for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1313 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (21 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (538 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (538 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 229)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access  
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access  
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Notions     Open Access  
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Healthy-Mu Journal     Open Access  
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
  [5 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2394-6032 - ISSN (Online) 2394-6040
   Published by Medip Academy Homepage  [12 journals]
  • Contrast versus non-contrast CT in urinary tract calculi

    • Authors: Sofyan Faidah, Alyaa Banjar, Jaber Zarbah, Sarah Alfaer, Mohammed Alshulayyil, Sultan Alsalami, Maher Alsharif, Bassam Bugis, Ahmad Alshangiti, Ziad Alhomidan
      Pages: 818 - 821
      Abstract: The incidence and prevalence of urinary tract calculi has increased significantly during the past decade. Accurate fast diagnostic modalities were developed to cope with such an increased trend. To date, non-contrast CT scan remains the diagnostic modality of choice for evaluation of patients with urinary tract calculi. However, contrast CT scans are gaining more interest. In this review, both diagnostic modalities were reviewed with the advantages and disadvantages of each. Non-contrast CT scan is a rapid, accurate, less hazardous, less expensive imaging modality that has a high sensitivity in detection of urinary calculi as small as 3 mm. However, it cannot evaluate other probable causes of flank pain. Thus, contrast CT scans can be used in situations where clinical presentation is suspicious and the possibility of other differential diagnoses is considered. Contrast CT scans do not decrease the sensitivity of detecting urinary calculi, and they do have a higher sensitivity in detecting small grades of obstruction as well as evaluating other possible causes of flank pain such as neoplasms, infectious, or inflammatory aetiologies. 
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Understanding the principles of ethics in health care: a systematic
           analysis of qualitative information

    • Authors: Vanishree M. Kemparaj, Umashankar G. Kadalur
      Pages: 822 - 828
      Abstract: Despite incorporating ethical teaching in medical curricula there is paucity in knowledge of ethics among our practitioners. To improve the ethical knowledge it is important to understand the ethical issues or challenges encountered in the present scenario. The issues encountered by the health professionals helps to understand how the ethical principles are in day to today practice. Empirical researches have shown that qualitative research brings research closer to decision making. Hence data obtained from peer-reviewed qualitative articles were used for assessing ethical principles in every day practice by health professional. The studies have shown that autonomy, beneficence, justices are some of the principles health professionals consider before taking the decisions in health care.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Intestinal inflammation markers in inflammatory bowel disease

    • Authors: Abdullatif Alomair, Ayman Alswayeh, Abrar Alhazmi, Abdullah Alshammari, Salma Alsaffar, Abrar Falamarzi, Moath Alothman, Lujain Rayes, Mohammed Alkhathami, Ali Alhamidah
      Pages: 829 - 833
      Abstract: During the past few decades, extensive researches were conducted to identify serological markers in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that can reliably diagnose and monitor disease activity and help in predicting relapses. To date, several serological markers have been identified. This review will address the different serological markers and their clinical significance and applicability in medical practice. Serological markers include antibodies against microbial antigens, peptide antigens, autoantibodies, and basic inflammatory markers. Some serological markers such as anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) and antibodies against exocrine pancreas (PAB) help the confirmation of the diagnosis of IBD to differentiate it from other non-IBD. Perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA) and ASCA can distinguish Chron’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Certain markers can aid stratification of Chron’s disease including antibodies to Pseudomonas fluorescens associated sequence I2 (Anti-I2), antibodies to bacterial flagellin (Anti-CBir1), ASCA, and antibodies to outer membrane porin C (Anti-OmpC). ASCA and pANCA can predict disease response to therapeutic agents (e.g. Infliximab). ASCA can also unaffected family members at risk of developing Chron’s disease.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • An overview of insulin therapy in pharmacotherapy of diabetes mellitus
           type I

    • Authors: Abdulkareem Alotaibi, Bashayer Al Sultan, Reem Buzeid, Mohammad Almutairi, Eman Alghamdi, Maram Aldhaeefi, Yaser Khogheer, Mohammad Albareqi
      Pages: 834 - 838
      Abstract: Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease, which characterizes itself with body’s inability to produce insulin from pancreas. This condition can happen from different autoimmune processes, which subsequently leads into destruction of beta cells in pancreas, the cells responsible for production of insulin. This condition account for about 5-10% of all different forms of diabetes, which should be taken very seriously since its incidence seems to be increasing worldwide and it can result in different devastating short and long-term complications. Management and approaches in patients with type 1 DM is of major concern worldwide since in the lack of proper management these patients cannot survive. Therefore, it is very important to have a multidisciplinary health management team that can have full focus on every aspect of this condition from continuous glucose monitoring, meal planning, screening for different complications to insulin therapy, which is the mainstay in treatment of patients in this group. American Diabetes Association (ADA) suggests using patient’s age in establishment of glycaemic goals, with targets for pre-prandial, bedtime and haemoglobin A1c levels. It is very important to educate patients on how to adjust the level of their insulin injection according to the amount of carbohydrate intake, premeal blood glucose, and anticipated activity. Insulin is and will remain the most important treatment approach in patients suffering from type 1 DM. According to recommendations of ADA, it is best when patients with type 1 DM are treated with multiple daily doses of insulin injections, such as three to four daily basal and prandial injections, or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion devices should be used.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Otitis media among elderly: incidence, complication and prevention

    • Authors: Hanadi Al-Sadeeq, Zafer Algarni, Abdullah Alobaid, Abdullah Aloyaid, Mohammad Alotaibi, Abdulmalek Al-Qwizani, Abdulmohsen Al-Baqami, Zaid AlOmar, Hanan Alsohabi, Shima Albather
      Pages: 839 - 841
      Abstract: Though often considered a disease of children, otitis media can affect the elderly. The incidence of otitis media among elderly population is variable among countries, but generally low, with a value ranging from 0.25-9%. However, dangerous complications may occur. Otitis media is a complex spectrum of diseases that include acute otitis media, otitis media with effusion, suppurative otitis media, and mastoiditis. Otitis media in elderly doesn’t feature the classical presentation in children. Elderly patients experience otalgia with or without hearing loss or signs of inflammation. Infection may spread to either to adjacent structures leading to mastoiditis, petrositis, labyrinthitis, or facial nerve palsy, or intracranially leading to meningitis, subarachnoid abscess, subdural abscess, encephalitis, brain abscess, lateral or sigmoid venous sinus thrombosis, and otitis hydrocephalus. The mainstay strategies for prevention of otitis media are the adequate proper treatment of each infection, and tight control of modifiable risk factors such as tobacco smoking, immunosuppression, upper respiratory tract infection, allergy, and craniofacial abnormalities. Antimicrobial treatment should be continued for at least 10-14 years.  
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Atopic dermatitis in sickle cell children

    • Authors: Shaima Ashwi, Ahmad Alobaisy, Nawal Herzallah, Fatema Alwaheed, Ibtihal Hadi, Duaa Alabbas, Faisal Al-Rasheed, Nawaf Alshuraym, Esra Alzein
      Pages: 842 - 845
      Abstract: Sickle cell disease is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by recurrent vaso-occlusive events. Despite the genetic basis of its pathophysiology, recent researchers stated that it is an inflammatory immune-mediated disease where inflammation plays a crucial role in the initiation of adherence between sickle cells and vascular endothelial cells. Allergic, as well as infectious, inflammation is proposed to contribute to the initiation of vaso-occlusive events. Although several researchers reported an association between sickle cell disease and atopic conditions such as bronchial asthma and allergic rhino-conjunctivitis, few cases have reported an association between sickle cell disease and atopic dermatitis. Atopy was reported to be considerably linked to sickle cell disease for several reasons. Firstly, patients with sickle cell disease have higher IgE levels than the general population. Secondly, the mechanism of activation of molecular adhesion between endothelial and blood cells are similar between both sickle cell disease and atopic disease. Thirdly, the cytokines produced from platelet activation are the same cytokines that stimulate allergic inflammation in atopic diseases and promote adherence of sickle cells and endothelium in sickle cell disease. Lastly, sickle cell disease was reported to be associated with other atopic diseases. 
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Knowledge attitude and practice of blood donation in Hail University

    • Authors: Manal Th. Alanazi, Halima Elagiba, Haneen R. Aloufi, Beshayer M. Alshammari, Samiyah M. Alanazi, Shaden F. Alharbi, Hadeel K. Alshamasy, Rawan N. Alrasheedi
      Pages: 846 - 855
      Abstract: Background: Medical students should be well educated about blood donation and its importance, and their knowledge reflects what will be transferred to the community. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the knowledge, attitude, and practice of blood donations among medical students in Hail University. Methods: Three hundred medical students from 2nd to 6th grade participated in this self-administered questionnaire that included their demographic data, questions about their previous experience with blood donation, and questions about their knowledge and attitudes about blood donation. Results: Out of the 300 students (50 males and 50 females), among them about 88% of students knew their blood group. About 75% knew that infections can be transmitted through blood donation, especially HIV (90%), HBV (73%), HCV (71.3%), and malaria (48%). One third believed that the minimum hemoglobin level for blood donation is 12.5 g/L in men and 12 g/L in women. Negative attitudes towards blood donation included donation to relative request only (24%), paid donations (29.7%), and belief of probability to get infected (34%). Positive attitudes were addressed beliefs that donation saves lives (72%), donation is a moral activity (43%), and importance of disclosing real information before donation (46.3%). Males donated blood more than females (p<0.001), whilst females were more fearful of needles (p=0.001). Gender was significantly correlated with blood donation with an Odd's ratio of 0.28 (p<0.001). Conclusions: Knowledge, attitude, and practice of medical students about blood donation are highly variable among different grades and genders of students in Hail University.  
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Analysis of Indonesia’s community health volunteers (kader) as maternal
           health promoters in the community integrated health service (Posyandu)
           following health promotion training

    • Authors: Patricia Tumbelaka, Ralalicia Limato, Sudirman Nasir, Din Syafruddin, Hermen Ormel, Rukhsana Ahmed
      Pages: 856 - 863
      Abstract: Background: Maternal health promotion is a task allocated to the kader (community health volunteers) in the community integrated health services called Posyandu. Yet, they are inadequately trained to perform this task. We present an analysis of the kader as maternal health promoters after their health promotion training with use of counselling card. Methods: Between March-April 2015, 14 participatory workshops were conducted and 188 kader in four villages in Ciranjang sub-district were trained. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and focus group discussions from community members, health care providers and policy makers in the four villages. A total of 44 interviews were conducted prior to health promotion training and 48 interviews post- training. In 46 Posyandu, kader were observed during their practice of health promotion within 3 consecutive months of post training. Data was transcribed and analysed in NVivo 10. Results: Most kader acknowledged that health promotion training improved their knowledge of maternal health and counselling skills and changed their attitude towards pregnant women at the Posyandu. They could confidently negotiate health messages and importance of health facility delivery with antenatal women. The kader also found the counselling cards helped pregnant women understand the health messages more clearly. The participatory training method involving role play and direct discussions boost kader confidence to deliver health promotion. As a result, the kader gained community appreciation which enhanced their motivation about their job. Conclusions: Appropriate health promotion training, provided the kader with adequate knowledge and skills to become resourceful maternal health promoters in the community.  
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Vitamin E levels in patients with controlled and uncontrolled type 2
           diabetes mellitus

    • Authors: Manouchehr Iranparvar Alamdari, Shahram Habibzadeh, Bita Shahbazzadegan, Mohammad Mazani, Amir Bigdeli, Ali Shahbazi
      Pages: 864 - 870
      Abstract: Background: Diabetes type 2 associates with increased oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant. Vitamin E supplementation reduces oxidative stress in diabetic patients. We intended to measure the level of this vitamin in these patients to assess its relationship in control of patients' diabetes by designing present study.Methods: This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study and carried out on 186 patients with diabetes type 2 diagnosis. The levels of HbA1C (measured by HPLC method), TG, cholesterol, HDL, LDL and Cr were measured, and given to that the level of HbA1C lower than 7 (controlled group) and or more than 7 (uncontrolled group), patients were divided in two groups. Were designed a check list involved questions such as age and information of each patient associated with measured vitamin E level were entered into the check list and after that were analyzed data.Results: In the existing study 186 diabetic patients were examined. From within examined patients, 129 (69.3%) were women and the rest were men and average patients age were 53.33±11.2. In this study was observed there was no direct correlation between the level of cholesterol (p=0.284), LDL (p=0.538( and HDL (p=0.362) with controlled DM II in patients while in uncontrolled diabetic the triglyceride levels was more than those with controlled blood sugar significantly (p=0.046(. The average vitamin E level in patients was 1488.6±692.2 nmol/l its lowest level 114.4 nmol/l and the highest level was 6235 nmol/l.Conclusions: The results of this study show that the vitamin E levels no significant difference between control and non-control diabetic patients.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Impact of middle level eye care personnel on the delivery of eye care
           services in South-western Nigeria

