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HEALTH AND SAFETY (524 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 217)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Healthy-Mu Journal     Open Access  
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2394-6032 - ISSN (Online) 2394-6040
   Published by Medip Academy Homepage  [12 journals]
  • Positive youth development programs for mental health promotion in Indian
           youth: an underutilized pathway

    • Authors: Noufal Hameed, Seema Mehrotra
      Pages: 3488 - 3495
      Abstract: There is an unprecedented growth in the young population worldwide and especially in India and mental health of youth is an area of growing concern. The scope of convergence of the fields of positive youth development and mental health promotion among youth is becoming evident in the recent times. The paper aims to provide a brief overview of the field of PYD research in India and come up with implications for utilizing this framework for youth mental health promotion. A rapid review was carried out to examine Indian research on positive youth development and its relevance for mental health promotion through youth engagement. Two sets of key words, ‘Positive youth development’ and ‘India’ were jointly used as search words. The search was carried out in the month of April 2017, using EBSCO and ProQuest and MedIND as the electronic databases, with no restriction in the time-period of the published studies. A supplementary search of titles using Google search engine was done with eight Indian journals and one database for the period from 2010 till date. The search indicated significant paucity of Indian literature on positive youth development. A total of 24 articles were identified. Nine studies were retained of which six were non-intervention and three were intervention studies. The review suggests that PYD programs and PYD based mental health promotion programs are in a nascent stage in India with a dearth of published literature on the same. Implications for youth mental health promotion are highlighted. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Breakfast habits and its relationship to body mass index and cognitive
           function among final year medical students

    • Authors: Guwani Liyanage, H. D. Siriwardana, C. A. Wettasinghe, M. K. H. N. Kumarasiri, T. K. I. Niwanthika
      Pages: 3496 - 3500
      Abstract: Background: Balanced and healthy nutrition is needed in order to avert adverse effects of poor eating practices. Children and adults often miss breakfast due to many reasons including lack of time. Evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is more beneficial than skipping breakfast following a long overnight fast. Its effect on cognitive function is still under debate. Our aim was to conduct a preliminary study to investigate breakfast habits and its effect of certain aspects of cognition in medical students in a university in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Methods: This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study. We assessed breakfast eating practices of final year medical students. Self-administered and questionnaire and trail making test for visual attention, task switching, speed of processing, and executive functioning were used as study instruments. Results: Results of 121 students were analysed. 55.4% skipped breakfast at least a day. Of them, 21% had their breakfast ≤3 days a week. Majority consumes a local meal based on rice or wheat flour. Commonest reason for missing the morning meal was lack of time (n=53, 79.1%). There was no significant difference was found in mean BMI and trail making score between breakfast skippers and non-skippers. Conclusions: Skipping breakfast among final year medical students is common. Lack of time due to busy schedules is highlighted as a possible reason for this. Skipping breakfast did not affect some aspects of cognition and body mass index significantly. A more comprehensive case control study among medical students, exploring neuro cognitive function related to breakfast habits is worthwhile.  
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • HIV/AIDS occupational exposure and integrative care; knowledge, attitude,
           and skills of healthcare workers in Gansu Province, China

    • Authors: Leela S. Mundra, Sadaf Aslam, Juxia Zhang, Han Lin, Peng Xu, Jamie Morano
      Pages: 3501 - 3510
      Abstract: Background: For HIV infected patients, distinct infectious disease hospitals currently exist in China, therefore, attitudes promoting separation within health care settings persist both in healthcare workers and community. The misinformation and fear of infection negatively affect Health Care Workers, (HCWs) attitudes towards caring for patients with HIV. However, the level of knowledge, attitudes, and skills (KAS) towards occupational exposure to HIV and post-exposure standards of care are unknown in Gansu, China. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and skills of health care workers regarding HIV occupational exposure and treatment. We analyzed findings in a total of 324 HCWs through a self-reported questionnaire. Results: HCWs with a higher than average KAS composite score compared to HCWs with a lower KAS score were more likely to be working clinically (p=0.0023), and had completed a university degree or above (p=0.0370). The univariate analysis model also showed additional factors that HCWs having a higher KAS composite score were significantly associated with being a physician (OR 9.22; p=0.045) and receiving formal infection control training (OR 4.20; p<0.0001). Conclusions: Our study provides considerable information on occupational exposure regarding HIV/AIDS in Gansu Province of China. A continuous education is necessary to increase the level of knowledge, attitude and skills of HCWs about the risk of infection at the workplace. With the adoption of standardized occupational exposure protocols and infection control programs, we should be able to reduce barriers of HIV care into general hospital facilities which in turn can modify their attitudes. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Exploring patients satisfaction after the implementation of an electronic
           medical record system at Al-Wakrah primary health center, Qatar, 2016

    • Authors: Ayman F. Al-Dahshan, Noura Al-Kubaisi, Mohamed Abdel Halim Chehab, Nour Al-Hanafi
      Pages: 3511 - 3516
      Abstract: Background: The healthcare industry has focused much attention on patient satisfaction with the quality of healthcare services. However, there remains a lack of research on patient satisfaction towards the implementation of an electronic medical record system at a primary healthcare setting. This study aimed at assessing the level of patient satisfaction regarding primary health care services after the implementation of an electronic medical record (EMR) system. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the Al-Wakrah health care center, with a random/convenient sample of 52 patients attending the center. Furthermore, the investigators interviewed the participants, in the waiting area, regarding their satisfaction with the primary health care services provided following the EMR system implementation. A structured interview-based questionnaire for measuring patient satisfaction was employed. Results: The vast majority of participants indicated that the overall service at the health center greatly improved after EMR implementation. Furthermore, most interviewees were totally satisfied with the overall workflow at the health care center such as the time spent at the registration desk (76.9%), before seeing a physician (65.4%), while the physician used the computer (76.9%), physical examination (69.3%), laboratory testing (73.1%), and collecting the medication (65.4%). Regarding health education and informativeness, the participants found that labeling medication bottles was quite informative. However, less than two-thirds (61.5%) of the patients were satisfied with the health education delivered by physicians. Conclusions: The results revealed that although overall patient satisfaction was relatively high, certain aspects of the health care service remained to be a source of dissatisfaction. Thus, this study demonstrated patient acceptance and support for the electronic medical record system at the primary health care setting. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Patterns of eating associated with the chronic diseases in Al-Ahsa, Saudi

    • Authors: Hassan Ali Al Sayegh, Abdulaziz Adel Al Qurini, Abdul Sattar Khan, Sayed Ibrahim
      Pages: 3517 - 3523
      Abstract: Background: There is increase in the limitation of daily activity of people with chronic diseases. This may be due to multiple factors one of them is the nature of the lifestyle for instance, patterns of eating that the person is following. It is important to sum the dietary behaviors in specific population to see how much is it associated with chronic diseases. Specially, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and sickle cell disease which are endemic diseases in Al-Ahsa. Moreover, no studies have been conducted in this area before. It is known that there is increased obesity, cardiovascular and diabetes prevalence in Al-Ahsa. The study aims to see the association between chronic diseases and eating patterns. Methods: Cross sectional study, self-reported questionnaire distributed to the population under supervision of the data collectors in Al-Ahsa, during the summer of 2017. Results: The most prevalent chronic disease is obesity. Then comes hypertension and G6PD. Obesity showed most association with other chronic diseases. Also, eating frozen canned food show associations with obesity, hypertension, G6PD and diabetes. Conclusions: We concluded that there are certain eating behaviors influences some chronic diseases; there should be a focus on these behaviors to prevent the occurrence of these chronic diseases, especially metabolic diseases. Obesity is the primary concern which may facilitate the developing of hypertension, asthma, diabetes, high cholesterol, G6PD, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, diabetes, sickle cell disease and cardiovascular events. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • The prevalence of falls and its associated factors among elderly living in
           old folks home in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    • Authors: Hasanain Faisal Ghazi, Maged Elnajeh, Mohammed A. Abdalqader, Mohammed Faez Baobaid, Nur Shazatul Rahimah Rosli, Nurismansyah Syahiman
      Pages: 3524 - 3529
      Abstract: Background: Falls are common among the geriatric population, causing frequent morbidity and mortality. Identifying risk of falls among elderly living in old folks home can help in the care and prevention of falls in this population. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the prevalence of falls among elderly living in old folks home and its associated factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 50 elderly living in old folks home in Kuala Lumpur was selected by convenient sampling. History of falls revealed by participants, assisted questionnaires that consist of socio-demographic details and prevalence of falls within 6 months period were given. The association between the prevalence of falls and its associated factors were assessed by using chi-square test. Results: The prevalence of falls among the respondents was 30%, but there were no significant association between the socio demographic and prevalence of falls. There were also no associations between activity of daily living, number of comorbidities, number of medication with falls. Conclusions: Falls represent one of the public health problems among elderly living in old folks home in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia with 30% prevalence of falls among the respondent. Our findings may assist public health authorities to implement programs of awareness and all prevention among elderly. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Determinants of comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS among women of the
           reproductive age (15-49) in Uganda

    • Authors: Diana Ankunda, John Bosco Asiimwe
      Pages: 3530 - 3535
      Abstract: Background: Globally, HIV is the leading cause of death among women of the reproductive age and unprotected sex is the main driver of HIV transmission. Lack of accurate and complete knowledge is one of the major causes of increase in the number of new HIV infections among women in Africa. This study was aimed at finding out factors associated with comprehensive knowledge among women in the reproductive age group of 15-49 years in Uganda. Methods: Data used was drawn from 2011 Uganda Demographic Health Survey (UDHS). Logistic regression model was used for analysis. Results: Only (38%) of the respondents had comprehensive knowledge of HIV. Women in lower wealth quintile had less comprehensive knowledge compared to those in the highest quintile (OR=1.28). The study also found out that the older women aged 45-49 were more knowledgeable to HIV (OR=1.46) than young ones. Women who had access to radio were associated with increased odds (OR=1.11) of high knowledge on HIV than those without. High knowledge to HIV was also associated with women who had ever tested for HIV (OR=1.20) and also increased with level of education (OR=1.63 for primary and OR=3.6 for secondary). Conclusions: Factors associated with comprehensive knowledge on HIV include: age of the woman, residence, education level, access to information and HIV response to testing. Programs designed should target young women below 19 years of age, rural women, poor women and uneducated women. Increasing campaigns to encourage more women to have HIV tests and messages using radios will increase comprehensive knowledge. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Perceptions and practices of oral rehydration therapy among caregivers in
           Cork, Ireland

    • Authors: Kene E. Maduemem, Muhammad Rizwan, Nnaemeka Akubue, Ioana D. Maris
      Pages: 3536 - 3541
      Abstract: Background: The use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) remains limited despite international guidelines for diarrhoeal disease management. This study was done to assess the perception and practice of ORT among caregivers in the management of diarrhoeal disease. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in the Paediatric Department of Cork University Hospital, Ireland. The study population consisted of parents/guardians of children attending the Paediatric Day Ward or Paediatric Outpatient Department. A questionnaire consisting of 30 questions was originally designed by the first author to include all the study variables, and was given to the participants. Results: Out of 402 respondents, 76.6% (n=308) could describe diarrhoea correctly and perceived it as a serious illness. 81.3% (n=327) of participants knew about ORT but only 27.2% (n=89) agreed it was an ideal first line of management of diarrhoeal disease. Diarrhoeal episodes in the preceding 12 months were reported predominantly in children under the age of 5 years (p<0.001). Only 8.7% (n=17) of caregivers used ORT for diarrhoeal management. Conclusions: Poor uptake of ORT appears to be due to caregivers’ negative perceptions of ORT. This emphasizes the need for correct and adequate education. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Customers’ satisfaction of the occupational therapy services in

    • Authors: Thelma Marwa, Kabwebwe Honore Mitonga, Kathe Hofnie-//Hoebes
      Pages: 3542 - 3549
      Abstract: Background: Patients’ satisfaction is important in healthcare services. It can be an indicator of quality of services in a hospital. The study aims to determine the customers’ satisfaction of the Occupational Therapy Services at Katutura State Hospital in Windhoek. Methods: The research design was a mixed approach - quantitative and qualitative. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data. The statistical package for the social sciences software version 23 was used to analyse data. Results: Results of the study showed that occupational therapy patients at Katutura State Hospital are satisfied with the quality of service. However, the service was not superior. Perceived quality mean of the service was 5.51 while the desired quality of service was 9.45. Out of the three dimensions; quality of care, physical environment and occupational therapy services, patients were mostly satisfied with quality of care with the adequacy mean of 1.02 and least satisfied with the physical environment which had an adequacy mean of 0.31. Patients were not satisfied with the cleanliness, ventilation, privacy, lighting, waiting time, consent before treatment and follow up of patients. Conclusions: The study shows that the occupational therapy patients at Katutura State Hospital are slightly satisfied with the services although there are some other factors they are dissatisfied with. The occupational therapy department is recommended to develop consent forms, improve on waiting time and keeping appointments. The physical environment also needs to be improved in order to increase the patients` satisfaction rate. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Correlates of peak expiratory flow rate and deriving the prediction
           equation in school going children of Lucknow

