for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help
  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1292 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (18 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (86 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (521 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (379 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (106 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (101 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (81 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (521 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 179)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription  
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access  
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Policy and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Professions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Health Sciences Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
  [5 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2394-6032 - ISSN (Online) 2394-6040
   Published by Medip Academy Homepage  [12 journals]
  • Reiki: a modality towards holistic approach to cancer cure

    • Authors: Sonia Puri, Dinesh Kumar Walia, Har Ashish Jindal
      Pages: 1790 - 1792
      Abstract: Reiki is one of the complementary and alternative medicine modalities which have been accepted and appreciated, globally. Many evidence based studies have validated its role in cancer. Reiki can play a major role in changing the patient’s outlook towards life and increasing the patient’s ability as well as willingness to comply with physician’s instructions and adhere to treatment protocols. The goal of Reiki treatments is to strengthen the flow of energy through these blocked or disturbed pathways, thus decreasing pain and enhancing the body’s natural ability to fight illnesses and heal itself. It combats the nausea caused from chemotherapy. One of the major criticism is lack of scientific foundation. There has been effort to collaborate conventional and complementary therapies to improve the quality of future research. In the near future, it may be considered as one of the advanced modalities of alternative medicine used in conjunction with conventional therapy for holistic approach for cancer management.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Cancer pain assessment and management in ambulatory patients at a tertiary
           hospital in Ghana

    • Authors: Akua A. Abruquah, Robert P. Biney, Ernest B. Osei-Bonsu, Kofi M. Boamah, Eric Woode
      Pages: 1793 - 1799
      Abstract: Background: Adequate cancer pain assessment using valid and reliable pain assessment tools is essential for effective cancer pain management. This study evaluated the common types, effectiveness as well as adherence to prescribed analgesics in oncology outpatients in a tertiary oncology centre in Ghana.Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study involved 204 oncology outpatients with different confirmed cancer diagnosis attending clinic at the Oncology Directorate of a Tertiary Hospital in Ghana. The research instruments used were the medical folders of patients, a hospital-based electronic drug database system; hospital administration management systems (HAMS) and the Brief Pain Inventory Long-Form (BPI-LF).Results: More than half (63.7%) of the participants reported moderate pain, 37.8% received opioid analgesics: 31.4% strong opioids and 6.4% weak opioids. Less than one-fourth (21.6%) had complete pain relief and 18.1% felt they needed a stronger pain medication. A little more than one-fourth (28.4%) of participants took their pain medications 1-2 times per day. Almost half (45.6%) of participants did not experience side effects from taking pain medications and 27.9% needed more information about their pain medications.Conclusions: Enhancing effective cancer symptom management approaches in healthcare practitioners and incorporating existing knowledge and guidelines on cancer pain management into routine clinical practice should be done to enhance efficient pain relief. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Women’s attitude towards breast cancer in Baghdad city, Iraq

    • Authors: Tiba Nezar Hasan, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Hasanain Faisal Ghazi, Mohd Rohaizat Hassan
      Pages: 1800 - 1804
      Abstract: Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women all over the world. The aim of this study was to measure the attitude of women regarding breast cancer and its associated factors in Baghdad city, Iraq. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done among 508 women aged 18 years old and above recruited randomly from 4 Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) in Baghdad City during 2015. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data from respondents. Results: A total of 66.1% had a good attitude, the association between attitude and marital status, education was not significant, while working status was significant with P value of 0.001. After controlling for other cofounders, the contributors for poor attitude were not working, P value of 0.002 and adjusted odds ratio of 2.08. Conclusions: The attitude among the respondents still considered not good as almost one-thirds of the respondents had poor attitude. The most important contributor to poor attitude was working status. More education and health promotions need to be done among general population to educate them regarding breast cancer in Baghdad City, Iraq. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Bacteriological qualities of sources of domestic water supply and
           prevalence of typhoid fever in some communities of Enugu State, Southeast,
           Nigeria: a cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Emmanuel I. Umegbolu, Moses E. Offor
      Pages: 1805 - 1812
      Abstract: Background: From the public health point of view, the microbiological properties of domestic water supply are the most important parameters of domestic water supply because of the propensity for microbial water-related diseases. In Enugu State, statistics have shown that reported cases of waterborne diseases (including typhoid fever) have been on the increase since 2003. The aim of the study was to determine the bacteriological qualities of domestic water supply and prevalence of typhoid fever in five communities of Enugu State in connection with the rising incidence of typhoid fever in the state.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of sources of domestic water supply and prevalence of typhoid fever in five rural communities of Ezeagu Local Government Area. 297 copies of structured questionnaire, 10 grab water samples analysed using the membrane filtration method and 227 blood samples collected for Widal test were used to generate the data for the study, analysed as frequency distributions, t-test of means difference and Pearson product moment correlations using MaxStat (version 3.60) statistical software.Results: 2 (40%) of the 5 communities complied with the WHO standard for faecal coliform counts. Prevalence of typhoid fever was high in all the communities (71.4%-100%). Only faecal coliform counts correlated positively and strongly (r=0.69) with prevalence of typhoid fever.Conclusions: Since faecal coliform counts correlated positively and strongly (r=0.69) with prevalence of typhoid fever, improving the bacteriological qualities of domestic water supply may help to reduce the prevalence of typhoid fever. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Nutritional survey among under five children at Tamyia district in Fayoum,
           Egypt

    • Authors: Asmaa Younis Elsary, Ahmed Mahmoud Abd El-moktader, Alkassem Elgameel, Wael Sayed Mohammed, Mohamed Masoud, Naglaa Gamal Abd El-Haleem
      Pages: 1813 - 1818
      Abstract: Background: Malnutrition is involved in half of the deaths of under-five children as in many developing countries. In Egypt, malnutrition remains an important issue as 5.5% of under-five children are underweight, 8.4% are wasted and 21.4% are stunted. The present study was carried out to assess the prevalence and risk factors of malnutrition among sick under five children seeking medical advice at Tamiya District health care facilities in Fayoum.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study included 400 under five children at Tamiya district in Fayoum. It was carried out over a period of 5 months from June to October 2014. All patients were subjected to the following: History taking, anthropometric measurements including weight and length/height.Results: Our study shows that 23.2%, 18.5% and 19.3% of children were underweight, stunted and wasted, respectively. Stunting was more common in females than males. Also, our results reveal that risk factors of malnutrition were 70.6% parasitic infestation and 15.7% for gastroenteritis with statistically significant high prevalence of positive parasitic, helminthic infestation, and gastroenteritis with p-value <0.05 among wasted, stunted, and underweighted children.Conclusions: Prevalence of malnutrition was high among under five sick children. These findings indicate the need for implementing hospital and community-based intervention nutritional program.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Dengue-free community as an approach for understanding the value and
           challenges of inter-agencies partnerships in an intervention program

    • Authors: Hidayatulfathi Othman, Saiful Azlan Nordin, Norazimah Abdul Rashid, Mohamed Badrul Hisham Abas, Rozita Hod, Mazrura Sahani
      Pages: 1819 - 1826
      Abstract: Background: One of the key requirements for accomplishing a mutual goal is the formation of partnerships. ‘Partnership’ is an ill-defined concept, subject to multiple interpretations and frequently used interchangeably with alliance, coalition, network and collaboration among other terms. World Health Organisation had emphasized dengue prevention and control as a top priority, thus an inter agencies strategy and intervention study was launched to document the effectiveness of a local-level inter agencies approach and partnerships.Methods: The Free-Dengue Community approach, which involved stakeholder partnerships between parties such as the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Science, Technology, Local Municipalities, Health District Offices and National University of Malaysia, was developed as an inter-agencies plan for dengue prevention, of which the core objective was to design and implement activities for communication and social mobilization. In the control area, routine dengue control activities continued without additional input.  Entomological indices were compared within and between the areas before and after the 12 week intervention period.Results: The approach consolidated the inter-agencies partnerships whereby the dengue cases in the localities had dropped and via this study, the module of Dengue-Free Community was mapped and documented. The result also highlighted the contributions made by each of the partner in bringing down the dengue cases in the selected localities. Furthermore, the number of ovitrap index also decreasing proving that the approach is effective. The community kit and home-kit provided to the community also helped in reducing the number of Aedes eggs in the intervention program.Conclusions: The partnership using the Dengue-Free Community approach achieved its aim of increasing the level of cooperation between the authorities to support social mobilization, and results shed light on how to tackle the challenges of inter-agency partnerships and the required approach for a better understanding of the levels at which individuals operate within such partnerships. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • A validation study of the Malay version of career commitment questionnaire

    • Authors: Syahmina N. Rasudin, Shamarina Shohaimi
      Pages: 1827 - 1833
      Abstract: Background: An employee’s commitment to his career is an important aspect in ensuring organisational effectiveness. Low level of commitment may increase withdrawal rates, thus, will negatively affect the organisation. The career commitment level of an employee needs to be measured properly. Hence, a validated and reliable instrument is very important to measure the level of career commitment among employees. Career Commitment Questionnaire (CCQ) consists of a combination of Blau’s Measure and Career Commitment Measure (CCM). Methods: The CCQs were distributed to secondary school teachers from 30 schools in Kota Bharu district. The collected questionnaires were split into Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Respondents answered the instrument by self-administered. Data were analysed for EFA, CFA, internal consistency, and convergent validity using STATA software Version 14. Results: The EFA resulted in the production of 1 factor with 19 items, while CFA results confirmed the construction of 1 factor with 19 items showed by the value of Chi square/df (1.631), TLI (0.967), CFI (0.971), and RMSEA (0.078)which met the requirements of model fitness. The overall Cronbach’s alpha value of CCQ was 0.99. The Average Variance Extracted (AVE) of CCQ was 0.78 indicating that the convergent validity was met. Conclusions: To recapitulate, the CCQ was proved to be a validated and reliable instrument for measuring the level of career commitment among school teachers and in future should be tested to ensure the suitability of CCQ in different career fields. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Community factors accountable for home births in a low income rural
           setting in Ghana

    • Authors: Kennedy Diema Konlan, Milipaak Japiong, Amos Nawunimali Suuk, Abdul-Razak Doat, Agani Afaya, Solomon Mohammed Salia
      Pages: 1834 - 1840
      Abstract: Background: Many maternal deaths occur as a result of delivery that takes place in the home or late referral of women in labour to the health facility. This situation is further worsened in remote poor communities of the northern region of Ghana; where health care services are inequitably distributed. This study determined the factors in low income rural communities that are responsible for the high numbers of homebirths using the Bunkpurugu Yunyoo district as a case study. Methods: The study employed mixed method study that used both qualitative and quantitative methods. Three hundred women who delivered within the last one year were made to respond to a research questionnaire while four health care workers (three midwives and a general registered nurse) were engaged in an in-depth interview. Results: The study identified poor road network, inequitable distribution of health facilities, inadequate family support during labour, cultural factors like taboos and the stigma associated with FGM to be responsible for the high numbers of home deliveries. Even though women intended to give birth in the health facility during pregnancy, they are unable to do so as labour occurs when they were not expecting it. Conclusions: The study recommended the use of equipment like the ultrasound during the first trimester of pregnancy to measure accurately the expected date of delivery of each pregnant woman so as to enable them plan for birth.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Early menarche and high parity contribute to better sexual-quality of life
           in perimenopausal women

    • Authors: Lusia Asih Wulandari, Sutyarso ., Mohammad Kanedi
      Pages: 1841 - 1846
      Abstract: Background: It was well known that physiological, psychological, as well as sociocultural are the factors that contribute to female sexual dysfunction. This study aimed to find out whether sexual function of women at perimenopausal age correlated with their ontogenetic factors, such as the age at menarche and parity.Methods: Women (n=80) from nine villages in district of Lampung Tengah, Lampung Province, Indonesia aged 40-50 years who meet inclusion criteria participated in the study. Predesigned questionnaire was used to assess socio-demographic characteristics, and the female sexual function index (FSFI) was used to score sexual function of the respondents.Results: None of the 80 respondents smoke, consumes alcohol, and has medical records. Based on the FSFI scores, except for one participant, all respondents suffered from sesual dysfunction with the average of total score 18.77. By using median score (18.52) the respondents were dichotomized into two categories, high and low sexual dysfunction. The results of Chi-square analysis and logistic regression showed that respondents with the characteristics of age at menarche <15 years and parity >4 children have better sexual-quality in comparison to those with the age at menarche >15 years and the parity <4 children.Conclusions: It can be concluded that early menarche and high parity might contributed to better sexual-quality of life in perimenopausal women.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Factors influencing public hospital nurses’ intentions to leave their
           current employment in Jordan