    • Authors: Tayo J. Bogunjoko, Adekunle O. Hassan, Ogugua Okonkwo, Toyin Akanbi, Mildred Ulaikere, Ayodele Akinye, Halima Bogunjoko, Monsurat Y. Lawal-Sebioniga
      Pages: 871 - 879
      Abstract: Background: The objectives of the study were to review the training and assess the impact of middle level eye care personnel (community ophthalmic technician) with skills to complement the services of the ophthalmologist for efficient eye care system and fulfilling vision 2020 goals.Methods: The collaboration between 2010 and 2015 was reviewed with an institutional questionnaire for both Eye Foundation Centre and College of Health Technology in Ijebu, Nigeria: structure of 2 year training Programme and one year internship, community ophthalmic technicians (COT) as assistants to ophthalmologists, hierarchy/career options and challenges and ensuring clinical quality and their strength in the Eye Foundation Eye Health System were appraised.Results: From 2010 to 2015, a total of 72 COTs have graduated, 41(57%) of them employed by the Eye Foundation Hospital Group. Apart from this, 28 did their internship in 2015, 19 (68%) out of this at Eye Foundation establishments in southwestern and north central Nigeria. Others are employed by other government or nongovernmental agencies. From 2010 to 2015, outpatients’ visits have increased from 42,962 to 104,239 at its peak, surgical volume from 3,999 to 18,350 at the Eye Foundation Hospital Group. The COT programme has been accredited by International Joint Commission on Allied health personnel in Ophthalmology (IJCAHPO).Conclusions: COTs with skills are required in large numbers to complement the services of ophthalmologists for efficient eye health system. Their contribution is very important to meet the vision 2020 human resources objectives for Sub-Saharan Africa. 
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Spirituality relationship to the quality of life of children with cancer
           in Dr. Sardjito general hospital

    • Authors: Etik Pratiwi, Sri Mulatsih, Sri Setiyarini
      Pages: 880 - 884
      Abstract: Background: In Indonesia, the prevalence of cancer up to 1.4 per 1000 population. Acute lymphocyte leukemia is one of type of cancers. Sspirituality is an element that increasing and is recognized by many patients with the disease at an advanced stage. Assessment of spirituality in children acute lymphocyte leukemia had ever done by the researcher before shows that spirituality contributes a positive influence to the coping and the achievement of adaptation. Aim of this research was to know how the relationship between spirituality with quality of life in children with cancer.Methods: This study used a mixed design (mixed method), with sequential explanatory strategy. Quantitative approach to the cross-sectional design and in- depth interviews in qualitative data collection. Research has received permission from the The Medical and Health Research Ethics Committee (MHREC).Results: There is a relationship between spirituality and the quality of life of children with cancer with a total value of p=0.001. Spirituality related to the children quality of life emotional, school, and physical domains with each value of p=0.001, p=0.026, p=0.028. Spirituality is not related to the social domains with p=0.054. Qualitative analysis shows that there are six categories from in-depth interviews, that is namely; prayer as a healing pain, the joy and gratitude; the interaction of the source of happiness; loneliness sadness source; socialitation with the enviroment; seek help in overcoming difficulties.Conclusions: There was correlation between spirituality and quality of life of children with cancer. 
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Evaluation of clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with
           bladder cancer in Ardabil province, 2016

    • Authors: Ali Hoseinkhani, Firouz Amani, Yasamin Torabi
      Pages: 885 - 889
      Abstract: Background: Bladder cancer is the most common cancer of the urethra and genital tract and is ranked ninth in terms of its incidence. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with bladder cancer in Ardabil province.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that has been done on 81 patients with bladder cancer. Necessary information such as age, sex, blood type, RH, family history of bladder cancer, smoking, drug use, tumor stage and grade and type of tumor were collected from the patient's hospital record or by telephone interview.Results: Sixty seven patients (82.7%) were male. The mean age of patients was 66.9±15.02 years. The blood group A, was the most common type of blood. (39.5%) of all patients, 54.3% had cigarette smoking and 47(58%) live in city. The most common type of tumor grade was high-grade papillary urethral carcinoma (48.1%).The most common stages of the tumor was Ta (40.7%) and the most common clinical manifestation was hematuria (90.1%). 27 patients (33.3%) had a delay of more than 3 months between observation of hematuria and cystoscopy.Conclusions: The findings showed that the most common grade and stage of the tumor in patients were high-grade papillary urethral carcinoma and Ta; the most prevalent clinical presentation was hematuria; the prevalence of the disease was higher among males, at ages older than 70 years old, in people with a blood type A, and among people living in urban areas; a study with bigger sample size should be done in future in the country Iran.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Knowledge, attitude and practice of oral healthcare among pregnant women
           in Assiut, Egypt

    • Authors: Shimaa Abdelrahim Khalaf, Safaa Rabea Osman, Ahmed M. Abbas, Taghreed Abdul-Aziz M. Ismail
      Pages: 890 - 900
      Abstract: Background: Pregnancy is an important time in a woman's life with many complex physiological changes that may occur. These changes may negatively affect their oral health. The study aimed to assess oral health knowledge, attitude and reported practices among pregnant women in Assiut Governorate.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. A structured interview questionnaire was used; included two tools: Tool (I); part (1) personal data, part (2): assessment of knowledge about oral health, part (3): reported practices of oral health and tool (II): included pregnant women attitude toward oral health.Results: the study revealed that: 79.7% of the interviewed women were aged ≤30 years, 82.5% of them were from rural area. Illiterate women represented 33.2% of the studied group. 85.5% of the pregnant women were housewives. Positive attitude toward oral hygiene was significantly higher among urban, educated, working and primigravidae (p=0.007, 0.03, <0.0001 and 0.04 respectively). Practices of daily cleaning of the teeth was higher among urban than rural residents (79.7% versus 46.8% respectively), university educated (89.3%) than other groups, and working women than housewives (84.9% versus 47.1%)with statistical significant difference while neither age nor number of pregnancies affected daily teeth cleaning.Conclusions: Being highly educated, working and of urban residence positively affected both the oral hygiene attitude and practices among interviewed pregnant women.  
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Predicting adverse drug reaction outcomes with machine learning

    • Authors: Andy W. Chen
      Pages: 901 - 904
      Abstract: Background: Adverse drug reactions are a drug safety issue affecting more than two million people in the U.S. annually. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) maintains a comprehensive database of adverse drug reactions reported known as FAERS (FDA adverse event reporting system), providing a valuable resource for studying factors associated with ADRs. The goal of the project is to build predictive models to predict the outcome given patient characteristics and drug usage. The results can be valuable for health care practitioners by offering new knowledge on adverse drug reactions which can be used to improve decision making related to drug prescriptions.Methods: In this paper I present and discuss results from machine learning models used to predict outcomes of ADRs. Machine learning models are a popular set of models for prediction. They have gained attention recently and have been used in a variety of fields. They can be trained on existing data and retrained when new data become available. The trained models are then used to make predictions.Results: I find that the supervised learning models are work similarly within groups, with accuracy between 65% and 75% for predicting deaths and 70% to 75% for predicting hospitalizations. Across groups the models predict hospitalizations better than deaths.Conclusions: The predictive models I built achieve good accuracy. The results can potentially be improved when more data become available in the future.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • The effect of female genital mutilation on couple sexual function

    • Authors: Talal A. Abdel Raheem, Samar M. R. El-tahalawi, Nesreen M. Abo Raia, Asmaa Younis Elsary, Kairman Mahmoud Ibrahem
      Pages: 905 - 911
      Abstract: Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a procedure that had physical, social, psychological, and sexual complications. The study aimed to assess effect of FGM on couple sexual function.Methods: case control nested from cross-sectional study in Fayoum governorate; it was conducted during a period of five months (March 2016 to July 2016).Results: The prevalence of FGM was 432(83.4%). The risk of exposure to mutilation was about four folds higher among women inhabitant rural areas, and about nine folds higher among low educated women, and around six folds higher if parents were low educated. Around one-third of women in the study 157 (30.3%) suffered psychological problems and 142 (27.4%) of them suffered marital and social problems related to FGM practice. Mutilated women had five folds decrease in desire: four folds decrease in sexual satisfaction and five folds increase in sexual dysfunction on contrary 57% to 59% decrease in arousal and orgasm. As regards to husband sexual satisfaction, it decreases by around three folds if their wives were mutilated. There is statistically a significant increase in couple sexual dysfunction among complicated mutilation.Conclusions: FGM is still practiced in Egypt and it resulted in many physical, psychological, and social complications; also it had a negative impact on the couple's sexual life.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Evaluation of diagnostic value of n-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide
           in pleural fluid with cardiac origin

    • Authors: Behzad Babapour, Mohammad Mirzaaghazadeh, Bita Shahbazzadegan, Hadi Mohsenifar, Alireza Mohammadzadeh, Bijan Zamani
      Pages: 912 - 916
      Abstract: Background: Pleural effusion is a common finding in patients. For a long time, a light criterion is used to analysis of pleural effusion for separation of transudative from exudative fluid. Sensitivity of light criteria is very high to determine exudative pleural effusion (98%). However, the ability of these criteria for ruling out of transudative effusions is low. For this reason, this study was carried out to determine the level of NT-proBNP in pleural fluid.Methods: A descriptive-analytic study was carried out on 21 patients with complaints of shortness of breath and diagnosis of pleural effusion. Pleural fluid was tapped in these patients and the following tests were performed: LDH, total protein, albumin, cell count, cell differentiation, cytology for malignant cells, ADA, smear for AFB, gram smear and culture.The results of all experiments were analyzed using SPSS V16.Results: Mean age of participants was 65 years. Male and female frequencies were 52.4 and 47.6, respectively. 33.3% of patients had CHF, 28.5% TB, 19.4% malignancy, 4.76% hydatid, and the rest left without diagnosis. A pleural fluid in 66.7% of participants was exudative and in 33.3% was transudative. The levels of NT-proBNP (Pg/ml) in serum and pleural fluid of patients with CHF were 11288.42 and 11036.81, but in malignant patient were 1721.68 and 713.59, respectively, and the levels of NT-proBNP in serum and pleural fluid in TB patient were 2429.30 and 2810.08, respectively. Also, there was no significant difference between the levels of serum and pleural effusion NT-proBNP in transudative and exudative fluid but the level of NT-proBNP was significantly higher in CHF patients compared to others.Conclusions: The results showed that the levels of NT-proBNP in serum and pleural fluid of cardiac patients are higher than other patients, but no significant difference in NT-proBNP between transudative and exudative pleural effusion.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its risk factors in
           patients referred to Ardabil city hospital during 2015-2016

    • Authors: Anahita Zakeri, Sepideh Karamat-Panah
      Pages: 917 - 921
      Abstract: Background: Fatty liver is the most common liver disease worldwide, and the number of people with this disease is increasing in the world and in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its risk factors in patients referred to Ardabil city hospital during 2015-2016.Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study which was done on 80 patients with fatty liver Referred to Ardabil city Hospital dueing 2015-2016. Required information including age, gender, degree of fatty liver, body mass index, serum lipids, liver aminotransferases, serum uric acid, and diabetes mellitus were collected by a cheklist and then analyzed by statistical methods in SPSS.19.Results: 40% of the patients were males and 60% were females. The mean age of the patients was 49.22 ± 14.58 years. 81.2% of the patients were overweight or had some degree of obesity. ALT in 38.5%, AST in 32.5%, ALP in 13.75%, and bilirubin in 21.25% of patients were above their normal range. Total cholesterol in 35%, triglyceride in 50%, and LDL in 17.5% of patients were higher than normal range, and HDL was lower than normal range in 41.2% of patients. 21.25% of patients had hyperuricemia and 38.8% had diabetes.Conclusions: The results showed that non-alcoholic fatty liver is more prevalent in females and older ages. Doing multi-center studies was recommended in Ardabil province or other provinces in Iran in future.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Effect of honey on nocturnal cough among children in Taif city

