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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1291 journals)
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HEALTH AND SAFETY (523 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 200)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Healthy-Mu Journal     Open Access  
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Children
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2227-9067
   Published by MDPI Homepage  [156 journals]
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 75: Diagnostic Approach to Pulmonary Hypertension
           in Premature Neonates

    • Authors: Vasantha Kumar
      First page: 75
      Abstract: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a form of chronic lung disease in premature infants following respiratory distress at birth. With increasing survival of extremely low birth weight infants, alveolar simplification is the defining lung characteristic of infants with BPD, and along with pulmonary hypertension, increasingly contributes to both respiratory morbidity and mortality in these infants. Growth restricted infants, infants born to mothers with oligohydramnios or following prolonged preterm rupture of membranes are at particular risk for early onset pulmonary hypertension. Altered vascular and alveolar growth particularly in canalicular and early saccular stages of lung development following mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy, results in developmental lung arrest leading to BPD with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Early recognition of PH in infants with risk factors is important for optimal management of these infants. Screening tools for early diagnosis of PH are evolving; however, echocardiography is the mainstay for non-invasive diagnosis of PH in infants. Cardiac computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance are being used as imaging modalities, however their role in improving outcomes in these patients is uncertain. Follow-up of infants at risk for PH will help not only in early diagnosis, but also in appropriate management of these infants. Aggressive management of lung disease, avoidance of hypoxemic episodes, and optimal nutrition determine the progression of PH, as epigenetic factors may have significant effects, particularly in growth-restricted infants. Infants with diagnosis of PH are managed with pulmonary vasodilators and those resistant to therapy need to be worked up for the presence of cardio-vascular anomalies. The management of infants and toddlers with PH, especially following premature birth is an emerging field. Nonetheless, combination therapies in a multi-disciplinary setting improves outcomes for these infants.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-24
      DOI: 10.3390/children4090075
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 9 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 76: Mind-Body Medicine in Pediatrics

    • Authors: Hilary McClafferty
      First page: 76
      Abstract: The primary goals of this Special Issue are to encourage readers to become more familiar with the range of mind-body therapies and to explore their application in the pediatric clinical setting. The Special Issue includes a deliberate mix of case studies and practical clinical guidance, with the dual goals of piquing curiosity and providing resources for clinicians interested in pursuing further training
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-25
      DOI: 10.3390/children4090076
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 9 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 77: Sleep Disorders in a Sample of Adopted
           Children: A Pilot Study

    • Authors: Meghna Rajaprakash, Elizabeth Kerr, Benita Friedlander, Shelly Weiss
      First page: 77
      Abstract: Sleep disorders occur in up to 25% of children and are more prevalent in children who have attention problems and attachment issues. Research shows that foster children display sleep problems, but limited knowledge exists on sleep problems in adopted children. This pilot study aimed to identify the types of sleep disorders in adopted children and associated psychosocial factors. Parents of adopted children in Ontario, Canada, ages 2–10 years were asked to complete questionnaires evaluating demographic measures, sleep history, and the presence of behavioral problems. Insomnias and parasomnias were reported in adopted children and were associated with attention problems. This pilot study emphasizes the need for further research on the underlying factors governing the relationship between poor sleep and behavioral problems in adopted children.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/children4090077
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 9 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 78: Experiences of Parent Peer Nutrition Educators
           Sharing Child Feeding and Nutrition Information

    • Authors: Richard Ball, Kerith Duncanson, Tracy Burrows, Clare Collins
      First page: 78
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of parents as peer educators disseminating nutrition and child feeding information. Parents of infants aged from birth to three years were trained as peer educators in a face-to-face workshop, and then shared evidence-based child feeding and nutrition information via Facebook, email, and printed resources for six months to peers, family, and social media contacts. Semi-structured telephone or group interviews were conducted after a six-month online and face-to-face peer nutrition intervention period investigating peer educator experiences, barriers, enablers of information dissemination, and the acceptability of the peer educator model. Transcripts from interviews were independently coded by two researchers and thematically analysed. Twenty-eight participants completed the study and were assigned to either group or individual interviews. The cohort consenting to the study were predominantly female, aged between 25 and 34 years, non-indigenous, tertiary educated, and employed or on maternity leave. Dominant themes to emerge from the interviews included that the information was trustworthy, child feeding practice information was considered most helpful, newer parents were the most receptive and family members the least receptive to child feeding and nutrition information, and sharing and receiving information verbally and via social media were preferred over print and email. In conclusion, parents reported positive experiences as peer nutrition educators, and considered it acceptable for sharing evidence-based nutrition information. Further research may determine the impact on diet quality and the food-related behaviours of babies and young children on a population level.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/children4090078
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 9 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 79: Assessment of Initial Vancomycin Dosing in
           Pediatric Oncology Patients

    • Authors: Hillary Orr, Deni Trone, Joshua Elder, Ashok Raj
      First page: 79
      Abstract: This was a retrospective audit assessing vancomycin dosing of 60 mg/kg/day in the attainment of therapeutic concentrations between 10–20 mcg/mL among 56 pediatric oncology patients. Twelve patients (21%) achieved therapeutic concentrations of 10–20 mcg/mL, while 44 patients (79%) obtained trough levels below 10 mcg/mL despite the addition of nephrotoxic agents.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-28
      DOI: 10.3390/children4090079
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 9 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 80: Vitamin D Deficiency: A Potential Modifiable
           Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease in Children with Severe Obesity

    • Authors: Anoop Iqbal, Amanda Dahl, Aida Lteif, Seema Kumar
      First page: 80
      Abstract: Severe obesity is associated with abnormal lipids and increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Obesity is a risk factor for vitamin D deficiency. We examined relationship between 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and lipids in children with severe obesity. Medical records of 376 children were reviewed. Linear regression models and logistic regression were used to examine the relationship between 25(OH)D and lipids after adjustment for age, gender, season of blood draw, body mass index (BMI) z-score, and BMI % of 95th percentile. Two-hundred sixty-three out of 376 children (70%) had 25(OH)D concentrations < 30 ng/mL. Concentrations of 25(OH)D were positively correlated with those of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (r2 = 0.08, r = 0.22, β = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.05–0.27, p = 0.004). HDL-C was lower in children with 25(OH)D < 30 ng/mL (n = 263) compared to those with 25(OH)D ≥ 30 ng/mL (n = 113) (41.3 ± 10.2 vs. 46.4 ± 12 mg/dL, p < 0.0001). Children with 25(OH)D concentrations < 30 ng/mL had greater adjusted odds of low HDL-C (<40 mg/dL) compared with those with 25(OH)D ≥ 30 ng/mL (47.9% vs. 29.2%, OR 2.15 (1.33–3.51), p = 0.0019). Total cholesterol and non-HDL-C were not correlated with 25(OH)D concentrations. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in children with severe obesity. Prospective clinical trials are warranted to determine if vitamin D supplementation can improve HDL-C and potentially decrease risk for cardiovascular disease in children with obesity.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-28
      DOI: 10.3390/children4090080
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 9 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 81: Fever in Children: Pearls and Pitfalls

    • Authors: Egidio Barbi, Pierluigi Marzuillo, Elena Neri, Samuele Naviglio, Baruch Krauss
      First page: 81
      Abstract: Fever in children is a common concern for parents and one of the most frequent presenting complaints in emergency department visits, often involving non-pediatric emergency physicians. Although the incidence of serious infections has decreased after the introduction of conjugate vaccines, fever remains a major cause of laboratory investigation and hospital admissions. Furthermore, antipyretics are the most common medications administered to children. We review the epidemiology and measurement of fever, the meaning of fever and associated clinical signs in children of different ages and under special conditions, including fever in children with cognitive impairment, recurrent fevers, and fever of unknown origin. While the majority of febrile children have mild, self-resolving viral illness, a minority may be at risk of life-threatening infections. Clinical assessment differs markedly from adult patients. Hands-off evaluation is paramount for a correct evaluation of breathing, circulation and level of interaction. Laboratory markers and clinical prediction rules provide limited help in identifying children at risk for serious infections; however, clinical examination, prudent utilization of laboratory tests, and post-discharge guidance (“safety netting”) remain the cornerstone of safe management of febrile children.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.3390/children4090081
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 9 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 82: Sleep Disorders in Childhood Neurogenetic

    • Authors: Laura Dosier, Bradley Vaughn, Zheng Fan
      First page: 82
      Abstract: Genetic advances in the past three decades have transformed our understanding and treatment of many human diseases including neurogenetic disorders. Most neurogenetic disorders can be classified as “rare disease,” but collectively neurogenetic disorders are not rare and are commonly encountered in general pediatric practice. The authors decided to select eight relatively well-known neurogenetic disorders including Down syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Prader–Willi syndrome, Smith–Magenis syndrome, congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, achondroplasia, mucopolysaccharidoses, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Each disorder is presented in the following format: overview, clinical characteristics, developmental aspects, associated sleep disorders, management and research/future directions.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-09-12
      DOI: 10.3390/children4090082
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 9 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 83: If You Build It, They Will Come: Initial
           Experience with a Multi-Disciplinary Pediatric Neurocritical Care
           Follow-Up Clinic

    • Authors: Cydni Williams, Aileen Kirby, Juan Piantino
      First page: 83
      Abstract: Pediatric Neurocritical Care diagnoses account for a large proportion of intensive care admissions. Critical care survivors suffer high rates of long-term morbidity, including physical disability, cognitive impairment, and psychosocial dysfunction. To address these morbidities in Pediatric Neurocritical Care survivors, collaboration between Pediatric Neurology and Pediatric Critical Care created a multidisciplinary follow-up clinic providing specialized evaluations after discharge. Clinic referrals apply to all Pediatric Neurocritical Care patients regardless of admission severity of illness. Here, we report an initial case series, which revealed a population that is heterogenous in age, ranging from 1 month to 18 years, and in diagnoses. Traumatic brain injuries of varying severity as well as neuroinfectious and inflammatory diseases accounted for the majority of referrals. Most patients (87%) seen in the clinic had morbidities identified, requiring ongoing evaluation and expansion of the clinic. Cognitive and psychological disturbance were seen in over half of patients at the initial clinic follow-up. Sleep disturbances, daytime fatigue, headache or chronic pain, and vision or hearing concerns were also common at initial follow-up. Data from this initial population of clinic patients reiterates the need for specialized follow-up care, but also highlights the difficulties related to providing this comprehensive care and evaluating interventions to improve outcomes.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-09-19
      DOI: 10.3390/children4090083
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 9 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 61: Influence of Socioeconomic Status on Knowledge
           of Obesity and Diabetes among Adolescents in Chennai, South India

    • Authors: Pranati Panuganti, T.S. Mehreen, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Viswanathan Mohan, E. Mayer-Davis, Harish Ranjani
      First page: 61
      Abstract: The Obesity Reduction and Awareness of Non-communicable disease through Group Education (ORANGE) Phase II program, is a school-based intervention aimed at healthy lifestyle practices for sixth and seventh grade adolescents (n = 2345) attending private (n = 1811) and government (n = 534) schools in Chennai. The objectives of this paper are (a) to describe the intervention activities and their outcomes qualitatively and (b) to report changes in body mass index (BMI) of the intervention group participants. This intervention strategy used a teacher-peer-training model in each school for long-term sustainability of the lessons learned from this program. During each intervention session, teachers led a classroom discussion on the health topic of interest, and peers facilitated small-group learning activities. Anthropometric measurements of participants were assessed pre- and post-intervention. We found government school students perceived hygienic actions (e.g., drinking clean water, taking baths daily) as healthy habits for preventing diabetes, whereas private school students associated an expensive lifestyle (e.g., eating at restaurants, riding a car) with diabetes prevention. Overall, the mean post-intervention BMI (18.3 kg/m2) was in the normal range compared to the pre-intervention BMI (17.7 kg/m2) (p < 0.0001). These results suggest that future interventions should be tailored for adolescents from different socio-economic groups while acknowledging their varied perceptions.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/children4080061
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 62: DSM-5 Changes in Attention Deficit
           Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for
           Comorbid Sleep Issues

    • Authors: Ujjwal Ramtekkar
      First page: 62
      Abstract: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are the most common neurodevelopmental disorders. Despite significant comorbidity, the previous diagnostic criteria prohibited the simultaneous diagnosis of both disorders. Sleep problems are highly prevalent in both disorders; however, these have been studied independently for ADHD and ASD. In the context of revised criteria in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition (DSM-5) that allows combined diagnosis of ADHD and ASD, this short review presents an overview of relationship between sleep problems, ADHD and ASD, as well as conceptualizing the shared pathophysiology. The practical considerations for clinical management of sleep problems in combination with ADHD and ASD are also discussed.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/children4080062
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 63: Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension in the

