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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1301 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (19 journals)
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    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (530 journals)
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HEALTH AND SAFETY (530 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 230)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access  
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Notions     Open Access  
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Healthy-Mu Journal     Open Access  
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Children
  [2 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2227-9067
   Published by MDPI Homepage  [157 journals]
  • Children, Vol. 5, Pages 6: The Effect of Detectable HIV Viral Load among
           HIV-Infected Children during Antiretroviral Treatment: A Cross-Sectional

    • Authors: Visal Moolasart, Suthat Chottanapund, Jarurnsook Ausavapipit, Sirirat Likanonsakul, Sumonmal Uttayamakul, Don Changsom, Hatairat Lerdsamran, Pilaipan Puthavathana
      First page: 6
      Abstract: The RNA viral load of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is initially used to determine the status of the HIV infection. The goal of therapy following treatment failure is to achieve and maintain virologic suppression. A detectable viral load may relate to the progression of HIV infection. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 2013 to December 2014 at the Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Institute, Thailand. The aim was to determine the prevalence of detectable HIV viral load (dVL) and analyze the factors associated with post-dVL conditions that occur independently of a switch to a new antiretroviral agent. The prevalence of dVL was 27% (27 of 101). The mean ages of dVL and non-dVL children were 12.0 and 12.3 years, respectively. Age, sex, body mass index for age z-scores, previous tuberculosis disease history and parental tuberculosis history of both groups were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The prevalence of poor adherence (<95%), influenza-like illness (ILI) and opportunistic infections were higher in dVL than non-dVL children (p < 0.05). The mean nadir CD4 cell count during the study was lower in dVL than non-dVL children (646 compared to 867, respectively; p < 0.05). Other factors were not significant (all p > 0.05). In multivariable analysis, dVL was significantly associated with ILI (odds ratio (OR) = 9.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3–69.4), adherence (OR = 0.195, 95% CI = 0.047–0.811) and nadir CD4 during the study (OR = 1.102, 95% CI = 1.100–1.305). The prevalence of dVL was 27% with this dVL among HIV-infected children found to be associated with ILI, poor adherence and lower nadir CD4 during the study.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.3390/children5010006
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2018)
  • Children, Vol. 5, Pages 7: Use of Pleuroperitoneal Shunt in Chylothorax
           Related to Central Line Associated Thrombosis in Sickle Cell Disease

    • Authors: Elizabeth Spiwak, Chad Wiesenauer, Arun Panigrahi, Ashok Raj
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Central vein thrombosis as a cause of chylothorax is uncommon, and in a few cases in the literature was related to thrombotic complications of central venous access devices (CVAD). Superior vena cava (SVC) occlusion-induced chylothorax has been described in adult sickle cell disease (SCD) in a setting of chronic indwelling CVAD. There are limited reports on chylothorax induced by central venous thrombosis secondary to chronic CVAD in children with SCD. We describe an 8-year-old male patient, with a history of SCD, maintained on long term erythrocytapheresis for primary prevention of stroke, and whose clinical course was complicated by chylothorax which was successfully treated with a pleuroperitoneal shunt.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2018-01-02
      DOI: 10.3390/children5010007
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2018)
  • Children, Vol. 5, Pages 8: Factors Associated with Not Breastfeeding and
           Delaying the Early Initiation of Breastfeeding in Mecca Region, Saudi

    • Authors: Firas Azzeh, Awfa Alazzeh, Haifa Hijazi, Haneen Wazzan, Monya Jawharji, Abdelelah Jazar, Amira Filimban, Ali Alshamrani, Mai Labani, Taghreed Hasanain, Ahmad Obeidat
      First page: 8
      Abstract: The objective of the study was to find the determinants related to not breastfeeding (BF) and others related to the delay in the early initiation of BF in the Mecca region, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study in the Maternity and Children Hospital and primary healthcare centers was performed. A questionnaire was filled by dietitians to 814 asymptomatic Saudi mothers. Determinants related to not BF and the delay in the early initiation of BF were determined by binary logistic regression, and the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were determined. Significant factors associated with not BF were not rooming-in infants in the mother’s room (OR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.66–3.41) and using a pacifier (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.13–2.33). The most significant determinant of the early initiation of BF was the initiation of bottle feeding (OR: 18.16; 95% CI: 10.51–31.4), followed by not rooming-in infants in the mother’s room (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.52–3.18), initiation of partial feeding (OR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.3–2.74), uninformed mothers regarding the importance of BF (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.04–2.35), and cesarean sections (OR:1.42; 95% CI: 1.02–1.98). Risk factors affecting BF and the early initiation of BF in Mecca City should be highlighted in national campaigns to increase mothers’ awareness and promote BF practice.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2018-01-03
      DOI: 10.3390/children5010008
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2018)
  • Children, Vol. 5, Pages 9: A Retrospective Review of Resuscitation
           Planning at a Children’s Hospital

    • Authors: Jean Kelly, Jo Ritchie, Leigh Donovan, Carol Graham, Anthony Herbert
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Resuscitation plans (RP) are an important clinical indicator relating to care at the end of life in paediatrics. A retrospective review of the medical records of children who had been referred to the Royal Children’s Hospital, Brisbane, Australia who died in the calendar year 2011 was performed. Of 62 records available, 40 patients (65%) had a life limiting condition and 43 medical records (69%) contained a documented RP. This study demonstrated that both the underlying condition (life-limiting or life-threatening) and the setting of care (Pediatric Intensive Care Unit or home) influenced the development of resuscitation plans. Patients referred to the paediatric palliative care (PPC) service had a significantly longer time interval from documentation of a resuscitation plan to death and were more likely to die at home. All of the patients who died in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) had a RP that was documented within the last 48 h of life. Most RPs were not easy to locate. Documentation of discussions related to resuscitation planning should accommodate patient and family centered care based on individual needs. With varied diagnoses and settings of care, it is important that there is inter-professional collaboration, particularly involving PICU and PPC services, in developing protocols of how to manage this difficult but inevitable clinical scenario.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2018-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/children5010009
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2018)
  • Children, Vol. 5, Pages 10: Esophageal Web in a Down Syndrome
           Infant—A Rare Case Report

    • Authors: Nirmala Thomas, Roy Mukkada, Muhammed Abdul Jalal, Nisha Narayanankutty
      First page: 10
      Abstract: We describe the rare case of an infant with trisomy 21 who presented with recurrent vomiting and aspiration pneumonia and a failure to thrive. Infants with Down’s syndrome have been known to have various problems in the gastrointestinal tract. In the esophagus, what have been described are dysmotility, gastroesophageal reflux and strictures. This infant on evaluation was found to have an esophageal web and simple endoscopic dilatation relieved the infant of her symptoms. No similar case has been reported in literature.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2018-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/children5010010
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2018)
  • Children, Vol. 5, Pages 1: Feeding Intolerance in Children with Severe
           Impairment of the Central Nervous System: Strategies for Treatment and

    • Authors: Julie Hauer
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Children with severe impairment of the central nervous system (CNS) experience gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms at a high rate and severity, including retching, vomiting, GI tract pain, and feeding intolerance. Commonly recognized sources of symptoms include constipation and gastroesophageal reflux disease. There is growing awareness of sources due to the impaired nervous system, including visceral hyperalgesia due to sensitization of sensory neurons in the enteric nervous system and central neuropathic pain due to alterations in the thalamus. Challenging the management of these symptoms is the lack of tests to confirm alterations in the nervous system as a cause of symptom generation, requiring empirical trials directed at such sources. It is also common to have multiple reasons for the observed symptoms, further challenging management. Recurrent emesis and GI tract pain can often be improved, though in some not completely eliminated. In some, this can progress to intractable feeding intolerance. This comprehensive review provides an evidence-based approach to care, a framework for recurrent symptoms, and language strategies when symptoms remain intractable to available interventions. This summary is intended to balance optimal management with a sensitive palliative care approach to persistent GI symptoms in children with severe impairment of the CNS.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-12-22
      DOI: 10.3390/children5010001
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 5, Pages 2: Enhancing Pediatric Palliative Care for Latino
           Children and Their Families: A Review of the Literature and
           Recommendations for Research and Practice in the United States

    • Authors: Sara Muñoz-Blanco, Jessica Raisanen, Pamela Donohue, Renee Boss
      First page: 2
      Abstract: As the demand for pediatric palliative care (PC) increases, data suggest that Latino children are less likely to receive services than non-Latino children. Evidence on how to best provide PC to Latino children is sparse. We conducted a narrative review of literature related to PC for Latino children and their families in the United States. In the United States, Latinos face multiple barriers that affect their receipt of PC, including poverty, lack of access to health insurance, language barriers, discrimination, and cultural differences. Pediatric PC research and clinical initiatives that target the needs of Latino families are sparse, underfunded, but essential. Education of providers on Latino cultural values is necessary. Additionally, advocacy efforts with a focus on equitable care and policy reform are essential to improving the health of this vulnerable population.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-12-22
      DOI: 10.3390/children5010002
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 5, Pages 3: Devices for Ambulatory Monitoring of
           Sleep-Associated Disorders in Children with Neurological Diseases

    • Authors: Adriana Ulate-Campos, Melissa Tsuboyama, Tobias Loddenkemper
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Good sleep quality is essential for a child’s wellbeing. Early sleep problems have been linked to the later development of emotional and behavioral disorders and can negatively impact the quality of life of the child and his or her family. Sleep-associated conditions are frequent in the pediatric population, and even more so in children with neurological problems. Monitoring devices can help to better characterize sleep efficiency and sleep quality. They can also be helpful to better characterize paroxysmal nocturnal events and differentiate between nocturnal seizures, parasomnias, and obstructive sleep apnea, each of which has a different management. Overnight ambulatory detection devices allow for a tolerable, low cost, objective assessment of sleep quality in the patient’s natural environment. They can also be used as a notification system to allow for rapid recognition and prompt intervention of events like seizures. Optimal monitoring devices will be patient- and diagnosis-specific, but may include a combination of modalities such as ambulatory electroencephalograms, actigraphy, and pulse oximetry. We will summarize the current literature on ambulatory sleep devices for detecting sleep disorders in children with neurological diseases.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-12-25
      DOI: 10.3390/children5010003
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 5, Pages 4: Pediatric Hypothermic Submersion Injury and
           Protective Factors Associated with Optimal Outcome: A Case Report and
           Literature Review

    • Authors: Daniel Kriz, Juan Piantino, Devin Fields, Cydni Williams
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Drowning is the 3rd leading cause of unintentional injury death worldwide, with the highest rates of fatality among young children. Submersion injuries with cardiac arrest can lead to long-term neurologic morbidity. Severe hypothermic submersion injuries have complex treatment courses and survivors have variable neurocognitive outcomes. We describe the course of a hypothermic submersion injury in a 6-year-old previously healthy boy. The description includes premorbid and post-injury neurocognitive functioning. A review of the literature of pediatric cold-water submersion injury was performed. Despite prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation (>100 min) and water temperature well above freezing, our patient had an optimal neurocognitive outcome following hypothermic submersion injury. Available literature is limited but suggests that increased submersion time, increased duration of resuscitation, and higher water temperatures are associated with worse outcomes. Care guidelines have been created, but outcomes related to these guidelines have not been studied. Our case highlights potential important determinants of outcome after drowning. Incident specific characteristics and therapeutic interventions should be considered when evaluating this population. Treatment guidelines based on currently available literature may fail to incorporate all potential variables, and consideration should be given to prolonged resuscitative efforts based on individual case characteristics until further data is available.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-12-27
      DOI: 10.3390/children5010004
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 5, Pages 5: Role of RDW in Prediction of Burn after Caustic
           Substance Ingestion

    • Authors: Emrah Aydin, Omer Beser, Soner Sazak, Ensar Duras
      First page: 5
      Abstract: A quantifiable, quick, inexpensive and reproducible predictor is needed to decide if caustic substance ingestion results in burn regardless of the symptoms. A multicenter cohort study was conducted to investigate the predictive value of red cell distribution width (RDW) in detecting the esophageal burns. The data of 174 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Eleven patients were excluded due to inability to define the substance ingested. Complete blood count (CBC) was taken at admission, and an esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed within the first 12–24 h in all patients, regardless of their symptoms. The age and gender of the patients, the types of substances ingested, the parameters in the CBC and the severity of the esophageal injury were correlated. Esophageal burns were diagnosed in 38 of 163 patients (23.3%). The risk of esophageal burn with RDW values below 12.20 was significantly lower. Multivariate analysis showed that RDW was the most significant predictor of esophageal burn (p = 0.000, odds ratio (OR) 7.74 (95% confidence interval (CI), 3.02–19.9)). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis demonstrated 84.2% sensitivity at a cut-off value of 12.20 for RDW. The results showed that CBC parameters could avoid unnecessary esophagogastroduodenoscopy. The RDW values regardless of the symptomatology is a good predictor of esophageal burns, and an RDW value over 12.20 shows the increased risk of esophageal burn.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-12-29
      DOI: 10.3390/children5010005
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 75: Diagnostic Approach to Pulmonary Hypertension
           in Premature Neonates

