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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1301 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (19 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (530 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (377 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (105 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (101 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (530 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 233)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access  
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Notions     Open Access  
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Healthy-Mu Journal     Open Access  
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
  [5 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2394-6032 - ISSN (Online) 2394-6040
   Published by Medip Academy Homepage  [12 journals]
  • Consanguineous marriages and their detrimental outcomes in Pakistan: an
           urgent need for appropriate measures

    • Authors: Muhammad Anzar Ullah, Aisha Maryam Husseni, Syed Uzair Mahmood
      Pages: 1 - 3
      Abstract: Consanguineous marriage is a union between first or second cousins. This practice is very common in developing Asian countries especially Pakistan. Around 70% of marriages in Pakistan are consanguineous. The major factors that promote consanguinity are arranged marriages, illiteracy and inter-caste marriages. The complications that follow include, small birth size, congenital malformations, neonatal mortality, rare genetic disorders, congenital deafness, congenital heart disorders and mental retardation. Serious steps must be taken to overcome this ongoing crises. Counselling, genetic screening, pre-natal diagnostic tests are some of the measures that are essential. Government involvement is also necessary to promote awareness and discourage consanguinity.
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Progress of health care in rural India: a critical review of National
           Rural Health Mission

    • Authors: S. Gopalakrishnan, A. Immanuel
      Pages: 4 - 11
      Abstract: National rural health mission (NRHM) was initiated in the year 2005 in eleventh five year plan, with the objective of providing quality health care services to the rural population. The mission brought out salient strategies by involving various sectors and forging partnerships with various organizations to unify health and family welfare services into a single window. Though the mission strived for a sustainable health care system, it did not envisage certain challenges in implementation. The public health system in India could take off from the foundations laid by the NRHM to overcome these challenges, in order to achieve various goals of health and development and put India on the road map of healthful development. The objective of this review article is to critically evaluate the implementation of national rural health mission and highlight its success and to make recommendations on the future health care planning and implementation in achieving universal health coverage for the rural India. NRHM has been a mammoth effort by the Union Government to build the public health infrastructure of the nation. The mission deserves its credit for empowering the rural India in health care, especially in States with poor health related indicators. NRHM has been a pioneer in reiterating the need for community participation, coupled with intersectoral convergence, to bring about a paradigm shift in the indicators, which has been reasonably achieved in most of the States. Taking forward the foundations laid by the NRHM, it is essential for the forthcoming policies and plans to focus on capacity building, not only on the infrastructure and technical aspects, but also on streamlining the health workforce, which is crucial to sustaining the public health infrastructure. The public health system in India should take off from the foundations laid by the NRHM. There is an imminent need to focus on forging a sustainable public private partnership, which will deliver quality services, and not compromise on the principles and identity of the public health system of the country, in its pursuit to achieve universal health coverage and sustainable development goals.
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Pre-hospital care in stable patients with acute coronary syndrome: Factors
           and predictors of pre-hospital delays in a tertiary public health
           institute

    • Authors: Mandreker U. Bahall, George Legall
      Pages: 12 - 20
      Abstract: Background: Incidences of pre-hospital delays (PHDs) remain high and affect the outcomes in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. This study explored the factors associated with, and the predictors of PHD in ACS patients. Methods: Data were collected through interviews and the examination of the hospital records of 299 ACS patients admitted to a hospital between 1 December 2014 and 28 February 2015. Results: The patients were primarily female, and their mean age was 60.9±12.09 years. The mean PHD was 7.5±6.6 hours; this comprised mean delay from symptoms onset to departure, mean travel time from departure time to intermediate care facility, mean length of stay at intermediate care facility, and mean travel time from an intermediate care facility to hospital. The factors associated with delays were ignoring of symptoms (38.8%), indecisiveness and reluctance to seek treatment (16.7%), self-medication (35.5%), being unconvinced that the symptoms were serious (61.2%), and waiting for a worsening of pain (29.1%). The predictors of PHDs were ‘marital status’, ‘fear of having a heart attack’, ‘believing that the symptoms were self-limiting’, and ‘seeking intermediate care’. The predictors of hospital delays were ‘AM or PM occurrence of symptom’, ‘shortness of breath’, ‘having hypertension’, and ‘previous ischaemic heart disease’.Conclusions: Patient delays were high in the case of ACS, but utilization of an intermediate healthcare facility more than doubled the PHD. About two-thirds of the patients had a PHD that exceeded 2 hours. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • The occurrence of occupational health hazards in districts health
           facilities in Kigali, Rwanda

    • Authors: Chinenye Mercy Nwankwo, Simon Karanja, Hilda Vasanthakaalam
      Pages: 21 - 29
      Abstract: Background: Health workers are constantly exposed to chemical, physical, psychological and biological agents that affect their health. Regular information is critical for setting priorities necessary to enhance workers health and safety. The study determined the occurrence of occupational health hazards among health care worker in the three selected district health facilities in Kigali, Rwanda (July-December 2016).Methods: It adopted a cross-sectional design involving both qualitative and quantitative data collection approaches. A total of 249 healthcare workers were selected systematically for interviewing. Data were collected using semi structured questionnaires, a focus group discussion guide and an observational checklist. Data analysis involves descriptive and inferential statistics. The observed differences in the parameter of estimate were considered significantly different at p<0.05.Results: Back-ache and accidents experienced while working contributed majority of occupational hazards, thus; 151 (60.6%, 95% CI=54.28–66.75) and 139 (55.8%, 95% CI=49.42–62.09), respectively. Health hazards from violence and molestation contributed 8 (3.2%, 95% CI=01.39–6.23) of the cases, furthermore, lack of hospital management commitment to policy, poor policy enforcement, health facility safety activities, employees’ participation in safety programs and post exposure compliance were associated with occurrence occupational hazard among healthcare workers (p<0.05). Qualitatively, the process of waste collection, sorting, marking, storage and transportation were not in line with policy regulations and contributed further to the hazard cases.Conclusions: Finally, direct job supervision, proper job placement, training and effective safety communication and reporting can enhance work safety and risk aversion. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Utilization of individual birth plan during pregnancy and its determinants
           in Makueni County, Kenya

    • Authors: John Kyunguti Ndeto, Sammy Onyapidi Barasa, Mary Wanjiru Murigi, Margaret Nyanchoka Keraka, Justus O. S. Osero
      Pages: 30 - 37
      Abstract: Background: All pregnant women are required to have an individual birth plan (IBP) to be discussed during each antenatal care clinic (ANC) visit. Birth preparedness increases the likelihood of seeking skilled care which can lead to positive birth outcomes. However, there is paucity of literature on utilization of IBP in rural Kenya. This study aimed at assessing the level of utilization of IBP and it’s determinants in Makueni County, Kenya. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional design was used to study 326 postnatal mothers in three primary health facilities. Systematic sampling technique was used. We collected data using a researcher-administered structured questionnaire and focused group discussion. Quantitative data analysis was conducted using statistical package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 and involved univariate and bivariate analysis. Chi- square were used to test the significance of the association between the dependent and independent variables (p<0.05). Qualitative data was analyzed by thematic content analysis. Results: IBP utilization was low 48.2% (95% CI (42.7%-58.6%) despite high ANC attendance. Identifying a blood donor was the least utilized component (25%). Being middle aged, high education level, attending ANC clinic 4 times and being married were significantly associated with utilization of an IBP, (OR=2.108, p=0.005), (OR=12.828, p<0.001), (OR 30.942 (95% CI 4.128-231.954) p<0.001) and (OR=2.20, p=0.001) respectively. Perceptions of high cost, long distance and disrespect from staff reduced IBP utilization by 65%, 80% and 47% respectively. Conclusions: Birth preparedness is low despite high antenatal clinic attendance. Stakeholders ought to address factors influencing birth preparedness. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Risk of pancreatic cancer in Minia district, Egypt

    • Authors: Marwa G. Abdelrehim, Eman M. Mahfouz, Ashraf A. Ewis, Amany E. Seedhom, Hassan M. Afifi, Fatma M. Shebl
      Pages: 38 - 46
      Abstract: Background: Pancreatic cancer is considered one of the most lethal malignant neoplasms. Therefore, a better understanding of the etiology and identifying the risk factors are essential for the development of preventive strategies. Methods: This case-control study included pancreatic cancer patients attending Minia Cancer Center during the period from June 2014 to December 2015 and controls from the general population. Several suspected risk factors were evaluated during personal interviews with the study participants. Statistical analysis included crude odds ratio (OR) and multivariable logistic regression with an adjusted OR and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: The study included 224 subjects, 75 pancreatic cancer cases, and 149 controls. Cases had higher age and male gender than controls. Bivariate analyses showed that age, sex, smoking, family history of pancreatic cancer, physical activity, mental stress, age at first birth, hormonal contraception, diabetes, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, pancreatitis, and cholecystitis were associated with pancreatic cancer. In the final multivariable analysis, smoking, physical activity, diabetes, HCV infection, and cholecystitis were significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Conclusions: Pancreatic cancer risk is associated with some potentially modifiable factors like tobacco smoking and low physical activity and related health problems as diabetes, HCV infection, and cholecystitis. Control of known risk factors for pancreatic cancer should be considered to help in risk reduction and prevention.  
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Burden of anemia in hospital attendees in Tayma general hospital, Tabuk,
           Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Prabakaran Jayaraman, Mohammad Alshay, Saad Eid Alanazi, Abdul Malik Hasan Al Maswari, Zakaria Hammad, Abdulaziz Abd Elkrim El Mofadi, Abdulaziz S. Alshooli
      Pages: 47 - 53
      Abstract: Background: Anemia, a low hemoglobin (Hb) status in the body is a serious nutritional public health problem in the world. It causes divergent morbidity and mortality in the affected population. Prevalence of anemia among women of reproductive age (women ages 15-49 years) in Saudi Arabia was 40.30% in 2011. In this study, we attempted to explore the burden of anemia in Hospital attendees in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted with the laboratory hematological values of walk-in clients from January 2016 and February 2016. Client's sex, Hb, HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC values were collected. Hb values categorized as mild anemia: Male: 11-12.9 gm/dl; Female: 11-11.9 g/dl., moderate anemia 8-11 gm/dl and severe anemia <8 g/dl. Data entry done was using Microsoft Excel and data analysis by STATA 15. Results: Out of total 2805 client's data, 49% (n=1377) were male and 51% (n=1428) were females. The mean Hb% was 12.31 g/dl (SD–2.54), 11.50 g/dl in females and 13.13 g/dl in males. The overall prevalence of anemia was 48.73% (CI: 46.87%-50.6%) as per WHO criteria and it was higher in females (45.53%, CI: 42.88-48.21) in men and 51.82% (CI: 49.19-54.44) in women). Severe anemia was also higher in women (Male: 2.76% vs. Females: 7.49%) while mild anemia was high in men (Male: 28.61% vs. Female: 17.79%). Prevalence of anemia was 25.6% and 40.7% if lower margin of Hb kept at 11 g/dl and 12 g/dl respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of anemia in Tayma region was high which needs integrated intervention at different levels to improve Hb status in the community. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Rapid diagnostic test versus microscopy in the diagnosis of acute malaria
           in a district hospital in Enugu state, Southeast Nigeria

    • Authors: Emmanuel I. Umegbolu, Chinedu N. Madukwe
      Pages: 54 - 60
      Abstract: Background: Malaria is a systemic disease caused by various species of Plasmodium, transmitted through the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito. According to the World Health Organisation, there were 214 million cases of malaria worldwide in 2015. Nigeria’s burden of malaria is about 51million cases and 207,000 deaths annually, accounting for 60% of outpatient visits to hospitals, 11% of maternal mortality, and 30% of child mortality. The study aimed to compare RDT and microscopy in malaria diagnosis in a District Hospital in Enugu state, Southeast Nigeria. Methods: Blood samples of 300 suspected cases of acute malaria were tested for malaria parasite using RDT and microscopy simultaneously. Results: In 2017, the study found a malaria prevalence of 25% (46.2% in children, and 18.1% in adults) in Awgu. RDT was positive in 38% and microscopy in 70.3% of cases. Both RDT and microscopy were positive in 36.3%, negative in 28.3%, and discordant in 35.4%. Sensitivity of RDT was 50.7% (89.4% in children, and 25.6% in adults). RDT had a specificity of 100% (both children and adults), positive predictive value of 1 (both children and adults), and negative predictive value of 0.6 (0.5 in children, 0.6 in adults). Conclusions: RDT (SD Malaria Ag P. f) had more sensitivity in children (89.4%) than adults (25.6%), and the occurrence of false negative results was more in adults (46.8%) than children (9.5%). All negative RDT results need to be examined microscopically, to rule out false negative cases.  
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Cyber sexual harassment: a cross-sectional survey over female university
           students in Upper Egypt

