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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1342 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (23 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (89 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (555 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (81 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (555 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 202)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Innovación en Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access  
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Düzce Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi / Journal of Duzce University Health Sciences Institute     Open Access  
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Eurasian Journal of Health Technology Assessment     Open Access  
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access  
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastane Öncesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Notions     Open Access  
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Health, Safety and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Healthcare Technology Letters     Open Access  
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Public Health     Open Access  
Infodir : Revista de Información científica para la Dirección en Salud     Open Access  
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Archives of Health Sciences     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.839
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 4  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2352-1546
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3163 journals]
  • Hypothalamic survival circuits related to social and predatory defenses
           and their interactions with metabolic control, reproductive behaviors and
           memory systems
    • Authors: Newton Sabino Canteras
      Pages: 7 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24
      Author(s): Newton Sabino Canteras
      The hypothalamus may be viewed as the central piece of the survival circuits and is responsible for organizing endocrine, autonomic and behavioral responses to guarantee the survival of both the individual and the species. The hypothalamus is largely known to control the three basic classes of behavior required for animal survival, namely, ingestive, defensive, and reproductive behaviors. Over the years, a great deal has been learned regarding the hypothalamic circuits organizing these classes of behavior. In this review, we will focus on hypothalamic circuits involved in organizing anti-predatory and social defenses, noting putative interactions with other hypothalamic systems that mediate metabolic control and social responses, and exploring how the hypothalamic defensive circuits may influence emotional memory linked to predatory and social threats.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.017
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2018)
  • Survival circuits and risk assessment
    • Authors: Neil McNaughton; Philip J Corr
      Pages: 14 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24
      Author(s): Neil McNaughton, Philip J Corr
      Risk assessment (RA) behaviour is unusual in the context of survival circuits. An external object elicits eating, mating or fleeing; but conflict between internal approach and withdrawal tendencies elicits RA-specific behaviour that scans the environment for new information to bring closure. Recently rodent and human threat responses have been compared using ‘predators’ that can be real (e.g. a tarantula), robot, virtual, or symbolic (with the last three rendered predatory by the use of shock). ‘Quick and dirty’ survival circuits in the periaqueductal grey, hypothalamus, and amygdala control external RA behaviour. These subcortical circuits activate, and are partially inhibited by, higher-order internal RA processes (anxiety, memory scanning, evaluation and sometimes—maladaptive rumination) in the ventral hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.018
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2018)
  • Survival circuits and therapy: from automaticity to the conscious
           experience of fear and anxiety
    • Authors: Steven C Hayes; Stefan G Hofmann
      Pages: 21 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24
      Author(s): Steven C Hayes, Stefan G Hofmann
      We will briefly examine the implication of a multi-dimensional and multi-level view of evolution for addressing the role and function of survival circuits in the context of human cognition, and the underlying emotional, memory, and behavioral processes both impact. It is our contention that human cognition can partially direct and channel these more ancient neurobiological regulatory systems. We argue that while survival circuits can be helpful or hurtful to human functioning, they are particularly likely to be problematic when they occur in the context of cognitive processes that have become automatic and well-practiced, and thus beyond normal conscious processes of cognitive control. Psychotherapy can be of help in increasing access to such ‘unconscious’ process, reducing their automatic impact, and allowing human goals and values to over-ride maladaptive processes engaged by survival circuits.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2018)
  • Prospection and natural selection
    • Authors: T Suddendorf; A Bulley; B Miloyan
      Pages: 26 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24
      Author(s): T Suddendorf, A Bulley, B Miloyan
      Prospection refers to thinking about the future, a capacity that has become the subject of increasing research in recent years. Here we first distinguish basic prospection, such as associative learning, from more complex prospection commonly observed in humans, such as episodic foresight, the ability to imagine diverse future situations and organize current actions accordingly. We review recent studies on complex prospection in various contexts, such as decision-making, planning, deliberate practice, information gathering, and social coordination. Prospection appears to play many important roles in human survival and reproduction. Foreseeing threats and opportunities before they arise, for instance, drives attempts at avoiding future harm and obtaining future benefits, and recognizing the future utility of a solution turns it into an innovation, motivating refinement and dissemination. Although we do not know about the original contexts in which complex prospection evolved, it is increasingly clear through research on the emergence of these capacities in childhood and on related disorders in various clinical conditions, that limitations in prospection can have profound functional consequences.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.019
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2018)
  • The ethological deconstruction of fear(s)
    • Authors: Dean Mobbs
      Pages: 32 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24
      Author(s): Dean Mobbs
      The natural world presents a myriad of dangers that can threaten an organism's survival. This diversity of threats is matched by a set of universal and species specific defensive behaviors which are often subsumed under the emotions of fear and anxiety. A major issue in the field of affective science, however, is that these emotions are often conflated and scientists fail to reflect the ecological conditions that gave rise to them. I attempt to clarify these semantic issues by describing the link between ethologically defined defensive strategies and fear. This in turn, provides a clearer differentiation between fears, the contexts that evoke them and how they are organized within defensive survival circuits.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T07:36:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2018)