    • Authors: Bobby Mathew, Satyan Lakshminrusimha
      First page: 63
      Abstract: Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a syndrome of failed circulatory adaptation at birth due to delay or impairment in the normal fall in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) that occurs following birth. The fetus is in a state of physiological pulmonary hypertension. In utero, the fetus receives oxygenated blood from the placenta through the umbilical vein. At birth, following initiation of respiration, there is a sudden precipitous fall in the PVR and an increase of systemic vascular resistance (SVR) due to the removal of the placenta from circulation. There is dramatic increase in pulmonary blood flow with a decrease in, and later reversal of shunts at the foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus. The failure of this normal physiological pulmonary transition leads to the syndrome of PPHN. PPHN presents with varying degrees of hypoxemic respiratory failure. Survival of infants with PPHN has significantly improved with the use of gentle ventilation, surfactant and inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). PPHN is associated with significant mortality and morbidity among survivors. Newer agents that target different enzymatic pathways in the vascular smooth muscle are in different stages of development and testing. Further research using these agents is likely to further reduce morbidity and mortality associated with PPHN.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/children4080063
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 64: Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke as Amusement
           Park Injury: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    • Authors: Abby Baumgartle, Laura Wolfe, Vinay Puri, Karen Moeller, Salvatore Bertolone, Ashok Raj
      First page: 64
      Abstract: Strokes as amusement park injuries are rare, but have been reported in the literature. Only about 20 cases of cerebrovascular accidents after amusement park visits have been described. We report a healthy 12-year-old boy who presented with facial droop, slurred speech, and inability to use his right arm after riding roller coasters at a local amusement park. He was evaluated and found to have a left middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction. The patient was treated with anticoagulants and has recovered with no major residual symptoms. It is likely that his neurological symptoms occurred due to the high head accelerations experienced on the roller coasters, which are more detrimental to children due to immature cervical spine development and muscle strength. Early diagnosis of dissection and stroke results in a favorable prognosis. Providers and parents should be aware of the potential risk of roller coasters and act quickly on neurologic changes in children that have recently been to an amusement park.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/children4080064
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 65: Trending Longitudinal Agreement between Parent
           and Child Perceptions of Quality of Life for Pediatric Palliative Care

    • Authors: Meaghann Weaver, Cheryl Darnall, Sue Bace, Catherine Vail, Andrew MacFadyen, Christopher Wichman
      First page: 65
      Abstract: Pediatric palliative care studies often rely on proxy-reported instead of direct child-reported quality of life metrics. The purpose of this study was to longitudinally evaluate quality of life for pediatric patients receiving palliative care consultations and to compare patient-reported quality of life with parent perception of the child’s quality of life across wellness domains. The 23-item PedsQL™ V4.0 Measurement Model was utilized for ten child and parent dyads at time of initial palliative care consultation, Month 6, and Month 12 to assess for physical, emotional, social, and cognitive dimensions of quality of life as reported independently by the child and by the parent for the child. Findings were analyzed using Bland–Altman plots to compare observed differences to limits of agreement. This study revealed overall consistency between parent- and child-reported quality of life across domains. Physical health was noted to be in closest agreement. At the time of initial palliative care consult, children collectively scored their social quality of life higher than parental perception of the child’s social quality of life; whereas, emotional and cognitive quality of life domains were scored lower by children than by the parental report. At the one year survey time point, the physical, emotional, and social domains trended toward more positive patient perception than proxy perception with congruence between quality of life scores for the cognitive domain. Findings reveal the importance of eliciting a child report in addition to a parent report when measuring and longitudinally trending perceptions on quality of life.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/children4080065
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 66: Gut–Liver Axis Derangement in
           Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    • Authors: Marco Poeta, Luca Pierri, Pietro Vajro
      First page: 66
      Abstract: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent type of chronic liver disease in the pediatric age group, paralleling an obesity pandemic. A “multiple-hit” hypothesis has been invoked to explain its pathogenesis. The “first hit” is liver lipid accumulation in obese children with insulin resistance. In the absence of significant lifestyle modifications leading to weight loss and increased physical activity, other factors may act as “second hits” implicated in liver damage progression leading to more severe forms of inflammation and hepatic fibrosis. In this regard, the gut–liver axis (GLA) seems to play a central role. Principal players are the gut microbiota, its bacterial products, and the intestinal barrier. A derangement of GLA (namely, dysbiosis and altered intestinal permeability) may promote bacteria/bacterial product translocation into portal circulation, activation of inflammation via toll-like receptors signaling in hepatocytes, and progression from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH). Among other factors a relevant role has been attributed to the farnesoid X receptor, a nuclear transcriptional factor activated from bile acids chemically modified by gut microbiota (GM) enzymes. The individuation and elucidation of GLA derangement in NAFLD pathomechanisms is of interest at all ages and especially in pediatrics to identify new therapeutic approaches in patients recalcitrant to lifestyle changes. Specific targeting of gut microbiota via pre-/probiotic supplementation, feces transplantation, and farnesoid X receptor modulation appear promising.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/children4080066
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 67: The Fetus Can Teach Us: Oxygen and the
           Pulmonary Vasculature

    • Authors: Payam Vali, Satyan Lakshminrusimha
      First page: 67
      Abstract: Neonates suffering from pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) continue to represent an important proportion of patients requiring intensive neonatal care, and have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The human fetus has evolved to maintain a high pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in utero to allow the majority of the fetal circulation to bypass the lungs, which do not participate in gas exchange, towards the low resistance placenta. At birth, oxygen plays a major role in decreasing PVR to enhance pulmonary blood flow and establish the lungs as the organ of gas exchange. The failure of PVR to fall following birth results in PPHN, and oxygen remains the mainstay therapeutic intervention in the management of PPHN. Knowledge gaps on what constitutes the optimal oxygenation target leads to a wide variation in practices, and often leads to excessive oxygen use. Owing to the risk of oxygen toxicity, avoiding hyperoxemia is as important as avoiding hypoxemia in the management of PPHN. Current evidence supports maintaining arterial oxygen tension in the range of 50–80 mm Hg, and oxygen saturation between 90–97% in term infants with hypoxemic respiratory failure. Clinical studies evaluating the optimal oxygenation in the treatment of PPHN will be enthusiastically awaited.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/children4080067
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 68: Key Challenges in the Search for Innovative
           Drug Treatments for Special Populations. Converging Needs in Neonatology,
           Pediatrics, and Medical Genetics

    • Authors: Stuart MacLeod
      First page: 68
      Abstract: The explosion of knowledge concerning the interplay of genetic and environmental factors determining pathophysiology and guiding therapeutic choice has altered the landscape in pediatric clinical pharmacology and pharmacy. The need for innovative research methods and design expertise for small clinical trials to be undertaken in sparse populations has been accentuated. At the same time, shortfalls in critical human resources represent a key challenge, especially in low- and middle-income countries where the need for new research and education directions is greatest. Unless a specific action plan is urgently developed, there will be a continuing gap in availability of the essential expertise needed to address treatment challenges in special patient populations such as neonates, patients suffering from rare or neglected diseases, and children of all ages.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/children4080068
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 69: Trends in Food and Beverage Portion Sizes in
           Australian Children; a Time-Series Analysis Comparing 2007 and 2011–2012
           National Data

    • Authors: Daphne van der Bend, Tamara Bucher, Tracy Schumacher, Kate Collins, Nienke De Vlieger, Megan Rollo, Tracy Burrows, Jane Watson, Clare Collins
      First page: 69
      Abstract: In 2011–2012 approximately 26% of Australian children aged between 5–17 years were reported to be overweight or obese. Furthermore, the increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children parallels reported increases in energy intake and portion sizes of common foods, leading to the recognition that availability of larger portion sizes contributes to the rise in overweight and obesity prevalence. Thus, the aim of this time-series analysis was to investigate whether selected food portion sizes in Australian children aged 2–16 years changed between 2007 and 2011–2012. Portion size data from 24-h recalls collected in Australian nutrition surveys were compared between 2007 and 2011–2012. Portion sizes changed significantly in 23% of items with increases in 15% and decreases in 8%. Changes in portion sizes varied by age, sex, and food group. Changes occurred for many meat-based items, energy-dense, nutrient-poor food items, breads, cereals, and some fruits and vegetables. Vegetable and fruit portion sizes were below the respective serving sizes of 75 g and 150 g in the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating, while portion sizes of some energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods have increased. These findings suggest approaches to increasing consumption of nutrient-dense core foods and reducing energy-dense, nutrient-poor food items in children are warranted.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/children4080069
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 70: Health and Self-Regulation among School-Age
           Children Experiencing Family Homelessness

    • Authors: Andrew Barnes, Theresa Lafavor, J. Cutuli, Lei Zhang, Charles Oberg, Ann Masten
      First page: 70
      Abstract: Children in homeless families have high levels of adversity and are at risk for behavior problems and chronic health conditions, however little is known about the relationship between cognitive-emotional self-regulation and health among school-aged homeless children. Children (n = 86; mean age 10.5) living in shelters were assessed for health, family stress/adversity, emotional-behavioral regulation, nonverbal intellectual abilities, and executive function. Vision problems were the most prevalent health condition, followed by chronic respiratory conditions. Cumulative risk, child executive function, and self-regulation problems in children were uniquely related to child physical health. Homeless children experience problems with cognitive, emotional, and behavioral regulation as well as physical health, occurring in a context of high psychosocial risk. Several aspects of children’s self-regulation predict physical health in 9- to 11-year-old homeless children. Health promotion efforts in homeless families should address individual differences in children’s self-regulation as a resilience factor.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/children4080070
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 71: The Pulmonary Circulation in the Single
           Ventricle Patient

    • Authors: Amanda Hauck, Nicolas Porta, Steven Lestrud, Stuart Berger
      First page: 71
      Abstract: In recent decades, survival of children with complex congenital heart disease has improved considerably. Specifically, children with a variety of congenital heart defects resulting in ‘single ventricle’ physiology can now undergo palliative surgery that allows survival beyond the neonatal period, and in many cases into adulthood, despite having a single functional ventricular pumping chamber supplying both the pulmonary and systemic circulation. Our growing understanding of the functionally univentricular heart has resulted in freedom from Fontan failure of >50% at 25 years post-Fontan. Yet there is still a fair amount of knowledge to be gained, specifically as it relates to the pulmonary circulation in this group of patients. Knowledge gaps relate not only to the pulmonary circulation after Fontan operation, but also at each stage of the single ventricle surgical palliation, including the native physiology prior to any intervention. The pulmonary circulation is affected by multiple issues related to the single ventricle, including specific details of the anatomy unique to each patient, any intervention(s) undertaken, and potential complications such as aortopulmonary collaterals, protein losing enteropathy, plastic bronchitis, venovenous collaterals, pulmonary arteriovenous fistulae, ventricular dysfunction, pulmonary venous stenosis, and more. This chapter will review the current knowledge with regard to the pulmonary circulation in the single ventricle patient, primarily after the Fontan operation. Additionally, it is our hope to help the practitioner assess the pulmonary circulation in the single ventricle patient; we will also discuss the evidence behind and approach to treatment strategies in order to optimize the pulmonary circulation in this complex group of patients.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-07
      DOI: 10.3390/children4080071
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 72: Assessment of Sleep in Children with Autism
           Spectrum Disorder

    • Authors: Makeda Moore, Victoria Evans, Grace Hanvey, Cynthia Johnson
      First page: 72
      Abstract: Sleep disturbances in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are significantly more prevalent than found in typically developing (TD) children. Given the detrimental impact of poor sleep on cognitive, emotional, and behavioral functioning, it is imperative to screen and assess for sleep disturbances in this population. In this paper, we describe the screening and assessment process, as well as specific measures commonly used for assessing sleep in children with ASD. Advantages and limitations for use in children with ASD are discussed. While subjective measures, such as parent-report questionnaires and sleep diaries, are the most widely used, more objective measures such as actigraphy, polysomnography, and videosomnography provide additional valuable information for both diagnostic purposes and treatment planning. These objective measures, nonetheless, are limited by cost, availability, and feasibility of use with children with ASD. The current review provides an argument for the complementary uses of both subjective and objective measures of sleep specifically for use in children with ASD.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/children4080072
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 73: Imaging Features of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver
           Disease in Children and Adolescents

    • Authors: Michele Di Martino, Kameliya Koryukova, Mario Bezzi, Carlo Catalano
      First page: 73
      Abstract: Non-invasive diagnosis and quantification of liver steatosis is important to overcome limits of liver biopsy, in order to follow up patients during their therapy and to establish a reference standard that can be used in clinical trials and longitudinal studies. Imaging offers several methods in this setting: ultrasound, which is the cheapest technique and easy to perform; magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), which reflects the real content of triglycerides in a specific volume; and proton density fat fraction (PDFF) magnetic resonance, which is a simple method that reflects the distribution of the fat in the whole liver. Other techniques include ultrasound elastography (EUS) and magnetic resonance elastrography (MRE), which can evaluate the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) into non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis, by quantifying liver fibrosis.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/children4080073
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 74: Insulin Resistance and NAFLD: A Dangerous
           Liaison beyond the Genetics

    • Authors: Melania Manco
      First page: 74
      Abstract: Over the last decade, the understanding of the association between insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has dramatically evolved. There is clear understanding that carriers of some common genetic variants, i.e., the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) or the transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) are at risk of developing severe forms of NAFLD even in the presence of reduced or absent IR. In contrast, there are obese patients with “metabolic” (non-genetically driven) NAFLD who present severe IR. Owing to the epidemic obesity and the high prevalence of these genetic variants in the general population, the number of pediatric cases with combination of genetic and metabolic NAFLD is expected to be very high. Gut dysbiosis, excessive dietary intake of saturated fats/fructose-enriched foods and exposure to some chemicals contribute all to both IR and NAFLD, adding further complexity to the understanding of their relationship. Once NAFLD is established, IR can accelerate the progression to the more severe form of liver derangement that is the non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-14
      DOI: 10.3390/children4080074
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 52: Immersive Virtual Reality for Pediatric Pain