    • Authors: Hanan Al-Juaid, Aljwharah AlJuaid, Walaa Abuharba, Ayman Abouhamda
      Pages: 922 - 928
      Abstract: Background: Nocturnal cough is a common disturbing symptom that affects children during upper respiratory tract infections and can have a major negative impact on child and parents’ sleep quality. Many pharmaceutical medications, herbal regimens, and non-pharmaceutical advice are prescribed to reduce nocturnal cough.  The aim of this research was to study the impact of honey on nocturnal cough in children.Methods: A descriptive study was conducted on 226 children in Taif city, KSA using a pre-prepared questionnaire to assess the cough severity and response to honey in comparison to other treatment modalities.  Data collected were then analyzed using SPSS software.Results: The study was conducted on 226 children (51.77% were females). Children who used honey were significantly older (mean age 7.64±3.8 years) than those who used medications (mean age 6.98±60) (p=0.025). Children who used honey had a higher prevalence of headache (p=0.001) and malaise (p<0.001) than children who did not receive honey. The use of honey was also significantly associated with high cough severity scores. The use of honey seemed to significantly reduce both the cough severity score and combined severity scores, with odd’s ratios of 0.46 and 0.19, respectively (p=0.020 and <0.001). However, it was associated with fewer satisfaction rates and fewer intentions to re-use in next attacks (p=0.025).Conclusions: Honey has a beneficial effect on treating nocturnal cough in children. It decreases the severity of cough as well as the frequency of cough. It is commonly used among older Saudi children who have cough associated with malaise and fever. However, it is not satisfactory for patient and parental relief in Taif city because it doesn’t improve the sleep quality of patients or parents. 
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Awareness about breast cancer among women aged 15 years and above in urban
           slums: a cross sectional study

    • Authors: Sushma Katkuri, Misha Gorantla
      Pages: 929 - 932
      Abstract: Background: Breast cancer is the second most common cancer overall and is the most common cancer in women worldwide, both in the developed and developing countries. There are about 1.38 million new cases and 458,000 deaths from breast cancer each year. The aims and objectives of the study were to determine the awareness about breast cancer among urban slum women.Methods: A community based cross–sectional study was conducted at urban slum Shahpur Nagar, Hyderabad. The study participants were above 15 years of age and the study was conducted for a period of one month. A total of 200 study participants were enrolled.Results: Only 35% of the study population was aware about the early danger signs and 66% were unaware. Those who were aware in that 46.3% were breast lump is the early warning sign of breast cancer, followed by 28% said breast abscess, 16% pain in breast, 9% painless lump and 1.4% said for nipple discharge. Regarding skin changes nobody was aware about it. Awareness about risk factors for breast cancer was very poor that is only 21% were knowing about the risk factors about breast cancer. Near about 54% said they are aware about breast cancer by clinical examination done by doctor, 35% said by self breast examination and 12% said by mammography.Conclusions: Intensified health education campaigns should be conducted in the community and they be made aware about breast cancer. 
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • A cross section study on tobacco consumption practice in school going
           adolescent male of Jamnagar city, Gujarat, India

    • Authors: Alpesh Shankerlal Patel, Raman D. Damor
      Pages: 933 - 938
      Abstract: Background: Tobacco is the second major cause of death in the world. About 5 million people die every year due to tobacco use and this figure may increase to 10 million tobacco related deaths per year by 2020. The most susceptible time for initiating tobacco use in India is during adolescence and early adulthood, ages 15-24 years.Most tobacco users start using tobacco before the age of 18 years, while some start as young as 10 years.Tobacco consumption habit in adolescents is particularly an eye opening situation for any country. Methods: School based cross section study in school going adolescent male was carried out to find out prevalence of tobacco consumption among them and to identify factors affecting it. Chi-square test was applied as test of significance and p<0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: Prevalence of tobacco consumption in any form of tobacco in school going adolescent male was 54.25%. Prevalence of tobacco consumption was highest in age group of 17 to 19 years (55.29%). Chewing of tobacco in various forms was identified as main form of tobacco consumption by adolescent male. Family problems, social problems, economic problems, problems with friends and addiction in family members or friends were identified as main factors that affected tobacco consumption by school going adolescent male. Conclusions: It is urgent need of time to address the tobacco consumption by adolescent age group specifically adolescent male. Strengthening of various IEC activities and strict implementation of present laws related to substance abuse. Role of family and society should be identified and practiced for prevention and control of this novel epidemic. 
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • A study on relationship of age at first coitus and number of conceptions
           with the development of uterine cervical dysplasia in women undergoing VIA
           screening at community health centre, Muradnagar, U.P., India

    • Authors: Sunita Vashist, Narendra Singh
      Pages: 939 - 943
      Abstract: Background: Cancer of cervix is a common cancer that affects Indian women physically psychologically, socially and financially. The disease affects not just the women but also her family and society. Development of cervical dysplasia is highly associated with age of first coitus and number of conception of women. This study was designed to study the correlation between age of first coitus and number of conceptions in women with development of uterine cervical dysplasia. Methods: This study was done at the Community Health Centre (CHC), Muradnagar. It was a cross-sectional study done by using VIA (visual inspection using acetic acid) technique on uterine cervix on 1250 women aged above 30 years of age attending gynaecology OPD of CHC, Muradnagar, Ghaziabad, U.P. Purposive sampling was used to enrol all the women who were attending the gynaecology OPD at CHC and were coming in the eligibility criteria. Results: Out of 1250 women 14 were found to be VIA positive, out of which 4 cases came out to be positive for dysplasia after doing biopsy under colposcopy. Conclusions: Development of cervical dysplasia is highly correlated with early age at first coitus and more number of conceptions in women. As cervical dysplasia is highly associated with early age at first coitus and more conceptions, so more screening for cervical dysplasia required in women having first coitus at early age and having more conceptions.  
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • A study on assessment of mass drug administration for elimination of
           lymphatic filariasis in Datia district, Madhya Pradesh

    • Authors: Ginisha Gupta, Priyesh Marskole, Praveen Yuwane
      Pages: 944 - 947
      Abstract: Background: Currently 947 million people globally live in areas having endemic lymphatic filariasis and require preventive chemotherapy to stop the spread of infection. LF is transmitted by many mosquitoes particularly Culex and in some areas by Anopheles and Aedes too. This study was conducted to assess the programme implementation with respect to process and outcome indicators and to assess the reasons for non-compliance among population.Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study in Datia district, Madhya Pradesh during September 2014. We determined the sample size for survey based on standard guidelines for MDA coverage assessment. We identified four separate clusters, each with thirty households, for the survey. We selected three clusters from rural areas and one cluster from urban area to ensure adequate representation. We used stratified sampling technique for selection of three rural clusters.Results: We surveyed 859 study participants of Indergarh block, Datia district, residing in 120 households across four clusters. Among 859 study participants, the eligible population (excluding less than two year child and pregnant females) was 92% (790/859). District health authorities reported coverage of MDA across entire district to be 91%. We determined the distribution rate of DEC across all four clusters to be 84% (±9%). We identified highest drug distribution rate in Uchad (97%; 193/200) and lowest in Bargai (75%; 133/178).Conclusions: Non-compliant individuals are potential reservoir for the parasite which may serve as source of infection and transmission even after the mass drug administration ceases. As the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis continues to decrease with the implementation of control measures, addressing the issue of non-compliance holds primary importance to further substantiate the effect of our efforts. 
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Prediction of risk of development of type 2 diabetes mellitus using Indian
           diabetic risk score in rural areas of Hassan

    • Authors: Sumana M., Hanamantappa Kudachi, M. Sundar
      Pages: 948 - 952
      Abstract: Background: It has been estimated by International Diabetic Federation (IDF) that globally as many as 193million people with diabetes, are unaware of their disease, the use of a simple easy to use, non-invasive and cost effective screening tool for community based screening is the need of the hour. This study was taken with objective to assess the risk of development of type 2 diabetes mellitus using Indian diabetic risk score (IDRS), and to determine the association of IDRS with socio-demographic factors.Methods: Cross sectional study was conducted for 3 months in rural areas of Hassan. 480 subjects were chosen by systematic random sampling considering inclusion and exclusion criterions. Data was collected from individuals who were more than 30 years old and not having diabetes. IDRS components were assessed along with other socio demographic components.Results: Out of 480 participants, 256 (53.4%) were females, mean age of the participants 42.38±18.6.  47% belong to class III socioeconomic status, 63%of them are educated, 49% of participants having BMI ≥25, 41% (>0.8) female and 33% (>0.9) male having abnormal waist hip ratio (WHR), 49% of the participants having IDRS score >50 among these high risk participants 35% were having RBS >200. All 24 (100%) morbid obese individuals were having high IDRS score; among these 66.6% have abnormal RBS. IDRS predicted the risk of DM with sensitivity 81% and specificity 59%.Conclusions: As the study finds that percentage random blood glucose is more among participants of high IDRS, thus a simple IDRS tool can be used in the field for mass screening and early intervention. 
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Assessing empathy among undergraduate medical students: a cross sectional
           analysis using the Jefferson scale in a medical school in Coastal

    • Authors: Suma Nair, Ranjitha S. Shetty, Swati Guha, Zari Anjum, Asha Kamath
      Pages: 953 - 956
      Abstract: Background: Empathy has been shown to improve the physician’s diagnostic skills as well as enhance the quality of communication with the patient. Empathy being an integral component of patient care, this study was designed to measure empathy levels among undergraduate medical students and to identify the factors associated with it in this population. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out among 437 medical students including interns on the rolls of a medical school in coastal Karnataka. The students were administered a psychometrically validated Jefferson Scale of Empathy–Student Version (JSE-S) questionnaire, to measure various components of empathy. Responses were indicated on a seven point Likert scale and total scores ranged from 20–140, with higher values indicating higher levels of empathy. Results: Mean empathy score among the participants was 100.5±14.8, with significantly higher score being reported by females than males [101.9 vs. 97.3, p=0.002] and by first year students compared to third year students [105.2 vs. 95.3, p<0.01]. Empathy scores showed a declining trend as the students progressed through the medical school (p=0.002). Conclusions: Although the study showed higher empathy level among female medical students, there appeared a declining score among both genders as the years of study progressed with a marginal increase during the internship phase. This necessitates the need for incorporating caregiving as an integral part of the medical school curriculum by stressing on doctor- patient communication skills, which in turn could aid medical students become compassionate physicians. 
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • An epidemiological study of prevalence of hypertension and its risk
           factors among non migratory tribal population of Mawai block of Mandla
           district of central India

    • Authors: Vishnu K. Gupta, Neeraj Rai, Neelam Anupama Toppo, Pradeep Kumar Kasar, Parul Nema
      Pages: 957 - 962
      Abstract: Background: Hypertension is the most recognized modifiable risk factor of CVD, stroke and end stage renal disease and it is directly responsible for 57% of all stroke and 24% of all coronary heart disease related deaths in India. There is paucity of data on hypertension among tribal population. Addiction of Nicotine and some cultural practices like alcohol intake is common in tribal, which are the known risk factor for NCDs. Therefore, the study of health status of tribal communities related to hypertension, is highly desirable and essential. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of hypertension and associate risk factors among non migratory tribal population. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted from March 2015 to February 2016 among 762 adults aged 20-65 years who were non migratory residents of Mawai block of Mandla districts, and they were selected through multi stage random sampling method. Results: Hypertension prevalence was 27.1% among study population. 82.2% study subjects had never undergone for blood pressure check-up. Prevalence was significantly associated with high age group. It was slightly more among the study subjects taking mixed diet than to pure vegetarian. Smoking and alcohol intake was found to be significantly associated with hypertension. It was more prevalent among mild and sedentary workers and association was significant with BMI ≥25. Conclusions: In the study every fourth study individual is Hypertensive, where smoking (in any form) and obesity was found as commonest risk factor for it.  
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • A cross sectional study to assess knowledge, attitude and practice
           regarding voluntary blood donation among medical students of Jabalpur,
           central India

    • Authors: Prashant Verma, Aditya Thakur, Deepak Saklecha, Pradeep Kumar Kasar
      Pages: 963 - 969
      Abstract: Background: Blood transfusion is a crucial and an essential part of any nation’s health care delivery system for a lifesaving Interventions. Positive attitude towards blood donation practices among the younger generation would play a crucial role in improving health care structure. Objectives of the study were to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice towards blood donation and its associated factors among undergraduate medical students. Methods: It was a descriptive cross sectional study conducted on the 322 under graduate medical students of different professional years during September to December 2016 at Netaji Subash Chandra Bose medical college Jabalpur (M.P.). A pretested, self administered, structured questionnaire was used to collect data on knowledge, attitude and practice regarding voluntary blood donation. Scores for three domains i.e. knowledge, attitude, practice was calculated. Data on Socio demographic details and reason behind non donation of blood were also collected. Results: On correlation between the scores of attitude and practice with knowledge. Attitude has a positive statistically significant correlation with the increase in knowledge and vice versa. On the other hand Increase in attitude shows a negative statistically significant correlation with practice and vice versa. Students belongs to >20 years of age group has significantly more knowledge and good attitude regarding blood donation (p<0.001). Female students when compared with male have more knowledge and good attitude regarding blood donation. But in case of practice of blood donation female significantly lag behind male students (p<0.001). Conclusions: Opportunities for blood donations should be created regularly by conducting blood donation camps this will not only increase the Sense of social responsibility among medical students through positive attitude but will also narrowed down the gap between the demand and the supply of the country.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Health of elderly tribes: a community based clinico-epidemiological study
           in West Bengal, India

