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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1278 journals)
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HEALTH AND SAFETY (509 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 175)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription  
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Policy and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Professions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Health Sciences Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Health Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Healthcare Delivery Reform Initiatives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
  [5 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2394-6032 - ISSN (Online) 2394-6040
   Published by Medip Academy Homepage  [12 journals]
  • Scope of mobile health in Indian health care system – the way

    • Authors: Farhad Ahamed, Sarika Palepu, Mahasweta Dubey, Baridalyne Nongkynrih
      Pages: 875 - 881
      Abstract: India is currently undergoing increased urbanisation and population growth. The existing health care facilities and health care personnel are not able to cater to the health care needs of the population. Hence, a demand-supply gap is prevailing in the country. Improper functioning of three tier health care delivery, inaccessibility of secondary and tertiary government health services are the other major hurdles in effective health care utilisation. Technological interventions like tele-consultation strived continuously to tackle this crisis but had attained limited success. Other technological advancements as mobile based interventions (mHealth) have been emerging in the recent times. mHealth includes the use of telecommunication and multimedia technologies integrated with mobile and wireless healthcare delivery system. With success stories round the globe, it can be marked that mobile technology in the present scenario has gained substantial effects on health outcomes. Using mobile technology offers a tremendous opportunity for developing countries as India to advance in health care delivery by effectively utilising scarce resources. The vastly underserved healthcare market combined with high mobile phone penetration and rapidly growing smart phone adoption creates enabling environment condition for mHealth adoption in India. mHealth, being user friendly and cost effective, would be an interesting initiative in developing world. Customised application and sustainable financial models which could suit the existing local healthcare delivery networks would yield beneficial outcomes. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Traditional practices during pregnancy and childbirth among tribal women
           from Maharashtra: a review

    • Authors: Shahina Begum, Ajeesh Sebastian, Ragini Kulkarni, Shalini Singh, Balaiah Donta
      Pages: 882 - 885
      Abstract: There are various traditional beliefs and practices exist in relation to pregnancy and childbirth among various tribal communities in Maharashtra. A review of published literature has conducted and a total of 114 articles and reports were reviewed out of which 14 articles and reports were eligible for the final review. Utilization of maternal and child health (MCH) services during pregnancy and delivery period was reportedly poor among tribal communities due to strong traditional beliefs and trust in Dai, and preference for home delivery for the requirement of some rituals performance. Unhygienic cord care practices, delay in initiation of breastfeeding, and no colostrum feeding practice were also observed. Culturally sensitive tailored interventions are required to influence the existing maternal and child health related traditional practices
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Factors influencing health-care access of female commercial sex workers in
           India: an in-depth review

    • Authors: Rudrajit Paul, Meera Suresh, Jayati Mondal
      Pages: 886 - 890
      Abstract: Commercial sex workers (CSW) are a vulnerable section of the society with diverse health problems. However, different surveys have consistently shown limited healthcare access by this group. There are a lot of factors, related both to the health care facility and the potential users, which influence this access. In this review, we have analysed some of the factors affecting healthcare access of female CSWs in India. The analysis has been done according to a standard conceptual framework. Certain remedial measures have also been proposed at the end. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Review article on utilization and perception of health services under
           Janani Suraksha Yojna among mothers

    • Authors: Uzma Eram
      Pages: 891 - 893
      Abstract: Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) is the name in Hindi language that literally means “maternal protection scheme. Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) is a safe motherhood intervention under the National Health Mission (NHM). Earlier it was known as National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) it is being implemented with the objective of reducing maternal and neonatal mortality by promoting institutional delivery among poor pregnant women. The scheme is under implementation in all states and union territories, with a special focus on low performing states. The scheme seeks to reduce maternal and neo-natal mortality by promoting institutional delivery, that is, by providing a cash incentive to mothers who deliver their babies in a health facility. There is also provision for incentives to Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) for encouraging mothers to go for institutional delivery. The scheme is fully sponsored by the Central Government and is implemented in all states and Union Territories, with special focus on low performing states like Uttar Pradesh.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Distribution of leptospirosis patients in Sri Lanka: a retrospective study

    • Authors: Nimantha Karunathilaka, Kithsiri Jayasekara, Ishara Chathurangani, Ranga Thudugala, Athige Rajith Silva, Wanigasekara Daya Ratnasooriya
      Pages: 894 - 902
      Abstract: Background: Leptospirosis [LP] is zoonotic diseases and one of the main communicable diseases in Sri Lanka [SL]. SL is a tropical country in the Indian Ocean with favorable environmental and geographical conditions for dispersion of the LP infection. The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of distribution with possible environmental conditions/factors contributing to the LP in SL.Methods: The study was carried out as retrospective study from 2009-14 throughout the all 25 administrative districts in SL.Results: The multiple regression was performed to investigate any associations between the prevalence of LP and independent variable parameters namely, annual rainfall, average humidity, area of paddy lands and annual flood data. The results revealed that factors affecting prevalence of the LP in Sri Lanka can’t be investigated in toto. Seasonal analysis is needed in the wet and dry zones corresponding to the main Yala and Maha agricultural seasons. Annual rainfall is mainly associated with the prevalence of LP in the wet zone while agricultural environment associated with the prevalence of LP in the dry zone (p<0.05). Furthermore, geographical distribution, high annual water discharge and low precipitation of the river water provides favorable environment for dispersion of LP in the wet zone whilst large reservoirs with highly functioning cascades correlated in the dry zone in SL.Conclusions: It is concluded that pattern of distribution with possible environmental conditions/factors contributing to the LP in SL is vary in the wet and dry zones. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Epidemiologic insight into Trinidad’s awareness and prevention of heart
           disease. The EPITAPH study - a trinidadian cardiovascular health literacy

    • Authors: Naveen Seecheran, Stefan Baldeo, Khadia Balbosa, Salisha Baksh, Shantel Bethelmy, Sarah Balkaran, Karishma Bhagaloo, Philan Bethel, Rajeev Seecheran, Mario Rodriguez, Valmiki Seecheran, Rudiger Ramlal, Sangeeta Persad, Shastri Motilal
      Pages: 903 - 909
      Abstract: Background: The aim of the study is to assess the degree of CV health literacy in the Trinidadian public health sector and to identify any factors associated with it. Methods: The descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at a single, public health care tertiary hospital, cardiology outpatient clinic located in northern-central Trinidad. Participants: A total of 420 persons were approached, of whom, 390 agreed to participate. Participants included all sexes and ethnicities. The study only excluded patients who declined participation and those younger than 18 years of age. Primary and secondary outcome measures: The primary endpoints were the mean score and percentage of correctly answered items, and percentages of modest and high levels of knowledge. Secondary endpoints were the proportion of participants with tertiary or above level education. Results: The study had a response rate of approximately 93%. The domain of “risk factors” had the most correct responses (69.4%), whereas “medical knowledge” reflected the least correct (57.7%) responses. The overall mean score was 19.7 out of the 30-question questionnaire. This translated to a 65.8% correct response rate. The percentage of participants who scored less than 70% and greater than 70% of the questions correctly were 56.2% and 43.8% respectively. The study participants were found to be more knowledgeable about CVD if they reported “tertiary education,” OR 2.572 (95% CI 1.508-4.387) (p = .001).Conclusions: Respondents displayed a modest level of knowledge and key deficiencies were identified which could potentially translate into suboptimal CV clinical outcomes. The study underscores the paramount importance of establishing comprehensive educational interventions to improve overall CVD literacy in Trinidad and Tobago. Further studies are required to confirm and validate these findings. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Factors affecting survival of women with breast cancer in King Fahad
           Medical City, Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Lamyaa Z. Abu Zaid, Ayesha Nuzhat, Munazzah Rafiqe
      Pages: 910 - 915
      Abstract: Background: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women in 140 of 184 countries worldwide.  The association between breast cancer survival and socio-demographic and pathologic factors has been widely studied in the developed countries. But scarce data is available from Saudi Arabia. We aimed to determine the overall observed one year and three years survival rate of female breast cancer patients and to investigate the factors affecting survival rate. Methods: Retrospective data was collected from the cancer center registry at King Fahad Medical City (KFMC) that included all women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1st January 2011 till 31st December 2012 and were followed to 31st December 2015 (cut off point for follow-up). Kaplan-Meier analysis was done to assess overall survival. The factors affecting survival rate such as age, histological type, tumor grade at diagnosis, metastases and treatment options were investigated using log rank test and Cox regression analysis. Results: The overall observed survival probability of the study population at 1, and 3 years was 95%, and 85%, respectively. The 3 year survivals for the younger (≤40 years), 41-50 years and older (50+ years) patients were 83.9%, 90.6% and 80.6% respectively, the differences not reaching statistical significance. There were statistically significant associations between three year survival and histological type of tumour, laterality, metastases and type of treatment by the univariate analysis log rank test. Conclusions: One and three-year survival rate of breast cancer at KFMC was 96% and 85% respectively. Investigating the factors affecting survival rate is one of the most essential means of improving cancer prognosis. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Knowledge, attitudes and practices about goiter among population in Shendi
           provence. River Nile state of Sudan

    • Authors: Ahmed Elnadif Elmanssury, Safa Abdalla Dafaalla
      Pages: 916 - 922
      Abstract: Background: Globally, about 2 thousand million people are affected by iodine deficiency. The aim of this study is to Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding goiter among population in Shendi Provence. River Nile State of Suda. Methods: This study was conducted as a community based descriptive Cross – sectional study. In this study 636 households were included .Questionnaire were used as tools for data collection. The households were selected through a multistage cluster-sampling technique, three cluster stage was used (The locality was divided into four administrative units, All administrative units were divided  into cluster villages or block and The required number of households in each village and block was selected by following the systemic random sampling technique)  636 respondents were selected. Results: The study was found that (58.5%) of respondents were recognize goiter disease as an enlargement of thyroid gland.  More than sixty (63.4%) were aware of the causes of goiter and its symptoms, (56%) were aware of iodine. More than half of respondents (55.8%) were aware of sources of iodine, (47%) of respondents were aware of foods contain iodine and its types. In addition, study revealed that (41%) of participant were aware of iodized salt. Moreover (48%) of respondents consider that iodized salt is necessary. The results revealed that only 82 (12.9%) were applied Preventive measures. Conclusions: The overall knowledge of respondent regarding goiter were found to be good, they had negative attitude towards goiter and they had proper practice in consumption of food contain.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • The hygienic and microbial status of Sudanese banknotes, Khartoum state,

    • Authors: Mohanad Hassan Mohamed Honua
      Pages: 923 - 927
      Abstract: Background: Banknotes are one of the items most frequently circulating from hand to hand, and microbial contaminants of banknote may be transmitted directly, through hand-to-hand contact, or indirectly, via food or other inanimate objects. This study was designed to assess the banknotes handlers hygiene and microbial (Bacteria, Yeasts and Moulds) contamination of Sudanese banknotes in Khartoum state, Sudan. Methods: Fifty samples of Sudanese banknotes were collected randomly from handlers through (March - April / 2015). These samples were microbiologically tested for quantify bacteria, identification of bacteria and fungi (Yeasts and Moulds) by using biochemical tests for bacteria and phenotypical characteristics for fungi. Results: The study showed that the mean of total viable count (CFU/cm2) of bacteria contaminated of banknotes between ( 4.5 – 8.3 ) x 105 CFU/cm2 ,  the study showed 12 different types of bacteria and 5 types of fungi was identified from banknotes with different percentages. From statistically analyzed of 50 questionnaires there were; 76% of handlers had knowledge about contaminated banknotes as being a source of infection; 94% educated handlers at different levels; 64% of the handlers washed hands after using a toilets and before dealing with banknotes again. Conclusions: Sudanese banknotes were contaminated with different bacteria, yeast and moulds. unhygienically handled. The contamination rate was higher in lower denominations than in higher ones.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Clinico-epidemiological profile of dengue cases in a Medical College
           Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

    • Authors: Srividya V., Kruthika N.
      Pages: 928 - 932
      Abstract: Background: Medical college hospital being a tertiary care center receives a significant number of dengue cases from within and outside the catchment area and provides a good opportunity to study the clinical and epidemiological features of dengue infection, its prognosis and outcome so as to institute prompt preventive and control measures. The objective was to describe the clinico-epidemiological features of dengue cases admitted to pediatric ward at a Medical College Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.Methods: Cross-sectional study of 140 cases positive for NS1Ag, IgM and/or IgG by dengue rapid immuno-chromatographic card test, admitted in pediatric ward during June to August 2013 at Rajarajeswari Medical College and Hospital.Results: Majority of the patients were from rural area. Fever was present in all 140 cases. Vomiting followed by headache were the common presenting symptoms. Of the 140, 50% cases were classified as dengue fever without warning signs, 46.4% as dengue fever with warning signs and 3.6% as severe dengue. Thrombocytopenia was present in 77.1%, leucopenia in 47.9%, and raised haematocrit in 52.1% of cases. Mortality rate was 0.71%.Conclusions: Children above 5 years of age were most commonly affected age group. About 5 (3.6%) of the patients belonged to severe dengue category according to revised WHO Dengue Case Classification.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Factors associated with treatment outcome in adult tuberculosis patients
           under directly observed treatment short course in Ludhiana city, Punjab,
           India: a cohort study

    • Authors: Rupali Verma Bagga, Sarit Sharma, RK Soni, Anurag Chaudhary, Mahesh Satija
      Pages: 933 - 939
      Abstract: Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a communicable disease requiring prolonged treatment and poor adherence to a prescribed treatment increases the risk of morbidity, mortality and spread of disease in the community. Objective was to study factors associated with treatment outcome in adult Tuberculosis patients on directly observed treatment short (DOTS) course in Ludhiana city, Punjab, India.Methods: The present study was a community based prospective cohort study. It was conducted in the two tuberculosis units (TU) of Ludhiana city, Punjab, India. A total of 221 registered DOTS patients were taken as study subjects and were followed during the course of treatment to observe their treatment outcome. The information was collected on a pre-designed semi-structured questionnaire through personal interviews.Results: Out of 221, 183 (82.8%) subjects had favorable outcome, 35 (15.8%) had unfavourable outcome and 3 (1.4%) were transferred out. The comparison between favorable and unfavourable treatment was found be statistically significant with respect to different age groups, problems faced by subjects to reach DOTS centre, diabetes, sputum smear status, site of tuberculosis involvement and side effects of treatment.Conclusions: Elderly and diabetic patients were found to have higher unfavourable outcome. There is need for special provisions for older age groups, illiterates and for lower socio-economic status (SES) in the form of counselling for old people and health insurance for those belonging to lower SES. Keeping in mind the default rate of the present study, initial counselling, periodic motivation of patients and prompt defaulter retrieval action would be beneficial.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Screening of osteoporosis using calcaneal quantitative ultrasound in a
           rural population of Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India

    • Authors: Rishabh Gupta, Shavi Mahajan, Deepika Dewan, Rajat Gupta
      Pages: 940 - 943
      Abstract: Background: Osteoporosis is a major public health problem, associated with substantial morbidity and socio-economic burden. The objective of the present study was to screen the general population for osteoporosis in a rural area of Jammu region. Methods: 3 screening camps were conducted at 6 monthly intervals between the time period 2015-2016, at the Accidental Hospital, Chowki Choura, which is a rural area of district Jammu, J&K. A total of 270 subjects in the age group 20 to 80 years were subjected to screening through BMD measurements using calcaneal QUS and they were analyzed on the basis of T-scores. Results: Out of 270 subjects, 120 were males and 150 were females. Among 120 males, 68 were in the age group of 20 - 49 years, and 52 were above 50 years. In the age group 20-49 years, 26 males (38.2%) had osteopenia, and 4 (5.9%) had osteoporosis. In males above 50 years of age, 35 (67.3%) had osteopenia and 6 (11.5%) had osteoporosis. Out of 150 females, 94 were in the age groups 20-49 years, and 56 were above 50 years of age. In the age group 20-49 years, 51 females (54.3%) had osteopenia and 12 (12.8%) had osteoporosis. In females above 50 years of age, 32 (57.1%) had osteopenia and 15 (26.8%) had osteoporosis. Conclusions: The overall prevalence of osteoporosis among screened population was 13.7%. It increased with age in both males and females; however the prevalence of osteoporosis was more among females as compared to males (18% vs. 8.3% respectively). 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Awareness and behaviour patterns regarding road safety measures among
           undergraduate students