    • Authors: Ahmed E. Arafa, Rasha S. Elbahrawe, Nahed M. Saber, Safaa S. Ahmed, Ahmed M. Abbas
      Pages: 61 - 65
      Abstract: Background: The striking rise in the internet users has resulted into high potential for abuse. Cyber sexual harassment is a type of internet abuse that carries many negative emotional consequences and could undermine the mentality of young people. The objective of this study is to investigate the rates of exposure to cyber sexual harassment among female students in Beni-Suef University and explore the correlating factors. Methods: A total of 2350 female students representing all academic years of all faculties of Beni-Suef University were recruited to participate in this cross-sectional study. An Arabic language self-administered questionnaire was designed and comprised three sections; socio-demographic characteristics, exposure to cyber sexual harassment in the past 6 months, and emotional effects of exposure. Results: Almost 80% of all the surveyed female students reported experiencing cyber sexual harassment during the past 6 months, and most of the victims were exposed to cyber sexual harassment more than once. Students living in urban areas and students who spent more hours per day using the internet reported more exposure (p<0.05). The harassed students responded mostly by anger (65%), fear (20.1%), hatred (18.5%) and sorrow (18.4%) towards the harassment incidents. Conclusions: Female students in Beni-Suef University are highly vulnerable to cyber sexual harassment, which is shockingly prevalent. Administrations in Beni-Suef University, as well as other Egyptian Universities, should adopt anti-cyber sexual harassment programs. Such programs have to introduce overwhelming policies and regulations that counter fight cyber sexual harassment. Such policies can be used as guidance for the university students, their families and their academic staff.  
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Trend and outcome of acute poisoning case: an experience from emergency
           department of eastern Nepal

    • Authors: Rabin Bhandari, Rupak Bhandari, Pramendra Prasad Gupta
      Pages: 66 - 71
      Abstract: Background: Poisoning is common in Nepal. The objective of the study was to describe the profile of poisoning cases presenting to the emergency of a medical university in eastern Nepal. The specific focus was on to describe the presentation, demographics, delay to care and describe the triage parameters at presentation. Methods: An observational study was done. The secondary data from case files of all poisoning patients starting February 2012 to March 2013 were analyzed after retrieving them from Hospital record. Results: Poisoning constituted 3.89% of total emergency visits. Mean age was 24 years with female: male 1.32. Median time delay to presentation from the incident was 4 hours. Mortality rate was 5.1%, intubation rate 6.3%. Agricultural products ingestion (763/1399) was the commonest modality. The triage vitals were noted as median 110 mm of Hg (Q25, Q75 100, 120) for systolic blood pressure, median 87 mm of Hg (Q25, Q75 73, 93) for mean arterial pressure and median 97 (Q25, Q75 94, 98) for SPO2 by pulse oximetry. The level of consciousness was noted as alert (87.6%), response to verbal stimuli (3.7%), response to pain stimuli (7.1) and unconscious (1.6%). Comparison between mortality and no mortality groups showed significant difference for mean arterial pressure (n 1399, p<0.001, Kruskal Wallis Test), SPO2 (n 1399, p<0.001, Kruskal Wallis Test) and state of consciousness (n 1399, p<0.001, Chi Square test). Conclusions: Agricultural products are commonest, drugs and unknown poisons are significant. A large proportion is still unknown poisoning. Triage parameters can help to identify patients in risk of high mortality. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Epidemiologic study of causes of seizure attacks in patients admitted to
           emergency of Zahedan city hospital, 2015-2016

    • Authors: Alireza Khosravi, Abdolreza Ghoreishi, Seyyedeh-Masoumeh Bagheri
      Pages: 72 - 75
      Abstract: Background: Seizure is one of the most important cause of admission to the emergency department (ED). The admission rate can be decreased by identifying the etiology of seizure which leads to appropriate treatment and elimination of the underlying cause. The purpose of this study is to survey the etiology of seizure in cases admitted to ED. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 patients with seizure admitted to Zahedan city hospital in 2015-16. Data were collected by a checklist including demographic, familial history, past medical history of seizure, cause and type of seizure, time of occurrence, status seizure and cause of recurrence which was completed for each patient. The data was analyzed by statistical methods in SPSS.16. Results: Among all of 150 patients 82 (54.6%) were male and 68 (45.3%) were female. The most common age group was 18-45 years with 114 (76%) patients. 74 (49.3%) patients had PMH of seizure and 15(10%) patients had positive FH of seizure. The most common cause of seizure was idiopathic epilepsy (47.3%), cerebral vascular lesions (14%), withdrawal and poisoning (6.7%). The other causes were paroxysmal non epileptic seizure, primary and secondary brain tumors, metabolic diseases, trauma each with prevalence of (5.3%). Congenital diseases (3.3%), infections (2.7%), demyelinating diseases (2%) and others (2.7%). The most common type of seizures was generalized tonic-colonic seizure (69%). (55.3%) seizures occurred in 6AM- 6PM. (4.6%) patients had status seizure. The most prevalent causes of recurrent seizure was related to inadequate drug use. Conclusions: The most common cause of seizure was idiopathic epilepsy and the next common causes were cerebral vascular lesion and withdrawal. Regular follow up of epileptic patients and eliminating the underlying cause and social abnormality will be effective in decreasing the occurrence of seizure. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • A study on prevalence of tobacco consumption in tribal district of Madhya
           Pradesh

    • Authors: Prashant Verma, Deepak Saklecha, Pradeep Kumar Kasar
      Pages: 76 - 80
      Abstract: Background: Tobacco use is one of the common risk factors for major non-communicable diseases. It succumbs half of its users to death. Estimates suggest that tobacco will cause about 150 million deaths in the first quarter of the century and 300 million in the second quarter. Prevalence of tobacco use in rural area is higher than urban area. While there is still paucity of data of tobacco consumption among tribal population. The study aims to determine the prevalence of tobacco consumption and its different modes among tribal population. Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out among 800 study subject 15 years and above of randomly selected villages of Mandla district of M.P., from January 2015 to June 2015 using a pre-designed pre-tested proforma. Results: Tobacco consumption was prevalent among 43.38% of the study subjects with khaini (68.3%) being the most common form of tobacco consumed followed by betel nut (9.5%). Its consumption was significantly associated with gender, age group, educational status and the marital status of the respondents. Conclusions: The prevalence of tobacco use is alarmingly high (43.38%). There is a need to strengthen IEC and Behaviour change communication activities focussing on the hazardous effects of tobacco through health education campaigns is needed in tribal areas. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • The feasibility of using remote data collection tools in field surveys

    • Authors: Sherin Susan Paul N., Philip Mathew, Felix Johns, Jacob Abraham
      Pages: 81 - 85
      Abstract: Background: The objectives of the study were to conduct a field survey to measure the prevalence of chronic diseases by taking history, to assess the feasibility of using remote data collection tools in field surveys and to create the map of the survey area using global positioning system (GPS). Methods: A community survey was carried out in two urban municipal wards by trainees with medical sociology back ground among those aged 35 years and above. There were a total of 563 participants from whom history of chronic diseases were collected and from those aged 60 years and above the presence of frailty was assessed using Canadian Study of Health and Ageing (CSHA) Clinical Frailty Scale. The data was collected using a remote data collection application named KoBo Toolbox, downloaded in their smart phones, which was sent directly to the main computer in the Clinical Epidemiological Unit, using mobile data or Wi-Fi hotspots. The co-ordinates of the households were marked using GPS which was also sent through the KoBo Toolbox to the main computer. At the centre the data was converted into excel sheets and various percentages were calculated. Results: In the survey the proportion affected with diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular accidents were 24%, 20.6%, 10.5% and 3.5% respectively. Among the older population 2.2% were found to be severely frail or worse requiring special care. The field map of the area surveyed was also generated using the co-ordinates marked using the GPS enabled phones. Conclusions: The remote data collection tool enabled us to conduct a survey on chronic diseases, effectively, within a limited period of time, creating a map of the area surveyed. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Measles occurrence, vaccination coverages and malnutrition in India:
           correlations, trends, and projections by time series analysis

    • Authors: Siddalingaiah H. S., Aditi Chaudhuri, Chandrakala D.
      Pages: 86 - 94
      Abstract: Background: Measles is a highly infectious viral disease responsible for a considerable morbidity and mortality in childhood. India has committed to achieve measles elimination by 2020. Currently, Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) have placed a lot of emphasis on measles elimination. Methods: Data on reported measles cases, immunization coverages and malnutrition status of children specific to India for a period from 1980 to 2017 were collected from WHO, UNICEF and related official online web sources. Also, various official measles elimination strategy documents, available literature and experiences from various countries were reviewed. The data were analysed for correlations, trends. Time series model projections were made till 2020 using two different software tools. Results: The occurrence of measles cases showed a significant downward trend especially since 2000, but continues to exhibit mild cyclical trend of 3-4 years with strong seasonality. Measles vaccine coverages are steadily and significantly increasing more so since 2014. Reduction in measles cases is strongly and significantly correlated with the vaccination coverages; moderate correlation with wasting and mild correlation with stunting was observed. Current progress in India to achieve elimination appears to be well on track with remarkable strides made in strengthening case based surveillance, immunization with 2 doses of measles containing vaccine (MCV) and establishment of high quality laboratory network. MCV1 and MCV 2 coverage forecasts look promising to reach about 95% by 2020 at current rates. Also, the projections of measles case occurrence indicate the reduction in incidence to about 20 per million, which may even be augmented further with concurrent enhancements in nutritional status and socio-economic growth. Conclusions: India is well on track to achieve measles elimination goal as per the commitment made in 2014, using the established strategies.   
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • A cross sectional study of polycystic ovarian syndrome among young women
           in Bhopal, Central India

    • Authors: Mahesh Gupta, Daneshwar Singh, Manju Toppo, Angelin Priya, Soumitra Sethia, Preeti Gupta
      Pages: 95 - 100
      Abstract: Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age groups. It is one of the leading causes of poor fertility. Risk factors include obesity, not enough physical exercise, and a family history. Most studies in India report prevalence of PCOS as 9.13% to 36%. Behaviour and life style modifications are important part of treatment for PCOS. A number of cases in the community due to lack of awareness and proper guidance, it remains undiagnosed. Aim of this study was to find the prevalence of PCOS among the young females of Bhopal city. Thus, risk assessment in the form of a survey would be one of the strategies to identify this syndrome early so as to encourage young women to seek timely treatment and prevent its long term complications. Methods: Non comparative cross sectional study for duration of 8 month. Results: The prevalence of PCOS in this study was 8.20%. Among all the risk factors, BMI ≥25 (P value < 0.0001) and waist hip ratio ≥0.85 (<0.0001) were strongly associated with the presence of PCOS and Lack of awareness, there were in girls (78.4%). Conclusions: Women who were having BMI ≥25 and waist hip ratio ≥0.85 should be educated about its complications and should be advised weight loss. Girls who had irregularity of menses and signs of hyperandrogenism should be investigated and must be managed accordingly. Early diagnosis of PCOS and its prompt treatment will help the girls to improve quality of life. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Impact of smartphone use on quality of sleep among medical students

    • Authors: Mahesh D. Kurugodiyavar, Sushma H. R., Maneesha Godbole, Manjunath S. Nekar
      Pages: 101 - 109
      Abstract: Background: Smartphone with its various functionalities has become an essential part of our daily activities and its use has been increasing. This has raised concern about its overuse and addiction especially in students. It is known that poor sleep is very common among medical students; there are many studies on sleep quality and its determinants in medical students but very few relating sleep quality and smartphone addiction. The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between smartphone use severity and sleep quality among medical students of KIMS, Hubballi. Methods: A cross‑sectional study on sample of 240 undergraduate medical students KIMS, Hubballi was conducted. Students were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire, Smart phone addiction scale (SAS) and Pittsburgh sleep quality inventory (PSQI). SAS score and PSQI scores were co-related. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to identify the variables independently associated with level of sleep quality. Results: Out of 240 subjects 117 (48.75%) were poor sleepers & 123 (51.25%) were good sleepers according to PSQI global sleep score. According to SAS score 123 (51.2%) were low users and 117 (48.75%) were high users of Smart phone. The mean (SD) PSQI global score was 4.8 (2.49) and mean (SD) SAS score was 102.93 (22.13). There was positive correlation between SAS score & PSQI score (r=0.343, p<0.001). Gender (β=0.141, p=0.021) & SAS score (β=0.292, p<0.001) were the significant predictors of global PSQI score. Conclusions: This study concludes that in medical students smartphone addiction affects sleep quality significantly and males are particularly more at risk of having poor sleep quality due to excessive smartphone use.  
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • A cross sectional study to assess the knowledge, attitude about
           non-scalpel vasectomy and practices of any contraceptive method among
           females of reproductive age group in a urban slum, Chennai, Tamil Nadu,
           2014

    • Authors: Kokila K., Chellavel Ganapathi K.
      Pages: 110 - 115
      Abstract: Background: In India, non-scalpel vasectomy (NSV) technique was introduced in 1992 to improve the male participation in family planning, though it has failed to achieve its goal. Hence this study was planned to know the real concern about this condition. This study was carried out to assess the knowledge and attitude about non- scalpel vasectomy (NSV) and practices of any contraceptive methods among married females in reproductive age in an urban slum.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done in urban field practice area of Institute of Community Medicine, Madras Medical College, Chennai-03, Tamil Nadu in the period July 2014 to August 2014 among Married females of reproductive age group (15-49 years).Specific questions on knowledge, attitude regarding NSV were asked. Data were entered in Microsoft Excel sheet and analysed in SPSS version 20. Results: This is a questionnaire based study. All (106 participants) were aware of vasectomy. Among them 50% knew that vasectomy is an option for permanent sterilization. About 36% of them knew that cash incentive is given for vasectomy & 30% knew that insurance given for pregnancy and other complications followed by vasectomy. Around 31% of the respondents knew that vasectomy does not affect sexual performance. About 29% knew that vasectomy does not need prolonged bed rest. Only 19% of the participants knew that vasectomy is done free of cost and as an OP procedure and 11.3% knew that vasectomy is done without any incision. Among the participants 81% agreed that limiting family size stabilizes the financial condition of the family. About 48% of the participants agreed that family planning is also a responsibility of males and 56% were willing to recommend vasectomy for others. Only 35% of the females agreed to adopt vasectomy for their spouse. Among the respondents 73.6% were practicing some form of contraception currently. Conclusions: We conclude that there is a need to design and develop a need based behavioural change communication strategy to bridge the existing information gap among the eligible couples about NSV & to improve the male participation in family planning. Involvement of media, community participation and successful stories of males who have adopted NSV would enhance the effectiveness of all the interventions. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Road safety and the community: an awareness survey among the coastal
           population of Karnataka