    • Authors: Gandhari Basu, Poulomi Mondal, Suman K. Roy
      Pages: 970 - 975
      Abstract: Background: Reported literatures suggested that health of elderly, mainly tribes, still remains unsatisfactory. They are the most neglected and highly vulnerable to diseases with high degree of morbidity and mortality. The present study was conducted to measure the overall health status and awareness of any beneficial scheme and also associated factors among the elderly tribes. Methods: A community based, cross sectional survey was conducted among 120 elderly tribes, for three months. Data on socio-demographic attributes, self-reported morbidities and mental health parameters was collected by direct interview with a predesigned, structured proforma. Clinical examination was done to find out any systematic morbidity. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure were recorded by standardized instruments. Prevalence of stress was assessed by general health questionnaire (GHQ-12). Data was analysed by licensed SPSS 20.0. Results: Out of 120 elderly tribes, majorities were female (61.7%), aged between 60 to 69 years. The mean (SE) age was 64.50 (0.421) years. Ninety nine subjects were illiterate. Tobacco addiction was noted in 84.3% elderly. Common cold (80.0), low back pain and joint pain (73.3%), alcohol addiction (63.3), smoking (56.0), problems of vision (50.0) were also common. Overweight, hypertension and pallor was noted in nearly half. Women were more affected. One in every four felt unhappy or depressed. Severe distress was found among one in every five respondents. Distress was more in persons aged more than 70 years, illiterate and in lower social class (p<0.05). Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of social problems like illiteracy, unemployment, financial dependence, morbidities and stress among the elderly tribes. 
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Prevalence and factors influencing anaemia among urban adolescent females,
           a cross sectional study

    • Authors: J. S. Poyyamozhi, Rajan Rushender, G. Murali Mohan Reddy
      Pages: 976 - 981
      Abstract: Background: Despite many organized efforts by the government, adolescent anemia remains to be a major public health problem in India. The prevalence of anemia and factors influencing it in urban adolescent females is a relatively less studied aspect. Hence the current study is conducted with an objective of assessing the prevalence and factors influencing anemia among adolescent school girls living in an urban locality. Methods: The current study was a community-based cross sectional study conducted in the selected schools and colleges of Permabalur town, south India, in the field practice area of Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College and Hospital between June to December 2017. Total 373 adolescent girls selected by multistage simple random sampling were included in the study. The hemoglobin was assessed by cyanmethemoglobin method. Results: The prevalence of anaemia among urban adolescent girls was 41.1% (95% CI 0.36-0.46). The proportion of mild and moderate anaemia was 37% and 4.10% respectively and none had severe anaemia. Compared to upper middle class, the odds of anemia were 14.16 times more in the lower class (95% CI 4.54-44.12, p<0.001). Compared to scanty/normal bleeding, the odds of anemia were 2.943 (95% CI 1.4-3.87 p<0.05) more in girls with heavy bleeding. Age, upper lower or lower middle socio-economic strata, religion, type of family and menstrual irregularity did not have any statistically significant association with anemia. Conclusions: Anemia is highly prevalent among adolescent girls and there is a need to intensify efforts all levels to reduce the prevalence of anemia. 
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • A cross sectional study on needle stick and sharp injuries among health
           care providers in tertiary centers, Tamil Nadu

    • Authors: Archana Lakshmi P. A., Ashrof Raja, Meriton Stanly A., Christina Mary Paul, Gladius Jennifer H.
      Pages: 982 - 986
      Abstract: Background: Health care workers are at risk of acquiring life threatening blood borne infections through needle stick and sharp injuries (NSSI) in their work place. This study was planned to highlight some important factors responsible for NSSI and possible measures to reduce it. The objective of the study was to assess the factors associated with NSSI and reasons for under-reporting. Methods: A cross sectional study was done during November 2014 to April 2015 in two tertiary health care institutions. All health care providers (Doctors, nurses and lab technicians) who had more than one year experience and gave informed consent were included. Data collected by pretested structured questionnaire. Data analysis was done using SPSS 20v and summarized by descriptive statistics. Proportion and Chi-square was calculated at 5% α. Results: Among 950 health care providers (HCPS), 649 (68.3%) had NSSI during their carrier, 335 (35.3%) in last one year. Females 225 (67.2%) experienced more NSSI. This study shows that, 98 (29.3%) HCPs had sustained injury once. Among the doctors, 51.4% Anaesthetist (p=0.001) and its more among the nurses (38.4%) followed by doctors (36.6%) (p=0.002). NSSI was more common among HCP who work between 30-40 hrs (p=0.00001). Majority of them sustained injury while performing the procedure 134 (40%), commonest place of injury was OT 149 (44.5%) and commonest item responsible was hypodermic needle 141 (42.1%). Only 50 (14.9%) reported to the concerned authority and follow up action was taken. Conclusions: The study shows high prevalence of NSSI, emphasizing the need for safe measures for handling sharps to prevent transmission of infection. 
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Gender preference and awareness regarding sex determination among married
           women in urban slums

    • Authors: Sushma Katkuri, K. Nithesh Kumar
      Pages: 987 - 990
      Abstract: Background: People in India exhibit a strong gender preference for male child and this discrimination or prejudice continues in spite of socio- economic development and higher growth rates. The preference for sons has been associated with preferential abortion of female fetuses and even to female infanticide. Objective of the study was to assess gender preferences among married women in urban slums. Methods: It was a community based cross sectional done at Urban Health Training Centre, Shahpur Nagar which is field practice area of Department of Community Medicine of Malla Reddy Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad. The study participants were all women who were above 18 years of age. During the study period we enrolled a total of 157 women. Results: The maximum subjects were in the age group of 18-30 (54.1%). 82.2% of the study participants knew that sex determination is a crime. The majority of study participants stated dowry problems as the reason for their non preference of female children (77.3%) while 4.5% did not prefer female children due to the fact that they do not stay with their parents after marriage, 9.1% said rearing problem. Conclusions: So intense health education should be given to the community telling them that it’s not only sons who take care of parents in old age but daughters can also play the same role. We need to educate them sons’ and daughters should be equally treated in the family. 
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Bullying and being bullied: prevalence and psychosocial outcomes among
           school going adolescents of Rohtak

    • Authors: Shiba ., Meena Rajput, Ankit Goutam, Gaurav Rajawat
      Pages: 991 - 995
      Abstract: Background: Bullying is a problem which is commonly faced by so many school going children and adolescents usually in the form of nasty teasing, name-calling, threatening, physically hurting, exclusion from group, spreading false rumors etc. A victim of bullying is at increased risk of behavioural and emotional problems, depression, psychotic symptoms including anxiety, insecurity and poor school performance. The objectives of the study were to measure the prevalence of bullying behaviours among adolescents and to determine the effects of bullying and being bullied on psychosocial adjustment.Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out from August, 2016 to February, 2017 among school going adolescents 11-18 yrs of age. A total of 300 students were chosen using multi stage sampling from ten schools of five community development blocks of Rohtak.Results: Out of 300 participants 176 (58.7%) were male, 124 (41.3%) were female. 21.6% (65) students bullied other students, 19% (57) were being bullied. More boys reported bullying others and being victims of bullying.Conclusions: The effects of being bullied are direct, pleiotropic and long- lasting with the worst effects for those who are both victims and bullies.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Knowledge, attitude, practice and learning needs of nursing personnel
           related to domestic violence against women: a facility based cross
           sectional survey

    • Authors: Kamlesh Kumari Sharma, Manju Vatsa, Mani Kalaivani, Daya Nand Bhardwaj
      Pages: 996 - 1003
      Abstract: Background: Domestic violence against women (DVAW) is widely recognized as a public health problem. In India, health sector response to DVAW is suboptimal. Present study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, practice and learning needs of nursing personnel regarding women’s health issues related to domestic violence.Methods: This facility based cross sectional study was carried out among 100 nursing personnel from Public sector in Delhi, selected using stratified random sampling. Data were collected using a validated, pretested, structured self reported questionnaire with a few open ended questions. It included knowledge, attitude, practice and learning needs of nursing personnel relevant to DV. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis using Stata 11.0 (College Station, Texas, USA).Results: Two third of nursing personnel (67%) had moderate knowledge scores and 27% had poor knowledge scores; 19% had favourable attitude scores towards DV; 57% had good practice scores; 44% reported moderate to high need for learning and majority lacked preparedness to manage DV victims. The knowledge was significantly associated with younger age, single, graduate/ Post graduates, B.Sc. Nursing degree holders, working in tertiary hospital, as staff nurse/public health nurse/sister in charge and those with lesser experience, (p<0.05). The attitude was significantly associated with younger age, single, graduate/post graduates, and those with lesser experience, (p<0.05).Conclusions: Nursing personnel had substantial gap in their knowledge, attitude and practice related to DV and a large unmet learning need highlighting the need for relevant pre service and continuing education.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Factors influencing blood donation among the workers of a tertiary care
           hospital, Chitradurga: a comparative study

    • Authors: Sameeya Furmeen S., Mayuri Reddy Reddy
      Pages: 1004 - 1009
      Abstract: Background: Blood donation is very vital to save human life as there is no substitute for human blood. Even though the hospital workers are well aware about blood donation, many of them are not into voluntary blood donation. Hence the present study focuses on the hospital workers.Methods: A cross-sectional study with purposive sampling was done in the workers of Basaveshwara Medical College. After obtaining verbal consent, the data was collected by a pre-designed, pre-structured, self-administered questionnaire. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 21.Results: A total of 258 workers participated, the mean age was 30.83±7.44; 97 (37.6%) were donors and 161 (62.4%) were non-donors. The donors were mostly in the age group 31-40 yrs (48.1%), males (63.3%), those who were single (40.2%), graduates (45.4%), belonging to socio-economic class I (56.7%). Most were voluntary donors (70.1%), 48.5% had donated 2-5 times, 24.7% were regular donors with 37.5% donating yearly. The predominant reason for not donating blood among the non-donors was ‘no request for blood’ (63.4%). Around 175 (67.8%) were willing to be voluntary donors in the future, whereas 57 (22.1%) were willing to donate only for family and friends and 26(10.1%) were not willing to donate blood. Willingness to donate was found to be significantly associated with age, education, occupation, socio-economic class, source of information and the type of donation.Conclusions: Males and those in higher socio-economic class predominantly donated blood. Donors considered blood donation as a humanitarian cause and felt it gives moral satisfaction than the non-donors. Non-donors thought blood donation leads to weakness/anemia and is harmful to health than the donors. 
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Geriatric morbidity pattern in a tertiary care center in the hilly state
           of Sikkim

    • Authors: Kulwant Singh, Sowmya Dey
      Pages: 1010 - 1013
      Abstract: Background: This study was done to find out geriatric morbidity pattern in a tertiary care hospital in the hilly state of Sikkim.Methods: The study was conducted in Central Referral Hospital, a tertiary care center, in the hilly state of Sikkim, over a period of three months. All geriatric patients, 60 years or above, were included in the study. Morbidity affecting specific organ systems was classified based on the outpatient department (OPD) visited and case files of those patients.Results: 215 elderly patients visited outpatient department during the study period. Morbidity related to eyes was most common followed by cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and respiratory systems.Conclusions: Our study compares well with range of distribution of complaints in other studies. However, there is a wide range of proportionate distribution of different morbidities in different geographic areas of our country. Hence, before deciding about resource allocation for geriatric health facilities related to different specialties, distribution of morbidities should be determined for that region.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Prevalence of overweight and obesity among undergraduate nursing students:
           thematic analysis on experiences of overweight and obese participants

    • Authors: Shyamala D. Manivannan
      Pages: 1014 - 1019
      Abstract: Background: Overweight and obesity is the growing concern of public health. Obesity is on the rise in adults as well as adolescents. Obesity becomes worse with the transition from the teen years into the young adult years. This study aimed to find the prevalence of overweight and obesity in undergraduate nursing students and conduct thematic analysis of the experiences of participants who were overweight and obese.Methods: Descriptive survey and qualitative approach was used to collect data. Self-reported information on weight and height elicited using descriptive survey to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity. After obtaining informed consent focus group interviews conducted for overweight and obese participants. Interviews transcribed.Results: SPSS version 17 used for analysis. The mean body mass index (BMI) of the participants was 21.46±SD 4.17. The overweight and obesity prevalence was 11.60% and 5.20% respectively. Thematic analysis yielded several themes like change of place, caring family, support and assurance, shyness and bullying, unpleasant experiences and isolation, hereditary etc.Conclusions: Harmful weight reduction strategies to be prevented through good monitoring, mentoring and by establishing “peer support groups” in nursing colleges.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Evaluation of mass drug administration programme for elimination of
           lymphatic filariasis in Bidar district, Karnataka

