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HEALTH AND SAFETY (506 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 171)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access  
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription  
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Heart Insight     Full-text available via subscription  
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Policy and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Professions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Health Sciences Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Health Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Healthcare Delivery Reform Initiatives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Healthcare Information Systems and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Healthcare Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
  [4 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2394-6032 - ISSN (Online) 2394-6040
   Published by Medip Academy Homepage  [12 journals]
  • Cross sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice regarding dengue
           among adult population visiting a tertiary care hospital in Puducherry,

    • Authors: Bershic Valantine, R. Prahan Kumar, Senthilvel Vasudevan, Jayanthi Sureshbabu, Zile Singh
      Pages: 623 - 627
      Abstract: Background: Dengue is one of the world’s emerging and rapidly spreading pandemic disease of public health importance.  High rainfall and low temperatures are associated with increased number of dengue cases.Methods: A hospital based cross sectional study was conducted between 15th August 2013 and 15th October 2013 with a sample of 200 in a tertiary care multi-speciality hospital in Puducherry using pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. The study protocol was approved by ICMR and Institutional (PIMS) Ethical Committee.  Participants were included in the study based on the following criteria: (1) More than 20 years of age. (2) Permanent resident of Pondicherry.Results: Out of the 200 participants 68% were males and 32% were females. Most of them (64%) had gone to schools, while 9.5% were illiterates. Of the 200 participants, 180 (90%) knew that mosquito is the vector for Dengue. 162 (81%) of participants felt hospitalisation is necessary for dengue management. 80% of participants mentioned use of ceiling fan as a predominantly used preventive measure against mosquito bite, whereas 43% of them use mosquito coils to avoid mosquito bites. Majority of the respondents (66%) spend less than Rs.100 ($ 1.47) in a month for various mosquito preventive measures.Conclusions: The knowledge about dengue was good, although more awareness needs to be created to identify the clinical signs of dengue. The overall attitude and practices of the participants towards dengue care, prevention and control is good. 
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170531
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Outcome of pregnancy among high risk pregnancies in rural area of Nagpur,
           Central India

    • Authors: Ashok Rupraoji Jadhao, Mahendra D. Gawade, Suresh N. Ughade
      Pages: 628 - 633
      Abstract: Background: All pregnant women, by virtue of their pregnancy status, face some level of maternal risk. Some pregnancies are complicated by problems associated with mother’s health. Most maternal morbidities could be prevented if mother had access to appropriate and timely healthcare during pregnancy. Study was intended to find out prevalence of high risk pregnancy and pregnancy outcome among them in rural area of Nagpur district, Central India.Methods: Community based observational descriptive study was conducted on consecutive sample of 214 pregnant women, who had 20 weeks and above gestational period.Results: Prevalence of high risk pregnancy observed was 33.64% (95% CI 27.31%-39.97%). Caesarean section (OR=7.63, 95% CI=4.04-14.40, P=0.0001) and birth weight less than 2500gm (OR= 3.47, 95% CI=1.47-8.20, P=0.003) were significantly associated with high risk pregnancy. Mode of delivery caesarean section had strong relationship with previous history of caesarean section (OR=37.53, 95% CI=8.64-163.05, P=0.0001) and mothers height less than or equal to 140cm (OR=8.87, 95% CI=1.02-77.32, P = 0.0183). Pregnancy outcome low birth weight was significantly associated with oligohyramnios (OR = 8.45, 95 % CI=1.61-44.48, P=0.003) and history of caesarean section (OR=2.67, 95 % CI=1.01-7.07, P = 0.041).Conclusions: Prevalence of high risk pregnancy was almost one-third in pregnant women in rural area of central India. Mode of delivery caesarean section and birth weight less than 2500gm was significantly associated with high risk pregnancy. History of caesarean section and height less than or equal to 140 cm influence the outcome of pregnancy i.e. caesarean section. Birth weight, LBW (Low Birth Weight) was associated with history of caesarean section and oligohyramnios.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170443
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Clinician's practices and perspectives regarding tobacco cessation in
           a teaching Hospital, Karnataka, India

    • Authors: Sumana M., Sreelatha C. Y., Sundar M., Narottam Das
      Pages: 634 - 639
      Abstract: Background: Cessation of tobacco is important to prevent non-communicable diseases and mortality. Smokers frequently approach doctors for various health ailments. This opportunity can be utilized to give tobacco cessation advice. This study aims to assess the clinician’s practice perspectives barriers and need for the training related to tobacco cessation.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore tobacco cessation practices of clinicians of a teaching hospital attached to Medical College in Hassan, Karnataka, India. Pre-tested, pre-structured self-administered questionnaire was distributed to all the clinicians in person. All the Professors, Associate Professors, Assistant Professors, Senior Residents and Junior Residents in the departments coming in contact with smokers were included in the study and patients were also interviewed to assess their smoking status, willingness to quit and counselling by physicians using pre-structured oral questionnaire.Results: Almost 84.4% of clinicians said they ask about smoking history but only 50.9% said they assess patients’ willingness to quit smoking. 37% assist patients to quit smoking and 29.8% arranged follow up visits. 25% of clinicians mentioned undergraduate and postgraduate training prepared them to help patients quit smoking. Remaining said it was inadequate. All agreed that it is their role to help, motivate, discuss, speak, refer and monitor patients who smoke to quit.Conclusions: Majority of the doctors believed that they play a very important role in tobacco cessation activities. There is a need for Undergraduate and postgraduate skill based training to assist patients quit the tobacco habit. The study showed a need for adherence and reinforcement of tobacco cessation guidelines. 
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170509
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • A study on demographic and clinical profile of children with extra hepatic
           portal venous obstruction and with special reference to thrombophilic

    • Authors: Sushanta Kumar Jena, Minakshi Mohanty, Umesh Chandra Patra, Sanatan Behera
      Pages: 640 - 645
      Abstract: Background: Extra-hepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO) due to portal vein thrombosis is an important cause of portal hypertension in several region including India. The cause of thrombosis in these patients remains unclear. Objective of the study was to study the demographic features, etiology, clinical, laboratory findings with special reference to thrombophilic factors like protein C, protein S and antithrombin III deficiency in children with EHPVO.Methods: The prospective analysis of 62 patients of EHPVO (<14 years of age) was done in the Department of Hepatology, SCB medical College, Cuttack. After detailed history, clinical examination, Ultrasound abdomen /color Doppler and Upper GI endoscopy, the subjects were analyzed for any deficiency of thrombophilic factors like protein C, protein S and antithrombin III.Results: A total of 62 patients (37 Male, 25 Female) with mean age of 8.3+3.1 years were studied. Growth retardation was present in the form of wasting (alone) 20.9%, stunting (alone) 25.8% and both wasting and stunting was found in 9.8% cases. History of neonatal, umbilical sepsis and umbilical vein catheterization was found in 15.9% and 10.2% of cases respectively. Haemorrhage from oesophageal varices was prevalent symptoms in 85.9% patients. Splenomegaly was found in 91.9% patients and ascites in 9.4% patients. 47 patients studied for protein C, S and antithromibin III. 14 patients were found to have thrombophilia: protein C deficiency in 9, protein S deficiency in 8, Antithrombin III deficiency in 6.Conclusions: The etiology of EHPVO in the majority of patients remain still unclear. It is commonly associated impaired somatic growth. The risk of EHPVO increases in the presence of thrombophilia, resulting from deficiency of naturally occurring anticoagulant proteins like Protein C, Protein S and Antithrombin III. 
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170468
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Effectiveness of baby friendly hospital initiative implementation on
           timely initiation of breast feeding - a comparative study

    • Authors: Sujamol Jacob, Simi Prasadchandran Seetha, Yesodha Sujatha
      Pages: 646 - 651
      Abstract: Background: Breast milk is unquestionably the best milk for new born baby. As per UNICEF and WHO, immediate initiation and exclusive breast feeding for six months are essential for reducing infant and neonatal mortality and malnutrition and improving young child survival. In a study conducted by Indian Association of Pediatrics (IAP) in 2009 showed that there has been an alarming decline in breast feeding practices over years. This created great concern and Ministry of Health and Family Welfare decided to revive the BFHI programme, a global movement that aims to give every baby the best start in life by creating a health care environment where breast feeding is the norm. We, the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sree Avittom Thirunal Hospital, Government Medical College, Trivandrum, Kerala conducted a study to compare the breast-feeding practices prior to and after implementation of BFHI programme.Methods: This was a comparative study done in 2013 -14 among 320 post-natal mothers delivered at SAT hospital before and after BFHI implementation to study the improvement in Breast feeding practices.Results: The revamping programme of BFHI brought significant change in timely initiation of breast feeding within one hour of delivery. Knowledge of mothers increased in the post implementation group. Proactive approach from the part of health workers also showed significant improvement.Conclusions: The campaign has initiated a positive response highlighting the benefits of breast feeding and dangers of bottle or animal milk feeding. A well-organized community awareness programme involving obstetrician, pediatrician and other health personnel will help in promotion of breast feeding through periodic review of the status and progress of the programme.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170733
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Study of group education interventions for people with low back pain