  • Fear paradigms: The times they are a-changin’
    • Authors: Jeansok J Kim; Min Whan Jung
      Pages: 38 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24
      Author(s): Jeansok J Kim, Min Whan Jung
      Fear is considered an integral part of the brain's defensive mechanism that evolved to protect animals and humans from predation and other ecological threats. Hence, it is logical to study fear from the perspective of antipredator-survival behaviors and circuits by sampling a range of threatening situations that organisms are likely to encounter in the wild. In the past several decades, however, mainstream fear research has focused on the importance of associative learning; that is, how animals become frightened of innocuous cues as consequences of their contingent pairing with aversive events. While significant discoveries have been made, contemporary fear models derived from learning studies are likely to provide only a partial picture of the brain's fear system because they cannot simulate the dynamic range of risky situations in nature that require various adaptive actions and decisions. This review considers two different approaches to study fear, grounded on behaviorism and ethology and examines their contributions in revealing the naturalistic workings of fear in guiding and shaping behavior as animals make real-world choices.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T07:36:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2018)
  • The role of learning in threat imminence and defensive behaviors
    • Authors: Michael S Fanselow
      Pages: 44 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24
      Author(s): Michael S Fanselow
      Life threatening situations as urgent as defending against a predator precludes the use of slow trial and error strategies. Natural selection has led to the evolution of a behavioral system that has three critical elements. (1) When it is activated it limits the behaviors available to the organism to a set of prewired responses that have proven over phylogeny to be effective at defense. (2) A rapid learning system, called Pavlovian fear conditioning, that has the ability to immediately identify threats and promote prewired defensive behaviors. (3) That learning system has the ability to integrate several informational dimensions to determine threat imminence and this allows the organism to match the most effective defensive behavior to the current situation. The adaptive significance of conscious experiential states is also considered.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T07:36:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2018)
  • Developmental and neurobehavioral transitions in survival circuits
    • Authors: Regina M Sullivan; Maya Opendak
      Pages: 50 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24
      Author(s): Regina M Sullivan, Maya Opendak
      Although animals of all ages experience threats, the neurobehavioral response to threat shows fundamental changes across development in altricial species, including humans and rodents. Although the mature animal has an arsenal of defensive strategies to engage, including attack, escape, hide or freeze, the motorically immature infant exhibits age-appropriate responses to threats that involve approach to the caregiver for protection. The neurobiology supporting this difference relies on both the immature state of the infant brain and neural networks specifically adapted to its unique environmental niche. Using examples from innate threats, we review the development of threat survival circuit neurobiology to illustrate developmental transitions and the important role of the caregiver in controlling the infant's neurobehavioral response to threat.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T07:36:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2018)
  • Unconscious psychological treatments for physiological survival circuits
    • Authors: Vincent Taschereau-Dumouchel; Ka-Yuet Liu; Hakwan Lau
      Pages: 62 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24
      Author(s): Vincent Taschereau-Dumouchel, Ka-Yuet Liu, Hakwan Lau
      The idea of targeting unconscious or implicit processes in psychological treatments is not new, but until recently it has not been easy to manipulate these processes without also engaging consciousness. Here we review how this is possible, using various modern cognitive neuroscience methods including a technique known as Decoded Neural-Reinforcement. We discuss the general advantages of this approach, such as how it can facilitate double-blind placebo-controlled studies, and minimize premature patient dropouts in the treatment of fear. We also speculate how this may generalize to other similar physiological survival processes.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T00:37:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.04.010
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2018)
  • The molecular basis for sex differences in depression susceptibility
    • Authors: Orna Issler; Eric J Nestler
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 23
      Author(s): Orna Issler, Eric J Nestler
      Depression is a prevalent, devastating psychiatric disorder which women are twice as likely to suffer as men. Yet, until recently, most of the mechanistic studies shedding light on the molecular pathways involved in depression have focused on males, both animals and humans. It has been established that women have a more sensitive stress response, and that sex hormones contribute to depression onset. Recent genome-wide studies on human and mouse brain tissue have revealed that the overlap in the genes regulated by depression or chronic stress, respectively, between the sexes is surprisingly low. Such unbiased comprehensive screening approaches combined with advanced bioinformatics and in vivo validation studies enable identifying truly novel target genes that contribute to sex differences in depression susceptibility. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated sex bias in transgenerational passage of the effects of stress to the offspring. Elucidating the sex-specific mechanisms contributing to the development of depression can help design better diagnostic and therapeutic tools aimed at normalizing the unique abnormalities of each gender.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.12.019
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2018)
  • Let's talk about sex … differences in human fear conditioning
    • Authors: Christian J Merz; Valerie L Kinner; Oliver T Wolf
      Pages: 7 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 23
      Author(s): Christian J Merz, Valerie L Kinner, Oliver T Wolf
      Fear conditioning represents an experimental paradigm ideally suited to investigate aversive learning and memory mechanisms that are fundamental to the development, maintenance and treatment of mental disorders. Men and women seem to differ in their capability to learn and retrieve fear and extinction memories. This review outlines how sex may influence human fear conditioning, with an emphasis on the sex hormones and oral contraceptives. Available evidence suggests women with high estrogen levels to acquire fear more readily, but also to extinguish fear more easily, leading to an enhanced extinction memory trace. By contrast, women with low estrogens (e.g. due to oral contraceptives) seem to show deficits in extinction recall. These findings are highly relevant for future basic and applied studies alike.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.021