    • Authors: Vasantha Kumar
      First page: 75
      Abstract: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a form of chronic lung disease in premature infants following respiratory distress at birth. With increasing survival of extremely low birth weight infants, alveolar simplification is the defining lung characteristic of infants with BPD, and along with pulmonary hypertension, increasingly contributes to both respiratory morbidity and mortality in these infants. Growth restricted infants, infants born to mothers with oligohydramnios or following prolonged preterm rupture of membranes are at particular risk for early onset pulmonary hypertension. Altered vascular and alveolar growth particularly in canalicular and early saccular stages of lung development following mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy, results in developmental lung arrest leading to BPD with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Early recognition of PH in infants with risk factors is important for optimal management of these infants. Screening tools for early diagnosis of PH are evolving; however, echocardiography is the mainstay for non-invasive diagnosis of PH in infants. Cardiac computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance are being used as imaging modalities, however their role in improving outcomes in these patients is uncertain. Follow-up of infants at risk for PH will help not only in early diagnosis, but also in appropriate management of these infants. Aggressive management of lung disease, avoidance of hypoxemic episodes, and optimal nutrition determine the progression of PH, as epigenetic factors may have significant effects, particularly in growth-restricted infants. Infants with diagnosis of PH are managed with pulmonary vasodilators and those resistant to therapy need to be worked up for the presence of cardio-vascular anomalies. The management of infants and toddlers with PH, especially following premature birth is an emerging field. Nonetheless, combination therapies in a multi-disciplinary setting improves outcomes for these infants.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-24
      DOI: 10.3390/children4090075
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 9 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 76: Mind-Body Medicine in Pediatrics

    • Authors: Hilary McClafferty
      First page: 76
      Abstract: The primary goals of this Special Issue are to encourage readers to become more familiar with the range of mind-body therapies and to explore their application in the pediatric clinical setting. The Special Issue includes a deliberate mix of case studies and practical clinical guidance, with the dual goals of piquing curiosity and providing resources for clinicians interested in pursuing further training
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-25
      DOI: 10.3390/children4090076
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 9 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 77: Sleep Disorders in a Sample of Adopted
           Children: A Pilot Study

    • Authors: Meghna Rajaprakash, Elizabeth Kerr, Benita Friedlander, Shelly Weiss
      First page: 77
      Abstract: Sleep disorders occur in up to 25% of children and are more prevalent in children who have attention problems and attachment issues. Research shows that foster children display sleep problems, but limited knowledge exists on sleep problems in adopted children. This pilot study aimed to identify the types of sleep disorders in adopted children and associated psychosocial factors. Parents of adopted children in Ontario, Canada, ages 2–10 years were asked to complete questionnaires evaluating demographic measures, sleep history, and the presence of behavioral problems. Insomnias and parasomnias were reported in adopted children and were associated with attention problems. This pilot study emphasizes the need for further research on the underlying factors governing the relationship between poor sleep and behavioral problems in adopted children.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/children4090077
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 9 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 78: Experiences of Parent Peer Nutrition Educators
           Sharing Child Feeding and Nutrition Information

    • Authors: Richard Ball, Kerith Duncanson, Tracy Burrows, Clare Collins
      First page: 78
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of parents as peer educators disseminating nutrition and child feeding information. Parents of infants aged from birth to three years were trained as peer educators in a face-to-face workshop, and then shared evidence-based child feeding and nutrition information via Facebook, email, and printed resources for six months to peers, family, and social media contacts. Semi-structured telephone or group interviews were conducted after a six-month online and face-to-face peer nutrition intervention period investigating peer educator experiences, barriers, enablers of information dissemination, and the acceptability of the peer educator model. Transcripts from interviews were independently coded by two researchers and thematically analysed. Twenty-eight participants completed the study and were assigned to either group or individual interviews. The cohort consenting to the study were predominantly female, aged between 25 and 34 years, non-indigenous, tertiary educated, and employed or on maternity leave. Dominant themes to emerge from the interviews included that the information was trustworthy, child feeding practice information was considered most helpful, newer parents were the most receptive and family members the least receptive to child feeding and nutrition information, and sharing and receiving information verbally and via social media were preferred over print and email. In conclusion, parents reported positive experiences as peer nutrition educators, and considered it acceptable for sharing evidence-based nutrition information. Further research may determine the impact on diet quality and the food-related behaviours of babies and young children on a population level.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/children4090078
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 9 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 79: Assessment of Initial Vancomycin Dosing in
           Pediatric Oncology Patients

    • Authors: Hillary Orr, Deni Trone, Joshua Elder, Ashok Raj
      First page: 79
      Abstract: This was a retrospective audit assessing vancomycin dosing of 60 mg/kg/day in the attainment of therapeutic concentrations between 10–20 mcg/mL among 56 pediatric oncology patients. Twelve patients (21%) achieved therapeutic concentrations of 10–20 mcg/mL, while 44 patients (79%) obtained trough levels below 10 mcg/mL despite the addition of nephrotoxic agents.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-28
      DOI: 10.3390/children4090079
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 9 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 80: Vitamin D Deficiency: A Potential Modifiable
           Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease in Children with Severe Obesity

    • Authors: Anoop Iqbal, Amanda Dahl, Aida Lteif, Seema Kumar
      First page: 80
      Abstract: Severe obesity is associated with abnormal lipids and increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Obesity is a risk factor for vitamin D deficiency. We examined relationship between 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and lipids in children with severe obesity. Medical records of 376 children were reviewed. Linear regression models and logistic regression were used to examine the relationship between 25(OH)D and lipids after adjustment for age, gender, season of blood draw, body mass index (BMI) z-score, and BMI % of 95th percentile. Two-hundred sixty-three out of 376 children (70%) had 25(OH)D concentrations < 30 ng/mL. Concentrations of 25(OH)D were positively correlated with those of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (r2 = 0.08, r = 0.22, β = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.05–0.27, p = 0.004). HDL-C was lower in children with 25(OH)D < 30 ng/mL (n = 263) compared to those with 25(OH)D ≥ 30 ng/mL (n = 113) (41.3 ± 10.2 vs. 46.4 ± 12 mg/dL, p < 0.0001). Children with 25(OH)D concentrations < 30 ng/mL had greater adjusted odds of low HDL-C (<40 mg/dL) compared with those with 25(OH)D ≥ 30 ng/mL (47.9% vs. 29.2%, OR 2.15 (1.33–3.51), p = 0.0019). Total cholesterol and non-HDL-C were not correlated with 25(OH)D concentrations. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in children with severe obesity. Prospective clinical trials are warranted to determine if vitamin D supplementation can improve HDL-C and potentially decrease risk for cardiovascular disease in children with obesity.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-28
      DOI: 10.3390/children4090080
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 9 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 81: Fever in Children: Pearls and Pitfalls

    • Authors: Egidio Barbi, Pierluigi Marzuillo, Elena Neri, Samuele Naviglio, Baruch Krauss
      First page: 81
      Abstract: Fever in children is a common concern for parents and one of the most frequent presenting complaints in emergency department visits, often involving non-pediatric emergency physicians. Although the incidence of serious infections has decreased after the introduction of conjugate vaccines, fever remains a major cause of laboratory investigation and hospital admissions. Furthermore, antipyretics are the most common medications administered to children. We review the epidemiology and measurement of fever, the meaning of fever and associated clinical signs in children of different ages and under special conditions, including fever in children with cognitive impairment, recurrent fevers, and fever of unknown origin. While the majority of febrile children have mild, self-resolving viral illness, a minority may be at risk of life-threatening infections. Clinical assessment differs markedly from adult patients. Hands-off evaluation is paramount for a correct evaluation of breathing, circulation and level of interaction. Laboratory markers and clinical prediction rules provide limited help in identifying children at risk for serious infections; however, clinical examination, prudent utilization of laboratory tests, and post-discharge guidance (“safety netting”) remain the cornerstone of safe management of febrile children.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.3390/children4090081
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 9 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 82: Sleep Disorders in Childhood Neurogenetic

    • Authors: Laura Dosier, Bradley Vaughn, Zheng Fan
      First page: 82
      Abstract: Genetic advances in the past three decades have transformed our understanding and treatment of many human diseases including neurogenetic disorders. Most neurogenetic disorders can be classified as “rare disease,” but collectively neurogenetic disorders are not rare and are commonly encountered in general pediatric practice. The authors decided to select eight relatively well-known neurogenetic disorders including Down syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Prader–Willi syndrome, Smith–Magenis syndrome, congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, achondroplasia, mucopolysaccharidoses, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Each disorder is presented in the following format: overview, clinical characteristics, developmental aspects, associated sleep disorders, management and research/future directions.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-09-12
      DOI: 10.3390/children4090082
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 9 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 83: If You Build It, They Will Come: Initial
           Experience with a Multi-Disciplinary Pediatric Neurocritical Care
           Follow-Up Clinic

    • Authors: Cydni Williams, Aileen Kirby, Juan Piantino
      First page: 83
      Abstract: Pediatric Neurocritical Care diagnoses account for a large proportion of intensive care admissions. Critical care survivors suffer high rates of long-term morbidity, including physical disability, cognitive impairment, and psychosocial dysfunction. To address these morbidities in Pediatric Neurocritical Care survivors, collaboration between Pediatric Neurology and Pediatric Critical Care created a multidisciplinary follow-up clinic providing specialized evaluations after discharge. Clinic referrals apply to all Pediatric Neurocritical Care patients regardless of admission severity of illness. Here, we report an initial case series, which revealed a population that is heterogenous in age, ranging from 1 month to 18 years, and in diagnoses. Traumatic brain injuries of varying severity as well as neuroinfectious and inflammatory diseases accounted for the majority of referrals. Most patients (87%) seen in the clinic had morbidities identified, requiring ongoing evaluation and expansion of the clinic. Cognitive and psychological disturbance were seen in over half of patients at the initial clinic follow-up. Sleep disturbances, daytime fatigue, headache or chronic pain, and vision or hearing concerns were also common at initial follow-up. Data from this initial population of clinic patients reiterates the need for specialized follow-up care, but also highlights the difficulties related to providing this comprehensive care and evaluating interventions to improve outcomes.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-09-19
      DOI: 10.3390/children4090083
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 9 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 61: Influence of Socioeconomic Status on Knowledge
           of Obesity and Diabetes among Adolescents in Chennai, South India

    • Authors: Pranati Panuganti, T.S. Mehreen, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Viswanathan Mohan, E. Mayer-Davis, Harish Ranjani
      First page: 61
      Abstract: The Obesity Reduction and Awareness of Non-communicable disease through Group Education (ORANGE) Phase II program, is a school-based intervention aimed at healthy lifestyle practices for sixth and seventh grade adolescents (n = 2345) attending private (n = 1811) and government (n = 534) schools in Chennai. The objectives of this paper are (a) to describe the intervention activities and their outcomes qualitatively and (b) to report changes in body mass index (BMI) of the intervention group participants. This intervention strategy used a teacher-peer-training model in each school for long-term sustainability of the lessons learned from this program. During each intervention session, teachers led a classroom discussion on the health topic of interest, and peers facilitated small-group learning activities. Anthropometric measurements of participants were assessed pre- and post-intervention. We found government school students perceived hygienic actions (e.g., drinking clean water, taking baths daily) as healthy habits for preventing diabetes, whereas private school students associated an expensive lifestyle (e.g., eating at restaurants, riding a car) with diabetes prevention. Overall, the mean post-intervention BMI (18.3 kg/m2) was in the normal range compared to the pre-intervention BMI (17.7 kg/m2) (p < 0.0001). These results suggest that future interventions should be tailored for adolescents from different socio-economic groups while acknowledging their varied perceptions.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/children4080061
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 62: DSM-5 Changes in Attention Deficit
           Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for
           Comorbid Sleep Issues