    • Authors: Rishabh Gupta, Shavi Mahajan, Deepika Dewan, Rajat Gupta
      Pages: 652 - 656
      Abstract: Background: Backcare education administered in a group situation is one of the most effective and economic methods of treating back pain. It is based on available scientific knowledge of the physiology and mechanics of the spinal structures and their relationship to daily activities. It provides the patient with a better understanding of the problem, aiming primarily at helping the patient take responsibility for his or her back pain, while relieving pain and functional disability.Methods: This study was carried out on 100 patients of chronic low back pain, attending the OPD of Post Graduate Department of Orthopaedics, Government Medical College Jammu for a period of one year. Assessment was carried out before the treatment and after the treatment at four weeks, three months & six months post treatment. The following scales were used to measure the therapeutic response: the Modified Oswestry low back pain disability index, Visual analogue score (VAS), and clinical parameters like finger to floor distance and straight leg raising.Results: The patients showed significant improvement at 1 month, 3 months and 6 months post treatment when compared to base-line data (p<0.001).Conclusions: It was concluded that all chronic low back pain patients would benefit from a group program of back care education. 
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170734
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Pattern of eye diseases among participants of free eye screening program
           in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    • Authors: Emem G. Abraham, Emmanuel O. Megbelayin
      Pages: 657 - 661
      Abstract: Background: Vision screening can help discover some problems hitherto unknown to the patient but it is also a fact that many other disease conditions may also be missed during screening depending on the qualification and skill of those carrying out the test and the available instruments for screening. Eye diseases differ from country to country and even within the same country from community to community and knoweledge of the disease pattern in a given environment is critical for planning of appropraite intervention programs.Methods: Free eye health intervention program was carried out and patients were inially screened by optometrists and ophthalmic nurses for cataract, presbyopia and other minor ophthalmic problems. Patients that had other problems including complicated cataract were referred for further consultation with the ophthalmologists in the field..Results: Of the 547 who were further screened by the ophthalmologists in the field 243 (44.4%) were males and 304 (55.6%) were females with male to female ratio of 1: 1.25. The age range was 1-87 years. The mean(SD) age was 51.27years, median 53years, and mode was 60 years. Cataract and its related problem was the commonest condition139(25.4%), followed by glaucoma 78(14.3%). Age related macular degeneration(AMD) was the commonest posterior segment finding 27(4.9%)  while corneal opacity 11(2.0%) was the commonest anterior segment finding and 19(3.5%) were bilaterally blind.Conclusions: The eye health indices of the people as shown by the disease prevalence and the number of those bilaterally blind are still very poor.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170735
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Health services rendered through Accredited Social Health Activists to
           rural Uttar Pradesh, India: community’s perception

    • Authors: Santosh Kumar, Rajesh Garg, Haroon Ali Siddiqui, Rupali Roy
      Pages: 662 - 669
      Abstract: Background: To reduce infant and maternal mortality in India, the Government of India (GOI), under its flagship program, National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), in 2005, introduced a new village based health functionary named Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) to act as a bridge between rural population and health care delivery system. To a large extent the actualization of the goals of NRHM depends on the functional efficacy of ASHA as a grass root health activist.Methods: The Study was conducted in a Chiraigaon Block of District Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh., India from October 2008 to September 2009. A total of 270 beneficiaries comprising of mothers, who have delivered during the study period or within last six months since initiation of the study were enrolled and interviewed. Apart from that, 20 Multi Purpose Health Workers- Female (MPHW-F), 30 elected village Heads and five Medical officers were interviewed independently to know their opinions about work performance of ASHA.Results: This study revealed that 80 % of beneficiaries availed Ante Natal Care (ANC) check up. A total of 97% of the beneficiaries had received 100 tablets of Iron Folic Acid (IFA), 72% of the beneficiaries were counseled for nutrition during pregnancy and the child immunization coverage was more than 80%.  About 75% of multi purpose Health Worker-Female (MPHW-F), 83 % of the village heads and 80% of the Medical Officers were of the opinion that the maternal and child health (MCH) services have improved after ASHAs introduction. Conclusions: Overall, ASHA’s impact in the form of counseling on health services utilization by beneficiaries was observed to be statistically significant.  
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170736
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • A cross-sectional study on internet addiction among medical students

    • Authors: Cynthia Subhaprada S., Kalyani P.
      Pages: 670 - 674
      Abstract: Background: Proliferation of the internet has provided better opportunities for communication, information and social interaction. The excessive undisciplined use by individuals has led to the emergence of the concept of internet addiction. Psychological and environmental factors in the lives of college students may leave them disproportionately vulnerable to Internet addiction. The main objective of this study was to measure prevalence of internet addiction and the usage pattern among undergraduate medical students.Methods: The present cross-sectional study was carried out among 95 undergraduate students of II MBBS, selected by simple random sampling, in Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, from January to February, 2016. A 20 item Young’s Internet Addiction test which is a Likert scale based interview schedule was used to measure the prevalence of internet addiction. Data was entered in MS Excel 2007 and analyzed. Chisquare test was applied and p value <0.05 considered significant.Results: Among the 95 study subjects, 62.2% were males and 37.8% were females. Males were more addicted to internet than females. The prevalence of internet addiction among the study subjects in the present study was 52.63% mild, 24.21% moderate, while 23.16% students reported normal internet usage. It was found that severity of internet addiction is inversely proportional to academic performance.Conclusions: Internet addiction is a growing health problem among medical students, hence necessary preventive and therapeutic interventions are vital to promote healthy and safe usage of Internet.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170737
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Job satisfaction of counsellors at integrated counselling and testing
           centres (ICTCs) of Delhi, India

    • Authors: Vinoth Gnana Chellaiyan, Deepak K. Raut, Anita Khokhar
      Pages: 675 - 679
      Abstract: Background: Counselling services play a crucial role in catering clients of integrated counseling and testing centers (ICTCs). The counsellors provide information, education regarding HIV testing and treatment, guidance and support to the clients in taking informed decisions. The counsellors pose challenges due to the burden of client’s number and decreased self-satisfaction in the job. The objective was to assess the job satisfaction of counsellors providing HIV counseling services at ICTCs of Delhi.Methods: The study was cross sectional, conducted in Integrated Counseling and Testing Centers. The study was conducted in 20 selected ICTCs of Delhi. Selection of ICTCs was on the basis of population proportion to size of clients catered. All the counsellors in the selected ICTCs were invited to take part in the study. The interview of the counsellors was completed by maximum of 3 visits. A pretested, structured questionnaire with five point likert scale for satisfaction was used. Chi square test was applied. P value of<0.05 was significant.Results: In 20 ICTCs, a total of 32 counsellors participated in the study. Among 32 counsellors, 14 (43.8%) were males and 18 (56.2%) were females. Majority (93.7%) of counsellors said that refresher counselling training was very useful. Most of the counsellors, 22 (68.7%) suggested that strengthening the collaboration with non-government organizations would increase the number of direct walk-in clients. Majority of the counsellors, 26 (81.2%) said that they were satisfied with the job. However, 19 (59.3) counsellors said that they would change the profession if given a choice.Conclusions: Periodical salary revisions and further career growth in counselling domain, could improve the job satisfaction and would help the counsellors retain the job. This would cut down the additional expenses of the programme for imparting induction training often-times.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170774
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Utilization of antenatal health care services and its impact on birth
           weight of newborn in rural area of Western Rajasthan, India

    • Authors: Sandeep Kumar Uppadhaya, Neha Agrawal, Suman Bhansali, Kapil Garg, Mahendra Singh
      Pages: 680 - 685
      Abstract: Background: Antenatal care is an important component of reproductive and child health but has not been utilized to the full extent in India. The study is aimed to assess the utilization of antenatal health care services by mothers and its impact on birth weight of their newborn.Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted in a rural area of Jodhpur, Rajasthan. A total of 198 women of study area who have delivered between 1st July 2013 to 30thJune 2014 (12 months period) were interviewed by pre-designed and semi-structured questionnaire by door to door approach.Results: Present study showed that 100% of mothers registered their pregnancy in any health facility and 56.6% were registered in 2nd trimester. Only 32.8% mothers had received four or more antenatal visits. Only 26.26% mothers had utilized full antenatal care (minimum four antenatal visits, minimum one TT and minimum 100 IFA tablet taken) during pregnancy. The prevalence of low birth weight was 12.6%. Proportion of LBW babies was more (15.9%) in mothers who had not availed of full antenatal care. This difference was statistically significantly (P<0.05).Conclusions: The important factors related to low utilization of Antenatal services were lower socioeconomic status, lower literacy of mothers, working mothers, parity and nuclear family. The findings of this study may be utilized by the health managers and health care providers to address the problem of low ANC coverage.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170739
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Quality of life among breast cancer patients: a cross sectional study