    • Authors: Shetanshu Srivastava, Divyanshu Agarwal
      Pages: 3550 - 3553
      Abstract: Background: Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) is an essential measure in the monitoring and evaluation of airway obstruction in asthmatic children. Studies on PEFR in children are limited. The objectives of the study were to evaluate PEFR in healthy school going children and its correlation with age, weight, height and Body Surface Area and to derive their prediction equations.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 1200 healthy school children age group of 5-15 years after approval from the institutional Ethical committee. All the analysis was carried out by using SPSS version 16.0. Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to find the correlation between PEFR and anthropometric parameters among boys and girls. Results: PEFR was higher in boys than girls among all age groups except for 5 years of age. PEFR prediction equations were obtained both for boys and girls using multiple regression equations. For boys: 4.21* age in years2+0.68* height in cms – 2.48* weight in kg +322.85* BSA3 – 137.88 and for girls: 10.64* age in years1 +0.25* height in cms +0.09* weight in kg + 99.44* BSA -22.41 (1p=0.0001, 2p=0.001, 3p=0.007). Conclusions: We developed PEFR prediction equations in children using weight, height, and body surface area. This would be helpful in evaluation of children with airway diseases.  
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Measurement of bone mineral density in stable COPD patients using
           ultrasound densitometry: prevention is better than cure

    • Authors: M. Arif Ali, Vijay Tukaram Salve
      Pages: 3554 - 3560
      Abstract: Background: COPD is a multisystem disorder and three or more comorbidities are associated with poor prognosis. Osteoporosis is one of the major comorbidity and is associated with an impact on the primary dysfunction in COPD. Bone Mineral density measures strength of the skeletal system and ultrasound based BMD measurement is a cheap, cost effective intervention which is also free from ionizing radiation. Ultrasound densitometer BMD measurement can be utilized for screening of osteoporosis in COPD patients. Methods: 50 stable COPD (diagnosed as per GOLD guideline) patients attending a post graduate institute in Mumbai were enrolled for the study and bone mineral density was measured using ultrasonography BMD scan of calcaneum. Results: Among 50 enrolled COPD patients, 27 (54%) patients had osteopenia and 14 (28%) were osteoporotic.9 (64.3%) female and 18 (50%) male COPD patients had osteopenia. 4 (28.6%) females and 10 (27.8%) males were osteoporotic. Conclusions: Considering the additional burden of osteoporosis on management of COPD, it is advisable to measure BMD to formulate strategies to prevent fractures in COPD patients.  
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Hypertension: prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in a rural area
           of North Kerala, India

    • Authors: Suma R. K., Mayamol T. R., Binoo Divakaran, Usha Karunakaran, Jayasree A. K.
      Pages: 3561 - 3567
      Abstract: Background: High blood pressure is prevalent all over the world and is one of the major causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In considerable proportion of cases the disease tends to be asymptomatic for prolonged time, hence also labelled as “silent killer”. Awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension remain major challenges worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in Northern Kerala. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study among 687 subjects aged ≥20 years was conducted from March 2017 to July 2017. Data was collected by personal interviews, followed by anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on Joint National Committee (JNC) VIII guidelines. Results: The prevalence of hypertension (JNC VIII) was 48.2% with a 95% confidence interval ranging from 44.46% to 51.94%. Prevalence among males: 58.1% and females: 44.5%. Among the total hypertensives, 38.7% were aware. Of these, 94.5% taking treatment, 47.1% achieved adequate blood pressure control. Advancing age, current diabetic status, body mass index, and family history of hypertension were identified as risk factors for hypertension by multivariate logistic regression. Conclusions: High prevalence of hypertension was observed in the population. The low levels of awareness and control underscores the large gap between evidence and practice that needs to be bridged, for effective control of hypertension. This calls for plan to adopt preventive and control strategies and promote the health of the population. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Knowledge and attitude about reproductive and sexual health among higher
           secondary school students in a taluk of Tamil Nadu

    • Authors: Deivasigamani Kuberan, Rajan Rushender, G. Dinesh Kumar
      Pages: 3568 - 3575
      Abstract: Background: Many adolescents in higher secondary schools, who become sexually active, do so without accurate information about reproductive and sexual health. This lack of information can put them at risk of unplanned pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among 464 secondary school going adolescent students of Chengalpattu Taluk using a structured self-administered questionnaire comprising questions to assess the knowledge on reproduction, contraception and HIV/STD and the attitude on sexual risk behaviour. The data was analysed using MS excel and SPSS. Descriptive statistics such as rate, ratio and proportions were calculated. Results: The average level of knowledge on reproduction, contraception and STD/HIV was 38.5%, 34.75% and 45.5% respectively. Only 18% gave correct response to questions “there is problem if a girl does not get period 14 years” and “it is dangerous to have intercourse during a girl’s period”. Majority of 80% knew pregnancy happens when sperm fertilizes ovum and 80.6% gave incorrect answer to question that “letting semen drip out of the female organ after sex prevents pregnancy”. Almost 50% were ignorant that it is possible to have more than one STD. As many as 42.5% agreed about having sex with several people for their age. Only 52% agreed to use condom if sexually active. 56.2% disagreed to popularity of boy or girl who has sexual intercourse. Conclusions: The students lack correct information about sexuality issues in general which could be due to insufficient sexual education by schools and parents. Hence it becomes essential to include reproductive and sex education programs in all higher secondary schools.  
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Rapid assessment of safe injection practice in a tertiary care hospital of
           Eastern India

    • Authors: Sadhu Charan Panda
      Pages: 3576 - 3581
      Abstract: Background: Unsafe injection practice is harmful to the patients, providers and community especially in a tertiary care hospital. On this backdrop, a rapid assessment of injection practice has been conducted with aim of identifying determinants and indicators of safe injection practice. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 20 providers, 20 prescribers, 100 prescriptions and 120 general population by convenient sampling as per WHO from November 2016 to April 2017 in the hospital of VSS Institute of Medical Sciences & Research, Burla using interview, observation method and analysis of prescriptions. Results: Knowledge about possibility of transmission of HCV due to unsafe injection practice was 80% among providers and 40% among general population. All providers were using sterile syringe and needle though 60% of them were seen not using gloves in case IV Injection/blood transfusion and needle recapping was done by half of them 100 per cent of injection providers reported that they have access to a sharps waste disposal facility. Needle recapping was done by half of them. OT8 indicator was 26.7(%). Average number of injections per person based on the population data was 1 injection per annum. Conclusions: Unsafe injection practice has to be tackled by CME among prescribers about rationale use of injections, antibiotics from essential drug list, regular supply of equipment and hub cutter and education of providers and people about injection safety will prevent avoidable communicable diseases. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • A study on the prevalence of dental caries among the school-going children
           in Tamil Nadu

    • Authors: Gomathy Parasuraman, Y. Gowtham Krishna, M. Kaviya, Nischal A. Jain, Prashanth Rajendran, Ruma Dutta
      Pages: 3582 - 3589
      Abstract: Background: Dental caries is an important social problem in India and is predominantly a disease of childhood. The prevalence and incidence of dental caries is influenced by various socio–demographic factors like age, sex, ethnic groups, dietary patterns and oral hygiene habits. The objective of the study were to estimate the prevalence of dental caries among the school going children aged between 5–10 years and to determine the risk factors associated with dental caries.Methods: A population based cross–sectional study was conducted among the primary school going children in Thirumazhisai from February 2016 to July 2016. Simple random sampling technique was employed and 357 children were identified for the study. Descriptive statistics was calculated for background variables and association between the risk factors and evidence of dental caries was analyzed by tests of proportions and chi square test was used as a statistical test of significance. Results: The overall prevalence of dental caries was found to be 63.9%. Higher prevalence of dental caries was found among the girls (54%), among the lower socioeconomic class (41.7%), among those who consumed mixed diet (74.8%), among those who consumed junk foods (62.6%) at least once every day and among those who consumed dairy products (58.9%) at least once every day. Dental caries was found to be low in prevalence among those who consumed fruits several times a week (6.1%), among those who brushed their teeth twice/more than twice a day (20.2%) and among those who washed their mouth after each meal (38.7%). Conclusions: Lack of awareness, improper dietary habits and poor oral hygienic practices are seemingly the contributing factors for the development of dental caries. Dental caries is a preventable disease which can be alleviated by creating community awareness through health education activities. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Awareness and screening practices of cervical cancer among nursing staff
           working in tertiary care hospital

    • Authors: Swati M. Mahajan, Vijaykumar S. Jadhav, Anwaya R. Magare, Sangita A. Adchitre, Sobha B. Salve
      Pages: 3590 - 3595
      Abstract: Background: In India there are an estimated of 1,32,000 new cases and 74,000 deaths each year of cervical cancer. Out of all the female genital tract cancers, it is the only pre­ventable cancer if detected at its early stages. More than one fifth of all new cases are diagnosed in India due to a lack of screening that allows detection of precancerous and early stage cervical cancer. Staff nurses if trained properly, can make aware and screen all the women coming to detect suspicious cases. The present study was carried to assess knowledge regarding cervical cancer, screening procedures and attitude and practices regarding prevention and screening of cervical cancer among nursing staff.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among the nursing staff between March to June 2016. A total of 215 nursing staff was enrolled in the study.Results: Majority 75 (34.88%) of the participants were from 41-50 years of age and 147 (67.90%) were married. The majority of the participants received information about cervical cancer and screening from hospital 135 (71.05%) and 40 (21.05%) from the newspaper. Majority of females 68 (35.78%) said HPV infection as major risk factor for cervical cancer. Majority of the females 125 (65.78%) mentioned that discharge p/v is the main symptom. Majority of the participants 66 (38.82%) replied that married Women and sexually active 54 (31.76%) women must be screened.Conclusions: It can be concluded that presently the knowledge and understanding of cervical cancer, as well as its screening process, is satisfactory, but there is a vast scope for improvement. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Role of tertiary care institutions for preventive activities for positive
           health: an exploratory study among defence and civilian health care
           facilities of Bangalore

    • Authors: Subodh M. R., Narendranath V., Nanda Kumar B. S.
      Pages: 3596 - 3600
      Abstract: Background: Health sector in India is facing several challenges. These can be attributed to population, poverty, illiteracy, poor social indices, poor patient to hospital ratio and inadequate government spending. Preventive activities for positive health by the various tertiary care institutions play a crucial role in mitigating some of the problems. The study was undertaken to assess the preventive services for positive health among tertiary care institutions of defence and civilian HCFs in Bangalore. Methods: Study was conducted by interacting with the key respondents of defence, government and private tertiary care hospitals. Using structured checklist, activities pertaining to preventive services promoting positive health was assessed. Results: Study shows that preventive health activities are being undertaken in all the sectors. There is varying degrees of effectiveness of implementation of the programs. Defence sector has maximised the service delivery and coverage, while Government sector delivers the preventive services through its outreach and national program implementation drive. In case of Private sector, though the focus is largely on curative care, preventive health services are being undertaken in a fragmented manner. Conclusions: Preventive activities for positive health can be optimally utilized and implemented by having coordination and cross-sectorial linkages of services. All the teaching hospitals and government hospitals may undertake these programs in a more systematic manner. Sharing of experiences and research between sectors in optimum provision of preventive services, may help in curtailing the increasingly expensive healthcare costs and improve the health of the communities. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • A trinidadian cardiovascular medication adherence survey: the ADHERE TNT

    • Authors: Naveen Seecheran, Neval Nandlal, Sushanta Nankissoon, Cherisse Nancoo, Caniecea Nelson, Austell Nkemakolam, Nadine Noel, Kwame Olivers, Ryan Parasram, Mario Rodriguez, Rajeev Seecheran, Valmiki Seecheran, Sangeeta Persad, Rudiger Ramlal, Aarti Maharaj, Brent Boodhai, Koomatie Ramsaroop, Shastri Motilal
      Pages: 3601 - 3606
      Abstract: Background: This study aims to quantitatively estimate the level of cardiovascular medication adherence in Trinidad’s public health sector and to determine any correlating factors. The study was of a descriptive, cross-sectional design which was performed at a cardiology outpatient clinic located at a northern-central public health care tertiary hospital in Trinidad during the period November 2016 to June 2017. Methods: 595 persons in total were asked to participate, of whom, 535 agreed. Patients that were younger under the age of 18 years and those that declined participation were excluded from the study. Primary endpoints were the percentages of low, medium and high cardiovascular medication adherence. Secondary endpoints were the comorbidity prevalence rates and prevalence of cardiovascular medications prescribed to patients. Results: In total, 595 individuals were asked to participate in the study; of whom, 535 agreed with a resultant 90% response rate. The mean age of the sample population was 63.5 years. Approximately half of the respondents were females and over 75% had only primary and secondary level of education combined as well as a monthly income of <$5,000 Trinidad and Tobago dollars (TTD). Almost 75% of study participants had low and medium adherence levels, and conversely a little more than one-quarter had high adherence levels. There were no significant associations between adherence and any other demographic factor, however there was near-significance with respect to adherence and level of education (p= 0.061). Conclusions: Patients generally displayed a limited level of cardiovascular medication adherence which is likely to translate into a higher rate of cardiovascular events with their potentially devastating sequalae. This study underscores the imperative need of implementing comprehensive interventions to accentuate cardiovascular medication adherence in Trinidad and Tobago. Further comparable studies with reference national data are required to validate these findings. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Seeking for ‘Self-Help’: Cross Cultural Dialogue with Sarvodaya Sri
           Lanka and Salvation Centre Cambodia