    • Authors: Harish V. K. Ratna, Rajesh S. S., Ashok Jayaram, Rajanna M. S., Venkatesh P., Krishna Iyengar
      Pages: 944 - 948
      Abstract: Background: In most regions of the world the global epidemic of traffic injuries is still increasing. In India motor vehicle population is growing at a faster rate than the economic and population growth. It has been estimated that unless immediate action is taken, road deaths will rise to the fifth leading cause of deaths by 2020.The present study was aimed to assess the level of awareness regarding road safety among the study participants and to study the behavior patterns while using motorized vehicles among the study participants. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in Sri Siddhartha Dental College, Tumkur. All Undergraduate students were included in the study. A total of 200 students were studied. They all drive either their own vehicles or others’ vehicles. They were aged from 17-27 years. The study period was from October 2016 to November 2016. Results: In total, 200 dental students were studied, ranging from 1st to final year BDS of age 17-27years; the mean age being 21.67 and standard deviation of 3.170.Only 148(74%) wear helmet and only 61(30.5%) interpreted Gap-In-Median correct. Conclusions: The awareness regarding road safety measures among the study participants was satisfactory but interpretation of traffic signs was poor-only 30.5% interpreted gap-in-median correct. The behavioral patterns among dental students are not satisfactory-only 74% of students wear helmet while riding, only 81.5% wear seat belts and 23.5% don’t follow lane rules while driving. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Prevalence of domestic accidents in a rural area of Kerala: a cross
           sectional study

    • Authors: Sobha George, Nimitha Paul, Paul T. Francis, K. Leelamoni
      Pages: 949 - 953
      Abstract: Background: Domestic accidents are important worldwide public health problems which require increased attention. A domestic accident means an accident that takes place at home or its immediate surroundings. Domestic accidents can result in disability and loss of productivity. The aim of the study was to find the prevalence of domestic accidents in a rural area and the various epidemiological factors associated with it. Methods: A community based cross sectional study was done in a rural area of Kerala. The study period was April-May 2016. Face to face interview with a responsible adult informant was done to collect information from 403 households consisting of 1826 individuals using a semi-structured questionnaire after getting consent. Data was tabulated using MS Excel and analysed using SPSS version 20. Qualitative variables expressed as percentages and association found out using Chi square test.Results: The prevalence of domestic accidents in the community was found to be 10.5% (9.14 – 11.95, 95% CI). Majority of the victims were females (66%). Falls were the most prevalent type of domestic accident (33.5%) and it was found to be significantly associated with age, educational status, place of occurrence and activity during accident. First aid kits were available only in 38.2% of houses. Conclusions: Increased awareness, specially among female population is needed to reduce domestic accidents. Take extra care of the extreme ages as they are more vulnerable to falls. It is essential that every house has a first aid kit. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Prevalence of overweight and obesity, body image perception and weight
           control practices among college going adolescent girls in Mysore District,

    • Authors: Srinivas N., Ravi M. R., Prashantha B., Prakash B.
      Pages: 954 - 958
      Abstract: Background: The World Health Organization has described obesity as one of today’s most neglected public health problems. Body image is a psychosocial dimension of body size that encompasses both perceptual and attitudinal factors and has been associated with eating disorders. Adolescents are becoming over conscious of their body image. Body weight perception refers to the personal evaluation of one’s weight irrespective of actual BMI. The objectives of the study was to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity, body image perception and weight control practices among college going adolescents girls and to determine differences between existing BMI and body image perception among college going adolescents girls. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among college going adolescents girls in Mysore district, two colleges were randomly selected and 661 study participants were participated in the study. Data was collected through a self-administered pre tested structured questionnaire and height and weight were measured using standard tools to calculate body mass index. Results: Among the study percipients prevalence of overweight and obesity was found to be 36 (5.4%) and 43 (6.5%) respectively, whereas 70 (10.6) feel they are obese and 386 (59.2%) were ever practiced weight control methods. Body image perception and actual weight were found to statistically significant. Conclusions: Perception about body image as obese was higher among adolescents. Hence adolescents should be given education regarding body mass index and expected BMI for their age and about appropriate dietary practices. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • A cross sectional study on respiratory related morbidities at cotton
           factories in Hyderabad, Telangana

    • Authors: Mahesh Kumar Mummadi, Govind N. Kusneniwar
      Pages: 959 - 961
      Abstract: Background: In the last few years, globalization and rapid industrial growth lead to the emergence of occupational health issues. Byssinosis is a form of reactive airway disease, caused by exposure to cotton dust in inadequately ventilated working conditions. Cotton dust and fibres has been associated with deteriorating the respiratory function. Studies report that byssinosis is to an extent of 40% among textile workers. There were very few studies in Telangana. Hence, this study was conducted with an objective to identify the magnitude of respiratory related morbidities among workers in cotton factories. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted during October to December 2013 in the randomly chosen two cotton factories in the outskirts of Hyderabad. All the employees of the cotton factories were included in the study. Information about socio demographic characteristics, general health condition was collected. A highly validated Medical Research Council (MRC) UK Respiratory questionnaire was used to collect data on respiratory morbidities. Data was entered in MS Excel and analysed using Epi info 7. Results: A total of 159 employees were participated in the study. Males were 9.4%, females were 90.6%. Mean age was 34.25 (±10). It was noted that 3.8% had history of asthma, 2% pneumonia, 13.2% hypertension and 3.8% had diabetes. As per MRC dyspnoea scale, in the last one month, grade 2 dyspnoea was seen in 32 % and grade 3 seen in 17%. Around 64 % has been working for more than 5 years and 36 % has been working for less than 5 years in the cotton factory. It was found that the duration of exposure is statistically significant with grade 2 dyspnoea in participants working in cotton factories. Conclusions: In the present study it can be inferred that the employees in cotton factories are prone to occupational hazards. Inhalation of cotton dust resulting in respiratory morbidities. Increased morbidities are seen in employees with more duration of exposure. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Community based interventional study on dengue awareness and vector
           control in a rural population in Ernakulam, Kerala

    • Authors: Leyanna Susan George, Aswathy S., Nimitha Paul, K. Leelamoni
      Pages: 962 - 967
      Abstract: Background: Dengue fever is an acute infectious disease for which there are currently no specific drugs or effective vaccines available. Therefore its prevention & control solely rest on vector control strategies, for which behavioural change of the community is a requirement. Hence, the aim of our study was to implement a standardised behaviour change communication intervention strategy (BCC) and to measure its impact on the population in terms of awareness, attitude and practice regarding dengue and its vector control. Methods: This study was carried out in a ward in Njarackal Panchayath in Ernakulam district of Kerala. An initial baseline survey was conducted to assess the current awareness, attitude and practices of dengue & its vector control among the residents of the ward. This was followed by the implementation of standardized BCC Intervention strategy. A post intervention survey was carried out two months later to analyze its impact. Results: This BCC strategy resulted in increasing the awareness regarding dengue and its vector control even though it was found not to be statistically significant. However, the strategy was able to bring about a significant change in the attitude and practice of the people with regard to dengue prevention and control strategies. Conclusions: This BCC strategy was successful in this population due to community acceptance, however it requires constant reinforcement for its sustainability. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Ocular morbidity following road traffic acccidents: a retrospective

    • Authors: Shubhra Das, Dipak Bhuyan, Sujit Addya
      Pages: 968 - 972
      Abstract: Background: Ocular trauma is a well-known cause of blindness and visual impairment and in industrialised nations it has become the reason for extended hospitalization of ophthalmologic patients. Anually, there are in excess of 2 million cases of ocular trauma, with more than 40,000 individuals sustaining significant visual impairment on a permanent basis. The aim of the present study was to study the pattern of ocular involvement in variety of road traffic accidents, attending the emergency department of Gauhati Medical College and Hospitals; analyse and correlate various factors playing roles in etiology and evaluate the final visual outcome. Methods: The study was conducted at a tertiary care centre in which retrospective analysis of 500 cases, who sustained injury involving any part of eye due to road traffic accidents attending emergency department from 1st January 2014 to 31st December 2016, was performed. Results: The predominant age group was between 21-30 years of age with males (75.2%) dominating over female (24.8%). Lid injury in the form of abrasions, lacerations, oedema to full thickness tear, is the commonest presentation in majority of the studies. RTA is more common in rainy and winter months and during the daytime. Two (2) wheelers is the common type of vehicle involved. Final visual outcome in the present study is good and comparable to other studies. Conclusions: Driving under the influence of alcohol is an important etiology in Northeast India. A significant section of the patients were driving two-wheelers and not following the safety precautions as advised, which calls for rigorous implementation of traffic rules. Last but not the least, it is often said that the prevention is the best way to minimise such unwanted events. Public sensitisation, strict adherence to traffic rules and improved roads are some of the few steps that can go a long way to reduce such events. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • A cross sectional study on the knowledge, attitudes and practices towards
           menstrual cycle and its problems: a comparative study of government and
           non-government adolescent school girls

    • Authors: Afzal Hakim, Rizwana Shaheen, Manisha ., Himani Tak
      Pages: 973 - 981
      Abstract: Background: Young girls up to 20 years of age comprise a quarter of Indian female population. A vast majority of adolescent girls in India are affected by reproductive health issues and menstrual problems are one of them. These problems arise mostly due to false beliefs & poor awareness regarding menstrual cycle. The objective of the study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practices towards menstrual cycle and its problems among school girls. Methods: A cross sectional study among 250 girls (age 13-19 years) each from government and non-government schools of Jodhpur City was carried out by interviewing them with predesigned & pretested questionnaire. Results: Most of the girls of non-government schools considered menarche as a different experience of life (34.8%) and unhygienic (27.6%) while 41.6% of government school girls were scared due to menarche and 30% considered it as unhygienic. 59.6% of non-government school girls knew about menstrual cycle before menarche while 48.8% of government school girls had such knowledge. Mother was the commonest channel of information in both study groups. 12-14 years was the most common age groups in which menarche occurred in both study groups. About 2/3 of non-government school girls were using sanitary pads while only ¼ of government school girls had such practice. High cost was the major reason for not using sanitary pads in Govt. school girls. Pain Abdomen was the commonest complaint faced during menstrual cycle followed by backache. About 4/5th of non-government school girls and about 2/3rd of government school girls attended school during menstrual cycle. All subjects faced some kind of domestic restriction due to disbelief in relation to menstrual cycle. Irritability was reported as most common psychological problem during menstrual cycleConclusions: There is a need for adolescent girls to have accurate and adequate information about menstruation appropriate sanitary and hygienic management. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Probable mental illnesses among tea plantation workers in Anaimalai, Tamil
           Nadu, South India

    • Authors: Ashwini G. S., Naveen Ramesh, Navya C. J., Jino Joy, Abel Thomas Oommen, Jyoti Singh
      Pages: 982 - 986
      Abstract: Background: The prevalence of mental illnesses among industrial workers is found to be 14% - 51%, which is more than that in the general population. Individual’s psychosocial functioning has an impact on the work efficiency. The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of probable mental illness and its associated factors among workers in selected tea estates in South India. Methods: A cross sectional study was done in two tea estates in Tamil Nadu from March to May, 2012.  The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 28 was used to screen for probable mental illness. Sociodemographic details, work profile and associated risk factors were also elicited. Results: Among the 400 subjects interviewed, 75.5% were females. The mean age was 43.21 (±7.47) years and the mean work experience was 21.38 (±9.31) years. In our study 12.8% subjects screened positive for probable mental illness and 1%, 1%, 0.2% and 1.5% screened positive in the domains somatic symptoms, anxiety/insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression respectively. Workers who screened positive for probable mental illness had availed significantly greater duration of leave in the previous year. There was no significant association of mental illness with age, gender, marital status, substance abuse, designation, co-morbidity and stressful life events. Conclusions: There is a need to screen individuals in different occupation for probable mental illness and those screened positive need evaluation by a psychiatrist. There is also a need to explore associated factors in order to improve one’s health and work efficiency. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • High prevalence of dietary and physical activity related risk factors for
           non-communicable diseases among apparently healthy urban women in Kochi,
           Kerala, South India

    • Authors: Teena M. Joy, Nimitha Paul, Rakesh P. S., K. Leelamoni
      Pages: 987 - 991
      Abstract: Background: Non communicable diseases (NCDs) represent the biggest threat to women’s health worldwide. NCD is a leading cause of morbidity and premature mortality among women in Kerala. This study attempts to delineate the risk factors of NCDs among apparently healthy urban women in Kochi, Kerala. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among apparently healthy women of age 20-60 years in randomly selected wards of Eloor municipality, Kochi, Kerala. The minimum calculated sample size was 130. Houses were selected by systematic random sampling. A semi structured questionnaire based on the STEPS instrument was administered to eligible subjects. Their anthropometric measurements were also taken using standardised tools. Data were entered into Excel sheet and analysed using SPSS version 15. Results: The mean age of the women surveyed was 38.9 years (SD 10.2). Majority (71%) of the study participants were home makers. Majority (97.2%) consumed less than 5 servings of fruits and vegetables a day. Of them, 79.3% were in the low physical activity category.  Around 55% of the women were either overweight or obese. Conclusions: The current study showed a high burden of risk factors for non-communicable diseases among women in urban area in Kerala. Considering the burden of NCD risk factors in the population, there is urgent need to plan and implement gender sensitive community-based interventions at different levels including health promotion, and prevention. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Dealing with unclaimed dead bodies- embrace the challenge

    • Authors: Arora Pankaj, Bhogal Ranjitpal Singh
      Pages: 992 - 996
      Abstract: Background: Worldwide a significant number of unclaimed dead bodies report to hospital and health authorities find it difficult to clear them from morgues. The epidemiology of these unclaimed dead bodies and various methods to identify them has been studied by various forensic experts but no study has considered pitfalls in dignified disposal of the dead bodies. Methods: As a part of routine set up of mortuary, a designated person among the staff of mortuary has been assigned the task of keeping the record of unidentified dead bodies and facilitating their disposal with the help of local police and police under whose jurisdiction the case falls. The same data has been collected retrospectively between the period from 1st April 2014 to 31st March 2015. Results: In this study our designated person, in coordination with local police, was able to expedite the process of disposing these dead bodies on an average in 9.7 days; in accordance with the law and as per the customary rituals, where ever possible. This reflects an extraordinary work beyond the routine tasks given to this indispensable and highly motivated worker. Conclusions: However, this points to a possible need for development of a mechanism, where it is not dependent on individual efforts. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Revised Kuppuswamy and B G Prasad socio-economic scales for 2016

    • Authors: Zakirhusain Shaikh, Rambha Pathak
      Pages: 997 - 999
      Abstract: Background: Socio-economic scales are integral part in the assessment of social class of an individual/family, which can have an influence on disease causing factors. It is also vital for consideration when customising health education to the target audience. Socio-economic scales are dependent on evaluation of income and need to be updated with changing consumer price index. The objective of the study was to revise the socio-economic scales of Kuppuswamy and B G Prasad, taking into consideration the revision in consumer price index (industrial workers). Methods: The socio-economic scales were revised on the basis of updated CPI (IW) for the month of August 2016, using an online tool. Results: The updated Kuppuswamy and B G Prasad scales for the year 2016 were obtained using revised CPI (IW) and a simple online tool. Conclusions: Regular updating of socio-economic scales which depend on income and are therefore susceptible to changes, due to revisions in consumer price index, is necessary to maintain the validity of these scales, which are used widely in community surveys and social studies. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • A study of clinical profile of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary

    • Authors: Teeku Sinha, Susheel Kumar Nalli, Amardeepak Toppo
      Pages: 1000 - 1004
      Abstract: Background: Chronic morbidity and also deaths are caused by COPD. Once affected by COPD, patients suffer many years together. Some can die before expected life expectancy. It has been estimated that due to constant exposure to risk factor and increased life expectancy, all over the world the prevalence is likely to increase.  The objective of the study was to study the clinical profile of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.Methods: A hospital based cross sectional study was conducted at department of community medicine, Late Baliram Kashyap Memorial Government Medical College, Jagdalpur, Chhattisgarh, India among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for a period of six months from September 2015 to February 2016. Informed consent was obtained from each patient. Detail clinical history, physical examination to look for nutritional status, spirometry with reversibility was carried out for each and every patient.Results: Age range in our study was 26-75 years. Mean age in COPD patients was 57.13±11.149 years and that of control group was 54.60±13.074 years with male to female ratio 9.71:1 in COPD case and 11.5:1 in control group. Most common symptom in COPD patient was SOB followed by cough, expectoration, and edema and chest pain. mMRC grading in COPD are higher than control group in our study. Smoking in pack year was significantly higher in COPD cases as 69.70± 36.164 and in control group it was 13.84±7.867.Conclusions: COPD was found to be more common in males. Cough was the most common presenting symptom. Smoking was significantly associated with occurrence of COPD.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Association of risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus and fasting blood
           glucose levels among residents of rural area of Delhi: a cross sectional

    • Authors: Mrinmoy Adhikary, Vinoth Gnana Chellaiyan, Ranadip Chowdhury, Shailaja Daral, Neha Taneja, Timiresh Kumar Das
      Pages: 1005 - 1010
      Abstract: Background: Diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions globally. India has largest number of diabetic population constituting major proportion worldwide. The epidemic of diabetes in India is due to the rapid epidemiological transition attributed to changes in dietary patterns and decreased physical activity apart from the role of genetic factors in the disease causation. The objectives of the study was to assess the risk factors of type 2 diabetes and to find the relation between risk factors of type 2 diabetes and fasting capillary blood glucose level among the study population.Methods: A cross sectional community based study was carried out using a semi structured, pretested, questionnaire among 432 study subjects aged 30 years and above in a randomly selected sahoorpur village under Fatehpur Beri primary health centre. The study duration was from March 2011 to February 2012. Means and proportions were calculated. Multivariate logistic regression was applied. Results: The mean (SD) age of the study population was 45 (±11.9) years. Positive family history of Diabetes was present in 14.4% of study population. History of smoking and alcohol was found in 37.5% and 8.3% respectively. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 48.8% and 17.2% respectively. Regression showed age more than 60 years (OR 1.135, 95% CI 0.037 – 0.492), family history of diabetes (OR 4.181, 95% CI 1.734 – 10.083), higher waist circumference (OR 13.414, 95% CI 4.991 – 36.051), sedentary work (OR 3.133, 95% CI 0.032 – 0.592), obesity (OR 4.709, 95% CI 1.790 – 12.394) had higher odds of having higher fasting capillary blood glucose level. Conclusions: The study found a higher prevalence of risk factors among the study population. Risk factors showed a significant relation with higher fasting capillary blood glucose. There is a mandate for health education to motivate change in lifestyle modification among the study population. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Prevalence of occupational skin diseases among rice field workers in

    • Authors: Shiva ., Sumitra Singh, Shailendra Kumar Singh
      Pages: 1011 - 1017
      Abstract: Background: The objective of the study was to estimate the risk of occupational skin diseases among workers who were exposed to animal manure during rice cultivation in India. Methods: Questionnaire based six month follow up study with weekly assessment of skin diseases in rice field workers from village Dabra, in Haryana state of India who were exposed to animal manure was carried out among the agricultural workers working in rice field along with dermatological examination of exposed parts. Results: Out of total 574, workers, 90 were excluded as per exclusion criteria. 71 workers out of 370 workers who were free from diseases at baseline survey data develop a new disease with cumulative incidence of 19.1%. There was higher prevalence of dermatitis among all of reported skin diseases. Conclusions: Exposure to animal manure mixed with standing water is a major risk factor among the workers working in rice field and attempt should be made to identify the type of dermatitis and relate its causative agent with any specific biological or chemical agents present in animal manure mixed with standing water of rice field.  
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • A hospital-based study on knowledge, attitude and practice of pregnant
           women on gender preference, prenatal sex determination and female feticide
           at tertiary care hospital, Bikaner

    • Authors: Seema Mehta, Rattiram Meena, Rekha Acharya, Gaurav Sharma, Madhu Patni Bhatt
      Pages: 1018 - 1021
      Abstract: Background: Female feticide has been a big social problem in all the states of India. There is a male child preference by pregnant women including their family members. Thus this study aimed to assess attitude and awareness on female feticide. Methods: The present study was conducted in ANC center of Medical college Hospital, Bikaner of Rajasthan in 500 pregnant women (250 rural and 250 Urban). Results: Out of 500 pregnant women 62% had shown no gender preference, 23% preferred male child and 15% had preferred to have female child. Regarding awareness, 88% and 90% women knew that prenatal sex determination and female feticide are illegal respectively. Conclusions: Being the civilized citizens, it is our duty to raise voice against the declining sex ratio and killing of girl child. Being a woman it is our primary duty as well as concern to come forward to stop this menace.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Case control study for risk factors associated with oral cancer in central

    • Authors: Dadasaheb Dhage, Sonali Patil, Uday Narlwar, Suresh Ughade, Hemant Adikane
      Pages: 1022 - 1027
      Abstract: Background: Oral cancer is higher prevalent condition in Asian countries. In India, due to higher proportion of population consuming tobacco in either chewing or smoking and alcohol consumption. Methods: Present matched case control study was carried out in regional cancer institute in central India. The study consists of a total 124 cases and 124 controls. Cases were newly diagnosed patients of oral cancer confirmed by histopathological examination. Results: For cases, the  mean age (years) was 47.62, the range being 23-83 years while that of controls was  47.89 years, the range being 24-84 years. Majority were males (83.88%). Majority of cases (79.04%) were past chewers who had OR 2.61. Maximum number of cases (19.36%) were past smokers and maximum number of controls (12.09%) were current smokers who had OR 4.54. Maximum number of cases (30.64%) were former drinker and maximum number of controls (8.87%) were current drinker who had OR 2.97. Conclusions: In summary, oral cancer occurs more commonly in middle aged males. The statistical data of this study provide strong evidence that tobacco chewing, smoking and alcohol could be in a straight line responsible for developing oral cancer in central India. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Pattern of sexually transmitted infections in a district hospital from
           Himachal Pradesh

    • Authors: Anuj Sharma, Renu Rattan, Aditya Sood
      Pages: 1028 - 1031
      Abstract: Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a public health problem, which increase the HIV transmission and are a burden to the individual, his family and community. The prevalence of STIs varies widely across different regions in our country. There is immense need to study the pattern of STIs in various regions for proper planning and implementation of control strategies. The study was conducted with the objective to assess the pattern of STIs and their prevalence in a District hospital of Himachal Pradesh. Methods: A retrospective hospital based study was carried out from clinical records of the STI clinic over a period of one year (January 2016 to December, 2016). Detailed history, demographical data and clinical features were recorded, and STIs were categorized into various syndromes as depicted by National AIDS Control Organization. The data collected was analyzed statistically, and compared with other studies from across the country. Results: Cervical/vaginal discharge (80.4%) was the commonest STI followed by balanoposthitis (33.3%), lower abdominal pain syndrome (LAP) (17.1%), genital scabies (4.2%), herpes genitalis (3.7%), uretheral discharge (1.9%), genital warts (0.98%), chancroid (0.61%), molluscum contagiosum (0.6%), syphilis (0.12%) and inguinal bubo (0.12%). Balanoposthitis was the commonest STI in males, followed by genital scabies, herpes genitalis, genital warts, chancroid and genital molluscum, uretheral discharge and syphilis. In females, cervical/vaginal discharge was the most frequently reported STI followed by LAP, genital herpes, genital scabies, genital warts, chancroid, inguinal bubo and molluscum contagiosum. Conclusions: The increase prevalence of cervical/vaginal discharge was due to increased referral from Gynaecology OPDs. Balanoposthitis was quite commonly reported in males. The increase in the viral STIs has been seen, which is consistent with other studies from different regions. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Psycho-social needs fulfilment- can it be a predictor of
           otorhinolaryngological services outcome of a rural heath training
           centre': a study by wellness triangle analysis

    • Authors: Sanjeev Davey, Santosh Kumar Raghav, Jai Vir Singh, Anuradha Davey, Nirankar Singh, Chaitanya Maheshwari
      Pages: 1032 - 1038
      Abstract: Background: Primary health care approach in ENT health care delivery; has shown to be a budding strategy in alleviating the ENT disease burden in the rural of India, as evident from literature. However the impact of Psycho-social needs fulfillment associated with ENT diseases for achieving optimum ENT care has not been studied till now, which was the main issue addressed by this study. Methods: A Prospective study was done on needs of ENT patients in 6 villages (sampled randomly); in a catchment area of a rural health training centre (RHTC) of a Medical College in western Uttar Pradesh (Muzaffarnagar) from 1st January 2015 to 30th June 2016 by way of a Wellness Triangle approach of WHO exploring Physical, Social and Mental needs from ENT Specialist Services. All the needs of patients were studied by a Semi-structured Performa and data was analyzed by appropriate statistical software’s. Results: Among 384 patients, who attended ENT Specialist services at RHTC for 1.6 years- the majority of patients availing ENT care at RHTC were initially dissatisfied with Psycho-social support provided by ENT Specialists(77%,n=296). However when Psycho-social Component of Patients (n=311, 81%) were fulfilled by both ENT & Community Medicine faculties -the ENT Curative treatment % was higher (n=212, 55.2% vs. n=13, 3.3%, OR=9.8, RR=1.5) and this difference was also statistically significant( p<0.00001). Conclusions: Greater psycho-social support is needed by ENT patients; apart from focus on pure curative approach by otorhinolaryngologist. The full-filing of psycho-social needs of ENT patients, needs more attention by both ENT specialists and community physicians for delivering ENT care by primary health care approach.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • A cross sectional study to assess perception regarding mosquito borne
           diseases in urban areas of Belagavi city

    • Authors: Rajesh R. Kulkarni, Mallikarjun K. Biradar
      Pages: 1039 - 1042
      Abstract: Background: Mosquito borne diseases are one of the major health problems in India. Due to growing population, unplanned urbanization, lack of awareness about the diseases and increasing number of slums in urban areas, the incidence of mosquito borne diseases is increasing simultaneously. To assess knowledge about mosquito borne disease and to impart awareness regarding prevention of mosquito borne diseases in the community. Methods: The present study was carried out in the urban field practice areas of department of Community Medicine, J. N. Medical College, Belagavi. Data was collected by systemic random sampling. Data was compiled, tabulated and analyzed using proportions.Results: Out of 360 participants, 45.8 % were in the age group of 20-29; male participants constituted about 56.3% and 43.7% were female. 4.4 % people belong to class I and 41.4 % belongs to class IV socio-economic status. 19.3 % were illiterates and 28.6% lived in Kachha house. 78.33% study subjects knew about mosquitoes borne diseases, 31.3 % people had the knowledge that mosquitoes can cause malaria, dengue and chikungunya, 36.6% consider drainage and garbage as common breeding place. 57.8% people use mosquito coils to prevent mosquito bite. 61.4% had knowledge about disease through TV and newspapers. Conclusions: Lack of awareness and knowledge about mosquito borne disease in low socio economic status and illiterates and also about breeding sites of mosquitoes.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • High prevalence and associated risk factors of dehydration among college
           students: implications for health and academic performance

    • Authors: Christopher E. Ekpenyong, Itoro-Abasi M. Akpan
      Pages: 1043 - 1055
      Abstract: Background: Existing data indicate that poor hydration status adversely affects academic performance and health status of college students, but hydration studies among students have not received sufficient research and educational attention. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of dehydration among college students in Southern Nigeria.Methods: A total of 500 students (190 males and 310 females), ages between 18 and 35 years filled out a supervised questionnaire which included questions pertaining to socio-demographics, lifestyle habits, perceived symptoms, academic performance, urinary characteristics and water/fluid intake. Hydration status was determined using urinary specific gravity during the month of October 2016. Mean values were calculated and used to determine the hydration status of participants. Multivariable regression analysis was used to determine odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval for factors associated with poor hydration status of participants.Results: About 46.4% of participants were dehydrated. Insufficient water intake (OR=6.41, 95% CI:2.121-19.385, P=0.001), alcohol drinking habits (OR=4.17, 95% CI: 1.313-13.258, P=0.015), night clubbing habits (OR=2.51, 95% CI:1.261-3.822, P=0.034) and being exposed to hot environment (OR=2.16, 95% CI:1.998-4.656, P=0.041) were factors associated with increased odds of dehydration among participants. Other factors associated with higher odds of dehydration include regular coffee intake (OR=2.93, 95% CI:1.788-5.622, P=0.017), experiencing academic stress (OR=1.53, 95% CI:1.041-2.251, P=0.031) and having parents or guardians of middle or low SES (OR=2.21, 95% CI:1.70-4.267, P=0.42) and (OR=3.42, 95% CI:1.655-7.82, P=0.015) respectively.Conclusions: Indeed, there is a high prevalence of dehydration and associated risk factors among college students. Intervention programs to reduce dehydration among students should include these factors among others for improved quality of life and academic performance.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Assessment of risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus among rural population in
           Karnataka by using Indian diabetes risk score

    • Authors: Radha Ramaiah, Srividya Jayarama
      Pages: 1056 - 1059
      Abstract: Background: Diabetes has emerged not only as a major public health problem, but also as a global societal catastrophe. Governments worldwide are struggling to meet the cost of the diabetic care. The proportion of people with diabetes is rapidly increasing in many countries, with the documented increase in low and middle income countries. With this background a study was planned with the objective of assessing the risk of diabetes among adults in a rural area using a simple diagnostic tool. Methods: A community based, cross-sectional study was done among 485 adults aged 20 years and above residing in a rural area of Karnataka. Data collection was done by household survey by direct interview using a pretested, structured questionnaire. The questionnaire had 2 parts with part one of socio-demographic variables and part two made up of Indian diabetes risk score (IDRS) questionnaire. IDRS was developed by Mohan et al and its parameters comprise of 2 modifiable (waist circumference, physical activity) and 2 non-modifiable risk factors (age, family history) for diabetes. Analysis was done with open Epi and Microsoft excel. Results: In the present study, according to IDRS, 14.84% of the study subjects had high risk of diabetes, 73.19% had moderate risk and 11.95% had no/low risk of diabetes. Conclusions: The risk of diabetes among adults is on rise in rural areas. Physical activity likes regular exercises, diet and lifestyle modification are some of the interventions that can reduce the risk of diabetes.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Food taboos among pregnant and lactating mothers in Tumkur: a qualitative