    • Authors: Ranjitha S. Shetty, Vandita Pahwa, Vibha S. P., Asha Kamath, Suma Nair
      Pages: 116 - 121
      Abstract: Background: Road traffic accidents (RTAs) pose a significant burden on the health care system in India with high out of pocket medical expenditure. Awareness about this public health problem is necessary to combat it and this study was carried out to assess knowledge and practice towards road safety among the adult population in the coastal region of Udupi taluk in Karnataka. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 381 adults aged 18 years and above residing in the region for more than one year. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to assess their knowledge and practice towards road safety measures. Results: Most of the participants were in the age bracket of 18-44 years (61.4%), were females (65.1 %) and had up to 10 years of schooling. Overall knowledge was found to be low with only 30% reporting good knowledge. As regards practice, drivers fared better with a good majority (87%) reporting desirable practice. Younger age (OR=0.57, 95% CI, 0.36-0.92), male gender (OR=0.14, 95% CI, 0.08-0.23), higher level of schooling (OR=0.32, 95% CI, 0.20 -0.50) and knowing to drive (OR=0.04, 95% CI, 0.02-0.07) were found to be significantly associated with a greater level of knowledge regarding road safety measures. Conclusions: The study showed inadequate knowledge and poor road safety practices among good number of participants. This emphasises the need for a customized community based awareness campaign on road safety measures coupled with stringent legislation measures to bring about the desired change. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Study of socio-demographic factors and morbidity profile of traffic
           policemen in Solapur city of Maharashtra

    • Authors: Santosh J. Haralkar, Rahul N. Gite
      Pages: 122 - 128
      Abstract: Background: The traffic policemen are engaged in controlling vehicular traffic and exposed to higher concentrations of air pollution as well as noise pollution daily. Hence they are at a risk of developing various health problems due to their occupation. Methods: The aim of study was to study socio-demographic characteristics and morbidity profile of traffic policemen. A cross sectional study was carried out on 114 traffic policemen form the traffic control branch of the city from the police headquarter of the city. History regarding symptoms experienced at the workplace, history of present illness, past history, personal history and family history was obtained and clinical examination was done. Statistical analysis was done with the help of percentages, chi-square test. Results: Majority (89.47%) of the traffic policemen were married. Nuclear family type was seen in majority (64.91%) of traffic policemen. Annoyance to noise (51.75%) and eye irritation (32.46%) were most common symptoms experienced at work place by the traffic policemen. Obesity was a major health problem in the study subjects (63.16%). Respiratory morbidity like URTI (14.91%) and chronic rhinitis (14.04%) were found significantly more in the traffic policemen. Conclusions: Annoyance to noise and eye irritation were most common symptoms experienced at work place by the traffic policemen. Respiratory morbidity like URTI, chronic rhinitis and chronic bronchitis were most common. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Reproductive tract infections: a self-reported community based study in
           urban training health centre area of a tertiary care hospital in Kottayam,
           Kerala, India

    • Authors: Jeena Ramesh, Jose Joseph, Manjula V. D.
      Pages: 129 - 133
      Abstract: Background: The burden of reproductive tract infections (RTI) among urban women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years) is usually a hidden issue. Earlier studies from Kerala mainly focused on reproductive morbidity among commercial sex workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of RTI and its association with potential socio-demographic risk factors, based on self reported symptoms among females in the age group 15- 49 years in the Urban training Health Centre field practice area of Government Medical College, Kottayam. Methods: The study was conducted among 643 women of the reproductive age group by single stage cluster sampling technique. A pretested semi structured interview schedule was used for collecting data on the socio demographic profile, clinical symptoms and associated factors after obtaining informed consent. Univariate analysis was done to find association of RTI with various factors followed by a bivariate analysis using binary logistic regression model. Results: The prevalence of RTI was 11.8%. RTI was significantly associated with age at marriage (p=0.02), age at first child birth (p=0.01), type of family (p=0.002), female education (p=0.001), socioeconomic status (p=0.007) and previous history of RTI in last one year (p<0.01) of which 84.1% women with symptoms of RTI had consulted a health personnel. Conclusions: A low prevalence of self reported symptoms of RTI with a high treatment seeking behavior was observed; attributed to the high female literacy. A comparable prevalence in younger age group of 15-24 years (10.9%) and 25-39 years (12.9%) suggesting equal susceptibility of adolescents to RTI was a notable finding. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Barriers and facilitators of intention to organ donation among general
           people in state of Puducherry: a cross sectional study

    • Authors: D. Arunachalam, G. Subash Chandrabose
      Pages: 134 - 139
      Abstract: Background: Organ transplantation is taken into account one among the best advances of contemporary science that has given several patients a revived lease of life. The target of study resolve the barrier and supporter of organ donation among general public, and to spot the factors that influence organ donation assent and rejection in state of Puducherry, India. Methods: A cross-sectional study had below soft on a sample of a hundred and fifty subjects handily. The eligible subjects were administered a structured inquiries to assume barriers and facilitators of organ donation. The collected information’s were statistically analyzed. Results: Of the one hundred fifty subjects, the age groups were 58% 20-30 years, 26% 31-40 years, 12% 41 to 50 years and 4% 51-60 years. Male constituted 33.3% and females were 66.7% of the subjects. The mean data score of the themes were 4.74±1.45 (1-8). 80.6% according the intention to gift organ and 19.3% weren't willing to gift organ. The foremost necessary barriers were opposition from family (82.8%) and concern (72.4%). The foremost necessary facilitators were organ donation would save someone’s life (95.9%) and it improve the sense of human (95%). Education, occupation, married and financial gain square measure related to intention to gift organ. Conclusions: From the offered scientific proof it's conducted that information of organ donation stay still poor and therefore the indentified barriers and facilitators ought to be taken within the account whereas motivates the overall peoples to present organ to future. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Burden of diabetes and hypertension among people attending health camps in
           an urban area of Kancheepuram district

    • Authors: S. Hariharan, R. Umadevi, T. Stephen, S. Pradeep
      Pages: 140 - 143
      Abstract: Background: Diabetes and hypertension are among the most common non-communicable diseases affecting our population. They are the important risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aims and objectives of the study were to determine the burden of diabetes and hypertension among people attending health camps in an urban area of Kancheepuram district. Formulation of suitable preventive measures based on the inferences from the study.Methods: A cross- sectional record based study was done on 825 people attending medical camps conducted by Sree Balaji Medical College & Hospital, in Anakaputhur area of Kancheepuram district. The data regarding Random Blood Sugar (RBS) level, blood pressure level, age, and gender were collected from the camp register (January and February, 2017). A random blood sugar (RBS) value of >200 mg/dl in a patient with classic symptoms of hyperglycaemia or hyperglycaemic crisis was defined as having diabetes. Blood pressure level equal to or greater than 140/90mm Hg was defined as having hypertension. Descriptive analysis and Chi square test was done to see the statistical association between various parameters. Results: Of the total study population of 825 people, 215 were males and 610 were females. The overall burden of diabetes and hypertension among the study population was 10.7% and 6.4% respectively. Co-existence of both diabetes and hypertension was seen in 5.7% of people. Conclusions: To reduce the disease burden due to diabetes and hypertension, primary prevention measures such as health education regarding adoption of healthy lifestyle should be instituted. Interventions such as screening and early initiation of treatment should also be made for controlling the diseases and preventing its complications. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Social determinants of health and well-being among municipal school
           children in Mumbai

    • Authors: Yasmeen K. Kazi, Anita G. Shenoy, Gajanan D. Velhal, Suresh D. Mate, Sudam R. Suryawanshi
      Pages: 144 - 152
      Abstract: Background: HBSC seeks to identify and explore the extent of the inequalities related to socioeconomic status (SES), age and gender among the younger age group, and highlight the need for preventive action. Hence, this study was carried out, to find out the social context as a determinant of their health and well-being. The objectives of the study were to study the socio-demographic characteristics of the students; to find the social determinants and its association with their perceived health outcomes.Methods: The study was carried out among 426 Municipal school students in Mumbai. They were enquired about their socio demographic characteristics, their personal habits and behaviour, relationship with their parents, siblings and friends, performance in school, academic pressures, and also about any health related complaints if they had. Results: The study shows less communication of students with their parents, more so with their fathers’. Students were seen to have more friends and would also spend more time with them, especially boys. Academic achievement was better among girls and those from less affluent families and it also showed a dip in the higher age groups. Regular consumption of breakfast, fruits, vegetables was seen less among girls and older students. Boys and those from less affluent families were seen to be more involved in high risk behaviour. Conclusions: All the factors mentioned in the study are shown to have adverse effects on the perceived health outcome of the students. These social factors need to be addressed to improve the health and well-being of the younger generations. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Screening of hypertension among rural community of Nepal

    • Authors: Kapil H. Agrawal
      Pages: 153 - 155
      Abstract: Background: Hypertension is the commonest cardiovascular disorder, posing a major public health challenge to population in socioeconomic and epidemiological transition. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension in the rural community. Methods: Community-based cross sectional study was conducted in Chotkiram nagar village of Rupandehi district of Western Nepal. Door to door screening for hypertension was done using mercury sphygmomanometer. Other study variables included demographic factors only such as age and sex. The data was collected from 7th June 2016 to 20th June 2016. All the households in the village were screened and all the persons over 18 years of age in the households were subjected to blood pressure measurement. Thus the sample size comprised of all persons above 18 years of age. Total subjects enrolled were 3158. All persons above (and completed) 18 years of age and holding permanent resident status in the study area at the time of study were included in the study. Pregnant women and persons not willing to give consent were the exclusion criteria set. Though, all the participants gave their consent. Results: The prevalence of hypertension in the study is 16.2%. Conclusions: Though the hypertension is significant in the current study, the prevalence is much lower than the studies done in other parts of Nepal. More prevalence studies are required in the rural areas of Terai region. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Evaluate the factors affecting health seeking behaviours of women rag
           pickers in Mumbai

    • Authors: Sumit Ghansham Wasnik, Kamaxi Bhate, Arjun Mehta, Mandar Sadawarte
      Pages: 156 - 160
      Abstract: Background: There are genuine reasons why rag pickers are considered one of the worst form of labour. The risk related to rag pickers’ health and physical development, as well as the hindrance these work places have on their education and psychological development; make rag picking a particularly adverse occupation for women and children. The objectives of the study were to explore the health profile and to identify the factors affecting the health seeking behaviours of women rag pickers. Methods: This study was done with the help of NGO working for women rag pickers. 120 rag pickers were participated in the study during study period (Jan 2012 to July 2012). Results: Almost all rag pickers were having some or other type of physical or mental ailments in minor or major form. It is seen that ignorance about health and disease is because of illiteracy, lower socioeconomic condition, unavailability of good health care facility nearby to their locality, difficulty in getting time to visit nearest health care facility from their 10-12 hours of duty etc. Conclusions: It was found that these rag pickers prefers to visit private clinics as they are open in evening time and most of the time were affordable for minor ailments.   
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Ocular morbidity and its relation to classroom lighting among
           middle-school students of government high schools in Goa

    • Authors: Jagadish A. Cacodcar, Abhishek Bicholkar, Nikita Wagle, Annet Oliveira
      Pages: 161 - 164
      Abstract: Background: School children form an important target group for a Nation and any ocular morbidity in this age group has huge physical, psychological and socio-economical implications. Research studies have shown that illumination has a significant effect not only on scholastic performance of the students, but also on their physical and mental health. The current study was carried out to assess the prevalence of ocular morbidities among students of high schools of Sanquelim Taluka in Goa, and to assess possible association between ocular morbidity and level of classroom and blackboard illumination. Methods: Students of class 6, 7 and 8 of eight randomly selected schools were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire for personal details and visual symptoms. Visual acuity testing was done using Snellen’s chart. Classroom and blackboard illumination were assessed separately using standard calibrated digital Lux meter (LX-10101B). Results: Using Snellen’s chart, 83 (18%) of the study subjects were found to have visual morbidity. The measurement of illumination levels showed that out of the 24 classrooms and blackboards evaluated, 15 (62.5%) classrooms and 9 (37.5%) blackboards had inadequate illumination. Classroom illumination was found to have significant association (p=0.04) with visual morbidity. Conclusions: A significant number of classrooms (62.5%) and blackboards (37.5%) had below recommended illumination levels. Regular evaluation of infrastructure should be done to ensure adequate artificial illumination of the classrooms. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Morbidity pattern among primary school children in a tribal area of
           Maharashtra