    • Authors: Jeseena Kanayamkandi, Shalini Sunderam
      Pages: 686 - 689
      Abstract: Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women globally. Over the last decade, Quality of life (QOL) has become an important outcome measure in the treatment of cancer patients. Aim and Objective-.1) To evaluate the Quality of life among Breast cancer patients; 2) To describe the socio-demographic profile of Breast cancer patients; 3) To find out association between socio-demographic characteristics of patients and Quality of life.Methods: It was a cross sectional, descriptive and hospital based study. Total duration of study was 6 months (April 2015-September 2015), conducted in Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Ranchi, Jharkhand 84 breast cancer patients were selected as study subjects and were interviewed by a validated questionnaire.Results: A total of 84 breast cancer patients were included in the study, most of the patients were between 40-60 years, mean age being 43.32±10.2. Most were non tribal, belonging to Hindu Religion. Majority were married. None of the participants had above average or significantly high QOL. 20.2% had average QOL, 51.2% had below average and 28.6% had significantly poor QOL. Married patients were found to have a significantly better QOL (p<0.05). QOL had no association with age, ethnicity, religion, education, occupation or socio-economic status of participants (p>0.05).Conclusions: Present study showed that majority of Breast cancer patients had poor QOL. Married patients were leading a comparatively better QOL than unmarried. 
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170740
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • The correlation of obesity, smoking, fried foods consumption pattern and
           food intake with lipid profile in civil servant in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    • Authors: Toto Sudargo, Fahmi Tiara Sari, Novita Dian Naomi
      Pages: 690 - 697
      Abstract: Background: Dyslipidemia is an abnormal change in the levels of lipid profile such as increased levels of total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides or decreased levels of HDL. The proportion of the Indonesian population (> 15 years old) with a total cholesterol level above the normal value amounted to 35,9%.  Objective: To determine the correlation of obesity, smoking, fried food consumption pattern and food intake with lipid profile in civil servant in Yogyakarta.Methods: This study is an observational study with cross sectional design at employees of Gadjah Mada University who perform medical check-up at the GMC-Health Center Yogyakarta. There are 179 respondents in the study.  Subjects are categorized to have dyslipidemia (based on NCEP ATP III criteria) if it meets ≥ 1 of the following criteria: (1) Total cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dL; (2) LDL cholesterol ≥ 130 mg / dL; (3) HDL cholesterol < 40 mg / dL; and (4) Triglycerides ≥150 mg / dL. Fried food consumption patterns and food intake is obtained using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQ-FFQ). Data were analyzed by Chi Square, Independent t test and Mann Whitney test (adjusted for scale variables used) with a confidence level of 95%.Results: One hundred and fifty five of 179 respondents (87.3%) diagnosed with dyslipidemia. There are 52% abnormal cholesterol, abnormal LDL 67%, 43% and 28.5% with abnormal HDL and abnormal triglycerides, respectively. The statistical test showed the correlation of obesity (p=0,022), smoking (p=0,013), the type of fried food (p=0.047), the amount of fried foods (p=0,013) and fat intake from fried foods (p=0.036) has significant association with lipid profile levels.Conclusions: There is significant correlation between obesity, smoking, type of fried food, amount of fried foods and fat intake from fried food with lipid profile levels.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170741
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • A study on utilization of antenatal care services in urban slums of
           Amritsar city, Punjab, India

    • Authors: Nidhi Sharma, Kiran Kumar H. V., Shivesh Devgan
      Pages: 698 - 703
      Abstract: Background: Rapid urbanization in India is fuelling a growth in urban poverty, particularly in the urban slums where the quality of life is extremely poor. There have been limited efforts to capture the health of population living in urban slums and most severely affected are the women of childbearing age and children. So the present study was carried out to assess the utilization pattern of antenatal care and to identify the factors affecting it in urban slums of Amritsar city.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1600 houses selected randomly in four slum areas of Amritsar city in which 659 married women in the reproductive age group of 15-49 years who had at least 1 child and had delivered the last child in the last 3 years were found. Total 659 women were interviewed using a pre-designed and pre-tested proforma.Results: 58.4% of respondent women attended at least one antenatal visit during last pregnancy. Maximum (43.4%) attended 2 antenatal visits. Majority (64.4%) had their first antenatal visit in 2nd trimester. Majority (57.1%) consumed <100 IFA tablets. Majority (65.6%) were fully immunized with 2 doses/booster of TT. Lack of knowledge about ANC services was the reason given by most of the women (31.0%) for not attending any antenatal visit. The utilization of antenatal care (ANC) services by women was found to be significantly associated with their age, education, birth order, socio-economic status and husband’s education.Conclusions: The utilization of antenatal care services was found to be poor in the study population. Important barriers to service utilization were found to be lack of awareness and lack of felt need. This shows the need for intensive efforts to be made in slum areas to create awareness among women by Behaviour Change Communication (BCC) activities. 
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170742
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Lay perspectives on causes and complications of hypertension; and barrier
           to access health care by known hypertensive patients: a qualitative study
           from a rural area of South India

    • Authors: Ariarathinam Newtonraj, Sugumaran Arun, Joy Bazroy, Stephen Tovia
      Pages: 704 - 707
      Abstract: Background: Global prevalence of hypertension in the year 2000 was estimated to be 26% with approximately 1 billion people affected by it. By 2025 this has been projected to increase to 29% increase to 29%, expecting greater proportion of population will be consists of elderly people. Limited qualitative studies on hypertension are available in India. We intended to conduct a qualitative study on the perception about hypertension causes, complications and barrier to get medications, among known hypertensive patients residing in rural area or south India.Methods: A qualitative study has been undertaken in August 2016 by the interns posted in Rural Health Training Centre of Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences (RHTC-PIMS). The study was completed after conducting in depth interview among 40 randomly selected known hypertensive patients. All the interviews were audio taped. Verbatim were done from the recording in local language (Tamil) and then translated to English. Coding and thematic analysis was done by analysis team consisting of one Assistant Professor in Community Medicine, one medical social worker (MSW) and three interns.Results: There is a huge lack of awareness about the causes of hypertension among the patients. There is also a huge lack of awareness about the complications of hypertension, among hypertensive patients. This may result in poor adherence to medication and prevention of complications. Almost all the patients reported that they were following Allopathic medications and getting medications from government primary health centre. There is a need to visit the health centre every week, as the medicines provided to them are only weekly basis.Conclusions: There is a huge lack of knowledge about hypertension among known hypertensive patients. There is a need for a holistic approach in managing hypertensive patients in rural area in India.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170743
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Assessment of knowledge regarding menstruation and practices related to
           maintenance of menstrual hygiene among the women of reproductive age group
           in a slum of Kolkata, West Bengal, India

    • Authors: Sutanuka Santra
      Pages: 708 - 712
      Abstract: Background: Menstruation is a normal biological process and a key sign of reproductive health. Unfortunately, the taboo surrounding menstruation prevents women from articulating their needs. There is lack of awareness on the process of menstruation and hygienic management of the same. So, the problem of poor menstrual hygiene still persists in society. Objectives: 1) To elicit the knowledge regarding menstruation among the women of reproductive age group 2) To find out the practice of menstrual hygiene among them.Methods: A community based, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted at Baghbazar slum, Kolkata. A total of 160 menstruating women of the age group between 15-45 years were included. The data were analysed using IBM SPSS version 20.  Results: Only 32 women (20%) had idea before menarche regarding menstruation. 65% women used only sanitary pad and 30% used only cloth pieces where as 5% used both pad and cloth piece. Prevalence of sanitary pad use was significantly higher among those aged <25 years (p<0.05). With increasing literacy status as well as socio economic status, use of sanitary pad was also found to be increased and this difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). About 42% of the cloth piece users reused cloth piece. All those, who reused cloth pieces, washed the used cloth pieces with soap and water and 50% of them dried those under sunlight. All the women practised some kind of restriction during menstruation. About 4% individuals did not take regular bath during their bleeding period.   Some women (37.5%) suffered from reproductive tract infection during or just after menstruation. Most of the study subjects (95.6%) disposed used napkins in municipal vat.Conclusions: Awareness should be increased regarding maintenance of good menstrual hygiene through health education programme. 
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170744
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Perception and practice towards alcohol consumption among a government
           boy’s pre-university college students-a cross sectional study