    • Authors: Andrea Won, Jakki Bailey, Jeremy Bailenson, Christine Tataru, Isabel Yoon, Brenda Golianu
      First page: 52
      Abstract: Children must often endure painful procedures as part of their treatment for various medical conditions. Those with chronic pain endure frequent or constant discomfort in their daily lives, sometimes severely limiting their physical capacities. With the advent of affordable consumer-grade equipment, clinicians have access to a promising and engaging intervention for pediatric pain, both acute and chronic. In addition to providing relief from acute and procedural pain, virtual reality (VR) may also help to provide a corrective psychological and physiological environment to facilitate rehabilitation for pediatric patients suffering from chronic pain. The special qualities of VR such as presence, interactivity, customization, social interaction, and embodiment allow it to be accepted by children and adolescents and incorporated successfully into their existing medical therapies. However, the powerful and transformative nature of many VR experiences may also pose some risks and should be utilized with caution. In this paper, we review recent literature in pediatric virtual reality for procedural pain and anxiety, acute and chronic pain, and some rehabilitation applications. We also discuss the practical considerations of using VR in pediatric care, and offer specific suggestions and information for clinicians wishing to adopt these engaging therapies into their daily clinical practice.
      PubDate: 2017-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/children4070052
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 7 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 53: Surgical Outreach for Children by
           International Humanitarian Organizations: A Review

    • Authors: J. Kynes, Laura Zeigler, Kelly McQueen
      First page: 53
      Abstract: Low- and middle-income countries carry a disproportionate share of the global burden of pediatric surgical disease and have limited local healthcare infrastructure and human resources to address this burden. Humanitarian efforts that have improved or provided access to necessary basic or emergency surgery for children in these settings have included humanitarian assistance and disaster relief, short-term surgical missions, and long-term projects such as building pediatric specialty hospitals and provider networks. Each of these efforts may also include educational initiatives designed to increase local capacity. This article will provide an overview of pediatric humanitarian surgical outreach including reference to available evidence-based analyses of these platforms and make recommendations for surgical outreach initiatives for children.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/children4070053
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 7 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 54: Sino-Nasal 5 Questionnaire is Associated with
           Poor Asthma Control in Children with Asthma

    • Authors: Sasikumar Kilaikode, Prateek Shukla, Gurpreet Phull, James Jackson, Dominique Prue, Claudia Martinez, Krista Scheffey, Dinesh Pillai
      First page: 54
      Abstract: Up to 80% of asthmatic children may experience upper airway symptoms which are often perceived as coming from the lower airways. Currently, there are no validated questionnaires to assess upper airway contribution to pediatric asthma symptoms. The Sino-Nasal 5 (SN-5) questionnaire was previously validated for identifying radiographic confirmed sinus disease in children. In this study, we hypothesize that significant SN-5 scores (≥3.5) are associated with abnormal National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) based asthma impairment and control in asthmatic children. Retrospective data collected on children with asthma referred for pulmonary evaluation included age, gender, ethnicity, NAEPP asthma severity, asthma control (Test for Respiratory and Asthma Control in Kids (TRACK) < 5 years, Asthma Control Test (ACT) 5 years) and pulmonary function testing. Associations between SN-5 scores and asthma impairment and control were identified. Seventy-six children were evaluated; 38% were female with a mean age of 6.9 years. Significant SN-5 scores were associated with decreased control of daytime symptoms (odds ratio (OR): 0.16 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.06–0.44)), night time awakenings (0.09 (0.03–0.29)), activity interference (0.2 (0.06–0.68)), NAEPP defined asthma control (0.32 (0.12–0.85)) and poor asthma control based on TRACK (p < 0.001) and ACT (p < 0.001). This suggests upper airways may play a larger role in perceived lower airway symptoms, and SN-5 may be beneficial in assessing the contribution of upper airway conditions on asthma control.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/children4070054
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 7 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 55: Sleep Apnea and Hypoventilation in Patients
           with Down Syndrome: Analysis of 144 Polysomnogram Studies

    • Authors: Zheng Fan, Mihye Ahn, Heidi Roth, Leping Li, Bradley Vaughn
      First page: 55
      Abstract: Patients with Down syndrome (DS) are at risk for both obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and central sleep apnea (CSA); however, it is unclear how these components evolve as patients age and whether patients are also at risk for hypoventilation. A retrospective review of 144 diagnostic polysomnograms (PSG) in a tertiary care facility over 10 years was conducted. Descriptive data and exploratory correlation analyses were performed. Sleep disordered breathing was common (seen in 78% of patients) with an average apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) = 10. The relative amount of obstructive apnea was positively correlated with age and body mass index (BMI). The relative amount of central sleep apnea was associated with younger age in the very youngest group (0–3 years). Hypoventilation was common occurring in more than 22% of patients and there was a positive correlation between the maximum CO2 and BMI. Sleep disordered breathing, including hypoventilation, was common in patients with DS. The obstructive component increased significantly with age and BMI, while the central component occurred most in the very young age group. Due to the high risk of hypoventilation, which has not been previously highlighted, it may be helpful to consider therapies to target both apnea and hypoventilation in this population.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/children4070055
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 7 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 56: Incidence of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia
           in Critically Ill Children Undergoing Mechanical Ventilation in Pediatric
           Intensive Care Unit

    • Authors: Ali Amanati, Abdollah Karimi, Alireza Fahimzad, Ahmad Reza Shamshiri, Fatemeh Fallah, Alireza Mahdavi, Mahshid Talebian
      First page: 56
      Abstract: Background: Among hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) in children, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common after blood stream infection (BSI). VAP can prolong length of ventilation and hospitalization, increase mortality rate, and directly change a patient’s outcome in Pediatric Intensive Care Units (PICU). Objectives: The research on VAP in children is limited, especially in Iran; therefore, the identification of VAP incidence and mortality rate will be important for both clinical and epidemiological implications. Materials and Methods: Mechanically ventilated pediatric patients were assessed for development of VAP during hospital course on the basis of clinical, laboratory and imaging criteria. We matched VAP group with control group for assessment of VAP related mortality in the critically ill ventilated children. Results: VAP developed in 22.9% of critically ill children undergoing mechanical ventilation. Early VAP and late VAP were found in 19.3% and 8.4% of VAP cases, respectively. Among the known VAP risk factors that were investigated, immunodeficiency was significantly greater in the VAP group (p = 0.014). No significant differences were found between the two groups regarding use of corticosteroids, antibiotics, PH (potential of hydrogen) modifying agents (such as ranitidine or pantoprazole), presence of nasogastric tube and total or partial parenteral nutrition administration. A substantial number of patients in the VAP group had more than four risk factors for development of VAP, compared to those without VAP (p = 0.087). Mortality rate was not statistically different between the VAP and control groups (p = 0.477). Conclusion: VAP is still one of the major causes of mortality in PICUs. It is found that altered immune status is a significant risk factor for acquiring VAP. Also, occurrence of VAP was high in the first week after admission in PICU.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03
      DOI: 10.3390/children4070056
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 7 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 57: The Association between Non-Alcoholic Fatty
           Liver Disease and Cardiovascular Risk in Children

    • Authors: Anna Di Sessa, Giuseppina Umano, Emanuele Miraglia del Giudice
      First page: 57
      Abstract: The rising prevalence of childhood obesity in the past decades has made Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) the most common cause of pediatric chronic liver disease worldwide. Currently, a growing body of evidence links NAFLD with cardiovascular disease (CVD) even at an early age. Data on the pediatric population have shown that NAFLD could represent an independent risk factor not only for cardiovascular events but also for early subclinical abnormalities in myocardial structure and function. Briefly, we review the current knowledge regarding the relationship between pediatric NAFLD and cardiovascular risk in an attempt to clarify our understanding of NAFLD as a possible cardiovascular risk factor in childhood.
      PubDate: 2017-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/children4070057
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 7 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 58: Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins in Stored Maize
           Grains Consumed by Infants and Young Children in Nigeria

    • Authors: Modupeade C. Adetunji, Olusegun O. Atanda, Chibundu N. Ezekiel
      First page: 58
      Abstract: Maize is a major complimentary food for infants (0–4years) and young children (5–12years) in Nigeria. In this study, we assessed the risk of exposure of infants and young children (IYC) to some major mycotoxins in stored maize grains from five agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. The probable daily intake approach was employed to determine exposure to five mycotoxins while the margin of exposure (MOE) and population at risk of primary hepatocellular carcinoma approaches were used to characterize the risk of consuming aflatoxin contaminated maize. Infants and young children in the Derived Savannah zone are more exposed to aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone while those in the Northern Guinea Savanna zone are mainly exposed to deoxynivalenol and fumonisins. The mean national MOE for infants and children were 0.12 and 0.3 respectively while the risk of developing primary liver cancer was estimated at 152.7 and 61.1 cancer/year/100,000 population of infants and children, respectively. Infants and young children consuming mycotoxin contaminated maize in Nigeria are therefore vulnerable to the adverse health effects. Mycotoxin contamination of maize is still a challenge in Nigeria; mitigation efforts should target the value chain and stricter tolerable limits should be enforced.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/children4070058
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 7 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 59: One Size Does Not Fit All: Contextualising
           Family Physical Activity Using a Write, Draw, Show and Tell Approach

    • Authors: Robert Noonan, Stuart Fairclough, Zoe Knowles, Lynne Boddy
      First page: 59
      Abstract: Understanding family physical activity (PA) behaviour is essential for designing effective family-based PA interventions. However, effective approaches to capture the perceptions and “lived experiences” of families are not yet well established. The aims of the study were to: (1) demonstrate how a “write, draw, show and tell” (WDST) methodological approach can be appropriate to family-based PA research, and (2) present two distinct family case studies to provide insights into the habitual PA behaviour and experiences of a nuclear and single-parent family. Six participants (including two “target” children aged 9–11 years, two mothers and two siblings aged 6–8 years) from two families were purposefully selected to take part in the study, based on their family structure. Participants completed a paper-based PA diary and wore an ActiGraph GT9X accelerometer on their left wrist for up to 10 weekdays and 16 weekend days. A range of WDST tasks were then undertaken by each family to offer contextual insight into their family-based PA. The selected families participated in different levels and modes of PA, and reported contrasting leisure opportunities and experiences. These novel findings encourage researchers to tailor family-based PA intervention programmes to the characteristics of the family.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/children4070059
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 7 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 60: Sildenafil in Infants and Children

    • Authors: Larisa Simonca, Robert Tulloh
      First page: 60
      Abstract: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) management has been transformed in recent times with the advent of cheap and effective diagnostic tools and therapy. Sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase-V inhibitor, has been at the centre of this treatment, and its success in treating PAH has led to its widespread uptake in adult and paediatric pulmonary hypertension (PH), as a first line treatment choice. This might apply to persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) or bronchopulmonary dysplasia, as well as to more complex diseases, such as idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. Although recent data regarding long-term mortality and the repeal of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval has complicated the issue, Sildenafil continues to be the major treatment option for paediatric PH for patients in a variety of contexts, and this does not seem likely to change in the foreseeable future. In this review, we provide a summary of pulmonary hypertension in infants and children and the use of Sildenafil for such diseases.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-07-24
      DOI: 10.3390/children4070060
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 7 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 43: Placebo by Proxy in Neonatal Randomized
           Controlled Trials: Does It Matter'

    • Authors: Tiziana L. Burkart, Andrea Kraus, Brigitte Koller, Giancarlo Natalucci, Beatrice Latal, Jean-Claude Fauchère, Hans Ulrich Bucher, Christoph M. Rüegger, for the Swiss EPO Neuroprotection Trial Group
      First page: 43
      Abstract: Placebo effects emerging from the expectations of relatives, also known as placebo by proxy, have seldom been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate whether in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) there is a clinically relevant difference in long-term outcome between very preterm infants whose parents assume that verum (PAV) had been administered and very preterm infants whose parents assume that placebo (PAP) had been administered. The difference between the PAV and PAP infants with respect to the primary outcome–IQ at 5 years of age–was considered clinically irrelevant if the confidence interval (CI) for the mean difference resided within our pre-specified ±5-point equivalence margins. When adjusted for the effects of verum/placebo, socioeconomic status (SES), head circumference and sepsis, the CI was [−3.04, 5.67] points in favor of the PAV group. Consequently, our study did not show equivalence between the PAV and PAP groups, with respect to the pre-specified margins of equivalence. Therefore, our findings suggest that there is a small, but clinically irrelevant degree to which a preterm infant’s response to therapy is affected by its parents’ expectations, however, additional large-scale studies are needed to confirm this conjecture.
      PubDate: 2017-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/children4060043
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 44: Effect of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Treatment on
           Lipids in Obese Children

    • Authors: Zarlasht Amini, Suresh Kotagal, Christine Lohse, Robin Lloyd, Swetha Sriram, Seema Kumar
      First page: 44
      Abstract: Obesity in children is associated with several co-morbidities including dyslipidemia. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is commonly seen in obese children. In adults, diagnosis of OSA independent of obesity is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors including dyslipidemia. There is limited data on the impact of treatment of OSA on lipids in children. The objective of the study was to examine the impact of treatment of OSA on lipids in 24 obese children. Methods: Seventeen children were treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and five underwent adenotonsillectomy. Mean apnea hypopnea index prior to treatment was 13.0 + 12.1 and mean body mass index (BMI) was 38.0 + 10.6 kg/m2. Results: Treatment of OSA was associated with improvement in total cholesterol (mean change = −11 mg/dL, p < 0.001), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mean change = –8.8 mg/dL, p = 0.021). Conclusion: Obese children should be routinely screened for OSA, as treatment of OSA favorably influences lipids and therefore decreases their cardiovascular risk.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/children4060044
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 45: Parent Perspective on Care Coordination
           Services for Their Child with Medical Complexity