    • Authors: Taizo Yokoyama, Vinya Ariyaratne, Ven Som Chea
      Pages: 3607 - 3613
      Abstract: Background: The term ‘Self-Help’ has been attracting the attention of scholars across the globe,invested in sustainable-development especially after the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were established by the United Nations in 2016. In this study, a joint discussion between NGOs from two nations, Sri Lanka and Cambodia was conducted to look into the successful factors in Self-Help development and the current challenges in both nations. Methods: In addition to literature reviews for theoretical discussion, the research sets the international dialogue in 23th May 2017 between Sarvodaya Sri Lanka and Salvation Centre Cambodia (n=7). The author also visited the local offices of Sarvodaya in Trincomalie and Batincaloa districts in Sri Lanka and interviewed the local officers (n=10) in addition to JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) volunteers (n=2) who work in a field of community welfare. In each district, five villagers (n=10) selected via snow ball sampling were also interviewed. Results: Self-Help starts from spiritual awareness, which leads to collective thinking and community practice. It is a crucial process to bring about change in a community through self-determination. Sarvodaya Sri Lanka has maintained its philosophy for decades and this implication provides an important perspective for the current challenges in Cambodia. The lessons learned from Sarvodaya punctuate ‘collective thinking’ and ‘integrated idea’ in implementing a holistic approach, recognized as strong impacts for Self-Help development. Conclusions: Being the key factor for sustainable development through Self-Help effort, collective thinking to define the issues is perceived to play a critical role in promoting integrated/holistic development. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Empowering the future mothers: a bottom up approach

    • Authors: Shaili Vyas, Pradeep Aggarwal, Sadhna Singh, Deepshikha ., Rakesh Kakkar, S. D. Kandpal
      Pages: 3614 - 3618
      Abstract: Background: In India, marriage at an early age is still common and unfortunately any institution does not provide any education either regarding safe maternal health and infant care. The first two years of child are very crucial for infant development and it is quite evident that the well-being and nutrition of the child and his or her future is totally dependent upon the knowledge of the mother that she has about child care. The aim of the study was to evaluate the awareness of breastfeeding amongst young female students from three different teaching institutions i.e. school, nursing and medical and to evaluate the influence of educational intervention on them.Methods: Dehradun has total 6 blocks of which 1 block was selected randomly i.e. CBD Doiwala. For selection of school, one school was randomly selected from the list of schools under CBD Doiwala. Out of 75 schools going young females 71 participated in the study. 66 Students each of 3rd Year Nursing and 3rd Year MBBS students of HIMS participated in the study.Results: In school girls scaling of awareness was maximally seen in average duration of breastfeed (35%) and adequacy of each breastfeed (27%). In nursing students scaling was maximum in awareness regarding breastfeeding a baby in HIV/TB infected mother (85%) and positioning of baby (52%), similarly, in medical students also, it was maximum in HIV/TB infected mother (81%) and positioning of baby during feeding (48%).Conclusions: Educational intervention is an effective tool to improve awareness regarding breastfeeding practices. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Prevalence and pattern of self-medication among undergraduate students in
           a medical college of Kolkata

    • Authors: Jayita Pal, Shamshad Ahmad, Promiti Pal, Debarun Chatterjee
      Pages: 3619 - 3624
      Abstract: Background: Self-medication is quite a prevalent public health problem in every part of the world. It can cause serious harms to the recipients through various implications like adverse drug reactions, incomplete cure, drug dependence etc. Medical students are in a unique position for wide practice of self-medication. The current study aimed to estimate the prevalence and to find out the existing knowledge, attitude and pattern of practice regarding self-medication among the undergraduate medical students of ESIC Medical College, Joka, Kolkata. Methods: A cross-sectional study had been conducted among 300 undergraduate medical students through an online survey with the help of a predesigned pretested digital questionnaire. The participants fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included by complete enumeration method after taking informed consent. Results: The overall prevalence of ever-use of self-medication was 65%. Majority had some knowledge about actual definition of self-medication (74%), hazards due to change of time schedule of antibiotics (59.7%), hazards due to increase in dose of antibiotics (64%), adverse drug reactions of different antibiotics (65%) and importance of completing the dosage schedule of antibiotics (56.7%); the most common source of their information being textbooks or teachers (74%). Most common indications for self-medication were fever (79.6%), followed by cough and cold (74.8%), pain (61.4%), indigestion (51.3) and diarrhoea (43.3%). The most common drugs used were antacids (81.2%), analgesics (72.1%), antipyretics (53.2%) and antibiotics (43.3%). The major reason for practice of self-medication was minor illness (74.3%). Conclusions: Self-medication was widely prevalent among the medical students of ESIC Medical College, Joka, Kolkata. Continuous counselling activities with proper information through inclusion of this topic to academic course are the need of the hour to halt this malpractice. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Comparative study of knowledge and practices regarding tuberculosis
           amongst the nursing staff of medical college and peripheral health care

    • Authors: Rajat Gupta, Anuradha Sood, Madhvi Kaistha, Ashok Bhardwaj, Tarun Sharma
      Pages: 3625 - 3629
      Abstract: Background: One of the major risk factor for tuberculosis (TB) includes working in close proximity to the patients. Recent evidence suggests that nursing professionals are vulnerable to tuberculosis not only because of elevated exposure, but also because of misinformation and lack of updated data regarding knowledge about the disease. Our study aimed to gather knowledge and health care practices related to TB amongst nurses in a medical college and that of a peripheral health care unit. The objectives of the study were to compare the level of knowledge regarding tuberculosis and practices related to it in nursing staff of a Medical College and nursing staff working at peripheral health care unit.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural medical college and a training centre for health professionals of Himachal Pradesh over a period of 3 months (w.e.f. October–December, 2014). A total of randomly selected staff nurses of medical college and nurses working at different levels of peripheral health care unit attending training at the Training Centre, Chheb Kangra were included in the study. A structured questionnaire was framed to collect data regarding tuberculosis and its practices. Results: It was observed that nursing staff posted in Medical College had less knowledge as compared to the nursing staff of a peripheral health care unit. Amongst the nursing staff of the periphery the best knowledge was observed in staff posted at Community Health Centre and lowest in staff posted at PHC. In Medical College to our surprise nursing staff of surgery and obstetrics and gynae had superior knowledge as compared to Medicine ward. Conclusions: Training under RNTCP should be targeted not only towards nurses working in peripheral health units but also in nurses working in medical colleges. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Prevalence of hypertension and its associated risk factors in young adults
           attending a tertiary care institute of Nagpur: a cross sectional study

    • Authors: Chaitanya R. Patil, Durgesh Prasad Sahoo, Manjusha Dhoble, Abhijit Kherde, Asim Inamdar
      Pages: 3630 - 3635
      Abstract: Background: Hypertension is a silent killer and global public health problem. With the advent of globalization affecting the lifestyle of the population, non-communicable diseases like hypertension, diabetes etc. is affecting the young adults (18 to 40 years). The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of hypertension and its associated risk factors among young adults (18 to 40 years) attending a tertiary care centre of Nagpur.Methods: This was a cross sectional study on 370 participants of age 18 to 40 years attending the outpatient department of urban health training centre in Nagpur. Data was collected using pretested and pre designed questionnaire and anthropometric measurements were done by standard guidelines. Blood pressure was measured using sphygmomanometer in sitting position. Data was analyzed using Epi info version 7.2. Chi square test/ fisher’s exact test has been used to find the difference between two proportions. Unadjusted odds ratio was calculated for various risk factors studied. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was done to calculate the adjusted odds ratio. Results: The prevalence of hypertension was found to be 23.24%. The prevalence was higher among males (25%) when compared to females (22.3%). Body mass index and waist hip ratio were significantly higher among the hypertensive when compared to normotensive study population (p<0.01). For every one year increase in age, the odds ratio increases by 1.06 (1.02 to 1.09) and the subjects who were overweight were having 2.15 odds of being hypertensive. Conclusions: We found a high prevalence of hypertension among the adults of age group of 18 to 40 years. The population with high body mass index, high waist to hip ratio and age group of 30 to 40 years were found to be associated with hypertension. Early surveillance and prompt treatment forms will help in decreasing the cardiovascular risk of young adults in near future. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Health care seeking behaviour of women during pregnancy in rural south
           India: a qualitative study

    • Authors: Antony Vincent, K. Keerthana, Damotharan K., Ariarathinam Newtonraj, Joy Bazroy, Mani Manikandan
      Pages: 3636 - 3639
      Abstract: Background: Antenatal care is an important indicator in any health system. Through our study we intended to assess the perception of pregnant women regarding health seeking behaviour and awareness about complications during pregnancy. Methods: A qualitative study was carried out in August 2016, among the 41 pregnant women over 27 weeks of gestation in a rural area of south India. Women were selected randomly from the routine surveillance system maintained by Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences – Rural Health Training Centre, Chunampet, Kancheepuram District. Interviews audio recorded. After verbatim, manual coding and analysis was done based on pre decided eight themes. Results: In general all the antenatal women aware of the importance of regular antenatal check up. Knowledge regarding complications and danger sign was not adequate. Most of the women in rural area seek care in government facility due to its availability, accessibility and affordability. Decision making in health care is mostly taken by their husbands. Transportation has been identified as a barrier in seeking health care. Conclusions: Although few of the antenatal mothers in the study population were aware about some complications of pregnancy, but in general knowledge among most of the women was inadequate. There is a need for creating awareness among the antenatal mothers about common complications in pregnancy. On the other hand, the notion of routine care seeking during the antenatal period seems to be well rooted among the study population which is a very good sign. It is a good opportunity and is foundational to all other interventions relating to betterment of antenatal care in the community. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Menstruation: gap in knowledge, belief and practice among adolescent girls
           in an urban area of Belagavi

    • Authors: Suhasini Kanyadi, Chandra S. Metgud
      Pages: 3640 - 3644
      Abstract: Background: The period of adolescence, beginning with the onset of puberty, is a crucial transition into adulthood. There is a substantial lacuna in the knowledge, belief and practice about menstruation. This study addresses the gap in knowledge, belief and practice regarding menstruation among adolescent girls. Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted over a period of one year, in an urban area of Belagavi among 625 adolescent girls in the age group of 16–19 years. Data was collected by house to house visit using a predesigned, pretested questionnaire. Results: The mean age (±SD) at menarche was found to be 12.8±1.73 years. Our study showed that as the knowledge increased, there was increase in the use of sanitary pad (p<0.001) and increase in the number of girls practicing cleaning of external genitalia during menstruation (p<0.01). However, it was found that 276 (50.5%) and 175 (37.7%) of the girls did not use sanitary pads and practice cleaning of external genitalia during menstruation even after having correct knowledge showing a gap in knowledge and practice. Similarly, among the 494 girls who knew that menstruation is a natural process, 93 (18.8%) girls wrongly believed she shouldn’t sleep in the same place as usual, 124 (25.1%) said she shouldn’t enter the kitchen, 186 (37.7%) believed that certain foods should be avoided and only 37 (7.5%) rightly believed that girls could go to place of worship during menstruation showing a gap in knowledge and belief. Conclusions: The study reported a gap in knowledge, belief and practice among adolescent girls. To bridge this gap causes have to be identified and addressed. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Study of perceived reasons for initiation and continuation of tobacco use
           among rural population

    • Authors: Devika P. Jeeragyal, Sasidhar M., Sharvanan E. Udayar, K. R. John, Reddy J. Kalluri
      Pages: 3645 - 3649
      Abstract: Background: Tobacco consumption is a major public health issue and is the major risk factor for causes of death. In India, 90% of the oral cancer patients were tobacco chewers. No of women chewing tobacco is also increasing leading to stillbirth, preterm baby and LBW babies. No of children using the tobacco in their early age is an urgent issue to address. Study was done with an objective of exploring the perceived reasons for initiation and continuation of tobacco usage among rural population Kuppam in A.P. Methods: Prevalence study was done at field practice area of Kuppam in A.P. Results: Total 1500 individuals above 15 yrs were studied. The overall prevalence of tobacco use among the subjects was 61.3%. The age at initiation of tobacco use was less than 20 years (54.4%). In our study reasons to start and continue the tobacco usage were, peer pressure 50.4%, influence of family members 16.4%, to overcome the hunger and thirst was 9.6%, relaxation 3%. Conclusions: Hence it is essential for community based smoking cessation activities, health education, behavioral change communication, focus group discussion, legislative measures should be considered as preventive measures. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • A comparative study among medical and nursing interns about the awareness
           of hepatitis B infection and knowledge of vaccination status: a cross
           sectional study

    • Authors: Marupuri Sushma, M. A. Musthaq Pasha, Afsar Fatima, B. Issac Ebenezer
      Pages: 3650 - 3653
      Abstract: Background: Hepatitis B is a major health problem worldwide and more serious in India. An estimated 240 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B. Hepatitis B is an important occupational hazard for health workers. However, it can be prevented by currently available safe and effective vaccine. A Study on Awareness of Hepatitis B Infection and Vaccination among Medical Interns and Nursing interns in Santhiram Medical College, Nandyal, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh.Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study is done. Students who are present at the time of data collection by a pre structured pre-tested questionnaire given. Data was analyzed by usingSPSS 21 version. Data was presented in proportions and chi-square was done for significance with 95% confidence interval.Results: The study was under taken among the medical interns (80) and nursing interns (70) at Santhiram Medical College, Nandyal. Out of all 150 students 87% all know that the type of infections viral. There is a significant knowledge difference between the medical interns and nursing interns about the knowledge of the modes of transmission i.e. Medical interns have higher knowledge when compared to nursing interns. 97% of medical interns are vaccinated whereas only 50% of nursing interns and also significant difference knowledge about the post exposure prophylaxis 76% in medical interns 19% in nursing interns.Conclusions: This study showed that overall awareness regarding hepatitis B is at a very basic level among the nursing interns when compared to medical interns of the future and measures need to be taken to create complete awareness. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Assessment of immunization services at immunization sessions under
           Ghatnandur PHC area in Beed district