    • Authors: Mahesh S. Hoolageri, Ramachandra Kamath, K. Ravikumar, Jagadish G., Surekha Kamath
      Pages: 1020 - 1023
      Abstract: Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is endemic in 83 countries and territories, with more than a billion people at risk of infection. Filariasis has been a major public health problem in India next only to malaria. Study was done to assess coverage and compliance of mass drug administration (MDA) against lymphatic filariasis in Bidar district.Methods: This cross-sectional coverage evaluation survey was done in one urban and three rural clusters in district. The data was compiled, tabulated and analyzed using proportions.Results: A total of 739 subjects were interviewed, male subjects constituted about 57.5%. 96.58% persons have received the drugs. Out of the 678 persons who have received the drugs, 85.4% persons have consumed the drugs. Only 31.95% of study subjects consumed tablets in front of health workers. A total of 99 subjects not consumed tablets, 22.22% told drug distributor did not visit, 21.21% were out of station and 14.14% subjects were not aware. 24 persons suffered from nausea and vomiting.Conclusions: There is an urgent need for more effective drug delivery strategies and also proper IEC should be done to educate and to improve the coverage and compliance in the districts.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Patient satisfaction in health care facility in hilly areas of Uttarakhand

    • Authors: Venkatashiva Reddy B., Arti Gupta, Vandana Semwal, Amit Kumar Singh
      Pages: 1024 - 1029
      Abstract: Background: Patient satisfaction is a proxy indicator of the quality of doctor or hospital performance. The present study aimed at to assess the patient satisfaction in the outpatient department of rural and urban health training centre, Uttarakhand, North India.Methods: A hospital based cross sectional study. Simplified questionnaire was used for interviewing patients. For measurement of patient satisfaction in the outpatient department patient satisfaction questionnaire 18 was used with additional indices for nursing and paramedical staff.Results: A total of 200 patients participated in the study. Overall majority of them were females 112 (60%). Mean age of the patients was 40.4±19.5 years. Mean distance travelled to reach health facility was 13.5±21.6 km. The mean score for general satisfaction was 3.96±0.63, for financial aspects was 3.82±0.71, for accessibility and convenience was 3.81±0.65, for interpersonal manner of doctor 4.29±0.78, for communication of doctor 4.38±0.67, for technical quality was 4.05±0.58 and for time spent during the visit was 4.21±0.70. In the hierarchical stepwise multiple linear regression analysis the final model explained 85% of the variance in patient satisfaction.Conclusions: Overall, patients expressed satisfaction with the care provided. These ratings may reflect modest patients' expectations as well as acceptable circumstances and performance.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Derivation of cut-off value for a 10 item opinion based ordinal survey

    • Authors: Balaji Arumugam, Suganya E., Saranya Nagalingam
      Pages: 1030 - 1034
      Abstract: Background: Questionnaire is the most common tool for data collection in most of the study designs. In spite of the advantage of using a standardized questionnaire for generalising the study findings, the major disadvantage is that all the population is never the same and its similarity exists only with the presence of heterogeneity, hence, any universal cut-off value cannot be used for the diverse population. This makes it clear that determination of cut-off value for any content validated questionnaire to the specified study population is essential, in order to make the study tool more effective.Methods: This study was done to determine the cut-off value of psychometric scale of selfie addiction, which was content validated. A detailed mathematical model was used to determine the cut off value. Item analysis was done. Discrimination index, weightage of each item and correction factor was calculated to determine the cut-off value.Results: The total weighted score, total raw score and correction factor are 28012.62 and 31,046, 0.9 respectively. The total adjusted scale cut-off is 30.43 (rounded as 30). The cut-off value based on crude mid-value is 25 and the cut off value determined for the standardised population is 21.Study population with cut-off value of >30 are considered to be a selfie addict, and those who have obtained a total score ≤30 are considered to be normal (non-selfie addict).Conclusions: Present study is one of its kind, in determining the cut-off value for a content validated psychometric scale without any gold standard. The above derived cut-off value of 30 for the psychometric scale of selfie addiction is valid for the specified population, as the Cronbach’s alpha, discrimination index and the correction factor is above 0.75.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • A study on traditional beliefs and practices in newborn care among mothers
           in a tertiary health care centre in Vijayapura, North Karnataka

    • Authors: Nethra N., Rekha Udgiri
      Pages: 1035 - 1040
      Abstract: Background: Culture is defined as a shared system of beliefs, values and behavioral expectations that provide social structure for daily living. Not all customs and beliefs are harmful. Some of them have positive values while others may be of no role or positively harmful for neonate’s health in various forms like physical, psychological, social development. The objective of the study was to explore the traditional beliefs and practices in new born care.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at post-natal ward of BLDEU’s Shri B M Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Vijayapura from June 2015 to July 2015. A total of 200 mothers were interviewed and data was collected after obtaining the consent.Results: In the present study, majority of the mothers were in age group between 19-22 years (45%). 16% of the mothers discarded the colostrum believing it is harmful. Application of kajal to the newborn’s face and eyes will be practiced among 88%. 75% of the mothers practiced pouring oil into the ears.Conclusions: Findings of our study highlights some of the good practices in the newborn care which can be motivated, at the same time the harmful practices can be avoided by educating and counselling the mother and her family members. 
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Assessment of nutritional status of children aged under five years in
           tribal population of Jawadhu hills in Tamil Nadu

    • Authors: Gopinath T. T., M. Logaraj, K. R. John
      Pages: 1041 - 1046
      Abstract: Background: Malnutrition is more common in India than in Sub-Saharan Africa. One in every three malnourished children in the world lives in India. Tribal population constitutes about 8% of the total population in India. They are particularly vulnerable to under nutrition, because of their geographical isolation, socio-economic disadvantage and inadequate health facilities. The objectives of this study were to assess the Nutritional status of children under five years in a Tribal area of Jawadhu hills under Puthurnadu PHC Sub-center and to find the associated risk factors accompanying the under five children.Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted in a tribal area of Jawadhu hills Puthurnadu PHC sub-center. A total of 316 children participated in the study. A predesigned, pre tested questionnaire was used to collect data on socio demographic profile (age, sex, religion, education, income) from the Mother/Guardian and measured all possible anthropometric measurements.Results: The overall prevalence of under nutrition was 26.9% in which Severely under nourished were 9.2%, the overall prevalence of stunting was 55.4% in which severely stunted were 23.4% and the overall prevalence of wasting was 10.4% in which severely wasted were 1.9% respectively. Male children were found to be more malnourished than Female children in our study. Children from joint family are more prone to get malnourished than Nuclear families.Conclusions: The overall prevalence of stunting was higher (55.4%) which is greater than the cut-off point stated by the World Health Organization to indicate that the severity of malnutrition. Adequate measures to be made to overcome malnutrition.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Does fluorosis affect the intelligence profile of children' A cross
           sectional analysis of school children of district Una, Himachal Pradesh,

    • Authors: Piyush Sharma, Ashok K. Bhardwaj, Mitasha Singh, Dinesh Kumar, Anupriya Sharma, Ashoo Grover
      Pages: 1047 - 1053
      Abstract: Background: The sub Himalayan region of the country does not fall in highly endemic region for fluorosis. Researchers over the world have hypothesized that high fluoride level in water is the cause of low intelligence level among children and adolescents. We aim to establish the association of high and low fluoride levels with intelligence level and oral health status of children aged 10-14 years in district Una, Himachal Pradesh.Methods: The study was conducted in randomly selected 15 government high schools of district Una. Study population included 600 students of government run schools in age group 10-14years. This ICMR funded project was carried out from 2014 through 2017. Dean fluorosis index was used to study fluorosis level and Intelligence test was conducted on students by using Raven’s standard progressive matrices questionnaire.Results: The 60% of sites studied for fluoride levels were found to have >0.5 ppm fluoride level in water and none of them with level more than 1 ppm. Prevalence of dental fluorosis was 12.2%. Dental caries and high Dental Aesthetic Index were positively associated with high fluoride level in water. Low intelligence level of adolescents was not significantly associated with high fluoride level (OR;95% CI: 1.34; 0.72-2.49).Conclusions: This sub Himalayan region is not endemic for fluorosis however lower level of fluoride is observed in many sites. Fluorosis was not significantly associated with intelligence hence indicating towards multifactorial causation of disease.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Construction of nuptiality tables for the hilly rural population of
           Uttarakhand: 1931-2000

    • Authors: Shubham Pandey, Ankit Singh, Saumya Awasthi, Supreet Kaur
      Pages: 1054 - 1059
      Abstract: Background: Nuptiality has a strong association with socio demographic and socio economic change in society. So, it has immense importance to study the female age at marriage in society. In order to study the nuptiality pattern in rural areas of Uttarakhand State, India, a number of measures like crude marriage rate, age sex specific marriage rates and similar other rates are used in the nuptiality tables.Methods: This paper deals with the study on the change in the nuptiality pattern through the life table approach in the seven cohorts 1931-40, 1941-50, 1951-60, 1961-70, 1971-80, 1981-90 and 1991-2000. It is observed that the rates are changing with time. We also calculate expected number of years of single life remaining to a single person at age x. It is also observed that the age at marriage is increasing as the time passes. The data for this has been collected through the primary collection technique and the paper includes all the nuptiality tables for the seven cohort systems.Results: It is observed that the rates are changing with time. No significant time trend has been observed in the nuptiality rates among the single population of hilly rural area of Uttarakhand. From the table we can see that initially, at the age group 10 the rate is small and it increases rapidly till it reaches to maximum at the age group 20.Conclusions: In the field of marriage for the Indian population, it is suggested that development and examination of nuptiality tables over various periods would constitute a distinct progression in the investigation of Indian nuptiality.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Assessment of household water treatment and storage practices

    • Authors: Subrat K. Pradhan, Upasana Sinha, Durga M. Satapathy, Amit P. Swain, Rudra P. Mishra
      Pages: 1060 - 1063
      Abstract: Background: Maintenance of drinking-water quality is a pillar of primary prevention and continues to be the foundation for the prevention and control of waterborne diseases. Improved water supply and sanitation, and better management of water resources, can boost countries’ economic growth and can contribute greatly to poverty reduction. The objective of the study was to assess household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) practice.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of 2 months. Total of 250 household were surveyed under the UHTC. Data was collected using WHO toolkit for monitoring and evaluating household water treatment and safe storage programme. Descriptive analysis was done.Results: Majority had piped connection (32%) followed by public standpipe (31.2%), hand pump (27.6%) as source of water. 60% had knowledge about boiling followed by chlorination 27%, membrane filters 22.4%. Majority i.e. 63% of the participants had thought boiling as the best method for disinfection of drinking water.Conclusions: Majority had piped connection, Maximum kept water container clean and covered. Only one fourth of the total household surveyed suffered from diarrhea in last 6 months.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Knowledge and attitude regarding organ donation and transplantation among
           undergraduate medical students in North coastal Andhra Pradesh

    • Authors: Srinivas Rao Ganta, Kiran Pamarthi, Lakshmi Prasad K. K.
      Pages: 1064 - 1068
      Abstract: Background: Organ transplantation is one of the greatest scientific advances and remains one of the most challenging and complex field of modern medicine. In the USA and UK, the organ donation rate is 26 and 14 per million, whereas in India, it is only 0.34 per million population. Healthcare professionals act as the critical link in the organ procurement process because they are the first individuals to establish relationship with the potential donors' family.Methods: An institution based descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among first year undergraduate medical students during November 2017. Convenient sampling method was used to obtain the sample size. Out of 150 students in first year, 136 students fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were studied.Results: Out of 136 students who participated in the study, 58 (42.6%) were boys and 78 (57.4%) were girls. All the 136 (100%) students had heard about organ donation, but only 24 (17.6%) of them were aware of organ donation associations. Very few students (5, 3.6%) know about any law related to organ donation in India. Mass media like TV, Internet and Newspapers have played a major role in imparting awareness regarding organ donation among students besides relatives and friends. Majority of the students i.e. 104 (76.4%) were ready to donate their organs if need comes and two third of them accepted that they would allow organ donation from a member of their family after Brainstem death.Conclusions: There is a positive attitude of medical students towards organ donation but there is lack of sufficient knowledge on the topic. Improving their knowledge by including organ donation topic in medical curriculum can help to reduce this gap.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Association of somatic problems with mental health among sickle cell
           anaemic adolescents of Chhattisgarh, India