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2018)
  • Oxytocin and sex differences in behavior
    • Authors: Heather K Caldwell
      Pages: 13 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 23
      Author(s): Heather K Caldwell
      Oxytocin is an evolutionarily ancient neuropeptide that is implicated in the neural modulation of behavior in vertebrates. While this system is well known for its species-specific effects, there is a lack of consensus regarding oxytocin's sex-specific effects—due in part to shortcomings in the way that studies have traditionally been designed. Sex differences in the neuroanatomy of the oxytocin system are not abundant and are generally not predictive of sex differences in behavior. Rather, it is possible that the differential evolution of these systems in males and females has resulted in sex differences in the sensitivity to oxytocin as well as sex differences in the function of the neural circuitry important for behavioral displays. This hypothesis is supported by work which suggests that sex differences in behavior are likely due to sex-specific patterns of activity between brain regions that have been implicated in the regulation of social behavior. It is also important to consider how oxytocin's sex-specific behavioral effects are shaped by social context, species evolution, and an animal's behavioral ecology.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2018)
  • Sex differences in the developmental neuroscience of adolescent substance
           use risk
    • Authors: Mary M Heitzeg; Jillian E Hardee; Adriene M Beltz
      Pages: 21 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 23
      Author(s): Mary M Heitzeg, Jillian E Hardee, Adriene M Beltz
      Adolescence is a period associated with the initiation and escalation of substance use and is also a time during which substantial changes take place in neural development, personality and behavior. Although rates of substance use between adolescent girls and boys do not differ substantially, there is evidence for sex differences in underlying vulnerability pathways associated with the development of substance use disorder. Here we review sex differences in adolescent brain development and how these differences may contribute to different risk pathways between females and males that emerge during this developmental period. We also discuss methodological considerations in the study of sex differences in brain and behavior and their implications for interpretation. We close by highlighting promising areas for future work.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.020
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2018)
  • Modeling drug addiction in females: how internal state and environmental
           context facilitate vulnerability
    • Authors: Drew D Kiraly; Deena M Walker; Erin S Calipari
      Pages: 27 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 23
      Author(s): Drew D Kiraly, Deena M Walker, Erin S Calipari
      A fundamental aspect of survival is the ability to refine behaviors based on internal and external contexts. Interpretation of rewarding stimuli is driven by integration of a diverse number of inputs including contextual cues, hormone levels, and perceived valence of potentially stressful stimuli. These factors can influence the way that an organism makes decisions in the short term and how information is learned and stored on a longer time scale. With respect to addiction vulnerability, the interaction between context, dopamine, and drugs is particularly important. Historically, a majority of addiction research has focused on male subjects; however, a growing body of evidence has demonstrated that sex chromosome and hormonal differences between males and females can acutely influence the pharmacodynamic properties of drugs as well as the way information about cues and drugs are stored and encoded within the brain. Here we present considerations for how contextual information such as stress and social hierarchy can differentially affect males and females. This review presents a framework in which these contextual factors can be addressed and incorporated in our conceptualization of animal models of substance use disorders.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2018)
  • Sex differences in sub-anesthetic ketamine's antidepressant effects and
           abuse liability
    • Authors: Katherine N .Wright; Mohamed Kabbaj
      Pages: 36 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 23
      Author(s): Katherine N .Wright, Mohamed Kabbaj
      Sub-anesthetic ketamine produces rapid antidepressant effects in patients with bipolar and unipolar major depression where conventional monoaminergic-based antidepressant drugs have been ineffective or ridden with side effects. A single ketamine infusion can produce antidepressant effects lasting up to two weeks, and multiple ketamine infusions prolong this effect. Pre-clinical studies are underway to uncover ketamine's mechanisms of action, but there are still many questions unanswered regarding the safety of its long-term use. Abuse liability is one area of concern, as recreational ketamine use is an ongoing issue in many parts of the world. Another understudied area is sex differences in responsivity to ketamine. Women are twice as likely as men to be diagnosed with depression, and they progress through stages of drug addiction more rapidly than their male counterparts. Despite this, preclinical studies in ketamine's antidepressant and addictive-like behaviors in females are limited. These intersecting factors in recent clinical and pre-clinical studies are reviewed to characterize ketamine's therapeutic potential, its limitations, and its potential mechanisms of action.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T07:36:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2018)
  • Sex differences and the effects of estradiol on striatal function
    • Authors: John Meitzen; Robert L Meisel; Paul G Mermelstein
      Pages: 42 - 48
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 23
      Author(s): John Meitzen, Robert L Meisel, Paul G Mermelstein
      The striatal brain regions, including the caudate–putamen, nucleus accumbens core, and nucleus accumbens shell, mediate critical behavioral functions. These functions include motivated behavior, learning, and sensorimotor function in both pathological and normal contexts. The phenotype and/or incidence of all of these behaviors differ by sex and/or are sensitive to gonadal hormones such as 17β-estradiol. Here we present a brief review of recent literature regarding sex differences and effects of 17β-estradiol on behavioral and neural function across striatal regions. We emphasize recent findings in striatal-relevant behaviors and disorders, striatal neuron dendritic spine density, and striatal neuron electrophysiology. These recent advances collectively offer insight into the effects of sex and estrogen on striatal function, especially at the level of individual neurons.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T07:36:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2018)
  • Regulation of cognitive function by androgens and estrogens
    • Authors: Elizabeth Hampson
      Pages: 49 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 23
      Author(s): Elizabeth Hampson