    • Authors: Rhonda Cady, John Belew
      First page: 45
      Abstract: The overarching goal of care coordination is communication and co-management across settings. Children with medical complexity require care from multiple services and providers, and the many benefits of care coordination on health and patient experience outcomes have been documented. Despite these findings, parents still report their greatest challenge is communication gaps. When this occurs, parents assume responsibility for aggregating and sharing health information across providers and settings. A new primary-specialty care coordination partnership model for children with medical complexity works to address these challenges and bridge communication gaps. During the first year of the new partnership, parents participated in focus groups to better understand how they perceive communication and collaboration between the providers and services delivering care for their medically complex child. Our findings from these sessions reflect the current literature and highlight additional challenges of rural families, as seen from the perspective of the parents. We found that parents appreciate when professional care coordination is provided, but this is often the exception and not the norm. Additionally, parents feel that the local health system’s inability to care for their medically complex child results in unnecessary trips to urban-based specialty care. These gaps require a system-level approach to care coordination and, consequently, new paradigms for delivery are urgently needed.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/children4060045
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 46: The Role of Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism
           in Non‐Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    • Authors: Francesco Perla, Maurizia Prelati, Michela Lavorato, Daniele Visicchio, Caterina Anania
      First page: 46
      Abstract: Due to the epidemic of obesity across the world, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most prevalent chronic liver disorders in children and adolescents. NAFLD comprises a spectrum of fat-associated liver conditions that can result in end-stage liver disease and the need for liver transplantation. Simple steatosis, or fatty liver, occurs early in NAFLD and may progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanism of the liver injury in NAFLD is currently thought to be a “multiple-hit process” where the first “hit” is an increase in liver fat, followed by multiple additional factors that trigger the inflammatory activity. At the onset of disease, NAFLD is characterized by hepatic triglyceride accumulation and insulin resistance. Liver fat accumulation is associated with increased lipotoxicity from high levels of free fatty acids, free cholesterol and other lipid metabolites. As a consequence, mitochondrial dysfunction with oxidative stress and production of reactive oxygen species and endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated mechanisms, are activated. The present review focuses on the relationship between intra-cellular lipid accumulation and insulin resistance, as well as on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in NAFLD.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/children4060046
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 47: Microcephaly

    • Authors: Emily Hanzlik, Joseph Gigante
      First page: 47
      Abstract: Microcephaly is defined as a head circumference more than two standard deviations below the mean for gender and age. Congenital microcephaly is present at birth, whereas postnatal microcephaly occurs later in life. Genetic abnormalities, syndromes, metabolic disorders, teratogens, infections, prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal injuries can cause both congenital and postnatal microcephaly. Evaluation of patients with microcephaly begins with a thorough history and physical examination. In cases of worsening microcephaly or neurological signs or symptoms, neuroimaging, metabolic, or genetic testing should be strongly considered. Any further studies and workup should be directed by the presence of signs or symptoms pointing to an underlying diagnosis and are usually used as confirmatory testing for certain conditions. Neuroimaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often the first diagnostic test in evaluating children with microcephaly. Genetic testing is becoming more common and is often the next step following neuroimaging when there is no specific evidence in the history or physical examination suggesting a diagnosis. Microcephaly is a lifelong condition with no known cure. The prognosis is usually worse for children who experienced an intrauterine infection or have a chromosomal or metabolic abnormality. Zika virus has rapidly spread since 2015, and maternal infection with this virus is associated with microcephaly and other serious brain abnormalities. Microcephaly has become much more prevalent in the news and scientific community with the recent emergence of Zika virus as a cause of congenital microcephaly.
      PubDate: 2017-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/children4060047
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 48: Pediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    • Authors: Haley Bush, Pegah Golabi, Zobair M. Younossi
      First page: 48
      Abstract: : With the increase in the prevalence of obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become among the leading causes of chronic liver disease in the pediatric age group. Once believed to be a “two-hit process”, it is now clear that the actual pathophysiology of NAFLD is complex and involves multiple pathways. Moreover, NAFLD is not always benign, and patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are at increased risk of developing advanced stages of liver disease. It has also been shown that NAFLD is not only a liver disease, but is also associated with multiple extrahepatic manifestations, including cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and low bone mineral density. Although the data is scarce in the pediatric population, some studies have suggested that long-term mortality and the requirement of liver transplantation will continue to increase in patients with NAFLD. More studies are needed to better understand the natural history of NAFLD, especially in the pediatric age group.
      PubDate: 2017-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/children4060048
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 49: The Association between Pediatric NAFLD and
           Common Genetic Variants

    • Authors: Giuseppina Umano, Mariangela Martino, Nicola Santoro
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common complications of obesity. Several studies have shown that genetic predisposition probably plays an important role in its pathogenesis. In fact, in the last few years a large number of genetic studies have provided compelling evidence that some gene variants, especially those in genes encoding proteins regulating lipid metabolism, are associated with intra-hepatic fat accumulation. Here we provide a comprehensive review of the gene variants that have affected the natural history of the disease.
      PubDate: 2017-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/children4060049
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 50: A Mind–Body Approach to Pediatric Pain

    • Authors: Melanie Brown, Enrique Rojas, Suzanne Gouda
      First page: 50
      Abstract: Pain is a significant public health problem that affects all populations and has significant financial, physical and psychological impact. Opioid medications, once the mainstay of pain therapy across the spectrum, can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Centers for Disease and Control (CDC) guidelines recommend that non-opioid pain medications are preferred for chronic pain outside of certain indications (cancer, palliative and end of life care). Mindfulness, hypnosis, acupuncture and yoga are four examples of mind–body techniques that are often used in the adult population for pain and symptom management. In addition to providing significant pain relief, several studies have reported reduced use of opioid medications when mind–body therapies are implemented. Mind–body medicine is another approach that can be used in children with both acute and chronic pain to improve pain management and quality of life.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/children4060050
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 51: Adolescents’ Knowledge of Breastfeeding and
           Their Intention to Breastfeed in the Future

    • Authors: Marija Čatipović, Tamara Voskresensky Baričić, Sunčana Rokvić, Josip Grgurić
      First page: 51
      Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze third-year secondary school students’ knowledge of breastfeeding and intention to breastfeed their children, based on the results of a questionnaire. The respondents were 154 students (101 female/43 male) of two secondary schools in Bjelovar. The students completed a questionnaire which consisted of 23 questions regarding knowledge and intention to breastfeed. The answers were analyzed statistically and different results were compared by nonparametric tests. About half of the respondents think that both partners should decide on breastfeeding and recognize the role that fathers have in initiating and maintaining breastfeeding. Only 13.64% of the respondents know that breastfeeding is to be done only on demand. Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, as recommended by the medical profession, is recognized by 70.13% of the students. The question on how justified is the initiation of formula together with the mother’s milk was answered correctly by 29.22% of the students. Secondary school students’ knowledge of breastfeeding is insufficient, and schools, families, social communities and other sources of information should share the responsibility for improving this. We consider it necessary to pay more attention to improving students’ knowledge of breastfeeding through school curricula.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/children4060051
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 31: Mind–Body Therapy for Children with
           Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    • Authors: Anne Herbert, Anna Esparham
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is pervasive among the pediatric population and new treatments with minimal adverse effects are necessary to be studied. The purpose of this article is to review current research studying mind–body therapies for treatment of children diagnosed with ADHD. Literature was reviewed pertaining to the effectiveness of movement-based therapies and mindfulness/meditation-based therapies for ADHD. Many positive effects of yoga, Tai Chi, physical activity, and meditation may significantly improve symptoms of ADHD among children.
      PubDate: 2017-04-25
      DOI: 10.3390/children4050031
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 32: A Pilot Study of Mindfulness Meditation for
           Pediatric Chronic Pain

    • Authors: Lynn Waelde, Amanda Feinstein, Rashmi Bhandari, Anya Griffin, Isabel Yoon, Brenda Golianu
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Despite advances in psychological interventions for pediatric chronic pain, there has been little research examining mindfulness meditation for these conditions. This study presents data from a pilot clinical trial of a six-week manualized mindfulness meditation intervention offered to 20 adolescents aged 13–17 years. Measures of pain intensity, functional disability, depression and parent worry about their child’s pain were obtained at baseline and post-treatment. Results indicated no significant changes in pain or depression, however functional disability and frequency of pain functioning complaints improved with small effect sizes. Parents’ worry about child’s pain significantly decreased with a large effect size. Participants rated intervention components positively and most teens suggested that the number of sessions be increased. Three case examples illustrate mindfulness meditation effects and precautions. Mindfulness meditation shows promise as a feasible and acceptable intervention for youth with chronic pain. Future research should optimize intervention components and determine treatment efficacy.
      PubDate: 2017-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/children4050032
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 33: An Evaluation of a Continuing Education
           Program for Family Caregivers of Ventilator-Dependent Children with Spinal
           Muscular Atrophy (SMA)

    • Authors: Deborah Boroughs
      First page: 33
      Abstract: Until 25 years ago, there were limited options for long-term mechanical ventilation of children, and the majority of children were cared for in hospitals. However, with improving technology, the pediatric intensive care unit has moved from the hospital to a home setting, as children with increasingly complex healthcare needs are now often cared for by family members. One of the most complex care conditions involves ventilator and tracheostomy support. Advanced respiratory technologies that augment natural respiratory function prolong the lives of children with respiratory compromise; however, this care often comes with serious risks, including respiratory muscle impairment, respiratory failure, and chronic pulmonary disease. Both non-invasive assisted ventilation and assisted ventilation via tracheostomy can prolong survival into adulthood in many cases; however, mechanical ventilation in the home is a high-stakes, high risk intervention. Increasing complexity of care over time requires perpetual skill training of family caregivers that is delivered and supported by professional caregivers; yet, opportunities for additional training outside of the hospital rarely exist. Recent data has confirmed that repetitive caregiver education is essential for retention of memory and skills in adult learners. This study analyzes the use of continued education and training in the community for family caregivers of ventilator-dependent children diagnosed with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).
      PubDate: 2017-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/children4050033
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 34: Natural History of NAFLD Diagnosed in
           Childhood: A Single-Center Study

    • Authors: Catherine Cioffi, Jean Welsh, Rebecca Cleeton, Shelley Caltharp, Rene Romero, Mark Wulkan, Juna Konomi, Jennifer Frediani, Miriam Vos
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Little is known regarding the subsequent course of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) diagnosed in childhood. The objectives of this single-center study were to gather data on long-term health outcomes and to assess the feasibility of contacting former pediatric patients. In a large pediatric medical center, electronic records were searched to initially identify 162 former patients who had a liver biopsy between 2000 and 2010. Of these, 44 subjects met the criteria for age at follow-up (≥18 year) and biopsy-proven NAFLD, and were recruited via postal and electronic mail. Participants were invited to complete a brief telephone survey on current health status. Supplemental data was also obtained from pediatric medical charts of all subjects. At NAFLD diagnosis, 18% of subjects had diabetes, 91% were obese, 61% had NASH, and 56% had fibrosis on biopsy. At follow-up, 10 subjects (23%) responded to the survey. Based on the survey and chart review, after a mean follow-up of 4.5 years, 5 additional subjects developed diabetes for a period prevalence of 30%, and most subjects (78%) remained obese at last follow-up. Additional prospective studies are needed to fully describe the longitudinal risks associated with pediatric NAFLD, and will require multi-dimensional strategies to successfully recruit former patients.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/children4050034
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 35: After the Visit: An Overview of Government and
           Community Programs Supporting Children with Medical Complexity

    • Authors: Kaitlyn Olson
      First page: 35
      Abstract: The optimal care of children with medical complexity (CMC) requires involvement from a network of professionals that includes physicians, nurses, ancillary service providers, and educators. Pediatric health care providers typically have early and frequent contact with the families of CMC. Therefore, they are in a unique position to connect families to developmental, educational, and psychosocial supports. This article reviews important government and community programs that support CMC living in the United States. It outlines the educational rights of children with disabilities and offers practical tips for collaborating with Early Intervention and the public school system. The article also provides an overview of financial assistance programs, respite care services, and support groups that are beneficial to CMC and their families.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/children4050035
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 36: Low Family Support and Risk of Obesity among
           Black Youth: Role of Gender and Ethnicity

    • Authors: Shervin Assari, Cleopatra Caldwell
      First page: 36
      Abstract: Most studies on the role of family environment in developing risk of obesity among youth have focused on parenting behaviors that are directly involved in energy balance in regional, non-representative White samples. Using a national sample of ethnically diverse Black youth, the current study tested the association between low family support and risk of obesity. We also tested the heterogeneity of this association based on gender, ethnicity, and their intersection. We used data from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent Supplement (NSAL-A), a national survey of Black adolescents in the United States. The study enrolled 1170 African American and Caribbean Black 13–17 year old youth. Obesity was defined based on the cutoff points of body mass index (BMI) appropriate for age and gender of youth. Family support was measured using a five-item measure that captured emotional and tangible social support. Age, gender, and ethnicity were also measured. Logistic regressions were utilized in the pooled sample, and also based on gender, ethnicity, and their intersection, to test the link between low family support and risk for obesity. Results: In the pooled sample, low family support was not associated with an increased risk of obesity (OR = 1.35, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.96–1.89). The association between low family support and risk of obesity was, however, significant among African American females (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.01–2.55). There was no association for African American males (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.82–1.92), Caribbean Black males (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.01–54.85), and Caribbean Black females (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.42–1.44). In conclusion, policies and programs that enable African American families to provide additional family support may prevent obesity among African American female youth. Future research should test the efficacy of promoting family support as a tool for preventing obesity among African American female youth.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/children4050036
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 37: Neonatal and Maternal 25-OH Vitamin D Serum
           Levels in Neonates with Early-Onset Sepsis

