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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1290 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (18 journals)
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    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (520 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (378 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (106 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (101 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (81 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (520 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 183)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access  
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Policy and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Professions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
  [5 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2394-6032 - ISSN (Online) 2394-6040
   Published by Medip Academy Homepage  [12 journals]
  • A systematic review of the literature on survey questionnaires to assess
           self-medication practices

    • Authors: Dnyanesh Limaye, Vaidehi Limaye, Gerard Krause, Gerhard Fortwengel
      Pages: 2620 - 2631
      Abstract: Self-medication is of great public health importance as it often bypasses regulatory mechanisms to assure quality of health care. Nevertheless there are no established standards on how to assess self-medication. We therefore intended to systematically retrieve questionnaires and survey tools used to capture self-medication, with the aim to identify the scope of information investigated in this context and commonalities between the tools. We conducted a systematic review of the literature on questionnaires used for self-medication assessment by searching PubMed and Web of Science databases using the combinations of following keywords; self-medication, self-prescription, non-prescription, questionnaire. Truncation was used to ensure retrieval of all possible variations of search terms. The search was limited to articles published between 1st January 2000 and 31st December 2015, human studies and English language. Duplicate and irrelevant studies were excluded from the final review. A total of 158 studies were included in the review. Studies were from diverse geographical locations, most of the studies were from Nigeria 16 (10.1%) followed by India 10 (6.3%) and Iran 8 (5%). Forty-three studies (27.2%) focused on antibiotic self-medication. Majority of the studies (106; 67%) were done with adult populations. The components addressed by the questionnaires covered: reasons for self-medications in 147 (93%) studies, purchasing source in 136 (86%) studies, medical conditions to be treated in 153 (96.8%) studies, adverse events in 67 (42.4%) studies, use of prescribing information in 24 (15.1%) studies and antibiotic resistance awareness in 20 (46.5%) antibiotic studies. For 74 (46.8%) studies, survey questionnaires were self-administered and most studies (57; 36%) were done at homes of respondents. Thirty-seven (23.4%) studies did not report any recall period for self-medication practices. Study response rates varied from 17.9% to 100%, and while validity of the study questionnaire was reported for 100 (63.3%) studies, 15 (9.5%) studies reported reliability test of the study questionnaire. There is a large variety of questionnaires being used for investigating self-medication practices making comparability and meta-analyses very difficult. It is desirable to have a basic set of standardized survey questions on this topic to make available for future research groups in this field.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173192
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Antimicrobial resistance: the next BIG pandemic

    • Authors: Divya Chaudhry, Priyanka Tomar
      Pages: 2632 - 2636
      Abstract: Pandemics have indefinitely threatened the resilience of health systems worldwide. Based on the costs inflicted by some of the deadliest pandemics in human history, economists have projected that global pandemics could cost over USD 6 trillion and generate an annual estimated loss of over USD 60 billion. While the global health community is tirelessly trying to curb the burden of premature mortality from several old and new forms of pathogens, it is now faced with the silently emerging antimicrobial resistance (AMR) pandemic that could endanger some of the most significant advances in modern medicine. Owing to rampant antibiotic consumption in India, the article shows why the country may become the ‘AMR capital of the world’. It shows how health systems may be strengthened both at the national and international levels to reduce premature mortality and morbidity attributable to AMR and pandemics. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173306
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Is vitamin D deficiency contributing to high predisposition to
           non-communicable diseases in Indians' A review article

    • Authors: Amrita Sarkar, Debjit Roy
      Pages: 2637 - 2640
      Abstract: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in Indians. The role of vitamin D in infectious diseases is a well-known fact. However, more recently, several studies have linked vitamin D deficiency with various non-communicable diseases like hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and psychiatric illnesses amongst others. Indians are known to be prone to developing non-communicable diseases so a co-existing vitamin D deficiency will lead to a synergistic effect towards developing the same. Since vitamin D deficiency is completely preventable, opportunistic screening of people, screening the vulnerable population like the pregnant women and the elderly, patients with hepatic or renal failure, patients on retroviral or immunosuppressant therapy can be useful. Health education and promotion activities should be done to bring awareness in the community. This might as well reduce the growing burden of non-communicable diseases in India. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173307
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Knowledge and attitude toward Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus
           among heath colleges' students in Najran, Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Ali Saeed Alqahtani
      Pages: 2641 - 2647
      Abstract: Background: Najran area, Saudi Arabia, has experienced infection of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus. Knowledge towards prevention and control of the disease is necessary among the health colleges' students as they are at high risk of newly emerging diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitude of undergraduate health colleges’ students in Najran University, Saudi Arabia towards MERS coronavirus.Methods: A structured questionnaire on MERS was developed by the researcher with the help of existing literatures to cover the survey objectives. From five health colleges, 418 health colleges’ students were invited to fill the questionnaire from February 2017 to April 2017 and statistic was used to summarize the responses. Results: The students were highly aware about the clinical aspects of MERS including diagnosis, treatment, transmission and preventive measures. However, there were statistically significant differences (p<0.05) among health colleges’ students regarding their understanding of the basic science of the virus. The students showed positive attitude about MERS and the majority indicated that they are in need for further education about it. Conclusions: The students were knowledgeable about the clinical aspects of MERS but were lacking background awareness in the basic sciences and there is need for further education and training programs. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173153
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Hypertensive patients’ adherence to pharmacological and
           non-pharmacological treatment methods, in Turkey

    • Authors: Kevser Tarı Selçuk, Celalettin Çevik, Yeliz Mercan, Haydar Koca
      Pages: 2648 - 2657
      Abstract: Background: The present study was aimed at determining hypertensive patients’ adherence to pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment methods and factors affecting their adherence. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 418 patients aged 18 and over who met the inclusion criteria. Adherence to pharmacological and some non-pharmacological treatment methods is the dependent variable of the study. Data were collected using the personal information form, Morisky medication adherence scale. In the analysis, descriptive statistics, the chi square test, and logistic regression analysis were used. The significance level was accepted as p<0.05. Results: The rate of adherence to the pharmacological treatment was 78.2%. The rates of adherence to smoking cessation, diet and physical activity were 49.0%, 55.7% and 20.6% respectively. Age, employment status and perceived health status were associated with the adherence to smoking cessation; perceived income, resort to complementary alternative treatment methods and having regular controls (check-ups) were related to the adherence to the diet, and gender and perceived economic status were related to the adherence to physical activities (p<0.05). Conclusions: While approximately four out of five patients complied with the pharmacological treatment, rates of adherence to non-pharmacological treatment methods were low. Multidisciplinary intervention programs should be planned in order to regularly monitor patients at family health centers, to assess their adherence to treatment modalities and to promote adherence. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173308
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Is knowledge and practice of oral rehydration therapy suboptimal'
           Assessment at Federal Medical Center, Asaba, South-South Nigeria

    • Authors: Bertilla U. Ezeonwu, Ayodeji Ayodele, Obinna C. Ajaegbu, Nkemjika E. Mbagwu, Odiri Ovemeso, Angela A. Okolo
      Pages: 2658 - 2662
      Abstract: Background: Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is a core component of the childhood survival strategies to reduce child mortality and morbidity due to diarrhoeal disease with its fatal dehydrating complication of acute kidney injury. This strategy is indispensable to the attainment of the International Society of Nephrology’s (ISN) aim to eliminate preventable deaths from acute kidney injury (AKI) by year 2025. Diarrheal disease is the second most common cause of morbidity and mortality in children at our centre. This interventional study assessed the knowledge and the practice of ORT among caregivers, educated and trained them on the management of diarrhoeal diseases and practice of ORT. Oral rehydration salt (ORS) and zinc tablets were also distributed. Methods: An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used following informed consent. Consented care givers of wards attendees of FMC Asaba were assessed on their knowledge and their practice of ORT, educated on childhood diarrheal diseases, trained on practice of ORT and had ORS and zinc tablets distributed to them. These assessments were done on the spot and 6 weeks after the health talk, from July 2015 to December 2015. Results: There were 266 respondents and 231 were mothers. The immediate impact of the health talk on the knowledge and the practice of ORT was laudable, p≤0.0001 and educational attainment of the respondent influenced the immediate post health talk knowledge of ORT, p=0.009. The age of the respondent predicted the long term impact of health talk on practice of ORT, p=0.020. Conclusions: Knowledge and practice of ORT are not optimal but can be improved by regular education.  
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173309
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Fasting blood glucose level and its association with sex, body mass index
           and blood pressure: a cross sectional study on a Bangladeshi public
           university students

    • Authors: Md Imam Hossain, Md. Shariful Islam, Mirza Rokibul Hasan, Moriom Akter, Md. Sadek Hosen Khoka
      Pages: 2663 - 2669
      Abstract: Background: In resource-limited countries like Bangladesh, there is a scarcity of epidemiological researches examining the relationship of blood glucose level with hypertension and BMI among the graduate level students. This research was therefore undertaken to evaluate fasting blood glucose levels of Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University students and to check its associations with sex, body mass index (BMI) and hypertension. Methods: For the study the 240 students (120 male and 120 female) were randomly selected. The demographic data of the study subjects were collected by interviewing the subjects with standardized questionnaires. Their fasting blood glucose levels were measured using portable blood glucose meter. The BMI and blood pressure of the subjects were also recorded following standard protocol. Finally the data were analyzed with SPSS software. Results: The fasting blood glucose levels of the study subjects indicated that 0.4% of subjects were diabetic and, 5.4% of subjects were pre-diabetic. The blood glucose levels (mean±SE) of female subjects (4.88±0.07) were higher than that of the male (4.61±0.04) subjects. The mean blood glucose levels of hypertensive subjects (4.81±0.07 mmol/L) were higher than that of the normotensive counterpart (4.73±0.05 mmol/L). The fasting blood glucose levels shows significant positive associations with SBP (r=0.155, p<0.05) and DBP (r=0.149, p<0.05).The fasting blood glucose levels also showed a significant positive association with the BMI (r=0.193, p<0.01) of the subjects. Conclusions: This study reveals the diabetic and hypertension status of the Bangladeshi graduate level students. The result of the study is very important in the context of public concern health of Bangladesh.  
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173310
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Risk factor assessment and screening for diabetes in field practice area
           of a private medical college in Thiruvallur district of Tamil Nadu

    • Authors: Sathish Dev, Timsi Jain, Sivaprakasam P., Dinesh Raja
      Pages: 2670 - 2673
      Abstract: Background: Diabetes, which was known to be an epidemic in the urban areas, has been found to be increasing rapidly in the rural areas too as a result of the socioeconomic transitions. Diabetes is no longer only a disease of the elderly but is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality affecting youth and middle aged people.Methods: Screening camp for diabetes was conducted by the Department of Community Medicine in three different areas in the field practice area of Saveetha Medical College and Hospital viz. Thirumazhisai, Kuthambakkam and Velavedu in Thiruvallur district of Tamil Nadu on 7th April 2016 as a part of World Health Day 2016 celebration. Data was collected using a predesigned interview schedule. Descriptive statistics was calculated using rates, ratios & proportions. Univariate analysis was done using Chi square test to find the association between various factors and diabetes status. A parsimonious regression model was developed to find the predictor variables for diabetes.Results: A total of 188 people aged above 18 years attended the screening camps. Majority of the camp attendees were females (62.2%). Proportion of people having diabetes (already diagnosed plus newly screened) was found to be 18.1% out of which 3.2% were screened positive for diabetes. On regression analysis, Intake of alcohol and perceived stress were found to be significantly associated with diabetes (p<0.05).Conclusions: This study highlights a significant burden of undiagnosed cases of diabetes in the community. This indicates the need for systematic screening and awareness programs to identify the undiagnosed cases in the community and offer early life style modifications, treatment and regular follow up to such individuals.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173151
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Impact of workplace environment on health of leather factory workers

    • Authors: Arunkumar Yogaraj G., Rama Ravi
      Pages: 2674 - 2680
      Abstract: Background: The working environment and basic facilities available in the workplace have impact on physical and psychological health of leather workers. The objective was to study the effect of workplace environment on health of leather workers.Methods: A cross section study was carried out in eight permitted leather factories at rural area in Sripuram near Chromepet, Chennai. Using a pretested scheduled questionnaire, 230 workers were interviewed, their corresponding socio-demographic profile was collected and various health scores were recorded based on the general and physical examination. Scoring technique and student ‘t’ test was used to identify the correlation and degree of association between workplace environmental factors and health status of workers. Results: The scoring technique and correlation coefficient revealed an association between workplace health status and clinical symptoms (p<0.001), duration of work and clinical symptom scores (p=0.001), duration of work and workplace health (p<0.001), Workplace health status and occupation (t-test value 5.562, p<0.001), and facilities available and occupation (t value 3.758, p<0.001). Conclusions: The above results show the impact of workplace environment on the health status of workers and require adequate measure to improve the facilities and thereby the health status of workers. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173311
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence of risk factors of non-communicable diseases among rural
           population of Bidar

    • Authors: Mahesh B. Tondare, Naveenkumar G. Havale, Rahul C. Bedre, Pallavi Kesari
      Pages: 2681 - 2685
      Abstract: Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) global status report on NCDs in 2010 showed that NCDs are the highest leading cause of death over the developed and developing countries. More than 36 million people died from NCDs in 2008 from cardiovascular diseases (48%), cancers (21%), chronic respiratory diseases (12%), and diabetes (3%). Methods: The present study carried out among 2957 rural population in rural field practice area of department of community medicine. Using the WHO STEPS approach, information on risk factors of non-communicable diseases (NCD) like socio demographic, behavioural, physiological and physical measurements were obtained through standardized protocol. Results: Among the 2957 people studied 48.6% were in age group of 15–35 years. 68.1% were having education below secondary/higher secondary. 47.2% belonged to lower middle and 39.6% belonged to lower socioeconomic class. 44.8% of them were either farmers or labour/ unskilled workers. In the studied population 29.93% were currently using tobacco either in the form of chewing or smoking, among these 98.42% were males. 27.29% were currently consuming alcohol, of these males comprised 97.77%. Among the studied population 13.3% were hypertensive and 3.42% were diabetics. Conclusions: In this study majority belonged to lower middle or lower socioeconomic class, with occupation as either farmer or labour/ unskilled workers. Among those who consumed tobacco and alcohol as risk factors for NCD, majority were males. The prevalence of hypertension was more compared to diabetes. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173116
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Concordance of two sputum smear microscopy for diagnosis of presumptive
           pulmonary tuberculosis in a tertiary care hospital