    • Authors: Ujjwal Ramtekkar
      First page: 62
      Abstract: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are the most common neurodevelopmental disorders. Despite significant comorbidity, the previous diagnostic criteria prohibited the simultaneous diagnosis of both disorders. Sleep problems are highly prevalent in both disorders; however, these have been studied independently for ADHD and ASD. In the context of revised criteria in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition (DSM-5) that allows combined diagnosis of ADHD and ASD, this short review presents an overview of relationship between sleep problems, ADHD and ASD, as well as conceptualizing the shared pathophysiology. The practical considerations for clinical management of sleep problems in combination with ADHD and ASD are also discussed.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/children4080062
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 63: Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension in the

    • Authors: Bobby Mathew, Satyan Lakshminrusimha
      First page: 63
      Abstract: Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a syndrome of failed circulatory adaptation at birth due to delay or impairment in the normal fall in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) that occurs following birth. The fetus is in a state of physiological pulmonary hypertension. In utero, the fetus receives oxygenated blood from the placenta through the umbilical vein. At birth, following initiation of respiration, there is a sudden precipitous fall in the PVR and an increase of systemic vascular resistance (SVR) due to the removal of the placenta from circulation. There is dramatic increase in pulmonary blood flow with a decrease in, and later reversal of shunts at the foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus. The failure of this normal physiological pulmonary transition leads to the syndrome of PPHN. PPHN presents with varying degrees of hypoxemic respiratory failure. Survival of infants with PPHN has significantly improved with the use of gentle ventilation, surfactant and inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). PPHN is associated with significant mortality and morbidity among survivors. Newer agents that target different enzymatic pathways in the vascular smooth muscle are in different stages of development and testing. Further research using these agents is likely to further reduce morbidity and mortality associated with PPHN.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/children4080063
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 64: Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke as Amusement
           Park Injury: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    • Authors: Abby Baumgartle, Laura Wolfe, Vinay Puri, Karen Moeller, Salvatore Bertolone, Ashok Raj
      First page: 64
      Abstract: Strokes as amusement park injuries are rare, but have been reported in the literature. Only about 20 cases of cerebrovascular accidents after amusement park visits have been described. We report a healthy 12-year-old boy who presented with facial droop, slurred speech, and inability to use his right arm after riding roller coasters at a local amusement park. He was evaluated and found to have a left middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction. The patient was treated with anticoagulants and has recovered with no major residual symptoms. It is likely that his neurological symptoms occurred due to the high head accelerations experienced on the roller coasters, which are more detrimental to children due to immature cervical spine development and muscle strength. Early diagnosis of dissection and stroke results in a favorable prognosis. Providers and parents should be aware of the potential risk of roller coasters and act quickly on neurologic changes in children that have recently been to an amusement park.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/children4080064
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 65: Trending Longitudinal Agreement between Parent
           and Child Perceptions of Quality of Life for Pediatric Palliative Care

    • Authors: Meaghann Weaver, Cheryl Darnall, Sue Bace, Catherine Vail, Andrew MacFadyen, Christopher Wichman
      First page: 65
      Abstract: Pediatric palliative care studies often rely on proxy-reported instead of direct child-reported quality of life metrics. The purpose of this study was to longitudinally evaluate quality of life for pediatric patients receiving palliative care consultations and to compare patient-reported quality of life with parent perception of the child’s quality of life across wellness domains. The 23-item PedsQL™ V4.0 Measurement Model was utilized for ten child and parent dyads at time of initial palliative care consultation, Month 6, and Month 12 to assess for physical, emotional, social, and cognitive dimensions of quality of life as reported independently by the child and by the parent for the child. Findings were analyzed using Bland–Altman plots to compare observed differences to limits of agreement. This study revealed overall consistency between parent- and child-reported quality of life across domains. Physical health was noted to be in closest agreement. At the time of initial palliative care consult, children collectively scored their social quality of life higher than parental perception of the child’s social quality of life; whereas, emotional and cognitive quality of life domains were scored lower by children than by the parental report. At the one year survey time point, the physical, emotional, and social domains trended toward more positive patient perception than proxy perception with congruence between quality of life scores for the cognitive domain. Findings reveal the importance of eliciting a child report in addition to a parent report when measuring and longitudinally trending perceptions on quality of life.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/children4080065
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 66: Gut–Liver Axis Derangement in
           Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    • Authors: Marco Poeta, Luca Pierri, Pietro Vajro
      First page: 66
      Abstract: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent type of chronic liver disease in the pediatric age group, paralleling an obesity pandemic. A “multiple-hit” hypothesis has been invoked to explain its pathogenesis. The “first hit” is liver lipid accumulation in obese children with insulin resistance. In the absence of significant lifestyle modifications leading to weight loss and increased physical activity, other factors may act as “second hits” implicated in liver damage progression leading to more severe forms of inflammation and hepatic fibrosis. In this regard, the gut–liver axis (GLA) seems to play a central role. Principal players are the gut microbiota, its bacterial products, and the intestinal barrier. A derangement of GLA (namely, dysbiosis and altered intestinal permeability) may promote bacteria/bacterial product translocation into portal circulation, activation of inflammation via toll-like receptors signaling in hepatocytes, and progression from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH). Among other factors a relevant role has been attributed to the farnesoid X receptor, a nuclear transcriptional factor activated from bile acids chemically modified by gut microbiota (GM) enzymes. The individuation and elucidation of GLA derangement in NAFLD pathomechanisms is of interest at all ages and especially in pediatrics to identify new therapeutic approaches in patients recalcitrant to lifestyle changes. Specific targeting of gut microbiota via pre-/probiotic supplementation, feces transplantation, and farnesoid X receptor modulation appear promising.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/children4080066
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 67: The Fetus Can Teach Us: Oxygen and the
           Pulmonary Vasculature

    • Authors: Payam Vali, Satyan Lakshminrusimha
      First page: 67
      Abstract: Neonates suffering from pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) continue to represent an important proportion of patients requiring intensive neonatal care, and have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The human fetus has evolved to maintain a high pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in utero to allow the majority of the fetal circulation to bypass the lungs, which do not participate in gas exchange, towards the low resistance placenta. At birth, oxygen plays a major role in decreasing PVR to enhance pulmonary blood flow and establish the lungs as the organ of gas exchange. The failure of PVR to fall following birth results in PPHN, and oxygen remains the mainstay therapeutic intervention in the management of PPHN. Knowledge gaps on what constitutes the optimal oxygenation target leads to a wide variation in practices, and often leads to excessive oxygen use. Owing to the risk of oxygen toxicity, avoiding hyperoxemia is as important as avoiding hypoxemia in the management of PPHN. Current evidence supports maintaining arterial oxygen tension in the range of 50–80 mm Hg, and oxygen saturation between 90–97% in term infants with hypoxemic respiratory failure. Clinical studies evaluating the optimal oxygenation in the treatment of PPHN will be enthusiastically awaited.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/children4080067
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 68: Key Challenges in the Search for Innovative
           Drug Treatments for Special Populations. Converging Needs in Neonatology,
           Pediatrics, and Medical Genetics

    • Authors: Stuart MacLeod
      First page: 68
      Abstract: The explosion of knowledge concerning the interplay of genetic and environmental factors determining pathophysiology and guiding therapeutic choice has altered the landscape in pediatric clinical pharmacology and pharmacy. The need for innovative research methods and design expertise for small clinical trials to be undertaken in sparse populations has been accentuated. At the same time, shortfalls in critical human resources represent a key challenge, especially in low- and middle-income countries where the need for new research and education directions is greatest. Unless a specific action plan is urgently developed, there will be a continuing gap in availability of the essential expertise needed to address treatment challenges in special patient populations such as neonates, patients suffering from rare or neglected diseases, and children of all ages.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/children4080068
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 69: Trends in Food and Beverage Portion Sizes in
           Australian Children; a Time-Series Analysis Comparing 2007 and 2011–2012
           National Data

    • Authors: Daphne van der Bend, Tamara Bucher, Tracy Schumacher, Kate Collins, Nienke De Vlieger, Megan Rollo, Tracy Burrows, Jane Watson, Clare Collins
      First page: 69
      Abstract: In 2011–2012 approximately 26% of Australian children aged between 5–17 years were reported to be overweight or obese. Furthermore, the increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children parallels reported increases in energy intake and portion sizes of common foods, leading to the recognition that availability of larger portion sizes contributes to the rise in overweight and obesity prevalence. Thus, the aim of this time-series analysis was to investigate whether selected food portion sizes in Australian children aged 2–16 years changed between 2007 and 2011–2012. Portion size data from 24-h recalls collected in Australian nutrition surveys were compared between 2007 and 2011–2012. Portion sizes changed significantly in 23% of items with increases in 15% and decreases in 8%. Changes in portion sizes varied by age, sex, and food group. Changes occurred for many meat-based items, energy-dense, nutrient-poor food items, breads, cereals, and some fruits and vegetables. Vegetable and fruit portion sizes were below the respective serving sizes of 75 g and 150 g in the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating, while portion sizes of some energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods have increased. These findings suggest approaches to increasing consumption of nutrient-dense core foods and reducing energy-dense, nutrient-poor food items in children are warranted.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/children4080069
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 70: Health and Self-Regulation among School-Age
           Children Experiencing Family Homelessness

    • Authors: Andrew Barnes, Theresa Lafavor, J. Cutuli, Lei Zhang, Charles Oberg, Ann Masten
      First page: 70
      Abstract: Children in homeless families have high levels of adversity and are at risk for behavior problems and chronic health conditions, however little is known about the relationship between cognitive-emotional self-regulation and health among school-aged homeless children. Children (n = 86; mean age 10.5) living in shelters were assessed for health, family stress/adversity, emotional-behavioral regulation, nonverbal intellectual abilities, and executive function. Vision problems were the most prevalent health condition, followed by chronic respiratory conditions. Cumulative risk, child executive function, and self-regulation problems in children were uniquely related to child physical health. Homeless children experience problems with cognitive, emotional, and behavioral regulation as well as physical health, occurring in a context of high psychosocial risk. Several aspects of children’s self-regulation predict physical health in 9- to 11-year-old homeless children. Health promotion efforts in homeless families should address individual differences in children’s self-regulation as a resilience factor.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/children4080070
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 71: The Pulmonary Circulation in the Single
           Ventricle Patient

    • Authors: Amanda Hauck, Nicolas Porta, Steven Lestrud, Stuart Berger
      First page: 71
      Abstract: In recent decades, survival of children with complex congenital heart disease has improved considerably. Specifically, children with a variety of congenital heart defects resulting in ‘single ventricle’ physiology can now undergo palliative surgery that allows survival beyond the neonatal period, and in many cases into adulthood, despite having a single functional ventricular pumping chamber supplying both the pulmonary and systemic circulation. Our growing understanding of the functionally univentricular heart has resulted in freedom from Fontan failure of >50% at 25 years post-Fontan. Yet there is still a fair amount of knowledge to be gained, specifically as it relates to the pulmonary circulation in this group of patients. Knowledge gaps relate not only to the pulmonary circulation after Fontan operation, but also at each stage of the single ventricle surgical palliation, including the native physiology prior to any intervention. The pulmonary circulation is affected by multiple issues related to the single ventricle, including specific details of the anatomy unique to each patient, any intervention(s) undertaken, and potential complications such as aortopulmonary collaterals, protein losing enteropathy, plastic bronchitis, venovenous collaterals, pulmonary arteriovenous fistulae, ventricular dysfunction, pulmonary venous stenosis, and more. This chapter will review the current knowledge with regard to the pulmonary circulation in the single ventricle patient, primarily after the Fontan operation. Additionally, it is our hope to help the practitioner assess the pulmonary circulation in the single ventricle patient; we will also discuss the evidence behind and approach to treatment strategies in order to optimize the pulmonary circulation in this complex group of patients.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-07
      DOI: 10.3390/children4080071
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 72: Assessment of Sleep in Children with Autism
           Spectrum Disorder

    • Authors: Makeda Moore, Victoria Evans, Grace Hanvey, Cynthia Johnson
      First page: 72
      Abstract: Sleep disturbances in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are significantly more prevalent than found in typically developing (TD) children. Given the detrimental impact of poor sleep on cognitive, emotional, and behavioral functioning, it is imperative to screen and assess for sleep disturbances in this population. In this paper, we describe the screening and assessment process, as well as specific measures commonly used for assessing sleep in children with ASD. Advantages and limitations for use in children with ASD are discussed. While subjective measures, such as parent-report questionnaires and sleep diaries, are the most widely used, more objective measures such as actigraphy, polysomnography, and videosomnography provide additional valuable information for both diagnostic purposes and treatment planning. These objective measures, nonetheless, are limited by cost, availability, and feasibility of use with children with ASD. The current review provides an argument for the complementary uses of both subjective and objective measures of sleep specifically for use in children with ASD.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/children4080072
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 73: Imaging Features of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver
           Disease in Children and Adolescents