    • Authors: Shashidhar S. Basagoudar, Chandrashekhar R., Shivappa Hatanoor, Rahul C. Kirte
      Pages: 713 - 717
      Abstract: Background: Harmful use of alcohol consumption can lead to various health hazards and pre-university students are vulnerable for abuse of substances like alcohol. Hence this study was aimed to find out the prevalence and perception towards alcohol consumption among students of government boy’s college and to find out some factors affecting alcohol consumption among students.Methods: A cross sectional study conducted among purposively selected students of government pre-university (PU) college for boys. Data was collected through pre-structured questionnaire. Alcohol consumption was assessed by self-reporting through questionnaire.Results: In the present study 7% students have consumed alcohol at least once in their life time. Mean age of initiation of alcohol consumption was 14.89 years. 23.7% of students said that alcohol consumption can lead to cancer and 13.3% students knew it leads to liver damage, 18.1% felt it leads to heart problems. Among the current alcohol consumers 41.7% said they have driven the vehicle under influence of alcohol. Among the current alcohol consumers 75% have thought to quit the alcohol consumption at least once. Having family history of alcohol consumption was significantly associated with alcohol consumption among students.Conclusions: Alcohol consumption is prevalent in the pre-university college students and family history is a major risk factor for the alcohol consumption. Many alcohol consumers have driven the vehicle under the alcohol consumption in spite of the legal prohibition. Parental and peer involvement is crucial in reducing the prevalence of alcohol consumption among PU students.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170745
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Assessment of risk factors for the development of musculoskeletal
           disorders among working women

    • Authors: Deepti Shettar, Mayur S. Sherkhane
      Pages: 718 - 723
      Abstract: Background: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) account for 33% of all work-related illnesses and are the most frequent cause of all health-related absence from work. Working women particularly are at more risk of developing MSDs since they are involved in household activities and childcare along with office work. Psychosocial stress and comfort level at work also play a major role in development of MSDs. So, this study was done to assess the risk factors for the development of MSDs.Methods: Cross sectional study was conducted among 60 women clerical staff of a tertiary care hospital, who participated on voluntary basis. Data was collected using semi structured questionnaire. Information on MSDs was collected using Nordic scale. Descriptive statistics, chi square and odds ratio was used for data analysis.Results: Mean age of study participants was 33.88±6.97 years and mean BMI was 23.74±4.15 kg/m2. 81.7% were working 6-8 hours per day, 36.7% working in static posture for longer periods and 28.3% had sleep disturbances. Majority of women had low back pain both in last seven days (56.7%) and twelve months (35.0%). Those who complained of sleep disturbance were nine times and seven times at higher risk of developing pain in last seven days (p=0.015, OR=9.48) and twelve months (p=0.005, OR=7.85).Conclusions: Low-back pain was commonest among MSDs, significantly associated with sleep disturbance. Counseling sessions should be conducted regarding work ergonomics and Occupational Health Departments should be established to avoid untoward events that develop in their productive life. 
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170746
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Defecation practices in residents of urban slums and rural areas of
           hubballi, Dharwad: a cross sectional study

    • Authors: Geeta V. Bathija, Rana Sarvar
      Pages: 724 - 728
      Abstract: Background: The unsafe disposal of excreta is a principal cause in the transmission of pathogens within the environment and improvements in excreta management provide significant reductions in diarrhoeal diseases. Objectives of present study are to understand the factors impacting on defecation practices and to study the prevailing defecation practices in adults and children and to assess the knowledge and attitudes with regard to sanitation practices in rural areas and urban slums of Hubballi, Dharwad, Karnataka.Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted in 3 areas of Hubballi and Rural Areas of Noolvi. A total of 120 households were visited; 55 of urban and 65 rural. The adult member of the household was interviewed about the sanitary practices followed and their knowledge and attitude towards Safe Sanitation and Open Air Defecation was assessed.Results: 64.18% of the households had an independent toilet in their house (87% in urban and 44.6% in rural). Among these, in only 85% households the toilet was used by all members. While in 11 houses some individuals preferred open air defecation. The practice of open air defecation was found in 44.16% of study sample (21% in urban slums and 63% in rural areas). In children, usage of toilets was only 46.5%. 54% children practiced open air defecation (28.8% in urban slums, 80% in rural areas). The usual sites for open air defecation were open fields (77%), alongside gutter (3%) and streets (20%).Conclusions: According to World Health Organisation, open defecation is the “riskiest sanitation practice of all.” Effort from individuals, communities and government is essential to achieve the goal of open defection free India.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170747
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Attitudes and practices of medical students regarding video-games: should
           community medicine educationists get serious about serious games

    • Authors: Varun M. Malhotra, Pratyush R. Kabra, Ritika Malhotra
      Pages: 729 - 733
      Abstract: Background: Present medicos belong to a generation called ‘Millennials’ or ‘Net Generation’. They spend less time reading, and are more comfortable in image-rich environments provided by New Media.  The objective of the study is to identify knowledge, attitudes and practices of medical students regarding video-games, with the aim of prompting community medicine teachers to consider serious games as a teaching-learning tool.Methods: The study was conducted among undergraduate medical students who self-administered a structured questionnaire eliciting their practices and attitudes regarding video-games, perceptions regarding impact of video-gaming on their academic performances and acceptability of serious games as a learning tool in community medicine.Results: A total of 255 medical students participated in the study, out of which 242 (94.9%) were current video-gamers. The students started playing video-games at a mean age of 11.72+3.63 years. Mobile phones were the commonest platform for video-gaming. The median duration of video-gaming was 150 minutes/week, with semi-inter-quartile range of 255 minutes.  57.4% of students reported that video-games helped them relax, while 26% felt that video-gaming increased their skills.  The study revealed that 43.6% students were aware of serious games and 22.7% had used them as a learning tool in last three months. Moreover, about 95% of medicos welcomed learning of community medicine through serious games.Conclusions: The study reveals that contemporary medical students are spending considerable time playing video-games. It also shows that the learner is willing to learn community medicine through serious games. The study prompts community medicine educationists to consider serious games as a teaching-learning tool.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170748
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Spectacle compliance amongst school children of Rohtak, Haryana, India

    • Authors: Nikunj K. Bhatt, Manisha Rathi, C. S. Dhull, Sumit Sachdeva, Jitender Phogat
      Pages: 734 - 737
      Abstract: Background: Refractive errors are the commonest cause of visual impairment in school children worldwide. They can be easily corrected by a pair of spectacles, only when they are used regularly. The purpose of present study is to document the actual rate of spectacle wear at the time of examination, assess principle determinants of spectacle wear and reasons for non-compliance among different demographic groups.Methods: 200 school children in the age group of 6-15 years with refractive errors were selected. The schools were visited without prior intimation to the students 3 months after the initial examination. Reasons for spectacle wear non-compliance were enquired.Results: 78 (39.0%) children out of 200 were compliant to spectacle wear, while 122 (61.0%) were non-compliant to spectacle wear. Main reason for not wearing spectacles was ‘teased about the appearance with spectacles’.Conclusions: School teachers should explain the risk of non-wearing of spectacles and benefits of spectacle wearing to both children and their parents. Most of the children were not compliant because they were teased about, did not like, or were not comfortable in their spectacles- all societal issues that could and should be addressed.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170749
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Prevalence of alcohol use among high school students, the pattern of
           consumption and the physical circumstances associated with alcoholism in
           an urban area of Kerala, India