    • Authors: Mohammed Al Momani
      Pages: 1847 - 1853
      Abstract: Background: Shortage of nurses resulting from nurses migration, has created a health care crisis in developing countries and has adversely affected the quality of nursing care provided to patients. The main objective of this study was to investigate the factors influencing Jordanian public hospital nurses’ intent to leave their current employment. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 348 registered nurses randomly selected from two public referral hospitals, Al Bashier Teaching Hospital, and Amirah Basma Teaching Hospital, Jordan. Data to investigate the nurses’ satisfaction and their intention to leave were collected using self-administered questionnaire compromised 28 factors included in seven dimension: Administrative support, supervision and leadership, interaction with co-workers, work related factors, staff development practices, pay and promotion system, and control and responsibility. Data collected over a 4-month period (December 13, 2015 to April 7, 2016). Results: of the 348 registered nurses 212 (60.9%) had an intention to leave their current work. The average satisfaction rate for all dimensions was (2.83). The dominant factors were not satisfied nurses (mean<3) and influencing their intention to leave were Pay and benefits, nurse to bed ratio due to shortage of nurses, and praising and recognitions for achievement. The variables gender, work experience, and nursing role yielded significant associations with intent to leave (p<0.05). Conclusions: The study showed that the majority of nurses were dissatisfied and had intention to leave their current job. Developing strategies to increase retention of nurses such as salaries and benefits should be periodically reviewed in light of the national consumer index, in addition to other strategies could improve nursing retention and quality of nursing care. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Health seeking behavior among women in Bhimtar, Sindhupalchowk district of
           Nepal

    • Authors: Marina V. Shrestha, Leela Paudel, Smriti Pant, Samikchya Neupane, Naresh Manandhar
      Pages: 1854 - 1857
      Abstract: Background: When assessing and monitoring the health of a population, it is important to describe not only classical mortality and morbidity indicators but also, perceived illness, visits to primary health services, and utilization of the healthcare services provided. Objectives of the study were to determine the health status and factors affecting health seeking behaviour of women.Methods: A descriptive study was done at Bhimtar, Sindhupalchowk District in Nepal, involving 147 subjects sampled by purposive sampling. Study population consisted of women. Data was collected by house to house interview with pretested questionnaire during month of September 2016. Data was entered and then analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 20. Simple measures of statistics like frequency, percentages, means were used to represent the data in tables as a part of descriptive analysis and chi-square test was applied to see the association with dependent variables.Results: Among 80.9% women who had gynaecological problems, the highest prevalence rate of the disease was low back pain (60.5%) followed by lower abdominal pain (35.2%), dysmenorrhea (27.3%) and menstrual irregularities (27.3%). The first approach of seeking health for the reported illness among women was the traditional healer (51%). Regarding attitude towards modern medicine, 47.6% respondents replied that facilities were not available locally. Similarly regarding hindering factors for not utilizing health services, lack of female doctors (43.75%) and far distance of health care centre (37.5%) were the most common ones.Conclusions:Higher percentage of women in Bhimtar sought after the traditional healer as the best way for utilizing health services. Modern health care utilization was less because of the distance to be covered during illness and lack of doctors in the health centre.  
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Factors associated with utilisation of university health centre services
           by students

    • Authors: Abdullah Alkhawaldeh
      Pages: 1858 - 1862
      Abstract: Background: Little is known about the factors that are associated with students’ utilisation of university health centre services. The current study examines factors associated with utilisation of university health centre services by students.Methods: Data were collected from 440 university students using a cross-sectional study design and self-reported questionnaire.Results: University health centre services were utilised by 147 (39.5%) of the students in the past 6 months. Utilisation of university health centre services was associated with gender, faculty, tobacco use and chronic illnesses. The main predictor of university health centre services utilisation at 6 months was chronic illnesses (OR=4.205).Conclusions: Although several factors were associated with university health centre services utilisation, chronic illness was the most important predictor.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Epidemiology of diabetes among adults in Jabra area ''block
           14’’ in Khartoum state – Sudan: community based study

    • Authors: Eltagi A. M. Abdalla, Ragda F. Ahmed
      Pages: 1863 - 1869
      Abstract: Background: Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem, affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide. The objectives of the study were to estimate the prevalence of and to identify the possible risk factors associated with diabetes among the study population.Methods: A descriptive cross sectional community based study was carried out among 236 adults residing in Jabra area in Khartoum State in Sudan. Data were collected used pre tested structured questionnaire, and validated in a pilot study. The questionnaire included; socio-demographic data and possible risk factor such as (stress, physical exercise, history of pancreatic, history of renal problems and obesity). Anthropometric measurement included weight and height for BMI and laboratory data included random blood glucose (RBG) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG).Results: The present study showed, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus among adults in Jabra area was 18.6%. There was no significant sex difference in the prevalence rate. The results showed there was statistical association between diabetes positivity and marital status, age groups, educational level and family income p-values =(0.0002, 0.0004, 0.0005 and 0.0053) respectively. The multivariate analysis indicated family history of diabetes, obesity, physical activity, renal problems and pancreatic diseases were other risk factors associated with diabetes mellitus positivity OR =(2.19 (95% CI 1.10 - 4.34, p =0.027), 3.11 (95% CI 1.13 – 8.56, p =0.0278), 0.28 (95% CI 0.11 - 0.75, p =0.0113), 7.42 (95% CI 2.00- 27.57, p =0.0028) and 12.18 (95% CI 2.28 - 65.1, p =0.0035) respectively.Conclusions: The study found a higher prevalence of diabetes among study population. Risk factors showed a significant relation with higher fasting blood glucose.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Comparison of active calf muscle stretching versus ankle mobilisation on
           low back pain and lumbar flexibility in pronated foot subjects

    • Authors: K. Vadivelan, J. S. Poyyamozhi, G. Dinesh Kumar, C. Rajan Rushender
      Pages: 1870 - 1875
      Abstract: Background: Low back pain is the common symptom of the lumbar region that more than 80 percent of people experience in their lifetime. Methods: Quasi-experimental study was conducted with three intervention groups. Ankle mobilization (Group I), Active stretching of calf muscle (Group 2), No Intervention (Group 3). This study was carried out in the Department of Physiotherapy at SRM University, Chennai. 21 subjects were included in the study, with 7 subjects in each group. Results: Median age was found to be 20 (19–21), 19 (18–20) and 21 (20–22) in group 1, group 2 and group 3 respectively and no significant difference was seen between the groups, p value 0.11) There was a significant improvement seen in visual analogue scale, in both the intervention groups before and after intervention. The median and IQR for ankle mobilization group pre and post intervention was 6 (IQR, 5–6) and 4 (IQR, 3–5) respectively, with a p value <0.01. Conclusions: Overall results have shown that both the intervention groups have similar effects in reducing lower back pain and improving lumbar flexion, compared to the control group. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of multiple choice questions using item analysis tool: a study
           from a medical institute of Ahmedabad, Gujarat

    • Authors: Donald S. Christian, Arpit C. Prajapati, Bhavik M. Rana, Viral R. Dave
      Pages: 1876 - 1881
      Abstract: Background: Multiple choice question (MCQ) assessments are becoming popular means to assess knowledge for many screening examinations among several fields including Medicine. The single best answer MCQs may also test higher-order thinking skills. Hence, MCQs remain useful assessment gadget. Objectives: 1) To evaluate Multiple Choice Questions for testing their quality. 2) To explore the association between difficulty index (p-value) and discrimination indices (DI) with distractor efficiency (DE). 3) To study the occurrence of functioning distractors for MCQs. Methods: Total five MCQ test sessions were conducted among interns of a medical institute of Ahmedabad city Gujarat, between April 2016 to March 2017, as part of their compulsory rotating postings in the department. The average participation in each of the sessions was 17 interns, thus a total of 85 interns getting enrolled. For each test session, the questionnaire consisted of forty MCQs having 4 options including a single best answer. The MCQs were analyzed for difficulty index (DIF-I, p-value), discrimination index (DI), and distractor efficiency (DE). Results: Total 85 interns attended the tests consisting of total 200 MCQ items (questions) from four major medical disciplines namely - Medicine, Surgery, Obstetrics & Gynecology and Community Medicine. Mean test scores of each test ranged from 36.0% to 45.8%.The reliability of the tests, the Kuder Richardson (KR) 20, ranged from 0.29 to 0.52. The standard error of Measurement ranged from 2.59 to 2.79.Out of total 200 MCQs, seventy nine (n=79) had Discrimination index (DI) <0.15 (poor), and 61 had DI ≥0.35 (excellent). Easy items having average DE of all tests was 20.1%. Conclusions: Items having average difficulty and high discrimination with functioning distractors should be incorporated into tests to improve the validity of the assessment. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Factors for non-acceptance of contraceptive methods amongst married women
           of reproductive age group in rural Patna

    • Authors: Vijay Shree, R. R. Prasad, Sanjay Kumar, Setu Sinha, Sanjay Kumar Choudhary
      Pages: 1882 - 1887
      Abstract: Background: Population explosion has been India's major problem since independence. It is a major obstacle to the overall progress of the nation. Adoption of family planning methods is one of the best solutions to tackle this problem. The present study was planned to determine the factors for non-acceptance of different contraceptive methods among married women of reproductive age group in rural areas of Patna.Methods: Study design: a community based cross sectional study. Study population: married women of reproductive age group (15-45 years). Study period: January 2012- July 2013. Study area: field practice area of PHC Sampatchak, Patna. Sample size: 705 using formula n =4p* q/d2. Study tool: pre tested semi-structured proforma. Collected data was analysed using latest version of SPSS. Results: 705 married women of reproductive age group were surveyed and it was found that out of 705 women only 230 (32.65%) were using contraceptive methods. Amongst the users 70.87% were using permanent method of contraception and that too female sterilization. Of the temporary method users (29.13%) 2.60% were using condom, 15.21% were using OCP (oral contraceptive pills) and 11.30% were using IUCD (Intra Uterine Contraceptive Device). Choice of contraceptive method was mostly OCP (71.4%) when duration of marriage was <5 years. Greater the duration of married life more was the acceptance of Tubectomy. The main reasons for non-acceptance of contraceptives method was desire for child (31.17%) followed by fear of side effects (21.05%). Want of male child and opposition by husband accounted for 8.45% &12% respectively. Conclusions: There is tremendous need to increase use of temporary contraceptives for spacing after one or two children. Male involvement in RCH care is essential. It is important to increase their participation as husbands often influence their wife’s decision regarding reproductive health. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Awareness of coronary heart disease in rural areas of Mangalore

    • Authors: Grace Mariam George, Sanjeev Badiger, K. G. Kiran, Nanjesh Kumar
      Pages: 1888 - 1891
      Abstract: Background: Coronary heart disease is the impairment of heart function due to inadequate blood flow to the heart, compared to its needs caused by obstruction. It is the cause of 25-30 percent of deaths in most industrialised countries. The WHO has drawn its fact that coronary heart disease is a modern epidemic .A steady decline in mortality is seen in western countries due to changes in lifestyles and related risk factors. Objectives of the study to assess the knowledge of the people regarding coronary heart disease, to identify who are at risk and to test their attitudes and practices.Methods: This is a descriptive study. The sample size was 256. The study was done among the OPD patients attending the rural health centres of a tertiary hospital in Mangalore. Time period was two months.Results: Our community based cross-sectional study demonstrated good knowledge (57.42%), good attitude but poor practice regarding the cardiovascular health in the rural population of Mangalore. Conclusions: There is a need for concerted efforts for health education (e.g. audio visual aids) focusing more on Coronary heart disease causations, signs and symptoms, and treatment facilities. Conducting screening camps aiming more towards cardiovascular check-up- including lipid profile, blood sugar, ECG in addition to routine check-up; preferably once in a year covering a mass population for the purpose of   prevention and management is necessary. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Epidemiological study of ischemic heart disease in patients admitted in
           intensive care unit in the tertiary care hospital

    • Authors: Poonam Vijay Sancheti, Suresh Konappa Mangulikar
      Pages: 1892 - 1897
      Abstract: Background: The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiological factors of ischemic heart disease in patients admitted in intensive care unit in the tertiary care hospital. Socio demographic profile of ischemic heart disease patients along with behavioral risk factors, stress factors, dietary habits and associated comorbidities were studied.Methods: Present study was carried out in patients of IHD admitted in ICU of tertiary care hospital. History about epidemiological factors was obtained from patients or relatives by separate proformas.Results: Occurrence of disease had decreasing trend with the increase in literacy status of patients, which was statistically significant at p <0.0001. Maximum patients in the study were from socioeconomic class V i.e. 144 (36.64%). Study showed that household stress was more commonly associated with occurrence of disease which was significant statistically at p <0.001. Most common behavioral risk factor seen in patients was smokeless tobacco consumption. The occurrence of ischemic heart disease was seen more in the group of patients consuming mixed diet and consuming palm oil. Most common comorbidity in patients admitted for ischemic heart disease was hypertension, which was statistically significant at p <0.001.Conclusions: Age, literacy, socioeconomic status of the patient, history of behavioral risk factors in the patient, stress and comorbidities are related to the occurrence of ischemic heart disease. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Gastrointestinal manifestations of Fasciolopsis buski associated
           polyparasitism in patients of an endemic area: a hospital based study

    • Authors: Shilpi Ranjan, Kumar Saurabh, Rajeev Ranjan Prasad
      Pages: 1898 - 1900
      Abstract: Background: The objective of the study was to describe the gastrointestinal manifestations of Fasciolopsis buski associated polyparasitism. Methods: A retrospective study in the form of chart review of twenty patients was done who passed either adult F. buski or ova per stool and their stool samples were also positive for other intestinal parasites. This study was done in a tertiary care centre of north Bihar during the time period of January 2016 to December 2016. Gastrointestinal manifestations of the patients were evaluated and treatment outcome was seen. Results: School age children were the most affected population. Diarrhoea either acute or persistent was the most common presentation. Some and severe dehydration was present in 50% cases. Pain abdomen (60%) was the common finding in children whereas adults having abdominal distension (40%) as a major complain. Anaemia was present in almost all cases. 30% cases even required blood transfusion. H. nana was the most common associated parasite followed by Ascaris. One patient had evidence of five different parasites in his stool sample. Patients were treated with Praziquantal, Albendazole and Metronidazole with complete recovery. Conclusions: F. buski associated with polyparasitism presents with a more severe form of disease than Fasciolopsiasis itself. Aggressive treatment is required. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • A study on the morbidity pattern in adolescent school girls