    • Authors: Shashikant Shivajirao Salunke, Poonam Vijay Sancheti
      Pages: 3654 - 3658
      Abstract: Background: It was realized that just providing vaccine to achieve targets without giving attention to quality of services doesn’t guarantee a reduction in disease morbidity & mortality. Operational challenges such as logistic supply and microplanning have to be taken into consideration There is also increasing need to ensure that providers stick to service delivery protocols to achieve better health outcomes. Therefore the Study was aimed to assess the immunization sessions. The objective of the study was to evaluate the immunization sessions for logistics and availability of health workers, in the study area.Methods: The study was carried in 21 Grampanchayats covered by Ghatnadur PHC. semi structured preformed questionnaire was used for evaluation. Immunization sessions were also studied for information provided regarding side effects of vaccines.Results: Availability of human resources and logistics for vaccination sessions was more than 80% at all vaccination sessions. Information about side effects was the loophole in vaccine delivery services. Message regarding side effects of vaccines was not conveyed to most of the population.Conclusions: Vaccine delivery services were good in study area. Information about side effects should be conveyed 100% to of the population. The study should be extended to larger area for generalization of results. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Knowledge, attitude and practices of women towards breast cancer in the
           field practice area of urban health training centre, Aurangabad,

    • Authors: Apeksha P. Paunikar, Hrishikesh A. khadilkar, Mohan K. Doibale, Bina M. Kuril
      Pages: 3659 - 3663
      Abstract: Background: Breast cancer accounts for 19-34% of all cancer cases among women in India. There is a high mortality as patients usually present at an advanced stage because of lack of awareness and nonexistent breast cancer screening programs. So the aim of study is to know knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of women towards breast cancer in the field practice area of urban health training centre (UHTC). Methods: A cross sectional study included 140 women of age ≥15 years residing in field practice area from October 2016 to January 2017. From four wards in the field practice area, equal samples were drawn from each ward. Data was collected using questionnaires designed to elicit socio-demographic information and knowledge, attitude and practices of these women towards breast cancer. Data analysis was done by Open Epi. Results: Out of 140 women interviewed, 78.57% mentioned at least one of the symptoms of breast cancer but only 37.86% identified painless lump as a symptom. Only 46.43% mentioned any one of the risk factors. More educated and younger age women were more knowledgeable about risk factors. 44.29% participants were aware of early detection measures but very few were actually practicing SBE, CBE. CBE was most common tool identified for detection. Conclusions: Women do have KAP deficits of breast cancer. So community oriented awareness generation programs to educate women about breast cancer, to promote early detection of breast cancer and to bring about the desirable behavioural change among women is needed. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Socioeconomic factor and satisfaction of MCH client in urban slum of
           Meerut, Uttar Pradesh

    • Authors: Nripendra Singh, Seema Jain, Harivansh Chopra, Arun Kumar, Ganesh Singh, Priyanka Kesarwani
      Pages: 3664 - 3667
      Abstract: Background: The health of the mother and child constitutes one of the most serious health problems affecting the community, particularly in the developing countries like India. Promotion of maternal and child health has been one of the most important aspects. But any program, however, relevant its components were likely to fail unless it succeeds in improving the knowledge and achieving satisfaction of its respondent. Client satisfaction has traditionally been linked to the quality of services given and the extent to which specific needs were met. The objective of the study was to determine the level of satisfaction and correlated factor among mothers visiting primary health care institutions for maternal care services.Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out on 384 women attending 19 urban health post located in Meerut.Results: In present study 76.0% MCH respondent belong to lower socioeconomic class, 46.4% MCH respondent were 6-12th class pass, 33.1% MCH respondent belong to SC/ST category. Satisfaction with behavior of staff was significant associated with socioeconomic class, educational qualification and religion of respondent. Satisfaction with cleanliness is significantly associated with socioeconomic status, type of family, education and caste of client. Satisfaction with availability of drug is significantly associated with socioeconomic status, education, category and religion of respondent. Satisfaction with behavior of doctor is significantly associated with type of family, education and category of respondent.Conclusions: In present study, we observed that satisfaction of MCH respondents were closely related to the services provided at MCH center and with the behavior of health care providers. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • A study on swine flu (H1N1) awareness among college students of Valsad

    • Authors: Hinal Govind Baria, Priti Solanky, Hitesh Shah, Ravikant Patel
      Pages: 3668 - 3672
      Abstract: Background: The aims were to study knowledge, perceptions and beliefs regarding swine flu among college students and to study any difference in knowledge between science and commerce students. Methods: A cross sectional study conducted in Science and Commerce College of Valsad city from June-July 2015. Simple random sampling technique used. Total 400 students were randomly selected from both the colleges. The study was started after obtaining the verbal and informed consent from both the college authorities whereas verbal and informed consent was taken from each student. Data collection done by using predesigned, pretested, bilingual language (English and Gujarati) semi structured questionnaire. Students who were present and had given consent to participate in the study been included and those who are absent and not willing to participate are excluded from study. Data were presented in percentages and p value was calculated by Chi-square test. Results: 63.18% and 53.73% commerce, 86% and 84.5% science knows causative agent and other name of swine flu respectively and difference is statistically highly significant. More than 60% of science and commerce students reported cough/sneezing as modes of transmission. 57% science and 40% commerce correctly answer symptoms of swine flu. Television (>35%) was major source of information in both groups. Conclusions: Although students are aware of swine flu but correct knowledge about swine flu is lacking in both the groups. Knowledge regarding key points such as frequent hand washing, avoiding crowding places, vaccine and treatment availability, which is much important during epidemics and pandemics as precautionary measures, was lacking in both the groups. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Awareness, knowledge and practices about mosquito borne diseases in
           patients of tertiary care hospital in Navi Mumbai

    • Authors: Sumit Wasnik, Arjun Mehta
      Pages: 3673 - 3677
      Abstract: Background: Mosquito borne diseases are a serious public health concern in India. The incidence of Mosquito borne diseases is linked with economic and social development of the community. The objectives of the study were to assess the awareness, knowledge and practices about mosquito borne diseases in study population and explore the various myths about mosquito borne diseases among them.Methods: It is a hospital based cross-sectional study and the study participants will be patients getting admitted for any reason and having fever, in the general medicine male and female ward. This study period was 3 month (January to March 2017). Results: Total 150 patients admitted in male and female medicine ward were included in the study out of them 84 were male and 66 were female patients. It was observed that educated participants had more knowledge about mosquitoes borne diseases. Conclusions: Most of the participants didn’t know that clean water could be a source of breeding of mosquitoes. Many myths are prevalent in the study population about mosquitoes borne diseases. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Unmatched case control study on risk factors of defaulter among newly
           diagnosed TB patients on DOTS registered under RNTCP in Hooghly district,
           West Bengal, India

    • Authors: Arkajyoti Mallick, Santanu Haldar, Soma Sarkar, Santanu Kundu, Samik Sinha, Sanjoy K. Sadhukhan
      Pages: 3678 - 3684
      Abstract: Background: Tuberculosis is still a major public health problem in India and in addition to this, non-adherence to DOTS makes it more difficult to manage and increase risk of drug resistance. The objective was to study the factors associated with defaulter to DOTS among newly diagnosed TB patients treated under RNTCP registered in Hooghly district, West Bengal, India. Methods: A community based unmatched case control study was conducted with the help of predesigned pretested schedule among 99 defaulters and 103 non defaulters aged 15 years and above and registered between 1st April 2013 to 31st March 2014. Data was analyzed using SPSS software (version 20). Univariate analysis was done to find out the association of outcome with different variables under study. Variable with odd ratio 3 or more included in multivariate logistic regression model. Results: If patients were main earning member, smoker, lacking of perception regarding fatality of TB, having information source other than DOTS provider and sub center as treatment center, were found as significantly associated with defaulting in final multivariate regression model. Conclusions: An approach, towards modification of smoking behavior, adequate health education and information dissemination and qualitative improvement of treatment center including training of health staffs are essential for treatment adherence. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • A cross sectional study on nutritional status and dental caries among
           rural preschool children of Sullia taluk, Karnataka

    • Authors: Dinesh P. V., Bhargav S. V., Annarao Gunderao Kulkarni
      Pages: 3685 - 3690
      Abstract: Background: A double burden of malnutrition in children, in the form of undernutrition and obesity exists in our world. Poverty and various other sociocultural factors act as important determinants of malnutrition. There exist varying prevalence rates in different places. Under nutrition has also a role in dental caries. The objective of this study was to find the prevalence of malnutrition and dental caries among children going to Anganwadi’s in rural Sullia taluk of Karnataka. Methods: Line listing of Anganwadi children was done and by random sampling method, 205 children were selected for study. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric measurements and dental examination done according to WHO standards. Results: The prevalence of underweight, wasting and stunting were 27%, 11% and 40% respectively. 49% of children studied had dental caries. Conclusions: According to the classification for assessing severity of malnutrition by prevalence ranges among children, the study area is classified as a high prevalence area for malnutrition according to WHO. Dental caries was present in 49.27% of the children.  
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Work or family…' Huge conflict in working population: a cross
           sectional study in a city in Karnataka

    • Authors: Ratnaprabha G. K., Sindhu P., Aswin Kumar, Prakash R. Kengnal, Ashok kumar M. S.
      Pages: 3691 - 3697
      Abstract: Background: Work and family are the most important responsibilities of an adult. The last two decades have been marked by striking changes in the world of work and nature of the family. Work schedules, work orientation, marriage, children and spouse employment patterns may all produce pressures to effectively exhibit ones work role or the family role, which are interdependent. The objectives of the study were to assess work family conflict (WFC) among the working population in a city in Karnataka, and its determinants.Methods: A community based cross sectional study was carried out during August-September 2015 among 400 adult working population of Davangere city, working in different sectors (hospitals, schools, colleges, banks and police department). A pretested structured self-administered questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic details, Carlson’s Work-Family Conflict Scale was used. Data was analyzed using SPSS 10 for frequencies, Chi square test, student’s T test and ANOVA. Results: Out of 400 study participants, 62% were men. Mean scores of work to family conflict was 27.28±5.68 and that of family to work conflict was 25.37±5.61. Time based work to family conflict was more compared to strain and behaviour based. Conflict scores were higher for females, >45 years age, employees who had children, especially child under 5 years of age. WFC was found to be highest among doctors, police and nurses. Conclusions: Work to family conflict was higher than family to work conflict, especially time based. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Compliance to antihypertensive medication: a cross-sectional study in

    • Authors: Mariyam Khwaja, M. Athar Ansari, Saira Mehnaz
      Pages: 3698 - 3704
      Abstract: Background: Hypertension is a global public health issue. Hypertensive heart disease is one of the top ten leading causes of death in the world. It was responsible for an estimated 1.1 million deaths worldwide in 2012. To prevent some of the complications of hypertension regular intake of the prescribed treatment in the form of medicines (pills) is essential. Poor compliance to anti-hypertensive therapy is usually associated with bad outcome of the disease and wastage of limited health care resources. With these viewpoints the study aimed to assess the level of compliance of hypertensive patients to their anti-hypertensive medications and to determine the socio-demographic correlates of compliance. Methods: This was community based cross sectional study conducted in urban and rural areas in Aligarh. A total of 350 hypertensive patients were selected using simple random sampling. A pretested semi-structured questionnaire was used. Compliance was measured by Morisky 8-item Medication Adherence scale. Analysis was done using proportions and Chi-square test. Results: The overall compliance of study population was 23.7%. It was found to be significantly associated with gender, education, social class and associated co morbidities. Education, higher social class and duration of hypertension were found to be the main facilitators to adherence. The barriers to adherence were cost of drug and more number of pills per day. Conclusions: Patient education, family counselling and social support networks should be strengthened in health promotion programs in order to enhance compliance of hypertensive patients with the therapeutic regimen and to improve their quality of life. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Appraisal of knowledge of ASHA regarding child health services provided
           under NHM in Bhojipura block, District Bareilly

    • Authors: Sumit Saxena, Atul Kumar Singh, Sonam Maheshwari, S. B. Gupta
      Pages: 3705 - 3711
      Abstract: Background: One of the key strategies under the National Rural Health Mission is having a community health worker who is an Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) for every village with a population of 1000. These ASHA workers should preferably be female, in the 25-45 years age group and have a qualification of at least eighth class. The knowledge about health services of ASHA is crucial for the success of National Health Mission. Methods: A cross sectional study was planned in Bhojipura village. Total 48 villages ASHAs were interviewed using predesigned semi-structured questionnaire including brief socio-demographic information of ASHA along with details of their knowledge regarding child care. Results: Out of 64 ASHA, 25 (39.15) ASHA told that new-born babies given bath immediately after birth. 40 (62.5%) ASHA replied that nothing should be applied on umbilical stump of new-born. Mostly 62 (96.9%) ASHA knew that breastfeeding should be given first to the new-born and 61 (95.3%) ASHA were known that breastfeeding should be initiated within one hour of delivery. Conclusions: Majority of ASHAs know their role and details of their practices in new-born and child care except bathing of new born and additional supplements.   
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Prevalence of hypertension and its association with psychosocial factors
           among old age home inmates in an urban area of Kancheepuram district,
           Tamil Nadu