    • Authors: Mini S. S., Anuja U., Shaheer Khan S., Shameel K. K.
      Pages: 738 - 742
      Abstract: Background: The present study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of alcoholism among high school   students, the pattern of consumption and the physical circumstances lead them to alcoholism.Methods: This study was done as a cross sectional study in the high schools of Pagappara PHC area which is the urban health training centre attached to Government medical college Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Sample size was calculated based on the prevalence of a previous study conducted in Kottayam district Kerala and estimated as 300. Data was collected using a pre tested questionnaire through interview technique. Data entry was done in SPSS 16 and percentages were calculated to express the results.Results: The prevalence of drinking among the high school students was 21% and 1% of students were regular drinkers. Among those consumed alcohol 38.15 have used it before the age of 10 years. 61.9% started drinking for experimentation and beer was commonly used type (71%).Conclusions: According to this study 21% of students have consumed alcohol and 1% is regular users of alcohol. Thus, there is a dire need to intervene. 
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170750
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • A Statistical study to estimate the effects of smoking and cotton dust
           exposure on lung function of cotton workers of Varanasi district, Uttar
           Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Shubham Pandey, Ankit Singh, T. B. Singh
      Pages: 743 - 746
      Abstract: Background: Occupational health has been included in National Health Policy, with a mission of providing safe healthy environment for the cotton textile workers by Government of India. With large population being agriculture dependent, the cotton textiles sector is the second largest provider of employment in India. Workers of these cotton and related industries are exposed to cotton dust in mills during carding, blowing, spinning and weaving of cotton fibers. Smoking is another causative factor for aggravating these respiratory symptoms in workers as most of them are habitual to smoking due to work load. Following studies was initiated with an objective to evaluate the interaction between cotton dust exposure and smoking on the lung function of these subjectsMethods: Five hundred (500) male weavers, from Varanasi, the state of Uttar Pradesh, North India working in various spinning outlets, were approached for this study with work duration of 10-15years. These subjects selected were in the age group of 28-41 years with no chronic medical history and lung ailments. Some of the workers had smoking history varying from 5-18 years. After segregating them in various groups (G1-G4), lung functions were monitored by evaluating the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) in workers of all the groups in lit/min.Results: As lung functions were evaluated in terms of PEFR as main parameter. The results of the present study indicate significantly low values of PEFR (lit/min) in cotton spinning workers (G-3) as compared to normal healthy individuals (G-1), which got further impaired due to prevalence of smoking in subjects of cotton spinners (G-4). The level of significance (p<0.05) for altered lung functions in smoking workers was much higher than those in nonsmoking workers suggesting involvement of larger airways.Conclusions: Present results of this study; indicate that smoking potentiates the effects of cotton dust exposure on the respiratory functions of spinners by indicating the prevalence of enhanced lung symptoms as well as byssinosis.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170751
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Prevalence and determinants of substance abuse among youth in Central
           Kerala, India

    • Authors: Lucy Raphael, Rini Raveendran, Sajna M. V.
      Pages: 747 - 751
      Abstract: Background: Substance abuse in various forms has been a social problem in various forms for many centuries. Kerala shows a high prevalence in alcoholism and is ranked top in India. This study is aimed at finding the prevalence and determinants of substance abuse among youth in central part of Kerala in South India.Methods: A community based study was done with 402 college student participants using a self- administered pretested semi structured questionnaire. Data was entered into microsoft excel and analysed using Epiinfo3.5.3.Results: Out of 402 students, 31.8% used or abused any one of the substances (alcohol, smoking, pan chewing) irrespective of time and frequency in lifetime. Age, gender, place of residence, attitude towards ban were significantly associated with substance abuse.Conclusions: The alarming trend of substance abuse among the youth reveals the urgent need to curb the menace. Adolescent counselling sessions might ensure preventing such behaviour from being inculcated in early adolescence. 
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170752
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Characteristics and utilization of ante natal care services amongst women
           of rural Punjab, India- a community based study

    • Authors: Rajesh Garg, Shyam Sunder Deepti, Tejbir Singh, Avtar Singh Padda
      Pages: 752 - 758
      Abstract: Background: India has high maternal and infant mortality. The maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in India (2013) was 167 per 100 000 live births and infant mortality rate (IMR) was 40 per 1000 live births. In rural Punjab, the MMR and IMR were 155 and 26 respectively. Ante natal care (ANC) services are crucial in reducing MMR and IMR but still there are barriers to the reach and utilization of ANC services. The objective of present study is to assess the characteristics and utilization of antenatal care (ANC) services in rural areas of Punjab, IndiaMethods: A total of 820 women were interviewed in a community- based analytical cross sectional study from 20 villages of Amritsar, Punjab (India) in 2005-06 by standard cluster sampling.Results: About 93% respondents had received at least one ANC during last birth. Almost 92% of women received injection tetanus toxoid (TT) and 56.34% received iron folic acid (IFA) tablets as ANC services. But only 49.75 % of the respondents had at least ≥3 ANC visits. 59.15% respondents did not receive any health advice from health worker during pregnancy.Conclusions: The majority of respondents, although availed the ANC services, but did not availed the full ANC package. The literacy of women has significant bearing on utilization of ANC. Health education is observed to be the most neglected aspect. The role of local health workers and community participation would be crucial in improving the utilization of ANC services at ground level.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170753
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • An epidemiological study of postnatal depression among women availing
           maternal health services in rural areas of Belagavi, Karnataka, India

    • Authors: Kruthika K., Sharavanan Eshwaran Udayar, M. D. Mallapur
      Pages: 759 - 763
      Abstract: Background: Postnatal depression is an important public health issue exhibiting the strongest link to adverse child outcomes and also maternal morbidity. Objectives were to study the prevalence of Postnatal depression among mothers and to identify the factors associated with depressive symptoms among post-natal mothers.Methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted from January 2016 to June 2016 in two rural areas among 300 women attending immunisation clinics in the Primary health centre with postpartum period less than 3 months were included in the study. Edinburgh Postnatal depression scale was used to for identifying mothers at risk of postnatal depression. A score of ≥13 was considered as positive for depressive symptoms.Results: The prevalence of Post-natal depression 41 (13.6%). Factors like age, literacy status, socio economic status, gravidity, sex of newborn, mode of delivery and unplanned pregnancy were significantly associated with the prevalence of postnatal depression.Conclusions: Early screening of the women and counselling of women and their family will reduce the maternal morbidity and adverse child outcomes. 
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170754
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Association between passive smoking and respiratory illness: a case
           control study

    • Authors: Sreevishnu S., Jesha Mohammedali M., Sheela P. Haveri
      Pages: 764 - 768
      Abstract: Background: The adverse effect of passive smoking on human health and quality of life is a debatable matter. There is high risk of respiratory illness among spouses of smokers due to exposure to passive smoke. The objective of present study was to find an association between second hand smoke exposure and risk of developing respiratory illness in the last six months among married women aged 20 years and above and currently living together.Methods: A case-control study was conducted during a 6-month period (January to June 2016) among married women aged 20 years and above, who have been currently living with their husband for at least past two years in Perinthalmanna. Women with known respiratory disease such as bronchial asthma and tuberculosis were excluded. The sample size was calculated to be 87 cases and 87 controls. The cases were selected from the out-patient department of MES Medical College, Perinthalmanna, Kerala, India. The controls were selected from ward 28, Perinthalmanna. From each house only one female was interviewed.Results: The major symptoms in the cases were headache (35%), morning cough (34%) and chest pain (25%). The odds of having a respiratory illness when the husband is a smoker is 1.527 (95% C.I. 0.804 to 2.899) and the odds ratio increases to 4.7 (95% C.I.2.11 to 10.86) if the husband smokes at home.Conclusions: The study showed that the risk of having respiratory illness is higher in females when the husband is a smoker and the risk increases four times if the husband smokes at home.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170755
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Levels and determinants of maternal morbidity in Sangli, Maharashtra,
           India: a community based study

    • Authors: Sanjay R. Quraishi, Anuradha P. Gaydhanker, Girish B. Dhumale
      Pages: 769 - 774
      Abstract: Background: In developing countries, the leading cause of disability in women aged 15-44 years is pregnancy and childbirth related complications. Many women do not die of causes related to pregnancy but suffer severe morbidities due to pregnancy related physiological stress.Methods: It is a Community based cross sectional study, conducted at randomly selected villages, towns and households in Sangli, Maharashtra, India. Sampling was done by simple random sampling, with a computed sample size of 3200. Study tool was a pre-tested questionnaire. Statistical analysis was done using percentages and Chi-square test. Microsoft Excel and SPSS 22 were used for analysis.Results: The study revealed a high prevalence of maternal morbidity in Sangli, Maharashtra, India. 52.65% women in urban area and 96.53% in rural area suffered from at least one morbidity. In rural area of Sangli, Maharashtra, India maximum of the women surveyed i.e., 30% have primary school education as compared to urban area of Sangli, Maharashtra, India which constitute 34%. A majority of the women in both the districts were suffering from mild complications but the percentage of serious complications is very high in the rural area (15%) than in the urban area (6%).Conclusions: In spite of low levels of perception about maternal morbidities, relatively higher utilization of health services during antepartum period should be taken as an advantage for initiating complete antenatal services, i.e. beyond the coverage of women by TT injection and supply of IFA tablets. The governmental initiation of supplying protein-rich food to pregnant and lactating mothers through ICDS programme has significantly lowered the morbidity levels probably by lessening the levels of anaemia. 
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170756
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Is mothers’ knowledge and practice regarding childhood immunization
           compliant with immunization completeness'