    • Authors: Shivani Sinha, Pratibha Gupta, Beena Sachan, Sanjay Kumar, Seema Kumari
      Pages: 1901 - 1905
      Abstract: Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) has defined adolescence as the age group of 10-19 years. According to World Health Organisation, adolescents constitute about one fifth of the world population, and in India they constitute about 21% of the total population. Adolescent girls are the worst sufferers of various forms of malnutrition because of their increased nutritional needs and low social power. If their nutritional needs are not met, they are likely to give birth to undernourished children, thus transmitting under nutrition to future generation. Objective was to study the various socio-demographic factors affecting the nutritional status in adolescent girls. Methods: A school based cross-sectional study was carried out in Lucknow district. Adolescent girls of age groups 10-19 years were included in the study. Data was collected, compiled and tabulated using Microsoft Excel and analysed using SPSS 17.0 version for calculation of percentages. Results: Rural background, low socioeconomic status, illiteracy, birth rate and order, income and number of members in a family have shown to be significant determinants of morbidity pattern in the adolescent girls. Conclusions: Among the various morbidities eye problem was seen in maximum no of adolescent girls. Eye problem was present in 31% of adolescent girls followed by respiratory (12.8%) and ear (11.5%) disease. Skin disease was present in 3.1% of adolescent girls, which was more in rural girls than in urban girls, may be due to better hygienic practice in urban school girls. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • HIV awareness among first year MBBS students in a private medical college,
           Telangana, India

    • Authors: Kotina Shridevi, Talikota Srigouri
      Pages: 1906 - 1911
      Abstract: Background: Globally, since 1980, 70 million people were infected with HIV virus and 33.3 million people have died of HIV. In Sub-Saharan Africa, largest number of people living with HIV is Asia. In these areas 19 million of the 35 million people living with the virus globally do not know their HIV positive status. The objectives of the study were to know the awareness regarding HIV and its mode of transmission, clinical features and diagnosis of HIV, prevention and vaccine availability of HIV.Methods: Study design: cross sectional study, study area: private medical college, Telangana state, study population- 136 students in the 1st year MBBS. Methodology: The data was collected by a pre designed, pretested and semi structured questionnaire which consisted of, identification data, HIV Awareness, mode of transmission, symptoms and diagnosis, prevention and vaccine availability of HIV. The data was analyzed by using Microsoft Excel.Results: Males and females in the study were 43.38% and 56.6% respectively. Mean age of students was 18.184. 100% of the students heard about HIV, 25% of the students did not know that HIV and AIDS are different stages of the same disease. 98.52% were aware that contaminated needles and syringes as route of transmission, 87.5% were aware about vertical transmission. 93.38% of the students have a correct opinion that avoiding multiple partners’. 80.88% knew that antiretroviral drugs are available. 91.91% knew that the vaccine is not yet available for HIV.Conclusions: There is overall satisfactory level of awareness on routes of transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS but knowledge regarding symptoms is less. There were several misconceptions regarding route and Prevention of HIV. Very few knew that immediate medical attention will prevent HIV. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Tobacco use and its determinants among 13-15 year old adolescents of two
           central government schools of New Delhi district

    • Authors: Ashwini Kedar, Sanjay Gupta, Khangembam Jitenkumar Singh
      Pages: 1912 - 1917
      Abstract: Background: The burden of Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) is on the rise globally as well as in India. Tobacco use is one of the important behavioural risk factors which can be recognized and modified at a young age. Objectives: To assess tobacco use among school going adolescents and to determine the factors affecting this NCD risk factor.Methods: The study was conducted among adolescents aged 13 years to 15 years studying in class eighth to tenth from two central government schools of New Delhi district. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data from students and their parents. Data gathered from 438 students was analyzed using SPSS version 20.Results: 30 participants were found to ever use tobacco, and 25 were current users. Majority (17) ever tobacco users started using tobacco at 11 years or less. Tobacco use among family members, friends was found to be an important predictor for, ever and current tobacco use. Film actors were an important source of inspiration for tobacco use followed by family members and friends. Health education at school had a strong protective effect especially for current tobacco use.Conclusions: A decreasing age of initiation for tobacco use and a strong influence of family members were found. Greater emphasis on health education activities at school may help to decrease tobacco use among children. School based interventions involving families of students may help in controlling this behavioural risk factor. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Trends of hepatitis B among hospital admissions at tertiary care hospital,
           Solapur

    • Authors: Hemlata G. Rokade, Subhalaxmi D. Kotnis, Suresh K. Mangulikar
      Pages: 1918 - 1922
      Abstract: Background: Hepatitis B is a national and global public health problem. Various studies have supported the change in prevalence and trends of Hepatitis B. The aim of the study was 1) to study the trends of Hepatitis B according to age, sex and area of residence, 2) to study seasonality of Hepatitis B cases, 3) to find geographical predilection of Hepatitis B cases in Solapur city.Methods: The records of patients with Hepatitis B from January2012 to December2016 admitted to tertiary care hospital, was retrieved and studied. Statistical analysis used: Percentages, z test of proportions, ACF and PACF.Results: Out of 406 Hepatitis B cases, 51.97% belonged to 15 to 45 years of age. There was an increasing trend of Hepatitis B from age of 15 years up to 45 years. The male female ratio was 2.63:1. Fifty-seven percent cases were from urban areas. The proportion of cases from urban area decreased from 9.01% in 2012 to 6.01% in the year 2016. Contrarily, it increased from 5.78% in 2012 to 10.98% in 2016 in rural area. Hepatitis B cases appear to come in sharp rises and falls in these five years with no specific trend. PACF results showed no seasonality. Ward number17 reported maximum cases.Conclusions: The primary prevention for Hepatitis B should be targeted at 15 to 45years of age group. There is no seasonal variation seen in Hepatitis B infection. Areas observed with hot pockets must be screened and kept under surveillance. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Effect of yoga on general health: food habits versus blood groups

    • Authors: Acharya Balkrishna, Anita Verma, Rachana Bhattarai, G. Paran Gowda
      Pages: 1923 - 1927
      Abstract: Background: In this paper, we attempted to critically analyze the relation between food habits intake versus different blood groups. In majority of the cases we found that there is a close link between the food habits versus the blood groups.Methods: As a sample measure, we collected 50 sample blood groups and their respective food habits. Descriptive statistics is applied to know the average number of people having different food habits versus blood groups. The study covers 25 females and 25 males. The target groups cover students, public and staff of Patanjali Yogpeeth and also patients.Results: The findings of the study show that the 4 major blood groups A, B, AB and O have almost the same food habits in terms of calorie intake. Secondly, the study shows that there is a probability of blood groups having a relation to different ailments which could be treated with appropriate dieting systems and energy. Thirdly, the sample study shows that people having AB blood group may be more prone to mental discomforts for which Aloevera juice along with general yoga practices has been suggested followed by other blood groups; A, B and O.Conclusions: This study will be useful for all the medical and paramedical practitioners, dieticians, nutrition experts. It will have general health policy implications at primary and sub center level centers. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Refractive errors in age group seven to fifteen years: North-east India
           scenario

    • Authors: Himanto Nath Hazarika, Dipak Bhuyan, Suranjana Chaliha Hazarika, Sujit Addya
      Pages: 1928 - 1931
      Abstract: Background: The objectives of study were to find out the different types of refractive errors in children between seven to fifteen years age group and the cause of uncorrected defective vision.Methods: A prospective study was designed of two thousand children aged between seven to fifteen years, attending outpatient department. Study period was one year. Consent was obtained from their guardian. Inclusion criteria were children with refractive errors. Children presenting with organic defects of ocular structures, infections, corneal opacity, cataract, choroid and retinal disorders were excluded from study. Data were collected by history taking and comprehensive ocular examination, visual tests for both near and distant vision. Refractive error assessed by cycloplegic drug with one percent Homatropine eye drops, by streak retinoscopy. Objective refraction were carried out and documented. Subjective refraction was done after one week. Both BCVA and uncorrected refractive errors were ascertained and recorded.Results: Out of two thousand children examined, myopic = 34%, hypermetropic = 11%, and astigmatic = 55%. M: F = 900:1000. Study showed headache as the commonest symptom. 17% of the patients had positive family history. Correctable errors constitute 91% of the total cases.Conclusions: Myopic astigmatism was found to be the most frequent refractive error in children. Mass screening is required for early diagnosis of refractive error. Prescribing corrective glasses for children with refractive errors at an early age will prevent childhood morbidity. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Satisfaction of patients attending a rural hospital of Darjeeling district
           in West Bengal, India

    • Authors: Priti Agarwal, Romy Biswas
      Pages: 1932 - 1937
      Abstract: Background: Patient satisfaction is a means of measuring the effectiveness of health care delivery. This serves as a means of improvement among health care providers to give an acceptable level of patient satisfaction. Aims and Objectives: To assess the level of satisfaction and reasons of dissatisfaction among patients regarding health care services in a rural hospital of Darjeeling District, West Bengal.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was done on 110 patients with the help of PSQ-18 questionnaire. The samples were drawn by systematic random sampling            .Results: The overall mean satisfaction score was 3.57 and S.D. ±0.69. The mean score was highest in general satisfaction domain which was found to be 3.76 with S.D ± 1.08 and lowest in time spent with doctor where mean score was 2.92 and S.D. ±1.07. 69.3% of the patients were satisfied with the services offered by the hospital. The time spent by the doctor with the patient was less and this was the major reason of dissatisfaction.Conclusions: More than half of the patients were satisfied with the services provided by the hospital. The findings of the study can facilitate the development of targeted, objectively prioritized programs for the improvement and advancement of health care delivery systems. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Assessment of sub-centres of Belagavi district according to Indian public
           health standards 2012 guidelines: a cross sectional study

    • Authors: Shrinivas K. Patil, Shivaswamy M. S.
      Pages: 1938 - 1942
      Abstract: Background: In the public sector, a sub-health centre (sub-centre) is the most peripheral and first point of contact between the primary health care system and the community. The current level of functioning of the Sub-centres is much below the expectations. Objective: To assess sub-centres of Belagavi District according to Indian public health standards 2012 guidelines.Methods: A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in Belagavi district of Karnataka. forty SCs, four SC from each of the 10 Talukas of Belagavi district were selected by simple random sampling. Study period: 1st January to 31st December 2014. Data collected - using a predesigned and structured questionnaire for IPHS facility survey.Results: The study showed 35% of SCs were catering the services for population as per the norms. Services like ante-natal clinics, post-natal clinics and immunization sessions were conducted regularly in all the SCs. About 33% of SCs had no buildings. A deficiency worth highlighting in the present study was the absence of residential facilities for the staff in half of the SCs. Proper supervision and monitoring of the service delivery activities of the SC staff was done only in 70% of SCs.Conclusions: IPHS guidelines are not being followed at SC level in the district. Recruitment of SC staff especially the Health Worker Male post should be filled at all the SCs for efficient functioning of the SCs. The SC should be periodically surveyed to identify the deficiency and necessary action could be taken to correct it. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • A qualitative study on determinants of choice of contraceptives in a rural

    • Authors: Hamsa T. Swamy, Bhanu M., Nanda Kumar B. S., Shivaraj N. S.
      Pages: 1943 - 1950
      Abstract: Background: Family planning is a fundamental right of every human being. According to National Family Health Survey-4 Karnataka factsheet the rate of female sterilization is 48.6%, as compared to 57.4% in the NFHS-3 survey.1 Further as per NFHS-4 the rate of male sterilization is 0.1%, IUD/PPIUCD is 0.8%, pill use is 0.4%, and condom use is 1.3%. This study aims to determine factors influencing contraceptive non-use among women aged 15 - 49 years in rural area, Karnataka.Methods: Three focus group discussions were conducted in Ardesahalli Primary Health Center area to assess the knowledge and attitude of the women with regards to use and determinants for choices of contraceptives. Conceptual framework was used to develop the leading questions for the focus group discussions which included macro and micro level factors determining use or non-use of contraceptives.Results: Mother-in-law’s lack of knowledge about contraceptive use and fear of side effects regarding contraceptive had an influence on daughter and daughter-in-law’s for using/not using any method.Conclusions: Similar qualitative studies revealed that there were personal, cultural, and health system barriers to modern contraceptive use. In our study also Mother-in-law’s lack of knowledge and fear of side effects regarding contraceptive had an influence on daughter-in-law’s. It is imperative that the entire family is involved during the counseling sessions so that the misconceptions and irrational beliefs are addressed comprehensively. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Opportunistic screening for random blood glucose level among adults
           attending a rural tertiary care centre in Haryana during world health day
           observation activity