    • Authors: Star Pala, Kyrshan G. Lynrah
      Pages: 2686 - 2689
      Abstract: Background: Under revised National tuberculosis control program two sputum samples are to be collected for diagnosis of presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis case. The objective of this study is to find the concordance of both sputum smear microscopy samples at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: Hospital based record was collected from designated microscopy center laboratory register. The data collected were from January 2015 to November 2016. Results: A total of 2117 paired of sputum sample were collected for the year 2015-16 in one of the DMC of a tertiary care hospital. A total of 183 patient (at least one sputum sample) were positive (8.64%) and 1934 were both negative. Among the positive sample concordance for both spot and morning samples were 89% (163/183) and discordance where spot sample positive and morning sample negative was 4.91% (9/183) and where spot sample negative and morning sample positive was 6.01% (11/183). Overall discordance between spot and morning samples were only 0.94% (20/2117). Conclusions: There is a good concordance of two sputum samples. Discordance of two sputum samples were <1% in a tertiary care hospital. One sample may be sufficient for operational purpose for diagnosis of pulmonary Tb. But to have a robust recommendation a RCT will be required to see the extent of discordance by ruling out bias in sputum smear examination.  
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173152
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Awareness and practices regarding standard precautions for infection
           control among the hospital support staff in a tertiary care hospital in
           South India: a cross sectional study

    • Authors: Anusha Taarinie Jha, George P. Jacob, Mahathi Ramireddy, Yogesh Kini K.
      Pages: 2690 - 2695
      Abstract: Background: Compliance with standard precautions reduces the risk of exposure to blood and body fluids. The awareness regarding infection control and appropriate practices among hospital support staff is critical to prevent HAIs. Hence this study was conducted with the objectives of evaluating the awareness regarding standard precautions for infection control among hospital support staff and to identify the barriers, if any, to comply with standard infection control protocol among them. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital after obtaining the necessary ethical clearance and required permissions. Sample size was calculated to be 80. Written informed consent was taken from the participants. A questionnaire in the local language was used to collect the data. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 15. The results were expressed as proportions. Chi-square test was applied to study the association. Results: 81 workers participated in the study. 91.4% knew that hand washing is the most effective way to prevent health care associated infections. 75.3% were aware about categories of wastes. Among 59 staff who were liable to come in contact, 57 (96.6%) used protective barriers while serving HIV/TB patients. 51.9% of the participants were vaccinated against Hepatitis B infection. Conclusions: The awareness and practices of the hospital support staff regarding standard precaution for prevention of infection was inadequate. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173191
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Risk factors for depression among elderly in Bangalore urban district: a
           case control study

    • Authors: Ravindra N. R., Rashmi M. R., R. Maheswaran
      Pages: 2696 - 2700
      Abstract: Background: With a rapidly aging society, geriatric mental health is emerging as an important public health concern. According to the WHO, prevalence of depression in adults aged ≥60 years in developed and developing countries was 0.5 million and 4.8 million respectively in 2004. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of depression and to assess risk factors of depression among elderly in an urban population. Methods: A case control study was conducted in May-June 2016 in the Bagalgunte area in Bangalore urban district. Purposive sampling technique was employed and all elderly persons (≥60 years) residing in that area were included. Participants were assessed for depression using validated 15 item (short version) geriatric depression scale (GDS).Those with GDS score >5 were considered as cases and those with GDS score ≤5 as controls. Final sample size was 201. Study variables included socio-demographic parameters and all possible risk factors of depression. Results: Of the 201 respondents interviewed, 90 (44.8%) were cases and 111 (55.2%) were controls. 159 (79.1%) were aged 60–69 years and 116 (58%) were male. Low socioeconomic status, elderly who were living alone (single/divorced/death of spouse), h/o dependency on others for daily living, negligence, abuse, economic loss in last 5 years, substance abuse, change of residence, insomnia and anorexia were found to be significantly associated with depression among elderly. Conclusions: In this study, depression among elderly was found to be high. These study findings can help programme managers to focus on mental health of elderly and implement practical and comprehensive strategiesand timely interventions to promote mental health and prevent depression.  
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173312
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Treatment outcome of the retreatment tuberculosis patients under RNTCP in
           eastern Uttar Pradesh

    • Authors: Praveen B. Gautam, Ashwini Kumar Mishra, Santosh Kumar
      Pages: 2701 - 2705
      Abstract: Background: India has the highest tuberculosis (TB) burden in the world. The directly observed treatment strategy is the most systemic and cost-effective approach to the disease. Furthermore, understanding the reasons for treatment outcome is important for the improvement of treatment systems. The objective was to study the treatment outcome of retreatment tuberculosis patients under RNTCP in eastern UP.Methods: A longitudinal cohort study was undertaken among total 205 patients registered in category II under DOTS from June 2015 to May 2016. These patients were followed up to November 2016 till the completion of treatment. At the end of study period, treatment outcomes were analysed. The chi-square test was used to assess the statistical significance of each ratio. P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: Out of 205 re-treatment patients, 174 (84.4%) had pulmonary tuberculosis while 31 (15.1%) had extra-pulmonary TB. In the cohort of category II patients 93 (45.3%) were relapse, 58 (28.2%) belonged to others category, 31 (15.1%) were treatment after loss to follow-up and 23 (11.2%) were on treatment after failure. Maximum patients were male 133 (64.8%) and most of the patients were belonged to the age group of 20-40 years. Among retreatment cases the cure rate for relapse, treatment after failure, treatment after loss to follow-up and others cases were 74.1%, 60.8%, 35.4% and 55.1% respectively.Conclusions: The relapse cases were the most commonly found in the re-treatment category however these patients were more likely to be cured with the category II regimen and treatment after loss to follow-up had high risk of retreatment failure. Continuous monitoring, adherence and treatment completion are essential for controlling the need of retreatment as well as improvement of tuberculosis control programme. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173167
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • A study of awareness and factors affecting acceptance of PPIUCD in
           South-East Rajasthan

    • Authors: Ashutosh Sharma, Vinita Gupta
      Pages: 2706 - 2710
      Abstract: Background: In spite of widely available choices for contraceptive method there is poor acceptance for the same because of less knowledge and ignorance. PPIUCD is one of best available contraceptive method which has potential to play a pivot role in country’s family planning programme. Present study is planned to find out awareness level and various factors affecting its acceptance among women in South-east Rajasthan. Methods: This was an observational study conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Government Medical College and Jay Kay Lon Hospital, Kota between March 2013 and August 2014. Subjects were 18550 women visiting the centre for antenatal care and child birth. A preformed and predesigned semi structured questionnaire was applied to determine if these women were aware of the PPIUCD. Acceptability was defined as the number of antenatal women who agreed to undergo insertion of PPIUCD. Data was analyzed in Microsoft Excel 2010 & SPSS ver16. Results: Out Of 18550 women, only 480 (2.58%) were aware of the PPIUCD. The overall acceptability was found to be 2.94%. Safe and effective long term method makes PPIUCD a choice for acceptance. Conclusions: Level of awareness for PPIUCD was poor among women of south-east Rajasthan region. PPIUCD can play a pivot role in country’s family planning programme. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173313
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Students’ sexual exposure in tertiary institutions: a case study of some
           universities in Abia state of Nigeria

    • Authors: E. E. Enwereji, E. I. Akubugwo, J. O. Onwuka, D. C. Ckikezie
      Pages: 2711 - 2717
      Abstract: Background: Studies have shown that new entrants in institutions of higher learning are at risk of sexual exploits by older students. Drama has been identified as an intervention strategy capable of internalizing both the emotional and cognitive dimensions of sexual problems for positive changes. This study used drama to create awareness on likely common sexual exploits in institutions of higher learning. Methods: Study used first year students in three universities, federal, state and private. It was assumed that first year students in institutions of higher learning are likely to be exposed to sexual overtures by older students. It was considered that using drama as an intervention will create awareness on types of sexual overtures experienced in tertiary institutions. A random sample of ninety ((90) students, comprising thirty (30) students in each of the universities studied was selected. Pre- and post-self-administered questionnaire were given to the selected students to complete. On completion, copies of the questionnaire (pre- and post) were analyzed using Tables and percentages. Results: The study showed that students in the three universities studied were approached for sex by fellow students but this was more in Rhema University 8 (28. 8%) than in other universities. Both male and female sexes approached the students for sex. Finding showed that some students practiced anal, oral, and multiple sex, but this was more in MOUA 10 (33.3%) than in ABSU and Rhema with 9 (30%) respectively. For knowledge on how HIV is transmitted, students had the knowledge that HIV transmission occurs by sharing sharp objects. This knowledge was more among students in MOUA 29 (97%) than those in ABSU 28 (93%) and Rhema 27 (90%). Conclusions: Drama therefore, is a valuable and timely intervention strategy capable of encouraging HIV risk reduction among university students.  
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173314
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • An epidemiological cross-sectional study to assess the socio-demographic
           profile and to study the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults
           in an urban slum of Mumbai

    • Authors: Daniel A. Saji, Mahesh B. Jajulwar, Anita G. Shenoy
      Pages: 2718 - 2724
      Abstract: Background: Obesity is perhaps the most prevalent form of malnutrition. As a chronic disease, prevalent in both developed and developing countries, and affecting both children and adults. In India due urbanization and modernization people are moving into urban centres and along with increasing wealth, concerns about an obesity epidemic in India are growing. The present study was carried out to assess the demographic distribution and prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults in an urban slum. Methods: The cross sectional study includes 350 adult populations from the Shivaji Nagar (Govandi) urban slum of the Mumbai city in India and study was carried out over a period of one year from August 2014 to July 2015. Results: Our study showed that most of subjects are in the age group of 38-57. Sex distribution was relatively equal with 44% males and 56% females. Majority of the population were Muslims. Majority of the subjects (50.6%) belong to class III, (26.9%). 32.3% subjects were obese and 8.6% were overweight according to BMI (basal metabolic index) while merely 6.6% were overweight according to WHR (waist to hip ratio). Thus BMI was found to be a better indicator than WHR for measuring obesity. Conclusions: From the present study it was seen that age group of the subjects, socio economic class, and level of education had a significant relationship with BMI, whereas sex of the subjects had non-significant relationship with BMI. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173197
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Immunization status of children visiting a health centre in Uri, Jammu and
           Kashmir: reasons for drop-outs from immunization

    • Authors: Ankita Singh, K. P. S. Senger, Arvind K. Singh, Ajay K. Singh
      Pages: 2725 - 2728
      Abstract: Background: Immunization is one of the most powerful and cost effective tools available to improve public and global health and is essential for every child’s life. This study aims to estimate the immunization status and factors effecting drop-outs from immunization in children residing in Uri, Jammu & Kashmir. Methods: It is a cross-sectional descriptive study, with sample-size of 480 children between 12 to 23 months of age. Immunization status was assessed depending upon coverage of four important vaccines given during primary immunization. Results: The study showed that total primary immunization status of Uri was 58.12% with 91.2% OPV, 88.1% BCG, 72.5% DPT and 58.8% measles immunization (CI= 95%, p<0.05). Factors effecting drop-outs were distantly located health centre (27.9%), poor motivation (33.12%), lack of awareness (9.77%), and parental refusal (in case of OPV was 5.35%) (CI= 95%, p<0.05). Literate mothers were more likely to get their children completely immunized. Gender Bias wasn't observed. Conclusions: Findings suggest that immunization status needs to be improved by focussing on vaccines having low coverage (DPT and measles) by creating awareness and better out-reach facilities with the involvement of community workers. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173315
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Oral health knowledge, attitude and practices among male Qassim university
           students

    • Authors: Mahmoud F. Jaber, Asif Khan, Yousif Elmosaad, Mustafa Mohammed Mustafa, Nagwa Suliman, Ahmad Jamaan
      Pages: 2729 - 2735
      Abstract: Background: Good oral health not only promotes an individual to look and feel good, it also helps in preserving oral functions. Oral health is considered an integral part of an individual's overall health. The study was carried out to assess oral health knowledge and practices among male students of Qassim University.Methods: This study included five hundred and eight Students from (4) male colleges in Qassim University enrolled in that academic year were invited to participate in this survey using a self-administered structured questionnaire consisted of (16) questions, written in Arabic and was pretested. Results: The students had good knowledge on the basic oral health measures. Majority (63%) of them they knew that poor oral health lead to gum disease, (59.1%) students were aware that maintaining oral hygiene by using toothbrush and paste. The attitude toward regular visits to the dentist were necessary (81.5%), they perceived brushing of teeth regularly prevents dental decay (94.9%), Sweets affected the teeth adversely (87.4%) and Soft drinks affect the teeth adversely (84.4%). But still students had poor oral health practices they brush their teeth once daily (71.3%) and brushed for less than the optimal time of two minutes (55.7%). Conclusions: Students had good knowledge on the basic oral health measures, but their attitude regarding oral health was diverse and practices toward oral health were relatively poor. Oral health education programs should be conducted with reinforcement, to close the gap between knowledge and practice. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173316
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence of hypertension and its socio-demographic factors among adult
           population in a rural community of Singur block, Hooghly district, West
           Bengal