    • Authors: Nafeha Sameen Siddiqui, Arvind K. Gaikwad, Bina M. Kuril, Rajendra T. Ankushe, Mohan K. Doibale, Sandeep B. Pund, Purushottam Kumar
      Pages: 775 - 780
      Abstract: Background: Immunization is one of the most effective, safest and efficient public health interventions. Despite the concrete efforts of government and other health agencies, a large proportion of vulnerable infants and children in India remain unimmunized. In order to improve immunization coverage, factors such as knowledge, attitude and practices of parents/caretakers are known to contribute to success or failure of immunization program. The aim of present study is to assess the knowledge and practice of mothers with respect to immunization completeness of their child.Methods: This is a descriptive cross sectional study involving 364 mothers attending immunization OPD in Government Medical College, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India during month of September till December 2015.Results: 78.5% children were completely immunized as per date. 57.97% of the study population was found to have adequate knowledge-practice scores. A significant association of immunization completeness with KP scores of mothers (p<0.05) was found.Conclusions: Future efforts are required to improve immunization rate and parents' knowledge and practice.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170757
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Assessment of under-five immunization coverage among the population of
           slum areas in Mangalore taluk, India

    • Authors: Saurabh Kumar, Sudhir Prabhu, Arun P. Jose, Sowmya Bhat, Oliver D. Souza, Narayana V.
      Pages: 781 - 786
      Abstract: Background: Immunization coverage is better in urban than rural areas. However, we anticipate and argue that within the urban areas disparities and inequities persist in immunization coverage and that the socioeconomically disadvantaged, particularly those who reside in slum areas are more vulnerable and may contribute to the lower uptake of immunization. The objectives of the study were to assess the under-five immunization coverage amongst the households in slums of Mangalore taluk and to identify determinants of full immunization uptake among under 5 in the slums population and to know the reasons for non-immunization or partial immunization of children.Methods: Community Based Cross sectional study was conducted in the notified slum areas of Mangalore during August-November 2015. Information was collected from the parents regarding vaccination of their children and sociodemographic variables using a semi-structured interview schedule.Results: 88 (57.7%) of under 5 children were fully immunized, 62 (41.3%) were partially immunized in the slum areas of Mangalore, Karnataka, India. Mean age of the children in our study was found to be 35.15 months. Immunization coverage was found to be associated with the presence of immunization card, occupation of mother, knowledge about universal immunization programme (UIP), knowledge about protection offered by vaccines.Conclusions: Unfortunately, the immunization coverage was found to be very bad in the slum areas of Mangalore city, Karnataka, India. There is an urgent need to ensure that regular health education sessions are conducted. Secondly, slum areas should be the target of RCH programme with special focus on immunization related activities e.g. ensuring that all households with children should have immunization cards, as the slum areas remain the neglected section of the society due to various reasons. 
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170758
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Factors associated with therapeutic non-compliance among type 2 diabetes
           mellitus patients in Chidambaram, Tamilnadu, India

    • Authors: Manobharathi M., Kalyani P., John William Felix A., Arulmani A.
      Pages: 787 - 791
      Abstract: Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common non-communicable diseases causing many serious complications worldwide. Therapeutic non-compliance leads to treatment failure thus making diabetes a serious problem to both the individuals and the health care providers. There are many factors which influence patient’s compliance. The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of therapeutic compliance and factors associated with therapeutic non-compliance.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients attending the urban health centre, Chidambaram.  Compliance and factors associated with non-compliance were assessed using Morisky Medication adherence questionnaire.Results: 108 diabetic patients were enrolled. The overall compliance rate was found to be 39.8%. A statistically significant association was found between non-compliance and associated chronic diseases (p=0.007), financial problems to buy the medicines (p=0.001), reporting side effects with the prescribed medicines (p=0.049), missed at least one dose in last one week(p=0.01).Conclusions: Majority of the patients were non-compliant. This emphasizes the need of strengthening health system and improving patients knowledge through teaching programs.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170759
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Pattern of mortality in sudden death: an autopsy study

    • Authors: Pinkal A. Shah, Bhavna Gamit, Chintan Dalal, Pinal Shah
      Pages: 792 - 796
      Abstract: Background: Sudden death has plagued mankind from time Immemorial. Clinical presentations include wide spectrum from symptom complex to completely asymptomatic. Sudden cardiac death in many cases, ‘first and only symptom. The high incidence, sudden, unexpected nature, combining with the low successful rate of resuscitation, make sudden cardiac deaths a major unsolved problem. Therefore, this study was conducted to illustrate etiolopathology, risk factors and triggers of sudden death with the expectation to provide new insight in epidemiological aspects of sudden death, which will help in care of patients, and prevention of premature cardiac deaths.Methods: A study of 50 cases of sudden death was conducted at tertiary care hospital. After evaluating detailed history from the family members, autopsy has been performed to find out cause of sudden death.Results: Principal culprit of sudden death is cardiovascular disease. Highest numbers of sudden death are in middle age group and having male preponderance might be due to presence of multiple risk factors, which have added or multiplicative effect. There are few autopsy negative cases, which are unexplained sudden death.Conclusions: Sudden and unexpected deaths in young population frequently become the subject of pathologic investigation to determine the cause of death. 
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170760
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • How to evaluate the medical certification of death in a hospital: an
           analysis of 53 death certificates at AIIMS, Bhopal, India

    • Authors: Narendra Patel, Sweta Patel, Raghvendra Kumar Vidua, Arneet Arora, K. C. Tamaria
      Pages: 797 - 802
      Abstract: Background: The AIIMS Bhopal has been established under PMSSY to provide the quality health care services. However, since the inception of hospital services from November 2014 till the month of October 2016 a total of 53 patients died due to various causes. The objective was to find out the different causes of death and its documentation at a tertiary care hospital in order to establish common causes of mortality and reporting errors in standard documentation of the death and feedback in this regard.Methods: This is a retrospective study with evaluation of death certificates in 53 deaths. The errors were analyzed as per the Haque’s scale and the scale devised by the authors.Results: The major cause of death reported was multiorgan failure where more than one system was affected As per the Haque’s scale the errors reported were for Grade 0 in 0%, Grade 1A in 31.03%,Grade 1B in 100%,Grade II in 79.31%,Grade III in 68.97%,Grade IV in 79.31% and Grade V in 62.07% of total death certificates.Conclusions: The certifying doctors must be adequately trained and/or fill the death certificate under the supervision of experts to ensure proper entries to avoid any kind of contraventions, confusion and conflicts.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170761
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • An epidemiological study into risk factors of suicidal ideation and
           attempt among young and adult population in rural Pondicherry, India

    • Authors: Shib Sekhar Datta, R. Rupesh Kanna, Surendar Rangaswamy, Rajkumar S.
      Pages: 803 - 808
      Abstract: Background: Suicide is one of the major public health problems in low and middle income countries. However, information about causes and risk factors are insufficient. Objectives of the study were to find out prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempt among young and adult population in rural Pondicherry and to analyse the risk factors qualitatively.Methods: Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 18-44 years’ population in rural Pondicherry during January to June 2012. Total 200 subjects were interviewed by house to house visit. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, concurrent illness, family and personal history were obtained. Factors contributing to suicidal ideation and attempt were collected through FGDs, free listing and pile sorting exercise. Quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Qualitative data analyzed using Anthropac 4.98.1/X software.Results: 8% subjects had ever attempted and 7.5% had ideas of suicide. Suicidal ideation/ attempt were more among males and 36-45 years group. Physical disability, infertility/sterility and chronic illness were significantly associated with suicidal ideation or attempt. Family dispute, history of beaten by spouse and family history of suicide/attempt was significantly associated with ideation. Alcoholism, failed relationship, physical abuses were strongly associated with ideas of suicide or attempt. Risk factors for males include failed relationships, more than one wife, family dispute, alcoholism etc. Risk factors for females include failed relationship, poor performance in exam, quarrel with friends, unemployment, alcoholic husband, pressure for dowry, extramarital relationship by husband etc.Conclusions: Suicidal attempt and ideation rates were high in study area and demand population based mental health interventions to reduce population suicide rates.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170762
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • A comparative study of prevalence of mental abnormalities among high
           school children in tribal, rural and urban Mysuru district, Karnataka,