    • Authors: Taha Gamal, Abd-Allah Madiha, Mostafa Hanan, Mohamed Abdel-Azeem, Gamil Marian
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is important for calcium metabolism and plays an important role in the immune functions. The aim of this study was to measure neonatal and maternal 25-OH vitamin D serum levels in neonates with early onset sepsis. The study included fifty neonates with early onset sepsis (25 full-term and 25 preterm infants) and thirty age and sex matched healthy neonates as controls. After history taking and clinical examination, complete blood count, C-reactive protein and 25-OH vitamin D serum levels (neonatal and maternal) were measured for all neonates. The mean gestational age for neonates with sepsis was (37.5 ± 0.98 for full term and 34.1 ± 1.26 for preterm neonates). Neonatal and maternal 25-OH vitamin D serum levels were significantly lower in patients (6.4 ± 1.8 and 24.6 ± 2.2 nmol/L) than controls (42.5 ± 20.7 and 50.4 ± 21.4 nmol/L). Significant negative correlations between neonatal and maternal 25-OH vitamin D serum levels and all sepsis markers and significant positive correlations between neonatal and maternal 25-OH vitamin D levels were present. At cut-off values <20 nmol/L for neonatal and <42 nmol/L for maternal 25-OH vitamin D for detection of neonatal sepsis, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predicted value (PPV) and negative predicted value (NPV) were 84%, 79%, 94.7% and 82.3% for neonatal and 82%, 77%, 91.4% and 80.6% for maternal 25-OH vitamin D, respectively. Positive correlations between neonatal and maternal 25-OH Vitamin D serum levels are present and they are negatively correlated with all sepsis markers. They can be sensitive early predictors for early onset sepsis in neonates.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/children4050037
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 38: First Nations Approaches to Childhood Obesity:
           Healthy Lifestyles in Canada Compared with Alternatives for Alaska Native

    • Authors: Peter de Schweinitz, Janet Wojcicki
      First page: 38
      Abstract: Alaska Native and American Indian children have among the highest prevalence of obesity in the United States. Canadian Aboriginal populations including First Nations also have high rates of obesity but obesity rates among children are noticeably lower. We highlight some of the important differences between American and Canadian approaches to healthy lifestyles and Aboriginal/Native health, including diet and physical activity, which may in part explain the differences in obesity prevalence. Specifically, the Canadian government provides a food subsidy program to bring perishable fruits and vegetable to remote, rural Canadian areas and secondly supports the use of traditional foods and harvesting/gathering through a number of government supported programs. Lastly, there may be a better sense of community and overall life satisfaction for Aboriginals compared with Alaska Natives, in part because of the incorporation of healthcare and other services within the larger overall community, as opposed to separate services as is the case for Alaska Natives. This perspective provides insight into some of these potential differences.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/children4050038
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 39: Predictors of Caregiver Burden among Mothers
           of Children with Chronic Conditions

    • Authors: Karina Javalkar, Eniko Rak, Alexandra Phillips, Cara Haberman, Maria Ferris, Miranda Van Tilburg
      First page: 39
      Abstract: Objective: The complex medical regimens of children and adolescents with chronic conditions can have a significant impact on families and households. Caregivers may experience burden, which can lead to negative health consequences and poor quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine child-related predictors and risk factors for caregiver burden among parents of children with chronic conditions. Methods: We distributed an institutional review board (IRB)-approved, online cross-sectional survey to parents of children who attended the Victory Junction therapeutic camp. Parents provided information on child demographics, disease characteristics, and healthcare utilization. Parents also answered the adapted Zarit Burden Interview, which measured caregiver burden. Children completed scales about self-management and self-efficacy. Linear regression analyses determined how children’s disease characteristics, health utilization, and self-management skills were associated with caregiver burden. Results: We enrolled 150 mother-child dyads. The mean age of child participants was 12.23 years (±2.5), with an age range of 6 to 16 years. It was determined that children’s number of medicines and injections (β = 0.161, p = 0.047), a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in addition to the primary medical condition (β = 0.216, p = 0.008), frequent visits with a primary care provider (PCP) (β = 0.209, p = 0.026) and emergency room (ER) visits (β = 0.197, p = 0.038), and lower child self-efficacy (β = −0.241, p = 0.041) were predictors of increased caregiver burden. Conclusions: We identified risk factors for caregiver burden among mothers. Future studies should explore additional child-related characteristics as they relate to caregiver burden, and should determine if interventions for mothers of children with chronic conditions can lead to positive outcomes.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/children4050039
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 40: Mental Health Service Utilization among Black
           Youth; Psychosocial Determinants in a National Sample

    • Authors: Shervin Assari, Cleopatra Caldwell
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Racial disparity in mental health service utilization (MHSU) persists, and youths are not an exception to the underutilization of services. Very limited research has been conducted on the determinants of MHSU among Black youth. Using a national sample of American Black youth, the current study investigated the association between demographic factors, socioeconomic status, psychiatric disorders, and self-rated health (SRH) on MHSU. We also tested the heterogeneity of the effects of SRH and psychiatric disorders based on ethnicity, gender, and their intersection. We used data from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescents supplement (NSAL-A), 2003–2004. The study enrolled 1170 Black youth between 13 and 17 years old including 810 African Americans and 360 Caribbean Blacks. Age, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, SRH, 12-month psychiatric disorders (Composite International Diagnostic Interview modified version), and MHSU (last year) were measured. Logistic regressions were used for data analysis. Ethnicity (odds ratio (OR) = 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.17–0.65), subjective socioeconomic status (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.09–1.88), SRH (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.00–6.37), and psychiatric disorders (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.05–4.48) were associated with MHSU. Age, gender, and objective socioeconomic status were not associated with MHSU. Gender and ethnicity did not interact with SRH and psychiatric disorders on MHSU. Actual and perceived need both universally influence Black youths’ likelihood of MHSU, regardless of their ethnicity and gender. Ethnicity and perceived socioeconomic status also play unique roles in MHSU. Future research is needed to understand pathways to MHSU for Black youth who both have and perceive mental health needs. There is also a need to find ways to promote MHSU for those with a need for mental health services.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/children4050040
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 41: Respiratory Care Considerations for Children
           with Medical Complexity

    • Authors: Jackie Chiang, Reshma Amin
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Children with medical complexity (CMC) are a growing population of diagnostically heterogeneous children characterized by chronic conditions affecting multiple organ systems, the use of medical technology at home as well as intensive healthcare service utilization. Many of these children will experience either a respiratory-related complication and/or they will become established on respiratory technology at home during their care trajectory. Therefore, healthcare providers need to be familiar with the respiratory related complications commonly experienced by CMC as well as the indications, technical and safety considerations and potential complications that may arise when caring for CMC using respiratory technology at home. This review will outline the most common respiratory disease manifestations experienced by CMC, and discuss various respiratory-related treatment options that can be considered, including tracheostomy, invasive and non-invasive ventilation, as well as airway clearance techniques. The caregiver requirements associated with caring for CMC using respiratory technology at home will also be reviewed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/children4050041
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 42: Genetic Testing among Children in a Complex
           Care Program

    • Authors: Krista Oei, Robin Hayeems, Wendy Ungar, Ronald Cohn, Eyal Cohen
      First page: 42
      Abstract: Little is known about the pattern of genetic testing and frequency of genetic diagnoses among children enrolled in structured complex care programs (CCPs). Such information may inform the suitability of emerging genome diagnostics for this population. The objectives were to describe the proportion of children with undiagnosed genetic conditions despite genetic testing and measure the testing period, types and costs of genetic tests used. A retrospective analysis of 420 children enrolled in Toronto’s Hospital for Sick Children’s CCP from January 2010 until June 2014 was conducted. Among those who underwent genetic testing (n = 319; 76%), a random sample of 20% (n = 63) was further analyzed. A genetic diagnosis was confirmed in 48% of those who underwent testing. Those with no genetic diagnosis underwent significantly more genetic tests than those with a confirmed genetic diagnosis [median interquartile range (IQR): six tests (4–9) vs. three tests (2–4), p = 0.002], more sequence-level tests and a longer, more expensive testing period than those with a genetic diagnosis [median (IQR): length of testing period: 4.12 years (1.73–8.42) vs. 0.35 years (0.12–3.04), p < 0.001; genetic testing costs C$8496 ($4399–$12,480) vs. C$2614 ($1605–$4080), p < 0.001]. A genetic diagnosis was not established for 52% of children. Integrating genome-wide sequencing into clinical care may improve diagnostic efficiency and yield in this population.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/children4050042
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 19: Clinical Hypnosis, an Effective Mind–Body
           Modality for Adolescents with Behavioral and Physical Complaints

    • Authors: Anju Sawni, Cora Breuner
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Mind–body medicine is a system of health practices that includes meditation/relaxation training, guided imagery, hypnosis, biofeedback, yoga, art/music therapy, prayer, t’ai chi, and psychological therapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy. Clinical hypnosis is an important mind–body tool that serves as an adjunct to conventional medical care for the adolescent patient. Clinical hypnosis specifically uses self-directed therapeutic suggestions to cultivate the imagination and facilitate the mind–body connection, leading to positive emotional and physical well-being. There are many similarities between clinical hypnosis and other mind–body/self-regulatory modalities such as visual imagery, mindfulness meditation, yoga, and biofeedback that incorporate experiential learning and mechanisms for change. They may be viewed as subtypes of the hypnotic experience and share the common experience of trance as the entrée into self-empowered change in physiologic and psychological states. Clinical hypnosis can be used by health care providers to teach adolescents coping skills to deal with a wide variety of conditions such as chronic headaches, recurrent abdominal pain, anxiety, depression, grief and bereavement, phobias, anger, family stressors, sleep disorders, or enuresis. Clinical vignettes are given to help illustrate the effectiveness of hypnosis in adolescents.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
      DOI: 10.3390/children4040019
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 20: Perspectives on Technology-Assisted Relaxation
           Approaches to Support Mind-Body Skills Practice in Children and Teens:
           Clinical Experience and Commentary

    • Authors: Timothy Culbert
      First page: 20
      Abstract: It has been well-established that a variety of mind-body (MB) techniques, including yoga, mental imagery, hypnosis, biofeedback, and meditation, are effective at addressing symptoms such as pain, anxiety, nausea, and insomnia, as well as helping with a wide variety of medical, emotional, and behavioral issues in pediatric populations. In addition, MB skills can also be health promoting in the long-term, and with regular practice, could potentially contribute to longer attention spans, social skills, emotional regulation, and enhanced immune system functioning. Importantly, the benefits accrued from MB skills are largely dose dependent, meaning that individuals who practice with some consistency tend to benefit the most, both in the short- and long-term. However, clinical experience suggests that for busy patients, the regular practice of MB skills can be challenging and treatment adherence commonly becomes an issue. This commentary reviews the concept of technology assisted relaxation as an engaging and effective option to enhance treatment adherence (i.e., daily practice) for pediatric patients, for whom MB skills have been recommended to address physical and mental health challenges.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04
      DOI: 10.3390/children4040020
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 21: Review of Randomized Controlled Trials of
           Massage in Preterm Infants

    • Authors: Anna-Kaisa Niemi
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Preterm birth affects about 10% of infants born in the United States. Massage therapy is being used in some neonatal intensive care units for its potential beneficial effects on preterm infants. This article reviews published randomized controlled trials on the effects of massage in preterm infants. Most studies evaluating the effect of massage in weight gain in premature infants suggest a positive effect on weight gain. Increase in vagal tone has been reported in infants who receive massage and has been suggested as a possible mechanism for improved weight gain. More studies are needed on the underlying mechanisms of the effects of massage therapy on weight gain in preterm infants. While some trials suggest improvements in developmental scores, decreased stress behavior, positive effects on immune system, improved pain tolerance and earlier discharge from the hospital, the number of such studies is small and further evidence is needed. Further studies, including randomized controlled trials, are needed on the effects of massage in preterm infants.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03
      DOI: 10.3390/children4040021
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 22: Mind–Body Interventions for Pediatric
           Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    • Authors: Ann Ming Yeh, Anava Wren, Brenda Golianu
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa. There is emerging evidence that the brain–gut connection affects inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients more than previously thought. This is evidenced by comorbid mood disorders, irritable bowel symptoms concurrent with quiescent IBD, and the potential of psychosocial stressors to trigger IBD flares. Mind–body interventions such as psychotherapy, relaxation, mindfulness, biofeedback, yoga, and clinical hypnosis offer an adjunct to standard medical treatment for IBD. We will review the current evidence base for these mind– body interventions in the treatment of pediatric IBD, illustrate a case study, and offer suggestions for future research for this promising field.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03
      DOI: 10.3390/children4040022
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 23: Links between Autism Spectrum Disorder
           Diagnostic Status and Family Quality of Life

    • Authors: Andrew McKechanie, Vivien Moffat, Eve Johnstone, Sue Fletcher-Watson
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Quality of life is often relatively lowered in families of children with additional needs, and this may be particularly the case where additional needs are accompanied by an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here we explore the effects of diagnostic status specifically, comparing families with children with an ASD diagnosis with others who a) have additional needs but no signs of ASD; and b) have additional needs and signs of ASD but no diagnosis. Mothers (n = 76) of children with additional needs completed standardised questionnaires about quality of life, stress, service provision, child behaviour and presence and severity of ASD traits. In addition, a group of mothers of typically developing young people (n = 17) completed standardised questionnaires on individual and family quality of life and on the behaviour of their son or daughter. Mothers of typically developing young people had significantly higher individual and family quality of life scores than each of the three other groups. Increased severity of ASD was associated with increased maternal stress, which in turn was associated with decreased family and maternal quality of life. The group reporting the lowest quality of life and the highest stress were the mothers of individuals with signs of ASD but no diagnosis. This pattern did not seem to be explained by lack of access to services, or rates of intellectual disability or challenging behaviour in this sub‐group. The finding that poor quality of life and high stress was most apparent in the sub‐group of mothers with children who had signs of ASD but did not have a diagnosis of ASD suggests that an interesting topic for further investigation is whether receipt of a diagnosis itself can positively influence quality of life and levels of maternal stress.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03
      DOI: 10.3390/children4040023
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 24: The Case for the Use of Nurse Practitioners in
           the Care of Children with Medical Complexity