    • Authors: Nabarun Karmakar, Sourav Naiya, Indranil Saha, Rabindranath Sinha, Sanjaya Kumar Sahoo, Aparajita Dasgupta
      Pages: 2736 - 2740
      Abstract: Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are the leading cause of adult mortality and morbidity worldwide now days. The NCD like hypertension is emerging as a major health problem in India with increasing prevalence significantly in both urban and rural population. The objectives of the study were to find out the prevalence of hypertension and its association with socio-demographic factors among the study subjects, if any. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from May, 2013 to April, 2014 in rural communities of Singur block among 651 individuals, aged 20 years or above of both sexes except pregnant and seriously ill subjects. Data were collected about education, type of family, family history of hypertension, income etc. Results: The overall prevalence of hypertension was 26.1% (male 21.8% and female 29.9%). Prevalence increased with increase in age group. Muslim religion, less education and sedentary life styles were found to be significantly associated with hypertension; while socio-economic status had no association with hypertension. Conclusions: The prevalence of hypertension in the rural population was found to be on the higher side compared to previous reports from India. Strong public health measures need to be seriously implemented to combat hypertension and its consequences. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173317
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • A study on prevalence of myopia and its associated factors in school
           children of Salem, Tamil Nadu

    • Authors: Chellavel Ganapathi K., Arun Vijay Paul R, Kokila K., Bharath Kumar S.
      Pages: 2741 - 2744
      Abstract: Background: Myopia is the major refractive error having a worldwide prevalence of 1.5 billion. Children with Myopia feel difficulties in viewing blackboard in school; they avoid outdoor activities and get  isolated from the peer groups. Untreated myopia may lead to Macular degeneration, Glaucoma, Cataract, Retinal detachment. Thus this study was carried out. The aim of the study to find out the prevalence of myopia among school children and its associated factors.Methods: The study was a cross sectional study carried out among students of government higher secondary school, Sarkar Kollapatti, Salem. Total sample size of 854 Students from class 6-12 was selected by simple random sampling. Students were examined by Snellen’s chart, non-cycloplegic auto refractometry and by pin hole test. Finally all data were entered in EPIDATA and analysed in IBM SPSS software version 20.Results: After complete analysis, prevalence of myopia was 11.7% of which 46% were boys and 54% were girls. Among students of age 8 to 19 years, the most common age group involved was 14-17 years of age followed by students of 10-13 years of age. Time spent on visual gadgets was the major factor associated with myopia. Familial predisposition, average amount of time a person spends on near work showed significant association with myopia.Conclusions: This study throws light on prevalence of myopia in semi-urban school children & various factors associated with myopia. Students with myopia were referred to Department of Ophthalmology, GMKMCH and thus they were prevented from further complications due to myopia and improve the academic performance. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173114
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Self-care practices among type II diabetics attending primary health
           centre, Thiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu

    • Authors: Uma Maheshwari R., Sowmiya K. R., Kavin S.
      Pages: 2745 - 2749
      Abstract: Background: Increasing prevalence of diabetes in India is resulting in an epidemiological transition. The care of the people with diabetes is traditionally seen as doctor centered, but the concept of self-care of people with diabetes is a new domain and is proven beneficial in averting long term complications. A diabetes self-care activities measure, together with glycaemic control, can provide essential data for clinicians, diabetes educators, and patients to evaluate and modify treatment. The objective of the study was to determine the practice of self-care activities among people with diabetes attending primary health centre.Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted in primary health centre, Tiruvallur health unit division during July–September 2016. A total of 308 patients with >1 year duration of diabetes mellitus (DM) were asked to respond to summary diabetes self-care activities questionnaire after obtaining the consent from them and analysed by proportions.Results: A healthy eating plan on a daily basis was followed by 76.9% (237/308) of the participants, daily exercises for 30 min were followed by 57.1% (176/308), and regular blood sugar monitoring was done by 84.1% (259/308). Regarding the adherence to oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin, daily adherence to medication was seen among 89.7% (226/252) and 75% (42/56) were found to be adherent to insulin injections on a daily basis.Conclusions: Self-care practices were found to be unsatisfactory in fruit and vegetables intake and foot care especially drying in between toes and inspecting inner surface of shoes. Realizing the multi-faceted nature of the problem, a systematic, multipronged and an integrated approach is required for promoting self-care practices among diabetic patients to avert any long-term complications. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173113
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Adolescent anaemia its prevalence and determinants: a cross-sectional
           study from south Kerala, India

    • Authors: Sajith Kumar Soman, Binu Areekal, Asha Joan Murali, Rosin George Varghese
      Pages: 2750 - 2756
      Abstract: Background: Anaemia is currently one of the most common and intractable nutritional problems globally. During the period of adolescence, iron requirements increase dramatically in both boys and girls resulting in a higher probability of anaemia. The objective of the study was done to find out the prevalence of anaemia among adolescent boys and girls in Ambalapuzha Taluk and to assess the scholastic performance of the anaemic and non-anaemic in the study group. Methods: The setting was different schools of Ambalapuzha Taluk and the study was cross sectional in nature. Study subjects were children studying in 5th -10th standards selected from aided, unaided and government schools. The total sample size of the study was 2789 subjects. Statistical analysis: Data was entered in Microsoft excel and was analysed using SPSS 16.0 versionResults: The prevalence of anaemia in the whole population was 53.5% (C.I-51.64-55.34%). The anaemia prevalence in females was 62.0% (C.I -59.33-64.6) and in males was 46.1% (C.I -43.55-48.61). Out of the total population 0.4% were severely anaemic [male 0.3% (5) and female 0.5% (6)]. The prevalence of moderate anaemia was 3.4% [male 2.8% (41) and female 4.2% (54)] and that of mild anaemia was 49.7 [male 43% (640) and female 57.4% (746)]. The factors that were found to be significantly associated with adolescent anaemia were female gender (62% vs. 46.1%), being overweight (59.7% vs. 53.2), not taking WIFS regularly (56.5% vs. 51.8% and 28.6% among irregularly taking WIFS and regular takers) and children coming from families with monthly income less than INR 1000. Conclusions: On comparing the academic performance of anaemic and non-anaemic children it was found that the aggregate marks was significantly lower in the anaemic group (178.11 marks) compared to the non-anaemic group (217.63 marks) (p=0.001). 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173318
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Self-medication practices versus health of the community

    • Authors: Ruma Dutta, Dinesh Raja, Anuradha R., Lawrence Dcruze, Timsi Jain, Sivaprakasam P.
      Pages: 2757 - 2761
      Abstract: Background: Self-medication is a common practice worldwide and the irrational use of drugs is a cause of concern. Self-medication involves the use of medicinal products by the individuals to treat self-recognized disorders or symptoms, or the intermittent or continuous use of a medication prescribed by a physician for chronic or recurring diseases or symptoms. The objectives of the study were to find out the prevalence of self-medication practices in the community; to describe the common conditions where self-medication is practiced.Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted in a rural population at Kuthambakkam village, Tamil Nadu from February 2015 to July 2015. This village falls under the rural field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Saveetha Medical College and hospital, Thandalam. There were 1175 households in this village of which 165 households were identified for the study purpose using simple random sampling technique. Statistical analysis: Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS version 16 software. Descriptive statistics were calculated for background variables, attitude and practices of self-medication. Results: The study was conducted in 165 households in Kuthambakkam village, the rural field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Saveetha Medical College. The median age of the study participants was 38 years. The minimum age was 17 and maximum was 77 years. 73 (44.2%) of study subjects reported having health problems currently. Of them, 76.7% replied they consulted a doctor for their problem, 17.8% resorted to self-medication and rest 5.5% took native treatment at home. Conclusions: It is imperative to address the practice of self-medication among the people in the age of growing drug resistance being reported. Periodic studies on the knowledge, attitude and practice of self-medication may give an insight into the pattern of drug use among the people. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173169
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Management of diarrheal diseases among children under five years: a case
           study of mothers at Kakamega county, Kenya

    • Authors: Peterson M. Njeru, John M. Kariri, Mary W. Murigi, Heuston M. Waweru, Felister M. Muriithi
      Pages: 2762 - 2766
      Abstract: Background: Despite much effort and successes in the management of diarrhoea, the disease has remained among the top five causes of mortality and morbidity in Kenya, particularly among infants and children below five years. Advent of HIV/AIDS and the harsh economic situation is Kenya has led to increase in diarrhoea diseases. This study was conducted to determine the mother’s knowledge, attitude and practice in the management of diarrheal diseases among children under five years of age.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Lurambi sub-County, Kakamega County. Systematic sampling technique was used to determine the study population. The research instruments were; observational checklists, an in-depth interview schedule, self-administered semi-structured questionnaires and focused group discussions. Quantitative data analysis was conducted using SPSSand involved univariate and bivariate analysis. Qualitative data was analyzed by thematic content analysis.Results: Overall, 88% mothers each with at least one child under five years took part in the study. 84% of the respondents had knowledge of the causes of diarrhoea; however only 31% knew methods of diarrhoea prevention. 41% of the respondents managed diarrhoea cases with non-recommended home remedies such as salt and sugar solutions. The study also established that 37% of the health workers were not trained on diarrhoea management despite them being directly involved in the case management.Conclusions: Overall, the research identified a gap between knowledge and practice. There is need for improving home based case management and implementing a community strategy for diarrhoea management.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173319
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Cross-cultural determinants of pre-adolescent self-esteem and body image

    • Authors: Manuel de Gracia, Patricia Trujano, Carlos Nava, Gilberto Limón
      Pages: 2767 - 2773
      Abstract: Background: The general framework of this research is that the sociocultural context and socio-economic conditions in different countries representing the macro-system of the transactional model of health, with varying degrees of cultural and linguistic familiarity and contact history. Culturally bound definitions of what is desirable and attractive play an important role in body image formation.Methods: The aim of this cross-cultural study was to evaluate the different effects of general self-esteem, eating attitudes and behaviors, and the subjective perception of body image in two representative samplings of urban pre-adolescents (9-12 years old). All the participants were given the following tests: LAWSEQ, ChEAT-26, CFD, and BEStudy.Results: The multiple linear regression analysis showed the relative contribution of each independent variable: the LAWSEQ score explained 12.8% of the variance of the BES score, followed by the BMI (9.3%), the ChEAT-26 score (9.1%), and the CFD (7.8%). The results showed a differential profile between the two samplings.Conclusions: General self-esteem was the strongest predictive variable associated with higher levels of body esteem, while habits and behaviors related to worry about food and the choice of a thinner body image ideal were predictive of lower body esteem, regardless of the nationality, sex, or age of the participants. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173320
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence of hypertension in a rural community of coastal Karnataka: a
           cross sectional study

    • Authors: Trapti Saxena, Rajeev K. H.
      Pages: 2774 - 2777
      Abstract: Background: Hypertension is major risk factor for CVDs and its complications account for 9.4 million deaths worldwide every year. Hypertension itself is responsible for about 45% and 51% deaths due to heart disease and stroke respectively. Hypertension is a major public health concern in India both in urban and rural areas and it is increasing at an alarming rate in rural population. Because of inadequate access to health care facilities at rural areas, the early screening and treatment of hypertension is not done regularly, so we conducted this study. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension in a rural community of coastal Karnataka.Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted at rural field practice area of Srinivas Institute of Medical Sciences. Sample size was 300 and convenient sampling method used. Data was collected visiting homes and blood pressure measured with mercury sphygmomanometer by. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data.Results: Among 300 participants, 45% and 55% were males and females respectively and mean age of the participants was 50.6±15.4 years. The overall prevalence of hypertension among them was 18% and the proportion of hypertension was more among males, people aged >45 years and illiterates.Conclusions: Our study shows that, hypertension has seeped into rural population also which was a concern of the urban population earlier. New cases of hypertension diagnosed were also more which indirectly indicates, most people are not aware of their blood pressure and importance of regular monitoring of blood pressure. So, doing regular screening and creation of awareness at rural areas will help in reducing the morbidity and mortality due to hypertension and its complications. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173321
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence of type 2 diabetes using Indian diabetes risk score and its
           risk factors in a rural area of Tamil Nadu, India

    • Authors: Sathiya Narayanan S., Shankar S., Padmini S. K.
      Pages: 2778 - 2782
      Abstract: Background: Currently the number of cases of diabetes worldwide is estimated to be around 150 million. This number is predicted to double by 2025, with the greatest number of cases being expected in China and India. In countries like India, there is also a lack of awareness about the existing interventions for preventing diabetes and the management of complications. This underscores the need for mass awareness and screening programs to identify and overcome the burden due to diabetes in India. The aim and objectives of the study was to find out the people at risk of developing diabetes using a simple risk factor scoring in a rural area in Tamil NaduMethods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried out from June 2016 to August 2016 among 974 participants in the three rural blocks in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu. A house to house visit was made and all population above 35 years of age, presenting on the day of survey were included in the study. Socio-demographic variables, risk factors were collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire and High Risk Analysis for diabetes was done as per Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS).Results: Out of 974 study subjects, 62 (6.34%) of them reported that they had diabetes. Based on the screening tool, 253 subjects were found to be in the high risk category (score >60). Proportion of subjects with high risk score in the self-reported diabetes group (58.07%) were high compared to apparently normal group (23.79%) and this difference was statistically significant (p<0.05) using Chi Square test.Conclusions: This study estimates the usefulness of simplified Indian diabetes risk score for identifying high risk diabetic subjects in the community. Use of the IDRS can make mass screening for diabetes in India more cost effective.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173322
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Global hunger index of India based on National family health survey-IV
           with special reference to some states and critical review

    • Authors: Ashish Wasudeo Khobragade, K. Rajan
      Pages: 2783 - 2786
      Abstract: Background: India is facing serious hunger situation now. Factors responsible for this hunger situation are different. This study focuses on hunger situation in 4 different states of India and remedial measures.Methods: Secondary data was collected from National Family Health Survey-IV (NFHS). Data entry was done in excel sheet. GHI was calculated using new formula given by IFPRI.Results: There are wide disparities in hunger situation in Indian states. Madhya Pradesh is in alarming state of hunger.Conclusions: Hunger situation in Indian states varies from states to states. Different types of interventions are required at each state level to improve the overall hunger situation.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173323
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Qualitative exploration of infant and young child feeding practices in
           