    • Authors: Shyama Charan Ogre, Priyamvada Shrivastava, Moyna Chakravarty
      Pages: 1069 - 1074
      Abstract: Background: The sickle cell disease is characterized by various somatic problems and medical complications with psychological problems. Sickle cell patient faces physical, economical and psychological burden. There is paucity of evidences in understanding the bio-psychological aspects of sickle cell anaemic patients especially in India. Therefore, an attempt has been made to know the somatic problems in adolescents and its effects in mental health of the adolescents suffering from sickle cell anaemia. The main aim was to find out association of somatic problems with mental health among adolescents suffering from sickle cell anaemia and occurrence of somatic problems among homozygous/heterozygous sickle cell adolescentsMethods: The total sample of the study consists of 309 sickle cell anaemic adolescents of age range 11-19 years. The information was collected for present research from various hospitals and health clinics of Chhattisgarh state during January, 2013 to July, 2015. An interview-schedule was prepared to know the various somatic problems and other related information. Mental Health Battery (Hindi version) was used to assess the mental health among sickle cell anaemic adolescents developed by Singh and Gupta, 1983.Results: The study revealed that 23.3 percent of the cases were homozygous whereas 76.7 percent cases were heterozygous. The overall contribution of mental health dimension are 28.0% (R2=.280; F (3,304) =31.250; p<0.01) in which two predictors of mental health namely Emotional Stability and Overall Adjustment contributed significantly. Total 84.1 percent patients were reported somatic problems and somatic problems of sickle cell patients are significantly and negatively related to all dimensions of mental health.Conclusions: For reducing the somatic problems, mental health of the adolescents will have to be increased.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Prevalence and factors associated with depression and anxiety among
           students of backward community and minority girl’s hostels of Mysuru

    • Authors: Krishnaveni Y. S., Prakash B., Praveen Kulkarni, Narayanamurthy M. R.
      Pages: 1075 - 1081
      Abstract: Background: Mental health is one of the major concerns among Non-communicable diseases with 10-20% of children and adolescents suffering mental disorders worldwide. If untreated, these conditions severely influence child’s development, education and their potential to live productive lives. This study is an effort to find out factors influencing mental health in hostel students, and its effects in their daily routine which will help hostel supervisors, parents and teachers to deal with students and help to achieve maximum progress in their academics.Methods: This is a Cross sectional study done among 353 students in BCM (backward community and minority) girls hostels of Mysuru. Students above 18 yrs and willing to participate in study are included and those suffering from acute illness/recent trauma /injury are excluded. Data collected using validated questionnaire (PHQ 9 for depression and GAD7 for anxiety).Results: Among 353 students included depression was observed in 245 (69.4%) of students and anxiety was found in 222 (62.8%) students. Depression and anxiety was associated with single parenting, socioeconomic class, masters degree courses, food habits, lifestyle and menstrual irregularities, multi logistic regression showed association of depression with premenstrual syndrome and anxiety with exercise, socioeconomic class, financial difficulties and premenstrual syndrome.Conclusions: Depression and anxiety were more prevalent in adolescent students and are associated with sedentary lifestyle, socioeconomic condition of students and reproductive health. Depression and Anxiety has impact on comfortable stay in hostel and relation with peers. These factors can be addressed to mitigate the effects. 
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Supportive supervision as an effective intervention in improving water,
           sanitation and hygiene facilities in government health facilities of Tamil

    • Authors: Sudharshini Subramaniam, T. S. Selvavinayagam
      Pages: 1082 - 1088
      Abstract: Background: Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) is one of the important components of Sustainable Development Goals which is essential for achieving any global health-related goals. WASH in health care facilities is prioritized as a necessary input to achieve health goals. Supportive Supervision has been established as an effective intervention in improving the performance of health care workers. This paper evaluates the role of supportive supervision in improving WASH facilities in the health care facilities of high priority districts of Tamil Nadu.Methods: The effectiveness of supportive supervision in improving WASH facilities was assessed through a pre-post experimental research design. World Health Organization proposed steps were followed while planning for the supportive supervision. Supervisory visits were made using checklists in all secondary level public health facilities in 7 High Priority Districts which were chosen based on the preliminary WASH survey conducted by UNICEF. The same health facilities were revisited after 3 months and supervised using the same checklist.Results: In the first supervisory visit, 41.6% of the health facilities (57 out of 137 facilities) were non- functional in terms of WASH score, while only 5.8% (8 out of 137 facilities) were fully functional. In the second visit, proportion of non- functional facilities had dropped from 41.6% to 7.3% and there has been an increase in the partially functional (52.6% to 71.5%) and fully functional facilities (5.8% to 21.2%) which was found to be statistically significant.Conclusions: Supportive supervision was able to show a significant improvement in the WASH facilities in all types of facilities. 
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • An assessment of quality of life of transgender adults in an urban area of
           Burdwan district, West Bengal

    • Authors: Prosenjit Naskar, Sima Roy, Somnath Naskar, Indrajit Gupta
      Pages: 1089 - 1095
      Abstract: Background: Transgender people are stigmatised in our society and are being discriminated in every aspect of life. Many of them experience abuses in various forms since childhood. Accordingly these might have adverse consequences on their life and modify their quality of life (QOL). This aspect needs to be explored. In this context the present study was conducted to assess the QOL among adult transgender people and to find its association with their socio-demographic characteristics in Burdwan municipal area of Burdwan district.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during July-December 2016 among 79 adult transgender people residing in the study area. Sample size was based on 50% having satisfactory QOL with 95% CI, 10% relative error, and 10% non-response rate with finite population correction (total target reference population 96). Subjects were selected by simple random sampling and recruited for interview by time space sampling. Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed by a predesigned schedule and QOL was assessed by using a validated Bengali version of WHO-QOL BREF questionnaires.Results: 56.9% people were found to be have good QOL score as a whole. Maximum and minimum percentages of good QOL score was found in environmental domain (84.7%) and social relationship domain (45.8%). A significant positive correlation was found between education and monthly income with QOL score while negative correlation between age and QOL score. Marital status, current living status and occupation were found to have a statistically significant association with QOL score.Conclusions: The study measured QOL as well as identified some important socio-demographic variables which affected QOL among transgender people. These findings can help the government to plan conceptually to improve QOL in this special transgender group of population by some legislation, social awareness and facilities dedicated towards them.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • A study to assess the prevalence of anaemia amongst adolescent girls
           residing in selected slum of Bhopal city

    • Authors: Veena Melwani, Manju Dubey, Amreen Khan, Manju Toppo, Yachana Choudhary, Angelin Priya
      Pages: 1096 - 1099
      Abstract: Background: Adolescence has been defined by the WHO as the period of life spanning the ages between 10 to 19 years. This is a vulnerable period in the human life cycle for the development of nutritional anaemia. The prevalence of anaemia among adolescents is 27% in developing countries and 6% in developed countries. The study was done with the objective to study the prevalence of anaemia among adolescent girls of selected urban slum of Bhopal.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted for a period of 3 months on adolescent girls residing in selected urban slum of Bhopal. 98 adolescent girls who were registered in Anganwadi and present at time of study were interviewed. The data regarding their socio-demographic profile, anthropometric measurements were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Hemoglobin level was also estimated using Hemocue (Hb 201) and participants were classified as having no, mild, moderate and severe anaemia based on WHO grading of anaemia. Data was compiled using MS Excel and analysed using Epi info 7.Results: Anaemia was present in 57.65% girls. Out of which 34.7% had mild, 44.9% had moderate and 20.4% had severe anaemia. 29.4% knew improper diet as a cause of anaemia followed by Vitamin deficiency (25.8%) and iron deficiency (22.3%). 29.4% girls did not know any cause of anaemia. Similarly 29.4% and 51.7% of study participants did not know of any symptoms and treatment of anaemia respectively.Conclusions: The overall prevalence of anaemia was high among study participants. Knowledge regarding anaemia, its symptoms, causes and treatment was very poor among study participants.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Quality of assessment of women at the time of admission for childbirth in
           secondary and tertiary public sector referral institutes in southern India

    • Authors: Mukta Tyagi, Samiksha Singh
      Pages: 1100 - 1108
      Abstract: Background: About 830 pregnant women die every day due to preventable causes which often get missed in initial assessment. We assessed the quality of assessment for high-risk conditions or complications at the time of admission for childbirth in two referral hospitals from a southern state of India.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among pregnant women admitted for childbirth in two hospitals (a district hospital and a medical college). We extracted information about high-risk assessment through history, examination and lab investigations and monitoring from case sheets and, prevalence of high-risk from registers. We interviewed the doctors and nurses, to understand the process of high-risk assessment for pregnant women at time of admission and monitoring thereafter.Results: Both the hospitals were lacking standard protocol for assessment and documentation in case-sheets was poor. Common investigations and basic examination was done for about two-thirds of cases but past and current history of common illness was elicited by only one-third of cases. Participants were insufficiently monitored during labour. 55% of the women had atleast one high-risk condition. Commonest high-risk was previous caesarean and complication noted was foetal distress. Most patients came in without referral records, and there was no mechanism for referral communication, or continuum of care across levels of care.Conclusions: A large proportion of pregnant women had any high-risk but a considerable proportion may be missed, or identified late. The documentation regarding assessment was poor. There is scope of improvement in high-risk assessment and monitoring of pregnant women admitted for childbirth. 
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Psychological distress, hopelessness and health service needs of late
           adolescents in rural Pondicherry, South India

    • Authors: R. Niranjjan, Sonali Sarkar, Karthik Balajee, Manikandan Srinivasan
      Pages: 1109 - 1115
      Abstract: Background: Late adolescence (15-19 years) is a period which entails stress and specific physical and mental health needs. The Objectives were to study the prevalence of psychological distress, hopelessness, and health service needs of late adolescence in rural Puducherry.Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in a service practice area of Jawaharlal Institute Rural Health centre (JIRHC) during July-August 2015. A pretested questionnaire was used to obtain demographic characteristics, health service needs and substance abuse among adolescents and their family members. Self-administered GHQ-12 questionnaire and becks hopelessness scale was used to assess the psychological distress and hopelessness respectively.Results: Of the total 324 participants, 170 (53%) were females. The mean (SD) age was 15.9 (1.3) years. One fifth of the adolescents (20.9%) had psychological distress. Moderate level of hopelessness was seen in 32 (10%) adolescents. Substance abuse was found in 125 (39%) of the family members of adolescents and 55 (44%) had problems at home related to the substance abuse. On multivariate analysis, problem in household due to substance abuse was the single independent risk factor [aOR 2.6; 95%CI (1.1-6.0)] for psychological distress. Majority of females expressed their need for an exclusive adolescent clinic (58%), sexual & reproductive awareness (67.5%) and information about contraception (67.4%). The need for mental health services was higher in females compared to males (55.6% vs. 44.3%), which was statistically significant (p<0.05).Conclusions: In rural area of Puducherry, one out of five adolescents had psychological distress and ten percentages of adolescents had moderate level of hopelessness requiring mental health and counselling services. 
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Hand hygiene: knowledge, attitude and practices among mothers of under 5
           children attending a tertiary care hospital in North India

    • Authors: Rajiv Kumar Gupta, Parveen Singh, Renu Rani, Rashmi Kumari, Chandini Gupta, Riya Gupta
      Pages: 1116 - 1121
      Abstract: Background: Hand hygiene remains the most cost effective strategy in prevention of health care associated infections as it may limit or completely stop the transmission of microorganisms. Poor hand hygiene practices, especially of the mothers of under five children are likely to pose a major threat to the health of their children. The present study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of under-five mothers visiting an outpatient department in a tertiary teaching care hospital in North India.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 330 mothers who were attending with their under five children in paediatrics OPD of Government Medical College, Jammu. A self-administered questionnaire which was pilot tested was administered to the consenting mothers. The questionnaire consisted of socio demographic information followed by knowledge, attitudes and practices of the respondents about hand washing.Results: Knowledge about spread of disease was excellent among the respondents. Other knowledge parameters like responsibility of mother to ensure proper hand washing among children and long nails can spread bacteria were better among the urban mothers (p<0.05). Similarly attitudes of the urban mothers were found to be more favourable especially about towel sharing and teaching children about proper hand washing (p<0.05). Practices like usage of soap and water after defecation were found to be excellent among both the urban and rural respondents. However higher proportion of urban females reminded their children about hand washing before and after eating (p<0.05).Conclusions: The study results reveal a better knowledge, attitude and practices among urban mothers in comparison to their rural counterparts. This necessitates community awareness generation regarding hand hygiene, more so in rural mothers, so that many communicable diseases which could be transmitted by improper hand hygiene are taken care of.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Are workers in construction sites of Mangalore city healthy' a
           cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Utsav Raj, Pracheth R., Nischith K. R.
      Pages: 1122 - 1126
      Abstract: Background: Construction site workers are prone to develop health problems due to poor living conditions. This is magnified by lack of timely access to health care. Thus, we sought to explore the health status of construction site workers.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in construction sites located in an urban area of Mangalore, from September to November, 2015 among workers aged ≥18 years, with consent. Information was obtained through a pre-designed, pre-tested interview schedule.Results: A total of 178 individuals participated in the study, which included 160 (89.80%) males. Majority, (80.80%), stated that they had experienced fever at least once in the past one year. Other major complaints were blocked nose (17.40%), followed by skin diseases (12.70%) and cough which was present in 12.30%. When the study participants had an illness, 65.70% visited a health facility. Majority (82.50%) preferred private doctors, 62.50% visited the doctor so that they could work better and earn more, and 37.0% were unable to afford the treatment due to high treatment cost.Conclusions: The most common health complaint was found to be fever. Nearly half of the study participants had illness which required treatment in the last one year. More than half visited a health facility when ill. A high proportion (82.50%) preferred private health facility.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Availing entitlements under Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram in Tamil
           Nadu: a reality