      Our understanding of cognitive sex differences is being transformed by advances in the neurosciences. Recent evidence suggests that reproductive steroids currently available to the central nervous system via the bloodstream may dynamically regulate at least some cognitive functions in adulthood, via their effects on gene transcription or other mechanisms that modify neuronal activity. This mini-review uses working memory and the internal spatial representation of objects (e.g. mental rotation) as examples, to illustrate how current conceptualizations are beginning to recognize endocrine variables, including context-dependent changes in the hormonal milieu of the brain, as sources of between-sex and within-sex variations in cognitive performance.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T07:36:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2018)
  • Estradiol and the reward system in humans
    • Authors: Esther K Diekhof
      Pages: 58 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 23
      Author(s): Esther K Diekhof
      This review is intended to summarize the literature on the modulation of the human reward system by estradiol. It will integrate previous neuroimaging findings in current rodent models, which suggest a dopamine-agonistic effect of physiological estradiol that may increase reward sensitivity in females. In human research, most neuroimaging studies have addressed menstrual cycle-related differences in reward-related brain activation and behaviors by comparing phases of high versus low estradiol availability. Few studies have also used pharmacological intervention to induce different hormonal states for comparisons of high and low estradiol, while others have also assessed the correlations between brain activation and state-related estradiol to infer causality. Since most human samples were small (n <30) and the majority of studies used region-of-interest approaches or reported neuroimaging results that were incorrected for multiple comparisons, it is currently undetermined whether estradiol promotes human reward sensitivity to a similar extent as it does in rodents.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T07:36:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2018)
  • Estradiol and hippocampal memory in female and male rodents
    • Authors: Karyn M Frick; Jaekyoon Kim; Wendy A Koss
      Pages: 65 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 23
      Author(s): Karyn M Frick, Jaekyoon Kim, Wendy A Koss
      Estrogens influence nearly every aspect of hippocampal function, including memory formation. Although this research has traditionally focused on ovariectomized females, more recent work is providing insights into the ways in which estrogens regulate hippocampal function in both sexes. This review provides an overview of estrogenic regulation of hippocampal function in female and male rodents, with a particular emphasis on memory formation. Where applicable, we discuss the involvement of specific estrogen receptors and molecular mechanisms that mediate these effects. The review concludes by suggesting gaps in the literature that need to be filled to provide greater insights into potential sex differences in the effects of estrogens on hippocampal function.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T07:36:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2018)
  • A primer on sex differences in the behavioral response to stress
    • Authors: Georgia E Hodes
      Pages: 75 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 23
      Author(s): Georgia E Hodes
      There is a growing interest, along with new technology, to perform translational research into the biology underlying many mental disorders and examining these effects in both sexes. Many studies use behavioral manipulations or endpoints to model these disorders in animals. However, some of these paradigms produce sex-skewed results that could influence and confound results. This review explores the behavioral literature on acute and chronic stress paradigms and their effects on behavior in males and females. We provide a guideline of which tests and behaviors are biased towards one sex or the other as tool to use in the design of stress-based experiments incorporating both sexes.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T07:36:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.03.012
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2018)
  • The middle-aged brain: biological sex and sex hormones shape memory
    • Authors: Emily G Jacobs; Jill M Goldstein
      Pages: 84 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 23
      Author(s): Emily G Jacobs, Jill M Goldstein
      Over the last quarter century, a staggering number of brain imaging studies have probed the neural basis of age-related cognitive decline. Using multimodal brain imaging tools, we now have a clearer understanding of the morphological, neurochemical, and neurophysiological changes that accompany age-related declines in working memory, selective attention, inhibitory control, episodic memory and more. These studies generally target adults over the age of 65, a historical precedent rooted in the average retirement age of U.S. wage-earners. An unintended consequence of this adopted standard is that it overlooks one of the most significant neuroendocrine changes in a woman's life—the transition to menopause. In this review, we summarize recent studies of the neural and cognitive changes that unfold in the middle decade of life (ages 45-60), as a function of sex, reproductive stage, and sex steroid hormones. As the ‘cognitive neuroscience of aging' field evolves, applying a women's health lens to the study of the aging brain will enhance the translation of these findings for both sexes and ensure that men and women get the full benefit of our research efforts. By ignoring the midlife window, we risk missing critical clues that could reveal sex-dependent risk factors of future neurodegenerative disease.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T00:37:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2018)
  • Focus on females: a less biased approach for studying strategies and
           mechanisms of memory
    • Authors: Natalie C Tronson
      Pages: 92 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 23
      Author(s): Natalie C Tronson
      Recent work on sex differences in learning and memory has demonstrated that females and males differ in cognitive and behavioral strategies, as well as neural mechanisms required to learn, retrieve, and express memory. Although our understanding of the mechanisms of memory is highly sophisticated, this work is based on male animals. As such, the study of female memory is narrowed to a comparison with behavior and mechanisms defined in males, resulting in findings of male-specific mechanisms but little understanding of how females learn and store information. In this paper, we discuss a female-focused framework and experimental approaches to deepen our understanding of the strategies and neural mechanisms engaged by females (and males) in learning, consolidation, and retrieval of memory.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T00:37:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2018)
  • Sex differences in motivated behaviors in animal models
    • Authors: Zhimin Song; Manu Kalyani; Jill B Becker
      Pages: 98 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 23
      Author(s): Zhimin Song, Manu Kalyani, Jill B Becker