    • Authors: Anantha Eashwar V. M., Gopalakrishnan S., Umadevi R.
      Pages: 3712 - 3720
      Abstract: Background: Among the non-communicable diseases prevalent among old age home inmates, hypertension is one of the diseases which if not diagnosed and treated adequately, could lead to high mortality and morbidity due to limited resources. The objective of this study is to find out the prevalence of hypertension among the old age home inmates and also its association with psychosocial morbidity among them. Methods: This community based cross sectional descriptive study was done among 250 inmates of selected old age homes in Kancheepuram district. A total of 8 old age homes were randomly chosen and universal sampling was done in each old age home to obtain the required sample size. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data and psychosocial morbidity among the inmates was assessed by Depression, Anxiety and Stress scale (DASS 21). Data analysis was done by SPSS software version 21. Results: The prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension was found to be 72.8% and 10% respectively and the prevalence of psychosocial morbidity was found to be high among the study participants (depression– 68.4, anxiety–46.8, stress– 50.4). Statistically significant association was found between uncontrolled hypertension and psychosocial factors (anxiety and stress). About 27% of the hypertensive was unaware of free medication offered for hypertension at Government health centres. Conclusions: This study highlights the need for setting up of specialized geriatric clinics at Government Health Centres to provide speedy medical services and supply of medication for the elderly. Health education has to be given to both the inmates and care takers about chronic diseases like hypertension. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Prevalence and its risk factors of diabetic patients in urban area of
           Palakkad: an observational study

    • Authors: Ameesh M., Murugan S.
      Pages: 3721 - 3726
      Abstract: Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is emerging as a major health-care challenge for India. The worldwide prevalence of DM has risen dramatically in the developing countries over the past two decades. Most studies from western countries and urban studies of India point out that lifestyle changes, sedentary life, diet and related epidemiological transition as major risk factors in the development of DM. Methods: It was a cross sectional observational study done in urban area covered under urban primary health Centre (UPHC) of Govt. Medical College, Palakkad. Adults more than 30 years of age in urban area were included and observation period was from 2016-2017. Results: The overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the present study was found to be 268 (65.68%). In this 135 (50.37%) were the age group is 50-59 years and almost half 80 (29.85%) were diagnosed at the age of 40-49 years. Similarly, the risk factors such as age, occupation, diet, smoking, alcohol, truncal obesity and family history were significantly associated with prevalence of T2DM whereas alcohol and hypertension were not. Conclusions: The result of the present study proves that prevalence of T2DM was influenced by many risk factors like age, diet, dyslipidaemia, truncal obesity and family history consider more important in the urban studies.  
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Is problem based learning a better teaching tool as compared to didactic
           lectures for the undergraduate students'

    • Authors: Hari Shankar Joshi, Rashmi Katyal, Arun Singh, Gaurav Joshi, Shalini Chandra, Kashmir Singh
      Pages: 3727 - 3730
      Abstract: Background: PBL is an educational approach in which complex problems serve as the context and the stimulus for learning. In PBL classes, students work in teams to solve one or more complex and compelling "real world" problems. They develop skills in collecting, evaluating, and synthesizing resources as they first define and then propose a solution to a multi‑faceted problem. The objectives of the study were to acknowledge the students about problem based learning; to assess the effectiveness and outcome of the teaching methodologies i.e. didactic lectures versus PBL; recommendation of incorporation of PBL or traditional teaching method as a teaching tool. Methods: Medical undergraduate (UG) students admitted in RMCH, Bareilly, India. A total of 112 students divided into three batches (36, 33 and 33 students) participated in a systematically conducted PBL session in community Medicine department during the middle of their academic year after having experienced at least 4 months of traditional teaching in community medicine. Perception of the faculty was also taken on Likert’s scale. Responses to the items in the questionnaire was scored as follows: traditional much better (1), traditional better (2), both the same (3) PBL better (4), or PBL much better (5). Appropriate Statistical analysis using appropriate tests will be done.Results: Information gathering and student-teacher relationship is more through traditional method of teaching as compared to PBL which is more in favour of development of interest, motivation, learning efficiency, curiosity, questioning attitude, interpersonal relationship, independent thinking and reasoning.. Conclusions: It can be very well included that introduction of PBL as the teaching modality among the students can improve the quality of medical education as per the evaluation done through the introduction of Likert’scale.
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • A cross sectional study to determine the sleep pattern and impact of sleep
           deprivation on the health and academics of medical students of BMCRI,

    • Authors: Kavya M. Alalageri, Shobha ., Ranganath Timmanahalli Sobagaih
      Pages: 3731 - 3734
      Abstract: Background: Sleep is a state of body and mind which typically recurs for several hours every night, in which the nervous system is inactive, eyes closed, the postural muscles relaxed and consciousness practically suspended. Lack of sleep has been linked to emotional and physical health effects. Hence this study is proposed to know the sleep pattern and its effects on health and academics of medical students. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted from June to September 2015 on 200 medical students by convenient sampling using pre-tested, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire was given to them. Data was entered in excel sheet and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Mean age of students was 20.65±0.56 SD, 68.5% of the students have normal sleep duration hours. 31.5% of them had abnormal sleep, of which 38.09% and 61.91% of them are affected in health and academics respectively. 35% of students watch television/late night movies and hinder their sleep which depicts the younger generation is much attracted towards browsing at night times which affect their sleep pattern. 34.86% of sleep deprived students went for depression followed by agitation which affected their daily routine at a significant level. Conclusions: Sleep is essential for good physical and mental health. Deprivation of sleep can affect day-today activities. Knowledge about sleep hygiene should be taught from school level itself. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Social factors of under-five mortality in rural Agra

    • Authors: Krishan Kumar, Rajiv Srivastava, S. K. Mishra
      Pages: 3735 - 3739
      Abstract: Background: Very limited recent data is available on the causes of child deaths in India.Most of the available studies do not accurately reflect the socio factors related to these deaths. Identifying and assessing the factors affecting the child mortality could be the first step in planning to reduce the mortality and promoting the society health and life expectancy. Therefore the present study was undertaken to find out the socio factors of deaths among children under 5 years of age. Methods: The present cross-sectional survey was conducted among under five children and their parents residing within the selected villages in a community Development Block Sainyan, District Agra using Multistage random sampling technique. Participatory learning action technique was used. Data was analyzed and presented in form of percentages. Results: Diarrhoea was the most common cause of under five children mortality followed by acute respiratory tract infection and pyrexia. Delay in recognition of problem followed by delay in decision making at family level, delay in seeking of health provider and delay in arranging transport were the main social causes of deaths. Most children were attended by local rural medical practitioners both at initial and terminal stages of illness. Conclusions: Efforts to prevent diarrhoea and acute respiratory tract infection must be intensified. Awareness about the services provided by the government and their utilization should be strengthened. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • A study on assessment of knowledge towards family planning practices among
           the couples of reproductive age group in the field practice area of
           Prathima institute of medical sciences, Karimnagar

    • Authors: Dasari Gayathry, B. V. Ramana, Vishweshwar Rao
      Pages: 3740 - 3747
      Abstract: Background: Population explosion is a major problem in developing country like India. Contraception is important for the health of the nation. Hence the present study aimed at elucidating knowledge of the couples towards contraception. Methods: A cross - sectional study was conducted during February 2013-January 2014 among the couples residing in the field practice study areas. A semi-structured questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge towards various methods of family planning was administered to 406 couples of the study area. Results: It has been observed that female scored higher than males, however there was no statistically significant difference between the overall knowledge scores (18.67±7.798 vs. 18.41±7.177). In general, the highest knowledge was obtained in the domain of permanent contraception followed by temporary methods like condom and IUDs. The least knowledge scores were obtained in the domain of emergency contraceptives and natural methods of contraception. Urban population’s over all mean knowledge scores was 22.60±6.673 compared with rural population 14.48±5.898 and was statistically significant (p=0.036). However, the marked difference in knowledge scores was obtained in the context of gender and place of residence. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that the average knowledge among males and females and in urban and rural area, but some knowledge gaps on certain specific aspects still remained which needs to be addressed to improve the quality of life of people. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • A descriptive study of tobacco use in adults in an urban slum

    • Authors: George Koshy, Vandana Gangadharan, Varghese Koshy
      Pages: 3748 - 3751
      Abstract: Background: Globally, nearly 5 million persons die every year from tobacco-related illnesses, with disproporti-onately higher mortality occurring in developing countries. Tobacco is used in a multitude of ways in India. By 2020 India would have the highest rate of rise in tobacco related deaths compared to all other countries. Tobacco use in India is increasing but there are considerable changes in the types and methods by which it is used. According to WHO estimates, 194 million men and 45 million women use tobacco in smoked or smokeless form in India. Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death in developed countries and is the second leading cause of death globally. The study was carried out to assess the practice of tobacco use among adults in urban slum. It tries to ascertain the prevalence of tobacco use in the community, identify the various forms of tobacco used. It is a questionnaire based cross sectional descriptive study. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study using a close-ended, pre tested structured interview schedule was prepared and the investigator conducted the interviews personally at the respondent’s house who were above 18 years of age. Results: The prevalence of tobacco use in any form was found to be 38.78%, the most common age group being 30-44 yrs. Also seeing that initiation of tobacco use took place in the age group 20-29 yrs it highlights the need of starting anti-tobacco campaigns for a younger age group but not leaving out older age groups at the same time. Sex-wise distribution of tobacco use was observed to be 40.23% in males as compared to 36.17% in females. Conclusions: Control of this deadly epidemic requires a decisive, target oriented and a well motivated approach.  
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Prevalence of acute respiratory infections among children under five years
           of age attending rural health training centre of Era’s Lucknow Medical
           College and Hospital

    • Authors: Syed Abid Asghar, Mrinal R. Srivastava, J. P. Srivastava, Pratibha Gupta, Zeashan H. Zaidi
      Pages: 3752 - 3756
      Abstract: Background: Every year ARI in young children is responsible for an estimated 3.9 million deaths worldwide. About 90 percent deaths are due to Pneumonia which is usually bacterial in origin. By low-cost interventions such as hand washing, breast feeding, accessibility of rapid and attainable methods of early diagnosis of ARI, can help to reduce its burden. Improving the primary medical care services and developing better methods for early detection, treatment and where possible, prevention of acute respiratory infection is the best strategy to control ARI. The aim of the study was to estimate prevalence of ARI among children under-5 years of age attending Rural Health Training Centre of Era’s Lucknow Medical College and Hospital.Methods: The present study was carried out from Nov.2015 to April 2016 covering 305 children below 5 years from RHTC of Era’s Lucknow Medical College and Hospital. Children with acute respiratory infection (ARI) having symptoms like cough, running nose, sore throat, nasal congestion or breathing difficulty were included in the study.Results: Out of 305 children under 5 years, 43 (14%) were diagnosed with ARI. The overall prevalence of ARI was 14% with 95%CI (10.20-18.0). According to social class, prevalence of ARI was higher in low socioeconomic class 42.96%.Statistically no significance between social class and prevalence of ARI was seen with Chi sq test: 0.879, t= 0.928.Overcrowding were present in 33% of cases with 95% CI (17.2-48.80). Inadequate ventilation 48% with 95% CI (31.21-64.79), and uses of smoky chullah 49% with 95% CI (31.21-64.79). Prevalence of ARI was more prevalent in children with malnutrition 52.9%. Statistically high association was seen between ARI status and nutritional status, with Chi squre test:18.3, t≤0.001.Conclusions: The study concludes that malnutrition, low socioeconomic status, poor nutritional status, maternal illiteracy, overcrowding, and inadequate ventilation were the major social and demographic risk factors responsible for ARI in under five children. Minimizing these risk factors and by cost effective interventions one can significantly reduce the prevalence of ARI in the rural community. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • A study of treatment compliance of dog bite cases reporting to anti-rabies
           clinic of M.K.C.G Medical College, Odisha, India

    • Authors: Dhaneswari Jena, R. M. Tripathy, Srabani Pradhan, Dillip Kumar Mahapatra
      Pages: 3757 - 3761
      Abstract: Background: Rabies a dreadful disease can easily be prevented by immediate wound care, vaccination and immunoglobin administration. Prognosis depends on the promptness of initiation, regularity and completion of treatment, determined by patient’s compliance. It partly depends on the patience and devotion of doctor for counselling the patient. The objectives of the study were to assess the treatment compliance of dog bite cases attending tertiary care centre for post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) of Rabies. Methods: It is a record based longitudinal study, conducted in Anti- Rabies Clinic of M.K.C.G Medical College from January 2016 to July 2016. Patients registered on first visit followed up to the 4th dose, the last cases registered on June 15th was followed up to July31st to declare it as completed, delayed or defaulted as decided. Results: Total 1658 cases were registered during the study period. Most of them were male (73.8%) and ≤20 yrs of age. 1222 cases (73.7%) completed treatment, out of which 793 cases completed on schedule and 429 cases delayed the doses. 436 (26.3%) cases had defaulted treatment i.e. missed one or more dose. Significant associations were found between treatment completion status and place of residence, education and age of the participants. Reporting within 1 day of the bite is associated with better compliance to PEP, showing their good health seeking behaviour. Completion rate was significantly higher in category III cases. Conclusions: Intensive counselling needs to be done on day 1 and day 7th day of vaccination. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Prevalence and risk factors of obesity among senior high school students
           in the Adansi North district of Ghana

    • Authors: Isaac Amoh, Emmanuel Appiah-Brempong
      Pages: 3762 - 3769
      Abstract: Background: Obesity is one of today's noticeable yet neglected public health problem with serious health consequences such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes that affect individuals of all ages globally. Adolescents are particularly prone to obesity owing to their reduction in physical activity. This study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of obesity among Senior High School Students in the Adansi North District of Ghana. Methods: A descriptive cross- sectional survey was conducted among 306 adolescents aged 12- 19 years. The adolescents were recruited from the five senior high schools in the district using stratified random sampling technique. Data was collected by the use of structured questionnaire and anthropometric data sheet to calculate for BMI levels. STATA version 11.1, and Microsoft Excel was used to analyze the data collected. Results: Results from the chi-square test indicated that, there was a significant relationship between leisure activities and obesity such as playing computer games (x2=7.5086, df=9, p<0.05), and TV watching (x2=6.3576, df=2, p<0.05). A significant relationship was between food consumption pattern and obesity (x2=21.6181, df=9, p<0.05). Overall prevalence of obesity among the adolescents was found to be 47.06%. Conclusions: The study concludes that, the prevalence of obesity among the adolescents in the district is quite high compared to rates in some developed countries. There is the need to plan for the most efficient and effective interventions not only to ensure food security, but also maintain healthy lifestyles, so as to reduce the prevalence of obesity among the adolescents in the district and in Ghana as a whole.  
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Professional outcome of medical graduates: a 17 year cross-sectional study
           from India