    • Authors: Jai Pal Majra, Ramesh Verma
      Pages: 1951 - 1956
      Abstract: Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common non-commu­nicable diseases worldwide and major global risks for morbidity and mortality. The total burden of deaths from high blood glucose in 2012 has been estimated to 3.7 million which includes 1.5 million diabetes deaths, 2.2 million deaths from cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney disease, and tuberculosis. Various studies reported that population-based screening of blood glucose level will result in low yield but higher cost. However, opportunity screening at earlier stage had good prognosis. Hence opportunistic screening for raised random blood glucose level was planned.Methods: During observation of World Health Day 2016 activity based on theme, “Beat diabetes: Scale up prevention, strengthen care, and enhance surveillance” this present cross-sectional study was conducted. Attendants of the patients having age >30 years; visiting this institute on that day enrolled as study participants. Information gathered regarding their socio-demographic parameters and doing regular physical activity. A brief clinical examination regarding anthropometric measurements and random blood glucose was done using standard procedures by trained personnel.Results: Out of 215 opportunistic screened participants, 14 (6.51%) participants were known diabetic and having random blood glucose level <200 mg%. However among rests 201 study participants whose diabetic status was unknown, 8 (4%) participants had random blood glucose level >200 mg%. BMI status of 48 (22%) and 103 (48%) study participants were recorded as pre-obese and obese respectively.Conclusions: It was concluded that after every 7 cases of known diabetes mellitus there were 4 unknown cases identified as raised random blood glucose level. Hence in tertiary care settings, individuals more than 30 years should get priority for opportunistic screening of random blood glucose estimation. Health-care providers should be sensitized on practicing opportunistic screening in outpatient department. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Clinical and haematological parameters associated with patients of
           visceral leishmaniasis in a district of North Bihar

    • Authors: Kumar Saurabh, Shilpi Ranjan, Rajeev Ranjan Prasad
      Pages: 1957 - 1960
      Abstract: Background: Visceral leishmaniasis is highly endemic in West Champaran district of Bihar. This endemicity is supposed to be due to poor hygiene and sanitation and poor control of vectors. This study was done to study clinical and haematological parameters of Kala-azar patients in this area.Methods: A retrospective data collection was done in a medical college of north Bihar. Study duration was one year from January 2016 to December 2016. 43 cases, rk-39 positive from 13 blocks of W. Champaran admitted at medical college were studied for clinical and haematological parameters.Results: Bhitha was the highest affected block (25.58%) followed by Manjhaulia (23.25%) Fever was the commonest presentation whereas splenomegaly was the most common sign. Pallor was seen in 90 % cases and hepatomegaly in 60 % cases. Patients presented with bleeding manifestation in 9.3% cases and lymphadenopathy in 6.9% cases. Among blood parameters anaemia was seen in 93% cases and thrombocytopenia in 83%. Microcytic hypochromic blood picture was the most common peripheral blood picture.Conclusions: Extensive epidemiological investigation is needed to find out hidden cases in this area. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Patient and health system delays among tuberculosis patients attending
           DOTS centres of Kamrup (metro) district, Assam

    • Authors: Abhishek Gope, Kanika K. Baruah, Jutika Ojah, Rupali Baruah
      Pages: 1961 - 1965
      Abstract: Background: Among the North eastern states, Assam has the highest burden of tuberculosis. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is essential for effective control of tuberculosis.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among new smear positive tuberculosis cases above 15 years in Kamrup (Metrolpolitan) district of Assam from August 2015 to July 2016.Results: The mean patient delay was 34.2 days and the mean health system delay was 30.34 days. Female gender and patients who made first contact with non-formal health care providers were significantly associated with patient delay while illiteracy and age more than 35 years had significant association with health system delay.Conclusions: Median patient delay was found to be more than median health system delay. As patient delay was significantly associated with non-formal health care providers, the study proposes integration of non-formal health care providers with RNTCP which can reduce the patient delay. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Bacteriological profile of water samples in and around Shimla hills: a
           study from the sub Himalayan region

    • Authors: Suruchi Bhagra, Digvijay Singh, Atal Sood, Anil Kanga
      Pages: 1966 - 1971
      Abstract: Background: The present study was done to assess the bacteriological quality of drinking water in and around Shimla in the event of an outbreak of hepatitis E in Shimla city, January 2016. Methods: Total 1098 water samples from different sources were received from January to July 2016. The bacteriological analysis of water was done by the multiple tube technique. Results were interpreted after 48 hours of incubation of the water sample in MacConkey bile broth medium in accordance with Mc Crady probability table. Results: A total of 1098 water samples were received in the Microbiology laboratory of which 129 (11.74%) were unsatisfactory, 25 (2.27%) satisfactory and rest 925 (84.24%) were excellent. Nearly 9.21% samples from water tanks, 2.3% from public taps were unsatisfactory but water samples from all the water ATM s were excellent. Escherichia coli were the commonest isolate 35.6%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 31.6%, Klebsiella oxytoca 19.3%, Enterobacter sps 8% and Citrobacter sps 2%. In the corresponding period 477 patients had come to the health facilities for clinical symptoms of jaundice. The serum samples from clinically suspected cases were subject to antibody testing for IgM HAV and IgM HEV and it revealed that 109 (23%) were positive for HAV while 253 (53%) were positive for HEV. During the above period 75 (15%) patients had co-infection with both HAV and HEV. Conclusions: Bacteriological assessment of drinking water is essential and should be carried out on regular basis so as to prevent outbreaks of Hepatitis A and E and other water borne diseases. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • The prevalence of mechanical low back pain among proprioceptive neuro
           muscular facilitation and core muscle stabilisation

    • Authors: M. J. Thirunavukkarasu, Bikash Kumar Das, H. N. Vrushabhendra
      Pages: 1972 - 1975
      Abstract: Background: Cervical radiculopathy is a common disorder causing pain and disability. Objective was to determine the effects of mechanical versus manual traction in manual physical therapy combined with segmental mobilization and exercise therapy it the physical therapy management of patients with cervical radiculopathy.Methods: The mechanical and manual traction was applied in group A and B along with common intervention of segmental mobilization and exercise therapy in both groups for 5 weeks. The outcomes were assessed by NPRS and NDI at the baseline and after completion of 5 weeks exercise program at 3 days per week. The paired and unpaired t test was applied at 95% confidence interval to determine the statistical difference among two groups and data was analysed by SPSS software version-23.Results: The result revealed that there was statistically both mechanical and manual traction techniques are equally significant in group A and B for pain and disability (p <0.05) and were better in the experimental group.Conclusions: If patients of cervical radiculopathy treated with mechanical traction, segmental mobilization and exercise therapy will manage pain and disability more effectively than treated with manual traction, segmental mobilization and exercise therapy. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in a rural
           community of Salem, Tamil Nadu

    • Authors: K. Sathish Kumar, K. Chellavel Ganapathi, M. Duraimurugan, R. Selavaraj, K. Kokila, M. Megala
      Pages: 1976 - 1981
      Abstract: Background: Hypertension, a global public health issue, is a major risk factor for NCDs like stroke, cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. If Hypertension is detected early it is possible to minimize the risk of cardiovascular diseases, stroke and kidney failure. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of hypertension among the age group of >18 years in a rural community of Salem iii. To determine the association between hypertension and selected variables like age, sex, tobacco intake, alcohol intake, physical activity, Body mass index (BMI) and waist hip ratio iv. To assess the level of awareness, treatment and control of hypertensionMethods: A Cross-sectional study was done in a rural community of Salem, Tamil Nadu during March-December 2016 among individuals aged ≥18 years. The final calculated sample size was 256. Convenience sampling method was used. Participants were interviewed using a structured interview schedule, their BP was measured and anthropometric measurements were taken. Hypertension was defined according to JNC VIII criteria. Data entry and analysis was done using IBM SPSS version-21 software. Results: Out of the 442 eligible persons approached 420 persons consented to participate. Prevalence of hypertension was 34%. About 16% of the respondents had never measured their BP in their life time. Increase in age, male gender, increase in BMI levels, tobacco and alcohol were found to be significant independent predictors of hypertension. Awareness, treatment and control of hypertension were found to be 31%, 23.2% and 11.2% respectively. Conclusions: Prevalence of hypertension was high but awareness was poor. It is recommended to advice the community about the risk factors of hypertension and regular BP check-up should be done among the community for early detection of hypertension and also for preventing complications. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Situation Analysis of Malaria in Surat: A Hospital Based Study

    • Authors: Jitendra M. Patel
      Pages: 1982 - 1986
      Abstract: Background: Recent challenges in dealing with prevention of malaria are urbanization and migration, construction activity, insecticide resistance, inadequate health and sanitation infrastructure, poor community participation and public private partnership. Surat city experienced the worst phase of malaria between 1987 to 1992. Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out from December 2006 to March 2007 in malaria clinic in New Civil Hospital, Surat. On an average daily 8-10 patients for whom blood was collected were asked to come again after one week to collect the report of malaria. Study was included 500 participants in which 287 male and 213 female. Results: Most of male participants were student (24.4%), labor (23.7%) and factory worker (20.2) and most of female participants were house wife (50.7%), student (21.1%) and labor (7.5%). Almost 50.5% male participants got information regarding Malaria from poster, handball, hoarding and 50.2% female participants from TV, cinema slide, radio. Conclusions: Changing staff, including resident doctors and other staff needs to be oriented with the national guidelines regarding control of malaria and especially anti-malarial prescription. Malaria clinic can be an important place to educate the people regarding malaria control. Educating patients can go a long way for malaria control in urban area.  
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Study of workplace violence, its risk factors and perceptions about
           workplace security in doctors of Paithan

    • Authors: Sandeep B. Pund, Bina M. Kuril, Mohan K. Doibale, Rajendra T. Ankushe, Purushottam Kumar, Nafeha Siddiqui
      Pages: 1987 - 1992
      Abstract: Background: Of all work settings, hospitals carry the greatest risk of verbal abuse and threats, with 73% of staff on medical premises suffering abuse. The scenario in Indian subcontinent is also not so bright. Doctors are frequently assaulted in India as well where doctors are shot, even stabbed. Thus this study was undertaken to know the exact prevalence of such incidences in Paithan taluka of Aurangabad district. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was done in the Paithan taluka of Aurangabad district in Maharashtra from October 2015 to December 2015. All the doctors in the urban as well as rural areas of Paithan were interviewed to know their experiences about episodes of workplace violence (WPV) during last 12 months as well as their lifetime experiences. Some of the factors associated with the WPV were also asked along with the perceived reasons for such type of incidences. Results: The prevalence of workplace violence in the last 12 months was found to be 63.41%, whereas the lifetime prevalence was found to be 78.05%. It was observed that 21.95% of the doctors were demanded for extortion money and 11.27% experienced intentional destruction of their hospital property. Workplace violence was seen to be significantly more associated with younger doctors, highly educated doctors, doctors in government service and doctors with comparatively lesser practice experience. Lack of communication was perceived by the doctors as the most common reason for these incidences.Conclusions: Workplace violence is emerging as a bane to the medical profession and has to be dealt with urgently. Poor communication with patients along with other factors should be dealt with to mitigate this problem. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • A study on knowledge and practice of road safety among medical students of
           S.N. Medical College, Karnataka

    • Authors: Manjula R., Vijaylaxmi B. H., Ashok S. Dorle
      Pages: 1993 - 1995
      Abstract: Background: Globally 1.25 million people die each year as a result of road traffic crashes. Road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death among young people, aged 15–29 years. 90% of the world's fatalities on the roads occur in low- and middle-income countries. Aims and objectives: to know the socio- demographic profile and knowledge, attitude and practice among medical students in S.N. Medical College Bagalkot.Methods: A cross sectional study. Study was conducted from March-June 2016. Data collected from 90 undergraduate medical students after obtaining informed consent. It was semi- structured questionnaire. Results: Good knowledge was seen among 74 (82.2%) of the participants. Majority had good attitude 80 (88.9%) about RTA. But the good practice is seen only among 53 (58.9%) and 37 (41.1%) have poor practice among participants. Gender is statistically significant with knowledge (p value-0.015). Conclusions: The knowledge didn’t translate into practice. Hence laws should be made stringent.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence and severity of genu valgum among school children aged 6-12
           years in rural South India

    • Authors: Sharankumar Holyachi, Mallikarjun K. Biradar, Ravindranath A. Bhovi
      Pages: 1996 - 1999
      Abstract: Background: Fluorine is the most abundant element in nature, and about 96% of fluoride in the human body is found in bones and teeth. Fluorosis is caused by exposure to a continuous high level of fluoride for a long time leads to dental and skeletal deformities. Study was done to assess the prevalence and severity of genu valgum among the school children in rural Koppal. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was carried out among all the students, in the age group 6-12 years in Koppal taluk from August 2016 to December 2016. Data was compiled, tabulated and analyzed using proportions and chi-square test. Results: The total school children enrolled in study 1722, the mean age group was 9.24. 31.4 % were in the age group of 10-11, Male students constituted about 45.1%. Majority of the students had nuclear family in their house (59.8%). Almost half of the study subjects were in class III socio-economic status (42.7%).The prevalence of genu valgum was 11.2%. Conclusions: The study finding interprets the prevalence of genu valgum is high in the community. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • An assessment of facilities and activities under integrated child
           