    • Authors: Geethalakshmi R. G., Smitha Yadav J. S.
      Pages: 2787 - 2792
      Abstract: Background: The art of infant feeding is a blend of biology and culture. A large no of women in India are already traditionally inclined towards infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices. The need is to identify specific problems in local community. The strong influence of socio-cultural milieu is detrimental to health of the child. It is important that every opportunity of contact of health personnel with care givers should be taken to counsel on infant feeding.Methods: A Focus group discussion Study was conducted between February and May 2017. Mothers with child less than 2 years of age, grand-mothers and health care providers (ASHA’s and ANM’s) who form the stake holders population of IYCF were involved after taking consent. Each Homogenous group had 6-12 participants. Qualitative information was collected till saturation was achieved.Results: 6 FGD’s in each homogenous group were conducted. Colostrum was considered impure, giving honey as pre lacteal feed was a ritual, inadequate milk secretion, lack of knowledge about when and what complementary feeds to be given and also about importance of breast feeding till 2 years of age and giving artificial feeds. These were reasons for improper IYCF practices.Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of group opinion prevailing in the local community for IYCF practices which is essential for instituting health education.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173324
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Knowledge, attitude and practices about diabetes mellitus and its
           complications in T2DM patients attending the UHC in Mumbai

    • Authors: Rufiat Nasiruddin Kazi, Mangala M. Bote, Kedar J. Raikar
      Pages: 2793 - 2797
      Abstract: Background: Diabetes Mellitus has become a major public health problem in India and also the major cause of disability through complications such as blindness, renal failure, lower limb gangrene etc. People suffering from Diabetes related complications are many times unaware about the measures to curb the onset of the complications. The aim of the study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practices about diabetes and its complications in the diabetic patientsMethods: This was a cross sectional descriptive study conducted at an Urban Health Centre attached to the parent medical college in Mumbai. The knowledge, attitude and practices of the 116 participants who were registered at the non-communicable disease (NCD) OPD were assessed via a pre-designed, pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire. Statistical analysis used: SPSS version 20.Results: Majority belonged the age groups of 40-60 years (69%), 63.8% were women, 91.4% were married and 44.4% were illiterate. 13.8% of the respondents had correct knowledge about the causes of diabetes and 62.9% could correctly identify the symptoms of diabetes. Knowledge regarding the complications in diabetics was found to be quite low with only 52.6% correctly identifying one or more complications. The most commonly known complication was neuropathy (83.6%) followed by nephropathy (57.3%). The attitude of the patients with respect to screening of complications was found to be poor and the same reflected in their practicesConclusions: There is a lack of understanding of the basics of the disease, its prevention as well as prevention of complications in those suffering from the disease. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173325
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Strengthening of sentinel surveillance through priority settings in public
           health resource allocation

    • Authors: Raghvendra Gumashta
      Pages: 2798 - 2802
      Abstract: Background: Sentinel Surveillance assists in designing, re-designing and formulating health policy, programs and public health interventions and hence there is need to have a relook into the need for improving its implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Methods: Informal interview based cross sectional study was undertaken during January 2015 to December 2016 among the programmatic stakeholders including the doctors, laboratory technicians and support staff for understanding of the constraints observed during conduct of surveillance. Results: Time constraint and delayed supply of goods (94%), non-observance of guidelines (56%), dilution of sample quality (46%), requirement of training needs assessment (32%), absence of local communication network among stakeholders (68%), need for new initiatives (68%) and need for well trained staff during sample transport (34%) are important areas for quality enhancement. Conclusions: Framework support for surveillance requires strengthening from technical inputs of stakeholders thereby facilitating multi stage corrective actions directed towards achievement of appropriate public health actions. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173326
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus in tertiary
           care hospital, SRMSIMS, Bareilly, U.P.

    • Authors: Vaishali Gupta, Ravi Pachori, Rahul Kumar Goyal
      Pages: 2803 - 2809
      Abstract: Background: S. aureus has been recognized as continuously challenging the clinicians despite the availability of antibiotics from nearly 70 yrs and emergence of various types of antibiotic resistance mechanisms especially to methicillin and vancomycin, which was the theme of this study. The study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus in Tertiary Care Hospital, SRMSIMS, Bareilly and also to determine the current status of Vancomycin susceptibility in our Hospital setup considering E-Test as gold standard.Methods: This study was prospective in design from 1st January 2014 to 31st December 2014 and conducted in the Department of Microbiology, SRMSIMS, Bareilly. All S. aureus strains were screened for vancomycin resistance by Dual strip E- test.Results: Out of 505 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, we found that MRSA, VISA, and VRSA as 80.8%, 0.6% and 0.0% respectively. In cases of MRSA, antibiogram showed sensitivity in the range of 99.4 -100% for glycopeptides, and sensitivity to levofloxacin, chloramphenicol was 77.5% and 65.2% respectively.Conclusions: On evaluation of MIC by E-strips, we found that 17% of MRSA were showing MIC values quite near to the MIC value of VISA. So, these strains may convert to VISA, if the injudicious use of vancomycin antibiotics is not stopped. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173327
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Are rural adults happy' An observational study of happiness and its
           determinants

    • Authors: Chythra R. Rao, Shashi J. Soans, Zari Anjum, Muthu Kumar, Asha Kamath, Avinash Shetty
      Pages: 2810 - 2815
      Abstract: Background: Happiness has been defined as the degree to which an individual judges the overall quality of his or her life as favourable. The happiness of a society, depends on its individual members. So, the study was designed to assess happiness among rural adults and to identify various socio- demographic, family and health determinants affecting happiness.Methods: It was a cross sectional study conducted in the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, KMC Manipal. The study included 403 permanent residents of field practice area, aged ≥20 years, of both gender and willing to participate in the study. Information pertaining to socio-demographic characteristics, details pertaining to co-morbidities, habits and family particulars were collected by personal interviews using a pre-designed questionnaire. Happiness was assessed using the Oxford happiness questionnaire.Results: A total of 403 subjects participated in the study and among them 82% of the respondents were happy and 17.6% were unhappy, as per the Oxford happiness questionnaire. Over half of the participants belonged to 30-60 years and two-thirds were females (66.5%). There was no gender difference in reported happiness. Almost all the people who had cordial relationship with family members (99.1%) and neighbourhood (97.9%), owning a house (94%) and being without co-morbidities (56%) were happy. Past hospitalization, concerns about child marriage and employment made people less happy.Conclusions: Good relationship with family members and neighbourhood, absence of co-morbidities was positive determinants of happiness, while hospitalization, concerns about employment and marriage of their children contributed to unhappiness.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173328
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Epidemiological surveillance of tuberculosis among HIV/AIDS seropositive
           individuals attending ART center at a tertiary care teaching hospital

    • Authors: Neethi Chandra M., Ramesh Babu A., T. S. Durga Prasad, Meghana Devulapalli, Shabana Banu S. K., Avanthi B., Pavan Kumar B.
      Pages: 2816 - 2824
      Abstract: Background:HIBackground: HIV/ AIDS is an epidemic that is most prevalent in India affecting people of different age groups, occupations and gender. It has a severe impact on the health status of the affected individuals. With the increase in the transmission of HIV there is also an increase in the existence of TB as a co-infection. In this context, the aim of our study is to emphasize the factors affecting the occurrence, transmission and prognosis of HIV/AIDS patients along with TB co-infection.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted from October 2015 to March 2016 at an ART center in South India. All the seropositive patients with/ without opportunistic infection above the age of 18 years were included in the study.Results: Overall 374 patients were included in the study, of which the most affected age group was 18-45 years. Women constituted 55.61% of the total population. 64.17% of the individuals were married. Majority of them belonged to rural areas (64.97%) and were illiterates (37.43%). Commonly observed WHO clinical stage was I and functional status was working. Heterosexuality (93.65%) was the predominant route of transmission. 170 had TB with PTB (60.58%) being prevalent than EPTB (33.52%). The number of smear positive and smear negative cases were 37.79% and 27.55% respectively. DOTS therapy was accessible to only 49.99%.Conclusions: There was an extensive prevalence of TB among HIV/AIDS individuals. This signifies a need for increased screening of TB among HIV seropositive individuals and vice-versa. Preventive and educational programmes should be organised to halt the transmission of HIV and to reduce the newly occurring HIV infections. V/ AIDS is an epidemic that is most prevalent in India affecting people of different age groups, occupations and gender. It has a severe impact on the health status of the affected individuals. With the increase in the transmission of HIV there is also an increase in the existence of TB as a co-infection. In this context, the aim of our study is to emphasize the factors affecting the occurrence, transmission and prognosis of HIV/AIDS patients along with TB co-infection.Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted from October 2015 to March 2016 at an ART center in South India. All the seropositive patients with/ without opportunistic infection above the age of 18 years were included in the study.Results: Overall 374 patients were included in the study, of which the most affected age group was 18-45 years. Women constituted 55.61% of the total population. 64.17% of the individuals were married. Majority of them belonged to rural areas (64.97%) and were illiterates (37.43%). Commonly observed WHO clinical stage was I and functional status was working. Heterosexuality (93.65%) was the predominant route of transmission. 170 had TB with PTB (60.58%) being prevalent than EPTB (33.52%). The number of smear positive and smear negative cases were 37.79% and 27.55% respectively. DOTS therapy was accessible to only 49.99%.Conclusion: There was an extensive prevalence of TB among HIV/AIDS individuals. This signifies a need for increased screening of TB among HIV seropositive individuals and vice-versa. Preventive and educational programmes should be organised to halt the transmission of HIV and to reduce the newly occurring HIV infections.   
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173329
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Clinico -epidemiological study of human rabies cases attending epidemic
           disease hospital Mysore city, Karnataka, India

    • Authors: Praveen Kulkarni, Vamadeva Giriyapura Marulappa, Renuka Manjunath
      Pages: 2825 - 2829
      Abstract: Background: Rabies is the 10th biggest cause of death due to infectious diseases worldwide. It is estimated that 2.5 billion people across 100 countries are at risk of contracting rabies. India reports 20,000 human rabies deaths annually which constitutes one third of global mortalities pertaining to the disease.Methods: Retrospective 15 years case record analysis was undertaken at Epidemic Disease hospital, Mysore. All the records of human rabies cases reported to the hospital from January 1999 to December 2013 were analyzed. Details regarding socio-demographic characteristics, exposure, post exposure prophylaxis, incubation period, duration of survival were collected in a structured proforma.Results: Among 100 human rabies reported in fifteen years, majority 76 (76.0%) were above the age of 14 years, 83 (83%) were males, 61 (61%) were belonging to lower socio economic status. Exposure to dogs was noted among 95 (95%) cases. Only 12 (12%) victims had washed the wound with soap and water, 41 (41%) had received antirabies vaccine of whom only 06 (14.6%) received full course.Conclusions: Majority of human rabies cases observed in the present study was among adults. Dog was the chief reservoir of infection. Poor post exposure prophylaxis was an important factor responsible for rabies. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173330
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Life style associated risk factors in teenage students, in Miraj town: a
           cross sectional descriptive study

    • Authors: Ganesh S. Lokhande, Sachin B. Jadhav, Shekhar S. Rajderkar, Yogita G. Bavaskar
      Pages: 2830 - 2835
      Abstract: Background: The transition from childhood to adulthood may be referred to as ‘adolescence’ or ‘teenage’. Adolescence is not only a time of opportunity but also of vulnerability to risky behavior, which can have life-long consequences, especially on education, career and various aspects of health. Behavior patterns that influence health in adulthood have their origin in adolescence. Considering such factors, the present study had been undertaken with the objectives to study dietary habits and nutritional status of study population, to study knowledge, attitude & practices of study population regarding risk factors and to study the significant behavioral deviation including drug abuse.Methods: Cross sectional, descriptive study was being conducted in selected High schools and Junior Colleges in the Miraj town. The method of data collection was the pre-designed, pre-tested proforma. The data was analyzed by using SPSS.Results: Overall prevalence of under-nutrition was 49.83%. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 3.68% and 1.49% respectively. Overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was more in participants with habit of eating outside home. Various forms of tobacco, alcohol and pan masala were used by 58.9% of the family members / friends / peer groups of the study participants.Conclusions: The students of age group 18-19 year were more likely to have risk taking behavior than students of age-group 13-17 year. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173331
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Readiness for self-directed learning among undergraduate medical students
           of Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam

    • Authors: K. V. Phani Madhavi, B. Devi Madhavi
      Pages: 2836 - 2840
      Abstract: Background: Self-directed learning (SDL) has been identified as an important skill for medical graduates. To meet the challenges in today's healthcare environment, self-directed learning is most essential. Readiness for SDL is the degree to which an individual possesses attitudes and abilities necessary for SDL. The present study was taken to assess the self-directed learning readiness (SDLR) among 4th semester medical students in a tertiary care teaching hospital. The objectives of the study were to assess the self-directed learning readiness among 4th semester undergraduate medical students of Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam using SDLR instrument; to find out the association if any between readiness for SDL and students’ demographic characteristics.Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted among 4th semester undergraduate medical students of Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh in the month of June 2016 to assess the self-directed learning readiness, using Fishers’40–item self-directed learning readiness scale (SDLRS) which contains 3 domains. The student’s response was collected in a 5‑point Likert scale. The readiness for SDL was categorized as high (>150 scores) and low (<150).Results: The mean SDLRS score was 145.17±18.181 with 105 (64%) students scoring <150 indicating low readiness. The mean sores in the 3 domains of self-management (SM), desire for learning (DL), self-control (SC) were 43.81±7.134, 45.88±6.916, and 55.26±8.296 respectively.Conclusions: Self-directed learning readiness appeared to be low among medical students. This study points out the need to address SDL skills among medical students, and need to find ways to build SDL skills among them. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173332
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence of anaemia and its epidemiological correlates among women of
           reproductive age group in an urban slum of Mumbai