    • Authors: Chinmay N. Gokhale, Chaitali A. Borgaonkar, Sunita S. Shanbhag, Mridula J. Solanki, Milind M. Rasal
      Pages: 165 - 169
      Abstract: Background: A child spends more time at school than anywhere else, except home. The health and well-being of children is a fundamental issue in education. Indeed, active promotion of health is now seen as a priority for schools. Mortality in school age children is low but morbidity and physical defects constitute major problems. With this background the present study was conducted to explore the prevalence morbidity patterns and their socio-demographic co-relates among the primary school children in a Tribal area. The objectives of the study were to study morbidity profile and assess nutrition status of tribal primary school children; to determine factors influencing morbidity profile of tribal primary school children; to suggest recommendations based on study findings. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study conducted in Zila Parishad school located in village-Durves, tribal area of District-Palghar. Children enrolled in class 1 to 5were included using convenient sampling. A thorough clinical examination was carried out to assess the morbidities and nutrition status. Data was entered in Microsoft Excel Spread sheet and analyzed using SPSS. Results: Out of 126 students, 68 were girls and 58 were boys. The teeth hygiene was most compromised and dental caries was the commonest morbidity. Around 30% were malnourished as per WHO weight-for-age standards. Younger students i.e. those enrolled in class 1–3 had higher proportions of morbidities as compared to their elder counterparts. It was seen that male gender and children enrolled in class 1–3 had more morbidities. Conclusions: The study showed a poor attendance of merely 40% with 73% of study subjects having one or other kind of morbidities. Health education sessions on personal hygiene and nutrition must be carried out both for students and their parents to improve nutrition status and reduce proportion of morbidities. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Assessment of utilization of maternal health care services in rural field
           practice areas of VIMS, Ballari

    • Authors: Neeta P. N., Sameena A. R. B., Suresh C. M., Gangadhar Goud, Bharat ., Saraswati Sajjan, Chetana .
      Pages: 170 - 176
      Abstract: Background: Maternal mortality and morbidity remains high even though national programs exist for improving maternal and child health in India. This could be related to several factors, an important one being non-utilization or delay in seeking care of maternal health-care services, especially amongst the rural poor and urban slum population due to either lack of awareness or access to health-care services. Our study was aimed to know the utilization of maternal health care services during antenatal and post natal period and factors affecting them.Methods: A Community based cross sectional study was carried in the rural field practice areas of VIMS, Ballari (three primary health centres (PHC) Kudithini, Koluru, Kurugodu) among all married women in the age group of 15-45 years who were in the post natal period (less than 2 months) at time of interview. A total 152 women were included in the study by door to door survey, among all the 3 PHC’s. The women absent during the survey were excluded.Results: Only 101 (66.44%) of women utilized antenatal care and 18 (11.8%) utilized post natal care (at least three postnatal visits) from the health care facility. Mothers who were of Muslim religion, <20 years of age, higher education of participant as well as husband, higher occupation status, high SES, less parity had higher odds of utilizing antenatal care. Health education by the health worker regarding post natal services to women ranged from 62.5-90.8%. Mothers of Muslim religion, higher education, higher occupation status, normal vaginal delivery and home delivery had higher odds of utilizing postnatal servicesConclusions: The study shows unacceptably low utilization of postnatal care services. It shows the coverage of postnatal care services is inadequate. This is an important message to health service providers and policy makers to strengthening not only antenatal health services and institutional deliveries but also postnatal care services to reduce maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Study of uropathogenic Escherichia coli with special reference to its
           virulence factors

    • Authors: Sanjay Singh Kaira, Chitra Pai
      Pages: 177 - 181
      Abstract: Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common nosocomial infections, caused by Escherichia coli. UPEC differ from non-pathogenic E. coli by the production of specific virulence factors which enable the bacteria to adhere to uroepithelial cells and to establish UTI. The aim of this study is to check the virulence factors of uropathogenic E. coli.Methods: A prospective study conducted in the Department of Microbiology of a tertiary level hospital in Mumbai over a period of one year (February 2011 to February 2012). A total of 123 Urine samples received in the laboratory were processed as per standard microbiological procedures to look for virulence factors like hemolysin, hemagglutination, cell surface hydrophobicity and gelatinase production. Results: Out of 123 patients 69 (56.09%) cases were from females and 54 (43.90%) were males. Thus female: male ratio was 1:3. Hemolysin production was seen in 27.64%, hemagglutination in 53%, cell surface hydrophobicity in 27.64%. Conclusions: UTI is more common in middle aged females and in community set-up. The knowledge of virulence factors of E. coli will help in better understanding of the organism pathogenicity and guided empirical therapy can result in better treatment outcome. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Addressing the rising cause of death due to diseases of the circulatory
           system geared towards achieving SDG 3: evidence from data on medical
           certification of cause of deaths in Rajasthan State, India: 1999-2015

    • Authors: Manoj Kumar Raut, Ananta Basudev Sahu
      Pages: 182 - 190
      Abstract: Background: Medical certification of cause of death (MCCD) scheme is imperative tool to obtain scientific and reliable information in terms causes of mortality. The office of the registrar general of India (ORGI) initiated the scheme on MCCD under civil registration system (CRS), during the third five year plan. Methods: This paper analyzes the data for the last 16 years for MCCD in Rajasthan from 1999 to 2015. The findings are based on more than half a million deaths, for which cause of death data is reported. The per cent of cause of deaths have been computed and the curve estimation method has been used to project the cause of death due to circulatory diseases. Results: The data reveals that the percentage of medically certified deaths hovers around 10 to 13 percent during 1999 to 2015 of the total deaths registered under the civil registration system, which is about 5 million deaths. The highest percentage of deaths that has been medically certified is due to circulatory diseases as seen for the combined period of sixteen years (1999-2015) (21 percent) followed by deaths due to certain infectious and parasitic diseases (16 percent). This has increased from 13.8 per cent in 1999 to 20.2 per cent in 2015. This proportion has been projected upto 2030, the target year of achievement of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Conclusions: Addressing this cause, could help in the achievement of indicator of 3.4.1, mortality rate attributed to cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes or chronic respiratory disease under the target of reducing by one third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being by 2030 subsumed under the SDG 3 of ensuring healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • A community based study of breast feeding and weaning practices among
           mothers in urban field practice area of SRTR, GMC, Ambajogai

    • Authors: Mohammed Rehan Shaikh, A. S. Nagaonkar
      Pages: 191 - 197
      Abstract: Background: Mother’s milk is the best gift nature has provided. Practicing exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is the simplest, healthiest and least expensive feeding method that fulfills the infant’s needs for nutrition and growth. Breast feeding is a common practice in India but factors influences breast feeding practice such as gender inequity, lack of knowledge, social pressure, pre-lacteal feed, illness among the lactating mother etc. Study of socio demographic factors and pattern of breast feeding and weaning practices in urban field practice area.Methods: A cross-section study was conduct in Urban Health Center of Govt. medical college and hospital of Ambajogai, Maharashtra. Mothers who are having a child between 0-24 months of age of both sexes were included in this study and interviewed.Results: Out of 193 women’s, most of the mothers were aged less than 25 years (78.04%) and were Hindus (73.9%). Most were illiterate (68.30) and belonged to the class V (97.5%), majority were housewives (99.1%) and multiparous (68.2%). Most had initiated breastfeeding (78.8%) within 24 hours of delivery. About 15.4% of the infants did not receive colostrums and 22.8% of the infants were not exclusively breastfed. Ghutti (water mixed with honey and herbs), boiled water, tea, and animal milk were commonly used pre-lacteal feeds.Conclusions: Despite higher rates of early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding, awareness of the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding was low. Indicates need to promote awareness of the correct method of infant feeding and care of the newborn.
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • An overview of internet use among professionals of Moradabad: a critical
           appraisal

    • Authors: Neha Priya, Samreen Khan, Sachin Lal
      Pages: 198 - 202
      Abstract: Background: Internet is a boon and has certainly helped to bring the world closer. It has been a great medium for students to communicate and get information by transforming the academic landscape. However the excessive and undisciplined use of internet by individuals especially in the last decade, has led to the emergence of the concept of internet addiction. Therefore, a cross sectional study has been conducted to investigate the use of internet facility among undergraduate students from Teerthankar Mahaveer University using a validated questionnaire. There were about 42 million active internet users in urban India in 2008 when compared to 5 million in 2000. India now has the world’s third-largest national digital population, with approximately, 159 million Internet users in 2014, which is projected to reach 314 million by 2017 (IMRB 2014). The aim was to study prevalence and pattern of internet usage among undergraduate students in Moradabad. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among medical students (n=382) belonging to all the professionals of medical college, to assess the pattern of internet usage. A semi-structured proforma along with Young’s internet addiction scale was used. Results: Of the 382 adolescents who took part in the study, 150 (39.27%) were female and 232 (60.73%) were males. Their mean age was 16.20 years. Using Young’s original criteria, 22 (5.76%) were found to be addicts, 230 (60.21%) were moderately addicted, 45 (11.78%) were average users while in 85 (22.25%) of student’s internet use was less than average. Most of internet use was for social networking 183(47.9%), downloading media files 125 (32.7%), online gaming 45 (11.8%), academic purposes 10 (2.6%) and others 19 (5%). About 275 (72%) of the students were using smart phones to access the internet. Conclusions: Most of the internet usage was for the purpose of social networking (Facebook, Whats App, Mails, etc). Availability of high speed free wi-fi internet on mobile phones as well as more reliance on virtual friendship than real may be the reason for spending more time on social network websites. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence and outcome of anaemia among pregnant women attending tertiary
           care hospital in Visakhapatnam

    • Authors: Radha Kumari Paladugu, Srinivas Jagath Pentakota, Sushma N.
      Pages: 203 - 205
      Abstract: Background: Anaemia in pregnancy is now considered as a major public health problem, caused by iron deficiency. WHO has estimated that prevalence of anaemia in developed and developing countries in pregnant women is 14% in developed countries and 51 percent in developing countries and 65-75% in India. Various programmes regarding anaemia prophylaxis and maternal health have been implemented but still the prevalence of anaemia related complications among pregnant women continues to be high. Hence the present study was conducted to study the prevalence and pregnancy outcome as a result of anaemia in a tertiary care center in Visakhapatnam. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out from June 2016 to August 2016 in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology among postnatal women in King George hospital, Visakhapatnam. A semi-structured questionnaire was prepared and information regarding age, socioeconomic status, parity, gestational age interval between pregnancies and outcome and complication of pregnancy were collected. Results: Mean age of study population is 22.4 years. Out of 100 women involved in the study 65 are from urban areas 29 from rural areas and 6 from tribal areas. Majority of the study population 66% were having HB% between 8-11% i.e. mild anaemia. When Outcome of pregnancy was seen in relation to anaemia majority of the women had live births (90%) followed by 7% IUDs and 2% still births. Conclusions: Majority of the women are in the age group of 20-24 years. Socioeconomic status is directly related to anaemic status of the women. Majority of the women had complication of puerperal sepsis. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Hypertension and occupational stress among high school teachers of
           Dibrugarh district

    • Authors: Dipankar Chetia, Gourangie Gogoi, Rupali Baruah
      Pages: 206 - 209
      Abstract: Background: Hypertension is an important public health problem. High blood pressure is one of the leading risk factors for premature deaths. Job strain can impact blood pressure directly through neuro-endocrine mechanisms. Teaching in school especially at the secondary school level has been identified as one of the most stressful professions. The present study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of hypertension and its association with occupational stress among high school teachers of Dibrugarh district. Methods: A community based cross sectional study among all government high school teachers of Dibrugarh district was done. All high school teachers in the age group ≥21 years to <60 years of both sexes were included. The sample size was calculated to be 335 using the formula, n=4pq/d2. Results: Out of the 335 study participants, 45.4% were hypertensive while the remaining 54.6% were non-hypertensive. Study participants who had stress as a problem had highest prevalence of hypertension (84.6%). The association between prevalence of hypertension and occupational stress of the study participants was observed to be statistically significant as (p<0.05). Conclusions: From the findings of the study it was concluded that the prevalence of hypertension among high school teachers of Dibrugarh district was high (45.4%). The prevalence of hypertension was found to be significantly associated with occupational stress. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Tobacco use among rural women in reproductive age group and its
           association with regularity of menstrual cycles and dysmenorrhoea: a
           community based cross sectional study