    • Authors: Mausumi Saha, Romy Biswas
      Pages: 2000 - 2006
      Abstract: Background: ICDS is the unique community based programme for early childhood care and development. The objective of the study were to assess the facilities and activities of ICDS centres and the utilization of ICDS services among children aged 6 months to 6 years in a city of Darjeeling district, West Bengal, India. Study setting and design – Community based cross-sectional study done in a city of Darjeeling District of West Bengal, India during June – September 2016.Methods: 30 ICDS centres were selected by cluster sampling method. From each cluster 7 households were selected randomly with help of register of AWCs. 30 AWWs and 210 mothers of 6 months – 6 years children were interviewed with pre-designed, pre-tested schedule.Results: 86.66% AWCs were running in pukka building. Toilet facility was absent in 43.33% AWC. All AWCs were well equipped & all workers were literate. 65.12% male child and 70.74% female child had received supplementary nutrition. Immunization records were present in all AWC. NHED was celebrated in all AWC twice monthly. 80% AWC referred sick children verbally. 17.61% of children took the meal to their home and 29.57% mother didn’t attend NHED meeting.Conclusions: There was gap in infrastructural facility and some activities. Mothers were satisfied with overall functioning of AWC. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Knowledge and practices regarding standard precautions among health
           functionaries of peripheral health institutions of Haryana

    • Authors: Suraj Chawla, Ramesh Verma, Pardeep Khanna
      Pages: 2007 - 2010
      Abstract: Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk of infections due to blood-borne pathogens as they are potentially exposed to blood and body fluids in the course of their work. Standard precautions aim to both protect health care workers (HCWs) and prevent them from transmitting the infections to their patients.Methods: The study was conducted among health functionaries of all health centres whether govt. or private of community development block Beri, District Jhajjar, Haryana. A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the study subjects and the responses were recorded by the investigator himself. The questionnaire included information pertaining to knowledge and compliance with standard precautions among HCWs.Results: Knowledge among staff nurses and laboratory technicians was having wide variations as 53% to 93% of them gave correct replies for different components of standard precautions. Similarly, when knowledge of multipurpose health workers was assessed only half or less than half of them were having correct knowledge for most of the components.Conclusions: To conclude, the HCWs in peripheral health institutes had inadequate knowledge of and poor compliance with SPs. Enhancement of the existing training and system for monitoring the appropriate use of personal protective equipment is need of the hour. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Oral health status of school children living in area with high
           environmental arsenic concentrations: a cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Anisha Keshan, Manju R., Amitha M. Hegde
      Pages: 2011 - 2016
      Abstract: Background: Chronic arsenic exposure, especially via the consumption of contaminated ground water has far reaching consequences on human health. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of arsenic on oral health status of children.Methods: 100 children selected from Sanduru, Bellary district, North Karnataka (ground water is not contaminated with arsenic) were categorized as control group and 100 children of age 10 to 14 years from Hutti, Raichur district, North Karnataka (ground water contaminated with arsenic) were categorized as the study group. Water samples were analysed for arsenic and fluoride levels. Chronic arsenic exposure in children was determined by measuring the arsenic levels in their hair and nail samples. Enamel defects, oral mucosal lesions and tooth eruption timing were recorded in both the groups using the modified WHO oral health assessment form, 2013.Results: There was a significant increase in the arsenic content in the hair and nail samples of children in study group. Prevalence of enamel defects were significantly higher and a marked delay in eruption of permanent was seen among the study population.Conclusions: Chronic arsenic exposure could be a possible cause for the enamel defects and the eruption delay seen in children residing in Hutti, Raichur district, North Karnataka. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Awareness about human papilloma virus and its vaccine among young women

    • Authors: Chaluvaraj Talkad Seshaiyengar, Lokesh Kabbalu Chikkegowda, Madhusudan Madaiah, Santhosh Munipapanna, Suresha Doddasabbenahalli Sonnappa
      Pages: 2017 - 2020
      Abstract: Background: In India, cancer cervix is the leading type of cancer. It is estimated that nearly 100,000 new cases of cervical cancer occurring annually contributing significantly for death of Indian women and it is on the progressive increase. HPV has been incriminated as important cause of cancer cervix. Thus, the study aimed at assessing the extent of awareness and attitude towards Human papilloma virus, HPV vaccine and cervical cancer among young Women in Medical and Nursing College.Methods: Cross sectional study done on 1st year female medical and nursing students (18-21years of age) for the period of One month. Pre-tested, semi structured, self-administered questionnaire was used for the collection of data regarding HPV and its vaccine. Statistical analysis was done by simple percentages and proportions. Frequency and percentages were evaluated for categorical variables. Fisher’s exact test is used to identify the association between categorical variables.Results: In this study 83% of the study Subjects were aware of the disease cancer cervix and 79% of the study Subjects were aware of the Human Papilloma Virus and the association between the causation of cancer cervix by HPV virus is known only by 46%. Awareness about HPV vaccination was 59%, out of which 19% were vaccinated; 41% were neither aware of HPV vaccine nor taken vaccination. However, study showed a strong association between awareness about HPV vaccination and vaccinated, which is statistically significant with Fisher’s Exact p value <0.05.Conclusions: There is need to augment the Information, Education and Communication (IEC) activities to create awareness at all levels in the community in general and among young Women in particular to avert future misery of Women folk who suffer silently. Delhi, first state to launch HPV vaccine as public health programme in schools from March 1st 2016.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • A comparative study of family burden and quality of life between
           caregivers of schizophrenia and dementia patients

    • Authors: Sarada Prasanna Swain, Sushree Sangita Behura, Manoj Kumar Dash
      Pages: 2021 - 2026
      Abstract: Background: In chronic mental diseases, as the disease progresses, it carries with tremendous burden both physically and psychologically on the family members, who are usually in the process of caregiving. The quality of life (QOL) of these caregivers is directly related to the subjective and objective burden of the illness. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the level of family burden and QOL between caregivers of Schizophrenia and Dementia patients as well as to find out the relationship between family burden and QOL.Methods: A total of 128 key caregivers (64 caregivers of each group) fulfilling the inclusion criteria purposely selected from the OPD of MHI, S. C. B. Medical College and Neuropsychiatric Consultation Centre, Cuttack. The impact of family burden on key caregivers of dementia and schizophrenia patients was assessed by using family burden interview schedule and the quality of life of key caregivers was assessed by using WHOQOL BREF scale. Data was analysed by using chi-squre, t test and pearson correlation. Data analysis was performed by SPSS.Results: Statistical significant differences (p <0.05) were found in the areas of financial burden, disruptions of family routine activities, family leisure and family interaction between dementia and schizophrenia caregivers. Whereas there was no statistical significant difference (p >0.05) found in different domains of quality of life between these two groups of caregivers. There were significant negative correlations found between family burden and psychological, social relationships and environment domains of quality of life.Conclusions: Caregivers perceived subjective and objective burden ultimately affecting their QOL. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Socio demographic and clinical profile of dengue fever cases at a tertiary
           care hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana

    • Authors: Sunil Pal singh Chajhlana, Ramakrishna Narashimha Mahabhasyam, Maruti Sarma Mannava Varaprasada, Ravi Shankar Reddy Anukolu
      Pages: 2027 - 2030
      Abstract: Background: Dengue fever is caused by Dengue Virus, belonging to the family Flaviviridae, transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquito. There are four distinct dengue virus serotypes (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4). This viral disease of humans has become a major international public health concern in recent years. Differential diagnosis based on symptoms is challenging due to dengue’s non-specific symptoms such as fever, aches and fatigue that are often overlap with other endemic infections. Dengue-associated mortality can be reduced from 20–30% in severe cases to less than 1% with appropriate fluid replacement and supportive care, which is greatly facilitated by early diagnosis. Aim and objective: To study the demographic factors and clinical features of dengue fever cases in urban areas of Hyderabad.Methods: The present study was conducted by Department of Community Medicine in collaboration with Department of Microbiology, Kamineni academy of medical sciences and research center, Hyderabad. Study subjects: “Probable” dengue cases admitted in the various departments during July –December 2016. Data collection was done using a structured questionnaire. Serum samples were tested for NS1 antigen, IgM, IgG antibodies by rapid visual immunochromatography.Results: Out of 137 samples of clinically suspected dengue cases, 119 were found positive for dengue infection. Fever was the most common symptom found in all the patients Majority of cases, 56.3% were males. Thrombocytopenia, leucopenia and bleeding manifestation were found in 84.0 %, 84.8% and 58.8% patients respectively.Conclusions: Fever was the most common symptom found in all the patients. Majority of cases showed thrombocytopenia. Significant difference was found in the clinical signs and symptoms like fever, myalgia, hypotension, thrombocytopenia and leucopenia in dengue cases than controls. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • A study on knowledge, attitude, practice and prevalence of needle stick
           injuries among health care workers in a tertiary care hospital of Assam

    • Authors: Jurimoni Gogoi, Sultana Jesmin Ahmed, Hiranya Saikia, Ratna Sarma
      Pages: 2031 - 2035
      Abstract: Background: The objective of study was to determine prevalence of needle stick injuries among health care workers in a tertiary care hospital of Assam and to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices on needle stick injuries among them.Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted from June 2016 to August 2016 amongst health care workers of a tertiary care centre of Assam. Sample size was calculated to be 90. A total of 10 departments were selected purposively based on their magnitude of risk exposure and the required sample size was allocated proportionally among these 10 departments. The required numbers of health workers from each of the ten departments were selected by using simple random sampling. A predesigned and pretested proforma was used to collect the data. Data were presented in terms of percentages and significance was tested using chi-square and Fisher’s exact test.Results: Prevalence of needle stick injury among the health workers was found to be 21.1%. Regarding spread of diseases after an accidental needle stick injury, 100% were aware of HIV, 98.9% were aware of Hepatitis B and 67.8% were aware of Hepatitis C. Regarding their attitude to report to in-charge medical officer, only 21.1% had reported about their injury. Around 58.9% of health care workers used gloves regularly for prevention of such injuries. Practice of recapping among the health care workers was 66.7% and out of total needle stick injuries, recapping contributed to 26.3%. While considering sharp waste disposal, 37.8% health care workers did not follow proper waste disposal guidelines. Only 26.3% of health care workers had done screening for HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis B after their injury.Conclusions: There is a need to have a pre-employment training to improve the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding accidental needle stick injuries among the health care workers. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of viral hepatitis in a
           defence establishment

    • Authors: J. Mukhopadhyay
      Pages: 2036 - 2041
      Abstract: Background: An outbreak of viral hepatitis occurred in a defence establishment with 42 cases during November 10 to February 11.Methods: All suspected cases were clinically assessed according to standard clinical case description, investigated, admitted in hospital till recovery and thereafter sent on sick leave for complete recuperation. Epidemiological investigation included surveillance of data, initiation of epidemiological case sheets, sanitary inspection and environmental investigation of the affected area, bacteriological test of water samples and review of old relevant record.Results: Point source sewage contamination of water supply was detected at a particular block of a bachelor residential quarter. The outbreak was unimodal, localized, short lasting mostly involving young adults and responded once the control measures were adopted. Suspected water samples showed high coliform count when subjected to bacteriological test.Conclusions: The outbreak of viral hepatitis occurred due to sewage contamination of water supply. Alternate source of purified water supply, repair of leakages, change of water supply lines and water quality monitoring were recommended. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Immunization coverage among anganwadi preschool children in Kannur,
           Kerala, India

    • Authors: Anitha S. S., A. K. Jayasree, Devaki Antherjanam S.
      Pages: 2042 - 2045
      Abstract: Background: The Government of India launched the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 1978 with the objective of reducing the mortality and morbidity resulting from vaccine-preventable diseases of childhood. The Coverage Evaluation Survey by UNICEF in 2009 reported that the percentage of children fully immunized in India is only 61%. The objective of this study was to assess the immunization coverage among preschool children attending Anganwadi in Kannur district.Methods: Cross-sectional study done during July 2013- June 2014 among Anganwadi pre-school children. Anganwadi centres were selected using multistage random sampling. The data regarding immunization and socio-demographic factors were collected by interviewing the mothers using a standardized questionnaire. Data was entered in Epi Data version 3.1 and analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19 software.Results: In this study 456 preschool children (3-6 years) were studied. Among the study population, 429 children (94.1%) were fully immunized, 25 (5.5%) were partially immunized and 2 (0.4%) were non-immunized. The major reasons for not taking immunization as stated by the respondents were: religious beliefs, personal engagements at the time of immunization, fear of fever after immunization, and that the child had fever at the proposed date.Conclusions: The present study shows that regular follow up and motivation through systems like Anganwadi can improve immunization coverage. The study also identified that children taking vaccination from government sector are more likely to complete the schedule. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Assessment of awareness about rabies and the animal bite among the staff
           nurses in a medical institute in Lucknow