    • Authors: Rushali R. Lilare, Durgesh Prasad Sahoo
      Pages: 2841 - 2846
      Abstract: Background: Anaemia is a major public health problem affecting children, adolescent, women of reproductive age groups and lactating mothers worldwide. As per NFHS-IV data, prevalence of anaemia in India is 53%. This study was done to assess the prevalence of anaemia and its epidemiological correlates among women in reproductive age groups in an urban slum of Mumbai. Methods: This community based cross-sectional study was carried out in an urban slum in Mumbai. Total 315 women in the reproductive age groups (15-49 years) were enrolled in the study. Samples were selected by stratified random sampling from various sectors. All respondents were interviewed and haemoglobin estimation was done with Sahli’s method. Data was analysed using SPSS version 20.0 and chi-square test was used to find out the association between two qualitative variables. Results: The prevalence of mild, moderate and severe anaemia was 37.1%, 9.5% and 2.9% respectively. The factors associated with anaemia were education (p value=0.0001), socio-economic status (p value=0.001), consumption of iron rich food (p value=0.0001) and interval between two successive pregnancy in years (p value=0.0001). Conclusions: The findings of the present study revealed that education, socioeconomic status, consumption of iron rich food, interval between successive pregnancies affect the overall blood haemoglobin level on a long run. Community awareness regarding education and schooling of girls will help to increase the education level of women and would indirectly help to increase the health awareness and decrease the prevalence of anaemia. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173333
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Does literacy status of mother influence breast feeding practices:
           experience from a semi urban location in Tamil Nadu, India

    • Authors: Yogesh Mohan, Timsi Jain, Ruma Dutta, Gomathy Parasuraman
      Pages: 2847 - 2852
      Abstract: Background: In spite of regular promotion of breast feeding practices at both National and International level, the proportion of children who are exclusively breast fed during the first 6 months of life is very less. The present study was planned to find out the prevalence of correct breast feeding practices among mothers of 12-23 old children enrolled in Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) centers and to find out its relationship with mother’s literacy status in a semi urban location of Tamil Nadu.Methods: A cross sectional study was done in the ICDS centers. Participants: 127 mothers of 12-23 month old children enrolled in various ICDS centers in the field practice area of Saveetha Medical College. Methodology: Semi structured interviews. Proportion and chi-square were used for analysis.Results: Overall, 19%of the mothers gave pre-lacteal feeds to their babies, 6% of mothers denied colostrums, 12% started complementary feeding before 6 months. Overall literacy status of the mother was associated with better breast feeding practices; however literacy had a complex relation with different aspects of breast feeding.Conclusions: The breast feeding practices were relatively better than reported by other studies in the country. However, still there was a significant gap in correct practices of breast feeding. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173115
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Experience of anganwadi workers running VCNC under ‘Misssion Balam
           Sukham’ in a tribal area of Gujarat, India

    • Authors: Dhara I. Zalavadiya, Suraj I. Kuriya, Vihang S. Mazumdar, Sangita V. Patel
      Pages: 2853 - 2858
      Abstract: Background: State Government has started a programme “Mission Balam Sukham” to combat the malnutrition with 3 tier approach including Village Child Nutrition Center (VCNC), Child Malnutrition Treatment Center (CMTC) and Nutrition Rehabilitation Center (NRC). Present study was conducted with the objectives to compare the availability of articles present at anganwadies and VCNCs and to know the experience of anganwadi workers running VCNC. Methods: Ten VCNCs from Naswadi block were selected by systemic random sampling and compared with 10 anganwadies as control group from nearby block Sankheda to check the availability of necessary articles. Ten anganwadi workers who ran the VCNCs for 1 month were interviewed about their experience of running VCNC. Results: There were not major differences in availability of articles like weight machine, MUAC tap, IMNCI (Integrated management of neonatal and childhood illnesses) chart, utensils for cooking, soap and water supply, common medicines and food articles between control anganwadies and VCNCs. Some of the articles like referral slips and thermometer were lacking at control anganwadies as well as VCNCs. Anganwadi workers (AWW) did not get enough medicines and functioning weighing scales and proper training before starting the VCNCs. Conclusions: VCNC needs to supply proper medicine stocks, functional weighing scale and other necessary articles to make the programme successful. AWWs also need the proper training to identify and treat the malnutrition at anganwadi centres. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173334
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence of ocular morbidities of children in higher primary schools in
           rural areas of Mangalore

    • Authors: Vidya R., K.G. Kiran
      Pages: 2859 - 2863
      Abstract: Background: Vision plays an important role in proper growth of a child, as poor vision can lead to reduction in the learning potential of a child. Various causes can bring about poor vision in children and proper evaluation at an early stage can help improve the quality of life. The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of ocular morbidity in school children. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 6 schools, which included Government and private schools around the field practice areas of a medical college. Eye examination was done which included testing for visual acuity, external examination and anterior segment examination with a pen torch and posterior segment examination with a direct ophthalmoscope. Statistical analysis: Data was analysed using SPSS. Results: Of the 402 children, 51.5% of the children were males and 48.5% were females. All the children were aged between 10 and 13 years. The most common eye symptom the students presented with was headache on reading for long durations (24.6%). The overall prevalence of ocular morbidity was found to be 20.4%. Refractive errors were the most common cause of ocular morbidity (14.2%). Parental history of wearing spectacles had an association with ptosis in children (p<0.026) and faulty near vision (p<0.022). Conclusions: Ocular morbidity is high in school going children. Since most of the causes of ocular morbidity are preventable or treatable, regular screening and early diagnosis and treatment can help improve the quality of life of children.  
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173335
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • The knowledge, attitude and practices regarding commonly occurring
           mosquito borne diseases among people in catering area of urban health and
           training centre

    • Authors: Ashutosh Sharma, Vinita Gupta, Ashish Khandelwal
      Pages: 2864 - 2869
      Abstract: Background: Mosquito borne diseases are major public health problems and emerging diseases in India. These are endemic in some parts of country with periodic outbreaks. South East Rajasthan is one of the region which showed such major outbreak during post monsoon period.Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in the month of September to November 2016 in field practice area of UTHC Mahaveer Nagar, Govt. Medical College, Kota. 1083 houses were selected for the study by systemic sampling and pre tested and semi structured questionnaire were filled by adult member of family. Data was analysed in Microsoft Excel 2010 & SPSS ver16.Results: Out of 966 respondents 88.4% were aware about mosquito borne diseases. Fever as chief complaint was known to 97.16%. Majority of them believe that mosquito breeds in dirty water. Television and newspaper are main source of information on mosquito borne disease. Mosquito mat/coil/liquid vaporizer is used by most of them during night time only. Most of respondents neither check cooler for mosquito larvae nor changed water in coolers within a week.Conclusions: Study recommends increasing the knowledge and application of preventive measures by massive awareness campaign before monsoon so to reduce the health care burden from mosquito borne diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173336
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Dietary patterns among students of health sciences and its association
           with morbidity in a private medical university of coastal Karnataka: a
           cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Sanjeev Badiger, Sanjay Kini, Nanjesh Kumar
      Pages: 2870 - 2874
      Abstract: Background:In general students who get into health sciences experience transition from home and family care to university and hostel life, which in turn exerts lot of stress which affects their dietary pattern. Many life style factors and poor eating habits acquired during this period can lead to serious diseases later in life.Methods:The present study was a questionnaire based cross-sectional study conducted to find out the dietary pattern among the students of health sciences and to know their health and morbidity status.Results:The study included 175 students of Nitte University with 93 Medical, 49 Dental, 33 nursing students. 75% of students who ate outside almost daily had stomach upsets regularly and it was much less (46.8%) among those who had a frequency of not more than once a week. It was seen that 87 (49.71%) students skipped breakfast, 14 (8%) students skipped lunch, 14 (8%) students skipped dinner. 5.7% of subjects were underweight, 85.2% of subjects had a normal BMI and 9.1% were overweight.Conclusions:Hereby we recommend that a nutritional health education intervention aimed at improving the dietary habits of students is the need of the hour.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173337
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Study to access the socio-demographic determinants and the reasons for
           preference of place of delivery in rural women of Paithan, Aurangabad
           (Maharashtra)

    • Authors: Bina M. Kuril, Sandeep B. Pund, Mohan K. Doibale, Rajendra T. Ankushe, Purushottam Kumar, Nafeha Siddiqui
      Pages: 2875 - 2881
      Abstract: Background: Maternal health reflects the overall effectiveness of the health system of any country. One strategy for reducing maternal mortality and morbidity is ensuring that every baby is delivered in an institution. Government of India has launched various health schemes under the umbrella of National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) to promote institutional deliveries. Thus this study was conducted to study the socio-demographic determinants of place of delivery and the reasons for preference of place of delivery by rural women.Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in the field practice area of rural health training center (RHTC), Paithan, Dist. Aurangabad during the period of 1st October 2015 to 31st March 2016. All the villages under two sub-centers of one PHC under the RHTC were selected for the study. All women above 18 years of age who delivered at least once between 1st January 2001 to 31st December 2015, were interviewed for their place of delivery and their socio-demographic profile.Results: It was observed that 564 (80.46%) women were delivered in a hospital, of which 313 (44.65%) and 251 (35.81) were delivered in private and government institutions respectively, while 137 (19.54%) respondent women were delivered at home. Education of women, occupation of women, type of Family, education of husband, occupation of husband, parity, distance of hospital from the residence and women’s age at marriage were the socio-demographic factors found to be significantly associated with place of delivery by the bivariate analysis. Reasons observed for home delivery were related to lack of knowledge about government healthcare facilities, about need for institutional delivery and inability to reach hospital on time.Conclusions: The proportion of home deliveries in 2001-15 was 13.08% as against 35.80% of government institutional deliveries and 44.65% of private institutional deliveries. Education of women, education and occupation of husband were found to be significantly associated with place of delivery by multivariate analysis.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173338
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Associated injuries in electrical burns: a 2 year retrospective study in a
           tertiary care burns unit

    • Authors: Jagdeep Rao, Mitesh Bedi, Aditya Patil, Vipin Kumar Barala
      Pages: 2882 - 2885
      Abstract: Background: Electric burns are associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. The association of multiple injuries in burn patients further complicates the management problem. The injuries require prompt diagnosis and redressal for better outcomes.Methods: We decided to undertake a study to note characteristics of associated injuries in patients with electrical burns. A retrospective review was done of all patients admitted in Burn Unit of SMS Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur over a period of 2 years, who had sustained electric burns and had sustained associated injuries.Results: A total of 770 patients were admitted with electric burns over this duration. Associated injuries were noted in 4.15% of these patients. Young, male patients were more commonly affected, with a male to female ratio of 4:1.Conclusions: The incidence of associated injuries in electrical burns is not insignificant. A low threshold for suspicion is required in managing doctors to diagnose such injuries for optimal treatment and improved outcome in patients with electrical burns. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173339
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence of cigarette smoking among adolescent boys of Srinagar: a
           school based cross sectional Survey

    • Authors: Hina Bashir, Muhammad Salim Khan, Irfan Nazir Mir, Ruqia Qaunsar, Mohsina Mukhtar
      Pages: 2886 - 2890
      Abstract: Background: Tobacco use is one biggest health hazards in the world posing various physical and psychosocial risks. At a moment the spread of tobacco use is growing at fast rate in the adolescents, who are the future of the country. However, little information is known about the magnitude of tobacco use in adolescents. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of cigarette smoking among adolescents of Srinagar city.Methods: This school based cross sectional study was conducted from June 2015 to March 2017 in 20 high schools selected randomly from public and private sectors. Students (boys only) [n=1200] from grade 9-12, in the age limit of 13-19 were included in the study. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire that is adapted from global youth tobacco survey questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate analysis were made using logistic regression on SPSS version 20.0 software in order to predict factors associated with tobacco use. Results: The prevalence of cigarette smoking among adolescent boys was found to be 29% ever smokers, and 23% current smokers. In addition, more than half [60.8%] of adolescents were exposed to tobacco smoke from others in public places. In the multivariate analysis parent smoking, peer smoking, exposure to movie with actors smoking, not being exposed to anti-smoking media messages, not discussing in the class about danger of smoking, were significantly associated with current cigarette smoking among adolescents. Conclusions: The prevalence rate is increasing in its spread, exposure to environmental tobacco exposure is widespread. Moreover adolescents should be enriched with the knowledge on the dangers of tobacco use. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173340
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Knowledge and practices of pregnant women regarding the iron
           supplementation during pregnancy

    • Authors: Venkatramana K. Sonkar, Nazia M. Khan, Vijay K. Domple, Ismail F. Inamdar
      Pages: 2891 - 2894
      Abstract: Background: Anaemia in pregnancy has detrimental effects on maternal and child health. WHO says prevalence of anaemia during pregnancy is alarmingly high. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, and practices of pregnant women regarding iron supplements and also to assess the reasons for non -consumption of FSFA tablets.The objectives were to study the knowledge, and practices of pregnant women regarding iron supplementation during pregnancy and to study the reasons for non-consumption of FSFA tablets. Methods: The study was carried out on 350 pregnant women routinely attending the antenatal clinic in a rural training health centre over a period of 3 months from July 2015 to September 2015. Their knowledge and practices regarding iron supplementation were studied. Results: Assessment of knowledge revealed that only 140 (40%) of the participants were aware of significance of consumption of FSFA tablets. Out of 350 only 221 (63.14%) pregnant women consumed the FSFA tablets. Out of 221 only 123 (55.65%) were consuming it correctly. Reasons for not consuming FSFA were forgetfulness in 48 (37.20%), side effects in 35 (27.13%), frustration with daily dose 23 (17.82%), ignorance 21 (16.27%), foul smell to tablets 20 (15.50%), misbelieves 7 (5.42%) and no response was given in 26 (20.15%). Conclusions: The present study indicated the lack of knowledge regarding anaemia, iron rich foods and the importance of iron supplementation during pregnancy Educating antenatal women about importance of consumption of FSFA tablets and implementing this into practice will help for prevention of anaemia. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173341
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Clinico demographic profile of newly diagnosed HIV sero positive patients
           attending an ART centre: a cross sectional study