    • Authors: Shwetha T. M., Swetha R., Krishna Iyengar, Usha Rani S.
      Pages: 1060 - 1065
      Abstract: Background: Maternal nutrition has a huge impact on the health of the mother and the fetus. Pregnancy imposes the need for considerable extra calorie and nutrient requirements. A food taboo is a prohibition against consuming certain foods. The restrictions imposed on people forces them to abstain from certain food and drinking items as these things are embedded into the cultural and religious threads. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted between July 2014 and September 2014. Study was conducted in urban and rural field practice area of Sri Siddhartha medical college, Tumkur, Karnataka.  Study involved three groups Mother –in- laws Anganwadi workers, Pregnant and lactating women. Six Focus group discussions were conducted and four themes were used. Quantitative data was tabulated and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: All most all women under the study followed some form of restrictive diet. Many nutritive and locally available foods were avoided which includes fruits, vegetables, pulses and green leafy vegetables. Special foods rich in energy were consumed during post-partum period. Concept of hot and cold food is prevailing high and there was no scientific reasoning given for the taboo. Anganwadi workers who are front line health workers were believed in the many of the food taboos. Conclusions: Food taboos in this community are deep rooted. Avoidance of nutritive food was common in both the religion. Many misconceptions are prevalent which do not have scientific basis. Maternal nutrition needs to be prioritized at community level among family members and front line workers. Anganwadi workers need to be sensitized   regarding different beliefs about food consumption during pregnancy and lactation.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • A study to assess factors affecting the performance of undergraduate
           medical students in academic examination in community medicine

    • Authors: Venkatashiva Reddy B, Arti Gupta, Amit Kumar Singh
      Pages: 1066 - 1070
      Abstract: Background: Undergraduate medical education is facing many basic problems in India today. This study aimed to identify and analyze factors that affect the students’ academic performance in Community Medicine. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at the Department of Community Medicine, VCSGGMS & RI, Uttarakhand, India among the third and sixth semester medical students from February to July 2016. The questionnaire was used to interview 182 students. The questionnaire covered demographic factors, physical fitness in terms of refractive error, use of technology in the form of smart phones and internet, stress level in the form of sleeping hours before examination, pattern of meals before examination and material used for study and others. The student was scaled based on an achievement marks percentile. Results: The research population included 182 students (85 male and 97 female). The mean age of the studied students was 21.62 ± 1.61 years. About 48.9% of the students were using spectacles. Over 90% of the students reported using smart phones, computer, and access to the internet. The mean hours of sleep day before the examination were 5.14± 1.94 hours. About three fourth of the students, reported consuming meals before the examination. Demographic factors, i.e. age and gender were significantly associated with students’ overall academic achievement in multiple linear regression analysis (p<0.05). Conclusions: Various factors determine the academic performance of students. To understand better about the factors that contribute in the academic performance of students there is need for a qualitative study.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • A study on co-morbidities and treatment outcome based on updated
           definitions among tuberculosis patients registered at a tuberculosis unit,

    • Authors: Anwith H. Shivalingaiah, Chethana Ramegowda, N. R. Ramesh Masthi
      Pages: 1071 - 1074
      Abstract: Background: Tuberculosis remains one of the world‘s deadliest communicable diseases and a major public health problem and is a most common opportunistic infection in people living with HIV. The treatment outcome of Tuberculosis is influenced by numerous factors of which presence of co-morbidities is one of the factors. The present study was done with following objectives, to assess the proportion of co-morbidities and treatment outcome of the Tuberculosis cases registered for DOTS treatment at the Tuberculosis unit.Methods:  A Descriptive study was conducted at a Tuberculosis Unit in Bangalore with 80 subjects     selected by purposive sampling satisfying inclusion & exclusion criteria. Data was collected using a pretested semi structured proforma administered to all the study subjects by trained investigators. Data regarding socio demographic profile, profile of tuberculosis, medical co-morbidities which the subjects were suffering were collected and these patients were followed up till their treatment completion and outcome of treatment was given based on new WHO definitions.Results: The present study showed that, 38 (47.50%) of the study subjects had one or the other comorbidities with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease being the most common 18(22.5%) followed by Diabetes 13(16.25%). On determining the treatment outcome of the study subjects the overall treatment success rate was 86.25% which included the cured and treatment completed subjects. However there was no statistically significant (p = 0.614) association between treatment success and presence of comorbidity.Conclusions: The cure rate among the tuberculosis patients, following DOTS therapy was found to be slightly less than the RNTCP standards.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding sickle cell disease in adult
           sufferers and carriers in a rural area

    • Authors: Sonali S. Patil, Anand A. Thikare, Sarita K. Wadhva, Uday W. Narlawar, Shruti Shukla
      Pages: 1075 - 1080
      Abstract: Background: According to State Health Society, there are about 30 lakhs sickle cell carrier and 1.5 lakhs sufferers in Maharashtra, prevalence being more in tribal population. As Sickle cell disease is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, it is important for patients to have awareness regarding its cause, treatment and genetic implication. To assess Knowledge, Attitude and Practices regarding sickle cell disease in adult sufferers and carriers.Materials and Methods: The present study is an cross sectional study, carried out in 232 adult sickle cell disease sufferers and carriers in rural area of Chandrapur district from July 2014 to December 2015.Results: Out of 232 study subjects, 17.24% were sufferers and 82.76% were carriers. Only 62.50% knew the correct cause and only 42.67% had correct knowledge of types of disease. 76.30% had correct knowledge about symptoms of disease. 40.09% patients were availing  treatment of some kind. It was found that only 6.77% had done premarital screening of their spouses and 100% had screened their children for sickle cell disease.Conclusion: Knowledge regarding sickle cell disease, its cause, types, treatment and prevention is satisfactory in sufferers but not in carriers. Overall attitude towards treatment and prevention is more or less positive. Treatment seeking behavior is good in sufferers but not in carriers.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • A qualitative study of primary care physicians’ perceptions and
           experiences on iron-folic acid consumption

    • Authors: Ankur Joshi, Surya Bali, Saket Kale, Sharad Tiwari, Viswanath Arutagi
      Pages: 1081 - 1086
      Abstract: Background: A primary health centre (PHC) physician, because of his physician-provider interaction at community level and legitimate capacity to deliver and monitor health services, serves as an ideal candidate to understand the specific health/ health program related issues. Methods: This community based qualitative study was conducted in selected clusters of state of Madhya Pradesh (central India) identified through multileveled stratification. The physicians serving in primary health centres from the selected clusters were in depth interviewed through topic guides based upon conceptual construct. The data obtained through in-depth interviews was utilized for thematic framework and linkage association. Results: Two major interrelated themes emerged from the convergence of the user related and system related subthemes. The first major theme is “distorted perceptions reinforced by unpleasant encounters” which is constructed from the convergence of user concerns. The theme “system resistance and resource constraints” is assembled from convergence of system issues. Conclusions: On a policy perspective, all the attempts should be made to break the misconception around IFA supplementation and to augment the feeling of ownership in the community. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Strategies to improve the maternal health programmes under NHM towards
           MDG-5: maternal mortality in Karnataka

    • Authors: R. R. Kularni, D Venkatesh
      Pages: 1087 - 1093
      Abstract: Background: Since from the inception of safe mother hood programs in India during 1982-1990, there is no enough maternal health initiative and financial resource for funding public health activities. So number of maternal deaths is more in India, presently which is accounted 20% of the world total maternal deaths. The global and national importance has been given during 1990 by forming millennium development goal -5 (MDG) to improve maternal health programs. During these days MMR was high and there has been recognition for Maternal Health Programs since from 1997, when RCH-I, in the year 2005. National rural health mission (NRHM) was launched with the primary and main objective was to reduce infant and maternal mortality rate as per goal and target fixed by the 12th five year plan (NHM) and MDG -5. Under NHM enough financial resources envelop has been allotted to states of India as per program implementation plan (PIP), so effective utilization of these strategic and financial resources to reduce MMR. Hence this study needs to form strategies to improve the maternal health programs to reduce maternal mortality ratio as per NHM and MDG. Methods: We used the range of methods, like analytical methods to generate the strategies to reduce maternal deaths due to the particular cause by introducing the maternal health programmes with the strategies. Results: Maternal mortality ratio reduced from an estimated level of 437 in 1990 to 178 in 2010–12.The all India and Karnataka target for 2015 was 109 so far not reached. It has to be reached at least by 2017. Conclusions: Optimal using of resources with the implementation of proper strategies, it will give the exact result for achievement of planned goal. This study is also revealed that all the aspects of maternal health programmes and MMR. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Career choices of the first year students of Madha Medical College

    • Authors: Ashrof Raja, G. Jahnavi, Satya Ranjan Patra
      Pages: 1094 - 1098
      Abstract: Background: It is not very clear about the factors that influence the career choices of the undergraduate medical students. Experiences in the college during their curriculum are the strong determinants in developing an attitude to different subjects and attitude plays a very important role in choosing the speciality. This study is sought to find out the career choices of the first year medical students and what influenced them to take up that particular careerMethods: A cross sectional questionnaire based study was conducted in the first semester students of the Madha Medical College. The questionnaire was designed to find out the first choice of speciality, awareness of various subjects taught in a medical college, location preferences, and reasons influencing the preference, education level and occupation of their parents.Results: Out of a total of 150 students 141 (94%) were present on that day who had completed the questionnaire successfully. The mean age of the students was 17.8±0.6 (min=17, max=20). About 54% of the students were females and the rest 46% were males. The students belonging to urban area were 67% and that of rural area were 33%. The reasons quoted by the students for joining the MBBS course were personal interest 82%, parent’s interest 18%. None of the students could correctly answer the number of subjects taught in a medical college during the course. About half of the students did not know the duration of a specialization course after MBBS. The students interested to do specialization were 97% and interested to do IAS, or IPS were 2%. The most preferred career choices among the students were clinical subjects (71%), of which General Medicine and obstetrics & gynecology topped the list, followed by surgery and paediatrics; 24% chose pre-clinical subjects and anatomy was the most favoured, followed by physiology and the least preferred was biochemistry; only 2% were interested in paraclinical subjects of which community medicine, pharmacology and forensic medicine shared equal status but none of them wanted to specialize in pathology and microbiology. Personal interest was rated among 81% of the students in influencing their choice of speciality. After completion of education about 45% of the students wanted to settle in urban area and equal percentage of students in rural area. The students who wanted to settle in India after specialization was 87%, who wanted to go abroad were 7%. About 46% of the students wanted to join the corporate set up after specialization, 36% wanted to become private practitioners. About 46% of the students felt that 1 year is adequate for basic sciences.Conclusion:  The career choices among the students of our institution were biased among the clinical subjects. The choices may change during the course of time which would be followed up. The role modelling by the faculty could be a factor in influencing their choices.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Study to assess predictive value of waist to height ratio and body mass
           index as a risk factor of hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    • Authors: Sampat Raj Nagar, Manish Jain
      Pages: 1099 - 1103
      Abstract: Background: Hypertension and diabetes have become important world-wide public-health challenges. Assessment of risk for Hypertension and Diabetes requires identifying an easy tool that can be used by health workers in screening programmes. To compare predictive value of WHtR against BMI in assessing risk of Hypertension and Diabetes. Methods: A case-control study was carried out at MB Hospital and Urban Health Training Centre (UHTC) attached to RNT Medical College, Udaipur, Rajasthan. Selected individuals were examined and interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were carried out. Odds ratios were derived for quantitative analysis. Results: Observed proportion of BMI ≥ 25 kg /m2 was 60.4% in type 2 diabetes cases, whereas 39.6% in controls. Odds ratio was 2.383. Observed proportion of BMI ≥ 25 kg/ m2 was 66.7% in HTN cases, whereas 33.3% in controls with a Odds ratio of 3.484. An Odds ratio of 3.151, showed existence of strong association of WHtR above 0.5 with hypertension. Observed proportion of WHtR above 0.5 was 56.3% in type 2 diabetes cases, whereas 43.7% in controls and Odds ratio was 4.292. Conclusions: The OR of WHtR in diabetes (4.292) in compared to OR of BMI (2.303), shows the strength of association of WHtR as an alarming risk factor for diabetes than BMI; whereas an equivalent strength of association was observed for hypertension. Study favours the use of anthropometric measures especially WHtR for predicting type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Adolescent mothers: determinants and dimensions

    • Authors: Amoghashree ., Pradeep T. S., Praveen Kulkarni, M. R. Narayana Murthy
      Pages: 1104 - 1109
      Abstract: Background: Adolescent pregnancies are more likely seen in poor, uneducated and rural communities. Pregnancy in adolescence is raising problem of all nations including India. There is lot of social pressure among these girls to marry at this tender age and after marriage face the next task of pregnancy which means to have children. The study was conducted with the objective to estimate magnitude of teenage pregnancy in rural community, to assess the socio-cultural dimensions determining teenage pregnancies and to assess the perception of teenage mothers on their social status. Methods: Pre tested and semi structured questionnaire through interview technique. Adolescent girls aged 10-19 years who were already mothers or pregnant at the time of the survey and women aged 20 -24 years married before the age of 18 years were included in survey.  Descriptive statistics like percentage, mean and standard deviation were applied.Results: 54(37.8%) of study participants belonged to the age group of 16-20 years, 52(36.3%) of study participants belonged to Class V according to modified B.G. Prasad socioeconomic status, 81(56.6%) of study participants were married by the age of 16yrs, 93(65.1%) study participants knew one or other family planning methods, Educating about the hazards of adolescent pregnancy in the community, traditional practices can be changed and thereby decreasing early marriages and by this means early pregnancies. Conclusions: There is a need of more B.C.C. activities to increase the age of marriage even though which is legalized at age of 18 years but to follow the same and by thus avoiding this easily avoidable health burden and by educating about the hazards of adolescent pregnancy in the community, traditional practices can be changed and thereby decreasing early marriages and by this means early pregnancies. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Carrier choices and the factors influencing it among medical students in a
           private medical college in Tamilnadu

    • Authors: Dhananjay Sharma, Satyajit Pattnaik
      Pages: 1110 - 1112
      Abstract: Background: Career choices of undergraduate students are influenced by many factors. The present study was conducted to elicit the most preferred specialty and to ascertain the factors influencing such choices.Method: A cross sectional study was conducted among the final year and students undergoing internship at a private medical college in South India using a pre designed self-administered questionnaire.Results: Out of three hundred and fourteen students who participated, 298 want to pursue specialization. The preferred specialties of choice are medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics and orthopedics. The two most important factors which supposedly influenced their career choice are scope for self-practice and stable and secure futureConclusion: Most students prefer clinical subjects and there were few takers for pre and para clinical subjects. There is a need to analyze the reasons for such preferences and undertake corrective modifications to increase interest in other subjects.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Knowledge regarding hazards and legislation of tobacco consumption among
           undergraduate students in Rajkot & Morbi Districts, Gujarat, India, 2016

    • Authors: Zalak R. Matariya, Harshida K. Namera, Umed V. Patel
      Pages: 1113 - 1118
      Abstract: Background: Tobacco which is most common legally available hazardous substance, most of the new users in India's is school children. For prevention and control of tobacco consumption, legislation lies at the very heart of any effective tobacco control programme. To assess knowledge regarding harmful effects and legislation of tobacco consumption among undergraduate studentsMethods: A cross sectional study carried out among 2000 students in 20 colleges of different streams of Rajkot and Morbi districts during February-March 2016 using self-administered questionnaire. Proportion of male: female was kept 3:1.Results: Knowledge regarding harmful effects of tobacco was present in 95.8% participants. 92.8% students believed that cancer is the harmful effect of tobacco consumption.77.3% students had knowledge that tobacco consumption is the leading cause of death in India. Television was the commonest source of knowledge of harmful effect of tobacco (71.9%).  Only 15.9% students had knowledge regarding the penalty for violation of rules of tobacco consumption prohibition.Conclusion: Knowledge regarding harmful effects of tobacco consumption was present in majority of students but it had no association with tobacco consumption habit. Knowledge regarding legislation of tobacco consumption was poor among students.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Ecological study for prioritization of districts of Odisha for swacch
           bharat mission implementation based on a new modified environmental
           sanitation index using census 2011 and AHS 2012 data