    • Authors: Avinash Pandey, Richa Mishra, Neeraj Markandeywar
      Pages: 3770 - 3776
      Abstract: Background: In India, long term data regarding professional outcomes and geographical distribution of enrolled medical graduates is lacking. This adversely impacts policy for efficient healthcare delivery. Methods: A cross sectional survey of students enrolled as medical graduates in year 2001 was done at single point follow up after 17 years. Along with demographic data, gender, seat quota, post-graduate qualification, type of practice, discipline of choice and current geographic locations were collected. Logistical regression model with odds ratio was used to analyse association between variables. Results: 192/200 medical graduates were analysed. Male: female ratio was 119: 73. 109 (56%) had post-graduate degree, 35 (18%) had post-graduate diploma, while another 24 (12.8%) completed super-specialty degree.125 (65%) completed post-graduation in clinical disciplines. 103 (54%) are serving government institutes. 54 (28%) practice in metro cities, while 48 (25%) are in non-metro capital urban locations. Only 44 (23%) are serving rural Indian population, while 17 (9%) are at foreign countries. General medicine (12.5%), obstetrics (8%), paediatrics (8%) anaesthesia (7%) and general surgery (6.7%) were the most common broad clinical specialities. Females had high likelihood to pursue obstetrics/ gynaecology {OR-11.4 (95%CI-2.6-48.7)}; while males were more likely to select medical {OR-0.54 (95% CI-0.25-1.0)} and surgical disciplines {OR- 0.42 (95% CI-0.18-0.98)}. Conclusions: Majority of medical graduates complete post-graduation courses, with preference for clinical disciplines. Less than one fourth of doctors serve rural population. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Deworming among pre-school and school going children in a rural area: a
           cross-sectional survey

    • Authors: Manish Kumar Gupta, Shweta Singla
      Pages: 3777 - 3780
      Abstract: Background: Morbidity due to Soil transmitted helminth (STH) infections can be controlled at a reasonable cost by means of mass deworming using effective drugs. Deworming campaigns targeted at high risk groups, such as school-age children, pre-school children and women of child-bearing age are the mainstay of the control strategy launched by WHO. Methods: A small sector was surveyed on the National Deworming Day (NDD) to record the percentage coverage of children in pre-school and school going children. Children were observed for any of the adverse effects within 24 hrs of taking Albendazole. Results: Out of the total of 1142 children in anganwadis and government schools of the study area, 993 (86.9%) received tablet Albendazole (400 mg) under supervision of teachers. Among these only 3 children (0.26%) reported with adverse effects like vomiting and dizziness. Conclusions: The percentage coverage of children on the NDD was about 87%. Ministries of Health can set up efficient, safe delivery, monitoring and referral systems, in order to minimise the risk and maximise the benefit of periodic deworming and increase the percentage coverage in communities where soil-transmitted helminthiasis is endemic.  
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Knowledge and practice regarding diabetes and hypertension among elderly
           patients attending medicine out-patient department at Guru Nanak Dev
           Hospital, Amritsar

    • Authors: Jasleen Kaur, Harpreet Singh, Riya Kaur Kalra, Dania Kaur
      Pages: 3781 - 3785
      Abstract: Background: According to the WHO fact sheet 2015, non-communicable diseases kill 38 million people each year globally. This preliminary study was undertaken in order to bring about healthy ageing. Methods: It is an observational study on 100 patients above 60 years of age belonging to the rural/urban community coming to the medicine OPD on a walk-in basis in the Government Medical College, Amritsar. Results: Out of the total 100 patients, 56 were male and 44 were female. Their awareness level was recorded on a self-designed questionnaire. Although 70% of the patients had one or the other disease under study (i.e. diabetes mellitus, hypertension), yet surprisingly their knowledge was limited to the symptoms they suffered from rather than the disease per se. Conclusions: As inferred from this study, the knowledge of the geriatric group about these diseases is limited, so there is an urgent need to create awareness among the patients and their family members as prevention will be far better than the cure in the long run. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Assessment of physical activity level among obese and non-obese
           individuals using global physical activity questionnaire

    • Authors: Ramya M. R., Vinayak Kamath, Hemapriya S.
      Pages: 3786 - 3792
      Abstract: Background: Physical inactivity is considered as a major independent modifiable risk factor for chronic diseases and is one of the most important causes of obesity. Considering the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases in India, the physical activity plays an important role. Taking this into consideration we conducted a study to assess the physical activity levels using the global physical activity questionnaire among obese and non-obese individuals. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among adults 20-60 years age-group in rural and urban field practice areas of a medical college in Puducherry by simple random sampling method to select 237 individuals from each area. The level of physical activity was analysed using the global physical activity questionnaire. Results: Among the study population, 61.39% belong to low physical activity level. Among 97 obese individuals, 53.61% belong to low physical activity and no statistical significance was noted between the levels of physical activity and obesity. The prevalence of obesity was 36.13% among those who reported walking and bicycle usage and statistical significance was noted among obese and non-obese individuals (p<0.001). Statistical significant difference was observed in duration of physical activity (minutes/day) among obese and non-obese individuals. Conclusions: The prevalence of obesity seems to be lower among the people who practice simple day-to-day habits such as walking and usage of bicycles as evidenced from our study. Such simple and replicable behavioural modifications need to be brought about at a societal level, if we want to minimise the danger of the looming obesity epidemic. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Maternal factors associated with low birth weight: a case control study in
           rural Kerala

    • Authors: Anant Pawar, Durgesh Kumar
      Pages: 3793 - 3795
      Abstract: Background: Low birth weight (LBW) continues to remain a major public health problem worldwide. There are numerous factors contributing to LBW both maternal and foetal. The maternal risk factors are biologically and socially interrelated. The mortality of low birth weight can be reduced if the maternal risk factors are detected early and managed by simple techniques. This study was conducted to study the maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight. Methods: A retrospective record based case control study was conducted. Retrospective data collection was done using registers from medical record section of Obstetrics and Gynaecology department. After applying exclusion criteria and checking for completeness of records, we selected 60 cases and 124 matched controls. Data was entered in Microsoft excel and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Students ‘t’ test, chi-square test and odds ratio were used to find out the factors associated with low birth weight. Results: In the present study, 60 cases and 124 controls were studied. Mean age of mothers in the case group was 24.4±4.7 yrs. and in the control group was 24.8±4.42 yrs. Mean weight of the cases was 62.5±6.89 kg and of the controls was 65.04±7.16 kg. A total of 35% of the cases and 20% of the controls suffered from pregnancy related diseases. Conclusions: Maternal factors like Socio-economic status, weight, haemoglobin and parity were significantly associated with LBW. Maternal diseases like hypertension, diabetes can result in LBW baby. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Awareness and obeyance of road traffic rules among motorists in Mangaluru
           suburbs, India

    • Authors: Sudeep Kumar Shetty, Mackwin Kenwood D'mello, Jagannath Purushothama, Priyanka Dsouza Rent, V. Monisha
      Pages: 3796 - 3801
      Abstract: Background: Road traffic accident is one amongst the “biggest killers” across the World according to World Health Organization. Though road traffic accidents are both predictable and preventable, it is witnessed that there is an alarming increase in morbidity, mortality and disability owing to road traffic accident which has become a major public health concern in India. Hence this study aims to assess the awareness and obeyance of road traffic rules among commuters in south Mangaluru suburbs. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 180 motorists in south Mangaluru suburbs during August 2015, who were selected conveniently and structured questionnaire was administered for interview schedule. The data were analyzed for mean, median, frequencies, percentages, standard deviation and appropriate statistical tests were applied by using SPSS version 16. Results: More than two-thirds (67.2%) had insufficient awareness about road traffic rules and more than three fourth of the respondents (86.1%) had bad obeyance of road traffic rules. There was relationship between awareness and practice which was statistically significant (p=0.041) and there was statistical significant difference (p<0.05) in obeyance according to marital status, profession and type of vehicles used. Conclusions: Though the respondents were aware about road traffic rules to a certain extent but they were not obeying the road traffic rules wholly. This can be addressed through the strict enforcement of road traffic rulesand behavioral change communications. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Pattern of current tobacco use in a rural block of North India

    • Authors: Anuj Jangra, J. S. Malik, Srishti Singh, Nitika Sharma
      Pages: 3802 - 3807
      Abstract: Background: Tobacco is the only legal drug that kills many of its users when used exactly as intended by manufacturers. WHO has estimated that tobacco use (smoking and smokeless) is currently responsible for the death of about six million people across the world each year. Although often associated with ill-health, disability and death from non-communicable chronic diseases, tobacco smoking is also associated with an increased risk of death from communicable diseases. This study was conducted with aim to observe the current pattern of tobacco use in a rural block of north India. Methods: The study was conducted in Lakhanmajra block (rural) of Haryana, India, in year 2015-2016 among 1000 study subjects aged 15-64 years selected by systematic random sampling technique. Results: The overall prevalence of current tobacco-smoking use to be 12.8% and it was higher among males (11.2%) as compared to females (3.2%). The median age for initiation of smoking tobacco was 18 years, smokeless tobacco was 20 years. Conclusions: Our study stresses is the need to have rural orientation in the National Tobacco Control Programme since the poorly educated individuals living in rural areas are at the maximum risk of using tobacco, identifying ways and means of reaching out to these communities will be critical to the success or failure of the program. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Infant and young child feeding practices among mothers in Hyderabad,

    • Authors: Sudhir Shankar Mane, Pranitha Reddy Chundi
      Pages: 3808 - 3813
      Abstract: Background: The objective of the study was to assess Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) practices using World Health Organization indicators in infants and young children attending immunization clinics. Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study was designed in a tertiary care hospital in an urban setup. Infant and young children from birth to 24 months attending immunization clinics were included. Main outcome measures were to assess IYCF Practices (8 Core and 7 Optional Indicators) and possible reasons for not practicing the same. Results: A total of 520 mothers attending immunization clinics were interviewed from June to July 2014. Mean age of the children was 32.5 weeks. 50.1% and 47.6% belonged to Hindu and Muslim religion respectively. Only 33.78% children were breastfed within one hour of birth. Among those who had not initiated breastfeeding within one hour of birth, 60.6% were not aware and the most common reason was caesarean section. In children older than 6 months, only 80% of children were exclusively breast fed for six months and the most common reason was insufficient breast milk. Only 72.5% of mothers introduced complementary foods from 6 to 9 months. Conclusions: The study shows poor IYCF practices in children attending immunization clinic at an urban tertiary care hospital. There is a clear knowledge gap among mothers. These faulty practices need to be addressed to improve feeding practices so as to maximize their benefits to the child. The study did not assess nutritional status of children. This would have been useful to see how inadequate IYCF practices were associated with nutritional status of the children. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • A study of self medication among the adult people of the Nanded city,
           western India

    • Authors: Rambhau Dhondibarao Gadekar, Prakash Laxminarayan Gattani, Vishal Samadhan Dhande
      Pages: 3814 - 3818
      Abstract: Background: Modern medicines are of prime importance to human being and are potentially hazardous when taken indiscriminately in the form of self medication. The main objective was to study the practice of self medication and the common ailments, drugs used, sources of information and the reasons for it.Methods: A community based cross sectional study was carried out on 300 urban adults. From the four zone of Nanded city, one zone was selected by lottery method and from that zone one pharmacy (medical) shop was selected randomly for data collection. Adult people who bought medicines from the selected shop without any prescription were interviewed for information regarding sociodemographic factors like age, sex, residence, education, occupation etc and information about over the counter drug such as which drug they purchased, what was the main symptom of their illness, reasons for not consulting doctor, sources of information about over the counter drug etc. were collected on predesigned and pretested semi structured proforma.Results: Out of 300 study subjects 78.3% were males and 21.7% were females. Maximum study subjects, 39.0% were from 30-39 years of age group and 23% study subjects were educated up to secondary school level. Most common symptom was fever (21%) followed by headache (15%). The commonest category of drug used for self medication was analgesic drugs (27%) and majority of study subjects said pharmacist was the main source of information about OTC drugs (48.7%). 45% study subject stated that reason for self medication was high consultation fees of private doctors.Conclusions: Active age group male members in the family were more involved in self medication and high consultation fees of private doctors was the main reason for not consulting the doctor and practicing self medication.
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Road traffic accident victims socio-demographic profiles: a community
           based study in Central India

    • Authors: Pramita Muntode Gharde, Syyed Zahiruddin Quazi, Vasant V. Wagh
      Pages: 3819 - 3824
      Abstract: Background: A road traffic injury is any injury caused due to crashes originating, terminating or involving a vehicle partially or fully on a public highway.The road crashes are unlike communicable diseases where the role of agent, host and environment is more defined. The aim and objective was to study of the socio-demographic profile of victims of road traffic accidents.Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2010 to September 2012 in 3 blocks of Wardha district, in Central India. The sample size was estimated using purposive sampling technique. The data was analyzed using EPI-Info version 3.5.4. Results: Out of 385 study subjects, maximum victims were in 30-60 years age group, 320 were males and 16.88% i.e. 65 were females. The total numbers of literate victims were 94.80%. Maximum accidents were seen in victims who were employed in service 151 (39.22%), followed by self employed 27%. Conclusions: Maximum victims were in 30-60 years age group which is the productive age group and male dominance was also observed which means loss of work days leading to loss of wages and loss of family income hence directly affecting the family economy. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Knowledge, attitude and practice of infection control methods among health
           care workers