    • Authors: Misha Gorantla, Nagaraj Kondagunta
      Pages: 2895 - 2900
      Abstract: Background: India faces a high burden of HIV. An understanding of the determinants of this disease is of vital importance in curtailing this epidemic. The objective was to study the clinico-demographic profile of the study subject.Methods: This is a cross sectional study done on 142 patients which includes all newly diagnosed (diagnosed on or after 1st January 2012), sero positive, adult patients, enrolled at ART centre, Nalgonda and started on treatment during the months of December 2012, January 2013, February 2013. A pre designed, pre tested questionnaire was used. Data regarding their demographic characteristics and various clinical aspects was obtained. Results: Out of a total of 142 study subjects, majority (78.88%) belonged to economically productive age group (16-45 years). Married individuals constituted a majority (79.57%). A majority of the subjects were skilled laborers, belonged to lower middle class of BG Prasad classification, hailed from rural areas and belonged to nuclear families. Very few had high educational attainment. A majority (95.78%) reported not using condoms during their last sexual act and 9.16% subjects reported being previously diagnosed with an STD. Most common presenting complaint was fever and most common opportunistic infections were candidiasis and tuberculosis. Majority were found to belong to stage 1 HIV. Participants were mostly underweight and had severe anaemia. Majority had CD4 count between 201- 350 cells/mm3. Conclusions: Interventions targeting improvement in socio economic status, education levels, nutritional status as well as awareness about condom use must be built into the national HIV programme. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173342
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Pattern of common skin conditions among school children in an urban area
           of a district in coastal Karnataka: a cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Shameena A. U., Sanjeev Badiger, Nanjesh Kumar S.
      Pages: 2901 - 2904
      Abstract: Background: Overcrowding, Poor personal hygiene and Lower economic status are proved to be major causes of common skin conditions. School children are more prone for these infections and majority of them are preventable. The objective of the study was to assess the pattern of common skin conditions among school children in Urban South India.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 615 children from three primary schools coming under the community health centre, Mulky. Data was collected using a pretested semi structured questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and skin conditions were identified by examination.Results: Out of the 615 children, 389 (63%) had infective skin conditions. Most of them belonged to Hindu religion (57.4%) followed by Muslim (32.7%) and Christian (9.4%). Skin infections were equal among both sexes. Among the skin infections, nearly 26.1% had fungal infections, 18.7% had bacterial infections, 13.1% had parasitic infections and 5.4% had viral infections.Conclusions: Prevalence of skin infections is high in our study and there is a need to emphasize more on improving school health programmes and health education to teachers, parents and children.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173343
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Association between socio-demographic characteristics and preventable
           lifestyle related risk factors of non-communicable diseases among
           adolescents: a school based study in Berhampur, Odisha

    • Authors: Nivedita Karmee, Sushree Priyadarsini Satapathy, Radha Madhab Tripathy
      Pages: 2905 - 2911
      Abstract: Background: Currently, the health scenario is riddled with the burden of non-communicable diseases. Life style related risk factors established during adolescents may extend into adulthood and may increase risk for non-communicable diseases. So this study was undertaken to ascertain the association of life style related risk factors for Non communicable diseases and socio demographic characteristics among adolescents.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Berhampur, Odisha. A total of 400 school children were included in the study. Data was collected by pre-tested, structured, close-ended, self-administered questionnaires. Data was entered and analysed using SPSS V.17.Descriptive statistics, chi square test and logistic regression analysis test were applied.Results: Out of 400 students included in the study, 69.5% were males. The mean age of the study subject was 15.77 with S.D 2.81. On multiple regression analysis, it was found that male respondents parents job had strong association with unhealthy dietary practices and educational status of respondents had strongest association with passive smoking and addictions habits.Conclusions: The present study showed a poor practice of healthy lifestyle with a high burden of lifestyle‑related risk factors of NCDs among students. Therefore, the schools should emphasize on including topics related to leading of a healthy life style in the curriculum. Frequent campaigns and educational seminars can be conducted for the adoption of healthy lifestyle.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173344
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Knowledge and attitude of men towards sex determination and PCPNDT act in
           the field practice area of a medical college in coastal Karnataka

    • Authors: Gunjan Mahaur, Sanjeev Badiger, Shruthi M. Shetty
      Pages: 2912 - 2918
      Abstract: Background: Usage of modern sophisticated diagnostic techniques for sex determination and preconception sex selection has been attributed to sex selective abortions and thus, may be a major contributor in decline of sex ratio.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst married male patients attending OPDs of Rural Health Centres of K S Hegde Medical Academy over a period of 3 months (July 2016–September 2016) using a semi-structured and validated questionnaire which contained information on demographic characteristics, knowledge and attitude of married men towards sex determination and PCPNDT act. Sample size: 200. Data was analysed using SPSS 21.Results: Among 200 married men, about 62% of the illiterate knew about sex determination, whereas awareness among college passed out and graduates were 95% and 85% respectively. Awareness about PCPNDT act was 42% in graduates whereas none of the illiterates were aware and 60% of the subject thought sex determination should be punishable. 45% of them did not have any gender preference.Conclusions: This study shows that the knowledge and attitude of participants was better with a higher educational status. Thus, the illiterate part of society needs more awareness about the sex determination and PCPNDT act.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173345
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Pre lacteal feeding practice among mothers in a rural area of Karnataka: a
           cross sectional study

    • Authors: Srividya Jayarama, Radha Ramaiah
      Pages: 2919 - 2923
      Abstract: Background: In many countries across the world, the practice of giving new born babies other substances (pre lacteal feeding) even before lactation is a common cultural practice. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of pre lacteal feeding practice among mothers and to identify the factors leading to pre lacteal feeding.Methods: A community based, cross sectional study was conducted among 206 mothers of infants and children younger than 24 months, residing in a rural area of Karnataka. Data regarding pre lacteal feeding practice, type of pre lacteal feed given, reasons for giving pre lacteal feed was collected using a predesigned questionnaire prepared in local language. Institutional ethical committee approval, informed consent from the study participants was taken and anonymity, confidentiality was ensured.Results: Out of 206 study participants, 66 (32.03%) had given pre lacteal feeds to their newborn, while 140 (67.97%) had not given pre lacteal feeds to their newborn. Pre lacteal feeding practice was more among mothers who were illiterates, who belonged to lower socio economic status. This difference in prevalence of pre lacteal feeding practice was found to be statistically significant. Honey, sugar water, religious water, coconut water, jaggery are the different types of pre lacteal feeds given. Customs, insisted by relatives, development of speech, helps in digestion, cleanses digestive system were the reported reasons for giving pre lacteal feeds.Conclusions: Socio demographic factors like education, socio economic status influence pre lacteal feeding practice. Through IEC (Information, education communication) activities awareness regarding ill effects of pre lacteal feeding practice should be created among mothers. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173346
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Perception of medical undergraduate students about teaching learning
           methods and assessment tools used in a medical college in India

    • Authors: Arun Singh, Rashmi Katyal, Shalini Chandra, Hari S. Joshi, Kashmir Singh
      Pages: 2924 - 2929
      Abstract: Background: New teaching-learning methods and assessment tools can be used to enhance the learning among the medical students. But their views are important for the faculty members who are holding the decision making posts.Methods: The duration of teaching session was 2 hours 5 minutes using six teaching-learning methods. Out of total 119 students the perception and level of awareness of 96 students were recorded about the six teaching-learning methods and five assessment tools in the pre and post-tests. Descriptive analysis was done. The students paired “t” and ANOVA were used for statistical analysis and “p” value <0.05 was taken as statistically significant.Results: Vertical integration was strongly agreed upon as the best method and among the three traditional teaching methods the case demonstration was the most liked method of teaching by the students and. Among the interactive teaching methods, the case based learning was the most liked method by the students. Out of total five assessment tools the MCQs was the most liked. Similarly, OSCE and DOPS were considered to be better assessment tools as compared to others (P-value significant being <0.05).Conclusions: Vertical integration will be more helpful in real professional life scenario than in passing the exams which should be incorporated in medical curriculum.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173347
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Knowledge, attitude and practice of bio-medical waste management among
           private practitioners in Poonamallee taluk, Chennai

    • Authors: Ruma Dutta, Prashanth R., Gomathy Parasuraman, Timsi Jain, Dinesh Raja, Lawrence Dcruze
      Pages: 2930 - 2933
      Abstract: Background: Inadequate and inappropriate knowledge regarding disposal of Bio-Medical Waste may have serious health consequences to those who handle it as well as can have a deleterious impact on the environment. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices about the various aspects of bio-medical waste (BMW) management among private practitioners of Poonamallee taluk, ChennaiMethods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices about the various aspects of Bio-Medical Waste (BMW) management among private practitioners of Poonamallee taluk, Chennai. The sample size was calculated as 171. Data was collected using a structured interview schedule among all private practitioners including dentists. Data was entered and analyzed by using IBM SPSS software Version 21. Results: 78.3% private practitioners were found to have adequate knowledge about the biomedical waste management rules. 76% private practitioners had knowledge regarding segregation of waste at source. 56.7% of practitioners segregated the BMW into different categories at source level and disposed in specified color coded containers. Conclusions: The importance of training regarding biomedical waste management needs emphasis; lack of proper and complete knowledge about biomedical waste management impacts practices of appropriate waste disposal. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173168
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Study of knowledge and attitudes to first aid among school children of
           Doiwalablock, Dehradun

    • Authors: Jayanti Semwal, Ravleen Kaur Bakshi, Ruchi Juyal, Deepshikha ., Shaili Vyas, SD Kandpal
      Pages: 2934 - 2938
      Abstract: Background: First-aid (FA) is the providing of initial care for an illness or injury, by a non-expert but trained person, till medical treatment can be accessed. Aim of the study is to impart knowledge in first aid among students to build a safe and healthier community. The objectives of the study were to assess the basic knowledge and understanding of it among the school children, to find out their attitude and to provide appropriate education regarding first aid.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected public school of Doiwala, Dehradun among all the school children of classes 9th to 12th. A pretested oral questionnaire was used to assess their knowledge and attitude about first aid. Knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) about the first aid for common medical emergencies were assessed. Following which, education and training regarding first aid was provided to them. The data were presented as frequencies and percentages. Chi squared test was used as tests of significance.Results: Out of 441 students, majority (91%) had heard about the first aid of which the proportion of boys and girls were almost similar i.e. 92: 92.2. Only 17% of students complete knowledge of first aid and 33.3% of students had partial knowledge. On an average complete knowledge and partial knowledge was present only in 0.04 and 0.06 respectively.Conclusions:Students have revealed that first aid study is in the curriculum of the course but it seems from the study that practically no stress is being given in imparting knowledge regarding first aid in these schools. To conclude all students had shown their keen interest and positive attitude towards getting knowledge about first aid.  
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173348
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence and pattern of ocular morbidity and factors influencing ocular
           morbidity in a rural population in south India: a community based cross
           sectional study

    • Authors: Venkataramana ., Amarnath R. L. C.
      Pages: 2939 - 2945
      Abstract: Background: Preventable blindness is still one of the major public health problems in India. The scarcity of community-based studies on ocular morbidity, more especially from rural areas is one of the reasons for the inadequate focus on the subject. The objectives were to study the pattern and factors associated with ocular morbidity in a rural adult population.Methods: The study was a cross sectional study conducted in field practice area of rural health Center, Cheluvanatti village in the state of Karnataka. Among 16 villages, one village was selected by convenient sampling. Ocular morbidity was assessed by detailed history and clinical examination by trained clinicians.Results: Among total 1181 population, 872 people >18 years were included in the final analysis. Majority portion (72.9%) of the study population was in 18-45 years age group. There were 51.3% of males and the proportion of females was 48.7%. The prevalence of ocular morbidity was 13.9% (95% CI 12.0%-16.0%) in the study population. The most common ocular morbidity was refractive errors seen in 56(6.4%), followed by cataract seen in 35 (4%) and corneal blindness seen in 26 (3%) subjects. The presence of ocular morbidity was 4.49 times more in 46-60 years age group compared with 18 to 45 years age group (95% CI 2.76 -7.33, p<0.01). Compared with higher studies people the presence of ocular morbidity in illiterate was 35.32 times more (95% CI 16.61-75.12, p<0.01). The presence of ocular morbidity was 20.64 times more in diabetic patients (95% CI 8.95-47.61, p<0.01) comparing with non-diabetic patients.Conclusions: The prevalence of ocular morbidity is still more in aged people and the village people are getting more effect with their practices and behavior. There is a need to go with more community-based cross sectional studies and also the preventive methods to reduce and avoid the risk of ocular diseases. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173349
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Magnitude of exposure and perception of second hand smoking among rural
           population in Trichy, Tamil Nadu

    • Authors: Hemalatha K., Varunkumar R., Vandana S. J.
      Pages: 2946 - 2950
      Abstract: Background: India is one of the countries where tobacco use is highly prevalent. Tobacco use in the form of smoking is related to occurrence of multiple health related problems in smokers and also general population.Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted among 360 adults residing in a rural area of Tiruchirappalli. Cluster sampling was used to select the study participants. A pretested semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on tobacco use, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), knowledge on its health effects and protection measures. Data was entered and analyzed using Epi info 7.2. The results were presented in the form of mean and percentage. Chi-square was used to find the association between the parameters and ETS. A p value of less than 0.05 was taken as significant.Results: Mean age of the study group was 38.5±10.8 years. Proportion of males and females was 53.9% and 46.1% respectively. Two hundred and fifty five (70.8%) were non-smokers and 29.2% have ever smoked some form of tobacco product. Thirty seven percent of the non-smokers were exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke in the past 15 days and exposure was higher among males (46.7%) than females (31.3%) (χ2 value=6.3; p=0.014). Public place was the most common place of exposure (25.5%) to ETS. Significantly higher proportion of smokers had correct knowledge on ill effects of ETS than smokers (χ2 value=12.3; p= 0.0004).Conclusions: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was significantly high in the study population. Either strict enforcement of laws or banning cigarette sale completely would help reducing the exposure to cigarette smoke which is an important risk factor for multiple non communicable diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173350
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Strategic approach selection for public health through evidenced
           analytical tools