      Sex differences exist in the motivation for sexual behavior, food, parental care and motivation to take drugs. There are also sex differences in the likelihood of exhibiting motivational disorders such as anhedonia, depression, addictive behavior, and eating disorders. This brief review summaries recent studies on sex differences in all motivated behaviors in social and non-social contexts, focusing on animal models. We also discuss the roles of gonadal hormones and the nonapeptides (nine amino acid peptides) in modulating sex differences in motivation. We propose that sex differences in the neural mechanisms mediating endogenous motivation for food, sex, partners and care of offspring underlie sex differences in all motivated behaviors.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T00:37:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.04.009
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2018)
  • Apathy in Alzheimer's disease
    • Authors: Lisa Nobis; Masud Husain
      Pages: 7 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): Lisa Nobis, Masud Husain
      Apathy is the most common neuropsychiatric symptom in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The presence of apathy has been related to greater caregiver distress, decreased quality of life, and increased morbidity. Here we review the most recent studies on this neuropsychiatric syndrome, focusing on prevalence, impact on quality of life, behavioural and neuroimaging studies, and treatment options. The results of some investigations on the behavioural and neuroanatomical profile of apathy in AD point to a role of frontostriatal circuits, specifically involving the anterior cingulate cortex. However, small and heterogeneous samples, lack of control for disease severity, and non-specific apathy scales complicate interpretation of results. Future studies might benefit from studying multiple dimensions of apathy within conceptual frameworks which allow for a deconstruction of underlying mechanisms.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • The neuroanatomical and neurochemical basis of apathy and impulsivity in
           frontotemporal lobar degeneration
    • Authors: L Passamonti; CJ Lansdall; JB Rowe
      Pages: 14 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): L Passamonti, CJ Lansdall, JB Rowe
      Apathy and impulsivity are common and often coexistent consequences of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). They increase patient morbidity and carer distress, but remain under-estimated and poorly treated. Recent trans-diagnostic approaches that span the spectrum of clinical presentations of FTLD and parkinsonism, indicate that apathy and impulsivity can be fractionated into multiple neuroanatomical and pharmacological systems. These include ventral/dorsal frontostriatal circuits for reward-sensitivity, response-inhibition, and decision-making; moderated by noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin. Improved assessment tools, formal models of cognition and behavior, combined with brain imaging and psychopharmacology, are creating new therapeutic targets and establishing principles for stratification in future clinical trials.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.12.015
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • Translational approaches to evaluating motivation in laboratory rodents:
           conventional and touchscreen-based procedures
    • Authors: Benjamin U Phillips; Laura Lopez-Cruz; Jonathan Hailwood; Christopher J Heath; Lisa M Saksida; Timothy J Bussey
      Pages: 21 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): Benjamin U Phillips, Laura Lopez-Cruz, Jonathan Hailwood, Christopher J Heath, Lisa M Saksida, Timothy J Bussey
      Several neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders are characterised by motivational impairments manifested as lack of behavioural activation or energy resulting in significant functional impairment. Given the clinical significance of these symptoms, the study of motivation in preclinical research has recently intensified. This review briefly summarises the tasks that have been implemented for the evaluation of motivation in different species, emphasising the recent use of touchscreen-based rodent testing systems. This methodology has been widely used in the evaluation of multiple cognitive domains emphasising their translational value and flexibility. Recently touchscreen-based versions of classical tasks for the evaluation of motivation have been or are currently being developed and validated, thus facilitating translation from animal to human research and promoting their implementation in clinical contexts.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.12.008
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • Dopamine and proximity in motivation and cognitive control
    • Authors: Andrew Westbrook; Michael Frank
      Pages: 28 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): Andrew Westbrook, Michael Frank
      Cognitive control—the ability to override a salient or prepotent action to execute a more deliberate one—is required for flexible, goal-directed behavior, and yet it is subjectively costly: decision-makers avoid allocating control resources, even when doing so affords more valuable outcomes. Dopamine likely offsets effort costs just as it does for physical effort. And yet, dopamine can also promote impulsive action, undermining control. We propose a novel hypothesis that reconciles opposing effects of dopamine on cognitive control: during action selection, striatal dopamine biases benefits relative to costs, but does so preferentially for ‘proximal’ motor and cognitive actions. Considering the nature of instrumental affordances and their dynamics during action selection facilitates a parsimonious interpretation and conserved corticostriatal mechanisms across physical and cognitive domains.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.12.011
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • Updating the role of dopamine in human motivation and apathy
    • Authors: Trevor T-J Chong
      Pages: 35 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): Trevor T-J Chong
      Apathy is a paradigmatic disorder of motivation, and is encountered across a breadth of neurological and psychiatric disease. Importantly, apathy is not a unitary symptom—rather, it is a syndrome comprising a constellation of impairments across multiple domains of behaviour. Recent work has focused on characterising the distinct neurophysiological mechanisms that give rise to clinical apathy. Although dopamine has long been known to have a central role in complex behaviour, current data indicate that its roles in the learning and valuation of effort and reward may underlie distinct subtypes of motivational impairment. A focus of future work will be to map the involvement of dopamine in motivated decision-making to separate domains of apathy. This will facilitate not only a greater understanding of the neurobiology of motivational disorders, but also the development of targeted, neurobiologically based treatments.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.12.010
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • Multidimensional apathy: evidence from neurodegenerative disease
    • Authors: Ratko Radakovic; Sharon Abrahams
      Pages: 42 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): Ratko Radakovic, Sharon Abrahams