    • Authors: Vinoth Gnana Chellaiyan, Christina S. C. Christopher, Shailaja Daral
      Pages: 1127 - 1132
      Abstract: Background: Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram (JSSK) was launched in India to improve maternal and child healthcare, and to alleviate out of pocket expenditure on healthcare. The objective was to analyze the awareness and utilization of the JSSK entitlements among residents in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Thriuporur block, which was selected randomly from 13 blocks of Kancheepuram district. Two primary health care centers - Ezhichur and Thiruporur of Thriuporur block, were selected based on population proportion to size. A total of 80 mothers who had recently delivered a live child were selected randomly from these two PHCS. The data was collected through house to house visits by trained interviewers using a pretested, validated, structured questionnaire.Results: Mean age of the participants was 24.58 (±3.32) years. Around fifty two participants were aware about the scheme. Better awareness was seen with higher literacy and higher socioeconomic status (p=-0.043, 0,032). Cashless deliveries (100%) and free drugs (100%) were availed by all participants and among the neonates, free diagnostics (100%) and blood transfusions (100%) were availed by all. Transportation services to and from health institutions were utilized by 1.2% of the participants. Majority of the participants (98%) spent on conveyance to and from hospital.Conclusions: Though the study revealed good awareness of the scheme among the participants, it showed insight into the existing gaps in utilization of these services. Further effort is required in providing additional information on JSSK and its services within institutions and at the community level. 
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Assessment of hand hygiene knowledge among medical and nursing students of
           Mysore medical college and research institute, Mysore

    • Authors: Manasa K., Chandrakumar S. G., Prashantha B.
      Pages: 1133 - 1137
      Abstract: Background: Improper hand hygiene among health care workers is the main cause for many nosocomial infections. Lack of knowledge and lack of recognition of hand hygiene opportunities during patient care are mainly responsible for poor hand hygiene among health care workers.Methods: Knowledge on hand hygiene was assessed using WHO hand hygiene questionnaire among medical and nursing students of Mysore medical college and research institute.Results: Among 276 medical and 225 nursing students who participated in the study, 26% of medical and 33% of nursing students had received formal training in hand hygiene in the last three years. Less than 50% of students had knowledge on source, routes of transmission of germs and minimal time needed for hand rubbing in hospital setting.Conclusions: The knowledge is limited on hand hygiene actions which shows the importance of inclusion of hand hygiene topic in curriculum. 
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Determinants of vision function related quality of life of patients
           undergoing unilateral cataract surgical services in charitable hospitals
           in India: a multicentre prospective cohort study

    • Authors: Elizabeth Kurian, Pankaj Vishwakarma, Jaikumar Deenadayalan, Amit Mondal, Dhanaji Ranpise, Shobhana Chavan, Prem Kumar S. G.
      Pages: 1138 - 1148
      Abstract: Background: Cataract is the leading cause of avoidable blindness in developing world, including India. The objective of this study is to measure the changes in quality of life (VRQoL) after cataract surgery and identify the predictors of an improvement in these outcomes.Methods: A multi-center prospective, longitudinal cohort study was conducted. At baseline patients aged ≥18 years with first-eye cataract were interviewed about VRQoL. Six months’ later participants were re-interviewed at their residences. Multiple classification analysis (MCA) was performed to assess the variation in the intensities of mean change scores for general function, psychosocial impact and visual function with select factors.Results: The six-month follow-up rate was 87.3%. There was a significant improvement in visual acuity and VRQoL post-surgery. The mean general function, psychosocial impact and visual function scores were 34.6 (SD 10.9), 10.5 (SD 3.7) and 8.4 (SD 2.2) in the baseline and 15 (SD 5.5), 5 (SD 2.2) and 4.4 (SD 1.6) in the follow-up assessments, respectively. In MCA, patients prescribed spectacles post-surgery (β 0.137) and those from rural backgrounds (β 0.137) had the most impact on general function. Patients with complete follow-up visits had a relatively higher effect on the psychosocial impact (β 0.084) whereas patients from rural background and men had the most impact on the visual function scores (β 0.102 and 0.076) respectively.Conclusions:Cataract surgery is associated with meaningful improvements in VRQoL in general. The determinants of better VFQoL include regular and complete patient follow-up visits and prescription and provision of spectacles post-surgery.  
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Socio-demographic determinants of vitamin A supplementation in Bangladesh:
           evidence from two rounds of Bangladesh demographic and health surveys,
           2007 and 2011

    • Authors: Manoj Kumar Raut
      Pages: 1149 - 1156
      Abstract: Background: Vitamin A supplementation reduces night blindness, child morbidity and mortality. In Bangladesh, Vitamin A deficiency among children 6-59 months has remained just about stagnant at 20.5 per cent as per the latest Bangladesh National Micronutrient Status Survey 2011-12 declining by a meagre 1.2 per cent from 21.7 per cent in 1997 (IPHN/HKI, 1997). Alarmingly, there is an absolute decline of 24 percentage points in VAS supplementation from 2007 to 2011 according to the Bangladesh Demographic & Health Surveys (BDHS). The current status of vitamin A supplementation raises concern because the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW)’s Health, Population and Nutrition Sector Development Program (HPNSDP) 2011-2016 target of 90 per cent needs to be achieved by 2016.Methods: This paper tries to explore the socio-demographic causes of receipt of Vitamin A in Bangladesh by analysing the data of the demographic and health surveys for 2007 and 2011 using SAS software. A log binomial regression was conducted to explore the effect of education and exposure to mass media on receipt of vitamin A supplementation.Results: After adjusting for related socio-economic and demographic factors, parent’s education and among mass media channels, television seems to play an important role in predicting receipt of Vitamin A, (Prevalence Ratio [PR]: 1.0973, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.0499-1.1469) in BDHS 2011. Similarly, also those who watched television were more likely to have received vitamin A (Prevalence Ratio [PR]: 1.0542, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.0304-1.0784).Conclusions: It can be concluded that mass media seems to be working well in making the mothers aware about the vitamin A campaign, especially, the exposure to television. Though mother’s education was not associated in the 2007 survey, but it was significantly associated with the receipt of vitamin A in the 2011 survey.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Burnout among clinicians in tertiary care setting

    • Authors: Rajya Lakshmi Chepuru, Siva Kumar Lotheti, Devi Madhavi Bhimarasetty
      Pages: 1157 - 1161
      Abstract: Background: “Burnout” is defined as a state of physical, emotional and mental exhaustion, or a coping mechanism to working conditions that are stressful, demanding and lack of recognition. Effects of burnout are many and can eventually threaten one’s job satisfaction, relationship and also health. High patient load, long working hours, poor logistics and infrastructure support and unreasonable demands from patients make clinicians vulnerable for stress and burnout. Objective was to study the prevalence of burn out in clinicians and factors associated with burnout.Methods: The study was an observational descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among Doctors in clinical departments of a Tertiary Medical care setting in October-November 2015. Sample size was 97. Study was conducted using Maslach Burnout Inventory with additional questions on demographic factors, work experience, hours of work and speciality. The inventory comprised 22 items on a seven-point Likert scale. Frequency of symptoms (ranging from ‘0=never’ to ‘6=every day’). Burnout was measured in three dimensions - emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP) and personal accomplishment (PA). The data was collected after taking Institutional ethics committee approval and verbal consent from participants. Data was analyzed using MS Excel 2007.Results: About 15% 0f clinicians showed high emotional exhaustion, 9% high depersonalization, and 18% low Personal accomplishment. More Females showed burnout than males and more clinicians from surgical branches showed burnout when compared to medical branches.Conclusions: Burnout exists among healthcare professionals and measures should be taken to identify causes and take remedial actions.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • A study on complementary feeding practices among mothers in urban and
           rural areas

    • Authors: Sandhya Rani Javalkar, Radha Y. Aras
      Pages: 1162 - 1166
      Abstract: Background: Adequate nutrition during infancy and early childhood is essential to ensure the growth, health, and development of children to their full potential. Complementary feeding is a process starting when breast milk alone is no longer sufficient to meet the nutritional requirements of infants, and therefore other foods and liquids are needed, along with breast milk. The objective was to study complementary feeding practices and the various factors influencing them in urban and rural areas.Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted in Urban and Rural area of Mangalore Taluk. Data was collected by interview method among 408 mothers using a predesigned pretested questionnaire, information regarding demographic profile, socio-economic status, complementary feeding practices, etc was collected.Results: As many as 186 (45.3%) i.e., 129/186 (69.3%) mothers in the rural area and 57/186 (30.6%) mothers in urban area started complementary feeds at the age of 6 months. The most common food preferred as complementary food was combination of rice and dal together. The number of meals per day given to the child varied from 2-4/day. The number of snacks given per day to the child varied from 1-4 /day; commonly preferred snacks were Biscuits both in urban and rural areas Bottle feeding was practiced by 181 (44.4%) of the mothers, that included 113/181 (62.4%) from rural area and 68/181 (37.5%) from urban area.Conclusions: Poor complementary feeding practices were observed both in rural and urban areas. Family member’s advice, poor knowledge and influence of baby food marketing strategies have resulted in inappropriate practices.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Socio-demographic factors affecting utilization of toilet among peoples
           attending tertiary care hospital at Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh

    • Authors: Shailesh K. Kawale, Hemlata Thakur, Vivek Sharma, Anmol Minz
      Pages: 1167 - 1171
      Abstract: Background: By the end of 2011 there were 2.5 billion people, over one third of the world’s population, living without safe, adequate sanitation and hygiene. The government of India is working towards making an open defecation free communities all over the India through Swachh Bharat Mission. So present study was conducted with the objective to find out toilet utilisation and its associated socio-demographic factors among study population.Methods: A cross sectional, hospital based study was conducted among peoples attending tertiary care hospital of our medical college CIMS, Bilaspur. Total 384 individuals were interviewed during June 2017 to November 2017 by using predesigned and pretested questionnaire after taking written informed consent.Results: Among the total 384 study participants 75.8% ware male, maximum participants were in age group 30-49 years (i.e. 44.5%), 72.4% were married and 88.4% were literate. 62.8% study participants were residing in rural area, 55.4% were having kuccha house, 56.5% were having more than 5 members in their family and 27.6% were having under 5 year children in their family. Among study participants 83.9% were utilize toilet. Gender of study participant, residence, marital status, presence of under 5 years child in family and type of house of study participants are significantly associated with toilet utilization (p<0.05).Conclusions:Though overall toilet utilization is good but focus should be given to male population and especially peoples residing in rural area to achieve open defecation free India under Swachh Bharat Mission.  
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Nutritional status of 1-5 years children in the urban slum area of
           Jagdalpur city, Bastar region, Chhattisgarh

    • Authors: Q. H. Khan, Garima Arora, Susheel Kumar Nalli
      Pages: 1172 - 1176
      Abstract: Background: Nutritional status is the best indicator of the child health. Malnutrition has both short and long term adverse ramifications. As per NFHS III 47% children are stunted in the state of Chhattisgarh. However still many communities in the tribal dominated and naxal affected state may remain affected, hence the study was planned to identify the nutritional status of children and find out its determinant.Methods: Present cross-sectional study was conducted among 12-59 months children in the urban slum of Jagdalpur city, Bastar region of Chhattisgarh. Predesigned and pretested questionnaire was administered to the caregiver of the child, information on socio-demographic characteristics was obtained and anthropometric measurements were taken. Statistical Analysis: all frequencies were derived for completeness of data. WHO Anthro Software version 3.1.0 was used to classify the malnutrition status. Chi-square test was applied to find association between dependent variables.Results: Out of 225 children 53.3% were boys and 46.7% were girls. The overall prevalence of underweight stunting and wasting was 28.4%, 41.3%, and 19.1% respectively.Conclusions: Prevalence of underweight has reduced in the district over a period of years. However high level of stunting, a sign of chronic hunger points towards the pivotal role of socio-demographic and behavioral practices prevalent in the district. Interaction with health system in the form of ANC, institutional delivery and safeguarding effective 100% immunization coverage has shown preventive effect.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Morbidity profile of communicable diseases in a tertiary care hospital of
           Chandrapur, Maharashtra