    • Authors: Namratha Kulkarni, Nikhil Hawal, Vijaya A. Naik
      Pages: 210 - 214
      Abstract: Background: Tobacco is a killer of men and women but sex specific differences exists. Along with the risk of suffering from the various health hazards from tobacco use, women are more prone to unique risks related to menstrual and reproductive function reproductive health hazards. This study was done to know the prevalence of tobacco consumption among the rural women in the reproductive age group and its association with the regularity of menstrual cycles and dysmenorrhoea.Methods: A community based cross sectional study, conducted from January 2011 to December 2011 among 1200 rural women aged between 15 years to 49 years residing in Primary Health Centre (PHC) Vantmuri area, Belgaum, Karnataka, India. Statistical analysis was done using rates, ratios and chi-square tests.. Results: The prevalence of tobacco consumption was 9.7%. 11 (10.9%) of currently pregnant women were consuming tobacco. Among the tobacco users, 89 (76.1%) had regular cycles. The association of tobacco consumption with irregular menstrual cycles was statistically significant (χ2=5.575, df=1, p=0.018). Further in this study, a very high percentage of 100 (85.5%) of the tobacco users had dysmenorrhoea. The difference was statistically strongly significant. (χ2=266.593, df=1, p<0.001). Among the tobacco users with irregular menstrual cycles, the most common manifestation was oligomenorrhoea 12 (42.9%) followed by 9 (32.1%) and 7 (25%) of menorrhagia and polymenorrhoea respectively. Conclusions: Significant association was found between tobacco consumption and the irregularity of menstrual cycles and dysmenorrhoea. It has become the need of the hour to provide enough evidence on the correlates of tobacco use in the community to assist government policy makers, health professionals and the public in developing realistic models towards effective tobacco control to cater to different sections of community in need. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • A study on demographic factors affecting quality of life among HIV
           positive individuals attending a district anti retroviral treatment centre
           in Mangalore

    • Authors: Anusha Rashmi, Rashmi Kundapur
      Pages: 215 - 219
      Abstract: Background: Prevention and treatment in HIV greatly influences the quality of life (QOL). The objective of the study was to assess QOL of individuals with HIV and its association with demographic factors. Methods: 400 patients with HIV attending the district anteretroviral treatment (ART) centre were interviewed with WHO QOL BREF questionnaire using systematic random sampling. Descriptive statistics, Chi square and independent t test and logistic regression was done to analyse the results. Results: Mean quality of life score was highest in the physical domain (Mean=14.93, ±3.59). Least score was seen for Social domain (Mean=12.30, ±2.37). The physical domain score was highest among those belonging to class 1 SES (Mean=17.50, ±0.707). Domain scores varied significantly (p>0.05) with respect to gender. There was significant variation in domain scores across the different socioeconomic groups except in social domain. Conclusions: Gender, Socioeconomic and marital status significantly affected the QOL of People Living with HIV. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Nutritional status of the geriatric population in the field practice area
           of a medical college in Rajasthan

    • Authors: Shreyashkumar J. Gandhi, Mahesh Kumar Choudary, Rupesh Kumar, Dinesh Bhatnagar
      Pages: 220 - 224
      Abstract: Background: Ageing is a physiological process that starts from birth, continues throughout life, and ends with death. Poor nutrition is not a natural concomitant of ageing; older adults are at risk for malnutrition due to physiological, psychological, social, dietary, and environmental risk factors. The objectives of the study were to assess the nutritional status of elderly living in rural India and to study the factors related to nutritional status.Methods: Community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken in the field practice area of Pacific Medical College and Hospital, Udaipur, Rajasthan. Predesigned and pretested questionnaire and nutritional status were assessed using mini nutritional assessment scale for elderly people. Results: Out of the total 152 participants, 2 (1.3%) were having BMI less than 19, 11 (7.2%) were having BMI 19 to less than 21 and 43 (28.3%) were having BMI 21 to less than 23. Out of 152 participants, 30 (41.1%) males and 43 (54.4%) females were at risk of malnutrition. Six (8.2%) males and 5 (6.4%) females were suffering from malnutrition. However, the association of gender and nutritional status of elderly was not found to be statistically significant (p=0.258). Conclusions: Due to the high prevalence of elderly who were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition, a more detailed evaluation, regular follow up & dietary intervention to reverse the situation is required. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Are we are equipped to handle an epidemic of chronic kidney diseases'

    • Authors: Selvavinayagam T. S.
      Pages: 225 - 231
      Abstract: Background: The utilization pattern under Tamil Nadu state health insurance program, namely The Chief Minister’s Comprehensive Health Insurance Scheme (CMCHISTN) reveals that chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the high expenditure elements and this study explores need and availability of facilities to handle the CKD in the state. The objectives of the study were to estimate the requirement of renal replacement therapy (RRT) including haemodialysis and renal transplant surgery in the population; to compute the available facility and measure the shortfall if any, so as to create an evidence-based comprehensive strategy to handle CKD in Tamil Nadu. Methods: Based on the existing data, the estimated prevalence of CKD is calculated and it is matched with a utilization of services under CMCHISTN so as to arrive the requirements and gaps in RRT. Results: The existing system is able to cover only around 3% of the estimated population needing RRT and projected shortfall is around 68% in HD machines. Conclusions: The government needs to create RRT facility in the public sector covering both MHD and RT along with the suitable preventive strategy to reduce the risk factors and promote an early screening of diabetes and hypertension. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Genetic demographic profile of two endogamous sub-populations of Rellis

    • Authors: Ramesh Mandarapu, Geetha Kumari Konathala
      Pages: 232 - 238
      Abstract: Background: Relli caste group was chosen for the present population genetic study, as it is one of the scheduled caste groups. The present work was designed to be a descriptive study mainly aiming at unveiling a precise population genetic profile of Relli caste. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was done among 428 Relli families belonging to two subsets (Relli-I: 208; Relli-II: 220) residing in different localities of Visakhapatnam city. The demographic information regarding age, occupation, economic status, marriage patterns and reproductive events were collected. The data was processed and analyzed by using software SPSS V.19. Results: The age composition in both the subgroups of Rellis indicates a high proportion of children and a low proportion of older people which are the common characteristics of a rapidly growing population. The overall consanguinity is more among Relli-II (42.3%) than among the Relli-I (36.9). The highest mean marital distance is recorded in Relli-I (37.9 km). The mean ages at marriage, first conception, and menopause are found to be slightly higher among the Relli-I. Whereas, the mean ages of menarche and last conception were higher in Relli-II. Tubectomy records the highest frequency in Relli-II group and vasectomy registered the highest frequency among Relli-I group. Conclusions: The demographic and reproductive structure of the Rellis in the present study indicates that observations made with regard to most of the variables fall well within the ranges observed for other caste populations of Andhra Pradesh. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Our voice on gender discrimination: adolescent girls

    • Authors: Smitha Malenahalli Chandrashekarappa, Prathyusha Kadiyala, Nagendra ., Narayana Murthy M. R.
      Pages: 239 - 243
      Abstract: Background: Gender equality has been one of the goals (Goal 3: promote gender equality and empower women) in Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as well as Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) (goal 5: gender equality) which emphasise that gender discrimination remains a major barrier to human development. As gender socialization begins early in India, it is necessary that awareness must start in childhood and adolescent age on gender equity. This study aimed to assess gender discrimination experienced by the adolescent girls at home and surroundings which help to understand the persistence of gender discrimination and to access association of socio-demographic and family characteristics with gender discrimination.Methods: It is a cross-sectional study. Data was collected using a pre-structure pre-tested questionnaire. Information on socio-demographic profile was also collected. Purposive sampling was used and a total of 236 late adolescent girls (16-19 years) were included in the study, from PU and Degree colleges of Mysuru District, each from Urban, Rural and Tribal areas. Data collected was analysed using SPSS V.22. Descriptive statistics like mean, Standard deviation, proportions were used and inferential statistics like Chi-square analysis was used to know the association of socio-demographic variables with Gender discrimination.Results: Among the study participants 47% of adolescents experienced a moderate level of gender discrimination (score >29), 1% experienced severe gender discrimination (score >34). Age, residence, subject that they pursue and education of father were found be significantly associated with gender discrimination.Conclusions: A total of 48% late adolescents experienced either a moderate or severe gender discrimination. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Clinical profile of scrotal swellings in Jharkhand, India: our experience
           of four rural health camps

    • Authors: Vishnu Singh Munda, Nagendra Nath Murmu, Sanjeev Kumar, Ajay Bhengra, Manoj Kumar Korah, Rakesh Kumar
      Pages: 244 - 248
      Abstract: Background: Scrotal swellings are one of the common problems in all age groups. Since these swellings are usually painless and can attain a very big size without causing much discomfort; the patients are reluctant to seek medical advice. Social stigma, embarrassment and fear of getting under the knife are the other reasons for late presentation. However in developing countries like India; the poverty, illiteracy, unawareness and poor health care facilities are the common reasons for late presentation. The objective of the study was to bring forward the volume of problem and morbidity associated with scrotal swellings in rural populations of Jharkhand, India.Methods: This study was based on the four health camps with emphasis on scrotal swellings organized in the rural areas East Singhbhum, West Singhbhum and Simdega districts of Jharkhand state in Eastern India between December 2015 and June 2017. Data obtained from these camps were analyzed retrospectively.Results: A total of 1567 persons were screened for scrotal swellings in four camps; 180 (11.4%) of them found to have some scrotal pathology. Most of the cases were in the age group of 31-50 years (61.35%), scrotal swelling being main complaint. Out of the 180 cases with scrotal swelling, Primary vaginal hydrocoele was found in 78.9% (n=142); followed by sebaceous cyst and epididymal cyst. The majority of cases had symptom duration of 1 to 2 years– 33.9% (n=61), followed by 2 to 5 years– 23.23% (n=42); the duration of symptoms ranged from 2 weeks to 12 years.Conclusions: Although the diagnosis and treatment of scrotal swellings are relatively simple the number of patients with scrotal swellings is high, especially in the rural areas of developing countries like India. The rural health camps can be effective in decreasing the morbidities of scrotal swellings. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • A cross sectional study on prevalence of hypertension and its associated
           risk factors among rural adults in Kanchipuram district, Tamil Nadu

    • Authors: T. K. Raja, T. Muthukumar, Anisha Mohan P.
      Pages: 249 - 253
      Abstract: Background: Hypertension is one of the non-communicable diseases, which is an important global public health problem and also the most leading cause for cardiovascular disease in both developed and developing countries. The aim and objectives of the study were to estimate the prevalence of hypertension and to assess the associated risk factors among adults of rural population.Methods: A community based cross sectional study was done on 225 study subjects, using systemic random sampling method at Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. Results: The study included 225 participants of which 53% were male and 47% were female. The overall prevalence of hypertension among the study population was 26.2%. Risk among male was greater than female (OR=1.390). Factors like age, body mass index, diet, family history of hypertension had significant association (p<0.05) with hypertension. Conclusions: Regular screening for hypertension among adults should be done in the general OPD as well as in health camps so that they have a knowledge regarding their own blood pressure status. Among those who already have hypertension, anti -hypertensive drugs, timely blood pressure check-up, screening for cardio vascular diseases and self-care management of hypertension need to be promoted. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Comparative study of simplified new method of item analysis with
           conventional method

    • Authors: Vijay Kishanrao Domple, J. V. Dixit, Vishal S. Dhande
      Pages: 254 - 257
      Abstract: Background: Most of the entrance examinations in the world use multiple choice questions for assessment. We tried a new method in which, the middle one third test papers were included in final item analysis while calculating difficulty and discrimination index. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the month of July 2017 among 62 third year undergraduate medical students. Total 50 MCQs were framed with a four options and only one correct answer. The assessed papers arranged in descending order and two question papers with highest and lowest marks were excluded to make equal two or three groups. The item analysis was done by two methods based on difficulty indexand discrimination index. Data was analyzed for standard error of difference between two proportions by Microsoft Excel. Results: Therefore 60 students participated in the part-completion examination. The highest score was 37 whereas 15 was lowest. Out of 50 items (MCQs), 7 items were removed before final item analysis because of negative value of proportions. Out of 43 items, 25 showed that there was statistically significant difference between the discrimination index (P<0.05) with new method and conventional method. In rest of the 18 items, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in discrimination index. Z test for two proportions showed no significant difference in the difficulty index with new and conventional method. Conclusions: To conclude, there is no difference with respect to difficulty index by both methods but regarding discrimination index, the study failed to show conclusive results.  
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Measuring malnutrition: needs a comprehensive indicator

    • Authors: Kiran Swapnil Akhade
      Pages: 258 - 261
      Abstract: Background: There are various classifications for grading the degrees of under nutrition. Different reference values and cut off points has been a major hindrance in comparing data across various studies and countries. Methods: Community based cross sectional study. Children from urban slums were examined. Anthropometric measurements were taken. Data was analyzed with the help of SPSS ver 20 and appropriate tests were applied. Results: 400 children were examined. As per Z score classification, 39.8%, 36.5% and 24.8% of children are underweight, stunted and wasted respectively. As per IAP criteria, 44.7% are undernourished and 3.2% are severely undernourished (Grade III & IV). Compared to this, the Z score system identifies a much higher prevalence of severe undernutrition (15%) compared to IAP system. Composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) identifies 42% of underfive children are normal i.e. no failure, while 58% of children are undernourished. Conclusions: The current study suggests that conventional measures of undernutrition may be missing out a considerable proportion of undernourished children present in the population. CIAF can be used to measure overall prevalence of undernutrition. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Assessment of self-care practices among hypertensive patients: a clinic
           based study in rural area of Singur, West Bengal