    • Authors: Cheryl Samuels, Tomika Harris, Traci Gonzales, Ricardo Mosquera
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Although children with medically complex illness represent less than one percent of the total pediatric population, their health care expenditures and health care system utilization far exceed the numbers of other pediatric patients. Nurse practitioners, with their educational background focused on health care promotion and education, are uniquely qualified to reduce this inequity with cost effective care. Currently, nurse practitioners are used in a variety of health care settings and can provide acute and chronic care. Incorporating nurse practitioners at each step in the care of children with medical complexity can improve the quality of life for these children and their families, increase family satisfaction and decrease costs.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07
      DOI: 10.3390/children4040024
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 25: Pressure Injuries in Medically Complex
           Children: A Review

    • Authors: Katherine Freundlich
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Pressure injuries are a challenging problem in the care of medically complex children. Available evidence is limited, and there are theoretical reasons to use caution before extrapolating adult data, including key differences in body composition, common locations of pressure injury, and association with medical devices. The focus of this article will be to review the definition of a pressure injury and what is known about pathophysiology, prevention, recognition, staging, and treatment of pressure injuries in children with medical complexity.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07
      DOI: 10.3390/children4040025
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 26: A Narrative Review: Actigraphy as an Objective
           Assessment of Perioperative Sleep and Activity in Pediatric Patients

    • Authors: Nicole Conrad, Joelle Karlik, Amy Lewandowski Holley, Anna Wilson, Jeffrey Koh
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Sleep is an important component of pediatric health and is crucial for cognitive development. Actigraphy is a validated, objective tool to capture sleep and movement data that is increasingly being used in the perioperative context. The aim of this review is to present recent pediatric studies that utilized actigraphy in the perioperative period, highlight gaps in the literature, and provide recommendations for future research. A literature search was completed using OVID and PubMed databases and articles were selected for inclusion based on relevance to the topic. The literature search resulted in 13 papers that utilized actigraphic measures. Results of the review demonstrated that actigraphy has been used to identify predictors and risk factors for poor postoperative sleep, examine associations among perioperative pain and sleep patterns, and assess activity and energy expenditure in both inpatient and outpatient settings. We propose expansion of actigraphy research to include assessment of sleep via actigraphy to: predict functional recovery in pediatric populations, to study postoperative sleep in high-risk pediatric patients, to test the efficacy of perioperative interventions, and to assess outcomes in special populations for which self-report data on sleep and activity is difficult to obtain.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/children4040026
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 27: Nasopharyngeal Carriage and Antimicrobial
           Susceptibility Patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae among Children under
           Five in Southwest Ethiopia

    • Authors: Tiglu Gebre, Mulualem Tadesse, Dossegnaw Aragaw, Dagne Feye, Habtamu Beyene, Dinberu Seyoum, Mekidim Mekonnen
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae is found to play an important role in the development and transmission of pneumococcal diseases. In this study, we assessed the nasopharyngeal carriage, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associated risk factors of S. pneumoniae among children under five. A total of 361 children under five attending the outpatient department of Shanan Gibe Hospital in Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia were enrolled from June to September 2014. Nasopharyngeal specimens were collected using sterile plastic applicator rayon tipped swab and inoculated on tryptone soy agar supplemented with 5% sheep blood and 5 µg/mL gentamycin. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the modified disk diffusion method. The overall prevalence of S. pneumoniae carriage was 43.8% (158/361) among children under five. Resistance to tetracycline, cotrimoxazole, penicillin, chloramphenicol and erythromycin was observed in 53.2% (84/158), 43.7% (69/158), 36.1% (57/158), 13.3% (21/158) and 8.9% (14/158) of isolates respectively. Multidrug resistance was seen in 17.7% (28/158) of isolates. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, children living with sibling(s) < 5 years old (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.798; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.169–2.766) and malnutrition (AOR = 2.065; 95% CI, 1.239–3.443) were significantly associated with S. pneumoniae carriage. A high nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae was observed among children under five in Southwest Ethiopia. There should be a strategy to prevent S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal colonization and identify the appropriate antibiotic to the individual child.
      PubDate: 2017-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/children4040027
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 28: Comparison of CPAP and HFNC in Management of
           Bronchiolitis in Infants and Young Children

    • Authors: Majken Pedersen, Signe Vahlkvist
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been used in infants with bronchiolitis for decades. Recently, high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy was introduced We conducted a retrospective study of treatment with CPAP vs. HFNC between 2013 and 2015, comparing the development in respiratory rate, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) and heart rate, treatment failure, duration of treatment, and length of hospital stay. A sample size of 49 children were included. Median age was 1.9 months. Median baseline pCO2 was 7.4 kPa in both groups, respiratory rate per minute was 57 vs. 58 (CPAP vs. HFNC). Respiratory rate decreased faster in the CPAP group (p < 0.05). FiO2 decreased in the CPAP group and increased in the HFNC group during the first 12 h, whereafter it decreased in both groups. (p < 0.01). Heart rate development was similar in both groups. Twelve children (55%) changed systems from HFNC to CPAP due to disease progression. There was no difference in length of treatment, hospital stay, or transmission to intensive care unit between the groups. CPAP was more effective than HFNC in decreasing respiratory rate (RR) and FiO2. No differences were observed in length of treatment or complications. Further studies should be conducted to compare the efficacy of the two treatments of bronchiolitis, preferably through prospective randomized trials.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/children4040028
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 29: Parent, partner, co-parent or partnership'
           The need for clarity as family systems thinking takes hold in the quest to
           motivate behavioural change

    • Authors: Chris May, Li Kheng Chai, Tracy Burrows
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Research is increasingly pointing to the importance of extending the focus of childhood obesity intervention to include fathers, fathering figures, and other members of a child’s primary parenting network. Advances in communication technology are now making it possible to achieve this aim, within current resources, using modalities such text messaging, web-based resources and apps that extend intervention to parents not in attendance at face to face interactions. However, published research is often unclear as to which parent/s they targeted or engaged with, whether interventions planned to influence behaviours and capabilities across family systems, and how this can be achieved. As childhood obesity research employing information technology to engage with family systems takes hold it is becoming important for researchers clearly describe who they engage with, what they hope to achieve with them, and the pathways of influence that they aim to activate. This paper integrates extant knowledge on family systems thinking, parenting efficacy, co-parenting, and family intervention with the way parents are represented and reported in childhood obesity research. The paper concludes with recommendations on terminology that can be used to describe parents and parenting figures in future studies.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/children4040029
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 30: Overview of Four Functional Classification
           Systems Commonly Used in Cerebral Palsy

    • Authors: Andrea Paulson, Jilda Vargus-Adams
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common physical disability in childhood. CP comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders that can result in spasticity, dystonia, muscle contractures, weakness and coordination difficulty that ultimately affects the ability to control movements. Traditionally, CP has been classified using a combination of the motor type and the topographical distribution, as well as subjective severity level. Imprecise terms such as these tell very little about what a person is able to do functionally and can impair clear communication between providers. More recently, classification systems have been created employing a simple ordinal grading system of functional performance. These systems allow a more precise discussion between providers, as well as better subject stratification for research. The goal of this review is to describe four common functional classification systems for cerebral palsy: the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), the Communication Function Classification System (CFCS), and the Eating and Drinking Ability Classification System (EDACS). These measures are all standardized, reliable, and complementary to one another.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/children4040030
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 15: Lifestyle Risk Factors for Weight Gain in
           Children with and without Asthma

    • Authors: Megan Jensen, Peter Gibson, Clare Collins, Jodi Hilton, Lisa Wood
      First page: 15
      Abstract: A higher proportion of children with asthma are overweight and obese compared to children without asthma; however, it is unknown whether asthmatic children are at increased risk of weight gain due to modifiable lifestyle factors. Thus, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare weight-gain risk factors (sleep, appetite, diet, activity) in an opportunistic sample of children with and without asthma. Non-obese children with (n = 17; age 10.7 (2.4) years) and without asthma (n = 17; age 10.8 (2.3) years), referred for overnight polysomnography, underwent measurement of lung function, plasma appetite hormones, dietary intake and food cravings, activity, and daytime sleepiness. Sleep latency (56.6 (25.5) vs. 40.9 (16.9) min, p = 0.042) and plasma triglycerides (1.0 (0.8, 1.2) vs. 0.7 (0.7, 0.8) mmol/L, p = 0.013) were significantly greater in asthmatic versus non-asthmatic children. No group difference was observed in appetite hormones, dietary intake, or activity levels (p > 0.05). Sleep duration paralleled overall diet quality (r = 0.36, p = 0.04), whilst daytime sleepiness paralleled plasma lipids (r = 0.61, p =0.001) and sedentary time (r = 0.39, p = 0.02). Disturbances in sleep quality and plasma triglycerides were evident in non-obese asthmatic children referred for polysomnography, versus non-asthmatic children. Observed associations between diet quality, sedentary behavior, and metabolic and sleep-related outcomes warrant further investigation, particularly the long-term health implications.
      PubDate: 2017-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/children4030015
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 16: The Role of Mindfulness in Reducing the
           Adverse Effects of Childhood Stress and Trauma

    • Authors: Robin Ortiz, Erica Sibinga
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Research suggests that many children are exposed to adverse experiences in childhood. Such adverse childhood exposures may result in stress and trauma, which are associated with increased morbidity and mortality into adulthood. In general populations and trauma-exposed adults, mindfulness interventions have demonstrated reduced depression and anxiety, reduced trauma-related symptoms, enhanced coping and mood, and improved quality of life. Studies in children and youth also demonstrate that mindfulness interventions improve mental, behavioral, and physical outcomes. Taken together, this research suggests that high-quality, structured mindfulness instruction may mitigate the negative effects of stress and trauma related to adverse childhood exposures, improving short- and long-term outcomes, and potentially reducing poor health outcomes in adulthood. Future work is needed to optimize implementation of youth-based mindfulness programs and to study long-term outcomes into adulthood.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/children4030016
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 17: Differential Influences of Parenting
           Dimensions and Parental Physical Abuse during Childhood on Overweight and
           Obesity in Adolescents

    • Authors: Thomas Mößle, Sören Kliem, Anna Lohmann, Marie Bergmann, Dirk Baier
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Besides other explanatory variables, parenting styles and parental violence might also be responsible for setting a path towards overweight/obesity in childhood. While this association has consistently been observed for adults, findings for adolescents still remain scarce and inconsistent. Therefore, the goal of this study is to add evidence on this topic for children and adolescents. Analyses are based on a sample of 1729 German, ninth-grade students. To analyze associations between parenting dimensions and weight status, non-parametric conditional inference trees were applied. Three gender-specific pathways for a heightened risk of overweight/obesity were observed: (1) female adolescents who report having experienced severe parental physical abuse and medium/high parental warmth in childhood; (2) male adolescents who report having experienced low or medium parental monitoring in childhood; and (3) this second pathway for male adolescents is more pronounced if the families receive welfare. The importance of promoting parenting styles characterized by warmth and a lack of physical abuse is also discussed. This is one of only a few studies examining the association of parenting dimensions/parental physical abuse and weight status in adolescence. Future studies should include even more parenting dimensions, as well as parental physical abuse levels, in order to detect and untangle gender-specific effects on weight status.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/children4030017
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 18: Incorporating Hypnosis into Pediatric Clinical

    • Authors: Robert Pendergrast
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Increasing numbers of licensed health professionals who care for children have been trained in clinical hypnosis. The evidence base for the safety and efficacy of this therapeutic approach in a wide variety of conditions is also growing. Pediatricians and other health professionals who have received training may wish to apply these skills in appropriate clinical scenarios but still may be unsure of the practical matters of how to incorporate this skill-set into day to day practice. Moreover, the practical application of such skills will take very different forms depending on the practice setting, types of acute or chronic conditions, patient and family preferences, and the developmental stages of the child or teen. This article reviews the application of pediatric clinical hypnosis skills by describing the use of hypnotic language outside of formal trance induction, by describing natural trance states that occur in children and teens in healthcare settings, and by describing the process of planning a clinical hypnosis encounter. It is assumed that this article does not constitute training in hypnosis or qualify its readers for the application of such skills; rather, it may serve as a practical guide for those professionals who have been so trained, and may serve to inform other professionals what to expect when referring a patient for hypnotherapy. The reader is referred to specific training opportunities and organizations.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/children4030018
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 8:
           Pediatric Mortality in a Rural Tertiary Care Center in Liberia

    • Authors: Carmelle Tsai, Camila Walters, John Sampson, Francis Kateh, Mary Chang
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Liberia is a low‐income country in West Africa that has faced significant challenges, including a civil war and the recent Ebola epidemic. Little data exists on the more current post‐war and pre‐Ebola trends of child health in Liberia in the rural setting. This study is a retrospective chart review of pediatric mortality in 2013 at a rural tertiary care center in Liberia, 10 years post‐war. From January 2013 to December 2013, there were 50 pediatric deaths, or 5.4% of the 920 total pediatric admissions. The most common cause of neonatal death was sepsis, and the most common cause of death under five years of age was malaria. The majority (82.0%) of the deaths were in children under five. Pediatric mortality at this hospital was similar to other reported mortality six years post‐war, and lower than that reported immediately post‐war. Neonatal sepsis and malaria are two significant causes of pediatric mortality in this community and, therefore, further efforts to decrease childhood mortality should focus on these causes.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/children4020008
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 9: Evidence-Based Psychological Interventions for
           the Management of Pediatric Chronic Pain: New Directions in Research and
           Clinical Practice