    • Authors: J. S. Kshatri, Manasee Panda, R. M. Tripathy
      Pages: 1119 - 1124
      Abstract: Background: Open defecation practices and contaminated drinking water are the two major sources of excreta-related infections. Swacch Bharat Mission (SBM) is a cleanliness campaign launched in India in 2014 for duration of five years. Primary Objectives: 1. Determine the effect of open defecation and drinking water sources on the incidence of diarrheal diseases in Odisha. 2. Categorisation of the districts according to a Modified Environmental Sanitation Index (M.E.S.I).Methods: Type of study: Ecological study. Study instrument: Secondary data collected from Census of India-2011 and Annual Health Survey report, 2012. A Modified E.S.I (M.E.S.I.) score was calculated for Odisha using ESI template developed by Balamurugan and Ravichandran. Statistical analyses were done using GNU PSPP Statistical Analysis Software Release 0.9.0. Results: According to the Census of India, 2,129,276 (22.04%) households in Odisha used latrines, including water closet and pit latrines. From the AHS-2012 data it was found that the overall incidence of diarrhea /dysentery in Odisha was 5.92 per 1000 population. Association with diarrheal disease incidence was estimated after classifying districts into 4 categories according to the use of latrines as <10%, 10-20%, 20-30% and >30%. The mean incidence of diarrheal diseases was lower in districts that had higher use of toilets. The variables from each broad category were classified into positive and negative indicators for ESI calculation and MESI score was calculated. Based on the M.E.S.I, the districts were ranked. Dhenkanal, Kandhamal, Nayagarh were ranked worst. Conclusions: Districts should be prioritized based on MESI score for effective SBM implementation. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Assessment of Facility based newborn care at various health care
           facilities in Rajkot district

    • Authors: Jasmin R. Oza, Ashutosh D. Jogia, Bhavesh R. Kanabar, Dhara V. Thakrar
      Pages: 1125 - 1130
      Abstract: Background: India carries the single largest share (around 25-30%) of neonatal deaths in the world. It has been estimated that about 70% of neonatal deaths could be prevented if proven interventions are implemented effectively with high coverage.Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at various health facilities of Rajkot district where facility based newborn care are created as per the guidelines under NRHM. It was conducted during August 2013 to October, 2013. The data entry was done in Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and analyzed in Epi info software from CDC Atlanta. Results: This study included total 32 health facilities including 10 Primary Health Centers (PHC) (24X7), 15 Community Health Centers (CHC), 5 Sub District Hospitals (SDH), one District Hospital (DH) and one Medical College (MC). There are a total of 36 facilities of different level available in government set up for newborn care starting from NBCC to SNCU. All (100%) of the health centers visited were equipped with NBCC for newborn care, while NBSU and SNCU for newborn care were created at only 2 (6.2%) centers respectively. Only 2 out of 10 PHC had all required equipments for NBCC. All the required equipments were available at 3 CHCs out of total 15 CHCs. All the SDH were having adequate equipment for NBCC except resuscitator & separate Digital Thermometer were not available at 2 SDH. At DH, except for Digital thermometer, all equipments were adequate. Only 1 SDH has been established for NBSU and it did not have adequate no. of radiant warmer and resuscitator. DH is lacking in all the required equipment for SNCU except for resuscitator (250 ml) and refrigerator. Out of total 101 health personnel, 68 (67.3%) have been trained for NSSK.  From total 68 trained health personnel, 12 (17.7%) got the score above the cut off for resuscitation skill. Out of the trained respondents, 29 (42.7%) acquired score above cut off for routine care.Conclusion: All the PHCs, CHCs, SDHs and DH were deficient in equipments. NBSU was created in only one SDH. SNBU was created at DH and MC, but equipments were not sufficient at both centers. Health care providers involved in facility based newborn care units had poor knowledge regarding routine newborn care and also not properly trained in resuscitation.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • An analysis of occupation related mental health referrals of paramillitary
           forces to a tertiary care hospital

    • Authors: Sarada Prasanna Swain, Manoj Kumar Dash, Jigyansha Ipsita Pattnaik, Neelamadhab Rath
      Pages: 1131 - 1136
      Abstract: Background: The security personnel of our country including Army Personnel, C.I.S.F., Police and other security personnel bear a large amount of physical and psychological stress to maintain law and order situations at different corners of the country at different situations. To assess the Psychiatric Morbidity in C.I.S.F., the course of referrals of Para-military persons to a tertiary care hospital and to evaluate the Mental Health burden in the Para-military set up by virtue of their occupation. Methods: The study sample included all the consecutive patients referred by CISF Headquarters Hospital to the Mental Health Institute (MHI), S.C.B. Medical College, Cuttack, Odisha, from April 2015 to March 2016. The clinical information is collected from the patient and accompanying personnel from CISF or family members who accompanied the patient. The diagnosis is based on ICD-10 and the final opinion is given by the consultants of Psychiatry after final evaluation of all the reports. Results: Psychiatric assessment for job fitness (48%) was the dominant cause for referral of PMF staff to MHI. Substance abuse (alcohol) related disorders were the next common cause of referral (20%).Conclusions: Mental health burden in Para-military bases are substantial which should be taken care of in urgency basis. There is urgent need of posting of Psychiatrists with Clinical Psychologists and Psychiatric Social Worker or a team of the Mental Health Professionals should visit the paramilitary set ups regularly to look into improper diagnosis and review cases. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Perception of health status and quality of life of people living with HIV
           in Patan city, Gujarat, India: a cross sectional study

    • Authors: Grishma T. Dixit, Nilesh Thakor, Mihir Goswami, P. B. Verma
      Pages: 1137 - 1140
      Abstract: Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus is the biggest threat to the mankind today from their health perspective. To know the perception of health status and quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS.Methods: This cross sectional study was undertaken during March 2015 to April 2016 at Patan city. After taking permission from NGO and Gujarat State AIDS Control Society (GSACS) total 100 purposively selected People living with HIV (PLHIV) attached to the NGO of Patan city were interviewed using predesigned semi-structured performa. Written informed consent was taken from all PLHIV. Ethical approval was obtained from institutional ethical committee for human research. Data safety and confidentiality was also given due consideration. Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS software (trial version). Results: Age of study population ranges from 18 to 68 years. Mean age of study population is 34.21 + 9.1 years. Maximum number of PLHIV, 51 % are in the age group of 31-40 years age group. Out of total, 76 have perception of being healthy .Out of total, 61 % PLHIV have faced stigma. Out of total,92% were enjoying life, 74% perceived good quality of life, 95% perceived safe in life, 96% perceived satisfaction with health services, 84% perceived  satisfaction with their day to day work capability and only 8% perceived fear about their future life. Conclusions: Positive attitude towards life and health was observed in People Living with HIV. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • A study on patient satisfaction in out patient department of secondary
           care hospital of Bhopal

    • Authors: Sheloj Joshi, Mahesh Kumar Joshi
      Pages: 1141 - 1147
      Abstract: Background:  Patient satisfaction is as important as other clinical health measures and is a primary means of measuring the effectiveness of health care delivery. Patient-centered outcomes have taken central stage as the primary means of measuring the effectiveness of health care delivery. To evaluate the level of patient satisfaction with OPD services in terms of describing the experience of patients about medicine OPD services and accessibility to services among the patients who attended the medicine OPD of Jaiprakash hospital.Methods: As a cross -sectional descriptive study, we have taken patients who were registered in Medicine outpatient department of Jaiprakash Hospital of Bhopal over a period of two months. The research instrument for a data collection was a structured questionnaire for assessing the patient satisfaction. The experience and accessibility were categorized into good and poor while satisfaction into high and low using best criteria. Statistical analysis: Convenience sampling done for selection of patients registered in Medicine OPD. The data was analysed on statistical software SPSS VS.20.Results: The patients had the highest level of experience from medicine department OPD about helpfulness of nurses, about light and ventilation inside the OPD and about the good communication from the pharmacist. The poor experience was from the number of doctors in OPD and about the diagnostic place. As far as accessibility is concerned, 66% of patients had good accessibility towards medicine OPD while remaining 34% had poor accessibility towards Medicine OPD.Conclusions: Maximum number of respondents had very good experience while just small number of respondents had poor experience and majority of the patients had good accessibility regarding waiting time, service process and working hours.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Knowledge and beliefs about HIV/AIDS among physiotherapy students

    • Authors: Priyanka Chugh, Rahul Sharma, Jyoti Dahiya, Richa Rai, Charu Chopra
      Pages: 1148 - 1153
      Abstract: Background: The HIV epidemic poses significant challenges to the healthcare providers including Physiotherapists. The study aimed at investigating the extent to which Physiotherapy College students know about human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) transmission, infection and prevention, and the transfer of such knowledge to sexual behavior change & and to know whether knowledge has any influence on the attitude and willingness to treat HIV/AIDS patients.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out on 217 physiotherapy students studying at the Banarsidas Chandiwala Institute of Physiotherapy, Kalkaji, New Delhi, India. The students completed a predesigned self-administered questionnaire assessing the knowledge, attitude and willingness to treat HIV/AIDS patients. The data were analyzed using ANOVA test (all the results are calculated at 1% level of significance) and Pearson correlation test.Results: The total mean knowledge score was 73.23% (good knowledge). There was a significant difference in knowledge among the Fourth-year & first-year students, which was found to be statistically significant (P<0.001%). The study showed that the overall mean attitude score was 62.83% (negative attitude). There was no significant difference in the attitude of the students among the five groups (P>0.001%). Karl Pearson correlation test showed no significant correlation between the knowledge of HIV/AIDS and the attitude of students towards HIV/AIDS patients (P>0.01%).Conclusions: The findings suggest that although the students had adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS, their attitude towards this group of people was negative. From the study, fear of HIV contagion was observed as a major reason for the negative attitude of students towards HIV/AIDS patients. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • A study of physical activity levels and its correlates among adults: a
           cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Chaitanya Patil, Manjusha Dhoble, Alka Kaware
      Pages: 1154 - 1158
      Abstract: Background: Three fourth of the world’s death burden is shared by low to middle income countries due to non-communicable diseases. Physical inactivity is one of the important preventable risk factor in non-communicable diseases. It amounts to 4th leading risk factor for global mortality. Hence, this study was conducted to study the physical activity level and its correlates among adult patients attending health training centres in Nagpur. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among adult patients attending the health centres of Indira Gandhi Government Medical College. Pregnant women, lactating women, debilitated patients and patients not giving consent were excluded from the study. A preformed and pretested questionnaire was used to conduct the interviews which included socio-demographic variables like age, sex, and educational status. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were measured according to the standard guidelines. The physical activity level was calculated using the principles of 1985 FAO/WHO/UNU expert consultation (WHO, 1985). Results: Of 200 study subjects, 59% were having a sedentary lifestyle, 27% were having a moderately active lifestyle and 14% were having a vigorously active lifestyle. A statistically significant increasing trend for sedentary study subjects (p =0.002 with age was found. Those who reported sedentary physical activity levels had 3.42 odds of being hypertensive, 7.44 times odds of being diabetic, 3 times odds of being overweight and 2.41 odds of being obese. The adults in urban areas were having significantly less physical activity levels when compared rural areas. Conclusions: Higher levels of sedentary lifestyle were found in urban areas compared to rural areas. As the age increased the sedentary lifestyle was having a significantly increasing trend. Physical activity was associated with the diabetic status, hypertensive status, and obesity status.  
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Medication adherence and health belief model among hypertensive patients

    • Authors: Shameena A. U., Sanjeev Badiger, Nanjesh Kumar S.
      Pages: 1159 - 1165
      Abstract: Background: Medication adherence is a growing concern to healthcare systems as non-adherence to pharmacotherapy has been associated with adverse outcomes and higher costs of care. Objective: To assess the determinants of Patient’s adherence to Hypertensive medication and to evaluate the levels of adherence based on Health belief Model.Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in the OPDs of Rural Health Centres of a tertiary care hospital  over a period of 4 months(April’16 –July’16) using a semi-structured and validated questionnaire which contain information on demographic characteristics, medication and health related facility and Health Belief Model. All hypertensives taking medication for more than 6 months were included in this study. Medication Adherence was assessed using the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8(MMAS-8).Statistical Analysis: Data was analysed using SPSS and P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Out of 300 patients, 114 were males and 186 were females. The level of Adherence was 23% in our study subjects. Gender (0.05), Religion (0.02), Marital status (0.035), Socioeconomic status (p=0.000) and Frequency of medication (p=0.000) had association with adherence. Based on health belief model, perceived severity (p=0.000), perceived susceptibility (p=0.000), perceived benefit (p=0.000), perceived barrier (p=0.000), Cue to action (p=0.025) and self-efficacy (p=0.00) had association with adherence.Conclusions: Patients Knowledge, understanding and perception can improve the adherence to medication. The results of our study can be used for better treatment of Hypertension. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • A study of knowledge, attitude and practice of voluntary blood donation
           among interns of a municipal medical college

    • Authors: Durgesh Prasad Sahoo, Chaitanya Patil, Armaity Dehmubed
      Pages: 1166 - 1170
      Abstract: Background: Inspiration among and participation of medical students is essential to make the “voluntary blood donation” movement a success. By assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of blood donation, donor mobilization and retention strategies can be designed and optimally modified. In this study, knowledge about voluntary blood donation in medical interns was undertaken because by the end of their MBBS course they are supposed to have understood the importance of blood donation and become capable motivators for blood donation amongst potential donors in public.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 111 interns of Topiwala National Medical College, Mumbai using universal sampling method. Self-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data.Results: Mean age of interns was 23.13 years with standard deviation of 0.832 of which girls comprised 48.6%. Forty seven point seven percent interns had donated blood before. The correct knowledge was prevalent in 45.0% only. Practice of blood donation amongst interns had male propensity and positive correlation with gender difference (p value 0.001). Most interns (79.3%) donated for moral satisfaction and social responsibility The commonest reason in the non-donors, for not donating was being medically unfit for donating (69.0%).Conclusions: Almost half (55.0%) of the medical students under study didn’t have adequate knowledge on blood safety and donor eligibility. Majority of them intended to donate blood in future however, a very few had ever actually donated blood. Increased awareness about blood donation among medical interns is expected to have amplified effects in the society, as an aware and motivated doctor can motivate and mobilize many others for voluntary non-remunerated blood donation and thus blood safety. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Nutritional status of under- five children in a city of Maharashtra: a
           community based study

    • Authors: Laxmikant Purohit, Priyanka Sahu, Lata B. Godale
      Pages: 1171 - 1178
      Abstract: Background: Children are considered to be the backbone of any nation. Nutritional problems among children cause major morbidity and mortality in India. India is home to the largest number of underweight and stunted children in the world. Aim and objectives: 1) To assess prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting among under-five children 2) To study factors associated with underweight, stunting and wasting among under-five childrenMethods: It was community based descriptive cross sectional study conducted during January 2010 to December 2011 at Urban Health Center of the Department of Preventive and Social Medicine catering approximately 27000 populations. 650 under- fives residing in urban field practice area were included in the study with the help of Stratified random sampling technique. Data was analyzed using SPSS software 16 version and OpenEpi Software Version 2.3.Results: 40.46% under five children were stunted, 38.15% were underweight, and 16% were wasted. The difference observed between stunted and normal study subjects with reference to type of family, education of mother, birth weight and birth order were statistically significant. The proportion of under- five children with underweight showed significant association with their age, socioeconomic status, education mother, birth weight and birth order. Proportion of under-five children with SAM and MAM decreased significantly with increase in education status of mother. Significantly higher proportion of under-five children with birth weight less than 2.5 kg and higher birth order were grouped as SAM and MAM.Conclusions: Maternal education, birth weight and birth order of children were significantly associated with all three types of under nutrition i.e. underweight, stunting and wasting. Proportion of children with underweight increases significantly with increase in age and decrease in socioeconomic status. There was no religion wise or gender wise variation in proportion of children with under nutrition was reported among study subjects.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Awareness and involvement of male spouse in various aspects of antenatal
           care: observation in a rural area of West Bengal