    • Authors: Aparajita Dasgupta, Sembagamuthu Sembiah, Bobby Paul, Ayon Ghosh, Bijit Biswas, Nazrul Mallick
      Pages: 262 - 267
      Abstract: Background: Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure is a global public health concern. It is an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke. It remains silent, being generally asymptomatic during its clinical course and it accounts for a large proportion of cardiovascular deaths; lifestyle modification is the first line of intervention for all patients with hypertension, yet it was never been empirical. The aim of the study was to assess the pattern of self-care practices, if any and also to find out the factors associated with it, among the hypertensive patients in the outpatient department. Methods: A clinic-based, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted at health center under RHU & TC, Singur, which is the rural field practice area of All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Kolkata among 124 hypertensive subjects. Binary logistic regression was done to find out the factors associated with the self-care practices using SPSS software. Results: In the present study, 62.9% of study participants suffering from hypertension had unfavourable self-care practices. Logistic regression showed age above 60 years (OR-3.1), primary level education (OR-5.6), poor socio economic status (OR-2.4), widow/separated (OR-3.3) and people with self-perceived poor health status (OR-2.8)had significant association with unfavourable self-care practices. After adjusting with other variables, age (AOR-2.3) and education (AOR-3.8) remained significant predictor of outcome. Conclusions: The findings revealed that the self-care practices among hypertensive patients were unfavourable in rural area. This calls for a deep need in increasing the awareness about healthy lifestyle among hypertensive patients. This study provides key elements to affect policy changes and social interventions. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence of depression in PLHA attending ART centre of Assam medical
           college and hospital, Dibrugarh

    • Authors: Manas Jyoti Kotoky, Gourangie Gogoi
      Pages: 268 - 271
      Abstract: Background: Depression is a common mental health disorder encountered in people living with HIV/AIDS. Depression has a strong impact on the daily chores in the lives of those suffering from HIV/AIDS and their ability to cope with the disease and has a special role to play in adherence to antiretroviral therapy. This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of depression in PLHA attending the ART centre of AMCH. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out on 54 patients attending the ART centre. They were interviewed using a predesigned and pretested proforma with prior consent. Depression was assessed using the MDI-4 scale and data was analysed using SPSSv16. Chi square test was done to see the association. Results: Majority (85%) of the respondents were male. Prevalence of depression was found in 55.6% of the respondents. Alcoholic history was found in 54% and smoking in 24% (p<0.05). Most were educated below 10th grade (66.6%) (p<0.05). Most of them (83.3%) disclosed their status to their family members. Conclusions: The prevalence of depression is very high in PLHA. To diagnose depression and to treat at the earliest will go a long way in improving their quality of life. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Gender difference in health seeking behaviour among mothers of under five
           children in Lucknow

    • Authors: Rahul Katiyar, Naim Ahmed, Jai Veer Singh, Vijay Kumar Singh
      Pages: 272 - 274
      Abstract: Background: Discrimination and gender gaps have been observed even in early years of life. Although overall sex ratio in India has improved from 933 to 940 in the last decade, it declined from 927 to 914 in children aged less than five. Girls, less than five years, show steadily high mortality/morbidity compared to boys. This study was conducted to find the gender inequality in health seeking behaviour (HSB) among mothers of under five children. Methods: This community based cross sectional study was conducted in rural area of Lucknow, between September 2014 to August 2015. A total of 221 households having 376 under-five children were selected by multistage sampling technique from rural area of Lucknow. Mothers were interviewed about health seeking behavior for their ill child. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS v21. Results: About 95% of the male child and 86.4% of the female child sought treatment. Of the total females that were treated, 67.3% were taken to a health facility/provider while the rest got treated at-home against 76.4% males that got treatment outside home. Conclusions: Gender discrimination do exist in the rural area at each step of seeking health-care for girl child. Adequate measures should be taken to improve their health status and consequently sex ratio as early as possible. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Study of socio-demographic patterns and epidemiological correlates of
           unintentional injuries among 1-5 year children in Moradabad

    • Authors: Sachin Singh Yadav, Anurag Shrivastava, Prabhaker Mishra, Anish Prabhakar
      Pages: 275 - 279
      Abstract: Background: Unintentional injuries among children are an emerging public health problem. Accidental injuries are one of the leading causes of death, hospitalization and disability across the world. Fragile, helpless and innocent, an infant enters the world completely dependent on its caretakers. Children’s environment plays a critical role, both in the occurrence and severity of an injury. Hence, this study was carried out to assess the domestic unintentional injuries among under-five children. Methods: This cross-sectional study was undertaken in the urban field practice area of Teerthanker Mahaveer Medical College and Research Centre Moradabad. Information about domestic accidents among the family members in the last one year from the date of survey was obtained by interviewing the head of the family or responsible member of the family age ≥ 18 year. Study target sample size was taken 440 was selected by using two stage cluster sampling technique. Results: Out of 440 children 20% (88) reported to have experience unintentional injuries. History of fall was the commonest 42 (47.3%) form of injury reported followed by injury due to sharp object and road traffic accident. Toddlers, male child were affected more. Only 48.9% caregivers were aware about first aid measures to be taken after unintentional injury, 71.3% participants reported implementation of preventive measures. Conclusions: Unintentional injuries are becoming more common. We recommend for prompt and target group interventions in order to prevent and control the domestic accidents, promo­tion of household safety measures and creation of awareness among the community using information, education, and com­munication (IEC) interventions have to be undertaken. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Knowledge about first aid, wound management and vaccination for the cases
           of dog bite: a cross-sectional study among the students of a management
           and technology institute in western Uttar Pradesh

    • Authors: Anuj Singh, Medhavi Agarwal, Arun Singh, Rashmi Katyal, H. S. Joshi, Swati Khan
      Pages: 280 - 283
      Abstract: Background: About half the world’s population is living in countries/territories where dog rabies still exists and is potentially exposed to rabies. In 2005 there were 12,700 symptomatically identifiable furious rabies deaths in India; taken as a whole 1.1 deaths per lac population; mostly in males (62%), in rural areas (91%), and in children below the age of 15 years (50%). The aims and objectives of the study were to ascertain the knowledge about the first aid and vaccination measures and to assess the awareness about management, dressing and suturing of wound following dog bite among students of a management college in the Western Uttar Pradesh. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in a professional institute of Bareilly district selected by simple random sampling between August 2016- January2017, data was collected with the help of a questionnaire related to the assessment of knowledge regarding wound management. Results: 96% believe in proper wound management of animal bite, 37% think dressing of wound is necessary, 40% think immediate suturing of wound is important, where as 90% study subjects were aware of Anti-rabies vaccine. Conclusions: Awareness assessment about the wound management is almost satisfactory. Since, majority of subjects know the right measure of first-aid and believe in proper wound management after dog bite along with the knowledge about anti-rabies vaccine. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Status of birth preparedness and complication readiness among pregnant
           women in rural areas

    • Authors: Sunil Pal Singh Chajhlana, T. V. D. Prathyusha, Manoj Aravind Bhumi, Rama Krishna Narashima Mahabhashyam, Maruti Sarma Mannava Varaprasada
      Pages: 284 - 288
      Abstract: Background: World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that 529,000 women die annually from maternal causes. Ninety-nine percent of these deaths occur in the less developed countries. Every seven minutes - an Indian woman dies from complication related to pregnancy and child birth. For every woman who dies, 30 more women suffer injuries, infection and disability.Birth-Preparedness and Complication-Readiness (BP/CR) is a package to empower women, her family and the community to promote maternal and neonatal survival. It has been recognized as a standard component of the programs designed to make pregnancy safer.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among pregnant women who attended antenatal clinics between May 2014-August 2014 at Rural Health Training Centre (RHTC). A total 274 pregnant women who had given consent for the study have been included in the study. Data was collected by interview in local language and a predesigned and pretested questionnaire. Socio-economic status was assessed according to Modified Kuppuswamy’s classification (as per June 2015 CPI index. BP/CR was calculated by a set of seven indicators which has been developed by the John Hopkin Bloomberg School of Public Health.Results: A total of 274 pregnant women have participated in the study. Only half of pregnant women (54.0) were well prepared by fulfilling atleast four indicators of BPCR. Pregnant women in the age group of >30 years, educational status of pregnant women Occupational status of both pregnant women and their husbands and regular antenatal checks ups and their husbands and joint family have significant associations for well birth preparedness and complication readiness (p<0.0005).Conclusions:Pregnant women in the age group of >30 years, educational status of pregnant women and their husbands and joint family have significant associations for well birth preparedness and complication readiness.  
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Are good knowledge and positive attitudes regarding the cigarettes and
           other tobacco products act prevalent among rural Indian adults'

    • Authors: Pracheth R., Varun N., Ravindra Y. M., Preethi S., Tasmiya K., Naveed N. I.
      Pages: 289 - 295
      Abstract: Background: Cigarettes and other tobacco products (COTPA) Act is a legislation passed to curb tobacco use in India by imposing restrictions on tobacco products. This study appraised knowledge and attitudes regarding COTPA Act among adults in a rural area and elicited socio-demographic predictors of knowledge and attitudes regarding COTPA Act among study participants.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to December 2014 on adults (aged ≥18 years) in a rural area of Coastal Karnataka. A pre-designed, pre-tested proforma was used to collect information from study participants regarding their knowledge and attitudes about COTPA Act. Knowledge and attitude scores were computed. A score of ≥4 was good knowledge and ≥3 was regarded as positive attitudes.Results: Nearly 49.14% had good knowledge, while 51.29% displayed positive attitudes. Those belonging to upper and upper middle socio-economic class (Class I+Class II) had higher odds for good knowledge (AOR=2.09, 95% CI=0.82-5.92), when compared to their counterparts belonging to other socio-economic classes. Age ≥60 years (AOR=3.80, 95% CI= 0.30-9.98), education beyond primary school (AOR=2.88, 95% CI=1.24-6.19), upper and upper middle class socio-economic status (AOR=3.68, 95% CI=1.34-7.02) were the key predictor variables for positive attitudes.Conclusions:Nearly half the study participants had good knowledge and positive attitudes towards COTPA Act. High socio-economic status could predict good knowledge, while age ≥60 years, education beyond primary school and a high socio-economic status were the key variables predicting positive attitudes. Educational campaigns can help improve knowledge. Assessment of knowledge and attitude is imperative prior to implementation of policies to ensure effectiveness. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • A study of malnutrition and associated risk factors among children of age
           06-59 months in urban area of Jabalpur district (M.P.)

    • Authors: Nandini Shukla, Neelam A. Toppo, Aditya Thakur, Pradeep Kumar Kasar
      Pages: 296 - 301
      Abstract: Background: “Malnutrition is a silent emergency”. Malnutrition is not only an important cause of childhood mortality and morbidity, but also leads to permanent impairment of both physical and mental growth of those who survive. Methods: Cross sectional study was conducted among 720 children of age group 06-59 months in randomly selected eight wards of Jabalpur District. Multistage random sampling technique was used for the selection of study subjects. Predesigned questionnaire was used to collect data and anthropometric measurements were done. Data entry and analysis was done using Epi Info™ 7.1.5 and SPSS 20.0 (free trial version). Results: The prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were found to be 34.3%, 41.5% and 18.9% respectively while the prevalence of obese and overweight was 3.1% and 7.4% respectively. Malnutrition was found to be higher among the children born with low birth weight, having higher birth order, more number of siblings, those with incomplete immunization status and inappropriate feeding practices i.e. lack of exclusive breast feeding and improper weaning. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates the multiple risk factors for childhood malnutrition, encompassing sectors other than health alone like social and economic sectors, requiring multisectoral approach to fight against the silent killer of childhood malnutrition. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Comparison of perceived stress among medical and engineering students of
           Karpaga Vinayaga Educational Group, Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu

    • Authors: Vidya D. C., Swetha N., Thirunaaukarasu D., Gladius Jennifer H., Karthikeyan E.
      Pages: 302 - 307
      Abstract: Background: Doctors and engineers are experiencing stress from their student life. There are very few studies from South India, which have looked into comparison of perceived stress among medical and engineering students. Hence, this study was attempted with an objective to estimate the overall prevalence and to compare the perceived stress, and to know associated factors influencing stress, among medical and engineering students of Karpaga Vinayaga Educational group, Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Karpaga Vinayaga Educational Institute, Tamil Nadu, from June to September 2016. Based on simple random sampling, students from medical and engineering college were selected. After obtaining informed consent, a self administered questionnaire was administered. The data was analysed in SPSS version 18.0. Results: Out of 560 study subjects, 135 (24.2%) had low stress, 390 (69.6%) had moderate stress and 35 (6.2%) severe stress. Stress was associated with personal problems OR=2.29 (95% CI: 1.19-4.39), sleep disturbance OR=4.12 (95% CI: 1.57–10.7), difficulty in understanding the subject OR=2.32 (95% CI: 1.19–4.53), difficulty in time management OR=2.47 (95% CI: 1.40–4.35) and home sickness (p=0.001) in medical students whereas among engineering students, stress was associated with personal problems OR=2.01 (95% CI: 1.02–3.92), sleep disturbance OR=2.14 (95% CI: 1.1–4.1) and difficulty in time management OR=2.6 (95% CI: 1.48–4.58). Conclusions: The overall prevalence of perceived stress was 75.8%. The prevalence of perceived stress among medical students was 76.8% as compared to 75% of engineering students. Among medical and engineering students, stress was associated with personal problems, sleep disturbance and difficulty in time management. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • An evaluation: IYCF practices in rural area of Bareilly district, Uttar
           Pradesh