    • Authors: Jaydeep J. Devaliya, Raman D. Damor, Bansari L. Chawada
      Pages: 3825 - 3829
      Abstract: Background: Disposal of biomedical waste is neglected issue even in the urban heath care settings. So chances of transmission of infection increase which leads to high morbidity and mortality. Spread of disease can also be controlled by establishing isolation ward and it can be monitored through Hospital Infection Control Committee. Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted in urban and rural health care settings of Ahmedabad district to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of health care workers. In the present study 300 HCWs including Doctors, Nurses, Technicians and Servants were interviewed. Pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect the data regarding knowledge of infection control methods and various waste disposal practices. Results: Only 51% of health care workers were aware about the Isolation ward and 60% of HCWs were aware about hospital infection control committee. 87% nurses were correctly disposing gloves in urban health care settings. All the HCWs were using disposable syringe. Even in urban settings also 33% of doctors and 20% of nurses were recapping needle after using it. Conclusions: Constant reinforcement of knowledge should be done and regular training should be given to change the behavior regarding biomedical waste disposal. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • A cross sectional study to assess the modifiable risk factors and
           morbidity profile of elderly people in a village in tribal part of

    • Authors: Ananta Borde, Amol Kinge, Mukesh Bawa, Vikrant Pagar
      Pages: 3830 - 3834
      Abstract: Background: Geriatrics population is an important part of the total community and comprises of about 7-8% of the whole population of one community. Since the expectation of life is also increasing steadily and quality of life being emphasized more & more in our country, the senior citizen group is getting importance day by day. The present study was carried to find the various social, economical and medical aspects related to geriatrics population in rural area. Methods: The community based cross sectional study was carried out at a village among 427 study subjects using pre-validated questionnaire. Data was collected regarding their health related problems, Pallor was seen for anemia. Data was analysed using appropriate statistical methods. Results: Majority of elderly population lies between the 60 to 70 years of population (84%). Joint pains followed by cataract, anemia were predominant among male subjects whereas anemia was found more in prevalence among female subjects followed by joint pains, cataract, hypertension and Diabetes. Conclusions: Existing geriatric healthcare setup needs to be strengthened and should be sensitised enough to consider such differential nature of geriatric concerns. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • A study to assess the utilization of health care services among fishermen

    • Authors: B. V. Ramana, Dasari Gayatri, P. Radha Kumari
      Pages: 3835 - 3841
      Abstract: Background: In spite of an extensive primary health care system exists in India, yet it is inadequate in terms of coverage of the population, especially in rural areas and urban slums, and gross underutilization. Assessment of the utilization of health services is important for the health of a nation. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted during October 2012- September 2013 among 215 families residing in Kotha Jalaripeta fishermen community of urban slums of Visakhapatnam city. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data and was analyzed using SPSS 20 and valid inferences were drawn. Results: Majority (60.9%) of the slum dwellers preferred Government hospitals for adult health problems and (56.3%) for child health problems. Majority (82.4%) of them utilized Government Hospitals for maternal health services and (73.5%) for Inpatient care. Majority (80.9%) of them preferred Anganwadi centers for immunization services. Antenatal care utilization by slum women was found satisfactory. Conclusions: This study revealed a relatively higher utilization of government health services for different health problems when compared to the other studies regarding various aspects and dimensions of health services. But still health problems exist to a great extent and there is an urgent need to improve health services in urban slums.  
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Assessment of quality of life and activities of daily living among
           geriatric population in Bengaluru city

    • Authors: Mohamed Tanveer Ahmed, Jyothi Jadhav, Ranganath Timmanahalli Sobagaiah, Vishwanatha .
      Pages: 3842 - 3845
      Abstract: Background: Developing countries including India are in epidemiologic health transition resulting in increased life expectancy and increase in geriatric population. Geriatric population is considered the most vulnerable population. Many factors such as age, income, education, environment have a significant impact on quality of life. Hence our study aims at assessing the Quality of life and activities of daily living among geriatric population in Bengaluru city. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out for a period of 3 months - August to October 2016 among 250 geriatric study participants residing in the slums of Bangalore. Data was collected using WHOQOL-BREF scale and Katz Index of Independence of Activities of Daily Living by interview method. Results: Out of 250 study participants, males were 127 (50.8%) and females were 123 (49.2%). Quality of life was found to be average with a mean score of 50.02 (11.13) and with a least score of 44.55 (12.54) for environmental domain. Conclusions: Significant association was found between quality of life and factors like age, functional capacity, education and environment. Improving access of elderly to health facilities, providing health education, psychological support, and modification of environment helps to improve the quality of life among aged population. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Rural-urban correlates of reproductive health with mental health in women
           in Odisha, India

    • Authors: Abhishek De, Sonali Kar, Bhagabati Charan Das
      Pages: 3846 - 3853
      Abstract: Background: Mental health and reproductive health are closely related. Women of reproductive age are most vulnerable. Odisha has poor maternal health indicators. Very few Indian studies comparing urban-rural differences in women’s mental health. Methods: Random sampling from respective field practice areas. GHQ-12 Mental Health screening tool used to assess health status. Pre-tested questionnaire applied to enquire about domestic and familial status, reproductive health morbidities. Results: Proportion of reported extramarital relationships of the respondents’ husband was observed to be more than twice as much in urban as compared to rural areas. Prevalence of domestic violence was found to be 43.2% in urban area as compared to 27.2% in rural areas. Significant differences were seen between urban and rural arms of the study regarding adverse pregnancy outcomes (p<0.001), induced abortion (p<0.0001), menstrual problems (p<0.0004) and gynaecological problems (p=0.0031). In these cases, rural women were observed to have significantly more combined (reproductive and mental health) morbidity than their urban counterparts. Conclusions: Findings of the study indicate that though familial and spousal and social support parameters were more adverse in urban women, reproductive health problems and their association with poor mental health was strikingly more common in the rural populace. This may indicate an erosion of the traditional buffers against adverse mental health outcomes in the rural setting and needs further investigation. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Health seeking behavior of farming community in rural area of Titabor
           block in Jorhat district

    • Authors: Syeda Jesmin Rahman, Bishnu Ram Das, Gunjan Nath
      Pages: 3854 - 3858
      Abstract: Background: Numerous factors are associated with the access and utilization of health care services. These factors along with the preferences of the farmers are responsible for the health seeking behavior of farming community. This study aims to understand the health seeking behavior of the farmers and the factors influencing their behaviour in a rural block of Assam. Methods: A community based cross sectional study was done in a rural block of Jorhat district, Assam among a sample of 400 farmers. A pre designed pretested proforma was used to collect the data. Information was obtained on the demographic variables, health seeking behavior and the factors that may affect health seeking behavior. Results were analyzed using percentage and proportions. Results: The study revealed that respiratory tract infection (54.25%) was the most common cause of morbidity among farmers followed by musculoskeletal problems (23.25%) and gastrointestinal tract ailments (11.75%). Majority of the farmers preferred the government health facilities (62%) than the private practitioners (17%) for seeking treatment. Around 64% respondents sought health care only when their health conditions were severely affected. Financial constraints (43.25%) and lack of time (29.25%) was observed to be major impediment in utilization of health care services. Children were given most priority in seeking treatment at the time of illness (68.75%). Conclusions: Government health care facilities were preferred by most respondents due to low cost of services. Behavior seeking healthcare was mostly influenced by financial constraints. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Awareness and attitudes of mothers towards new vaccines in the childhood
           vaccination programme in delhi state: a cross sectional study

    • Authors: Reema Mukherjee, Manisha Arora, Atul Kotwal, Poonam Hooda
      Pages: 3859 - 3863
      Abstract: Background: With the introduction of newer antigens in the childhood immunization programme in several states, the nationwide UIP is eventually going to be further expanded to increase the number of diseases against which children will be protected through the vaccination programme. However, despite the best intentions of the government, a poor awareness of the new vaccines among the caregivers may defeat this purpose and only result in poor coverage and poor uptake. This study was carried out to assess the awareness of mothers regarding the new vaccines introduced in the childhood vaccination programme in Delhi State. Methods: The study was conducted in the immunization clinic of a tertiary care hospital of Delhi. A total sample of 388 mothers was interviewed. The data was analyzed using SPSS ver 20. Results: Only 18.3% (95% CI, 14.76-22.46) of the participants were aware that newer vaccines have been introduced into the programme. 48.2% (95% CI 43.27- 53.16) of the respondents were unaware about the same, while 33.5% (95% CI, 28.99-38.35) claimed to have heard about it but were not sure whether newer vaccines had been introduced. It was observed that as the education status of mothers improved, their awareness regarding newer vaccines in the programme also increased. The knowledge regarding age of administration, number of doses etc. was very poor. However multiple pricks during a single vaccination visit was not a disincentive for the mother to get the child vaccinated. The willingness to buy a vaccine that was not available free of cost from the hospital, increased with increasing education level of the mother. Conclusions: There is a requirement of focused publicity campaigns to increase the awareness and thereby uptake of the new vaccines among caregivers. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Epidemiology of fall and its risk factors among elders in a rural area of
           Coimbatore, India

    • Authors: Thomas V. Chacko, Prabha Thangaraj, Muhammad G. M.
      Pages: 3864 - 3869
      Abstract: Background: Global reports show that falls are the major cause of disability injuries among the elders. Developing countries lack the required epidemiological data on the burden of falls and factors that contribute to it.The objectives of the study were to find the burden of fall and its distribution in time, place and person among elders and to identify risk factors associated with fall among elders. Methods: A community–based cross-sectional study of 655 elders (≥ 60 years) was done in a rural area of Coimbatore District by two stage sampling technique. History of fall within the past 6 months was included in the study. Semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to assess factors contributing to falls. The burden of falls was expressed as proportions and percentages. Logistic regression analysis was done to identify risk factors for fall. Results: 26% (95%CI: 22.59-29.32) elders experienced at least one fall. Of the total falls 50.2% occurred outside home and the remaining inside home. Most of the falls occurred during ambulation and at the morning hours (39.1%). Age ≥80 years (OR: 3.28, 95%CI: 1.28-5.98) and dizziness (OR: 3.27, 95%CI: 1.00-10.06) were only found to be significantly associated with fall on multivariate analysis. Conclusions: The occurrence of fall was found to be almost similar to that identified in western countries where fall preventive measures have been implemented. Similar efforts are yet to be initiated here and so this study provides the evidence for the need. Prospective studies through more frequent home visits are needed to confirm the enormity of the problem to suggest policy recommendation. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Work-related stress assessment among a garment factory employees in
           Bangalore suburban locality

    • Authors: Basavakumar S. Anandi, Dinesh Rajaram, Aravind B. A., Gautham M. Sukumar, Radhika K.
      Pages: 3870 - 3876
      Abstract: Background: India's Garment Industry has been rapidly growing in last few years. The Garment Industry is of major importance to the Indian economy as it contributes substantially to India's export earnings. Thus employees working in the above sociological context of working life are expected to be affected by the general acceleration of the pace of life, contributing to work intensification and constant time pressure. Managers play a key role in reducing the significant sources of stress and shaping the future of employees. Thus the above study was undertaken among managers and supervisory level staff. The objectives of the study were to estimate the magnitude and level of work-related stress and to find the association of socio-demographic factors with work-related stress in garment manufacturing factory. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken for 4 months, from October 2015 to January 2016, in a selected garment factory, located in the periphery of Bangalore city. A total of 167 supervisors and 41 managers, were included in the study. Stress was assessed by using ‘Tool to assess and classify work stress and associated symptoms’, developed by Centre for public health, NIMHANS. Results: Prevalence of work-related stress was 26% (95% CI; 18.04-26.36). Managers had higher prevalence of stress (29.3%) when compared to supervisors (25.1%). Majority of managers were perceived to have moderate stress level (58.4%) when compared to supervisors (26.10%). Among all the socio-demographic factors; age, total monthly income, travel time and mode of transport were significantly associated with work-related stress (p<0.05). Conclusions: Organization changes viz., effort-reward imbalances, needs to be corrected and appropriate transport facilities meeting the employee requirements have to be provided, to cope up stress associated with travelling. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors amongst teaching staff of IIMSR
           medical college, Badnapur, Jalna, Maharashtra

    • Authors: Sujata N. Muneshwar, Mohd. Shafee, Purushottam A. Giri, Pankaj R. Gangwal, Sadaf Doctor
      Pages: 3877 - 3881
      Abstract: Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death globally. The cause of heart attacks and strokes are due to combination of risk factors- tobacco use, unhealthy diet, obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol use, hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidaemia. Most cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by addressing these behavioural risk factors. The objectives were to study the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among teaching staff and to know the association of age and gender with cardiovascular risk factors.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out amongst teaching staff of IIMSR Medical College, Badnapur, Jalna, Maharashtra during the period of August to October 2016. All teaching staff of IIMSR Medical College was included in this study by purposive sampling method. Total number of staff who was more than 30 years of age was 80. The study was performed on 71 teaching staff as 9 denied participating (71 out of 80). Clinical parameters including weight, height, blood pressure and waist circumference was recorded. Blood sample was also collected. Statistical analysis was done by using appropriate statistical test like mean, percentage, standard deviation, student’s t test and chi square test. Results: Majority participants were male 50 (70.42%). The mean age of male was 42.6±13.4 yrs and female was 37.05±9.64 yrs. The mean weight (76.2±12.9), mean waist circumference (92.0±12.1) and mean BMI (27.02±4.44) were above the normal range amongst male participants. The mean height, mean weight, mean waist circumference, mean SBP, mean DBP, mean RBS, mean creatinine and mean BMI values were higher in males as compared to females. The difference was statistically significant. Hypertension was more common in older age with raised diastolic blood pressure which signifies that age is one of the most important risk factor. Conclusions: This study showed a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and signifies the importance of health awareness among the staff members regarding the various cardiovascular risk factors. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Screening 35 million for hypertension and diabetes mellitus through public
           system: experiences of Tamil Nadu, India