    • Authors: Sreetama Chakrabarti, Debjit Sarkar
      Pages: 1179 - 1182
      Abstract: Background: Involvement of male spouse in various aspects of antenatal care is understudied in West Bengal. The present study was conducted to know the involvement of male spouses in their wives’ antenatal care including awareness of different events and danger signs of pregnancy.Methods: A community based, observational, cross-sectional study was undertaken in randomly selected 8 villages of Amdanga block, North 24 parganas district. Total enumeration of women from the selected villages delivered within last 6 months was done; their husbands were identified and interviewed using a pre- designed, pre- tested schedule. Data on socio demographic characteristics, awareness of various aspects and danger signs of pregnancy were collected and analyzed with appropriate tests.Results: knowledge of the respondents regarding early registration of pregnancy, tetanus toxoid, routine blood investigations and referral transport system were 35%, 71.3%, 58.8% and 55% respectively. Awareness of danger signs were high regarding decreased foetal movement (85%), convulsion (81.3%) and unconsciousness (75%) but low in regards to excessive vomiting (16.3), paleness (21.3). 23.75% of respondents were not involved in their wives’ antenatal care. Their involvement was statistically significant for the first pregnancy of their wives compared to the subsequent one.Conclusions: Male spouse involvement in antenatal care may be one of the key to detect pregnancy related complications early and prompt referral. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Caesarean section and its determinants: a hospital based cross-sectional

    • Authors: Namrata Panigrahi, Nivedita Karmee, R. M. Tripathy, Monali Kar
      Pages: 1183 - 1187
      Abstract: Background: The rapid rise in CS rate has become a serious public health issue now-a-days because unnecessary caesareans generate higher expenditure at individual and national levels and have the potential to divert human and financial resources from higher priority intervention. Therefore the present study was carried out to know the indications and determinants of caesarean births in a tertiary hospital of Odisha.Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted among women who delivered by caesarean section in O and G department of MKCG Medical College Hospital, Berhampur from July to October 2016 using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire. The data was analysed using appropriate statistical tests such as proportion, chi square test using SPSS software. P value of less than 0.05 is considered as statistically significant.Results: Premature rupture of membrane with oligohydramnias was the major indication in 31.4% cases followed by previous CS in 20.1% cases. Out of socio-demographic factors age (P value = 0.001) and educational status of women (P value= 0.042) were significantly associated with type of CS. Foetal presentation (P value= 0.003), interval between labour and CS (P value <0.01) and type of admission (P value = 0.05) were major obstetric determinants of CS.Conclusions: In order to safeguard the health of mother and child from effects of unnecessary caesarean births, regular antenatal checkups, proper birth preparedness along with timely diagnosis and management of complications is necessary.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Status of maternal and child health services amongst migrants in Ludhiana
           slums – how far from the MDG targets'

    • Authors: Paramita Sengupta, Anoop I. Benjamin, Bontha V. Babu
      Pages: 1188 - 1194
      Abstract: Background: It is essential to monitor the coverage of health interventions in subgroups of populations, especially the marginalized and those at higher risk, because national averages can hide important inequalities. This study was carried out to find out the utilization and coverage of MCH services among migrants in the slums of Ludhiana, Punjab.Methods: Cross-sectional sample study.  370 women, who had childbirth within two years prior to the survey, were randomly selected from the 3947 newer migrant households in 30 slum settlements in Ludhiana surveyed for provision of health care, and information obtained from them with regard to MCH services availed by them for their last pregnancy and childbirth. Their children 12-23 months old, 195 in number, were studied for child health services.Results: Antenatal care (ANC) was availed by 44.0% of the women, with 24.6% of them going for minimum 4 antenatal visits and 29.1% having an institutional delivery but only 35.9% by trained health personnel. Place of delivery was found to be a significant predictor of antenatal care. Women staying in Ludhiana availed the least ANC. Complete immunization coverage in the 12-23 month olds was 37.4%. Government health worker visited 7.8% of the homes.Conclusions: Despite the relative proximity and concentration of health centers in urban compared to rural areas, migrant slum-dwellers are still not able to access quality MCH care. The problem of non-availability of essential healthcare and uneven distribution of skilled health care providers is the central challenge in meeting our health goals. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • A study on awareness of Tuberculosis amongst patients attending a rural
           health center in Tamilnadu, Indi

    • Authors: Vijayakrishnan G., Swetha Bobba, Vishal Venugopal
      Pages: 1195 - 1198
      Abstract: Background: Tuberculosis has turned out to be one of the complex health issues worldwide. In the year 2015, there were an estimated 10.4 million new (incident) TB cases worldwide, of which 5.9 million (56%) were among men, 3.5 million (34%) among women and 1.0 million (10%) among children. People living with HIV accounted for 1.2 million (11%) of all new TB cases. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted amongst patients attending the OPD of rural health center of a medical college hospital at Kancheepuram. Data were collected between March 11th to May 10th for a period of about 2 months. A total of 200 patients were included for this study. Two hundred patients who attended the OPD between March 11th to May 10th were selected as study subjects. Results: Of the 200 participants who participated in this study 104 were males (52%) and 96 were females (48%). Knowledge regarding Tuberculosis was assessed based on analyzing the data regarding knowledge on various aspects of the disease like cause, perception, mode of spread, prevention and treatment. About 160 study subjects (80%) had heard about the disease tuberculosis before and only a minority (20%) reported that they had never heard tuberculosis before. Conclusions: Though the population is aware of the disease Tuberculosis, their knowledge about its risk factors, mode of spread and treatment is not satisfactory. It is observed that several misconceptions about the disease still exist amongst the study population. There is need to provide essential knowledge about Tuberculosis to the general population. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Factors associated with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae
           infection among female sex workers in Nagaland, India

    • Authors: Gajendra K. Medhi, Jagadish Mahanta, Sanjib K. Phukan, Ramesh S. Paranjape, Michelle Kermode, Prabuddhagopal Goswami
      Pages: 1199 - 1206
      Abstract: Background: There is limited knowledge on the prevalence and correlates of sexually transmitted infections (STI) among women practicing sex work in the high HIV prevalence settings of northeast India, especially in Nagaland. We assessed the prevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) among female sex workers (FSW) in Dimapur, Nagaland.Methods: 417 FSWs were recruited into this cross–sectional study using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) in 2009. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual risk behaviours and exposure to prevention interventions were collected from them and urine samples were tested for NG and CT. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the factors associated with NG and CT.Results: The RDS-adjusted prevalence of HIV, NG and CT was 11.4%, 6.6% and 19.5% respectively. The reported condom use with clients and regular sex partners were only 29.1% and 9.6% respectively. Being in the sex trade within the last 2 years was independently associated with greater risk for NG and CT. Having more than 5 clients was independently associated with greater likelihood for CT and seropositivity for HIV was independently associated with NG.Conclusions: High prevalence of NG/CT was documented among FSWs with relatively new entrants into sex trade having the highest risk. The combination of high STI prevalence and low consistent condom use is likely to contribute to an escalating HIV epidemic in this already high HIV prevalence setting. There is need to strengthen public health measures for screening and management of NG and CT among FSWs.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • A study on reproductive health of adolescent girls of Dongria Kondh tribe

    • Authors: Sikata Nanda, Rabi Narayan Dhar
      Pages: 1207 - 1212
      Abstract: Background: Health problem in adolescent girls are different from the younger children and older adults. In the tribal population they are more neglected    because of limited health care facilities and lack of education. In the present study we have done   assessment of reproductive health status of adolescent girls in the Dongria Kondh tribe in Odisha. Methods: Dongria Kondh’ residing in Rayagada district of Odisha having its maximum concentration was studied. Bissam Cuttack block was selected randomly as the study area. Moreover, coincidently majority of the study population resided in the block having villages like Kurli, Khambesi, Hundijali, Muthesi, Khajuri, Mundabali and Uppar Gandatallli which are situated as a distance of 5000 ft height above sea level. 89 adolescent  girls were considered Schedule of general information of the family, schedule cum questionnaire on KAP on reproductive health and Lab investigation done among study subjects for prevalence of HIV/AIDS was done. Results: About 75% of adolescent girls had regular menstruation. Dysmenorhoea was present in 13% of girls. All girls are poor menstrual hygiene.84% of adolescent girls knew about menstruation from their friends. About 61% were not aware about physical changes in pregnancy. Conclusions: Counseling of adolescent girls and their mothers on sexual hygiene should be done by AWW/HWF. Health care delivery system to be strengthened by training and capacity building of AWW/HWF. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Health problems and healthcare needs of elderly- community perspective
           from a rural setting in India

    • Authors: Arun N. Bhatt, Marina Rajan Joseph, Iby Ann Xavier, Pinkutty Sagar, Remadevi S., Sherin Susan Paul
      Pages: 1213 - 1218
      Abstract: Background: Population is ageing in India. Health care and other needs associated with ageing have risen. The study objectives were to explore the concept of ‘healthy ageing’; health problems of elderly; and felt needs in the care of elderly perceived by the community.Methods: Total of five focus group discussions was conducted. Three Focus group discussions were conducted with family members of homebound elderly and one discussion each were conducted with primary health workers and residents of old age home to supplement the qualitative information gathered from the family members.Results: The participant could make a long list of geriatric health problems. But, their knowledge and attitude towards them was grossly incorrect. All the problems were regarded as part and parcel of ageing for which help was not sought proactively. Mental health problems were regarded as ‘behavioural’ and ‘psychological’ problems. The health problems had its bad effect on family relationships. The perceived healthcare needs were mostly of palliative nature. Day care centres were proposed to improve social interaction of elderly. The community could not afford the level of services which they need. Home care visits by a health team were regarded highly useful.Conclusions: Wide spectrum of barriers to healthcare access of elderly exists in the community. In this regard, a comprehensive community based geriatric health care program including health promotive, preventive, curative and palliative services needs to be formulated with a strong component of health education. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Childhood diarrhoea: assessment of knowledge, attitude and practices among
           mothers attending the tertiary care hospital - an observational analytical

    • Authors: Ambrine Ashraf, Mohd Ayaz Bhat, Mahrukh .
      Pages: 1219 - 1222
      Abstract: Background: Diarrhoea is a major killer of children under-five, accounting for about 8% of deaths. For children aged under-five years, a median of three episodes of diarrhea occur per child-year. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of mothers of under-five children.Methods: All mothers of under-five years who attended out-patient department of Pediatrics within the study period were interviewed. A total 200 mothers were assessed regarding the knowledge, attitude and practices towards childhood diarrhoea. Results: Majority of mothers were aware of the definition and cause of diarrhoea (77% and 55% respectively). On the contrary, knowledge regarding preparation and use of home-made ORS was not known to majority of mothers. Regarding practices of mothers, 100% of mothers were using safe drinking water. However, only 60% and 30% practiced hand-washing after defecation and before handling food respectively. Conclusions: Mothers need to be encouraged to start ORS before consulting a doctor. Personal and food hygiene practices need to be improved among the study population. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Status of oral polio vaccination program for international travellers and
           its determinants: an experience from a designated centre of West Bengal

    • Authors: Manisha Sarkar, Urmila Dasgupta, Saikat Bhattacharya, Krishna Das Bhattacharyya, Salil Kumar Bhattacharya
      Pages: 1223 - 1229
      Abstract: Background: In order to maintain the polio free status of India, it is vital to monitor the ongoing oral polio vaccination for international travellers. The aim of the study was to determine the status of oral polio vaccination program for international travellers from India to polio infected countries and to find out the determinants of deviation from proposed guidelines. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 101 International travellers from November 2014 to April 2015 at a designated Polio vaccination centre for international travellers in Kolkata. A pre-designed pre-tested schedule was used to collect oral polio vaccination related details. The travellers who gave consent were eligible for the study. Data was expressed in terms of mean, median, standard deviation etc. Association between variables was tested by Chi square test. Results: 32.7% of the travellers had inadequate gap between OPV & travel. Knowledge of gap between OPV and travel was perceived more from health centres and travel agencies than mass media. Inadequate gap was more among lower age group, males, those with information source as mass media, official purpose of visit, those with incorrect knowledge regarding the gap requirement and those who maintained at least four weeks gap between OPV and yellow fever vaccine. Conclusions: Wrong information from the source is responsible for wrong knowledge among the travellers which leads to inadequate gap between OPV and travel. It is crucial to increase awareness among the vaccinators and international travellers in order to contribute towards global polio eradication. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • A comparative interventional study on the efficacy of single and multiple
           dose combination drug regimen of leucorrhea among women in reproductive
           age group

    • Authors: Sivakumar K., Ajay Raj S., Sujatha K.
      Pages: 1230 - 1237
      Abstract: Background: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) in women are becoming major public health problem not only in India but also over the world. Syndromic approach is advocated by World Health Organization (WHO) to manage common RTIs using clinical flow charts based on identifying a syndrome that cause the symptoms reported by patients. The most commonly reported among the women with RTIs is abnormal vaginal discharge or Leucorrhea. Single dose regimen is not preventing the recurrence of infections. A second course of treatment is required followed by standard single dose regimen for achieving better cure rate in chronic vaginal discharge. Objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of single dose drug combination regimen with multiple dose regimens in the treatment of leucorrhoea. Methods: Quasi-experimental study was done in Urban field service area, RMMCH – Chidambaram among Married women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years) with complaints of abnormal vaginal discharge for ≥15 days coupled with any one of the symptoms suggestive of RTI. The study subjects were categorized into two groups – one with single dose regimen and the other with multiple dose regimen. Follow up was done on day 7, 15 and after 6 months of therapy. Results: A total of 113 subjects were recruited with 57 participants in single dose group and 56 in multiple dose groups. The subjects who received single dose had a better cure rate as compared to multiple dose group on day 7(87.7% & 85.7%), day 15 (94.7% & 89.3%) and after six months (84.2% & 76.8%) assessment respectively. Recurrence rate was found to be equal in both the groups. Our study indicates that variables such as age of the study subjects and type of flow had significant association with the outcome. Conclusions: Single-dose therapy is as effective as multiple- dose in the management of vaginal discharge based solely on symptoms. The multiple drug regimens can be given if the symptoms persist after single drug regimen as the chances of developing complications due to chronic vaginal discharge are high. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • A cross sectional study reflecting association between common menstrual
           disorders and college absenteeism

    • Authors: Jagannath S. Shete
      Pages: 1238 - 1241
      Abstract: Background: Menstrual disorders affect half of all female adolescents and represent leading cause of periodic college absenteeism but awareness regarding health seeking behaviour is less. Objective was to study association between common menstrual disorders and college absenteeism in first and second year medical students in Mumbai. Methods: 150 female students from first and second year MBBS were included in the study. Research tool comprised of questions about demographic characteristics, age at menarche, menstrual cycle pattern, complaints and its impact on daily activities including college absenteeism. Behaviour towards health and knowledge about menstrual cycle was observed. Percentage and chi square values were calculated using SPSS 16. The study was conducted in period between August to October 2012. Results: 150 first and second year female medical students participated in the study. Their mean age was 19.5 yrs. Mean age of menarche was 13-14 years in 78%. Menstrual cycle was regular in 72.6%. Menstrual flow was average in 73.3% of respondents and 88% reported duration as 3-5 days. 92% respondents had painful menses especially reporting moderate pain in 78% while in 70% of those pain resolved on its own. 67.4% reported mother as source of menstrual cycle information. Although menstrual disorder was cause of college absenteeism of 1-2 days in 44% students, 88% students didn’t seek medical advice for menstrual disorders. Conclusions: Improving health seeking behaviour towards common menstrual problems can reduce college absenteeism. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Impact of parental care on depression and academic performance of
           adolescent girls from selected schools in a city in South India