    • Authors: Michele Di Martino, Kameliya Koryukova, Mario Bezzi, Carlo Catalano
      First page: 73
      Abstract: Non-invasive diagnosis and quantification of liver steatosis is important to overcome limits of liver biopsy, in order to follow up patients during their therapy and to establish a reference standard that can be used in clinical trials and longitudinal studies. Imaging offers several methods in this setting: ultrasound, which is the cheapest technique and easy to perform; magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), which reflects the real content of triglycerides in a specific volume; and proton density fat fraction (PDFF) magnetic resonance, which is a simple method that reflects the distribution of the fat in the whole liver. Other techniques include ultrasound elastography (EUS) and magnetic resonance elastrography (MRE), which can evaluate the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) into non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis, by quantifying liver fibrosis.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/children4080073
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 74: Insulin Resistance and NAFLD: A Dangerous
           Liaison beyond the Genetics

    • Authors: Melania Manco
      First page: 74
      Abstract: Over the last decade, the understanding of the association between insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has dramatically evolved. There is clear understanding that carriers of some common genetic variants, i.e., the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) or the transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) are at risk of developing severe forms of NAFLD even in the presence of reduced or absent IR. In contrast, there are obese patients with “metabolic” (non-genetically driven) NAFLD who present severe IR. Owing to the epidemic obesity and the high prevalence of these genetic variants in the general population, the number of pediatric cases with combination of genetic and metabolic NAFLD is expected to be very high. Gut dysbiosis, excessive dietary intake of saturated fats/fructose-enriched foods and exposure to some chemicals contribute all to both IR and NAFLD, adding further complexity to the understanding of their relationship. Once NAFLD is established, IR can accelerate the progression to the more severe form of liver derangement that is the non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-08-14
      DOI: 10.3390/children4080074
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 8 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 52: Immersive Virtual Reality for Pediatric Pain

    • Authors: Andrea Won, Jakki Bailey, Jeremy Bailenson, Christine Tataru, Isabel Yoon, Brenda Golianu
      First page: 52
      Abstract: Children must often endure painful procedures as part of their treatment for various medical conditions. Those with chronic pain endure frequent or constant discomfort in their daily lives, sometimes severely limiting their physical capacities. With the advent of affordable consumer-grade equipment, clinicians have access to a promising and engaging intervention for pediatric pain, both acute and chronic. In addition to providing relief from acute and procedural pain, virtual reality (VR) may also help to provide a corrective psychological and physiological environment to facilitate rehabilitation for pediatric patients suffering from chronic pain. The special qualities of VR such as presence, interactivity, customization, social interaction, and embodiment allow it to be accepted by children and adolescents and incorporated successfully into their existing medical therapies. However, the powerful and transformative nature of many VR experiences may also pose some risks and should be utilized with caution. In this paper, we review recent literature in pediatric virtual reality for procedural pain and anxiety, acute and chronic pain, and some rehabilitation applications. We also discuss the practical considerations of using VR in pediatric care, and offer specific suggestions and information for clinicians wishing to adopt these engaging therapies into their daily clinical practice.
      PubDate: 2017-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/children4070052
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 7 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 53: Surgical Outreach for Children by
           International Humanitarian Organizations: A Review

    • Authors: J. Kynes, Laura Zeigler, Kelly McQueen
      First page: 53
      Abstract: Low- and middle-income countries carry a disproportionate share of the global burden of pediatric surgical disease and have limited local healthcare infrastructure and human resources to address this burden. Humanitarian efforts that have improved or provided access to necessary basic or emergency surgery for children in these settings have included humanitarian assistance and disaster relief, short-term surgical missions, and long-term projects such as building pediatric specialty hospitals and provider networks. Each of these efforts may also include educational initiatives designed to increase local capacity. This article will provide an overview of pediatric humanitarian surgical outreach including reference to available evidence-based analyses of these platforms and make recommendations for surgical outreach initiatives for children.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/children4070053
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 7 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 54: Sino-Nasal 5 Questionnaire is Associated with
           Poor Asthma Control in Children with Asthma

    • Authors: Sasikumar Kilaikode, Prateek Shukla, Gurpreet Phull, James Jackson, Dominique Prue, Claudia Martinez, Krista Scheffey, Dinesh Pillai
      First page: 54
      Abstract: Up to 80% of asthmatic children may experience upper airway symptoms which are often perceived as coming from the lower airways. Currently, there are no validated questionnaires to assess upper airway contribution to pediatric asthma symptoms. The Sino-Nasal 5 (SN-5) questionnaire was previously validated for identifying radiographic confirmed sinus disease in children. In this study, we hypothesize that significant SN-5 scores (≥3.5) are associated with abnormal National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) based asthma impairment and control in asthmatic children. Retrospective data collected on children with asthma referred for pulmonary evaluation included age, gender, ethnicity, NAEPP asthma severity, asthma control (Test for Respiratory and Asthma Control in Kids (TRACK) < 5 years, Asthma Control Test (ACT) 5 years) and pulmonary function testing. Associations between SN-5 scores and asthma impairment and control were identified. Seventy-six children were evaluated; 38% were female with a mean age of 6.9 years. Significant SN-5 scores were associated with decreased control of daytime symptoms (odds ratio (OR): 0.16 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.06–0.44)), night time awakenings (0.09 (0.03–0.29)), activity interference (0.2 (0.06–0.68)), NAEPP defined asthma control (0.32 (0.12–0.85)) and poor asthma control based on TRACK (p < 0.001) and ACT (p < 0.001). This suggests upper airways may play a larger role in perceived lower airway symptoms, and SN-5 may be beneficial in assessing the contribution of upper airway conditions on asthma control.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/children4070054
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 7 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 55: Sleep Apnea and Hypoventilation in Patients
           with Down Syndrome: Analysis of 144 Polysomnogram Studies

    • Authors: Zheng Fan, Mihye Ahn, Heidi Roth, Leping Li, Bradley Vaughn
      First page: 55
      Abstract: Patients with Down syndrome (DS) are at risk for both obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and central sleep apnea (CSA); however, it is unclear how these components evolve as patients age and whether patients are also at risk for hypoventilation. A retrospective review of 144 diagnostic polysomnograms (PSG) in a tertiary care facility over 10 years was conducted. Descriptive data and exploratory correlation analyses were performed. Sleep disordered breathing was common (seen in 78% of patients) with an average apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) = 10. The relative amount of obstructive apnea was positively correlated with age and body mass index (BMI). The relative amount of central sleep apnea was associated with younger age in the very youngest group (0–3 years). Hypoventilation was common occurring in more than 22% of patients and there was a positive correlation between the maximum CO2 and BMI. Sleep disordered breathing, including hypoventilation, was common in patients with DS. The obstructive component increased significantly with age and BMI, while the central component occurred most in the very young age group. Due to the high risk of hypoventilation, which has not been previously highlighted, it may be helpful to consider therapies to target both apnea and hypoventilation in this population.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/children4070055
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 7 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 56: Incidence of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia
           in Critically Ill Children Undergoing Mechanical Ventilation in Pediatric
           Intensive Care Unit

    • Authors: Ali Amanati, Abdollah Karimi, Alireza Fahimzad, Ahmad Reza Shamshiri, Fatemeh Fallah, Alireza Mahdavi, Mahshid Talebian
      First page: 56
      Abstract: Background: Among hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) in children, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common after blood stream infection (BSI). VAP can prolong length of ventilation and hospitalization, increase mortality rate, and directly change a patient’s outcome in Pediatric Intensive Care Units (PICU). Objectives: The research on VAP in children is limited, especially in Iran; therefore, the identification of VAP incidence and mortality rate will be important for both clinical and epidemiological implications. Materials and Methods: Mechanically ventilated pediatric patients were assessed for development of VAP during hospital course on the basis of clinical, laboratory and imaging criteria. We matched VAP group with control group for assessment of VAP related mortality in the critically ill ventilated children. Results: VAP developed in 22.9% of critically ill children undergoing mechanical ventilation. Early VAP and late VAP were found in 19.3% and 8.4% of VAP cases, respectively. Among the known VAP risk factors that were investigated, immunodeficiency was significantly greater in the VAP group (p = 0.014). No significant differences were found between the two groups regarding use of corticosteroids, antibiotics, PH (potential of hydrogen) modifying agents (such as ranitidine or pantoprazole), presence of nasogastric tube and total or partial parenteral nutrition administration. A substantial number of patients in the VAP group had more than four risk factors for development of VAP, compared to those without VAP (p = 0.087). Mortality rate was not statistically different between the VAP and control groups (p = 0.477). Conclusion: VAP is still one of the major causes of mortality in PICUs. It is found that altered immune status is a significant risk factor for acquiring VAP. Also, occurrence of VAP was high in the first week after admission in PICU.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03
      DOI: 10.3390/children4070056
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 7 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 57: The Association between Non-Alcoholic Fatty
           Liver Disease and Cardiovascular Risk in Children

    • Authors: Anna Di Sessa, Giuseppina Umano, Emanuele Miraglia del Giudice
      First page: 57
      Abstract: The rising prevalence of childhood obesity in the past decades has made Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) the most common cause of pediatric chronic liver disease worldwide. Currently, a growing body of evidence links NAFLD with cardiovascular disease (CVD) even at an early age. Data on the pediatric population have shown that NAFLD could represent an independent risk factor not only for cardiovascular events but also for early subclinical abnormalities in myocardial structure and function. Briefly, we review the current knowledge regarding the relationship between pediatric NAFLD and cardiovascular risk in an attempt to clarify our understanding of NAFLD as a possible cardiovascular risk factor in childhood.
      PubDate: 2017-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/children4070057
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 7 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 58: Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins in Stored Maize
           Grains Consumed by Infants and Young Children in Nigeria

    • Authors: Modupeade C. Adetunji, Olusegun O. Atanda, Chibundu N. Ezekiel
      First page: 58
      Abstract: Maize is a major complimentary food for infants (0–4years) and young children (5–12years) in Nigeria. In this study, we assessed the risk of exposure of infants and young children (IYC) to some major mycotoxins in stored maize grains from five agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. The probable daily intake approach was employed to determine exposure to five mycotoxins while the margin of exposure (MOE) and population at risk of primary hepatocellular carcinoma approaches were used to characterize the risk of consuming aflatoxin contaminated maize. Infants and young children in the Derived Savannah zone are more exposed to aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone while those in the Northern Guinea Savanna zone are mainly exposed to deoxynivalenol and fumonisins. The mean national MOE for infants and children were 0.12 and 0.3 respectively while the risk of developing primary liver cancer was estimated at 152.7 and 61.1 cancer/year/100,000 population of infants and children, respectively. Infants and young children consuming mycotoxin contaminated maize in Nigeria are therefore vulnerable to the adverse health effects. Mycotoxin contamination of maize is still a challenge in Nigeria; mitigation efforts should target the value chain and stricter tolerable limits should be enforced.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/children4070058
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 7 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 59: One Size Does Not Fit All: Contextualising
           Family Physical Activity Using a Write, Draw, Show and Tell Approach

    • Authors: Robert Noonan, Stuart Fairclough, Zoe Knowles, Lynne Boddy
      First page: 59
      Abstract: Understanding family physical activity (PA) behaviour is essential for designing effective family-based PA interventions. However, effective approaches to capture the perceptions and “lived experiences” of families are not yet well established. The aims of the study were to: (1) demonstrate how a “write, draw, show and tell” (WDST) methodological approach can be appropriate to family-based PA research, and (2) present two distinct family case studies to provide insights into the habitual PA behaviour and experiences of a nuclear and single-parent family. Six participants (including two “target” children aged 9–11 years, two mothers and two siblings aged 6–8 years) from two families were purposefully selected to take part in the study, based on their family structure. Participants completed a paper-based PA diary and wore an ActiGraph GT9X accelerometer on their left wrist for up to 10 weekdays and 16 weekend days. A range of WDST tasks were then undertaken by each family to offer contextual insight into their family-based PA. The selected families participated in different levels and modes of PA, and reported contrasting leisure opportunities and experiences. These novel findings encourage researchers to tailor family-based PA intervention programmes to the characteristics of the family.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/children4070059
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 7 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 60: Sildenafil in Infants and Children