    • Authors: Raghvendra Gumashta
      Pages: 2951 - 2955
      Abstract: Background: The multi-dimensional perspectives of evidence based public health strategic approaches necessitates use of efficient analytical tools towards decision making for project and programmatic interventions on a larger framework of policy, behavior and resource utilization.Methods: Respondent driven sampling (RDS) was obtained through discussion, interview and participation in the status assessment questionnaire devised for the study.Results: Lack of new initiatives supported by non-dissemination of findings of research (75%), difficult logistics management (67.39%), unaddressed training needs (46.67%), lessons learnt remaining untransformed into actionable inputs (82.60%) and less emphasis on monitoring cum evaluation (44.56%) is observed respectively while assessing quality adherence, program design, vision statement and choices of public health approaches.Conclusions: ‘Comprehensive Management and Monitoring Approach’ is found to be the best public health approach for project design, formulation, plan extension, implementation, monitoring, evaluation and revision thereby necessitating targeted interventions through well managed technical cum financial inputs. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173351
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Identify determinant of contraceptive use in rural set up of Surat
           district, Gujarat

    • Authors: Rajendra Solanki, Hiteshri C. Patel, J. K. Kosambiya
      Pages: 2956 - 2959
      Abstract: Background: In spite of significant growth and expansion of family planning programme, pregnancy continues to be unplanned. This study has been conducted to identify determinant responsible for use of contraception. The aim of the study was to determine the factors affecting the use of the contraceptives. The objectives were to study Socio – demographic, fertility profile of eligible couples and its relation to use of contraceptionMethods: This is a cross sectional study conducted during period of 20th September 2014 to 15th January 2015. Three PHCs were selected purposively from Olpad taluka of the Surat District. Two Sub Centers were selected randomly from each PHC. Data regarding eligible couples were collected from Sub Center register. From each Sub Center, 47 eligible women were selected randomly. Total sample size was 280 (CPR: 60%, DLHS-3).Results: Mean age of study participants were 29.14±6.7 years. Out of total women, 18.6% women were married before attaining the age of 18 years. More than 50% women were 20-24 years of age group at the time of birth of first child where as 25.4% women gave birth to first child before the age of 20 years. There was significant association between use of Contraceptive methods with factors like age of women, caste, religion, education of women, education of husband and number of children (p<0.05). At the time of sterilization, number of children and gender of last child plaed a significant role.Conclusions: Women should be empowered with education regarding use of contraception. Child marriage act should be strictly followed.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173352
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Glaucoma: a new approach for detection in rural eye care

    • Authors: Mahesh B. Mawale, Abhaykumar Kuthe, Ravishekhar Dhakate, Padma Pawane, Sandeep W. Dahake
      Pages: 2960 - 2966
      Abstract: Background:There is a dare need of a device for the measurement of intraocular pressure by making the contact of plunger with closed eyelid eliminating the need of anesthesia and expert ophthalmologist. The main purpose of this study is to develop a device for the indicative measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) of eyeball, a key cause for glaucoma.Methods:TRIZ ‘The theory of solving inventor’s problem’ is an era of technical development and innovation. Developing a device for detecting glaucoma by using TRIZ and top ten innovative principles recommended by expanded TRIZ matrix can exceed the disadvantages that classic tonometer has. The field of Ophthalmology will be experiencing a paradigm shift towards the use of collaborative approach of classical and expanded TRIZ.Results:In early diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma accurate measurement of IOP is important. The methods and devices which are available for the measurement of IOP have their own limitations which cause discomfort to the patients during measurement and needs anesthesia. This approach shows a good result in development of a device for detecting glaucoma in patient’s eye through eyelid instead of cornea.Conclusions:There is a substantial need for early detection and diagnosis of glaucoma in rural and remote areas (worldwide). This study has demonstrated the development of new device for detection of glaucoma using TRIZ, will help the medical practitioners in rural and remote areas for detection of glaucoma. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173353
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Awareness and screening behaviors of breast cancer among urban women in
           Mysuru, India- need for breast health education program

    • Authors: Madhu B., Puja Shankar
      Pages: 2967 - 2972
      Abstract: Background:Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among Indian women. By recommending them to participate in screening programs, early detection can be possible. The objectives of the study were to determine awareness of ‘breast cancer and breast cancer-screening procedures’ among urban women of Mysore; to determine the extent to which ‘breast cancer screening procedures’ are practiced; to determine the factors associated with better screening practices.Methods:Cross sectional study was conducted (August 15th-September 15th, 2011) in Mysore. Study group comprised of 100 professional women, without history of breast cancer.Results:Ninety nine percent of women were aware of breast cancer. Sixty three percent of women were aware of breast self-examination. Sixty six percent had practiced BSE once; only 18 percent of them were aware of ideal positions.Conclusions:It was found that low levels of practice directly associated with the lack of knowledge regarding breast cancer and thus emphasizing the need for a community based breast health education (BHE) program for women. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173354
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Assessment of basic infrastructure in anganwadi centres under integrated
           child development services scheme in district Amritsar of Punjab

    • Authors: Kanwal Preet K. Gill, Priyanka Devgun, S. L. Mahajan, Harpreet Kaur, Amanpreet Kaur
      Pages: 2973 - 2976
      Abstract: Background:In India, Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme was launched on 2nd October, 1975. The aim was to provide pre-school non-formal education on one hand and breaking the vicious cycle of malnutrition, morbidity and mortality among mothers and children on the other hand. An anganwadi is the focal point for the delivery of services to the community. Hence, the current study was planned to assess the basic infrastructure in AWCs of Punjab.Methods:A total of 400 anganwadi workers (AWWs), 200 each from rural and urban areas were randomly selected for the study. A pre-designed, pre-tested proforma was administered to selected AWWs. The purpose of the study was explained to them. The data was compiled and analysed by using SPSS 20.0 version.Results:It was observed that out of 400 anganwadis, only 24% of anganwadis had their own allotted building. Only 42% anganwadis had functional Salter weighing machine with them. Weighing machine for adults and children in working condition was available in only 38.2% anganwadis. Nearly half of the anganwadis (50.8%) do not have electricity connection. Water supply was found to be available in 53% anganwadis only. 77.5% anganwadis got regular supply of ration. But utensils for distributing ration were present with only 65.2% anganwadis and 69.3% anganwadis had helper to assist anganwadi worker.Conclusions:Adequate infrastructure along with regular supply of ration need to be ensured for proper functioning of anganwadis. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173355
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Awareness about emergency contraception among medical students in a Tamil
           Nadu private medical college: a cross sectional study

    • Authors: Kamal Kishore Verma, Rajeev K. H.
      Pages: 2977 - 2980
      Abstract: Background: The methods of contraception that can be used to prevent pregnancy in the first five days after sexual intercourse are termed as emergency contraception (EC). Unwanted pregnancy among adolescents and youth poses a major challenge to the reproductive health in developing countries because of illegal and unsafe abortions and leading to maternal death. Since medical students are future health care providers and their correct awareness about EC will help in giving health education to the community. The objective of the study was to assess the awareness about emergency contraception among first year medical students in a private medical college of Tamil Nadu.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among first year medical students of a private medical college. A total of 122 students were interviewed using pretested, semi-structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data.Results: Among the study population, 56.6% and 43.4% were males and females respectively. All students heard about EC and 73% were correctly aware about the correct timing of administration of EC. 72% of them felt that they can get EC directly from any pharmacy store without any prescription, 89% of them feel that EC is not an effective routine method of contraception and only 10% said that it will result in more women suffering from STI/HIV.Conclusions: Our study showed that, students were having good knowledge about emergency contraception. Since they are future health care providers giving adequate training to them in acquiring good knowledge will help in dispensing the reproductive health education to the community especially for the adolescents and youth.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173356
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Knowledge, attitude and practice study on immediate postpartum
           intrauterine contraceptive device method of family planning

    • Authors: Nidhi Gupta, Renuka Sinha, Abha Mangal
      Pages: 2981 - 2984
      Abstract: Background: The objectives of the study were to assess knowledge, attitude and practice in post-partum intrauterine contraceptive device method of family planning and to know about willingness for post-partum intrauterine contraceptive device (PPIUCD) when knowledge is provided for the same.Methods: This is a cross sectional observational study including 1200 patients of immediate post-partum period (<48 hrs of delivery), delivered at Safdarjung hospital. Women were evaluated with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire.Results: Out of 1200 women 864 (72%) were aware of some family planning method but only 672 (56%) had used some family planning method in the past. 108 (9%) women had knowledge regarding Post-partum intrauterine contraceptive device (PPIUCD). Among these, 72 (6%) women opted for PPIUCD. After knowledge regarding PPIUCD had been given, 80 more women adopted this as a method of contraception. So total 152 (12.67%) opted PPIUCD.Conclusions: This study highlights that awareness and knowledge does not always lead to use of contraceptives. A lot of educational and motivational activities are needed.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173357
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • A study among women attending Suraksha clinic in a tertiary care hospital:
           

    • Authors: Aman Dev Singh, Rajinder Singh Balgir, Simmi Oberoi, Ira Jain, Ankur Jain
      Pages: 2985 - 2988
      Abstract: Background: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) represent a vast reservoir of infections among women of reproductive age group observed more often in developing countries.Besides being a major public health problem RTIs and STDs are responsible for infections in post abortion & puerperal period, fetal and perinatal deaths, infertility and cervical cancer. These are a reason for emotional distress in women and a reason for their social rejection.Despite the ability to cure these infections, they continue to be a major public health problem worldwide especially in developing countries.Hence, a hospital based study was done amongst women of reproductive age group reporting to Rajindra Hospital Patiala with RTI, in terms of their socio-demographic profile, myths and misconceptions related to RTIs.Methods: This study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the socio-demographic profile, myths and misconceptions related to RTIs among reproductive age group women in Suraksha Clinic, Gynae OPD in Rajindra Hospital, Patiala from January 2014 to December 2014. A pretested structured Performa was used to collect data from 500 women with RTIs in 15-45 age group. Data was collected, compiled and analyzed statistically.Results: Out of 500 diagnosed patients of RTIs, only 120 (i.e. 24%) had various myths and misconceptions about reproductive tract infections and among them 40% had believe that vaginal discharge was normal phenomena. Majority of RTI patient 12% had bad physical hygiene. However 49.20% among them had poor menstrual hygiene.Conclusions: The influence of socio-demographic factors like age, educational status, socioeconomic status, menstrual hygiene also has its direct effect on occurrence of RTI in community.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173358
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • A comparative study to assess knowledge, health beliefs and preventive
           practices among women with cervical cancer and general population at
           tertiary care hospital, New Delhi

    • Authors: Navreet Kaur Saini, Kamlesh Kumari Sharma, Shashi Mawar, Lalit Kumar, Sunesh Kumar
      Pages: 2989 - 2994
      Abstract: Background: Awareness regarding cervical cancer, its risk factors and preventive practices is very low among Indian women. The objectives of the study was to compare knowledge, health beliefs and preventive practices regarding cervical cancer among women with cervical cancer and general population at tertiary care hospital, New Delhi; to study the correlation among knowledge, health beliefs and preventive practices of women with cervical cancer and general population and their selected demographic variables.Methods: A comparative study was conducted using descriptive, cross sectional survey among conveniently sampled 100 women with cervical cancer (cases) taking treatment from cancer department of tertiary care hospital and 100 women relatives of patients with non-malignant diseases admitted in different medical, surgical, pediatrics wards of tertiary care hospital (controls). Self-developed, pretested, structured questionnaires validated by experts were used for data collection.Results: Majority of subjects had poor knowledge (78% cases and 90% controls) and positive health beliefs (83% cases and 67% controls). Majority of cases (93%) had fair preventive practices while most of controls (62%) had poor preventive practices regarding cervical cancer. There was positive correlation of knowledge with health beliefs (p=0.0001) and health beliefs with preventive practices (p=0.0469) among controls; but in cases none of these correlations were found.Conclusions: Substantial gaps in knowledge and preventive practices regarding cervical cancer were present in both groups. So there is a need to raise public awareness regarding risk factors and prevention of cervical cancer by modifying the risk factors.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173359
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Menstrual problems among adolescent girls in Thiruvananthapuram district

    • Authors: Nazeema Beevi P., Manju L., Anil Bindhu S, Jeesha C. Haran, Regi Jose
      Pages: 2995 - 2998
      Abstract: Background: Adolescence is a transitional stage extending from 10-19 years characterized by rapid physical, mental and sexual changes. It is also characterized by hormonal changes. As girls attain puberty at this age, they have various problems associated with menstruation. Menstruation is a natural phenomenon and an important indicator of women's health reflecting their reproductive function. However data on experiences of menstruation and it's impact on the health status, quality of life and social integration among women in developing countries is scanty. 75% of girls have one or more problems associated with menstruation.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of menstrual problems among school going students in the age group of 12-17 years. 510 adolescent girls of randomly selected government schools in Thiruvananthapuram district were studied by a pretested semi structured questionnaire.Results: Mean age of menarche is 12.2. Out of 510 students 352 have normal menstrual cycles (50.1%). 10% have scanty menstruation, 31% have menorrhagia. Majority of girls (84.8%) has one or other menstrual problems. 33% of girls suffer from dysmenorrhea. Among 510 participants 31.6% reported that menstrual problems affects their daily life activities. 14.7% could not attend the class and 12.8% attend the class without taking medication but not participating in any outdoor activities.Conclusions: Menstrual problems are present in majority of girls in the study group which has some effect on the academic performance and other extracurricular activities in school. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173360
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Facebook addiction and depression in adults [19 years-64 years]