    • Authors: Shital S. Dhoble, Devishri P. Atram, Sanjay S. Kubde, Anil Naitam
      Pages: 1177 - 1180
      Abstract: Background: Worldwide, developed and developing countries are facing the double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases. However, developing countries like India is more exposed and vulnerable due to multitude of factors. Objectives were to study the morbidity patterns of communicable diseases of indoor patients at tertiary care hospital and find out the seasonal distribution of the communicable diseases.Methods: A retrospective study was done over a period of 1 year from April 2016 to March 2017. 4766 admitted patients of communicable diseases were included using universal sampling method. Diagnosis was categorized as per International classification of Disease (ICD) 10 classification. Data was analyzed using spss 16.Results: Out of the total 4766 admitted patients, 62% were females and 38% were males. 56.40% patients admitted in the most productive age group (15-45 years) followed by 14.35% and 8.06% geriatric population and under 5 children respectively. Peak in admission was seen in monsoon season (July to Sept.). 34.54% patients were admitted for bacterial cause followed by 30.03% acute gastroenteritis (AGE). AGE, viral fever, malaria were more commonly seen in female while typhoid, measles, tuberculosis were more commonly seen in male.Conclusions: Many diseases have a seasonal variation and the burden of these diseases could be reduced if we take measures to detect the changes in their trend through the implementation of surveillance programs. 
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • ROME: a tool to train under graduate medical students as community health
           care providers

    • Authors: Rajesh Kumar Konduru, Amit Kumar Mishra, Manikandan M., Joy Bazroy
      Pages: 1181 - 1184
      Abstract: Background: Re-Orientation of Medical Education (ROME) program is relatively a new teaching and learning method for undergraduate medical students which enables them to achieve the knowledge and skills to provide effective community health care. Objective of this study was to find out which of the various activities that were carried out during the ROME posting helped them to achieve the required knowledge and skills to provide effective Community Health Care.Methods: A descriptive study was conducted among 101 undergraduate MBBS students who participated in the ROME posting under the Department of Community Medicine of a medical college in Puducherry. Predesigned and pretested questionnaire was used to get the feedback regarding the various teaching-learning methods applied during this ROME posting which was carried out for one full month and about various activities that were carried out by the students such as clinical examination, data collection, data entry and analysis, development of IEC materials and their administration, organizing medical camps, maintaining drug inventory, sanitation campaign and report writing under the supervision of Intern, PG and faculty.Results: “Learning through performing individual tasks” was the most popular teaching-learning method. “Conducting survey” and “data entry” were the most sought after activities by the students.Conclusions: ROME posting helps in motivating undergraduate medical students to apply the principles of comprehensive approach towards various medical problems and thereby fulfill the ultimate aim of creating efficient Community Health Care Providers. 
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Ascertainment of risk factors and clinical course for neonates with early
           onset sepsis in a tertiary care hospital, rural area, Punjab

    • Authors: Rashmi Kashyap, Surinder Kaur, Aarti Sareen
      Pages: 1185 - 1190
      Abstract: Background: Neonatal sepsis is the most common cause for neonatal mortality and morbidity. Despite advances in neonatal care, the impact of neonatal sepsis remains marked in developing countries. Thus identifying the risk factors is crucial for optimizing neonatal care.Methods: A prospective study was conducted among inborn and outborn neonates with risk factors or clinical features of Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis admitted in nursery and Neonatal intensive care unit, GSMCH, Banur, Distt Patiala, Punjab during the period from August 2014 to January 2015. Outcome variables were the association of neonatal, maternal and environmental factors with Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis (EONS). Overall clinical course in terms of survival/death, Short term outcome of those who survived based on clinical improvement and culture sensitivity report. Analysis was done using percentage, range, mean, standard deviation. Chi square test and multivariate regression analysis was done for comparison between various risk factors and EONS.Results: A total of 85 neonates were enrolled in the study. There were 71 (83.42%) inborn neonates and 14 (16.47%) neonates were outborn. Based on Haematological System Score of >3, sepsis among the inborn neonates was present in 29(40.84%), while in outborn babies sepsis was present in 13 (92.85%) neonates which was statistically significant (p=0.000). Comparison of risk factors like birth asphyxia and unclean vaginal examination showed statistically significant difference (p=0.002; 0.002) between neonates with sepsis and those without sepsis.Conclusions: Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. The study concludes that birth asphyxia and unclean vaginal examination are strong risk factors for early onset neonatal sepsis. 
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Challenges faced by the visually disabled in use of medication,
           consequences of medication errors and their self-adopted coping strategies
           at a tertiary care hospital in Goa, India

    • Authors: Mrudul Naik, Jagadish A. Cacodcar, Nitin Y. Dhupdale
      Pages: 1191 - 1196
      Abstract: Background: Visual impairment (VI) does limit individual’s ability to complete everyday tasks and impact their quality of life and ability to interact with their environment. The objectives of this study are to determine challenges faced by people with Visually Disability, medicine administration errors and self-adopted coping strategies.Methods: An observational case series study design was used for the data collection. The data was collected from January-June 2014. The study participants were included all patients more than 18 years who were certified as visually handicap.Results: The major challenges faced by total 146 visually disabled patients studied were, 51.36% couldn’t locate the place of medication and 45.89% couldn’t identify the separate containers of medications. The major Medications errors included of 30.13% study participants had missed doses and spilled medications. The most commonly used coping measures were keeping medications at specific places, identifying separate drugs by feeling the shape of the container.Conclusions: The challenges included, inability to locate the place of medication, inability to identify the separate containers of medications, unaware of correct dose, inability to maintain dose schedule and difficulty in using liquid medications. Medication errors included, missing doses, spillage of medications, consumption of wrong medication, wrong dosage, inability to complete course of prescribed medications. The coping strategies adopted included, keeping medications at specific places, identifying separate drugs by feeling the shape of the container, tracking the time of routine medications with the timings of the TV serials/shows. 
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • A cross sectional study on the prevalence and factors associated with
           geriatric depression in an urban slum of Davangere city

    • Authors: Ruchi Dhar, Vidya G. S., Ritu Kashyap
      Pages: 1197 - 1200
      Abstract: Background: Various community-based studies have revealed that the prevalence of depression in geriatric population in India varies between 13% and 25%. In spite of the magnitude of this problem there are very few studies from India investigating geriatric depression and its associated risk factors. This study aims to establish the prevalence, socio- demographic correlates and factors associated with geriatric depression in an urban slum of Davangere city. Objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of depression and its association with socio- demographic factors among the geriatric population in an urban slum of Davangere city.Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted from June to November 2016, among the geriatric people residing in an urban slum (Mustafanagar) of Davangere city. A house to house survey was done and all the geriatric people willing to participate in the study were selected and assessed for depression using the Geriatric Depression Scale.Results: In this study the prevalence of depression was found to be 39% among the elderly, of which 33% had mild depression and 6% had severe depression.Conclusions: In this study it was found that the prevalence of depression was higher among those who were widowed and those who were living alone. It was also more among the people belonging to Class V Socio-economic status (Modified B.G Prasad Classification) and people suffering from a chronic illness.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • A study to assess mass drug administration of DEC for filaria control in
           district Satna, Madhya Pradesh: a mid term assessment

    • Authors: Vivek Sharma, Vikrant Kabirpanthi
      Pages: 1201 - 1205
      Abstract: Background: Lymphatic filariasis is a major public health problem which is caused by Wuchereria Bancrofti and Brugia Malai. The disease is endemic in 250 districts in 20 states and UTs. In India national health policy 2002 envisages elimination of lymphatic filariasis by 2015. Important strategy for elimination of lymphatic filariasis is through annual mass drug administration of single dose of DEC for 5 year or more to the eligible population. Present cross sectional study was carried out to assess drug compliance after mass drug administration of DEC and the factors responsible for poor compliance among the population of Satna district of MP.Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional study which was carried out in filarial endemic Satna district. In this district 120 houses from 3 CHC & one urban ward was randomly selected. 30 households each from 3 rural and one urban site were interviewed related to MDA for DEC.Results: Coverage of tablet distribution in Satna was 90.9%. Consumption of drug among the people who received the drug was 87.97%, while the total effective consumption was 79.9%. Drug distributors ensured consumption of drug in only 16.9%.Conclusions: Focus of MDA is primarily to mere distribution of drug. There is need to give emphasis on consumption of drug, health education, common side effects and its management in order to increase effective coverage rate. 
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Knowledge, attitude and practice of food hygiene among street food vendors
           near a tertiary care hospital in Kolkata, India

    • Authors: Saswati Mukherjee, Tushar Kanti Mondal, Abhishek De, Raghunath Misra, Amitabha Pal
      Pages: 1206 - 1211
      Abstract: Background: Health care set ups in Indian cities are being catered by a number of street food vendors on whom the patients, visitors, doctors, medical students and staff depend. Thus, ensuring proper food hygiene among them is of uttermost importance. The purpose of the study was to determine knowledge, attitude and practice of food hygiene among them and various factors that influence it.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 106 street food vendors surrounding a tertiary care hospital in Kolkata. A predesigned pretested schedule was used to collect information on socio-demographic profile, knowledge and attitude on food hygiene through interviews and practice was observed. Statistical analysis was done using Pearson’s Chi-squared test.Results: The mean age of food vendors was 37.74±10.70 years and majority were familiar with the terms “food hygiene” and “food borne illness”. The median score of attitude on food hygiene was 9.5 and significant (p<0.05) association was found with age, gender and education. Less than one third of street food vendors had acceptable practice and significant (p<0.05) association was found with education, marital status and type of food vendor.Conclusions: The street food vendors were aware of food hygiene and had favourable attitude towards it, but it wasn’t translated in their hygiene practice. This study can help to identify the factors that influence food hygiene practice and incorporate them in food hygiene training. 
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • A study of the factors influencing the utilization of family planning
           methods in urban slums of Allahabad district, Uttar Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Yachna Setu, Shiv Prakash, Khurshid Parveen, Richa Singh
      Pages: 1212 - 1217
      Abstract: Background: India was the first country to launch National Family Planning Program in 1952, but still the country’s desired total fertility rate and contraceptive prevalence rate have not achieved. The use of family planning methods is better in urban areas as compared to rural areas and it is worse in urban slums. Objective of the stud was to find out the utilization pattern of family planning methods and identifying the factors influencing it.Methods: A community based cross sectional study was carried out on eligible couples selected from urban slums of Allahabad district by multistage random sampling and were interviewed by using pre-tested schedule. Data analysis was done by using SPSS version 21.Results: A total of 356 eligible couples (age 15-49 years) were surveyed for a period of one year. It was observed that 45.78% (163/356) of eligible couples were using any of the family planning method and most commonly used method was female sterilization (53.98%), followed by condom (18.40%), then IUCDs (13.49%), injectables, OCPs and Natural methods (approx 4%) use. The use of family planning methods was found to be associated with women’s age, duration of marriage, caste categories, men’s education status, number of living children.Conclusions: The use of family planning methods is low in slums areas and to improve the condition awareness should be created. 
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Nutritional status and cognitive impairment in elderly population in a
           rural area of Thrissur district, Kerala

    • Authors: Remya Ramachandran, Jenyz M. Mundodan, C. R. Saju, Vidhu M. Joshy
      Pages: 1218 - 1223
      Abstract: Background: The past decade has witnessed a marked increase in elderly population of India. This rapid ageing will substantially increase the number of elderly individuals, who are affected by cognitive impairment. Recent studies suggest the association between malnutrition and cognitive impairment in elderly. This study aims to describe the nutritional status and cognitive impairment in elderly population in a rural area of Thrissur district, Kerala.Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in 100 elderly residents of Adat Panchayat, Thrissur, from January to April 2016. Data was collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire, which included socio-demographic variables, self-reported physical morbidities, mini mental state examination (MMSE) scale and mini nutritional assessment (MNA) scale.Results: The prevalence of cognitive impairment and malnutrition in elderly was noted to be 55% and 12% respectively. Factors showing significant association with MMSE score included older age groups, female gender, elderly belonging to BPL families, financial dependence, single/widowed status and sleep difficulties. The association between cognitive impairment and nutritional status was found to be statistically significant with a p value of <0.001. A moderate to strong correlation was observed between MNA score and MMSE score (r=0.623).Conclusions: There is an association between cognitive impairment and nutritional deficit. Therefore it is essential to screen elderly for nutritional status while assessing cognitive impairment.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Health communication in primary health care

    • Authors: Rashmi G. Patel, T. Stephen
      Pages: 1224 - 1226
      Abstract: Developing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) supported health communication in PHC could contribute to increased health literacy and empowerment, which are foundations for enabling people to increase control over their health, as a way to reduce increasing lifestyle related ill health. However, to increase the likelihood of success of implementing ICT supported health communication, it is essential to conduct a detailed analysis of the setting and context prior to the intervention. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of health communication for health promotion in PHC with emphasis on the implications for a planned ICT supported interactive health channel.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Your IP address:
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-