    • Authors: Rachael Coakley, Tessa Wihak
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Over the past 20 years our knowledge about evidence-based psychological interventions for pediatric chronic pain has dramatically increased. Overall, the evidence in support of psychological interventions for pediatric chronic pain is strong, demonstrating positive psychological and behavioral effects for a variety of children with a range of pain conditions. However, wide scale access to effective psychologically-based pain management treatments remains a challenge for many children who suffer with pain. Increasing access to care and reducing persistent biomedical biases that inhibit attainment of psychological services are a central focus of current pain treatment interventions. Additionally, as the number of evidence-based treatments increase, tailoring treatments to a child or family’s particular needs is increasingly possible. This article will (1) discuss the theoretical frameworks as well as the specific psychological skills and strategies that currently hold promise as effective agents of change; (2) review and summarize trends in the development of well-researched outpatient interventions over the past ten years; and (3) discuss future directions for intervention research on pediatric chronic pain.
      PubDate: 2017-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/children4020009
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 10:
           Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Pediatric 
           Chronic Pain: Theory and Application

    • Authors: Melissa Pielech, Kevin Vowles, Rikard Wicksell
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a third wave behavior therapy approach which aims to increase engagement in activities that bring meaning, vitality, and value to the lives of individuals experiencing persistent pain, discomfort, or distress. This goal is particularly relevant when these aversive experiences cannot be effectively avoided or when avoidance efforts risk their exacerbation, all of which may be common experiences in children and adolescents with chronic pain conditions. The primary aim of the present paper is to review and summarize the extant literature on the application, utility, and evidence for using ACT with pediatric chronic pain populations by: (1) defining the theoretical assumptions of the ACT model; (2) summarizing research study findings and relevant measures from the published literature; and (3) critically discussing the strengths, limitations and areas in need of further development.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/children4020010
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 11: Parent and Child Report of Pain and Fatigue in
           JIA: Does Disagreement between Parent and Child Predict Functional

    • Authors: Amy Gaultney, Maggie Bromberg, Mark Connelly, Tracy Spears, Laura Schanberg
      First page: 11
      Abstract: While previous research in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) has identified discrepancy between parent and child perception of disease-related symptoms such as pain, the significance and impact of this disagreement has not been characterized. We examined the extent to which parent-child discordance in JIA symptom ratings are associated with child functional outcomes. Linear regression and mixed effects models were used to test the effects of discrepancy in pain and fatigue ratings on functional outcomes in 65 dyads, consisting of youth with JIA and one parent. Results suggested that children reported increased activity limitations and negative mood when parent and child pain ratings were discrepant, with parent rated child pain much lower. Greater discrepancy in fatigue ratings was also associated with more negative mood, whereas children whose parent rated child fatigue as moderately lower than the child experienced decreased activity limitations relative to dyads who agreed closely on fatigue level. Implications of these results for the quality of life and treatment of children with JIA are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/children4020011
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 12: Medical Yoga Therapy

    • Authors: Ina Stephens
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Medical yoga is defined as the use of yoga practices for the prevention and treatment of  medical conditions. Beyond the physical elements of yoga, which are important and effective for  strengthening  the  body,  medical  yoga  also  incorporates  appropriate  breathing  techniques,  mindfulness, and meditation in order to achieve the maximum benefits. Multiple studies have  shown that yoga can positively impact the body in many ways, including helping to regulate blood  glucose levels, improve musculoskeletal ailments and keeping the cardiovascular system in tune. It  also has been shown to have important psychological benefits, as the practice of yoga can help to  increase mental energy and positive feelings, and decrease negative feelings of aggressiveness,  depression and anxiety.
      PubDate: 2017-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/children4020012
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 13: Do Mothers Benefit from a Child-Focused
           Cognitive Behavioral Treatment (CBT) for Childhood Functional Abdominal
           Pain? A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    • Authors: Claudia Calvano, Martina Groß, Petra Warschburger
      First page: 13
      Abstract: While the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) approaches for childhood functional abdominal pain (FAP) is well-established for child outcomes, only a few studies have reported on parent-specific outcomes. This randomized controlled pilot trial analyzed effects of a group CBT on maternal variables (i.e., pain-related behavior, worries and self-efficacy, as well as general psychosocial strain). Methods: The sample constituted of 15 mothers in the intervention group (IG) and 14 mothers in the waitlist control group (WLC). Outcome measures were assessed pre-treatment, post-treatment and at three months follow-up. Results: Analyses revealed significant, large changes in maladaptive maternal reactions related to the child’s abdominal pain in the IG compared to the WLC—i.e., reduced attention (d = 0.95), medical help-seeking (d = 0.92), worries (d = 1.03), as well as a significant increase in behaviors that encourage the child’s self-management (d = 1.03). In addition, maternal self-efficacy in dealing with a child’s pain significantly increased in the IG as well (d = 0.92). Treatment effects emerged post-treatment and could be maintained until three months follow-up. There were no effects on general self-efficacy and maternal quality of life. Conclusion: While these results are promising, and underline the efficacy of the CBT approach for both the child and mothers, further studies, including long-term follow-ups, are warranted.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/children4020013
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 14: Neighborhood Safety and Major Depressive
           Disorder in a National Sample of Black Youth; Gender by Ethnic Differences

    • Authors: Shervin Assari, Cleopatra Caldwell
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Adolescence is a developmental period marked by increased stress, especially among Black youth. In addition to stress related to their developmental transition, social factors such as a perceived unsafe neighborhood impose additional risks. We examined gender and ethnic differences in the association between perceived neighborhood safety and major depressive disorder (MDD) among a national sample of Black youth. We used data from the National Survey of American Life - Adolescents (NSAL-A), 2003–2004. In total, 1170 Black adolescents entered the study. This number was composed of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth (age 13 to 17). Demographic factors, perceived neighborhood safety, and MDD (Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI) were measured. Logistic regressions were used to test the association between neighborhood safety and MDD in the pooled sample, as well as based on ethnicity by gender groups. In the pooled sample of Black youth, those who perceived their neighborhoods to be unsafe were at higher risk of MDD (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.25; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.02-1.51). The perception that one’s neighborhood is unsafe was associated with a higher risk of MDD among African American males (OR=1.41; 95% CI = 1.03–1.93) but not African American females or Caribbean Black males and females. In conclusion, perceived neighborhood safety is not a universal psychological determinant of MDD across ethnic by gender groups of Black youth; however, policies and programs that enhance the sense of neighborhood safety may prevent MDD in male African American youth.
      PubDate: 2017-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/children4020014
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 93: The Need for Early Referral: Characteristics
           of Children and Adolescents Who Are Overweight and Obese Attending a
           Multidisciplinary Weight Management Service

    • Authors: Jacqueline Walker, Rebecca Malley, Robyn Littlewood, Sandra Capra
      First page: 93
      Abstract: There is a need to examine the issue of childhood obesity from a systems perspective. This study aimed to describe the baseline characteristics of children attending pediatric multidisciplinary weight management services and understand how this information will inform future service delivery. A total of 51 children and adolescents who were overweight and obese (27 male) and aged between two and 16 years participated. Body size measures such as body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage were collected. Participants and their parents/guardians also completed questionnaires on dietary intake, behaviors and habits, physical activity and health-related quality of life. A total of 72% of participants were classified as morbidly obese. Adolescents had significantly lower scores for overall diet, physical activity and particular health-related quality of life scores. No significant correlations were found between BMI z-scores and diet, physical activity and health-related quality of life. In adolescents, correlations were detected between dietary scores and health-related quality of life. Results confirm the need to critically examine the current context to adapt and tailor interventions to individual circumstances, and when combined with focused referral, triaging and screening processes, should assist in delivering the right care at the right time.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-10-31
      DOI: 10.3390/children4110093
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 11 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 94: Infantile Cytomegalovirus-Associated Severe
           Warm Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: A Case Report

    • Authors: Hassan Khalifeh, Youmna Mourad, Cynthia Chamoun
      First page: 94
      Abstract: Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a rare hematologic entity in children. Etiologies are mainly viruses or bacteria. We describe here a case of severe warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (IgG- and C3d-positive direct antiglobulin test) in an immunocompetent 6-month-old infant with acute Cytomegalovirus infection that responded well to corticotherapy and intraveneous immunoglobulins without using blood component transfusion. This case demonstrates the importance of recognizing CMV in infantile Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia, especially because hemolysis can be severe and lethal.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-11-03
      DOI: 10.3390/children4110094
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 11 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 95: Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Children: A
           Tertiary United Kingdom Children’s Hospital Experience

    • Authors: Omar Nasher, David Devadason, Richard Stewart
      First page: 95
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to review the aetiology, presentation and management of these patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) at a tertiary children’s unit in the United Kingdom. This was a retrospective single-institution study on children (<16 years) who presented with acute UGIB over a period of 5 years using known International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes. A total of 32 children (17 males, 15 females) were identified with a total median age at presentation of 5.5 years. The majority (24/32) of patients presented as an emergency. A total of 19/32 presented with isolated haematemesis, 8/32 with isolated melaena and 5/32 with a combination of melaena and haematemesis. On admission, the mean haemoglobin of patients who presented with isolated haematemesis was 11 g/dL, those with isolated melaena 9.3 g/dL and those with a combination 7.8 g/dL. Blood transfusion was required in 3/19 with haematemesis and 3/5 with haematemesis and melaena. A total of 19/32 underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Endoscopic findings were oesophageal varices (5/19) of which 4 required banding; bleeding gastric ulcer (1/19) requiring clips, haemospray and adrenaline; gastric vascular malformation (1/19) treated with Argon plasma coagulation therapy; duodenal ulcer (3/19) which required surgery in two cases; oesophagitis (5/19); and gastritis +/− duodenitis (3/19). A total of 13/32 patients did not undergo endoscopy and the presumed aetiology was a Mallory–Weiss tear (4/13); ingestion of foreign body (2/13); gastritis (3/13); viral illness (1/13); unknown (2/13). While UGIB is uncommon in children, the morbidity associated with it is very significant. Melaena, dropping haemoglobin, and requirement for a blood transfusion appear to be significant markers of an underlying cause of UGIB that requires therapeutic intervention. A multi-disciplinary team comprising gastroenterologists and surgeons is essential.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-11-03
      DOI: 10.3390/children4110095
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 11 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 96: Risk and Resilience Factors Related to
           Parental Bereavement Following the Death of a Child with a Life-Limiting

    • Authors: Tiina Jaaniste, Sandra Coombs, Theresa Donnelly, Norm Kelk, Danielle Beston
      First page: 96
      Abstract: This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on risk and resilience factors impacting on parental bereavement outcomes following the death of a child with a life-limiting condition. Over the past few decades, bereavement research has focussed primarily on a risk-based approach. In light of advances in the literature on resilience, the authors propose a Risk and Resilience Model of Parental Bereavement, thus endeavouring to give more holistic consideration to a range of potential influences on parental bereavement outcomes. The literature will be reviewed with regard to the role of: (i) loss-oriented stressors (e.g., circumstances surrounding the death and multiple losses); (ii) inter-personal factors (e.g., marital factors, social support, and religious practices); (iii) intra-personal factors (e.g., neuroticism, trait optimism, psychological flexibility, attachment style, and gender); and (iv) coping and appraisal, on parental bereavement outcomes. Challenges facing this area of research are discussed, and research and clinical implications considered.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-11-09
      DOI: 10.3390/children4110096
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 11 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 84: Sleep Disorders in Childhood Neurological

    • Authors: Abdullah Tolaymat, Zhao Liu
      First page: 84
      Abstract: Sleep problems are frequently addressed as a primary or secondary concern during the visit to the pediatric neurology clinic. Sleep disorders can mimic other neurologic diseases (e.g., epilepsy and movement disorders), and this adds challenges to the diagnostic process. Sleep disorders can significantly affect the quality of life and functionality of children in general and those with comorbid neurological diseases in particular. Understanding the pathophysiology of sleep disorders, recognizing the implications of sleep disorder in children with neurologic diseases and behavioral difficulties, and early intervention continue to evolve resulting in better neurocognitive outcomes.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/children4100084
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 85: Coconut Allergy Revisited

    • Authors: Katherine Anagnostou
      First page: 85
      Abstract: Despite concerns voiced often by food-allergic patients, allergy to coconut is rare, not directly associated with nut allergy and few cases are reported so far in the literature. We present an interesting case of coconut allergy in a child that was previously tolerant to coconut and regularly exposed via both the skin and gastrointestinal route.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/children4100085
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 86: A Potential Novel Mechanism for Vagus Nerve
           Stimulator-Related Central Sleep Apnea

    • Authors: Inga Forde, Meghna Mansukhani, Bhanu Kolla, Suresh Kotagal
      First page: 86
      Abstract: The treatment of epilepsy with vagus nerve stimulation can inadvertently cause obstructive and central sleep apnea (CSA). The mechanism for CSA seen in patients with a vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) is not fully known. We describe the case of a 13-year-old girl in whom VNS activation induced tachypnea and post-hyperventilation central apnea. Following adjustment of VNS settings, the post-hyperventilation CSA resolved. Polysomnography may assist with management when patients with epilepsy develop sleep disruption after VNS placement.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/children4100086
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 87: Oligoarticular Hemarthroses and Osteomyelitis
           Complicating Pasteurella Meningitis in an Infant