    • Authors: Larisa Simonca, Robert Tulloh
      First page: 60
      Abstract: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) management has been transformed in recent times with the advent of cheap and effective diagnostic tools and therapy. Sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase-V inhibitor, has been at the centre of this treatment, and its success in treating PAH has led to its widespread uptake in adult and paediatric pulmonary hypertension (PH), as a first line treatment choice. This might apply to persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) or bronchopulmonary dysplasia, as well as to more complex diseases, such as idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. Although recent data regarding long-term mortality and the repeal of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval has complicated the issue, Sildenafil continues to be the major treatment option for paediatric PH for patients in a variety of contexts, and this does not seem likely to change in the foreseeable future. In this review, we provide a summary of pulmonary hypertension in infants and children and the use of Sildenafil for such diseases.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-07-24
      DOI: 10.3390/children4070060
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 7 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 43: Placebo by Proxy in Neonatal Randomized
           Controlled Trials: Does It Matter'

    • Authors: Tiziana L. Burkart, Andrea Kraus, Brigitte Koller, Giancarlo Natalucci, Beatrice Latal, Jean-Claude Fauchère, Hans Ulrich Bucher, Christoph M. Rüegger, for the Swiss EPO Neuroprotection Trial Group
      First page: 43
      Abstract: Placebo effects emerging from the expectations of relatives, also known as placebo by proxy, have seldom been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate whether in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) there is a clinically relevant difference in long-term outcome between very preterm infants whose parents assume that verum (PAV) had been administered and very preterm infants whose parents assume that placebo (PAP) had been administered. The difference between the PAV and PAP infants with respect to the primary outcome–IQ at 5 years of age–was considered clinically irrelevant if the confidence interval (CI) for the mean difference resided within our pre-specified ±5-point equivalence margins. When adjusted for the effects of verum/placebo, socioeconomic status (SES), head circumference and sepsis, the CI was [−3.04, 5.67] points in favor of the PAV group. Consequently, our study did not show equivalence between the PAV and PAP groups, with respect to the pre-specified margins of equivalence. Therefore, our findings suggest that there is a small, but clinically irrelevant degree to which a preterm infant’s response to therapy is affected by its parents’ expectations, however, additional large-scale studies are needed to confirm this conjecture.
      PubDate: 2017-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/children4060043
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 44: Effect of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Treatment on
           Lipids in Obese Children

    • Authors: Zarlasht Amini, Suresh Kotagal, Christine Lohse, Robin Lloyd, Swetha Sriram, Seema Kumar
      First page: 44
      Abstract: Obesity in children is associated with several co-morbidities including dyslipidemia. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is commonly seen in obese children. In adults, diagnosis of OSA independent of obesity is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors including dyslipidemia. There is limited data on the impact of treatment of OSA on lipids in children. The objective of the study was to examine the impact of treatment of OSA on lipids in 24 obese children. Methods: Seventeen children were treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and five underwent adenotonsillectomy. Mean apnea hypopnea index prior to treatment was 13.0 + 12.1 and mean body mass index (BMI) was 38.0 + 10.6 kg/m2. Results: Treatment of OSA was associated with improvement in total cholesterol (mean change = −11 mg/dL, p < 0.001), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mean change = –8.8 mg/dL, p = 0.021). Conclusion: Obese children should be routinely screened for OSA, as treatment of OSA favorably influences lipids and therefore decreases their cardiovascular risk.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/children4060044
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 45: Parent Perspective on Care Coordination
           Services for Their Child with Medical Complexity

    • Authors: Rhonda Cady, John Belew
      First page: 45
      Abstract: The overarching goal of care coordination is communication and co-management across settings. Children with medical complexity require care from multiple services and providers, and the many benefits of care coordination on health and patient experience outcomes have been documented. Despite these findings, parents still report their greatest challenge is communication gaps. When this occurs, parents assume responsibility for aggregating and sharing health information across providers and settings. A new primary-specialty care coordination partnership model for children with medical complexity works to address these challenges and bridge communication gaps. During the first year of the new partnership, parents participated in focus groups to better understand how they perceive communication and collaboration between the providers and services delivering care for their medically complex child. Our findings from these sessions reflect the current literature and highlight additional challenges of rural families, as seen from the perspective of the parents. We found that parents appreciate when professional care coordination is provided, but this is often the exception and not the norm. Additionally, parents feel that the local health system’s inability to care for their medically complex child results in unnecessary trips to urban-based specialty care. These gaps require a system-level approach to care coordination and, consequently, new paradigms for delivery are urgently needed.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/children4060045
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 46: The Role of Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism
           in Non‐Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    • Authors: Francesco Perla, Maurizia Prelati, Michela Lavorato, Daniele Visicchio, Caterina Anania
      First page: 46
      Abstract: Due to the epidemic of obesity across the world, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most prevalent chronic liver disorders in children and adolescents. NAFLD comprises a spectrum of fat-associated liver conditions that can result in end-stage liver disease and the need for liver transplantation. Simple steatosis, or fatty liver, occurs early in NAFLD and may progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanism of the liver injury in NAFLD is currently thought to be a “multiple-hit process” where the first “hit” is an increase in liver fat, followed by multiple additional factors that trigger the inflammatory activity. At the onset of disease, NAFLD is characterized by hepatic triglyceride accumulation and insulin resistance. Liver fat accumulation is associated with increased lipotoxicity from high levels of free fatty acids, free cholesterol and other lipid metabolites. As a consequence, mitochondrial dysfunction with oxidative stress and production of reactive oxygen species and endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated mechanisms, are activated. The present review focuses on the relationship between intra-cellular lipid accumulation and insulin resistance, as well as on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in NAFLD.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/children4060046
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 47: Microcephaly

    • Authors: Emily Hanzlik, Joseph Gigante
      First page: 47
      Abstract: Microcephaly is defined as a head circumference more than two standard deviations below the mean for gender and age. Congenital microcephaly is present at birth, whereas postnatal microcephaly occurs later in life. Genetic abnormalities, syndromes, metabolic disorders, teratogens, infections, prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal injuries can cause both congenital and postnatal microcephaly. Evaluation of patients with microcephaly begins with a thorough history and physical examination. In cases of worsening microcephaly or neurological signs or symptoms, neuroimaging, metabolic, or genetic testing should be strongly considered. Any further studies and workup should be directed by the presence of signs or symptoms pointing to an underlying diagnosis and are usually used as confirmatory testing for certain conditions. Neuroimaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often the first diagnostic test in evaluating children with microcephaly. Genetic testing is becoming more common and is often the next step following neuroimaging when there is no specific evidence in the history or physical examination suggesting a diagnosis. Microcephaly is a lifelong condition with no known cure. The prognosis is usually worse for children who experienced an intrauterine infection or have a chromosomal or metabolic abnormality. Zika virus has rapidly spread since 2015, and maternal infection with this virus is associated with microcephaly and other serious brain abnormalities. Microcephaly has become much more prevalent in the news and scientific community with the recent emergence of Zika virus as a cause of congenital microcephaly.
      PubDate: 2017-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/children4060047
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 48: Pediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    • Authors: Haley Bush, Pegah Golabi, Zobair M. Younossi
      First page: 48
      Abstract: Abstract: With the increase in the prevalence of obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become among the leading causes of chronic liver disease in the pediatric age group. Once believed to be a “two-hit process”, it is now clear that the actual pathophysiology of NAFLD is complex and involves multiple pathways. Moreover, NAFLD is not always benign, and patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are at increased risk of developing advanced stages of liver disease. It has also been shown that NAFLD is not only a liver disease, but is also associated with multiple extrahepatic manifestations, including cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and low bone mineral density. Although the data is scarce in the pediatric population, some studies have suggested that long-term mortality and the requirement of liver transplantation will continue to increase in patients with NAFLD. More studies are needed to better understand the natural history of NAFLD, especially in the pediatric age group.
      PubDate: 2017-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/children4060048
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 49: The Association between Pediatric NAFLD and
           Common Genetic Variants

    • Authors: Giuseppina Umano, Mariangela Martino, Nicola Santoro
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common complications of obesity. Several studies have shown that genetic predisposition probably plays an important role in its pathogenesis. In fact, in the last few years a large number of genetic studies have provided compelling evidence that some gene variants, especially those in genes encoding proteins regulating lipid metabolism, are associated with intra-hepatic fat accumulation. Here we provide a comprehensive review of the gene variants that have affected the natural history of the disease.
      PubDate: 2017-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/children4060049
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 50: A Mind–Body Approach to Pediatric Pain

    • Authors: Melanie Brown, Enrique Rojas, Suzanne Gouda
      First page: 50
      Abstract: Pain is a significant public health problem that affects all populations and has significant financial, physical and psychological impact. Opioid medications, once the mainstay of pain therapy across the spectrum, can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Centers for Disease and Control (CDC) guidelines recommend that non-opioid pain medications are preferred for chronic pain outside of certain indications (cancer, palliative and end of life care). Mindfulness, hypnosis, acupuncture and yoga are four examples of mind–body techniques that are often used in the adult population for pain and symptom management. In addition to providing significant pain relief, several studies have reported reduced use of opioid medications when mind–body therapies are implemented. Mind–body medicine is another approach that can be used in children with both acute and chronic pain to improve pain management and quality of life.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/children4060050
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 51: Adolescents’ Knowledge of Breastfeeding and
           Their Intention to Breastfeed in the Future

    • Authors: Marija Čatipović, Tamara Voskresensky Baričić, Sunčana Rokvić, Josip Grgurić
      First page: 51
      Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze third-year secondary school students’ knowledge of breastfeeding and intention to breastfeed their children, based on the results of a questionnaire. The respondents were 154 students (101 female/43 male) of two secondary schools in Bjelovar. The students completed a questionnaire which consisted of 23 questions regarding knowledge and intention to breastfeed. The answers were analyzed statistically and different results were compared by nonparametric tests. About half of the respondents think that both partners should decide on breastfeeding and recognize the role that fathers have in initiating and maintaining breastfeeding. Only 13.64% of the respondents know that breastfeeding is to be done only on demand. Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, as recommended by the medical profession, is recognized by 70.13% of the students. The question on how justified is the initiation of formula together with the mother’s milk was answered correctly by 29.22% of the students. Secondary school students’ knowledge of breastfeeding is insufficient, and schools, families, social communities and other sources of information should share the responsibility for improving this. We consider it necessary to pay more attention to improving students’ knowledge of breastfeeding through school curricula.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/children4060051
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 31: Mind–Body Therapy for Children with
           Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    • Authors: Anne Herbert, Anna Esparham
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is pervasive among the pediatric population and new treatments with minimal adverse effects are necessary to be studied. The purpose of this article is to review current research studying mind–body therapies for treatment of children diagnosed with ADHD. Literature was reviewed pertaining to the effectiveness of movement-based therapies and mindfulness/meditation-based therapies for ADHD. Many positive effects of yoga, Tai Chi, physical activity, and meditation may significantly improve symptoms of ADHD among children.
      PubDate: 2017-04-25
      DOI: 10.3390/children4050031
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 32: A Pilot Study of Mindfulness Meditation for
           Pediatric Chronic Pain

    • Authors: Lynn Waelde, Amanda Feinstein, Rashmi Bhandari, Anya Griffin, Isabel Yoon, Brenda Golianu
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Despite advances in psychological interventions for pediatric chronic pain, there has been little research examining mindfulness meditation for these conditions. This study presents data from a pilot clinical trial of a six-week manualized mindfulness meditation intervention offered to 20 adolescents aged 13–17 years. Measures of pain intensity, functional disability, depression and parent worry about their child’s pain were obtained at baseline and post-treatment. Results indicated no significant changes in pain or depression, however functional disability and frequency of pain functioning complaints improved with small effect sizes. Parents’ worry about child’s pain significantly decreased with a large effect size. Participants rated intervention components positively and most teens suggested that the number of sessions be increased. Three case examples illustrate mindfulness meditation effects and precautions. Mindfulness meditation shows promise as a feasible and acceptable intervention for youth with chronic pain. Future research should optimize intervention components and determine treatment efficacy.
      PubDate: 2017-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/children4050032
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 33: An Evaluation of a Continuing Education
           Program for Family Caregivers of Ventilator-Dependent Children with Spinal
           Muscular Atrophy (SMA)