      Apathy is a demotivation syndrome common in neurodegenerative diseases and is fundamentally multidimensional in nature. Different methodologies have been used to identify and quantify these dimensions, which has resulted in multifarious concepts, ranging in the number and characteristics of apathy subtypes. This has created an ambiguity over the fundamental substructure of apathy. Here we review the multidimensional concepts of apathy and demonstrate that overlapping elements exist, pointing towards commonalities in apathy subtypes. These can be subsumed under a unified Dimensional Apathy Framework: a triadic structure of Initiation, Executive and Emotional apathy. Distinct cognitive processes may underlie these domains, while self-awareness interplays with all subtypes. Evidence from neurodegenerative diseases supports this distinction with differing apathy profiles in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.12.022
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • When decisions talk: computational phenotyping of motivation disorders
    • Authors: Mathias Pessiglione; Raphaël Le Bouc; Fabien Vinckier
      Pages: 50 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): Mathias Pessiglione, Raphaël Le Bouc, Fabien Vinckier
      Clinical assessment of motivation disorders, such as apathy or compulsivity, is currently based on psychometric scales that do not provide any mechanistic insight susceptible to better target therapeutic intervention. Here, we expose a new approach that consists in phenotyping motivation states by fitting computational models to the behavioral responses made by patients in choice and/or learning tests. A computational phenotype is nothing but a set of fitted parameters that capture key motivational dimensions such as sensitivity to reward, punition, effort, delay and risk. These motivational dimensions have already been assessed in many neurological and psychiatric conditions, and related to clinical dimensions in a transnosographic manner. In some cases, computational phenotyping has also been applied to potential treatments, establishing correspondence with motivation disorders and hence opening a new avenue for personalized medicine. For instance, apathy related to reduced reward sensitivity might be better treated with dopaminergic than serotonergic medication.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.12.014
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • Current perspectives on incentive salience and applications to clinical
    • Authors: Jeffrey J Olney; Shelley M Warlow; Erin E Naffziger; Kent C Berridge
      Pages: 59 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): Jeffrey J Olney, Shelley M Warlow, Erin E Naffziger, Kent C Berridge
      Affective neuroscience research has revealed that reward contains separable components of ‘liking’, ‘wanting’, and learning. Here we focus on current ‘liking’ and ‘wanting’ findings and applications to clinical disorders. ‘Liking’ is the hedonic impact derived from a pleasant experience, and is amplified by opioid and related signals in discrete sites located in limbic-related brain areas. ‘Wanting’ refers to incentive salience, a motivation process for reward, and is mediated by larger systems involving mesocorticolimbic dopamine. Deficits in incentive salience may contribute to avolitional features of depression and related disorders, whereas deficits in hedonic impact may produce true anhedonia. Excesses in incentive salience, on the other hand, can lead to addiction, especially when narrowly focused on a particular target. Finally, a fearful form of motivational salience may even contribute to some paranoia symptoms of schizophrenia and related disorders.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • Effort-based decision-making paradigms as objective measures of apathy in
    • Authors: Matthias Hartmann-Riemer; Matthias Kirschner; Stefan Kaiser
      Pages: 70 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): Matthias Hartmann-Riemer, Matthias Kirschner, Stefan Kaiser
      In recent years, effort-based decision-making paradigms have been applied in patients with schizophrenia with the aim to establish a potentially ‘objective’ measure of apathy symptoms and shed light on underlying mechanisms. Initial studies have reported promising findings regarding symptom-level links to effort-based choice. However, a review of the recent and overall literature yields divergent findings. Published studies vary substantially in terms of clinical instruments and applied effort-based decision-making paradigms. This heterogeneity hampers comparability between studies and might partially explain divergent findings. A clear consensus on clinical assessment instruments and paradigms seems to be critical for further progress in the field.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • Comparative evidence for the importance of the amygdala in regulating
           reward salience
    • Authors: Christopher R Pryce
      Pages: 76 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): Christopher R Pryce
      Environmental stimuli and life events are often of emotional relevance to the individual. This is due to their recognition and processing by the brain's neural circuits for emotion. In terms of emotion valence, stimuli/events can be neutral (non-emotional), rewarding or aversive. In addition to its basic valence, the salience of an emotional stimulus, that is, how rewarding or how aversive it is, is also of critical importance. Quantitative changes in stimulus reward salience or aversion salience are likely to underlie some major symptoms in stress-related mental disorders. This includes low reward salience as the basis for diminished interest or pleasure in major depressive disorder (MDD) and for apathy (negative symptoms) in schizophrenia, and high aversion salience as the basis for depressed mood in MDD. Insight into the brain region(s) and cellular microcircuits wherein the saliences of reward and aversion stimuli are set is essential for understanding the neurobiology of emotion in health and mental disorders. Here I review the current evidence for the role of the amygdala in processing reward valence and salience, based on studies conducted in human, monkey and, in particular, rat and mouse. Human BOLD-fMRI studies demonstrate amygdala reactivity to reward and its reduction in MDD and schizophrenia. In monkey, some neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) are responsive to reward, aversion, or both. In rat, BLA reward neurons regulate excitation of nucleus accumbens (NAcc) neurons, whereas chronic stress increases intra-amygdala synaptic activity. In mouse, there are BLA glutamatergic principal reward neurons and aversion neurons. Based on this comparative evidence, this review concludes that the mammalian BLA reward neurons could constitute a major contributor to the neural circuitry of reward salience and a critical node in reward pathology.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.023
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • Overcoming apathy in frontotemporal dementia: challenges and future
    • Authors: Emma Johnson; Fiona Kumfor
      Pages: 82 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): Emma Johnson, Fiona Kumfor
      Apathy is a common symptom in frontotemporal dementia that is associated with functional decline and carer stress. Evidence suggests that apathy presents differently depending on patterns of brain atrophy, and emerges earlier and is more severe in behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia than in semantic dementia or progressive nonfluent aphasia. Previously, apathy was assessed as a unidimensional construct using informant report questionnaires. Recent theories, however, conceptualise apathy as a multidimensional construct manifesting with affective, behavioural and cognitive symptoms. Research has started to focus on developing more objective, multidimensional behavioural assessments of apathy to clarify the nature of apathy in frontotemporal dementia. This will facilitate development of better interventions to support optimal function in these syndromes.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.022