    • Authors: Medhavi Agarwal, H. S. Joshi, Ruchi Tanwar, Arun Singh, Rashmi Katyal, Deepak Upadhyay
      Pages: 308 - 312
      Abstract: Background: In recent Annual Health Survey conducted in India from 2010 to 2013 covering all the 284 districts (as per 2011 census) of 8 Empowered Action Group (EAG) States (Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Rajasthan) and Assam, only 21% of breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding children are fed in accordance with the infant and young child feeding (IYCF) recommendations thus this study was taken up to evaluate the infant and young child feeding (IYCF) recommendations practices in Bareilly district of U.P. Objective is to evaluate the infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in rural area of Bareilly district, U.P.Methods: Community based Cross sectional study was conducted using 30 by 7 cluster sampling technique in rural area of Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh from August 2017 to September 2017 in all children of age 1 year residing in the study area. Sample size was 210.The results were compiled and analyzed in Epi info-7.2.Results: In this study­ 69.5% children were put to breast feeding with in 1 hour of birth. Prelacteal feed was given to 20.5% of studied population.Conclusions: There have been considered developments in the status of IYCF practices in Bareilly as compared to National Family Health Survey-3 at national level yet the scope for further progress is substantial. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Objective structured clinical examination for formative assessment of
           final year part-1 MBBS students

    • Authors: Sunil Pal singh Chajhlana, Manoj Aravind Bhumi, Rama Krishna Narashima Mahabhashyam, Sai Ram A., Maruti Sarma Mannava Varaprasada
      Pages: 313 - 316
      Abstract: Background: The aim of medical education is to develop overall medical student’s clinical competency at all the levels. Practical examinations play a major role in the overall assessment of the cognitive, affective as well as psychomotor domains of the individuals. Different variability in clinical examination, student’s variability, the examiner’s variability and the patient’s variability and the attitude towards disease may have effect on the assessment of the students. Objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) was designed to test the clinical competence by bed side while simultaneously improving objectivity and reliability. The objectives of the study were to assess the effectiveness of OSCE for assessment tool as compared to traditional method of assessment; to know the perception of students participated toward OSCE. Methods: Study was conducted among a batch of 25 students of VIth semester student posted in Department of Community medicine. After undergoing traditional method of examination, all the participating students underwent OSCE and the marks were recorded. Student’s perception regarding OSCE was recorded using a questionnaire. Results: Marks scored by the students in OSCE were significantly higher than traditional practical examination. 92% students agree that OSCE useful tool in overall assessment of the student, better form of assessment & learning, easy to pass and score better marks than traditional method of examination. Conclusions: OSCE useful tool in overall assessment of the student, better form of assessment & learning, score better marks and has less emotional stress in OSCE, when compared to viva voce. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • A study on maternal and perinatal risk factors of cerebral palsy among
           children attending a cerebral palsy clinic in Visakhapatnam

    • Authors: V. Soumya, K. V. Phani Madhavi, B. Devi Madhavi
      Pages: 317 - 321
      Abstract: Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder of movement and posture, defined as an “umbrella term covering a group of non-progressive, but often changing, motor impairment syndromes secondary to lesions or anomalies of the brain arising in the early stages of its development”. Risk factors for CP include maternal infection, placental insufficiency, gestational diabetes, pregnancy induced hypertension, instrumental delivery, low birth weight, hypoxic ischemic injury, hyperbilirubinemia, metabolic abnormalities (hypoglycemia). The families are affected psychologically, financially and socially. It also imposes burden on national health system. The objective of the study was to study the distribution of maternal and perinatal risk factors of cerebral palsy among children attending a cerebral palsy clinic in Visakhapatnam.Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted by eliciting history from the mothers of 90 cerebral palsy children who were treated in cerebral palsy clinic, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India for a period of 6 months in 2016. After taking consent, data was collected using a pretested questionnaire. Detailed history was taken from the mothers of 90 cerebral palsy children regarding the period of gestation at which the child was born (preterm or full term), any previous history of pre-term delivery or abortions and neonatal complications was obtained from the care givers. Data was entered into MS-excel sheet and analysed by using SPSS Trial Version 20.Results: Total numbers of study subjects were 90, out of which 58 were boys and 32 were girls. Around 38% of study subjects were born out of consanguineous marriage. As per the records available, only 7% of mothers had gestational diabetes. It was found that 13% study subjects were preterm, 22% had low birth weight, 24% had perinatal hypoglycaemia, 33% had neonatal jaundice and 33% had birth asphyxia.Conclusions: Consanguinity, birth asphyxia, neonatal jaundice are found to be the important risk factors for Cerebral Palsy in our study which can be avoided by improving maternal and paediatric health services. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Trend of morbidity and mortality of dengue in Tamil Nadu and Puducherry,
           South India

    • Authors: Sahanaa C., Amit Kumar Mishra, Joy Bazroy
      Pages: 322 - 325
      Abstract: Background: Globally, dengue infection is a mosquito borne viral disease accounts for nearly 50 million cases per year. South East Asia (SEA), Western Pacific, Africa, Eastern Mediterranean and Latin America are all endemic for frequent outbreaks of dengue fever. The burden of dengue is 17 times higher in SEA countries as compared to Japanese encephalitis, upper respiratory tract infections and Hepatitis B. Thus a study was planned to assess the trend of morbidity and mortality of dengue for the period of five years from 2012 to 2016 in Puducherry and Tamil Nadu (TN), South India. Methods: The data were sourced from National Health Profile 2017, WHO vector borne disease fact sheets and official website of National Vector Borne Disease Control Program. Analysis of secondary data was done and results were tabulated. Graphs were plotted to study the trend of the disease. Results: There is a fall in the morbidity of Dengue cases whereas increase in the mortality over the period of five years (2012-2016) in Puducherry. In TN, there is a decrease in trend of morbidity over the past five years and mortality since 2015. However, there is a rising trend of disease in India. Conclusions: Considering the above facts there is no doubt that dengue is a public health problem in Puducherry and Tamil Nadu, which needs urgent action to reduce the burden of dengue. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • A comparative study on tobacco use among school boys in single sex and
           co-education school in Bengaluru

    • Authors: Swetha Rajeshwari, Ayesha Nawaz, Sathyanarayana P., Bhaskar Kurre
      Pages: 326 - 330
      Abstract: Background: Adolescent boys are more inclined towards risky behaviors like smoking than girls and those who initiate smoking early in life are more likely to continue to smoke as adults. Peers in schools have a major role on influencing, initiating and continuation of smoking among boys. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to compare the prevalence of tobacco use among boys studying in single-sex school and co-education school and to study the factors associated with tobacco use in both the schools.Methods: A comparative study was conducted in two randomly selected high schools in the urban field practice area of the medical institution; one of it being boys only (single-sex) and another co-education (co-ed) school. All the students studying in 8th, 9th and 10th standard were included in the study. A self-administered, pretested, structured questionnaire adapted from the WHO youth tobacco questionnaire was used to collect the data on tobacco usage, knowledge and attitude along with socio-demographic profile. Data was entered into Microsoft excel and analyzed using EPI info 6.Results: A total of 467 boys participated in the study. Over all prevalence of tobacco use was 21.8% from both the schools. Tobacco use was found to be more in boys’ school 68 (25.7%) when compared to co-education school (16.8%). Prevalence of smoking was found to be 38 (14.4%) and 17 (8.4%) in the two schools, this difference was found to be statistically significant with χ2=4.59, p=0.032.Conclusions: Vulnerability of boys to smoking and risky behaviours in general, more so in single sex schools need to be emphasized and apt interventions designed to prevent its use among boys in various settings ought to be explored. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • A study on the pattern of tobacco use and its implications on the health
           of patients, attending Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences, Hubballi

    • Authors: Pratibha Rao K., D. D. Bant
      Pages: 331 - 335
      Abstract: Background: Tobacco use plays an important role in the causation of various health issues. Although numerous efforts are being done to increase the awareness among people regarding its proven role in disease causation, it remains as one of the important public health issues in our country. Information regarding the tobacco habits in patients and its relation to their health status is scarce. Thus with this objectives, the present study was conducted in Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences, Hubballi.Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire based study was conducted among the outpatients of Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences during July 2017. Information was collected regarding the form of tobacco used, duration of use and their health problems. Statistical analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics and chi-square tests using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.Results: The tobacco use was reported among 93 patients (44.3%). Among the tobacco users, majority of them were males (80.6%), and in the age group of 31-60 years (67.7%). The smokeless form of tobacco was the most common form used in both gender (44%). Health issues related to heart, respiratory system and oral cavity was seen more among the tobacco users than non-users.Conclusions: The study concludes that tobacco consumption among patients attending KIMS Hospital is high, which clearly has a negative impact on their health. Health care institutions also have a major role in imparting health education and motivating their tobacco addict patients to quit the habit. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • A study on prevalence of reproductive tract infections among women in a
           rural area of Tamil Nadu

    • Authors: Kamini B., Srisanthanakrishnan V.
      Pages: 336 - 340
      Abstract: Background: Reproductive tract infections, adding burden to the morbidities in women especially in developing countries. Women, who are in reproductive age group, are at higher risk of contracting RTIs easily. Bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis are the commonly reported RTIs in India. Hence this study was planned to find the prevalence of self reported symptoms of RTIs and the prevalence of RTIs of public health importance in women of reproductive age group 15-49 years in a rural area.Methods: A community based, cross sectional study was conducted among 461 women, who gave written consent. Participants were interviewed and if they have more than two symptoms of RTIs, they were included for gynecological examination and laboratory investigations at the rural health center.Results: The prevalence of self reported RTIs was found to be 55.5% and 27.55% of participants had two or more symptoms of RTIs. Based on examination, Prevalence of cervisitis, vaginitis and pelvic inflammatory diseases were reported as 9.54%, 12.15% and 3.25% respectively. Based on laboratory investigation, candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis were reported as 6.075, 5.86% and 2.6% respectively.Conclusions: With the prevailing burden of RTIs, it is important to create awareness and to health educate all women to reduce increasing trend of RTIs. This is possible with proper planning and implementation of health programmes in such a way that it should reach every women residing in the rural areas also. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Complications of diabetes mellitus among patients attending the
           out-patient department of a tertiary care hospital

    • Authors: Mounica Chappidi, Shalini Shivananjiah, Chethana Thirthahalli, Radhika Kunnavil, Nandagudi Srinivasa Murthy
      Pages: 341 - 348
      Abstract: Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM), a common metabolic disorder, is associated with complications that can affect the quality of life. The current study was taken to study the frequency of complications among DM patients attending Out Patient Department (OPD) of Endocrinology at a tertiary care hospital and to study the association of select socio-demographic factors and select biochemical parameters among patients with complications.Methods: Case record analysis of 250 out patients with DM (Type 1 and 2) in the month of August 2016 was done. Permission from Hospital Administration and Department of Endocrinology was obtained to access records. Socio-demographic details, anthropometry, blood pressure recordings of the past visit, DM duration, laboratory investigations, complications, treatment & other morbidities were noted.Results: Of the 250 patients, 138 (55.2%) were males. Patients with cardiovascular complications, ocular complications, neuropathy, peripheral arterial diseases, nephropathy and cerebrovascular complications were 21.2%, 19.2%, 16.8%, 12.8%, 11.2% and 6.0% respectively. Poor glycemic control (HbA1c>7.5%) was seen in 51.2% of patients with DM related complications. It was noticed that 78.5% of the patients with chronic complications had DM for more than 5 years duration. Logistic regression analysis showed age (≥60 years), gender (males) and serum creatinine levels (>1.2 mg/dl in males and >0.9 mg/dl in females) to be associated with occurrence of complications in patients with DM.Conclusions: Efforts need to be directed at intense glycemic control, strengthening awareness regarding self care, early screening and appropriate management to prevent and minimize complications.
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Association of birth weight with body mass index of school children of
           central India: a cross sectional study

    • Authors: Prithvi B. Petkar, Sushama S. Thakre, Subhash B. Thakre, Chaitanya R. Patil
      Pages: 349 - 353
      Abstract: Background: Overweight and obesity has become an important public health problem in both developed and developing nations. This is even more alarming as obese children are likely to become obese adults. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in a government aided school in urban area of Nagpur, Maharashtra during January 2016 to April 2016. This study was conducted in students of age group of 9 to 15 years to assess the association of birth weight and body mass index of school children. Height and weight of the children were measured according to standard guidelines. BMI was calculated and classified using the percentile charts according to age and gender. Data was collected using EPI Info version 7.2. Descriptive statistics using frequencies and percentages were used. Chi square test was used to indicate the differences between two proportions. Odds ratio was used to define the strength of the association. Results: The mean age of children was 11.92±1.27 and 11.31±1.27 in males and females respectively. In our study, there was a significant positive association between the birth weight and body mass index of the children. Conclusions: We found that the children whose birth weight was lower than 2500 grams were having decreased risk of being overweight/ obese in their later life with an odds ratio of 0.55 (0.34 to 0.90). But, the correlation between the birth weight and body mass index is weakly positive (r=0.063).
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Assessment of self-medication patterns in a rural area of south India: a
           questionnaire based study