    • Authors: T. S. Selvavinayagam
      Pages: 3882 - 3887
      Abstract: Background: Non communicable diseases (NCDs) is one of major public health challenge to be handled across the world particularly in low and middle-income countries. Government of Tamil Nadu in partnership with World Bank attempted to tackle this issue. Our State’s experience in implementing NCD control program from piloting and then expanding it to entire state with learning’s are described in this article.Methods: A comprehensive NCD control program with four major interventions namely clinic, school, community and workplace based interventions covering hypertension and diabetes that was implemented successfully through public health system in Tamil Nadu is elaborated.Results: The program yielded a magnificent performance in screening around 4 crore persons and the challenges in implementing the program covering human resources, drugs and reagents logistics, protocols, awareness creation, data capturing and effective monitoring etc. are highlighted.Conclusions: This knowledge in implementing NCD control program in Tamil Nadu will be useful to other states in India as well as in other low and middle-income countries in planning their NCD programs. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • A cross-sectional study to assess knowledge, attitude and practices
           regarding H1N1 among AYUSH practioners at Panvel taluka

    • Authors: Manisha R. Vikhe, Nisha R. Relwani, Seema Anjenaya
      Pages: 3888 - 3892
      Abstract: Background: The number of H1N1 cases and death in India in recent years is good enough reason to declare it as a major emerging disease. AYUSH practitioners have been newly integrated into the National Health Delivery System. As they are the first level of contact for the community, their knowledge, attitude and right practices can help in counteracting the spread of H1N1. The objective of the study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practices regarding H1N1 among AYUSH practitioners at Panvel taluka.Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out during October-December 2015 among AYUSH practitioners practicing at Panvel taluka. A total of 225 AYUSH practitioners were included in the study by stratified probability proportional systematic random sampling. They were interviewed face to face by predesigned pretested questionnaire to assess knowledge, attitude and practices regarding H1N1. Attitude was measured on a four point Likert’s scale. Data was analysed by mean, percentage and Chi–square Test using software SPSS (version 21).Results: Only 32.4% had knowledge about period of infectivity by H1N1 virus. More than half (56.7%) knew incubation period of the disease.75% correctly answered on signs and symptoms of the disease. Only 25.3% knew the mode of administration of giving H1N1 live vaccine. 78.66% doctors strongly agreed that they can get infection and 82.66% agreed that they can be cured by the infection. Only 27.11% practitioners were vaccinated against H1N1. 43.12% doctors followed hand washing practice after seeing suspected case. 43.5% doctors used mask regularly at clinic. 59.6% doctors correctly prescribed drugs for prophylaxis and treatment of H1N1. 62.3% practitioners used to refer the patient in hospital designated by government for treatment of H1N1 cases.Conclusions: AYUSH practioners had average knowledge and poor practices about H1N1 prevention which can be further improved by continuing medical education programme. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Awareness of use of artificial colourants in sweets preparation and their
           harmful effects

    • Authors: Ravishankar Suryanarayana, Muninarayana Chandrappa, Santhosh R.
      Pages: 3893 - 3898
      Abstract: Background: Colour is the first notable feature of a food and often directly influences the choice of food by increasing the taste threshold, appeal and acceptability.There are natural and few traditional colours but many of the shop keepers, restaurant and processed food manufacturers prefer artificial colours. The sweet manufactures do not realize adverse health effects of colourants. The present study was undertaken to assess the awareness of use of colorants in sweets and its harmful effects among consumers and shopkeepers.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted. A sample of 96 consumers and 20 shopkeepers across the Kolar town were randomly selected and interviewed to collect information on awareness regarding artificial colourants, permissible limits and their harmful effects by using pre-tested semi structured proforma. Data analyzed by using SPSS statistical software version 22.Results: 16.8% of the consumers did not have the knowledge regarding the artificial colorants. 42.6% of the consumers were aware of the toxic metals in colourants and 46.5% knew the harmful effects. Among shopkeepers only 15% and 10% of them had the awareness regarding the toxic metal present and their harmful effects respectively. Majority (75%) of the shopkeepers knew the permissible limits for usage of colourants. Consumers and shop keepers knew that artificial colorants can cause damage to bladder, Kidney, thyroid, brain, immune system, nerve cell development, hyper activity and genotoxicity.Conclusions: The consumers were aware of artificial colorants, various toxic metals present and their harmful effects. There is a need to increase awareness among shopkeepers regarding presence of toxic metals and their harmful effects. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Analysis of the profile of blood donors in a blood bank of a private
           medical college of Kolkata

    • Authors: Debdutta Haldar, Kunal Kanti Majumdar, Shilpa Karir, Arun Kumar Chakraborty, Ankita Dey, Asok Kumar Mandal
      Pages: 3899 - 3902
      Abstract: Background: Blood is the only oxygen transporter in the body and is crucial in saving lives. Research has failed to find a true substitute for blood and blood components and depends on human donors. There are several infectious and non-infectious risks associated with transfusion. An unsafe transfusion is very costly from both human and economic points of view. In that perspective the present study is aimed to assess the profile of blood donors. The objectives of the study were to assess the profile of blood donors as per records of Blood Bank of a private medical college of Kolkata and to find out the prevalence and trends of transfusion transmitted infections among those donors.Methods: A record based cross sectional study was conducted for the period May 2013 to April 2016 at Blood Bank of a private medical college and information regarding 5383 blood donor’s profile were collected and analysed. Results: The total donors were found to be 5383 out of which (87.72%) were voluntary donors and (12.28%) replacement donors. The donors had a male predominance (79.84%). The most available blood group was B+ (49.42%) and the least available blood group was A- (0.38%). The commonest transfusion transmitted infection was Hepatitis B (1.11%) followed by Hepatitis C (0.28%) and HIV (0.21%). The transfusion transmitted infections (TTI) shows a decreasing trend over the 3 years. Conclusions: The voluntary donors have increased over the 3 years but there is always a male predominance. The pattern of TTIs in the blood bank depicts the national trend too. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Study on self care and adherence to therapy among diabetic patients at a
           tertiary care center in Mysore

    • Authors: Sumanth Mallikarjuna Majgi, Aiswarya Lakshmi Anitha Sreekumar, Aparna Balagopal, Nivedha S.
      Pages: 3903 - 3908
      Abstract: Background: Adherence to lifestyle modification and self-care are vital elements in the management of diabetes mellitus and the reason for poor adherence and poor self-care could vary from person to person. The study aimed to assess the level of adherence to therapy, the self-care practices and the barriers preventing adherence among diabetic patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Mysore. Methods: A mixed methods study was conducted among an estimated sample of 150 patients attending a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mysore, Karnataka. Diabetes self-care activities was assessed using modified Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) questionnaire. An in depth interview was conducted for 20 subjects for understanding the factors contributing to their level of adherence / non-adherence. The quantitative data was analysed with standard statistical methods and qualitative data through content analysis. Results: The adherence to the drugs was found to be 86.6%.The median number of days during which target diet plan was achieved, at least 30 minutes of physical activity undertaken and foot care was 5.5 and 0 respectively. Lack of awareness and socioeconomic barriers were cited by the patients as the barriers preventing adherence to drug therapy, diet and exercise. Conclusions: Lack of awareness of the disease and cost of the pharmacological therapy are potentially modifiable reasons of poor adherence. Health education is to be provided by the healthcare providers focusing on the importance of adherence to drugs, diet and exercise. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Attitude of intern doctors and B.Sc. nursing students regarding various
           aspects of biomedical waste (management and handling) rules: a cross
           sectional study

    • Authors: Rekha Acharya, Gaurav Sharma, Renu Sethia, Ratti Ram Meena
      Pages: 3909 - 3914
      Abstract: Background: Different types of waste are generated during healthcare activities. The waste so generated has chance of causing serious infection and also injury to persons who come in contact with it whether the contact is direct or indirect. Safe and sustainable health care waste management is not possible without a favourable attitude among health care providers. The objective of the study was to assess the attitude of Intern doctors and B.Sc. nursing students: the future health care providers, regarding various aspects of Biomedical Waste (Management and handling) Rules. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The study was conducted amongst Intern doctors and B.Sc. nursing students posted at Prince Bijay Singh Memorial (PBM) and associated group of hospitals attached to Sardar Patel Medical College, Bikaner. Results: In the study out of 204 respondents, 54.4% were B.Sc. nursing students and 45.6% were intern doctors. Statistically significant difference was seen in overall attitude of study population belonging to different professional group regarding biomedical waste management. Overall the attitude of study group was favourable. Conclusions: Favourable attitude of health care workers will go a long way in better implementation of biomedical waste management rules and thereby help in decreasing adverse health effects of improper waste handling. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Study on urinary tract infection among females of reproductive age group
           in a rural area of Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu

    • Authors: Muthulakshmi M., Gopalakrishnan S.
      Pages: 3915 - 3921
      Abstract: Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is defined as the presence of microbial pathogens in the urinary tract and women of the reproductive age group (15-44 years) are the most vulnerable population. UTIs are one of the most common bacterial infections seen in primary care. This study aims to estimate the prevalence rate of UTI among females of reproductive age group and to determine the association between socio demographic factors and prevalence of UTI.Methods: This is a cross sectional descriptive study carried out in the rural field practice area attached to a Medical college in Kancheepuram district. The study group were 250 women of reproductive age group (15-44 years). The data was collected using a structured interview schedule followed by collection of urine for microscopic examination and culture. Data was analysed using SPSS 15 software. Prevalence of UTI was calculated using percentages and strength of association was tested between socio-demographic characteristics and prevalence of UTI.Results: Prevalence of UTI among females of reproductive age group was found to be 20.4%. There was a strong statistical significant association between levels of education of the study subjects (Odds Ratio 18.11, p value <0.05), the socio economic status (Odds ratio 6.36, p value <0.05) and UTI.Conclusions: UTI is a serious public health problem if untreated. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment will prevent the chances of developing further complication of UTI and will help to reduce the sufferings of the patient, hospital stay and economic loss. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Assessment of bio medical waste management practices of staff nurses
           according to newer guidelines in a teaching hospital of rural Vadodara,

    • Authors: Bhavesh R. Bariya, Grishma D. Chauhan, Aarti Jadeja, Meet Jain
      Pages: 3922 - 3926
      Abstract: Background: The healthcare services while providing curative, promotive or preventive services inevitably produce waste which may be hazardous to health of patients and hospital staff as well as to the environment. The bio medical waste (management and handling) rules were recently updated by Government of India notification 2016. The present study was carried out to observe and assess the BMW management Practices among staff nurses in a teaching hospital of Vadodara district.Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out to assess BMW management practices in the hospital using BMW Checklist. Observation was the predominant method for data collection.Results: Segregation of BMW at the site of generation was found in 72.73%. Sharp and non-sharp infectious waste was correctly segregated in 72.73% and 100% of areas respectively. Bio medical Waste was found covered in bins, but overfilled in 81.82%. In 6 out of 11, BMW was kept beyond 48 hours. IV set, bottles, syringes, latex gloves, catheters etc. were cut by scissors before disinfection in 45.45%. Staff nurses were using gloves while handling syringe and needles in 10 out of 11 places.Conclusions: Staff nurses were knowledgeable about segregation of BMW, but storage and pretreatment of BMW before its final disposal needs to be improved. An orientation programme about newer guidelines may improve the current practice. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • A study to assess premature mortality and years of potential life lost
           among the mortality victims of Victoria Hospital, Bengaluru

    • Authors: Kavya M. Alalageri, Shobha ., Ranganath Timmanahalli Sobagaih
      Pages: 3927 - 3930
      Abstract: Background: Premature mortality by age 60 accounted for one-third of total deaths in low and middle income countries in 2008. While under-5 mortality as a proportion of premature mortality remains high in some countries, premature adult mortality is also increasing. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death and primarily affect those of productive age. India is also experiencing rapid demographic and epidemiological transition. Although evidence suggests recent reductions in infant and child mortality, little is known about the age and sex patterns of premature deaths in India.Methods: Record based study was conducted from 4 months mortality statistics who belong to less than 69 yrs during the period June-September 2016 at Victoria Hospital. Data is entered in MS-Excel and analyzed in the form of descriptive statistics. Data is presented in the form of figures, tables, charts and percentages wherever necessary.Results: There were total of 1265 deaths in 4 months, among them 890 deaths occurred <69 yrs of age. Most of them belong to 45-54 yrs which is the income generating age-group. Most of them belong to 45-54 yrs which is the income generating age-group. Most of the mortality victims admitted in hospital for <24 hrs (45.28%) followed by a week (45.05%). Infectious diseases, burns, hypertension, and alcohol related complications and poly trauma are the top 5 causes of premature deaths. Mean years of potential life lost (YPLL) due to NCDs like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and hypertension is 20.92 yrs.Conclusions: Health system should gear up at all levels of health care in order to reduce mortality due to NCDs and thus to increase life-expectancy. 
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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