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • Inflammation-induced motivational changes: perspective gained by
           evaluating positive and negative valence systems
    • Authors: Elisabeth G Vichaya; Robert Dantzer
      Pages: 90 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): Elisabeth G Vichaya, Robert Dantzer
      Inflammation can profoundly impact motivated behavior, as is the case with inflammation-induced depression. By evaluating objectively measurable basic neurobehavioral processes involved in motivation, recent research indicates that inflammation generally reduces approach motivation and enhances avoidance motivation. Increased effort valuation largely mediates the effects of inflammation on approach motivation. Changes in reward valuation are not uniformly observed in approach motivation. However, inflammation increases the averseness of negative stimuli. Within the context of both approach and avoidance motivation, inflammation appears to enhance the contrast between concurrently presented stimuli. While changes in both approach and avoidance motivation appear to be mediated by midbrain dopaminergic neurotransmission to the ventral striatum, it is unclear if the enhanced contrast is mediated by the same system.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • Motivation for the greater good: neural mechanisms of overcoming costs
    • Authors: Alexander Soutschek; Philippe N Tobler
      Pages: 96 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): Alexander Soutschek, Philippe N Tobler
      To obtain greater goods decision makers often have to incur and endure costs. Here we review mechanisms that enhance the willingness to accept and overcome costs in individual and social settings. General, cost-invariant mechanisms involve controlling and reducing reward-related impulsivity, abstracting from personal and situational circumstances, changing the availability of options in the choice set, and reinterpreting aspects of the choice alternatives. These mechanisms are based on fronto-striatal and fronto-parietal networks for valuation and goal-setting. More specific, cost-variant mechanisms include effort endurance, imagining future events, tolerating risk, and empathy. These mechanisms rely on cost-specific brain mechanisms, as well as interactions with the valuation network in accordance with cost-variant changes in the valuation of the costly choice alternatives. We identify knowledge gaps, which are exacerbated by studies typically focusing only on one cost type. Moreover, many of the identified mechanisms of enduring costs provide largely untrodden paths for interventions to increase cost endurance in clinical and non-clinical domains.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.025
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • Brain mechanisms mediating effects of stress on reward sensitivity
    • Authors: Maria Ironside; Poornima Kumar; Min-Su Kang; Diego A Pizzagalli
      Pages: 106 - 113
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): Maria Ironside, Poornima Kumar, Min-Su Kang, Diego A Pizzagalli
      Acute and chronic stress have dissociable effects on reward sensitivity, and a better understanding of these effects promises to elucidate the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders, particularly depression. Recent preclinical and human findings suggest that stress particularly affects reward anticipation; chronic stress perturbates dopamine signaling in the medial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum; and such effects are further moderated by early adversities. Additionally, a systems-level approach is uncovering the interplay among striatal, limbic and control networks giving rise to stress-related, blunted reward sensitivity. Together, this cross-species confluence has not only enriched our understanding of stress-reward links but also highlighted the role of neuropeptides and opioid receptors in such effects, and thereby identified novel targets for stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.016
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • Neurobiology and pharmacology of activational and effort-related aspects
           of motivation: rodent studies
    • Authors: John D Salamone; Mercè Correa
      Pages: 114 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): John D Salamone, Mercè Correa
      Behavioral activation and exertion of effort are fundamental aspects of motivation. Exertion of effort enables organisms to overcome obstacles that separate them from significant stimuli. Moreover, organisms must frequently make effort-related decisions involving assessments of the relative benefits of available stimuli versus the costs of obtaining them. Effort-based decision making is studied using tasks that offer choices between high effort options leading to more highly valued reinforcers versus low effort/low reward options. These tasks have been used to study the involvement of neural systems, including mesolimbic dopamine and related circuits, in effort-related aspects of motivation. Recently, this research has led to the development of rodent pharmacological models of motivational symptoms that are seen in people with various psychiatric and neurological disorders.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.026
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • Chemical neuromodulation of cognitive control avoidance
    • Authors: Monja I Froböse; Roshan Cools
      Pages: 121 - 127
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): Monja I Froböse, Roshan Cools
      Why do we so often fail to exert cognitive control, even though we are in principle able to do so' In this review, we begin to address this question by considering the contribution of the major ascending neuromodulators that are often implicated in cognitive control and motivation, in particular dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin. Accumulating evidence indicates that cognitive control is subjectively costly and people generally choose to refrain from mentally effortful tasks, despite, at times, devastating consequences. This tendency to avoid cognitive control tasks has been shown to be sensitive to catecholaminergic interventions in rodents and humans, where choices about cognitive control can be altered even in the absence of performance changes. Such effects might reflect modulation by dopamine and/or noradrenaline of a variety of mechanisms that contribute to our motivation for cognitive control. These likely include the calculation and integration into behavior of both the expected value (i.e. cost vs benefit), as well as outcome uncertainty of exerting cognitive control. In addition, serotonin might impact cognitive control avoidance by modulating specifically the computation of effort costs. Advancing our understanding of the distinct roles of the various chemical neuromodulators will help elucidate the computational mechanisms that contribute to our tendency to avoid difficult cognitive tasks.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.027
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • Anhedonia in depression: biological mechanisms and computational models
    • Authors: Jessica A Cooper; Amanda R Arulpragasam; Michael T Treadway
      Pages: 128 - 135
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): Jessica A Cooper, Amanda R Arulpragasam, Michael T Treadway