    • Authors: Soumya Gopakumar, Sandra Johns
      Pages: 1242 - 1247
      Abstract: Background: Adolescence is a transitional period where the relationship between them and their parents are vital. Mental health status of girls staying in poor homes without parental care may influence their academic performance and since need special attention. So a study was undertaken to assess the depression status of adolescent girl students (13-15yaers) in selected schools using Kutcher Adolescent Depression Assessment Scale (KADS) given by Kutcher and to compare the depression scores, academic and other socio-demographic factors of adolescent girls with and without parental care. Methods: Cross sectional study involving 130 girl students from selected schools of which 40 students were from poor homes. Chi -square test and Mann Whitney U test was used as test of significance for qualitative and quantitative variables respectively. Binary logistic regression was also used. Results: Analysis of KADS score indicated that both type of students with and without parental care had similar cumulative scores varying from 1- 19. Among the study subjects 10 (7.7% with 95 % confidence interval 3.12% - 12.28%) had scores above 15. Academic performances and participation in arts and sports were significantly different between students staying with parents than those from poor homes. Conclusions: Percentage of students from poor homes with collective KAD scores above 15 is almost double the percentage of students with parental care. Parental support is positively related to better academic and extracurricular activities of students. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • To study the patient satisfication at a tertiary care hospital in Malwa
           region of Punjab

    • Authors: Rahul Goshist, Shamim Monga, Shalini Devgan, Baltej Singh, Sanjay Gupta
      Pages: 1248 - 1252
      Abstract: Background: Many  factors  including  poor  systems  and  stress  of  the  caregivers  effects  the  quality  along  with  satisfaction  of  patients.  Patient satisfaction denotes the extent to which general health care needs of the clients are met to their requirements. Aim of the study to study the level of patient satisfaction. Methods: The structured questionnaire was administered to patients from in-patient areas. Illiterate patients were interviewed personally. The hospital had bed strength of 890 and the patients were followed in different departments till the completion of sample size. Results: More than half of the patients i.e. 58.6% and 54.7% responded that the stretcher availability and behavior of paramedical staff in emergency as poormore than half of the patients i.e. 58.6% and 54.7% responded that the stretcher availability and behavior of paramedical staff in emergency as poor, more than half of the patients i.e. 58.6% and 54.7% responded that the stretcher availability and behavior of paramedical staff in emergency as poor. Conclusions: Most patients rated the services of the hospital as excellent or good but a portion of patients were found to be unsatisfied in some areas i.e. cleanliness of toilets, wards, canteen and behaviors of paramedical staff. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Assessment of indications of lower section caesarean section at tertiary
           care centre: a cross sectional study

    • Authors: Vijay L. Badge, Sumit Suresh Aggarwal, Deepti D. Ambalkar, Arun Humne, Neethika Raghuwanshi
      Pages: 1253 - 1256
      Abstract: Background: Caesarean section is one of the commonly performed surgical procedures in obstetrics and is certainly one of the oldest operations in surgery. One of the most dramatic features of modern obstetrics is the increase in the caesarean section rate. The present study was conducted to estimate proportion of various indications of LSCS and also to assess socio demographic profile of mothers undergoing caesarean section in a tertiary care centre. Methods: The present cross sectional observational study was conducted at Government Medical College & Hospital, Akola in the post natal ward (PNC). Non probability convenient sampling method was used. All patients admitted to PNC ward after LSCS were included in study. For data collection paper based pre tested, semi –structured questionnaire was used. Results: Previous LSCS was indication for LSCS in 32% cases. Eclampsia, preeclampsia and Anaemia were the indications for LSCS in 19.3%, 8.6% and 5.3% cases respectively. Other common indications includes CPD, meconium stained liquor, fetal distress, breech presentations, twin pregnancy and preterm labour. Conclusions: The proportion of LSCS is more than WHO recommended proportion of LSCS. It may be due to present institute acts as tertiary care center. Still this proportion is high, so encouragement should be given to trial of labour in selected low risk cases and in Primi patients whenever possible. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Prevalence of high risk among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in
           rural field practice area of Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belgavi,
           Karnataka, India

    • Authors: Jaideep K. C., Prashant D., Girija A.
      Pages: 1257 - 1259
      Abstract: Background: In India about 20-30% pregnancies belong to high risk category, which is responsible for 75% of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Early detection and effective management of high risk pregnancy can contribute substantially to reduction in maternal mortality. Objective was to study the prevalence of high risk among antenatal women and also to know the socio demographic factors associated with high risk. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between Jan. to June 2016. A total of 600 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in PHC Kinaye were interviewed using predesigned, pretested questionnaire. Results: In present study, prevalence of high risk pregnancy was 30.7% and 59.8 were having bad obstetric history, 4% were having pregnancy induced hypertension, 5.5% were elderly gravida, 3.2% were Rh negative and 22.3% were having other risk factors. Factors such as education status of pregnant women, age at pregnancy and parity of pregnant women were found to be significantly associated with the prevalence of high risk. Conclusions: Prevalence of high risk among pregnant women was found to be 30.7%. Detection of high risk in early stages will help in preventing maternal mortality. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • A study to assess the prevalence of behavioral risk factors for lifestyle
           diseases among late adolescents in Chennai, Tamil Nadu

    • Authors: Evangeline Mary A., Seenivasan P., Shibiyeswanth R. I., Prakash V., Solaimuthurajagopal S., Valaiyapathy N. C.
      Pages: 1260 - 1266
      Abstract: Background: Lifestyle diseases are now the major causes of premature morbidity, mortality, and economic loss in developed and developing countries, including the younger age groups.The four major preventable behavioral risk factors are tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and harmful use of alcohol. Life of adolescents is a transitional period, offering them good opportunities for establishing health-promoting lifestyles. This study is done to assess the prevalence of behavioral risk factors for lifestyle diseases of college going adolescents of Chennai. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 483 randomly selected undergraduate students from randomly selected colleges in Chennai between March and September 2016 by two stage stratified sampling method using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data was fed into excel sheet and Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was done using SPSS v.21 package. Results: The participants were between 17 and 20 years. They belonged to professional and non professional colleges. 78% students had unhealthy lifestyle habits. All the participants had at least one risk factor in them. The awareness on the risk factors was significantly less among non professional students, but they had significantly better behavioural habits than the professional students. Boys had significantly better habits than girls and students who were overweight significantly had unhealthy lifestyle habits. Conclusions: The study reflects the poor lifestyle habits of all college-aged individuals, which can be effectively improved by health education and behaviour change communication. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Prevalence and risk factors of hypertension among the bank employees of
           Western Maharashtra – a cross sectional study

    • Authors: Tanuja R. Brahmankar, Priya M. Prabhu
      Pages: 1267 - 1277
      Abstract: Background: Hypertension, the “silent killer” - is a modern day’s epidemic and is becoming a public health emergency worldwide, especially in the developing countries. Sedentary life-style and stress are important risk factors for hypertension. The job of bank employees is both sedentary in nature and accompanies high levels of mental stress, thereby at a higher risk of developing hypertension. Hence the present study was conducted to study the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension among the bank employees in Western Maharashtra.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during January 2014 to December 2015 to assess the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension among the bank employees in Western Maharashtra. By using multistage sampling method, total 340 bank employees from 40 branches were included in the study after fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria. After all ethical considerations, the data were collected by using pre-designed, pre-tested and semi-structured questionnaire and then analysed using MS Excel, SPSS-22 and Primer of Biostatistics.Results: Overall prevalence of hypertension was 39.7% and that of pre-hypertension was 41.8% among the study population. Socio-demographic factors like age, male gender, family history of hypertension, mode of travel, physical activity, overweight, years of service, intake of coffee and smoking had shown significant association with hypertension.Conclusions: Prevalence of hypertension was found as significantly higher in bank employees than the general population of India. Among the non-hypertensives large part was pre-hypertensives which are also at high risk of developing hypertension in the future.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Determinants and impact of early marriage on mother and her newborn in an
           urban area of Davangere: a cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Navneet Kaur Sandhu, Geethalakshmi R. G.
      Pages: 1278 - 1283
      Abstract: Background: Early marriage is a long established custom in India. In spite of the legislations prohibiting early marriages, the prevalence of child marriages in our country is 30.2%, with the highest prevalence in Rajasthan (35.4%) and lowest in Himachal Pradesh (0.5%).Thus, this study was undertaken to study the prevalence, determinants and impact of early marriage on the mother and her newborn in an urban area of Davangere. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 6 months in the Urban Family Welfare Centre, Doddapete. A total of 900 mothers were interviewed with the help of pre- designed and semi-structured questionnaire after taking informed consent. Results: The prevalence of child marriage in the present study was found to be 13% with 81% mothers belonging to lower socio- economic status and 77% belonging to Muslim religion. Most (62%) mothers married before the age of 18 years due to economic reasons. 54% of the mothers who married before the age of 18 years faced complications during delivery. 6% of the mothers married before the age of 18 years gave birth to low birth weight babies. Conclusions: The literacy and socio-economic status of the mother and her parents was observed as a major determinant in deciding the age at marriage. In spite of the prevailing religious traditions and socio-cultural influences that promote child marriage, an attempt should be made to educate the community regarding the medical and legal aspects of early marriage. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Comparative study of awareness and practices regarding menstrual hygiene
           among adolescent girls residing in urban and rural area

    • Authors: Kuldeep Jagannath Dabade, Sheetal Kuldeep Dabade
      Pages: 1284 - 1288
      Abstract: Background: Menstruation is still regarded as something unclean or dirty in Indian society and it is strongly related with misconceptions and cultural restrictions. Learning about hygiene during menstruation is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls as patterns that are developed in adolescence are likely to persist into adult life. Methods: A community based cross sectional study conducted in urban and rural field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Khaja Banda Nawaz Institute of Medical Sciences, Gulbarga from Feb 2015 to July 2015. A total 230 adolescent girls were included in the study of which 123 from urban and 107 from rural area, after taking their verbal consent. Results: Total 163 (70.9%) adolescent girls were aware about menstruation before the attainment of menarche. Awareness in urban area 95 (77.2%) was found higher compared to rural area 68(63.5%) and this difference was found to be statistically significant (p<0.02). It has been found that 83(67.5%) study participants from urban area used sanitary napkin during menstruation compared to only 56(52.3%) from rural area and this difference found statistically significant (p<0.01). Conclusions: Overall awareness about menstruation was found low in both urban and rural area and needed to be increased by intensive health education among adolescents. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Intranatal and postnatal care practices among married women of
           reproductive age group: a community based cross- sectional study in the
           rural area of Surendranagar district

    • Authors: Nishant R. Bhimani, Pushti V. Vachhani, Girija P. Kartha
      Pages: 1289 - 1294
      Abstract: Background: Intra natal care means care taken during delivery. This consists of taking care of not only the mother but also the newborn at the time of child-birth. Appropriate delivery care is crucial for both maternal and perinatal health. Increasing skilled attendance at birth is a central goal of the safe motherhood and child survival mission. Postpartum care aimed at complication-free puerperium and a healthy baby. There is a high risk of mortality for both the mother and her baby in the immediate period around birth. High quality intranatal and postnatal care is the important way to reduce the maternal morbidity and mortality. Utilization of intranatal and postnatal services is poor in the rural areas, which ultimately lead to increased maternal & child morbidity and mortality.Methods: The study was carried out among married women of reproductive age group. Pre-designed and pretested Performa was used to obtain the information from participants. It was community based cross - sectional study. All the collected data were analysed by applying appropriate statistical tests. The data were analysed by statistical package for social sciences (SPSS).Results: A total of 353 women were included in the study. Majority (86.97%) of women utilized health facility either government or private for their deliveries. Significant difference was observed between literacy status as well as socio economic class and utilization of institutional facility for the place of delivery. More than half women i.e. nearly 56% had not availed postnatal care services.Conclusions: Percentage of institutional deliveries as well as deliveries attended by skilled birth attendant was quite better. The most common reason for not availing the intra natal and postnatal services was found to be lack of knowledge regarding importance of these services on the outcome of delivery.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • A community based cross sectional study to estimate total cardiovascular
           risk in rural Punjab

    • Authors: Bibhava Vikramaditya, Mahesh Satija, Anurag Chaudhary, Sarit Sharma, Sangeeta Girdhar, Priya Bansal
      Pages: 1295 - 1302
      Abstract: Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are leading cause of non communicable deaths in India. CVD risk prediction charts by World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) are designed for implementing timely preventive measures. The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of CVD risk parameters and to estimate total CVD risk among adults aged ≥40 years, using the WHO/ISH risk charts alone and also to assess the effect of the inclusion of additional criteria on CVD risk.Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted in fifteen villages of Ludhiana district under rural health training centre of Department of Community Medicine, Dayanand Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab. Desired information was obtained using WHO STEPS survey (STEP wise approach to surveillance) from 324 adults aged ≥40 years. Anthropometric, clinical and laboratory measurements were also performed. WHO/ISH risk prediction chart for South East Asian region (SEAR-D) was used to assess the cardiovascular risk among the subjects.Results: WHO/ISH risk prediction charts identified 16.0% of the subjects with high risk (≥20%) of developing a cardiovascular event. The study population showed higher prevalence of physical inactivity, obesity, abdominal obesity, hypertension and diabetes. Amongst high risk CVD group, maximum prevalence was of hypertension and high perceived stress level. However, the proportion of high CVD risk (≥20%) increased to 33.6% when subjects with blood pressure ≥160/100 mmHg and /or on hypertension medication were added as high risk.Conclusions: A substantial proportion of this community is at high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Knowledge score regarding contraceptive methods among married women in
           urban areas of Belagavi

    • Authors: Kruthika K., Chandra S. Metgud
      Pages: 1303 - 1306
      Abstract: Background: Increase in population growth is one of the biggest problems faced from many developing countries including India. Contraception plays an important role to halt population growth but is one of the most deserted part of maternal and child health care. Even after India being the first country to launch the family planning programme still the prevalence of contraceptive use is low which in turn increases the maternal and infant mortality rate. Objectives: 1.To assesses the knowledge score regarding contraceptive methods. 2. To study the association between knowledge and practice of contraceptionMethods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted among 600 married women aged 15 to 44 years residing in three urban field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, J.N. Medical College, Belagavi. Information was collected using pretested, predesigned questionnaire and knowledge scoring was done. Results: In the present study, the prevalence of contraceptive use was 58.8%, among these 16.0% were condom user,18.9% were using IUCD, 4.3% using  rhythm method, 3.3% using OCPs and 16.3% were practicing sterilization method. According to knowledge score, sterilization and Condom methods had the highest scores and injectables least. In general as the knowledge score increased, the practice of contraception also increased. Conclusions: By the results we can conclude that increase in knowledge regarding contraceptives will increase the usage. This can be done by proper counselling for both husband and wife and providing proper information regarding contraceptive by removing their blind beliefs. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Coronary Heart Disease risk profile among women attending Tertiary Care
           Hospital in Southern Karnataka, India

    • Authors: varsha Hoogar, Renuka M., Prashanth Kulkarni, Nagaraja Desai
      Pages: 1307 - 1313
      Abstract: Background: Present study was conducted to assess the risk factors of CHD in women who had undergone Coronary Angiography for CHD evaluation. Objectives of the study were to assess the CHD Risk profile among women attending Tertiary Care Hospital at Mysore city and to enlist the clinical presentation of women admitted to tertiary care Hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital based cross sectional study. Methods: All the women who were admitted to the Department of Cardiology from April 2015 to January 2016 were interviewed using pre structured proforma. Details of the female patients who had undergone Angiography from September 2013 to March 2015 were also collected from Medical Record Section of the Hospital. Statistical Analysis: Proportion and mean were used for relevant univariate analysis and significance of association was tested using appropriate tests of significance. Results: 17% of women were known cases of CHD. 87.4% of women were admitted with the symptom of chest pain. 44% of women who presented with IHD belonged to normal and underweight BMI category. Among the clinically suspected or diagnosed to be cases of CHD, 75% had blocks in their coronaries. Single artery block (29.7%) and triple artery block (22.5%) were predominant. Left anterior descending artery had significant block (>70%) in 36% of women. Left circumflex artery and right coronary arteries showed significant blocks in 26% and 22.5% participants. Conclusions: Earlier age of presentation, higher proportion of coronary blocks in majority of study women belonging to normal or underweight BMI category are alarms of changing pattern of CHD in Indian women.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Health seeking behavior and reasons for “patient‐related” diagnostic
           delay among pulmonary tuberculosis suspects attending designated
           microscopy centre of medical college in rural Puducherry

