex cognition in Emery & Clayton's (2004) categories of flexibility, causal reasoning, imagination and prospection.

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T08:03:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.06.008
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Interaction between comparative psychology and cognitive development
    • Authors: Sarah R Beck
      Pages: 138 - 141
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16
      Author(s): Sarah R Beck
      Comparative psychologists and cognitive developmentalists often share methods and topics of research. Here we review three domains in which there has been particularly fruitful interaction between the fields and reflect on the theoretical positions behind these interactions. Overall, we conclude that there is much to be gained, as cognitive and behavioural scientists, for drawing together work from human children and non-human species.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T07:44:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • What are mixed emotions and what conditions foster them? Life-span
           experiences, culture and social awareness
    • Authors: Igor Grossmann; Phoebe C Ellsworth
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 15
      Author(s): Igor Grossmann, Phoebe C Ellsworth
      ‘Mixed emotions’ is often used synonymously with the notion of complex emotional experiences. Emotional complexity can also mean differentiation of emotions, both within and across situations. We review empirical evidence concerning the relationship between various forms of emotional complexity, integrating them in a general conceptual framework. Mixed emotions converge with other metrics of complexity when accounting for the same level of analysis (across time vs. state-specific) and less so when crossing these levels. Moreover, mixed emotions and other forms of complexity appear to vary as a function of various contextual factors, including age, culture, and situation. In particular, contexts promoting focus beyond one’s immediate point of view appear to facilitate emotional complexity more than self-focused contexts.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T14:15:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
  • Editorial overview: Comparative cognition
    • Authors: Jessica F Cantlon; Benjamin Y Hayden
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 July 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
      Author(s): Jessica F Cantlon, Benjamin Y Hayden

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T08:03:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.07.008
  • Time (and space) in the hippocampus
    • Authors: Howard Eichenbaum
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 17
      Author(s): Howard Eichenbaum
      There is considerable recent evidence that, in addition to its representation of space, the hippocampus also represents the temporal organization of memories. Time plays a central role in episodic memory, and studies have identified the hippocampus as playing an essential role in the temporal organization of memories in humans and animals. Temporal organization is supported by a gradually changing temporal context signal in the hippocampus, and this changing context signal involves ‘time cells’ in the hippocampus that code sequential moments in temporally organized experiences. Finally, hippocampal temporal context representations involve mechanisms in intrinsic circuitry and oscillatory patterns throughout hippocampal subfields and depend on inputs from parahippocampal cortical areas as well as a widespread temporal processing system in the neocortex.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T07:44:32Z
  • Editorial overview: Theories, methods, and applications of mixed emotions
    • Authors: Richard Gonzalez; Jacqui Smith; Lisbeth Nielsen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
      Author(s): Richard Gonzalez, Jacqui Smith, Lisbeth Nielsen

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T23:32:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.05.019
  • The boundary-based view of spatial cognition: a synthesis
    • Authors: Sang Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16
      Author(s): Sang Ah Lee
      Basic processes underlying spatial encoding and memory have ancient evolutionary origins and are shared by many neighboring branches of the phylogenetic tree. As a result, the study of spatial cognition and its neural correlates has been a fruitful area of research that has benefited immensely from making cross-species generalizations. Converging evidence from all areas of cognitive science – from the firing of single neurons in the rodent brain, to the development of spatial abilities in chicks, fish, and children, to visual scene perception in adult humans – reveals that environmental boundaries, such as walls, ledges, cliffs, hills, and other terrain-like structures, play a fundamental role in vertebrate spatial mapping and navigation behavior. The aim of this review is to bring together three decades of research in the first comprehensive boundary-based view of spatial cognition.

      PubDate: 2017-04-27T01:18:24Z
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