    • Authors: Deborah Boroughs
      First page: 33
      Abstract: Until 25 years ago, there were limited options for long-term mechanical ventilation of children, and the majority of children were cared for in hospitals. However, with improving technology, the pediatric intensive care unit has moved from the hospital to a home setting, as children with increasingly complex healthcare needs are now often cared for by family members. One of the most complex care conditions involves ventilator and tracheostomy support. Advanced respiratory technologies that augment natural respiratory function prolong the lives of children with respiratory compromise; however, this care often comes with serious risks, including respiratory muscle impairment, respiratory failure, and chronic pulmonary disease. Both non-invasive assisted ventilation and assisted ventilation via tracheostomy can prolong survival into adulthood in many cases; however, mechanical ventilation in the home is a high-stakes, high risk intervention. Increasing complexity of care over time requires perpetual skill training of family caregivers that is delivered and supported by professional caregivers; yet, opportunities for additional training outside of the hospital rarely exist. Recent data has confirmed that repetitive caregiver education is essential for retention of memory and skills in adult learners. This study analyzes the use of continued education and training in the community for family caregivers of ventilator-dependent children diagnosed with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).
      PubDate: 2017-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/children4050033
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 34: Natural History of NAFLD Diagnosed in
           Childhood: A Single-Center Study

    • Authors: Catherine Cioffi, Jean Welsh, Rebecca Cleeton, Shelley Caltharp, Rene Romero, Mark Wulkan, Juna Konomi, Jennifer Frediani, Miriam Vos
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Little is known regarding the subsequent course of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) diagnosed in childhood. The objectives of this single-center study were to gather data on long-term health outcomes and to assess the feasibility of contacting former pediatric patients. In a large pediatric medical center, electronic records were searched to initially identify 162 former patients who had a liver biopsy between 2000 and 2010. Of these, 44 subjects met the criteria for age at follow-up (≥18 year) and biopsy-proven NAFLD, and were recruited via postal and electronic mail. Participants were invited to complete a brief telephone survey on current health status. Supplemental data was also obtained from pediatric medical charts of all subjects. At NAFLD diagnosis, 18% of subjects had diabetes, 91% were obese, 61% had NASH, and 56% had fibrosis on biopsy. At follow-up, 10 subjects (23%) responded to the survey. Based on the survey and chart review, after a mean follow-up of 4.5 years, 5 additional subjects developed diabetes for a period prevalence of 30%, and most subjects (78%) remained obese at last follow-up. Additional prospective studies are needed to fully describe the longitudinal risks associated with pediatric NAFLD, and will require multi-dimensional strategies to successfully recruit former patients.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/children4050034
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 35: After the Visit: An Overview of Government and
           Community Programs Supporting Children with Medical Complexity

    • Authors: Kaitlyn Olson
      First page: 35
      Abstract: The optimal care of children with medical complexity (CMC) requires involvement from a network of professionals that includes physicians, nurses, ancillary service providers, and educators. Pediatric health care providers typically have early and frequent contact with the families of CMC. Therefore, they are in a unique position to connect families to developmental, educational, and psychosocial supports. This article reviews important government and community programs that support CMC living in the United States. It outlines the educational rights of children with disabilities and offers practical tips for collaborating with Early Intervention and the public school system. The article also provides an overview of financial assistance programs, respite care services, and support groups that are beneficial to CMC and their families.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/children4050035
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 36: Low Family Support and Risk of Obesity among
           Black Youth: Role of Gender and Ethnicity

    • Authors: Shervin Assari, Cleopatra Caldwell
      First page: 36
      Abstract: Most studies on the role of family environment in developing risk of obesity among youth have focused on parenting behaviors that are directly involved in energy balance in regional, non-representative White samples. Using a national sample of ethnically diverse Black youth, the current study tested the association between low family support and risk of obesity. We also tested the heterogeneity of this association based on gender, ethnicity, and their intersection. We used data from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent Supplement (NSAL-A), a national survey of Black adolescents in the United States. The study enrolled 1170 African American and Caribbean Black 13–17 year old youth. Obesity was defined based on the cutoff points of body mass index (BMI) appropriate for age and gender of youth. Family support was measured using a five-item measure that captured emotional and tangible social support. Age, gender, and ethnicity were also measured. Logistic regressions were utilized in the pooled sample, and also based on gender, ethnicity, and their intersection, to test the link between low family support and risk for obesity. Results: In the pooled sample, low family support was not associated with an increased risk of obesity (OR = 1.35, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.96–1.89). The association between low family support and risk of obesity was, however, significant among African American females (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.01–2.55). There was no association for African American males (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.82–1.92), Caribbean Black males (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.01–54.85), and Caribbean Black females (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.42–1.44). In conclusion, policies and programs that enable African American families to provide additional family support may prevent obesity among African American female youth. Future research should test the efficacy of promoting family support as a tool for preventing obesity among African American female youth.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/children4050036
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 37: Neonatal and Maternal 25-OH Vitamin D Serum
           Levels in Neonates with Early-Onset Sepsis

    • Authors: Taha Gamal, Abd-Allah Madiha, Mostafa Hanan, Mohamed Abdel-Azeem, Gamil Marian
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is important for calcium metabolism and plays an important role in the immune functions. The aim of this study was to measure neonatal and maternal 25-OH vitamin D serum levels in neonates with early onset sepsis. The study included fifty neonates with early onset sepsis (25 full-term and 25 preterm infants) and thirty age and sex matched healthy neonates as controls. After history taking and clinical examination, complete blood count, C-reactive protein and 25-OH vitamin D serum levels (neonatal and maternal) were measured for all neonates. The mean gestational age for neonates with sepsis was (37.5 ± 0.98 for full term and 34.1 ± 1.26 for preterm neonates). Neonatal and maternal 25-OH vitamin D serum levels were significantly lower in patients (6.4 ± 1.8 and 24.6 ± 2.2 nmol/L) than controls (42.5 ± 20.7 and 50.4 ± 21.4 nmol/L). Significant negative correlations between neonatal and maternal 25-OH vitamin D serum levels and all sepsis markers and significant positive correlations between neonatal and maternal 25-OH vitamin D levels were present. At cut-off values <20 nmol/L for neonatal and <42 nmol/L for maternal 25-OH vitamin D for detection of neonatal sepsis, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predicted value (PPV) and negative predicted value (NPV) were 84%, 79%, 94.7% and 82.3% for neonatal and 82%, 77%, 91.4% and 80.6% for maternal 25-OH vitamin D, respectively. Positive correlations between neonatal and maternal 25-OH Vitamin D serum levels are present and they are negatively correlated with all sepsis markers. They can be sensitive early predictors for early onset sepsis in neonates.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/children4050037
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 38: First Nations Approaches to Childhood Obesity:
           Healthy Lifestyles in Canada Compared with Alternatives for Alaska Native

    • Authors: Peter de Schweinitz, Janet Wojcicki
      First page: 38
      Abstract: Alaska Native and American Indian children have among the highest prevalence of obesity in the United States. Canadian Aboriginal populations including First Nations also have high rates of obesity but obesity rates among children are noticeably lower. We highlight some of the important differences between American and Canadian approaches to healthy lifestyles and Aboriginal/Native health, including diet and physical activity, which may in part explain the differences in obesity prevalence. Specifically, the Canadian government provides a food subsidy program to bring perishable fruits and vegetable to remote, rural Canadian areas and secondly supports the use of traditional foods and harvesting/gathering through a number of government supported programs. Lastly, there may be a better sense of community and overall life satisfaction for Aboriginals compared with Alaska Natives, in part because of the incorporation of healthcare and other services within the larger overall community, as opposed to separate services as is the case for Alaska Natives. This perspective provides insight into some of these potential differences.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/children4050038
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 39: Predictors of Caregiver Burden among Mothers
           of Children with Chronic Conditions

    • Authors: Karina Javalkar, Eniko Rak, Alexandra Phillips, Cara Haberman, Maria Ferris, Miranda Van Tilburg
      First page: 39
      Abstract: Objective: The complex medical regimens of children and adolescents with chronic conditions can have a significant impact on families and households. Caregivers may experience burden, which can lead to negative health consequences and poor quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine child-related predictors and risk factors for caregiver burden among parents of children with chronic conditions. Methods: We distributed an institutional review board (IRB)-approved, online cross-sectional survey to parents of children who attended the Victory Junction therapeutic camp. Parents provided information on child demographics, disease characteristics, and healthcare utilization. Parents also answered the adapted Zarit Burden Interview, which measured caregiver burden. Children completed scales about self-management and self-efficacy. Linear regression analyses determined how children’s disease characteristics, health utilization, and self-management skills were associated with caregiver burden. Results: We enrolled 150 mother-child dyads. The mean age of child participants was 12.23 years (±2.5), with an age range of 6 to 16 years. It was determined that children’s number of medicines and injections (β = 0.161, p = 0.047), a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in addition to the primary medical condition (β = 0.216, p = 0.008), frequent visits with a primary care provider (PCP) (β = 0.209, p = 0.026) and emergency room (ER) visits (β = 0.197, p = 0.038), and lower child self-efficacy (β = −0.241, p = 0.041) were predictors of increased caregiver burden. Conclusions: We identified risk factors for caregiver burden among mothers. Future studies should explore additional child-related characteristics as they relate to caregiver burden, and should determine if interventions for mothers of children with chronic conditions can lead to positive outcomes.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/children4050039
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 40: Mental Health Service Utilization among Black
           Youth; Psychosocial Determinants in a National Sample

    • Authors: Shervin Assari, Cleopatra Caldwell
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Racial disparity in mental health service utilization (MHSU) persists, and youths are not an exception to the underutilization of services. Very limited research has been conducted on the determinants of MHSU among Black youth. Using a national sample of American Black youth, the current study investigated the association between demographic factors, socioeconomic status, psychiatric disorders, and self-rated health (SRH) on MHSU. We also tested the heterogeneity of the effects of SRH and psychiatric disorders based on ethnicity, gender, and their intersection. We used data from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescents supplement (NSAL-A), 2003–2004. The study enrolled 1170 Black youth between 13 and 17 years old including 810 African Americans and 360 Caribbean Blacks. Age, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, SRH, 12-month psychiatric disorders (Composite International Diagnostic Interview modified version), and MHSU (last year) were measured. Logistic regressions were used for data analysis. Ethnicity (odds ratio (OR) = 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.17–0.65), subjective socioeconomic status (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.09–1.88), SRH (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.00–6.37), and psychiatric disorders (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.05–4.48) were associated with MHSU. Age, gender, and objective socioeconomic status were not associated with MHSU. Gender and ethnicity did not interact with SRH and psychiatric disorders on MHSU. Actual and perceived need both universally influence Black youths’ likelihood of MHSU, regardless of their ethnicity and gender. Ethnicity and perceived socioeconomic status also play unique roles in MHSU. Future research is needed to understand pathways to MHSU for Black youth who both have and perceive mental health needs. There is also a need to find ways to promote MHSU for those with a need for mental health services.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/children4050040
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 41: Respiratory Care Considerations for Children
           with Medical Complexity

    • Authors: Jackie Chiang, Reshma Amin
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Children with medical complexity (CMC) are a growing population of diagnostically heterogeneous children characterized by chronic conditions affecting multiple organ systems, the use of medical technology at home as well as intensive healthcare service utilization. Many of these children will experience either a respiratory-related complication and/or they will become established on respiratory technology at home during their care trajectory. Therefore, healthcare providers need to be familiar with the respiratory related complications commonly experienced by CMC as well as the indications, technical and safety considerations and potential complications that may arise when caring for CMC using respiratory technology at home. This review will outline the most common respiratory disease manifestations experienced by CMC, and discuss various respiratory-related treatment options that can be considered, including tracheostomy, invasive and non-invasive ventilation, as well as airway clearance techniques. The caregiver requirements associated with caring for CMC using respiratory technology at home will also be reviewed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/children4050041
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 42: Genetic Testing among Children in a Complex
           Care Program

    • Authors: Krista Oei, Robin Hayeems, Wendy Ungar, Ronald Cohn, Eyal Cohen
      First page: 42
      Abstract: Little is known about the pattern of genetic testing and frequency of genetic diagnoses among children enrolled in structured complex care programs (CCPs). Such information may inform the suitability of emerging genome diagnostics for this population. The objectives were to describe the proportion of children with undiagnosed genetic conditions despite genetic testing and measure the testing period, types and costs of genetic tests used. A retrospective analysis of 420 children enrolled in Toronto’s Hospital for Sick Children’s CCP from January 2010 until June 2014 was conducted. Among those who underwent genetic testing (n = 319; 76%), a random sample of 20% (n = 63) was further analyzed. A genetic diagnosis was confirmed in 48% of those who underwent testing. Those with no genetic diagnosis underwent significantly more genetic tests than those with a confirmed genetic diagnosis [median interquartile range (IQR): six tests (4–9) vs. three tests (2–4), p = 0.002], more sequence-level tests and a longer, more expensive testing period than those with a genetic diagnosis [median (IQR): length of testing period: 4.12 years (1.73–8.42) vs. 0.35 years (0.12–3.04), p < 0.001; genetic testing costs C$8496 ($4399–$12,480) vs. C$2614 ($1605–$4080), p < 0.001]. A genetic diagnosis was not established for 52% of children. Integrating genome-wide sequencing into clinical care may improve diagnostic efficiency and yield in this population.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/children4050042
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 24: The Case for the Use of Nurse Practitioners in
           the Care of Children with Medical Complexity