    • Authors: Deepak Chopra, Nidhi Jauhari, Homnath Dhungana, Nasrah .
      Pages: 2046 - 2051
      Abstract: Background: People have very basic knowledge about rabies and its prevention. Health workers are usually the first ones to come in contact with a victim of animal bite. Research Question- “What is the awareness and practices about rabies and animal bite in the Health workers/paramedical staff'” Objectives of the study were 1) assessment of the awareness of staff Nurses about rabies and animal bite management; 2) to study the practices of staff nurses after an animal bite and 3) to find association of socio-demographic factors with the knowledge level.Methods: Observational cross sectional conducted at Integral Hospital, IIMSR among 256 staff nurses (response rate 95%) between January 2017 to February 2017. Purposive Convenience Sampling method was used. Data recording by interview on a questionnaire. A scoring pattern was described.Results: The current study observed that the knowledge and awareness of the study subjects on the rabies/ animal bite was variable, high in some aspects and low/poor in others. Majority of the subjects had poor grading of knowledge. Sex, marital status and religion were statistically significantly associated with the kowledge gradient.Conclusions: There is a need for generating awareness about rabies and animal bite. Recommendations: There is a need for sensitization of health workers so that their knowledge can be enhanced and can be translated into proper practices. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • A study of availability of basic facilities at household level of rural
           Gujarat, India

    • Authors: Bipin Prajapati, Kavita Banker, Jignesh Chauhan
      Pages: 2052 - 2055
      Abstract: Background: India, a globally important consumer economy and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. By 2025-26 the number of middle class households in India is likely to more than double from the 2015-16 levels to 113.8 million households or 547 million individuals. The standard of living in India shows large disparity. Objectives: To study the rural household condition regarding social, demographic and housing condition. Methods: This cross-sectional secondary data analysis study was conducted at RHTC – Hadiyol of GMERS medical college, Himmatnagar, Sabarkantha district, Gujarat during 1st January 2016 to 30th August 2016. Study included 500 household from RHTC with 2250 members of rural area by purposive sampling method. Results: Almost 93.8% population was residing their own house and 66.2% population have “pucca” house. Mean family size was 4.5 ± 1.5 in rural households. Separate kitchen was present in 54.4% houses. Conclusions: Study reveals the socio-demographic and housing status difference between urban slum and rural area regarding own house, number of family members, kitchen, latrine, bathroom, and overcrowding, sanitary practices. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Eye donation: awareness and willingness among shopkeepers

    • Authors: Reshma Patil, Jayashree Gothankar, Prerna Bhat, Jitesh Saluja, Shrivallabh Sane
      Pages: 2056 - 2059
      Abstract: Background: Corneal blindness is one of the important causes of blindness in India that can be conventionally cured by corneal transplantation. The number of corneal transplants done is less than the actual requirement in India due to inadequate number of corneas collected. Therefore increasing awareness regarding eye donation and also willingness to pledge for the same is the today’s need. Hence current study was undertaken to assess the awareness regarding eye donation and the willingness to pledge the eye for donation amongst the shopkeepers in urban area of Pune city.Methods: Total 1014 shopkeepers above 15 years of age from field practice area of Urban Health Training Center of a private medical college, Pune were interviewed regarding awareness of eye donation and willingness to pledge eye for eye donation.Results: Out of total 1014 subjects, 752 (74.16%) were aware of eye donation amongst which males were maximum (75.13%) compared to females (24.87%). Awareness was more in the age group >40 years i.e. 47.87%. Willingness to pledge eyes for eye donation was 19.83%.Conclusions: Though the awareness regarding eye donation is high very few of them are ready to donate their eyes. Therefore more transfer of knowledge is needed to motivate people for eye donation which will be helpful in reducing the gap between the availability of corneas and actual requirement. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Assessment of quality of life of ASHA workers using WHOQoL-BREF
           questionnaire

    • Authors: Asha Bullappa, Prakash Kengnal
      Pages: 2060 - 2064
      Abstract: Background: ASHA represents a vital role in the strategy of NRHM. There is scarcity of information on quality of life and factors influencing it on ASHA workers. The assessment of quality of life in this group may help to better understand and develop an insight for measures that can be improved in their lives. The objective of the study was to assess the quality of life among ASHA workers of Mangalore and Udupi taluk, Karnataka. Methods: This is a questionnaire based, cross sectional study conducted for a period of 3 months (June 2015 - Aug 2015) on ASHA workers of Mangalore and Udupi Taluk, Karnataka. Local language Kannada version of WHO QoL BREF questionnaire consisting of 26 questions was used. Results: The mean age of ASHA workers across the study group was 42.40 years. With respect to perception of QoL and health, around 60% felt their quality of life (QoL) was good and health was satisfactory. Maximum and minimum mean scores was observed for self-esteem and financial resources respectively. Among the various domains of QoL, the ASHA workers had higher mean score in social domain, followed by physical, psychological and environmental. Conclusions: The ASHA workers had higher mean score in social domain, followed by physical, psychological and environmental. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • To study the association of body mass index of mother and anthropometry of
           new born

    • Authors: K. Karthika, Anjali Wagh
      Pages: 2065 - 2070
      Abstract: Background: India is now facing a double burden with underweight on one side, and a rapid upsurge in overweight, particularly in the urban settings on the other side. With a maternal mortality rate of 174 per100,000 live births and with an infant mortality rate of 38 per 1000 live births, there is an absolute need to focus upon the health of the mothers and thence that of the new-born. So, we planned to study the correlation between the BMI of the mother with that of the outcome of the pregnancy.Methods: 152 women, who were registered and gave birth in the respective hospitals during the study period were selected randomly and were enrolled for the study. A detailed history was taken on their socio-economic class, obstetric status, diet and body mass index was calculated. And, the anthropometry of the new borns was taken.Results: Mothers with BMI less than normal had babies of low birth weight in major proportion (86%). Mothers with BMI falling under normal range had 13% low birth weight babies. Mothers with BMI more than normal had 55.5% low birth weight babies, 29.6% normal birth weight babies and also around 15% high birth weight babies.Conclusions: There is a definite correlation between the BMI of mother and the anthropometry of the child. Any deviation from the normal body mass index of the mother is seen to be related to a change in the anthropometry of the newborn.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence and risk factors of urinary incontinence during antenatal
           period in women delivering in a tertiary care center of Northern India

    • Authors: Bhanu Priya, Nilanchali Singh, Shalini Rajaram
      Pages: 2071 - 2074
      Abstract: Background: Urinary incontinence (UI) is a commonly encountered entity in antenatal and postpartum period. It is known to have detrimental effects on quality of life in approximately 54.3% of all pregnant women. However, the true prevalence of UI is still not known, especially in the South East Asia. This study has investigated the prevalence and risk factors of urinary incontinence during antenatal period.Methods: 500 women admitted in postnatal ward were interviewed retrospectively about the UI occurred during antenatal period,        using questionnaire. The study was done over a period of six months. Detailed information regarding risk factors of urinary incontinence was included in questionnaire based on previous validated studies. Data was analyzed using SPSS 20 using chi square test. P value <0.05 was taken as significant.Results: Total 500 women were interviewed and based on questionnaire. 202 reported incontinence, thus giving a prevalence of 40.4%, out of that 192 (45.5%) had stress urinary incontinence (SUI), 40(19.8%) had urge urinary incontinence (UUI) and 70 (34.6%) had mixed incontinence. The risk factors like bladder infections and chronic cough had significant association with urinary incontinence. Advancing gestation had worsening effects on the symptoms of UI (p =0.000).Conclusions: Urinary incontinence is a common and neglected problem with poor treatment seeking behavior. SUI is more common in pregnant women than urge or mixed incontinence. Obstetricians need to ask have precise interrogation regarding UI in pregnant women to diagnose and treat the problem. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Morbidity pattern among school going adolescent girls of a North Indian
           district

    • Authors: Beena Sachan, M. Z. Idris, Reema Kumari, Savita Jain, Ashutosh Singh
      Pages: 2075 - 2079
      Abstract: Background: The objective of the study was to assess the morbidity pattern among school going adolescent girls in Lucknow district of North India.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in urban and rural schools of Lucknow district. Multistage random sampling was used to select the requisite number of girls. A total of 847 adolescent girls between 10 and 19 years of age were interviewed and examined physically from head to toe and any signs and symptoms of illness were recorded. Statistical analyses were done using percentage and Chi-square test.Results: Of 847 adolescent girls, around 64.8% were found to be sick at the time of the study. A maximum of 16.4% girls were suffering with hair problems followed by teeth and gum problems, which was 14.2%. 56.3% girls were suffering with iron deficiency and 0.5% girls with vitamin A deficiency. Riboflavin deficiency was statistically more (2.8%) in rural schools when compared to urban school girls (0.7%).Conclusions: This study reveals a high prevalence of morbidity. A strong need exists for planning and programming intervention activities for health needs in the area. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Telephonic follow-up to assess compliance to advice regarding lifestyle
           modification and confirmation of diagnosis given during a diabetes
           screening camp

    • Authors: Geeta S. Pardeshi, Shailaja Daral, Timiresh Das, Mukesh Kumar, Pragyan Parija, Shalini Smanla, Jugal Kishore
      Pages: 2080 - 2089
      Abstract: Background: Compliance to the advice given in the diabetes screening camp will ensure timely diagnosis and lifestyle modification in high risk individuals. The objective of the study was to determine factors associated with follow up telephonic contacts and compliance to advice regarding lifestyle modification and confirmation of diagnosis. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted among persons aged more than 30 years attending a diabetes screening camp in outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital. Follow up telephonic contact to assess compliance was done among those with random blood sugar level >140mg/dl. Fisher’s exact test and relative risk with 95% confidence interval were calculated. Results: Out of the 1798 individuals attending the screening camp, 170 (9.4%) had raised random blood sugar level. Of these, 113 (66%) could be contacted telephonically. Male gender (RR=1.45, 95% CI=1.12-1.89; p=0.002), formal education (RR=1.85, 95% CI=1.20-2.86; p=0.00), gainful employment (RR=1.31, 95% CI=1.002-1.72; p=0.04) and perception of diabetes as serious and fatal disease (RR=1.26, 95% CI=1.02-1.55;p=0.04) were significantly associated with successful follow up contact. Of the 103 eligible individuals followed up for assessment of compliance, 82 (80%), 63 (61%) and 50 (49%) were compliant to advice regarding diet, physical activity and follow up visits for confirmation of diagnosis respectively. None of the independent factors were significantly associated with compliance. Confirmation of diagnosis of diabetes and initiation of antidiabetic treatment was reported by 33 respondents. Conclusions: A robust and holistic follow up mechanism to ensure better compliance to lifestyle modification and confirmation of diagnosis after a diabetes screening camp is needed. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Physical growth pattern of school going urban adolescent girls in
           Bangalore city

    • Authors: Manju Dhoundiyal, Renuka Prithviraj
      Pages: 2090 - 2093
      Abstract: Background: With growing prioritization on adolescent health and incorporation of adolescent component in the National programme for mother and child, it is time we develop region wise growth charts for them. The objective of the study was to assess the growth pattern of adolescent school girl’s aged 13 and 14 years old belonging to different socio-economic backgrounds using simple anthropometric measurements.Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out among 468 girl students. The sample comprised 13 and 14 year old girls studying in four schools representative of different socioeconomic backgrounds in Bangalore, Karnataka. Simple anthropometric measurement were performed and compared with WHO/IAP and ICMR reference standards.Results: The anthropometric measurements (weight, height and BMI of girls) in the four schools showed similar trends but were not comparable with the reference guidelines.Conclusions: There is a need to revise and develop regional guidelines for growth charts.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • A cross-sectional study on utilisation and content of antenatal services
           among pregnant women in a coastal area of Thrissur district

    • Authors: Sruthi M. V., Bablu Raphael
      Pages: 2094 - 2100
      Abstract: Background: Antenatal care is ‘care before birth’ to promote wellbeing of mother and foetus. The number of antenatal care visits and the timing of the first visit are important for the health of the mother and the outcome of the pregnancy. The use of ANC varies from country to country considerably, with underutilization among pregnant women, in low income countries like Asia & Africa. Within the country ANC utilization varies with mother’s age, education, occupation, income, parity, place of residents, availability and cost of services. In coastal areas most of the people belong to fisherman community and their socio-demographic characteristics are different from that of other areas. Not enough studies have been conducted previously; in coastal areas to obtain data on utilization of ANC services. It is in this background that the present study was carried out to assess the utilization and content of antenatal services among pregnant women in a coastal area.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kadappuram gramapanchayath, Chavakkad Taluk, during the period of December 2013 to March 2014. Data collection was done by interviewing total 286 registered mothers from four subcentres from Kadappuram CHC, using a pretested validated questionnaire.Results: Out of 286 mothers, 179 (62.6%) of pregnant mothers had taken optimum antenatal care and remaining 107 (37.4%) of mothers had taken sub-optimum antenatal care. Among utilisation and content of antenatal services, only 228 (79.7%) of pregnant mothers done the Hb estimation and blood screening in first trimester itself. The proportion of mothers consumed 100 IFA tablets were 279 (89.5%), but 30 (10.5%) mothers had not taken full course of IFA tablets. Only 202 (70.6%) of mothers received the advice on family planning method during their antenatal visits and remaining 84 (29.4%) mothers did not received any advice. There was a statistically significant difference between socio-economic status of pregnant mothers and services like family planning advice and Hb estimation and screening at first trimester.Conclusions: The study revealed that, even though all the pregnant women were literate and majority had educational status up to high school, the antenatal services like routine blood examination in the first trimester, Iron and folic acid coverage and advice on family planning services were relatively low. Improving the socio-economic status of pregnant women would improve the utilization and content of antenatal care. The study also emphasizes the need for awareness programs for antenatal mothers on content and utilisation of proper ANC. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • A community based study to assess the validity of Indian diabetic risk
           score, among urban population of North Central India