    • Authors: Pradeep Tarikere Satyanarayana, Prakash B., Praveen Kulkarni, Kishor M., Renuka M.
      Pages: 809 - 813
      Abstract: Background: Adolescence is defined by WHO as period in human growth and development that occurs after childhood and before adulthood from ages 10 to 19 years. According to WHO, half of all mental health disorders in adulthood start by age 14 years, but most cases are undetected and untreated.Methods: The present study was community based cross sectional comparative study was conducted on study participants were high school children aged 14 years to 16 years in tribal, rural and urban areas of Mysuru from November 2014 to May 2016, i.e., one and a half years (eighteen months). Around 9 tribal high schools, 8 rural high schools and 13 urban high schools were selected and sampling was done according to probability proportionate to size. Institutional Ethics Committee clearance was obtained before start of the study. The study methodology was discussed with and permission obtained from all Principals and Headmasters of respective High Schools. Written informed assent was obtained from each study participant. Data thus Obtained were coded and entered into Microsoft excel Work sheet .This was analyzed using SPSS 22 version. Descriptive statistics like percentage, mean and standard deviation were applied. Inferential statistical tests like chi square test were applied to find out association. The difference, association were expressed statistically significant at p-value less than 0.05.Results: Among the study participants, in tribal area, 88 (47.3%) belonged to age group of 15 years, in rural area, 103 (51.5%) belonged to age group of 15 years and in urban area 116 (59.8%) belonged to age group of 14 years. Anxiety disorders were seen more in urban participants 26.3% and least in rural, major depressive disorders were seen more in urban participants (4.1%) and suicidality was seen more in rural participants (6.5%).Conclusions: Anxiety disorders were seen more in urban participants 26.3%, Major depressive disorders were seen more in urban participants (4.1%) and suicidality was seen more in rural participants (6.5%). The present study stresses importance of School-based specific diagnostic screenings such as for anxiety disorders, depression, ADHD should be implemented.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170763
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Relationship of dental caries and BMI among pre-school children of
           Bangalore city, India: a cross sectional study

    • Authors: Vanishree N., Rosa R. Narayan, Naveen N., Anushri M., Vignesh D., Neethi Raveendran M. P.
      Pages: 814 - 819
      Abstract: Background: Dental caries in young children is commonly untreated representing a public health problem and has also reported to affect their anthropometric outcomes, but the evidence is conflicting. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between dental caries and BMI in pre-school children of Bangalore City.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 208 healthy preschool children with the age range of 3-5 years recruited from nursery schools of Bangalore City. The Anthropometric measurements, weight and height were evaluated by calculating the z-scores using WHO Anthro software to elucidate the subject’s status on the age- and sex-specific growth chart. Every Child who has received two Z-scores under the normal value (<-2) was considered as abnormal (deficient). The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19. The statistical tests used were t-test and correlation analysis.Results: Dental caries prevalence was 65.7% with a mean dental caries score of 2.24±2.57. Among the study participants 32.7% were underweight (WAZ score), 46.6% had height deficiency (HAZ score) and 47.6% had BMI deficiency (BAZ score). There was significant positive correlation found between dental caries experience and children’s WAZ (Weight for age) [r=0.102, p=0.040] and BAZ (BMI for age) [r= 0.761, p= 0.032].Conclusions: This study showed that lesser percentage of the participants had deficient height, weight and BMI. As the weight and BMI increased there was a significant increase in the number of caries and fillings among the participants. 
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170764
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Adolescent friendly health services: where are we actually standing'

    • Authors: Grishma T. Dixit, Shikha Jain, Farzana Mansuri, Arjun Jakasania
      Pages: 820 - 824
      Abstract: Background: Services for adolescents are highly fragmented, poorly coordinated and uneven in quality. Adolescent-friendly services (AFHS) should be able to attract young people, meet their needs comfortably and with sensitivity, and retain young clients for continuing care. With this background, the present study was carried out to study the implementation status of Adolescent friendly health services and to determine compliance with quality standards.Methods: Present cross sectional study was carried out at 10 Urban Health Centers of Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation. Study population comprised of adolescents (10 to 19 years). All adolescents aged 10 to 19 years (n=99) and all health care providers present at the time of visit at the facility were interviewed. Data was collected using WHO quality measurement tools. Data was analyzed using WHO scoring sheet for data analysis.Results: Relative score for confidentiality, privacy, equitability, accessibility and knowledge gap in adolescent is 58.3%. Relative score for health care providers’ competencies to work with adolescents and to provide them with required services is 42.6%. Relative score for Observation tool used for facility inventory is 45.6%. Overall relative score is 47.3% of maximum possible score.Conclusions:As the score is near to the lower limit of class interval of 40% to 80%, it implies need of improvement. 
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170765
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • A study to determine the awareness and behavioral patterns/practice about
           road safety measures among undergraduate medical students, Bangalore,
           India-cross sectional study

    • Authors: Ramya M. S., Jyothi Jadhav, Ranganath T. S.
      Pages: 825 - 830
      Abstract: Background: Road traffic accident’s (RTA’s) is an important global public health problem causing 20 to 50 million non-fatal injuries and 1.25 million deaths annually, currently the 8th leading cause of death globally and predicted to become the 5th leading cause of death by 2030. RTA is one of the leading cause of death among the most productive age group (15-29 years) costing billions of dollars to deal with its consequences. The present study is aimed to determine the awareness and behavioral patterns about road safety measures among undergraduate medical students, Bangalore.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 540 undergraduate medical students in a medical college, Bangalore from August to October, 2015 by universal sampling technique using a semi-structured, pre-tested questionnaire.Results: Majority of the study participants were aware of traffic signal rules 99.2% and helmets usage 98.8%. 87.7% knew that alcohol consumption is dangerous while driving/riding, 67% were aware of seat belts usage and only 64.8% were aware of usage of hands free devices while driving/riding. Among the 392 two wheeler and 188 four wheeler users, 36.2% and 50% regularly used helmets/seatbelts respectively and 70% followed lane rule. The risky behaviours like jumping traffic signals, riding hands free, drag racing and drunken driving were noted.Conclusions: In order to restrict the epidemic of RTA’s undertaking proper road safety measures are the best available interventions. The overall knowledge and practice of road safety measures was high except in certain areas the practice levels were not desirable which has to be strengthened.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170766
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Treatment outcomes among tuberculosis patients at an urban health centre,
           Goa, India- eight year retrospective record based study

    • Authors: Nikhil S. Akarkar, Saili S. Pradhan, A. M. Ferreira
      Pages: 831 - 834
      Abstract: Background: India contributes the highest TB burden globally and DOTS being the key strategy of RNTCP needs evaluation. The objective of this study was to assess treatment outcomes in TB patients on DOTS in terms of success rates in new and retreatment cases.Methods: Retrospective record based study was conducted at urban health centre, Santa Cruz Goa, India including 135 TB cases registered from January 2008 to January 2016 for DOTS. Data on treatment outcomes was analysed using appropriate statistical methods and percentages were calculated.Results: Out of total 135 TB cases, 64.4% had pulmonary while 35.6% had extra-pulmonary TB. Percentage of new cases was 84.4% whereas 15.6% were retreatment cases. Success rate (cure rate plus treatment completion rate) for new cases was 84.2% and for retreatment cases was 76.2% while the overall success rate was 83%.Conclusions: Successful treatment outcome was lower compared to the RNTCP norm.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170767
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • A study on caffeine consumption and its association with stress and
           appetite among call centre employees in Mumbai city, India

    • Authors: Lakshmi B. Kale, Kejal Joshi Reddy
      Pages: 835 - 840
      Abstract: Background: Caffeine is a widely consumed chemical having controversial effects. Caffeine may interact with the satiety and may be associated with stress levels. The frequency of caffeine consumption among call centre employees is known to be high. The aim of the study was to assess the caffeine intake, and it's association with appetite and stress levels among call centre employees aged between 25-35 yearsMethods: A cross sectional study with purposive sampling was done from a call centre at Mumbai, India. Anthropometric measurements and structured questionnaires were used for data collection.  Results: The average caffeine intake was 200mg/day through coffee and 150mg/day through tea among the habitual consumers. As per the scoring categories of adapted appetite questionnaire (CNAQ), 54.7% of the participants were at risk to abnormally low appetite. The stress questionnaire results showed that 84.6% of the participants were at high risk to stress. Significant negative association was found between appetite score and coffee consumption (r=0.55,p<0.001), coffee consumption plus smoking (r=0.476,p<0.05) and tea consumption (r=0.300, p<0.05) respectively. A significant difference (p<0.01) was observed between the mean appetite score of habitual smokers and non-smokers; mean appetite score of non-smokers was greater. No significant association was observed between caffeine consumption and stress.Conclusions: Caffeine had a negative impact on the appetite levels. Smoking was observed to worsen the effect of caffeine on appetite.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170768
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Assessment of quality of life of stroke survivors in a rural area of North
           Kerala, India