    • Authors: Cheryl Samuels, Tomika Harris, Traci Gonzales, Ricardo Mosquera
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Although children with medically complex illness represent less than one percent of the total pediatric population, their health care expenditures and health care system utilization far exceed the numbers of other pediatric patients. Nurse practitioners, with their educational background focused on health care promotion and education, are uniquely qualified to reduce this inequity with cost effective care. Currently, nurse practitioners are used in a variety of health care settings and can provide acute and chronic care. Incorporating nurse practitioners at each step in the care of children with medical complexity can improve the quality of life for these children and their families, increase family satisfaction and decrease costs.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07
      DOI: 10.3390/children4040024
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 25: Pressure Injuries in Medically Complex
           Children: A Review

    • Authors: Katherine Freundlich
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Pressure injuries are a challenging problem in the care of medically complex children. Available evidence is limited, and there are theoretical reasons to use caution before extrapolating adult data, including key differences in body composition, common locations of pressure injury, and association with medical devices. The focus of this article will be to review the definition of a pressure injury and what is known about pathophysiology, prevention, recognition, staging, and treatment of pressure injuries in children with medical complexity.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07
      DOI: 10.3390/children4040025
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 26: A Narrative Review: Actigraphy as an Objective
           Assessment of Perioperative Sleep and Activity in Pediatric Patients

    • Authors: Nicole Conrad, Joelle Karlik, Amy Lewandowski Holley, Anna Wilson, Jeffrey Koh
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Sleep is an important component of pediatric health and is crucial for cognitive development. Actigraphy is a validated, objective tool to capture sleep and movement data that is increasingly being used in the perioperative context. The aim of this review is to present recent pediatric studies that utilized actigraphy in the perioperative period, highlight gaps in the literature, and provide recommendations for future research. A literature search was completed using OVID and PubMed databases and articles were selected for inclusion based on relevance to the topic. The literature search resulted in 13 papers that utilized actigraphic measures. Results of the review demonstrated that actigraphy has been used to identify predictors and risk factors for poor postoperative sleep, examine associations among perioperative pain and sleep patterns, and assess activity and energy expenditure in both inpatient and outpatient settings. We propose expansion of actigraphy research to include assessment of sleep via actigraphy to: predict functional recovery in pediatric populations, to study postoperative sleep in high-risk pediatric patients, to test the efficacy of perioperative interventions, and to assess outcomes in special populations for which self-report data on sleep and activity is difficult to obtain.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/children4040026
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 27: Nasopharyngeal Carriage and Antimicrobial
           Susceptibility Patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae among Children under
           Five in Southwest Ethiopia

    • Authors: Tiglu Gebre, Mulualem Tadesse, Dossegnaw Aragaw, Dagne Feye, Habtamu Beyene, Dinberu Seyoum, Mekidim Mekonnen
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae is found to play an important role in the development and transmission of pneumococcal diseases. In this study, we assessed the nasopharyngeal carriage, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associated risk factors of S. pneumoniae among children under five. A total of 361 children under five attending the outpatient department of Shanan Gibe Hospital in Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia were enrolled from June to September 2014. Nasopharyngeal specimens were collected using sterile plastic applicator rayon tipped swab and inoculated on tryptone soy agar supplemented with 5% sheep blood and 5 µg/mL gentamycin. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the modified disk diffusion method. The overall prevalence of S. pneumoniae carriage was 43.8% (158/361) among children under five. Resistance to tetracycline, cotrimoxazole, penicillin, chloramphenicol and erythromycin was observed in 53.2% (84/158), 43.7% (69/158), 36.1% (57/158), 13.3% (21/158) and 8.9% (14/158) of isolates respectively. Multidrug resistance was seen in 17.7% (28/158) of isolates. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, children living with sibling(s) < 5 years old (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.798; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.169–2.766) and malnutrition (AOR = 2.065; 95% CI, 1.239–3.443) were significantly associated with S. pneumoniae carriage. A high nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae was observed among children under five in Southwest Ethiopia. There should be a strategy to prevent S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal colonization and identify the appropriate antibiotic to the individual child.
      PubDate: 2017-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/children4040027
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 28: Comparison of CPAP and HFNC in Management of
           Bronchiolitis in Infants and Young Children

    • Authors: Majken Pedersen, Signe Vahlkvist
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been used in infants with bronchiolitis for decades. Recently, high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy was introduced We conducted a retrospective study of treatment with CPAP vs. HFNC between 2013 and 2015, comparing the development in respiratory rate, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) and heart rate, treatment failure, duration of treatment, and length of hospital stay. A sample size of 49 children were included. Median age was 1.9 months. Median baseline pCO2 was 7.4 kPa in both groups, respiratory rate per minute was 57 vs. 58 (CPAP vs. HFNC). Respiratory rate decreased faster in the CPAP group (p < 0.05). FiO2 decreased in the CPAP group and increased in the HFNC group during the first 12 h, whereafter it decreased in both groups. (p < 0.01). Heart rate development was similar in both groups. Twelve children (55%) changed systems from HFNC to CPAP due to disease progression. There was no difference in length of treatment, hospital stay, or transmission to intensive care unit between the groups. CPAP was more effective than HFNC in decreasing respiratory rate (RR) and FiO2. No differences were observed in length of treatment or complications. Further studies should be conducted to compare the efficacy of the two treatments of bronchiolitis, preferably through prospective randomized trials.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/children4040028
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 29: Parent, partner, co-parent or partnership'
           The need for clarity as family systems thinking takes hold in the quest to
           motivate behavioural change

    • Authors: Chris May, Li Kheng Chai, Tracy Burrows
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Research is increasingly pointing to the importance of extending the focus of childhood obesity intervention to include fathers, fathering figures, and other members of a child’s primary parenting network. Advances in communication technology are now making it possible to achieve this aim, within current resources, using modalities such text messaging, web-based resources and apps that extend intervention to parents not in attendance at face to face interactions. However, published research is often unclear as to which parent/s they targeted or engaged with, whether interventions planned to influence behaviours and capabilities across family systems, and how this can be achieved. As childhood obesity research employing information technology to engage with family systems takes hold it is becoming important for researchers clearly describe who they engage with, what they hope to achieve with them, and the pathways of influence that they aim to activate. This paper integrates extant knowledge on family systems thinking, parenting efficacy, co-parenting, and family intervention with the way parents are represented and reported in childhood obesity research. The paper concludes with recommendations on terminology that can be used to describe parents and parenting figures in future studies.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/children4040029
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 30: Overview of Four Functional Classification
           Systems Commonly Used in Cerebral Palsy

    • Authors: Andrea Paulson, Jilda Vargus-Adams
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common physical disability in childhood. CP comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders that can result in spasticity, dystonia, muscle contractures, weakness and coordination difficulty that ultimately affects the ability to control movements. Traditionally, CP has been classified using a combination of the motor type and the topographical distribution, as well as subjective severity level. Imprecise terms such as these tell very little about what a person is able to do functionally and can impair clear communication between providers. More recently, classification systems have been created employing a simple ordinal grading system of functional performance. These systems allow a more precise discussion between providers, as well as better subject stratification for research. The goal of this review is to describe four common functional classification systems for cerebral palsy: the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), the Communication Function Classification System (CFCS), and the Eating and Drinking Ability Classification System (EDACS). These measures are all standardized, reliable, and complementary to one another.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/children4040030
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 103: Bronchitis and Its Associated Risk Factors in
           First Nations Children

    • Authors: Chandima Karunanayake, Donna Rennie, Vivian Ramsden, Mark Fenton, Shelley Kirychuk, Joshua Lawson, Raina Henderson, Laurie Jimmy, Jeremy Seeseequasis, Sylvia Abonyi, James Dosman, Punam Pahwa, The First Nations Lung Health Project Research Team
      First page: 103
      Abstract: Respiratory diseases, such as bronchitis and pneumonia, are common in First Nations children in Canada. The objectives are to determine prevalence and associated risk factors of bronchitis in children 6–17 years old residing in two reserve communities. The cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 and children from two First Nations reserve communities participated. The outcome was ever presence/absence of bronchitis. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between bronchitis and the individual and environmental factors. A total of 351 First Nations children participated in the study. The prevalence of bronchitis was 17.9%. While 86.6% had at least one parent who smoked, smoking inside home was 43.9%. Signs of mold and mildew in homes were high. Prevalence of houses with any damage caused by dampness was 42.2%, with 44.2% of homes showing signs of mold or mildew. Significant predictors of increased risk of bronchitis were: being obese; having respiratory allergies; exposed to parental cigarette smoking; and signs of mold and mildew in the home. There are several modifiable risk factors that should be considered when examining preventive interventions for bronchitis including obesity, smoking exposure, and home mold or dampness.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/children4120103
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 12 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 104: Contribution of Discretionary Foods and
           Drinks to Australian Children’s Intake of Energy, Saturated Fat, Added
           Sugars and Salt

    • Authors: Brittany Johnson, Lucinda Bell, Dorota Zarnowiecki, Anna Rangan, Rebecca Golley
      First page: 104
      Abstract: Interventions are required to reduce children’s consumption of discretionary foods and drinks. To intervene we need to identify appropriate discretionary choice targets. This study aimed to determine the main discretionary choice contributors to energy and key nutrient intakes in children aged 2–18 years. Secondary analyses were performed with population weighted, single 24 h dietary recall data from the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Cakes, muffins, and slices; sweet biscuits; potato crisps and similar snacks; and, processed meats and sugar-sweetened drinks were relatively commonly consumed and were within the top three to five contributors to per capita energy, saturated fat, sodium, and/or added sugars. Per consumer intake identified cereal-based takeaway foods; cakes, muffins and slices; meat pies and other savoury pastries; and, processed meats as top contributors to energy, saturated fat, and sodium across most age groups. Subgroups of sugar-sweetened drinks and cakes, muffins and slices were consistently key contributors to added sugars intake. This study identified optimal targets for interventions to reduce discretionary choices intake, likely to have the biggest impact on moderating energy intake while also reducing intakes of saturated fat, sodium and/or added sugars.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/children4120104
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 12 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 105: Text Messaging Based Obesity Prevention
           Program for Parents of Pre-Adolescent African American Girls

    • Authors: Chishinga Callender, Deborah Thompson
      First page: 105
      Abstract: African American girls are at a greater risk of obesity than their nonminority peers. Parents have the primary control over the home environment and play an important role in the child obesity prevention. Obesity prevention programs to help parents develop an obesity-preventive home environment are needed. The purpose of this study was to collect formative research from parents of 8–10-year old African American girls about perceptions, expectations, and content for a text messaging based program. Mothers (n = 30) participated in surveys and interviews to inform message development and content. A professional expert panel (n = 10) reviewed draft text messages via a survey. All the mothers reported owning a cellphone with an unlimited texting plan, and they used their cellphones for texting (90.0%) and accessing the Internet (100.0%). The majority were interested in receiving text messages about healthy eating and physical activity (86.7%). Interviews confirmed survey findings. One hundred and seven text messages promoting an obesity-preventive home environment were developed. The expert panel and parents reported positive reactions to draft text messages. This research provides evidence that mobile health (mHealth) interventions appeal to parents of African American girls and they have ready access to the technology with which to support this approach.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-12-04
      DOI: 10.3390/children4120105
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 12 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 106: Multi-Family Pediatric Pain Group Therapy:
           Capturing Acceptance and Cultivating Change

    • Authors: Samantha Huestis, Grace Kao, Ashley Dunn, Austin Hilliard, Isabel Yoon, Brenda Golianu, Rashmi Bhandari
      First page: 106
      Abstract: Behavioral health interventions for pediatric chronic pain include cognitive-behavioral (CBT), acceptance and commitment (ACT), and family-based therapies, though literature regarding multi-family therapy (MFT) is sparse. This investigation examined the utility and outcomes of the Courage to Act with Pain: Teens Identifying Values, Acceptance, and Treatment Effects (CAPTIVATE) program, which included all three modalities (CBT, ACT, MFT) for youth with chronic pain and their parents. Program utility, engagement, and satisfaction were evaluated via quantitative and qualitative feedback. Pain-specific psychological, behavioral, and interpersonal processes were examined along with outcomes related to disability, quality of life, pain interference, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Participants indicated that CAPTIVATE was constructive, engaging, and helpful for social and family systems. Clinical and statistical improvements with large effect sizes were captured for pain catastrophizing, acceptance, and protective parenting but not family functioning. Similar effects were found for functional disability, pain interference, fatigue, anxiety, and depression. Given the importance of targeting multiple systems in the management of pediatric chronic pain, preliminary findings suggest a potential new group-based treatment option for youth and families. Next steps involve evaluating the differential effect of the program over treatment as usual, as well as specific CBT, ACT, and MFT components and processes that may affect outcomes.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-12-07
      DOI: 10.3390/children4120106
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 12 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 107: Darker Skin Tone Increases Perceived
           Discrimination among Male but Not Female Caribbean Black Youth