    • Authors: Charles Nessle, Allison Black, Justin Farge, Victoria Statler
      First page: 87
      Abstract: A 5-month-old previously healthy female presented with a one-week history of fever and increased fussiness. Her presentation revealed an ill-appearing infant with an exam and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies concerning bacterial meningitis; CSF cultures grew Pasteurella multocida. Additionally, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated cervical osteomyelitis. Despite multiple days of antibiotic therapy, she remained febrile with continued pain; MRI showed oligoarticular effusions, and aspiration of these joints yielded bloody aspirates. Evaluations for coagulopathy and immune complex-mediated arthropathy were negative. The patient improved following appropriate antibiotic therapy and spontaneous resolution of hemarthroses, and was discharged to a short-term rehabilitation hospital. P. multocida is a small, encapsulated coccobacillus that is part of the commensal oral flora of animals. It most commonly causes skin infections in humans, yet is a rare cause of meningitis in the pediatric population, especially in children <1 year of age. Transmission due to P. multocida is most commonly due to direct contact with animals. To our knowledge, this is the first case of oligoarticular hemarthroses and cervical osteomyelitis complicating P multocida meningitis. This case highlights the physician’s potential for cognitive bias and premature anchoring, and the resulting implications in delivering excellent patient care.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/children4100087
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 88: Factors Associated with Malnutrition among
           Under-Five Children: Illustration using Bangladesh Demographic and Health
           Survey, 2014 Data

    • Authors: Ashis Talukder
      First page: 88
      Abstract: Child malnutrition remains one of the major public health problems in many parts of the world, especially in a developing country like Bangladesh. Several socioeconomic and demographic factors are responsible for this condition. The present study was conducted to uncover the risk factors associated with malnutrition among under-five children in Bangladesh by analyzing the data from a nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) in 2014. The ordinal dependent variable—child nutrition status (severely malnourished, moderately malnourished, and nourished)—was developed by calculating weight-for-age Z score (WAZ). Bivariate analysis was conducted by performing gamma measure and chi-square test of independence to explore the association between child nutrition status and selected independent variables. To know the adjusted effects of covariates, a popular ordinal model—namely, the proportional odds (PO) model—was considered. All the selected covariates were found highly significant (p < 0.01) in the bivariate setup. However, in the multivariate setup, father’s and mother’s education, wealth index, mother’s body mass index (BMI), and antenatal care service during pregnancy were found highly significant (p < 0.01) factors for child malnutrition. Among the divisions, only Dhaka had more control on child malnutrition, compared to the Sylhet division. Birth interval of children was also reported as a significant factor at a 5% level of significance. Finally, the results of this paper strongly highlighted the necessity of increasing parent’s education level, improving the mother’s nutritional status, and increasing facilities providing antenatal care service in order to achieve better nutrition status among under-five children in Bangladesh.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/children4100088
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 89: Is There a Causal Relationship between
           Intussusception and Food Allergy'

    • Authors: Emrah Aydin, Omer Beşer, Esra Ozek, Soner Sazak, Ensar Duras
      First page: 89
      Abstract: Although intussusception and food allergy are common health problems in childhood, the relation between these two diseases remain obscure. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between food allergy and intussusception, and the factors associated with both. Patients diagnosed with intussusception by the Brighton Collaboration Intussusception Working Group criteria were prospectively investigated for food allergy per the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Guideline. They were analyzed per demographic features, clinical, physical and laboratory findings. There were eight (38.1%) patients diagnosed with food allergy, while 13 (61.9%) patients were non-allergic. The mean number of days of presenting symptoms was 1.13 days in the allergy group and 7.85 days in the non-allergy group. The mean number of intussusception attacks was 1.63 in the allergy group while 1 in the non-allergy group (p < 0.05, relative risk (RR) = 2.6). In the allergy group, one (13%) patient was followed up, six (75%) patients were reduced with pneumatic and one (13%) patient reduced manually. In the non-allergy group, four (31%) patients were followed up, six (46%) patients were reduced with pneumotic, one (7%) patient was reduced manually, and resection anastomosis was performed in two (15%) patients. Food allergy is an unrecognized associated factor for intussusception patients, which increases the risk for recurrence. Due to the small patient population, these results should be interpreted with caution.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/children4100089
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 90: Sleep Disturbances in Newborns

    • Authors: Daphna Yasova Barbeau, Michael D. Weiss
      First page: 90
      Abstract: The purpose of this review is to serve as an introduction to understanding sleep in the fetus, the preterm neonate and the term neonate. Sleep appears to have numerous important roles, particularly in the consolidation of new information. The sleep cycle changes over time, neonates spend the most time in active sleep and have a progressive shortening of active sleep and lengthening of quiet sleep. Additionally, the sleep cycle is disrupted by many things including disease state and environment, and the amplitude integrated EEG can be a useful tool in evaluating sleep, and sleep disturbances, in neonates. Finally, there are protective factors for infant sleep that are still being studied.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-10-20
      DOI: 10.3390/children4100090
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 91: Solitary Intra-Osseous Myofibroma of the Jaw:
           A Case Report and Review of Literature

    • Authors: Anita Dhupar, Karla Carvalho, Poonam Sawant, Anita Spadigam, Shaheen Syed
      First page: 91
      Abstract: Myofibroma is a rare benign spindle cell neoplasm in children that usually affects both soft tissue and bone in the head and neck region. Approximately one third of these cases are seen within jaw bones as solitary lesions. Solitary intra-osseous myofibroma of the jaw bone shares its clinical, radiographic and histological features with other spindle cell tumors. The rarity of this lesion can make diagnosis difficult for clinicians and pathologists. We report a case of a solitary intra-osseous myofibroma in the mandible of a nine-year-old child.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-10-24
      DOI: 10.3390/children4100091
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 92: Pediatric Perioperative Pulmonary Arterial
           Hypertension: A Case-Based Primer

    • Authors: Shilpa Shah, Jacqueline Szmuszkovicz
      First page: 92
      Abstract: The perioperative period is an extremely tenuous time for the pediatric patient with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This article will discuss a multidisciplinary approach to preoperative planning, the importance of early identification of pulmonary hypertensive crises, and practical strategies for postoperative management for this unique group of children.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-10-24
      DOI: 10.3390/children4100092
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 1: Environmental Factors Affecting Growth and
           Occurrence of Testicular Cancer in Childhood: An Overview of the Current
           Epidemiological Evidence

    • Authors: Fabrizio Giannandrea, Stefania Fargnoli
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Testicular cancer (TC) is the most frequently occurring malignancy among adolescents and young men aged 15–34 years. Although incidence of TC has been growing over the past 40 years in several western countries, the explanations for this increase still remain uncertain. It has been postulated that early life exposure to numerous occupational and environmental estrogenic chemicals, such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), may play a contributing role in the etiology of TC, but the subject is still open to additional investigation. Recently, it has also been suggested that prenatal and postnatal environmental exposures associated with child growth and development might also be involved in TC progression. This review of current epidemiological studies (2000–2015) aims to identify environmental factors associated with TC, with a particular focus on infancy and childhood factors that could constitute a risk for disease development. It may also contribute towards recognizing gaps in knowledge and recent research requirements for TC, and to point out possible interactions between child growth and development in relation to prenatal and postnatal environmental exposures.
      PubDate: 2017-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/children4010001
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 2: The Development of Urease Inhibitors: What
           Opportunities Exist for Better Treatment of Helicobacter pylori Infection
           in Children?

    • Authors: Sherif Hassan, Miroslava Šudomová
      First page: 2
      Abstract: Stomach infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) causes severe gastroduodenal diseases in a large number of patients worldwide. The H. pylori infection breaks up in early childhood, persists lifelong if not treated, and is associated with chronic gastritis and an increased risk of peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. In recent years, the problem of drug-resistant strains has become a global concern that makes the treatment more complicated and the infection persistent at higher levels when the antibiotic treatment is stopped. Such problems have led to the development of new strategies to eradicate an H. pylori infection. Currently, one of the most important strategies for the treatment of H. pylori infection is the use of urease inhibitors. Despite the fact that large numbers of molecules have been shown to exert potent inhibitory activity against H. pylori urease, most of them were prevented from being used in vivo and in clinical trials due to their hydrolytic instability, toxicity, and appearance of undesirable side effects. Therefore, it is crucial to focus attention on the available opportunities for the development of urease inhibitors with suitable pharmacokinetics, high hydrolytic stability, and free toxicological profiles. In this commentary, we aim to afford an outline on the current status of the use of urease inhibitors in the treatment of an H. pylori infection, and to discuss the possibility of their development as effective drugs in clinical trials.
      PubDate: 2017-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/children4010002
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 3: Impact of a Transition from Respiratory Virus
           Shell Vial to Multiplex PCR on Clinical Outcomes and Cost in Hospitalized

    • Authors: Pui-Ying Iroh Tam, Lei Zhang, Zohara Cohen
      First page: 3
      Abstract: While respiratory virus PCR panel (RVPP) is more expensive than shell vial (SV) cell culture, it has been shown to reduce unnecessary diagnostic procedures, decrease the inappropriate use of antimicrobials, and shorten the hospital length of stay (LOS). We therefore hypothesized that, for hospitalized children, RVPP would be associated with improved clinical outcomes but higher hospital charges than SV cell culture. We performed a retrospective cohort study of hospitalized children. Multivariate analysis was performed, and p-values were calculated. Respiratory virus testing was collected in a total of 1625 inpatient encounters, of which 156 were tested positive by RVPP (57.7%) and 112 were tested positive by SV (11.1%, p < 0.05). Excluding human rhinovirus (HRV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) from the analysis, patients with a positive test from SV had more comorbidities (p = 0.04) and higher mortality (p = 0.008). Patients with a positive test from RVPP had shorter LOS (p = 0.0503). Hospital charges for patients with a positive test from RVPP were lower, but not significantly so. When a multivariate analysis was performed, there were no statistically significant differences in comorbidities, mortality, LOS, or median hospital charges between those patients with a positive SV and those with a positive RVPP. Although testing with RVPP significantly increased the detection of respiratory viruses, clinical outcomes remained comparable to those tested with SV, however RVPP was found to not be associated with higher long-term hospital costs.
      PubDate: 2017-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/children4010003
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 4: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Children in

    • Authors: Children Editorial Office
      First page: 4
      Abstract: The editors of Children would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers  for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...]
      PubDate: 2017-01-13
      DOI: 10.3390/children4010004
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 5: Body Weight Status and Dietary Intakes of Urban
           Malay Primary School Children: Evidence from the Family Diet Study

    • Authors: Wai Yang, Tracy Burrows, Lesley MacDonald-Wicks, Lauren Williams, Clare Collins, Winnie Chee, Kim Colyvas
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Malaysia is experiencing a rise in the prevalence of childhood obesity. Evidence for the relationship between dietary intake and body weight among Malaysian children is limited, with the impact of energy intake misreporting rarely being considered. This paper describes the dietary intakes of urban Malay children in comparison to national recommendations and by weight status. This cross-sectional Family Diet Study (n = 236) was conducted in five national primary schools in Malaysia (August 2013–October 2014). Data on socio-demographics, anthropometrics, 24-h dietary recalls, and food habits were collected from Malay families, consisting of a child aged 8 to 12 years and their main caregiver(s). Multivariable analyses were used to assess dietary intake-body weight relationships. The plausibility of energy intake was determined using the Black and Cole method. Approximately three in 10 Malay children were found to be overweight or obese. The majority reported dietary intakes less than national recommendations. Children with obesity had the lowest energy intakes relative to body weight (kcal/kg) compared to children in other weight categories (F = 36.21, p < 0.001). A positive moderate correlation between energy intake and weight status was identified (r = 0.53, p < 0.001) after excluding energy intake mis-reporters (n = 95), highlighting the need for the validation of dietary assessment in obesity-related dietary research in Malaysia.
      PubDate: 2017-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/children4010005
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 6: Pediatric Exercise Testing: Value and
           Implications of Peak Oxygen Uptake

    • Authors: Paolo Pianosi, Robert Liem, Robert McMurray, Frank Cerny, Bareket Falk, Han Kemper
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Peak oxygen uptake (peak V ˙ O 2 ) measured by clinical exercise testing is the benchmark for aerobic fitness. Aerobic fitness, estimated from maximal treadmill exercise, is a predictor of mortality in adults. Peak V ˙ O 2 was shown to predict longevity in patients aged 7–35 years with cystic fibrosis over 25 years ago. A surge of exercise studies in young adults with congenital heart disease over the past decade has revealed significant prognostic information. Three years ago, the first clinical trial in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension used peak V ˙ O 2 as an endpoint that likewise delivered clinically relevant data. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing provides clinicians with biomarkers and clinical outcomes, and researchers with novel insights into fundamental biological mechanisms reflecting an integrated physiological response hidden at rest. Momentum from these pioneering observations in multiple disease states should impel clinicians to employ similar methods in other patient populations; e.g., sickle cell disease. Advances in pediatric exercise science will elucidate new pathways that may identify novel biomarkers. Our initial aim of this essay is to highlight the clinical relevance of exercise testing to determine peak V ˙ O 2 , and thereby convince clinicians of its merit, stimulating future clinical investigators to broaden the application of exercise testing in pediatrics.
      PubDate: 2017-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/children4010006
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 7: Time to Consider Moving Beyond Exclusive
           Breastfeeding in Southern Africa

    • Authors: Janet Wojcicki
      First page: 7
      Abstract: While there have been considerable advances in the reduction of mother to child transmission of HIV (MTCT) in sub-Saharan Africa with the advance of anti-retroviral therapies (ART), there remain challenges in the late postpartum period.  Structural issues including food insecurity and stigma make better maternal ART adherence and exclusive breastfeeding unreachable for some women. There are no other scientifically researched feeding options as there have been few studies on different types of mixed feeding practices and risk of HIV infection. Additional studies are warranted to assess detailed feeding practices in HIV exposed infants in relation to clinical outcomes.
      PubDate: 2017-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/children4010007
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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