    • Authors: Srikakarlapudi V. V. Subhadra Pranavi, Venkatesan Murugan, Ganapathy Kalaiselvan
      Pages: 1314 - 1318
      Abstract: Background: The main strategy of modern TB control is early detection and treatment of sources of infection to reduce the duration of infectiousness. Delay in diagnosis has health provider factors and client factors. Health seeking behavior and reasons for TB diagnostic delay is important and which is one of the agenda for operational research under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP). Methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted among 200 tuberculosis suspects attending the Designated Microscopy centre (DMC) of SMVMCH for a period of 2 months. Data was collected using a pre-designed questionnaire including sociodemographic details, health seeking behaviour, treatment delay and reasons for delay. Collected data was entered and analyzed in EPI_INFO (3.4.3). Descriptive statistics and significant association was established by the use of odd’s ratio with 95% confidence interval. Results: Among the study subjects most of them were between the age group of 15 to 60 years and majority of them were male. Symptoms about tuberculosis was known only to 40(20%) of the suspects and 85(42.5%) accepted that tuberculosis is a curable disease. Among the various factors leading to patient related diagnostic delay age, marital status and multiple symptoms shows significant association. The most common reason for the delay is not aware of the severity of the symptoms 126(63%). Conclusions: There is poor knowledge about tuberculosis, its modes of spread and symptoms among Tb suspects. Patient related delays also common among them which warrant need for public health interventions to improve it. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Awareness about cervical cancer screening among reproductive aged women
           attending gynaecology outpatient department in ESI PGIMSR & ESIC medical
           college & Hospital, Joka, Kolkata

    • Authors: Susmita Chaudhuri, Rekha Dutt, Shweta Goswami, Joydeb Roychowdhury
      Pages: 1319 - 1323
      Abstract: Background: Cervical cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women especially India. The mainstay of prevention rests on early detection of cases through screening. So, this study aims to determine the knowledge of cervical cancer screening, Human papilloma virus & its vaccination status. Methods: This was an observational study of cross-sectional design conducted among the adult reproductive aged women (18-45 years) visiting Gynaecology OPD at ESI-PGIMSR and ESIC Medical College and Hospital, Joka. A pre-designed and pre-tested interview schedule was prepared. Face to face interview was conducted in local language. Data was compiled & computed in SPSS software version 20. Results: Total respondents were 97. Majority of the respondents (62.9%) belong to the age group of 21-30 years. 8 in 10 participants follow Hinduism. Almost equal percentages of participants were from urban & rural areas (51.5% & 48.5% respectively). 6 in 10 participants had heard about cervical cancer. Majority of the respondents (55%) mentioned friends & family as a source of information. 48.3% of the respondents knew poor genital hygiene as a predisposing risk factor for cervical cancer. Very few knew about other factors like multiple sexual partner (20%), early marriage (33.3%), young age (20%), repeated childbirth (35%), OCP usage (26.7%) as risk factors for cervical cancer. Only one participant had undergone screening test for cervical cancer (1.7%). 46.7% of the respondents were aware about association of HPV infection with cervical cancer. But none of the participants had received vaccine against cervical cancer & they cited lack of awareness as a reason for not receiving the vaccine. Conclusions: A well-designed health education program focusing on effective multipronged IEC strategies utilizing pictorials, audio-visual and personal communication on cervical cancer could yield beneficial results. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Psychosocial factors in post-partum parents in India

    • Authors: Shivani Chowdhury Salian, Krisha P. Shah
      Pages: 1324 - 1331
      Abstract: Background: Post-partum period brings along with it a lot of changes and responsibilities. Fatigue, Stress, Depression and Bonding are some of the factors which have shown to affect the parents during this period. Present study assesses the psychosocial factors in post-partum parents and differences observed amongst them. The effect of other factors like the type of delivery of the youngest child, the working status of the mother and the type of family they reside in were also assessed. Methods: 128 pair of parents (64 mothers & 64 fathers) were interviewed using a Case Report Form after procuring their informed consent. The various psychosocial domains were evaluated using Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF) Scale, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EDPS) and the Post-Partum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ). For each participant, the total score (factorial total score in case of PBQ) in each scale was calculated and analysed. Results: On comparing the various psychosocial factors, fatigue (p-value 0.020), stress (p-value 0.034) and depression (p-value 0.005) levels were found to be significantly higher in mother as compared to fathers. Primiparous mothers had significantly high levels of stress (p-value 0.021) and depression (p-value 0.015) in comparison to primiparous fathers. Also, mothers who underwent C-section showed a significant difference (p-value 0.023) towards their tendency of incipient abuse towards the child as compared to the other groups. Conclusions: The present study reveals that the bonding of mothers and fathers with their children is equal. However, the mothers are observed to be more fatigued, stressed and depressed as compared to fathers. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • The outcome of exclusive breast feeding in infants born to HIV positive
           mothers on ART under SISU RAKSHA program, Bapuji child health institute,

    • Authors: Bhagyalakshmi R. T., T. P. Manjunath, C. R. Banapurmath, Mruthunjaya S.
      Pages: 1332 - 1336
      Abstract: Background: Under SISU RAKSHA program (a joint initiative by SAATHII, not-for-profit organization and Bapuji child health institute, Davangere) the HIV positive pregnant mothers are enrolled, counseled and motivated during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding to adhere to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) to reduce mother to child transmission of HIV. Objective is to study the outcome of EBF on infants born to HIV positive mothers on ART under SISU RAKSHA program, with Outcome variables: HIV seroconversion, Growth status, Health status. Methods: 86 infant born to HIV positive mothers who completed 18 months follow up were included in the study. A prestuctured proforma was used to collect information about ART adherence, infant feeding practice, HIV seroconversion, growth and health status. Results: The HIV seroconversion of children on EBF among ART adherent mothers, 94.2 % (66/70) were non-reactive at 18th month follow up and 4.28% (3/70) were reactive. 92.8% (65/70) children growth were normal at 18th month follow up and 5.6% (4/70) were under weight and had recurrent infections. All these observations were statistically significant according to Fisher’s exact test. Conclusions: The rate of mother to child transmission of HIV and rate of other infections among children born to HIV positive mothers is reduced and growth is normal if the mother is adherent to EBF & ART. HIV positive mothers are regularly counseled and motivated to do so under the program. Therefore the SISU RAKSHA program is very effective program for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Antenatal counselling- is it adequate' A cross-sectional study from
           Chandigarh tricity, India

    • Authors: Anupama Dhiman, Naveen K. Goel, Dinesh Kumar, Navpreet ., Abhiruchi Galhotra
      Pages: 1337 - 1341
      Abstract: Background: Antenatal care (ANC) provides an important opportunity to improve maternal understanding about pregnancy, childbirth, and care of the newborn. Adequate and quality ANC can help ensure a favourable pregnancy outcome, but the coverage of ANC in India remains inadequate. The present study was conducted with an objective to assess ante natal counselling services at health centers in Chandigarh Tricity.Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in the Chandigarh Tricity during April 2012 to September 2013. Stratified multistage sampling technique was used to select health centers in tricity. A total of 345 pregnant women in second and third Trimester were interviewed with the help of pre-designed, structured and pre-tested questionnaire after taking their written informed consent. It was supplemented by observation of ante natal sessions. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 19.Results: Nearly one-fourth (28.1%) participants received counselling regarding diet and rest. Only 26 (07.5%) participants were explained about danger signs during pregnancy. Significant difference was found between counseling given regarding ‘diet and rest’ with respect to city (p=0.03) and health centers (p=0.00). Significant difference was found between counselling for ‘family planning’ with respect to city (p=0.01) and health centers (p=0.00).Conclusions: Findings from our study indicate low level of counselling on various components of ANC. Thus, strategies under National Health Mission to improve quality of antenatal communication as well as maternal understanding should be strengthened.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Knowledge, attitude and practices of patients’ relatives about cancer: a
           study from Eastern India

    • Authors: Rudrajit Paul, Sourav Sinha, Md. Asifullah, Swapan K. Mallick, Jayati Mondal
      Pages: 1342 - 1347
      Abstract: Background: Knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) about a disease can significantly affect healthcare seeking behaviour and thus, ultimate outcome of a disease. This is particularly true in chronic diseases like cancer. In India, the influence of family members on the treatment decision of an individual is paramount. Hence, KAP of the family about a disease will significantly affect the healthcare pathway of any individual. However, actual data on KAP of common people about cancer are very rare from India. In this Eastern Indian study, we aimed to generate data on this very important aspect. Methods: In this hospital based study, the relatives of cancer patients were interviewed about their perception about various aspects of cancer. The interview was based on a pre-structured questionnaire modelled after the “Illness Perception Questionnaire”. Results: We had 65 subjects in our study with a mean age of 43.5 years. 32% of the subjects belonged to some profession related to medicine. 44.6% of the subjects thought that cancer was synonymous with tumour. The chief source of information for our respondents was their physician only. Only 5% got their information about cancer from the mass media. The relationship between tobacco and cancer was known to a significant fraction with 21.5% responding that smoking causes cancer and a further 18.5% knowing about other tobacco products as the cause. More than 1/4th of the subjects thought that any cancer was a permanent disease. Most (71%) study subjects thought that living with a cancer patient was difficult. 32% believed that cancer meant inevitable death. Almost 2 out of every 5 had used some form of alternative medicine therapy for cancer. Subjects with lower educational status were statistically more likely to use alternative medicine. Regarding the prevention of cancer also, opinions varied widely according to educational level with almost 70% of the subjects in the illiterate subset opining that cancer is non-preventable. Conclusions: This study shows that the perception about cancer varied widely in the society according to various factors like educational level and/or gender. A significant number of subjects had personal outlook which was quite different from current scientific data. Hence, proper dissemination of information about diseases like cancer in the society is an important need of the hour. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • A record based study of frequency and pattern of medico-legal cases
           reported at a tertiary care hospital in Miraj

    • Authors: Tanuja R. Brahmankar, Sachin K. Sharma
      Pages: 1348 - 1352
      Abstract: Background: Medico-legal case (MLC) can be defined as a case of injury or ailment, etc., in which investigations by the law-enforcing agencies are essential to fix the responsibility regarding the causation of the said injury or ailment. Medico-legal cases are an integral part of medical practice that is frequently encountered by medical officers working in casualty. Hence the present study is carried out to find out the frequency and pattern of medico-legal cases reported at a tertiary care hospital and to highlight the vulnerable gender, age, residence and the cause. Methods: It is a record based cross sectional study in which all the MLC cases registered in MLC record book during a period of 6 months (January 13– June 13) were included. Cases found non medico-legal were excluded. Variables considered were gender, age, residence and cause. Findings were expressed in numbers and percentages. Results: Total cases were 2350, of which 1866 (79.4%) were males and 484 (20.6%) were females. Maximum cases were from the age group of 21-30 years i.e., 828 (35.2%). 1440 (61.27%) were residents of urban area. Most of the medico-legal cases registered were due to assault (27.2%) followed by medical examination of prisoners(25.9%), road traffic accidents (19.7%), fall (6.9%), snake bite (6.6%), poisoning (4.3%), domestic injuries (4.3%), unknown bite (2.2%), unknown found at railway station (1.6%), brought dead (0.6%), burn (0.2%) & others (0.5%). Conclusions: Majority of the victims were males, young adults and urban inhabitants. Most common indication for medico-legal cases was assault followed by medical check-up of prisoners and road traffic accidents. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Epidemiology of domestic violence among married women: a community based
           cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Pushti V. Vachhani, Nishant R. Bhimani, Shyamal K. Purani, Girija P. Kartha
      Pages: 1353 - 1359
      Abstract: Background: Domestic violence is a global issue, reaching across national boundaries as well as socio-economic, cultural, racial and class distributions. Domestic violence is among the most underreported crimes worldwide for both men and women. Globally, the victims of domestic violence are overwhelmingly women, and women tend to experience more severe forms of violence.Methods: It was a Community based Cross-sectional study. The study was carried out in the rural and urban area of Surendranagar district. Total 600 married women of 15-49 years of age were selected randomly. The information gathered was based on self-administered questionnaire. Strict confidentiality was maintained.Results: Out of total 600 women, 38.5% were victims of domestic violence in one form or the other. Out of these 231 victims, 134 respondents were from rural area and 97 respondents were from urban area. The study results revealed that age at marriage, literacy status of women and their husband, their occupational status, type of family and socio-economic class has significant impact on prevalence of domestic violence.Conclusions: Domestic violence is more prevalent among uneducated, backward and economically disadvantaged women.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Quantitative assessment of prosocial behaviour and trends of transfusion
           transmitted infections among voluntary blood donors: a cross sectional

    • Authors: Siva Balaji Reddy Satti, Ravikumar B., Vijayasanti V., Amarender Reddy K.
      Pages: 1360 - 1366
      Abstract: Background: Every country faces an ongoing challenge to collect blood from safe donors. Chronic blood shortages are common in developing countries. According to WHO Voluntary blood donation practices are encouraged to collect safe blood units. In India for donating the blood often they say prosocial reasons. The objectives of the present study was quantitative assessment of prosocial behaviour as well as trends of transfusion transmitted infections among (voluntary blood donors) VBD. Methods: Cross-sectional study carried out between 1st January 2016 to 31st august 2016, at the field practice area of Institute of preventive medicine (IPM), Narayanaguda, Telangana state, India. The total sample size estimated was 41,356 (by Census survey method). Among which 25,641(62%) were current donors and 15,715 (38%) lapsed donors likewise 35,980 males and 5,376 females were enrolled. Results: Among the participants majority (87%) were males compare to females (13%). out of 41,352 donors majority were current donors (62%) compare to lapsed donors (38%). Among current donors all the mean scores of prosocial behaviour components were high and The trends of All TTIs infection prevalence rates were declined progressively. Conclusions: Sustainable motivational levels may increase the frequency of blood donation and by encouraging VBDs one can reduce the TTIs. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Antibiotic resistance pattern of bacteria isolated from various clinical
           specimens: an eastern Indian study

    • Authors: Rudrajit Paul, Jayanti Ray, Sourav Sinha, Jayati Mondal
      Pages: 1367 - 1371
      Abstract: Background: Resistance to antibiotics is an extremely common phenomenon in bacteria isolated from clinical material. This is a serious threat to patient care all over the world. In India, antibiotic resistance has far reaching public health consequences. In this observational study, we aimed to generate data on the prevailing pattern of antibiotic resistance from Eastern India. Methods: This was a hospital based study involving both indoor and outdoor patients. Patients with history of antibiotic use in the past 3 months were excluded. The clinical specimens (blood, urine, pus etc.) were incubated for up to 7 days under aerobic conditions before declaring them as negative. Antibiotic sensitivity was tested by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. Results: There were a total of 93 specimens with the majority being blood culture (n=43) and urine (n=33). Majority (n=57; 61.3%) of isolated organisms were gram negative with E. coli predominating (n=36). Of the gram-positive isolates, Staphylococcus predominated (32 out of 36). 100% of isolates from urine were gram negative while for blood, 60% of the isolates were gram positive. Resistance to penicillin group and cotrimoxazole was up to 100% in certain species. For carbapenem group, resistance varied from 17 to 75%. Resistance to aminoglycosides was 75% in Pseudomonas and 85% in Klebsiella. Conclusions: Our study has demonstrated very high levels of resistance to different common antibiotics in different classes of bacteria. Such data can be used for antibiotic stewardship and also to formulate antibiotic use protocols. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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