      Anhedonia is a severe condition that describes a near-complete absence of enjoyment, motivation, and interest. A core feature of depression, clinical manifestations of anhedonia can include deficits in experiencing pleasure, approach-related motivated behavior, and learning how to match expectations to the environment. To date, the precise neurobiological mechanisms of anhedonia in major depression are still poorly understood. We have previously argued that contradictory findings and the inability to identify specific neurobiological substrates for anhedonic symptoms may result from sample heterogeneity, suboptimal methods of assessment, and the challenge of dissociating between different components of anhedonia. Recently, however, computational advances to the operationalization of psychiatric symptoms have enhanced the ability to evaluate the neurobiology of constituent elements of this symptom domain. In this paper, we review (1) advances in behavioral and computational methods of assessing reward processing and motivation and (2) the development of new self-report, neurological, and biological methods of subtyping that may be useful in future pursuits to expand our understanding of the neurobiology of anhedonia in depression.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.024
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • Neanderthal language revisited: not only us
    • Authors: Dan Dediu; Stephen C Levinson
      Pages: 49 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 21
      Author(s): Dan Dediu, Stephen C Levinson
      Here we re-evaluate our 2013 paper on the antiquity of language (Dediu and Levinson, 2013) in the light of a surge of new information on human evolution in the last half million years. Although new genetic data suggest the existence of some cognitive differences between Neanderthals and modern humans—fully expected after hundreds of thousands of years of partially separate evolution, overall our claims that Neanderthals were fully articulate beings and that language evolution was gradual are further substantiated by the wealth of new genetic, paleontological and archeological evidence briefly reviewed here.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T00:37:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2018)
  • What animals can teach us about human language: the phonological
           continuity hypothesis
    • Authors: W Tecumseh Fitch
      Pages: 68 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 21
      Author(s): W Tecumseh Fitch
      Progress in linking between the disparate levels of cognitive description and neural implementation requires explicit, testable, computationally based hypotheses. One such hypothesis is the dendrophilia hypothesis, which suggests that human syntactic abilities rely on our supra-regular computational abilities, implemented via an auxiliary memory store (a ‘stack’) centred on Broca's region via its connections with other cortical areas. Because linguistic phonology requires less powerful computational abilities than this, at the finite-state level, I suggest that there may be continuity between animal rule learning and human phonology, and that the circuits underlying this provided the precursors of our unusual syntactic abilities.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T07:36:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.014
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2018)
  • Non-adjacent auditory sequence learning across development and primate
    • Authors: Jutta L Mueller; Alice Milne; Claudia Männel
      Pages: 112 - 119
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 21
      Author(s): Jutta L Mueller, Alice Milne, Claudia Männel
      The ability to process structured sequences of sounds lies at the basis of human language processing. Language is characterized by a high level of structural complexity including non-adjacent dependencies where the relationships between elements can span multiple intervening elements. Understanding how such structures can be learned is of particular interest for understanding how language develops and how it evolved. In recent years advances have been made in identifying the constraints and conditions under which non-adjacent dependencies can be learned across development and different species. Yet, in humans, online and offline methods suggest markedly different developmental timelines. Notably, human infants seem to outperform adults in online learning during mere exposure. Comparative studies with non-human primates reveal the auditory sequence learning capacities and limitations of our close phylogenetic relatives. Initial findings suggest that primates show similar learning abilities to human infants revealing an evolutionary preserved computational ability to automatically extract non-adjacent relations from auditory sequences. The pattern found across ontogeny and phylogeny is consistent with the idea that language evolution was in part enabled by powerful auditory sequencing abilities. These abilities were potentially boosted in humans by improvements in higher-order cognitive abilities that allowed us to link sequential patterns to abstract semantic and syntactic representations.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T07:36:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2018)
  • The evolution of FOXP2 in the light of admixture
    • Authors: Martin Kuhlwilm
      Pages: 120 - 126
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 21
      Author(s): Martin Kuhlwilm
      Evolutionary changes in the genomic region of FOXP2 have been studied extensively. The functional consequences of changes in this gene—and larger networks in which it is embedded—might have contributed to human-specific cognitive and behavioral traits. Although humans and extinct archaic lineages share protein-altering changes in FOXP2 since the split from chimpanzees, other subsequent human-specific single nucleotide changes might have facilitated recent modern human traits. Recently, high-coverage genomes of archaic individuals allowed an assessment of the distribution of archaic hominin ancestry after their admixture with humans, revealing parts of the genome that are depleted for introgressed genetic material. One of the largest deserts of admixture encompasses FOXP2, suggesting incompatibilities between modern humans and other Homo lineages due to functional differences. No such desert is found around FOXP2 in other admixture events.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T00:37:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.04.006
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2018)
  • Is language natural to man' Some historical considerations
    • Authors: Willem JM Levelt
      Pages: 127 - 131
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 21
      Author(s): Willem JM Levelt
      Since the Enlightenment period, natural theories of speech and language evolution have florished in the language sciences. Four ever returning core issues are highlighted in this paper: Firstly, Is language natural to man or just an invention' Secondly, Is language a specific human ability (a ‘language instinct’) or does it arise from general cognitive capacities we share with other animals' Thirdly, Has the evolution of language been a gradual process or did it rather suddenly arise, due to some ‘evolutionary twist’' Lastly, Is the child's language acquisition an appropriate model for language evolution'

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T00:37:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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