    • Authors: Anil Kumar Agarwal, Ghanshyam Ahirwar, Priyesh Marskole, A. K. Bhagwat
      Pages: 2101 - 2106
      Abstract: Background: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is growing rapidly worldwide and India has earned the dubious distinction of being the diabetic capital of the world and had 69.2 million (8.7%) people living with diabetes.1 Unfortunately over half of these people remain undiagnosed as diabetes. IDRS is a cost effective and simple tool for screening of undiagnosed diabetic individuals in the community. The objective of the study was to estimate prevalence of undiagnosed high risk subjects of diabetes mellitus to validate IDRS as effective tool for diagnosis of diabetes in urban areas of Gwalior City.Methods: In community based cross-sectional observational study house to house survey was conducted and face to face interview had done by predesigned questionnaire, which was based on IDRS variables for those persons of age more than 20 and not known to diabetes previously.Results: In present study 55 (8.94%) out of 615 respondents were diagnosed as a newly diabetic cases. We found that at IDRS score of ≥60 has a sensitivity of 45.5% and specificity of 88.0%.Conclusions: This study provides a use of Indian diabetes risk score for identifying undiagnosed high risk for patients with diabetes in Indian population and could make screening programmes more cost effective. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence of TB suspects, sputum positive TB cases and health seeking
           behaviour of TB suspects in a coastal ward Thiruvananthapuram corporation,
           Kerala

    • Authors: Mini S. S., Anuja U., Rajkafoor .
      Pages: 2107 - 2111
      Abstract: Background: The present study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of TB suspects and prevalence of sputum positive TB cases and health seeking behaviour of TB suspects in a coastal ward. Methods: The study was done as a cross sectional house to house survey. The study population was initially screened by a case definition and TB suspects were identified and details about their health seeking behaviour was collected using a structured questionnaire and two sputum samples (one spot and one early morning sample) also were collected for sputum microscopy. Results: The population screened using the case definition was 5466 (86% of total population above 15 years of age) and among this 131 (2.39%) was identified as TB suspects. Among the TB suspects 46.6% were males, 19.8% were diabetic, and 60.3% were having coughed more than 4 weeks. Prevalence of sputum positivity among the TB suspects was 13.1% and in the total study population was0.183%. About the health seeking behaviour only 65.65% have consulted a doctor. Among those consulted doctor, 46.5% were males, 93% have consulted an allopathic doctor and 46.52 have completed the prescribed treatment. Conclusions: The prevalence of TB suspects and sputum positive TB cases is high in this coastal ward and health seeking behaviour of Tb suspects is also very poor. This emphasizes the need for further improvement in case detection and IEC activities about Tuberculosis. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Socio-demographic, reproductive and clinical profile of women diagnosed
           with cervical cancer in a tertiary care center in middle Kerala

    • Authors: Neha E. L., Nishi Roshini Kondakasseril
      Pages: 2112 - 2117
      Abstract: Background: Cervical cancer is a major health problem in rural India. Barriers to cervical cancer control in our country include a lack of awareness of the disease because of illiteracy, poverty, lack of health education and screening programme. The aim of the study was the clinical profile of women diagnosed with cervical carcinoma in a tertiary care centre in the middle part of Kerala in South India.Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Government medical college Thrissur for a period of two years from January 2014 to December 2016. The characteristics of patient (age, age at menarche and at marriage, parity, reproductive history, place of residence, income, education status, contraception, screening details, clinical presentation and tumor histopathology and stage were obtained. Data was entered in Excel and analysed.Results: Among7224 new patients seeking care from the department, 104 new cases of carcinoma of uterine cervix were identified (0.71%). Mean age was 58.3±8.4 years. 79% women were from rural area. 73% were illiterate, 88.5% belonged to below poverty line (BPL). Post-menopausal bleeding was the commonest clinical presentation (78.8%). Squamous cell carcinoma was the commonest histologic type (88.5%). 50% had first coitus before age of twenty. 94.3% were not aware of any screening procedures and its importance. 67.31% of cases presented in the advanced stage (stage 2B-1V). 75.81% of late stage disease patients were rural population. 96.77% of late stage disease patients were from below poverty line.Conclusions: Carcinoma cervix is more in the low socioeconomic class and rural elderly presented at an advanced stage. Ignorance about the disease and the lack of awareness of the risk factors, need and availability of screening programmes at low cost in Government health care systems was noteworthy. Government health care policies, health education, effective cancer prevention strategies and early cancer detection programmes are yet to reach the outskirts of rural population in Kerala.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • A study on screening for scoliosis among school children in the age group
           of 10-14 using a cost effective and an innovative technique

    • Authors: Sai Sri Akshara Talasila, Misha Gorantla, Vimala Thomas
      Pages: 2118 - 2123
      Abstract: Background: Scoliosis refers to a sideways curvature of the spine. Early detection of scoliosis prevents progress into severe scoliosis. In a resource constrained setting like India, there is a need for cost effective solutions for the purpose of screening. Objective of this study is to identify scoliosis among school children, determine risk factors associated with scoliosis and to compare the readings of the Scoliometer device to those obtained from Scoliometer smartphone app.Methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted in students aged 10-14 years studying in private schools of Hyderabad. All willing students (n=1000) were screened for scoliosis during June-August 2015. They were screened using physical examination (Adams forward bend test), Scoliometer device and Scoliometer App.Results: A total of 3.3% of the students had positive scoliosis findings when physically examined in standing position and 3.4% were positive for Adam’s forward bend test. Around 0.7% of students had a reading >7o when screened using the Scoliometer device and 1% had a reading >7o when screened using the App i.e. similar results were obtained. The risk factors associated with scoliosis found by this study includes prematurity of foetus during delivery and carrying school bag on one shoulder which had statistically significant association with positive scoliotic findings with O.R of 3.6 and 4.3 at 95% CI respectively.Conclusions: Scoliometer app can replace the expensive Scoliometer device for screening of scoliosis. This can be included in school health programmes. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Awareness of RTI/STI and HIV/AIDS among women in Kerala: a district level
           analysis based on DLHS-4

    • Authors: T. Radhakrishnan, A. Saravana, P. K. Babu
      Pages: 2124 - 2131
      Abstract: Background: Many of the reproductive tract infections and sexually transmitted infections (RTI/STIs) are preventable and curable. Kerala is one of the highest literate states in India, but women in Kerala had very low knowledge in sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS. The objective of the present study was to assess the level of awareness on RTI/STI and HIV/AIDS among women in Kerala with inter district variations on awareness among women in RTI/STI and HIV/AIDS. Another objective of the study was to find out the association between socio economic characteristics and awareness on RTI/STI and HIV/AIDS.Methods: Data for the present analysis comes from the district level household and facility survey-3 2007-08 (DLHS-3) and district level household and facility survey-4 (DLHS-4), 2015–16. DLHS is a nationally representative household survey, primarily conducted to monitor and evaluate the implementation of reproductive and child health program across the districts of India. To assess the level of awareness on RTI/STI and HIV/AIDS among women in Kerala with inter district variations on awareness among women in RTI/STI and HIV/AIDS data of DLHS-3 and DLHS-4 were used for analysis and to find out the association between socio economic characteristics and awareness on RTI/STI and HIV/AIDS, data of DLHS were used.Results: Only 48% of women in Kerala had heard of RTI/STI in Kerala, but 75.8% of the women had heard about HIV/AIDS. Knowledge on RTI/STI and HIV/AIDS among women in all the districts in Kerala had fallen from the DLHS-3 to DLHS-4.Conclusions: Decentralized field level interaction of health workers with IEC programs in both rural and urban areas regarding STIs/RTIs and HIV/AIDS should be strengthened along with effective mass media activities.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence of internet addiction amongst the IT professionals of Bangalore
           city and its effect on their lifestyle and dietary habits

    • Authors: Rohith M., Shailaja S. Patil
      Pages: 2132 - 2135
      Abstract: Background: Internet is being widely used all around the world, had both positive and negative influence in human life. The number of users is increasing day by day. Recent reports indicated that some on-line users, particularly IT Professionals, were becoming addicted to the Internet in much the same way that others became addicted to drugs, alcohol, or gambling, which resulted in; reduced work performance, and even marital discord and separation. The objectives of the study were the pattern of Internet addiction on young’s internet addiction diagnostic questionnaire and the effects of Internet addiction on the lifestyle and dietary behaviour. Methods: Cross-sectional online survey was conducted amongst the IT Professionals of 4 different companies. Data was collected on a pre-designed questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 1. Socio-demographic information, 2.Young’s Internet Addiction Test (IAT) 3. Dietary pattern. The questionnaire was sent to 400 people through e-mail, out of which 353 subjects mailed back the questionnaire with complete response. Results: Majority of the participants were in the age group of 30 to 34, males and were educated up to post-graduate level. When the scores were tabulated on Young’s Internet Addiction Scale, 30.8% of the subjects were found to be mildly addicted to internet, where as 48.4% and 20.8% were moderately and severely addicted. Conclusions: People who are high in internet addiction are more likely to vulnerability to depression, anxiety, and stress. Psychological approach is essential to tackle this problem. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • A comparison of breast feeding practices among urban and rural areas of
           Rangareddy district of Telangana

    • Authors: M. Vijay Kumar, Indranil Acharya, Jayanti P. Acharya, Puligila Raj Shravani, Sabbineni Ramya
      Pages: 2136 - 2140
      Abstract: Background: Breastfeeding is the normal way of providing young infants with the nutrients they need for healthy growth and development. Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted among 800 mothers from urban and rural areas of Rangareddy District. A pre designed pre tested questionnaire was used to interview the mothers. Questionnaire contained questions related to demographic factors and breast feeding practices. Institutional Ethical clearance was taken. Results: The overall prevalence of exclusive breast feeding was 65%, being comparatively more in rural area (68%) which was statistically significant. Colostrum was discarded by 15% mothers in urban and 9% in rural area. Breast feeding was initiated within 1 hour in 184 (46%) in urban area and in 148 (37%) in rural area. Conclusions: Though mothers from rural area had certain favorable breast feeding practices such as demand feeding, colostrum being given but still various inappropriate practices were prevalent in both rural and urban areas. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Epidemiological trends of malaria in an endemic district Tumkur, Karnataka

    • Authors: Chandana Krishna, Ravish Shankaraiah Haradanhalli
      Pages: 2141 - 2145
      Abstract: Background: Efforts to control and eliminate malaria are high-impact strategic investments that generate significant returns for public health. In this regard, Government of India, launched NVBDCP in 2002, to control the disease. Since then, India has demonstrated significant achievements in malaria control with a progressive decline in total cases and deaths. Overall, malaria cases have consistently declined from 2 million in 2001 to 1.1 million cases in 2015. The decline in number of cases varied from region to region. In this background, the present study was conducted to know the trend of malaria in one of the endemic district Tumkur of Karnataka state.Methods: A case record analysis was done for the past 15 years (2001-2015) from the available data at district malaria office of Tumkur district and the data was analysed.Results: The present study showed that there is a gradual decline in the malaria cases from 27,553 in 2001 to 68 in 2015 and no deaths have been reported. The number of outbreaks is also declining with no outbreaks in the last 3 years. The present study also showed a seasonal trend in occurrence of malaria with increased incidence during June-October months.Conclusions: The trend in malaria cases is gradually declining, indicating that it is progressing towards malaria control and with sustained efforts, malaria can be reduced substantially and elimination can be achieved by 2030. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Self reported practice of e-waste disposal and awareness about its health
           hazards among people at various levels in selected urban slums of
           Bangalore: a cross sectional study

    • Authors: Shanmugapriya Duraisamy, Ramakrishna Reddy Narayanappa, Ranganath Timmanahalli Sobagiah
      Pages: 2146 - 2150
      Abstract: Background: With advent of advancement in technologies and change in people’s life style, the amount of E-waste (electronic waste) generated is increasing drastically every year, Mismanagement of these E-waste leads to diminishing natural resources, causing irreparable damage to the environment and health of the people. When it comes to the reduction, the onus is on both the consumer and the producer. Proper awareness on the health hazards and disposal practice of E waste plays a crucial role in curbing this problem. The objectives of the study were to assess the E-waste segregation and disposal practice at various levels and to assess the knowledge about Proper disposal and health hazards of E-waste. Methods: A community based crossed sectional study was conducted among 120 randomly selected individuals (distribution, consumer and waste collection level) for a period of three months in the urban field practice area of Bangalore Medical College & Research Institute. Data regarding their knowledge and practice on E-waste disposal and its hazards has been collected using semi structured questionnaire and analysed using SPSS 23.0. Results: Knowledge about disposal was found to be 20%, 15% and 5% respectively at distribution, consumer and waste collector levels. Only around 6% had practiced proper waste segregation. Knowledge pertaining to health hazards were found to be negligible. Conclusions: With the increased burden the knowledge and practice were found to be highly inadequate. And it is a high time to intervene at the earliest by creating proper awareness and providing the requisite for proper disposal of E waste.  
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • A study of 10 years risk prediction of CAD – applying “Framingham risk
           scores” among the coal mine employees of the Singareni Collieries
           company ltd, Telangana state, India