    • Authors: Priya Chandran, Dhanya Shenoy, Jayakrishnan Thavody, Lilabi M. P.
      Pages: 841 - 846
      Abstract: Background: With increase in prevalence of stroke and life expectancy the quality of life of stroke survivors assumes importance. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment of cerebrovascular accidents the survivors continue to experience low Quality of life (QoL) especially in developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of life among stroke survivors and the prevalence of depression among them.  Methods: Cross-sectional population based study was conducted in a rural area of North Kerala. Stoke survivors were interviewed at home to assess the quality of life and depression status. QOL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), functional status using the modified barthel index (MBI), and mood using the Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI).Results: A total of 40 patients (65.5% men, mean age 70.58±10.7 years) were interviewed.  The mean MBI was 55.25±2.79, and the prevalence of unrecognized depression was 90%. 95 percent of patients needed varying degrees of care for their activities of daily living. The SF-36 scores of the patients were considerably lower than that to that of the general population especially in the areas of role limitation and physical functioning. Depression was more among older subjects and Depressed patients had lower MBI scoresConclusions: A significant proportion of stroke survivors continue to face limitations in their physical activities. In addition, majority have unrecognised depression that affects their QOL adversely.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170769
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • A study on status of water contamination of the tube wells in a rural
           block of North 24 parganas district of West Bengal, India

    • Authors: Saibendu Kumar Lahiri, Abhishek Paul, Suresh Chandra Malick, Somdipta Bhattacharjee, Shatanik Mondal, Partha Saha, Arkaprabha Sau
      Pages: 847 - 852
      Abstract: Background: In India, about 85% of rural drinking water supply depends on groundwater. National Sample Survey, 65th round showed that 55% of rural households were served by a tube well.  But ground water pollution has drastically increased in last decade due to increased human activities. In India around 1.5 million children die of diarrhea and 37.7 million people are affected by waterborne diseases annually. The study was conducted to find out the prevalence of contamination of the tube well water and the factors associated with it.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in nine randomly selected villages of the Amdanga Block, North 24-Paraganas district, West Bengal. Water samples of 90 tube wells were tested for the bacteriological contamination using K020 HiH2S Test Strips (Modified) and factors associated with contamination were identified using logit model.Results: The prevalence of tube well water contamination was estimated to be 45.6%. Bacterial contamination of water was found to be significantly (p<0.05) associated with the absence of casing, presence of bad odor in water, presence of habitation within 15 m area and presence of sanitary latrine within 15 m area of tube wells.Conclusions: Ground water pollution is increasing because of human activities, suboptimal maintenance and poor environmental management around the sources.  Routine surveillance of water sources, a sustainable system of maintenance and repair, and an effective waste management system in rural areas is required. Emphasis should also be given to household purification of water before consumption. 
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170770
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • The state with lowest sex ratio in India: role of socio – cultural

    • Authors: Babita Jangra, Sonali Alla, Jaipal Majra
      Pages: 853 - 856
      Abstract: Background: Child sex ratio is declining rapidly from 945 in census 2001 to 927 in census 2011.With the average family size decreasing rapidly and preference for male child remaining the same, the female child population is showing a downward trend. Objectives: To study the factors responsible for low child sex ratio and to study the relationship between sex ratio and birth order.Methods: The study was done in Primary health centre, Khanpur Kalan which is rural field practice area attached to the department of community medicine, BPS Govt. Medical College for women, Khanpur Kalan, Sonepat, Haryana. Assuming the probability of being born as female is 50%, the calculated sample size was taken as 400 at 95% confidence interval. Data was collected from house to house visit with the help of pre tested and semi structured questionnaire.Results: The overall child sex ratio of the study population was 620. Sex ratio goes on decreasing with increasing educational status of parents and with increasing birth order. Most common factor responsible for girl child negligence as told by respondents is domestic violence and ill treatment by husband and in laws. The most common reason for male child preference as told by the respondent is to run the family name, followed by security in old age and to perform the last rites.Conclusions: There should be National Policy for giving social security and equal rights to females so that parents do not feel any type of social or financial insecurity. Monitoring and counselling of families especially the families with previous two girls should be done at the community level.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170771
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • A study on waiting time and out-patient satisfaction at Gujarat medical
           education research society hospital, Valsad, Gujarat, India

    • Authors: Ravikant Patel, Hinaben R. Patel
      Pages: 857 - 863
      Abstract: Background: Gujarat Medical Education Research society started GMERS medical college and tertiary care Hospital in Valsad since last 4 years. As civil Hospital is converted in to tertiary care hospital and many of the departments running in different buildings so, searching the concern OPDs is difficult for patients, waiting time and patients satisfaction is important to avail the services. Patient satisfaction is one of the important goals of any health system, but it is difficult to measure the satisfaction. Aims & objectives were (1) to study the waiting time at various Out Patient Department (OPDs). and various investigation; (2) To study the accessibility of various department of hospital;  (3) To study the patient satisfaction on hospital process, behavior of hospital staff and treatment cost.Methods: This was a cross sectional observational study conducted in G.M.E.R.S. Hospital-Valsad for the period of 2 months and total 135 patients were interviewed availing the OPD Services.Results: The mean age of patient attending the OPD was 30.31±15.65 years and majority of them are female patient (54.07%). Hospital staff (48.89%) was main source of guidance for searching the OPDs for consulting the doctor. 54.07% patient registered 20 min after standing in queue. The mean waiting time was 12.16±2.35 min. 94.07% and 98.52% patients were satisfied with treatment cost and behavior of staff respectively.Conclusions: Many patients face the difficulties in finding the various departments. On an average 12 minutes of waiting time outside the various O.P.Ds. They were also satisfied with the treatment cost and behaviour of hospital staff.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170772
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • An analysis of trends in maternal mortality at a tertiary care teaching
           hospital of Western Rajasthan, India: a four year retrospective study

    • Authors: Neha Agrawal, Sandeep Kumar Uppadhaya, Afzal Hakim, Manish Mittal
      Pages: 864 - 867
      Abstract: Background: Maternal mortality reflects not only the adequacy of health care services of any country or state but also the standard of living and socio-economic status of the community. India is among those countries, which has a very high maternal mortality ratio; the state of Rajasthan having the third highest maternal mortality in the country. This study was done to assess the maternal mortality in a tertiary hospital situated in Jodhpur, a city in Western Rajasthan where large numbers of patients are referred from rural parts in and around the city.Methods: This study was done to assess the trends in maternal mortality at a tertiary medical college hospital situated in Western Rajasthan. A retrospective hospital based study was carried out in the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of Ummaid hospital, Dr S. N. Medical College situated in Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India over a period of 4 years from July 2010 to June 2014.Results: During the study period spanning 4 years, there were in total 84,746 live births with 195 maternal deaths. The mean maternal mortality ratio for the four year period was found to be 230.1 per lakh live births.Conclusions: The maternal mortality was quite high than the national average.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170773
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Vibrio cholerae strains isolated
           at a tertiary care medical centre in New Delhi, India

    • Authors: Beena Uppal, Bhanu Mehra, Pragyan Swagatika Panda, Shyam Kishor Kumar
      Pages: 868 - 871
      Abstract: Background: Vibrio cholerae is a common cause of acute diarrhea in India. Extensive and injudicious use of antimicrobials has led to the emergence of V. cholerae strains that are resistant to several antibiotics. The present study was conducted to document the antibiogram of V. cholerae strains isolated at an urban health centre in New Delhi. The present study was a retrospective, record-based analysis conducted from January to December 2015, at the Department of Microbiology of a tertiary care teaching institute.Methods: Stool samples received in the laboratory were processed as per standard microbiological techniques and all the V. cholerae strains isolated were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing as described in the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Data was analyzed using the Epi info software, version 3.5.3, and results depicted in the form of descriptive statistics.Results: Vibrio cholerae was isolated in 70 of the 2340 stool samples processed during the study period. Serogrouping revealed that 66 (94.3%) of the isolates were V. cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa, while non-O1 non-O139 serogroups constituted 4 (5.7%) isolates. The strains exhibited resistance to nalidixic acid (94.3%), ampicillin (92.9 %), ciprofloxacin (55.7%), cefotaxime (41.4%), gentamicin (22.9 %) and amikacin (7.1 %). Conclusions: Our study highlights the significance of regular surveillance of antimicrobial resistance profile of V. cholerae strains for proper management of cholera.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170775
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Umblical myiasis in a newborn: a case report

    • Authors: Shalabh Jauhari, Sulekha Nautiyal
      Pages: 872 - 874
      Abstract: Myiasis is defined as the infestation of live vertebrates (humans and/or animals) with dipterous larvae. We present a case of rare but not unknown type of myiasis, presented by an 11 days old neonate. The larvae were characterised microscopically. Poor sanitation is probably the most important risk factor for human myiasis. Umblical myiasis though a rare presentation due to improved health conditions and health education still remains an entity to be looked for in case of newborn belonging to low socio economic status parents and even in orphanages.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170776
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
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