    • Authors: Chandani Ashok Kumar, Niroop Revannasiddaiah
      Pages: 354 - 360
      Abstract: Background: Self-medication is an important health issue especially in developing countries like India, where universal access to health care is yet to be achieved. It is a type of self care behavior, promoted by WHO, since it reduces the cost of treatment, physicians’ and patient’s time and reduces the burden on the understaffed health system. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and patterns of self medication in rural areas.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in villages covered under rural health centre attached to a medical institution. By systematic random sampling, 458 people from 167 households were administered a pretested questionnaire after obtaining informed consent.Results: This study reports the prevalence of self medication to be 51.75%. Age, gender and marital status showed a statistically significant higher usage of self medication (p<0.01). Advice from friends, family and neighbours was the commonest mode of attaining self medication, while simple nature of disease was the common reason cited. Fever, myalgia and headache were the common symptoms reported where self medication was used. More than 90% of the respondents considered self medication to be harmless and acceptable (74.3%); and 92.8% would like to continue the practice in future.Conclusions: Self-medication is one of the common and preferred modes resorted to by the patients, which impacts medical care affecting diagnosis of underlying conditions resulting in delay of appropriate treatment. Awareness and education programs using mass media with involvement of community will help in the rational approach towards self medication. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • An observational hospital based study to compare hemoglobin level among
           cancer patients

    • Authors: Munesh Kumar Sharma, Neeraj Gour, Awadhesh Pandey, Dhiraj Srivastava
      Pages: 361 - 364
      Abstract: Background: Cancer related anemia (CRA) is a major healthcare problem. In the Indian context, these figures are likely to be higher due to the prevailing malnutrition in the general population. We have conducted this observational hospital based study on cancer patients with following objectives: 1) to assess the socio demographic profile of different cancer patients admitted at hospital; 2) to measure hemoglobin level among different cancer patients admitted at hospital on the basis of socio demographic profile and type of cancer.Methods: The registers maintained in the department of Radiotherapy were checked and those belonging to the year 2011-12 were utilized to analyze the cancer patient’s data in respect to age, type of cancer, hemoglobin level admitted in health care facility.Results: As far as distribution of Hb level is concerned among all cancer patients, 87.56% patients were having Hb level more than 9gm% and around 12.43% patients were having Hb level less than 9 gm%. Majority of patients whose Hb level was less than 9gm% were belonging to age group more than 45 years.Conclusions: It is very much evident that anemia among cancer patients is a major healthcare problem and should be taken seriously. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • A study of mobile phone usage on sleep disturbance, stress and academic
           performance among medical students in Tamil Nadu

    • Authors: Gladius Jennifer H., Sowmiya K., Vidya D. C., Archana Lakshmi P. A., Roseline Fatima William
      Pages: 365 - 368
      Abstract: Background: Today’s world has led students to mobile phone as a mode of communication and social networking. This also has bought about psychological dependency towards mobile phones which causes sleep deprivation and increased stress affecting them academically. However, very few studies were conducted among medical students. Hence, this study was attempted with an objective to assess the effect of mobile phone usage on sleep disturbance, stress and academic performance among under graduate medical students.Methods: An observational Study was conducted among under graduate medical students in KIMS, Tamil Nadu, during September to November 2016. Among first to final year students 203 were selected by simple random sampling. Data were collected after obtaining the consent using a self administered questionnaire, containing demographic details, variables on mobile usages, PSQI and PSS scales. Mean, median, standard deviation and percentages were calculated; Chi square test and correlation coefficient were calculated at 5% level of significance.Results: Among 203 study participants everyone had smart phones which were used for communication and social media. The hours of usage of mobile ranged from 5 minutes to 10 hours per day. Most of them (61%) used during night hours, 72.4% of the study participants had poor sleep quality, 66.5% had moderate stress, 14.8% had severe stress. There was significant association of poor sleep quality and academic performance with mobile phone usage (p<0.01).Conclusions: There is an association of mobile phone usage with sleep quality and academic performance.
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Traditional practices followed by the mothers after delivery in a rural
           area of Tamil Nadu

    • Authors: Sunitha K., Vijayalakshmi M.
      Pages: 369 - 372
      Abstract: Background: India is culturally diverse and traditional practices differ from region to region. Even though the prevalence and degree may vary, traditional practices which have long term devastating effects are performed all over the world. Harmful traditional methods are always perpetrated against infants. Hence it is important to understand the local practices to comprehend fully the determinants of adverse health outcomes of infants. This study was planned to assess the prevalence of harmful traditional practices adopted by the mothers of infants in Tirunelveli and to assess the association of various socio demographic factors influencing these practices among the mothers. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 100 mothers of infants in the subcentre of Patthamadai Primary Health Centre, Tirunelveli. Mothers with infants of less than one-year-old were selected randomly from the Family register and after obtaining their consent were interviewed at their door steps with a pretested semi- structured questionnaire. Data collected were analysed using SPSS software. Results: Among 100 mothers who were interviewed, 36 of them had given pre lacteal feeds, 24 of them did not practice exclusive breast feeding, 44 had used feeding bottles, 10 had reported some application on umbilical cord stump, 16 of them took native treatment for diarrhoea, 12 of them had instilled oil in eyes and 60% of them had practices of blowing of air into ear and nose. Conclusions: Almost all the mothers have practiced at least one harmful traditional practice following delivery of their child and these practices were mostly under the influence of the grandparents. The most commonly adopted harmful practices were administration of pre lacteal feeds and not practicing exclusive breast feeding which are contributing factors in increasing the Infant mortality. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • A study to assess awareness about HIV/AIDS among rural population of
           central India

    • Authors: Shailesh K. Kawale, Vivek Sharma, Prafulla P. Thaware, Atul D. Mohankar
      Pages: 373 - 376
      Abstract: Background: Prevention and control of HIV/AIDS depends on general knowledge and attitude towards HIV/AIDS. So the present study was conducted with the aim to assess knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices regarding HIV infection and AIDS among rural peoples.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among peoples age more than 15 years in a villages which comes under field practice area of rural health training centre (RHTC) of our medical college. Total 396 individuals were interviewed during March 2015 to April 2015 by using predesigned and pretested questionnaire after taking written informed consent.Results: 71.5% knows uninfected faithful partner and 82.1% thinks use of condom will prevent transmission of HIV/AIDS to their partners. 46.7% thinks mosquito bite, 37.6% thinks sharing food transmit HIV/AIDS. 83.1% knows pregnancy and 79.3% knows breastfeeding transmit HIV to their children. 61.1% willing for not to keep HIV status secret, 81.6% willing to take care of relatives having HIV, 88.6% allow HIV positive teachers to continue teaching and 68.4% will buy vegetables from HIV positive shopkeeper. 36.8% knows nearby place where condoms are available and 49.7% knows nearby place for HIV testing.Conclusions:People have good knowledge about HIV transmission i.e. faithful partner, condom use, pregnancy and breast feeding. Still some misconceptions need to be address regarding mosquito bite and sharing food with person having HIV/AIDS. Participants have poor knowledge about nearby availability of services related to HIV/AIDS. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Factors influencing observation of standard precautions among nursing
           staff in tertiary care setting in Mangalore

    • Authors: Anusha Rashmi, Rashmi Kundapur
      Pages: 377 - 381
      Abstract: Background: Health care professionals and particularly nurses are often exposed to microorganisms, many of which can cause serious infections. Although the potential for HBV transmission in the workplace setting is greater than for HIV, the mode of transmission for these two viruses are the same. Because of the environment in which they work, many health care workers are at an increased risk of accidental needle stick injuries (NSI) and blood borne pathogens such as HIV, Hep B, and HCV. The objectives of the study were to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of standard precautions among nursing staff working in 5 tertiary care hospitals attached to teaching institutions in Mangalore and to assess the factors associated with non-compliance with standard precautions among nursesMethods: The study was done in 5 tertiary care hospitals attached to teaching institutions in Mangalore among the working nursing staff in these hospitals. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect the information regarding knowledge, attitude and practice and the reasons for non-adherence to standard precautions. Results: Regarding standard precautions 66.7% had a good knowledge, 74.7% had good practice and 87.3% had a positive attitude towards it. 26.34% attributed noncompliance to excess workload. Increasing age and increase in duration of nursing practice showed a significant increase in KAP scores. Conclusions: The duration of nursing practice influenced the knowledge and the compliance to standard precautions.
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Excessive daytime sleepiness and its determinants: do they have a pattern
           with study semesters among postgraduate medical resident doctors'

    • Authors: Siddalingaiah H. S., Aditi Chaudhuri, Chandrakala D., Amarjeet Singh
      Pages: 382 - 389
      Abstract: Background: Residency is a stressful period in the career of a medical professional. Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is a major problem among resident doctors due to long work hours, stress, sleep deprivation, shift work, lack of sleep hygiene and other lifestyle related factors. The sleep problems and related factors need to be studied among resident doctors to know if any cumulative effect exists. Methods: A cross sectional study design with pre-validated sleep assessment proforma, Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), and sleep hygiene index (SHI) as study tools which were self-administered among a total of 428 enrolled eligible resident doctors. Results: A total of 350 resident doctors returned the filled proforma, ESS and SHI (response rate 81.7%). Prevalence of EDS was found to be highest in 2nd (51.1%), 3rd (55.2%) and 5th (47.1%) semesters. Socio-demographic factors did not vary much across semesters except for slight increase in quantity of coffee/tea intake. No major changes in shift pattern, total sleep hours were found across semesters but work hours differed significantly. Sleep latency was least in 3rd semester where EDS was highest. Similarly, sleep quality, sleep hygiene and weekly sleep hours were least in 2nd and 3rd semester where EDS prevalence was high. In addition, as per visual analogue scale ratings by resident doctors, those in 2nd and 3rd semesters were maximally tired and maximally sleepy which is consistent with the finding of high prevalence of EDS in these semesters as recorded by ESS. Conclusions: Sleep quality, sleep quantity, sleep hygiene and weekly work hours emerged as important and sensitive predictors of EDS across study semesters. These components must be present in any intervention package to address EDS especially in the first three semesters of residency program and other similar occupational settings. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • A study on various dimensions of emotional intelligence among doctors

    • Authors: Najnin Khanam, Trilochan Sahu, E. V. Rao, Abhay M. Gaidhane
      Pages: 390 - 394
      Abstract: Background: Emotional intelligence (EI) involves a combination of competencies which allow a person to be aware of, to understand the emotions of others and to use this knowledge to foster their and others success.Methods: Academic staffs teaching in private medical colleges were included. Questionnaire was sent to the doctors through online Google form to their Gmail ID. Schutte self report emotional intelligence test (SSEIT) scale was used and the questions were valued based on the Likert scale of five values. Selected socio-demographic profile of the participants and the seven dimensions of EI were studied. Descriptive statistics applied and means of various dimensions were compared. Scoring was done to find out good, average and poor EI.Results: EI of associate professor and professors was better than other two groups (junior resident/post graduate students and senior resident/assistant professor) with respect to dimensions like appraisal of emotional regulation of the self (ERS), appraisal of emotional regulation of others (ERO) and appraisal of uncategorized (UR).Conclusions: It was observed that academic staffs who were teaching in medical profession had overall average level of EI except good EI in the dimension like appraisal of emotions in the self (AES).
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • A community based study on age of menarche among adolescent girls in
           Aligarh

    • Authors: Farha Tarannum, Najam Khalique, Uzma Eram
      Pages: 395 - 400
      Abstract: Background: Age at menarche reflects the health status of a population. This marks the beginning of sexual maturation and is affected by various factors. This study measured the menarcheal age of adolescent girls in Aligarh and explored factors that could influence the onset of menarche.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study in schools under Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh was undertaken. A total of 422 girls were taken by systematic random sampling with probability proportionate to size. Data was analysed statistically by ANOVA and post hoc Scheffe test using SPSS Version 20.Results: Majority of the study population (69.9%) had attained menarche between 12-14 years. The mean age of menarche is 12.52±1.415. On analysis of variance (ANOVA) testing, the age of menarche was significantly associated with socioeconomic class (p=0.002). On applying post hoc Scheffe test there was a significant difference in the mean age of menarche between class 1 and class 5 (p=0.01).Conclusions: In this study most of the girls attained menarche between 12-14 years. Socio economic class and birth order had influenced the age of menarche. Mothers were main source of information on attainment of menarche. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Economic burden of silent mental disorders: a case study of agnosia in
           schizophrenia

    • Authors: Vijay Kumar Chattu, Paula Mahon
      Pages: 401 - 404
      Abstract: Mental health problems affect society as a whole, and not just a small, isolated segment. In developed countries with well-organized healthcare systems, between 44% and 70% of patients with mental disorders do not receive treatment whereas in developing countries the treatment gap being close to 90%. Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder affecting more than 21 million people worldwide. People with schizophrenia are 2-2.5 times more likely to die early than the general population. The case study highlights about agnosia in a schizophrenic patient in a primary care setting and how to address the management at a broader perspective using the appropriate antipsychotic medication and ensuring the support from a family without violating the human rights of the patient. The World Economic Forum estimated that the cumulative global impact of mental disorders in terms of lost economic output will amount to US$ 16 trillion over the next 20 years, equivalent to more than 1% of the global gross domestic product. Mental health should be a concern for all of us, rather than only for those who suffer from a mental disorder. The mental health action plan 2013-2020, endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2013, highlights the steps required to provide appropriate services for people with mental disorders including schizophrenia. A key recommendation of the action plan is to shift services from institutions to the community. Mental health must be considered a focus of renewed investment not just in terms of human development and dignity but also in terms of social and economic development.
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
 
 
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