    • Authors: Ramakrishna Narashima Mahabhashyam, Sunil Pal Singh, Archana Carolin, Maruti Sarma Mannava Varaprasada
      Pages: 2151 - 2155
      Abstract: Background: Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) has become the leading cause of death. Many tools for CVD risk assessment have been devised. While it is relatively easy to identify those who are obviously at high risk, the health expenditure can be predicted and necessary high risk based preventive care programmes can be introduced. The study has been taken up with an objective of assessing “10 years risk prediction of CAD, Among the Coal Mine Employees by applying “Framingham Risk Scores.”.Methods: Study population: coal mine employees (30-60 years of age). Study area: Singareni Collieries Company Limited (SCCL), Telangana State, India. Study design: cross-sectional observational study. Sample size: 53367coal mine workers. Sampling methods: All coal mine employees (30-60 years) working atleast of 10 years duration and those who have given consent for the study have been included. Data collection: collected from the periodic medical examination records from 2008 to 2012. Analysis: By using Micro soft Excel 2007 and SPSS version 19.Results: Majority of the workers were in the age group of 51-60 years of age, followed by 41-50 years (31.5%). 11.9% has mild risk, 3.2% has moderate risk and 0.6% has severe risk of CAD. Mining Surface labourers has marginally higher risk of CAD than “Mining Supervisory and Managerial Staff’, Opencast mining staff were found to at higher risk of CAD.Conclusions: Mining Surface labourers and opencast mining staff were found to at higher risk of CAD. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence of depression among hypertensive individuals in urban
           Trivandrum: a cross sectional study

    • Authors: Prathibha M. T., Sara Varghese, Gokul Dev V., Jincy J.
      Pages: 2156 - 2161
      Abstract: Background: People with chronic diseases are more likely to have depression than those without any physical illness. Lack of adherence to treatment, poor compliance to life style modification therapy and lost to follow up are major concerns raised in the management of hypertension among subjects with co-morbid depression. Hence it is very important to explore the epidemiology of depression among hypertensives. Methods: The study was conducted in Medical College health unit area of urban Trivandrum as a cross sectional survey among adults >18 years who were diagnosed to have hypertension. The subjects were interviewed using a semi structured questionnaire to collect the socio-demographic variables and the 9 item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ 9) to capture depression. Data from a sample of 432 hypertensive individuals collected were analyzed and Chi square, t test, was done to find the associated factors. Results: Mean age of the study subjects was 62.47 years. Among the study subjects the blood pressure was under control among only 33.8% of the study population. The prevalence of depression was found to be 33.3% (144) with 95% C.I (27.98-39.14). Gender, Socio economic status, marital status, low educational status, regular physical activity, duration of hypertension, uncontrolled BP, were found to be significantly associated with depression. Conclusions: The prevalence of depression among hypertensive individuals is high in this study population. Adequate control of BP along with awareness among primary care physicians in identifying those with hypertension and co-morbid depression is essential. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • An experience of facility based management at one of the malnutrition
           treatment centre in district Baran of Rajasthan, India

    • Authors: Shakila Mulla, Pankaj Kumar Gupta
      Pages: 2162 - 2166
      Abstract: Background: To assess performance of one of the Malnutrition Treatment Centre (MTC) in district Baran of Rajasthan. India. Methods: An observational prospective study was conducted at MTC where 132 Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) children were recruited. Their socio-demographic details and anthropometric measurements were recorded. These SAM children were followed till the period of 4 follow-up visits to measure their weight. MTC performance indicators were assessed. Results: Majority of SAM children belong to age group less than 2 years, gender female, caste OBC (Other Backward Class), SC (Scheduled Caste) and ST (Scheduled Tribe). ASHAs (Accredited Social Health Activists) are playing key role in referring them to MTC. Death rate was 0%, cure (recovery) rate 42.4%, defaulter rate 25.8%, mean length of stay (days) at MTC was 8.04 and mean weight gain was 5.926 g/kg/day. Performance indicators are significantly affected by length of stay at MTC. Follow-up rate was poor with no significant weight gain observed after discharge. Conclusions: MTCs are effective in saving lives of SAM children but not in maintaining long term control on malnutrition. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • A cross sectional study to understand socio demographic profile of
           patients of sickle cell anemia in a Taluka of South Gujarat

    • Authors: Chintan Gamit, MohamedAnas M. Patni, Sukesha Gamit
      Pages: 2167 - 2171
      Abstract: Background: India has the largest concentration of tribal populations globally. A high prevalence of sickle cell anemia is seen in tribal communities of South Gujarat. The aims and objectives were to study socio- demographic profile of the patients having positive sickle cell status.Methods: It was a cross-sectional study, where Bardoli taluka was selected purposively. All patients of sickle cell anemia registered at all PHCs of Bardoli Taluka during period between June 2010 and May 2011 & aged between 18 to 30 years were taken in study.Results: This study included total 276 cases of which 264 (96%) had sickle cell trait, while 12 (4%) had sickle cell disease. Majority of patients were from Umrakh and Vanskui PHC. More than 90% of patients belonged to ST caste and more than 40% among them were from Rathod sub caste.Conclusions: More than 90% of patients were laborers and majority of them belonged to low socio economic class. Mean age at diagnosis of sickle cell anemia ranged from 21 to 25 years. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • A community study of alcohol consumption in a rural area of South India

    • Authors: Rajeev A., Sherin B. Abraham, Thushara G. Reddy, Celin M. Skariah, Indiradevi E. R., Jacob Abraham
      Pages: 2172 - 2177
      Abstract: Background: Alcohol is reaping a socio-psychological cost from the lesser educated and poor of Kerala. Its prevalence varies from 33-50%, with the age of initiation decreasing recently. The type of liquor and the manner, in which it is consumed, make it a risk factor for many health hazards. This study aimed to find out the age at onset of the habit and the potential side effects in a rural population of Thiruvalla, Kerala, India. Methods: A house to house survey of adult males was carried out using the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) questionnaire in Thiruvalla, Kerala. The age at initiation and potential health effects of the habit was inquired and the drinkers were grouped into 3 based on dose and frequency of drinking, in addition to the teetotalers. Results: The sample studied was heavily dominated by the middle income, pre-university males. Prevalence of problem drinking was 12.8% across the age groups with the highest drinking prevalence in the age group under 40. AUDIT subscore adequately revealed the amount of drinking and extent of addiction. About 3/4th to 2/3rd regular drinkers suffered from adverse effects of drinking in the past. Only less than a third of occasional drinkers had these associated histories. Higher degrees of drinking were associated with lower incomes. Age at initiation influenced the extent of present drinking and the occurrence of adverse events. Conclusions: The study points to the necessity of delaying the age of initiation of drinking among youngsters in Kerala. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • What rural people in Tamilnadu are doing to prevent dengue'

    • Authors: Satyajit Pattnaik, Kokila Selvaraj
      Pages: 2178 - 2180
      Abstract: Background: Traditionally dengue was perceived as an urban problem. But of late many cases are being reported from rural areas. This study was undertaken to assess the preventive measures taken by people in a rural area against dengue. Methods: This was a cross sectional study done in the rural field practice area of a private medical college in Tamilnadu. Hundred houses were selected from five villages through a multi stage simple random sampling. A pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule was used for data collection. Results: All household surveyed reported using some form of personal measures against dengue. The most common personal protective measure was use of mosquito nets (58%) followed by mosquito coils (9%). Almost all (98%) of the respondents use the PPM at night time only. Conclusions: It was found that many people are using PPMs but mostly during the daytime. This practice has to be corrected with more awareness and health education. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Comparative study of oral hygienic practices and oral health status among
           people residing in urban and urban slum of Ahmedabad municipal corporation
           

    • Authors: Alpesh B. Patel, Rakesh R. Shah, Vaibhav B. Ramanuj
      Pages: 2181 - 2185
      Abstract: Background: Oral hygiene should be educated and practiced at early age as it is one of the determinants of the health state later in one’s life. Dental problems are very much prevalent not only in urban slum owing to poor oral hygiene but also in well-developed urban area due to pursuing bad food habit.  The present study was undertaken to compare the oral hygienic practices among people in both areas. Methods: A cross sectional study carried out in 300 people (>10 years) residing in urban and urban slum of Vejalpur (150 from each area). A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant for applied statistical tests. Results: The present study showed that only 26.7% and 17.2% people in urban and urban slum respectively had habit of brushing both time morning and at night before going to bed. Only 25.7% and 11.8% of people used correct brushing technique. Regarding oral health status 47.4% of people in urban area and 61.1% in urban slum had dental caries. Conclusions: Oral hygienic practices were poor needs educational motivation regarding duration of brushing, appropriate way to brush the teeth, and use of mouthwash. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Do social factors influence learning among undergraduate medical
           students' A cross sectional analytical study

    • Authors: Misha Gorantla, Vimala Thomas
      Pages: 2186 - 2189
      Abstract: Background: Student self-assessment occurs when learners make judgments about aspects of their own performance. There are several social, educational, demographic and environmental factors that have a direct bearing on learning. This study helps to identify these. The objectives of this study are to assess student’s ability to cope with academic environment based on their self-evaluation and to study the effect of socio-demographic factors on their academic coping ability. Methods: The present cross section study was done in Gandhi Medical College on all first year MBBS students. It was conducted between1st January to 20th January 2016. A pre designed pre structured self-administered questionnaire was given to all students willing to participate in the study. The responses were analysed to study the influence of social factors on student learning outcomes. The study participants included a total of 179 students. Results: This study found that majority of the students (64.2%) were 18 years old. Most of the students (89%) belonged to urban area; fathers of majority of students (49.2%) were professional degree holders. Majority (97%) students were educated in English medium but majority (70.9%) students communicated with friends in Telugu. A majority of 54% felt that teachers should local language also during lectures to prevent language barrier while learning. Conclusions: We found that students educated in Telugu medium and students with fathers engaged in unskilled occupations showed poorer coping ability with an odds ratio of 9.1 and 3.2 respectively at 95% CI. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Assessment of immunisation status of infants in an urban area of North
           Karnataka

    • Authors: Neha Bhardwaj, Varun Goel
      Pages: 2190 - 2192
      Abstract: Background: Still over 2 million children die each year from the six vaccine preventable diseases, some of which can be eradicated and all of which are preventable. Methods: Cross sectional study done on 385 infants residing in Urban Health Centre, Khasbag, Karnataka, India. Results: The study revealed that 373 (96.88%) of the infants were fully immunized, 9 (2.34%) were partially immunized and 3 (0.78%) were unimmunized. There were multiple reasons for partial and non-immunization. The main causes were unaware of need for immunization, unaware of need to return for 2nd and 3rd dose and wrong ideas about contraindications. Other causes were postponement of immunization for another time and the major obstacles were illness of child, mother too busy and family problems. Conclusions: Child illness and lack of information are major causes of non-immunization and partial immunization. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Disseminated tuberculosis in a Nigerian child: making a case for active
           contact tracing

    • Authors: Echey Ijezie, Ruth Ekomobong Essien, Augustina Elochukwu Ijezie
      Pages: 2193 - 2196
      Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant public health problem globally, especially in developing countries. Every day, up to 200 children (aged less than 15 years) lose their lives to tuberculosis – a preventable and curable disease. Disseminated TB is a potentially life-threatening form of TB, and it is common in infants and children. Contact tracing and the examination of household contacts, particularly of known sputum smear-positive cases, is highly effective in tuberculosis control. Unfortunately, in many high-burden countries, little effort is directed towards identifying contacts of newly diagnosed TB patients. Indeed, TB contact investigations are rarely and inconsistently carried out in resource-limited settings. This failure places children at significant risk. A case of disseminated TB in a child is herein reported, aiming to highlight the pertinent aspects of the history, clinical presentation and outcome, which ultimately underscore the need for active contact tracing. Contact tracing must be strongly advocated for, as this will go a very long way in reducing the burden of childhood TB. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Why urban Indians are interested in an internet based self-care app for
           depression' a brief pilot survey

    • Authors: Seema Mehrotra, Satish Kumar C. R., Aditi Gandotra, Paulomi M. Sudhir, Jagadisha Thirthalli, Girish N. Rao
      Pages: 2197 - 2201
      Abstract: Background: Digital technology has emerged as a powerful approach to bridge treatment gap in the field of mental health. However, public health impact of e-interventions is unlikely without large scale uptake of such services. Hence it becomes important to understand motives of potential users in order to design programs that address such needs as well as disseminate information about the same in ways that appeal to the users. Methods: Reasons underlying interest in an internet based self-care program for depression were explored through a brief survey of potential users who had explicitly shown interest in such a program. Responses to an online survey were received from 120 respondents out of which about 69% were in 18-35 years of age-range and 12% were above 50 years of age. Results: Preference for flexibility in terms of ‘when I do things to help myself’, ‘not having time to go for face to face counselling/therapy’ and ‘wanting to learn and do something to prevent problems in future even though I am currently on treatment’ emerged as the top 3 reasons underlying interest in internet based self-help programs for depression. Not having the finances to seek face to face mental health consultation emerged as one of the top 3 reasons in the older group. Conclusions: Incorporating maximal flexibility, providing pointers to the most relevant components thereby minimizing time required, and focusing on preventive strategies (even for those who are currently seeking treatment) are aspects that need to be considered in development and dissemination of internet based self-help programs for depression in urban India. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 54.158.253.14
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2016