    • Authors: Prasan Norman, Karthikeyan Elavarasan, Thirunaaukarasu Dhandapani
      Pages: 2999 - 3004
      Abstract: Background: Face book, one of the most popular social networking sites, has been a popular time pass activity site. Most of the users log in at least once daily. Some even keep their Facebook accounts online over their mobile phones/android devices throughout the day. Most studies take into account the association of social networking sites and depression in adolescents or school students/college students etc. Hence this study was conducted in adults aged 19years to 64 years.Methods: A study was conducted to determine Facebook addiction and depression in those users aged 19 years to 64 years in India from April 1st 2016 to April 1st 2017. The participants were interviewed through an online questionnaire.Results: This study was conducted among four hundred and sixty nine adults of age nineteen years to sixty four years of which Two hundred and fifty three were males and two hundred and sixteen were females. 64% of the participants were addicted to Facebook. 40.66% (122) had signs of depression.Conclusions: Simple measures like spending time with friends and loved ones, going out for a ride, attending social gatherings, doing activities that release endorphins and decreasing the time spent on social networking sites could help prevent Facebook addiction and depression.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173361
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • To assess the effect of intervention package in type 2 diabetes self-care
           practices, an experimental epidemiological study

    • Authors: Kedar J. Raikar, Gajanan D. Velhal, Anubha Shukla
      Pages: 3005 - 3012
      Abstract: Background: Keeping into mind the importance of diabetic self-care practices for control of diabetes burden and preventable complications, the present study was carried out to introduce appropriate health intervention package which upon operationalization leads to improvement in self-care practices and to assess effect of intervention packages with help of predetermined indicators. The objectives were to study of life style adaptations and self-care practices and to study effects of intervention package.Methods: The present study adapted as an experimental epidemiological study, community based with before and after intervention comparison design. Sample size estimated as 203. Total 250 patients were selected by simple random sampling method and grouped into 8 batches. Intervention package which includes health education, patient counseling, periodic check-up, advise for referral. All batches were followed up with operationalization of intervention package for 12 months. Post intervention data then collected and analyzed with pre intervention data.Results: Effectiveness of intervention package in glycemic control (p<0.046) and decreased calories intake in diabetic patients (p<0.01). Major changes in self-care practices have effect on better glycemic control and calorie intake (p<0.03). Both lifestyle adaptations and self-care practices improved significantly (p<0.01) after intervention.Conclusions: Health and nutritional education, personal counselling, periodic health check-up, Referral advice are important as an intervention package to bring about blood glucose level control, modify diet and lifestyle and to improve self-care practices amongst the diabetic patients. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173362
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Knowledge, attitude and practice on dengue fever and its prevention and
           control measures in urban slums of South India

    • Authors: Khadervali Nagoor, Surendra Babu D., Bayapa Reddy N., Shakeer Kahn, Reddy Jawaharbasha Kalluri, K. R. John
      Pages: 3013 - 3017
      Abstract: Background: Dengue fever (DF) is a viral infection carried by Aedesaegypti. Dengue is one of the major public health concerns and an emergent disease and contributes annual outbreaks in India. The aims and objectives of the study were to know the levels of knowledge regarding causation and modes of transmission Dengue fever in urban slums of Chittoor and to know the levels of awareness and practices regarding the prevention and control measures against dengue fever.Methods: A community based cross sectional study was done in urban slums of Chittoor district in Andhra Pradesh. The data from the family members residing in 100 households of urban slums were randomly selected from the list and interviewed individually. Apart from education and occupation of the participants, information on knowledge about Dengue fever, preventive practices are taken. The results were shown in proportions, percentage and association of the knowledge attitude and practices with the different factors.Results: Over all 100 (males 57 and females 43) people were interviewed with the mean age of 34.5 years. Almost 68% of the individuals knew mosquito causes vector borne diseases irrespective of their educational status and majority of them were daily wagers. Amongst them more than 70% of them were using protective measures. Majority of them responded the probable breeding sites were plastic pots, muddy pots and vessels (38%). The most commonly using protective measures were mosquito repellants (33%) and coils (19%). More than 90% of the individual visit the hospital for health seeking.Conclusions: The awareness regarding dengue and mosquito control measures was satisfactory to an extent. Surveillance along with periodic health education to the community and proper training of health personnel is required.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173363
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Profile of HIV positive clients: an ICTC record based retrospective study

    • Authors: Rekha Dutt, Susmita Chaudhuri, Shweta Goswami
      Pages: 3018 - 3021
      Abstract: Background: Deaths in productive age group due to HIV/AIDS have damaging impact on families and communities, skills are lost, workforce shrinks & children's are orphaned. Our study reports the socio-demographic characteristics of HIV/ AIDS clients from one of the Integrated Counselling & Testing Centre (ICTC) situated at Amtala, West Bengal. This will give us an insight on the distribution of various epidemiological characteristics of the HIV positive clients in this region thus help in formulating strategies for effective implementation of its prevention. The objective was to study socio-demographic profile and risk behavior pattern of HIV positive clients attending ICTC.Methods: It was an observational study cross sectional in design. Records of last eight years of HIV positive clients were accessed from ICTC centre at Amtala hospital, rural training centre, Department of community medicine, ESI PGIMSR medical college, Joka, Kolkata. Data was entered in SPSS for Windows version 20 software. Data was presented in percentages, mean with standard deviation etc.Results: Retrospective record of 62 HIV positive clients was studied, of them 37 were males (5 pediatric cases) and 25 females (7 ANC).Excluding pediatric clients, mean age of clients was 32 years. It was observed that majority of clients were illiterate and were on daily wages. Except one male client who was homosexual rest were heterosexual. Majority of clients 71.9% males and 92% females were married, of them 45.3% males and 34.7% females were sero concordant with their spouse. Seventeen subjects were co infected with TB.Conclusions: HIV sero prevalence rate has inverse relation with literacy level. Majority of male clients were daily wagers who act as link between high risk populations to general population i.e. their spouse, which in turn can pass on the infection to her baby. Lack of knowledge on mode of spread and preventive measures against HIV infection devastate the families making many children orphaned. There is need to carry out intense IEC activities for behavior change at grass root level. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173364
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence and determinants of caesarean section in a rural community of
           Nalgonda District, Telangana

    • Authors: Jahnavi Karna, Varun M. Malhotra
      Pages: 3022 - 3025
      Abstract: Background: The rapid increase of caesarean section rates globally is a public health concern because rates higher than those recommended by WHO do not contribute to improved maternal health and pregnancy outcome. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of caesarean section, establish relationship of relevant variables with caesarean section, and identify temporal trends of c-sec rates in rural populace of Nalgonda. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional analytic study was undertaken in rural field practice area of Kamineni Institute of Medical Sciences. Data were collected on structured questionnaire from selected and consenting women in reproductive age group who had delivered since 01 January 2000. Results: Our study included 224 study subjects who have undergone 389 deliveries. Of these 54% were by caesarean section and 46% were normal deliveries. Age of mother, type of family, educational status of mother, height of mother and place of delivery were identified as relevant variables. Their association with C-sec rates and time trend of c-sec rates are presented. Conclusions: Multi centre, large-sampled and ‘in depth’ studies are needed to analyze the problem of very high caesarean section rates. These would provide qualitative and quantitative data to plan strategies to reduce the prevalence of a surgical procedure that if carried out on ‘non-medical grounds’ has the potential to cause obstetrical and neonatal complications, and significant economical and health-planning implications. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173365
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Knowledge, attitude and practice study on cardiopulmonary resuscitation
           among medical and nursing interns

    • Authors: Harshal Gajanan Mendhe, Lavanya Burra, Daneshwar Singh, Hanumanth Narni
      Pages: 3026 - 3030
      Abstract: Background: Cardiac arrest is a substantial public health problem estimated to account for 15–20% of all death. It is documented that a timely performed cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can largely prevent sudden death. Being important members of the health care delivery team, medical professionals and nursing staff are deemed to pass the basic skills and expertise which are needed to perform CPR. The principle objectives of the research project are to assess knowledge and attitude of CPR and to compare knowledge regarding CPR among medical and nursing students.Methods: It was a cross sectional study for duration of 2 month from March 2013 to April 2013, conducted among 100 nursing and medical interns of a tertiary care institute in Vijayawada (A.P). Pre tested structured questionnaire of 2010 American health association guidelines for CPR and basic life support (BLS) Practice Test of National Health Care Provider Solutions of 30 questions were used to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice among study participants. Results: The median for knowledge score of MBBS interns was 6 with inter-quartile range 2 and the median for the knowledge score of nursing interns was 6 with inter-quartile range 1. The median for the practice score for MBBS interns was 5 with inter-quartile range of 2.25 and median for practice score in case of nursing interns was 4 with inter-quartile range 2. 36% of MBBS interns had poor knowledge score and 46% of nursing interns had poor knowledge score. Conclusions: The present study identified the knowledge and practice score of BLS or CPR which is poor in both medical and nursing students, even though they have positive and good attitude towards it. BLS training should be the part of the curriculum to solve this issue. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173366
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Quality of life factors affecting quality of life in people living with
           HIV/AIDS in an urban area

    • Authors: Pradnya S. Jadhav, Payal S. Laad, R. M. Chaturvedi
      Pages: 3031 - 3036
      Abstract: Background: The aims and objectives were to study socio-demographic profile of people living with HIV/ AIDS; to assess quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA); to study factors affecting Quality of life (QOL) in people living with HIV/AIDS. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted which included 319 study subjects. Data on socio-demographic profile was collected using questionnaire and quality of life was assessed using WHO - brief questionnaire. Data was analysed using SPSS software and MS–Excel. Results: Majority of study population 52% were female & 40.8%belonged to 35-45 yrs age group. Out of 319 study subjects, 80.88% were literate and 19.1% were illiterates, 75.9% were married. 65.83% of the study subjects belonged to socio-economic class- II, 27.9% of the study subjects belong to class–I. Majority 52.98% study population had CD4 less than 300 and 47.02% had CD4 count more than 300 cells/mm3. Female have better QOl in comparison to male. Subjects >55 age group, illiterate, unemployed and CD4 count <300cells/mm3 have lower QOL (p<0.05) in comparison to their respective group. Conclusions: The most factors significantly associated with decreased quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS in the present study include gender, literacy status, age group, employment status and CD4 count (p<0.05).
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173367
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • A study to assess the effectiveness of self-instructional module on minor
           ailments of children among anganwadi workers

    • Authors: Vishal Jamra, Ramniwas Mahore, Dinesh Mohan Saxena, Anil Kumar Agarwal
      Pages: 3037 - 3042
      Abstract: Background: Anganwadi workers (AWW) are India’s primary tool against the menace of child malnourishment, infant mortality, and lack of child education, community health. The Anganwadi workers should have basic knowledge of treatment of minor ailment in under five children. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 48 AWWs of selected ICDS centers of District Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh by simple random sampling method. Results: Brief structured interview and structured questionnaire techniques were used to collect responses from the AWWs. All the AWWs (48) were trained and had been rendering adequate services but they were not much reflective of the same when being questioned on the knowledge parameter. The study revealed that out of 48 AWW, more than 80% were in the age group of 25-45 years. After IMCI based training given to AWWs, their knowledge and skills for treating minor ailments under five children was significantly improved from pre-test assessment (Total score 1087 with Mean (SD) score 2.83 (1.32) to post-test assessment1392 with Mean (SD) score 3.62 (1.38). Knowledge of AWWs regarding under five children in all 8 domains of illness was changed significantly 14.1% from 50.3% in baseline survey to 64.4% in end line survey. Conclusions: As the Anganwadi worker is the key person in the programme, her education level and knowledge of minor ailments for under five children plays an important role related to her performance in the Anganwadi centre. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173368
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence of osteoarthritis patients in South Indian hospital

    • Authors: J. Viswanath, Chakrapani Cheekavolu, Renu Dixit, S. Sankaraiah
      Pages: 3043 - 3046
      Abstract: Background: Osteoarthritis is multifactorial in aetiology. Both systemic factors (e.g. age, sex, genes) and local factors (e.g. muscle weakness, joint deformity) appear to influence the risk of individual joints developing the disease. Methods: Total 60 patient’s prospective data was collected in S.V. Ayurvedic Medical College and Hospital. Collected data were family history, physical activity, illness, addiction, digestive power etc., in patients with osteoarthritis. Results: The study showed 53.33% of previous family history of osteoarthritis and 46.66% were no family history of osteoarthritis. 76.66% gradual disease onset and 23.33% were insidious onset. 100% were having joint pain with swelling. 50% were average digestive power, 36.66% good and 13.33% poor. 30% patients were having addiction of alcohol, 16.66% smoking and alcohol, 16.66% smoking, 3.33% tobacco and 33.33% were no addiction. 66.66% patients were having irregular bowel habit and 33.33% was regular. 41.66% sedentary, 40% active and 18.33% were moderately active. 40% illness was observed during the period of 0-6 months, 30% 1-2 years, 16.66% 6-12 months and 13.33% were 2-5 yrs. 60% cold season and 40% were other seasons. Conclusions: Present study demonstrated that, incidence of osteoarthritis was very high especially in earlier family history of osteoarthritis, gradual disease, joint pain, average digestive power, No addiction, bowel habit Irregular, sedentary, illness during the period of last 6 months and cold season patients. 
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173369
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Nurses’ knowledge of HIV/AIDS

    • Authors: Robert Siebers
      Pages: 3047 - 3047
      Abstract: A recent article in this journal presented the knowledge and attitude towards caring for HIV/AIDS patients in Nigeria. The authors, in their discussion section, state that the majority of their respondents had a good knowledge of HIV/AIDS in contrast to the results of a South African study of nurses. In support of that statement the authors cite the study of Juan et al and hypothesise that this difference may be due to the fact that their study was done in urban areas of Nigeria while the study by Juan et al was done in a rural area of South Africa.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173370
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
       
 
 
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