    • Authors: Shervin Assari, Cleopatra Caldwell
      First page: 107
      Abstract: Background: Among most minority groups, males seem to report higher levels of exposure and vulnerability to racial discrimination. Although darker skin tone may increase exposure to racial discrimination, it is yet unknown whether skin tone similarly influences perceived discrimination among male and female Caribbean Black youth. Objective: The current cross-sectional study tests the role of gender on the effects of skin tone on perceived discrimination among Caribbean Black youth. Methods: Data came from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent Supplement (NSAL-A), 2003–2004, which included 360 Caribbean Black youth (ages 13 to 17). Demographic factors (age and gender), socioeconomic status (SES; family income, income to needs ratio, and subjective SES), skin tone, and perceived everyday discrimination were measured. Linear regressions were used for data analysis. Results: In the pooled sample, darker skin tone was associated with higher levels of perceived discrimination among Caribbean Black youth (b = 0.48; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.07–0.89). A significant interaction was found between gender and skin tone (b = 1.17; 95% CI = 0.49–1.86), suggesting a larger effect of skin tone on perceived discrimination for males than females. In stratified models, darker skin tone was associated with more perceived discrimination for males (b = 1.20; 95% CI = 0.69–0.72) but not females (b = 0.06; 95% CI = −0.42–0.55). Conclusion: Similar to the literature documenting male gender as a vulnerability factor to the effects of racial discrimination, we found that male but not female Caribbean Black youth with darker skin tones perceive more discrimination.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-12-12
      DOI: 10.3390/children4120107
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 12 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 108: Risk Factors Associated with Preterm Neonatal
           Mortality: A Case Study Using Data from Mt. Hope Women’s Hospital in
           Trinidad and Tobago

    • Authors: Karen Cupen, Annabel Barran, Virendra Singh, Isaac Dialsingh
      First page: 108
      Abstract: Preterm neonatal mortality contributes significantly to the high incidence of death among children under five years of age. Neonatal mortality also serves as an indicator of maternal health in society. The aim of the study is to examine the risk factors for preterm neonatal mortality at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Mount Hope Women’s Hospital in Trinidad and Tobago (MHWH). In this retrospective study, we included infants (N = 129), born < 37 weeks gestational age, between 1 January and 31 December 2015. Two binary logistic regression models (infant and maternal variables) were constructed to identify predictors of preterm neonatal mortality. Roughly 12% of the infants died after being admitted to the NICU. The binary logistic regression (infant model) had an excellent fit (area under the curve (AUC): 0.904, misclassification rate: 11.7%) whilst the maternal binary logistic model had a fair fit (AUC: 0.698). Birth weight, length of time on the ventilator and obstetric complications proved to significantly influence the odds of preterm neonatal death. The estimated models show that improvement in neonatal as well as maternal variables has direct impact on preterm neonatal mortality.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-12-14
      DOI: 10.3390/children4120108
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 12 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 109: Mercury Hair Concentration among Primary
           School Children in Malaysia

    • Authors: Nurul Abdul Samad, Zaleha Md Isa, Rozita Hod
      First page: 109
      Abstract: The main concern regarding mercury exposure is the adverse health effect on the developing nervous system. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine hair mercury levels and their association with socio-demographic characteristics, complaints about mercury poisoning symptoms and the fish consumption pattern among children in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 215 school children aged 11 years old. Hair was collected from the children and the total mercury was analyzed using oxygen combustion–gold amalgamation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Anthropometric data, a fish consumption questionnaire and mercury poisoning symptoms were collected during a personal interview. The mean hair mercury level among primary school children was 0.63 ± 0.59 µg/g with the geometric mean of 0.47 µg/g. A total of 14% of respondents had hair mercury levels above 1 µg/g. A multiple binary logistic regression analysis outlined that fish consumption of at least one meal per week increased the likelihood of having a high mercury level (odds ratio (OR) 3.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3–10.4). This study confirms the existence of a mercury burden among Malaysian children and the level is high compared to other regional studies. This study provides important baseline data regarding the mercury level among children in Malaysia.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-12-14
      DOI: 10.3390/children4120109
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 12 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 110: “I Learned to Let Go of My Pain”. The
           Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Adolescents with Chronic Pain: An
           Analysis of Participants’ Treatment Experience

    • Authors: Danielle Ruskin, Lauren Harris, Jennifer Stinson, Sara Kohut, Katie Walker, Erinn McCarthy
      First page: 110
      Abstract: Chronic pain can lead to significant negative outcomes across many areas of life. Recently, mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been identified as potentially effective tools for improved pain management among adolescents living with pain. This study aimed to explore the experience of adolescents who participated in an eight-week mindfulness group adapted for adolescents with chronic pain (MBI-A), and obtain their feedback and suggestions on group structure and content. A mixed method design was used employing qualitative data from focus groups and data from a satisfaction questionnaire. Focus group data were transcribed and analyzed using inductive simple descriptive content analysis. Of the total participants (n = 21), 90% (n = 19) provided feedback by completing satisfaction questionnaires and seventeen (n = 17) of those also participated across two focus groups. Analysis of the focus group transcripts uncovered six themes: mindfulness skills, supportive environment, group exercises (likes and dislikes), empowerment, program expectations, and logistics. Participants reported positive experiences in the MBI-A program, including support received from peers and mindfulness skills, including present moment awareness, pain acceptance, and emotion regulation. Group members suggested increasing the number of sessions and being clearer at outset regarding a focus on reduction of emotional suffering rather than physical pain.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-12-15
      DOI: 10.3390/children4120110
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 12 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 111: Performance Comparison of Systemic
           Inflammatory Response Syndrome with Logistic Regression Models to Predict
           Sepsis in Neonates

    • Authors: Jyoti Thakur, Sharvan Pahuja, Roop Pahuja
      First page: 111
      Abstract: In 2005, an international pediatric sepsis consensus conference defined systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) for children <18 years of age, but excluded premature infants. In 2012, Hofer et al. investigated the predictive power of SIRS for term neonates. In this paper, we examined the accuracy of SIRS in predicting sepsis in neonates, irrespective of their gestational age (i.e., pre-term, term, and post-term). We also created two prediction models, named Model A and Model B, using binary logistic regression. Both models performed better than SIRS. We also developed an android application so that physicians can easily use Model A and Model B in real-world scenarios. The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR) and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) in cases of SIRS were 16.15%, 95.53%, 3.61, and 0.88, respectively, whereas they were 29.17%, 97.82%, 13.36, and 0.72, respectively, in the case of Model A, and 31.25%, 97.30%, 11.56, and 0.71, respectively, in the case of Model B. All models were significant with p < 0.001.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-12-19
      DOI: 10.3390/children4120111
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 12 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 112: Smoothed Body Composition Percentiles Curves
           for Mexican Children Aged 6 to 12 Years

    • Authors: Melchor Alpizar, Vanessa-Giselle Peschard, Fabiola Escalante-Araiza, Nelly Altamirano-Bustamante, Chiharu Murata, Ramón Arenas-Pérez, Ernesto Rodriguez-Ayala
      First page: 112
      Abstract: Overweight children and childhood obesity are a public health problem in Mexico. Obesity is traditionally assessed using body mass index (BMI), but an excess of adiposity does not necessarily reflect a high BMI. Thus, body composition indexes are a better alternative. Our objective was to generate body composition percentile curves in children from Mexico City. A total of 2026 boys and 1488 girls aged 6 to 12 years old were studied in Mexico City. Body weight, height, and BMI calculation were measured. Total body fat percentage (TBFP) was derived from the skinfold thicknesses, and fat mass (FMI) and free fat mass indexes (FFMI) were calculated. Finally, age- and gender-specifıc smoothed percentile curves were generated with Cole’s Lambda, Mu, and Sigma (LMS) method. In general, height, weight, waist circumference (WC), and TBFP were higher in boys, but FFM was higher in girls. TBFP appeared to increase significantly between ages 8 and 9 in boys (+2.9%) and between ages 10 and 11 in girls (+1.2%). In contrast, FFM% decreased noticeably between ages 8 and 9 until 12 years old in boys and girls. FMI values peaked in boys at age 12 (P97 = 14.1 kg/m2) and in girls at age 11 (P97 = 8.8 kg/m2). FFMI percentiles increase at a steady state reaching a peak at age 12 in boys and girls. Smoothed body composition percentiles showed a different pattern in boys and girls. The use of TBFP, FMI, and FFMI along with BMI provides valuable information in epidemiological, nutritional, and clinical research.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-12-20
      DOI: 10.3390/children4120112
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 12 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 113: A Rare Case of Pure Erythroid Sarcoma in a
           Pediatric Patient: Case Report and Literature Review

    • Authors: Pablo Manresa, Fabián Tarín, María Niveiro, María Tasso, Olga Alda, Francisco López, Héctor Sarmiento, José Verdú, Francisco De Paz, Silvia López, María Del Cañizo, Esperanza Such, Eva Barragán, Fernanda Martirena
      First page: 113
      Abstract: We describe an exceptional case of erythroid sarcoma in a pediatric patient as a growing orbital mass with no evidence of morphologic bone marrow involvement, who was finally diagnosed of pure erythroid sarcoma based on histopathology and flow cytometry criteria. We discuss the contribution of standardized eight-color flow cytometry as a rapid and reliable diagnostic method. The use of normal bone marrow databases allowed us to identify small aberrant populations in bone marrow and later confirm the diagnosis in the neoplastic tissue.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-12-20
      DOI: 10.3390/children4120113
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 12 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 93: The Need for Early Referral: Characteristics
           of Children and Adolescents Who Are Overweight and Obese Attending a
           Multidisciplinary Weight Management Service

    • Authors: Jacqueline Walker, Rebecca Malley, Robyn Littlewood, Sandra Capra
      First page: 93
      Abstract: There is a need to examine the issue of childhood obesity from a systems perspective. This study aimed to describe the baseline characteristics of children attending pediatric multidisciplinary weight management services and understand how this information will inform future service delivery. A total of 51 children and adolescents who were overweight and obese (27 male) and aged between two and 16 years participated. Body size measures such as body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage were collected. Participants and their parents/guardians also completed questionnaires on dietary intake, behaviors and habits, physical activity and health-related quality of life. A total of 72% of participants were classified as morbidly obese. Adolescents had significantly lower scores for overall diet, physical activity and particular health-related quality of life scores. No significant correlations were found between BMI z-scores and diet, physical activity and health-related quality of life. In adolescents, correlations were detected between dietary scores and health-related quality of life. Results confirm the need to critically examine the current context to adapt and tailor interventions to individual circumstances, and when combined with focused referral, triaging and screening processes, should assist in delivering the right care at the right time.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-10-31
      DOI: 10.3390/children4110093
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 11 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 94: Infantile Cytomegalovirus-Associated Severe
           Warm Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: A Case Report

    • Authors: Hassan Khalifeh, Youmna Mourad, Cynthia Chamoun
      First page: 94
      Abstract: Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a rare hematologic entity in children. Etiologies are mainly viruses or bacteria. We describe here a case of severe warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (IgG- and C3d-positive direct antiglobulin test) in an immunocompetent 6-month-old infant with acute Cytomegalovirus infection that responded well to corticotherapy and intraveneous immunoglobulins without using blood component transfusion. This case demonstrates the importance of recognizing CMV in infantile Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia, especially because hemolysis can be severe and lethal.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-11-03
      DOI: 10.3390/children4110094
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 11 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 95: Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Children: A
           Tertiary United Kingdom Children’s Hospital Experience

    • Authors: Omar Nasher, David Devadason, Richard Stewart
      First page: 95
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to review the aetiology, presentation and management of these patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) at a tertiary children’s unit in the United Kingdom. This was a retrospective single-institution study on children (<16 years) who presented with acute UGIB over a period of 5 years using known International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes. A total of 32 children (17 males, 15 females) were identified with a total median age at presentation of 5.5 years. The majority (24/32) of patients presented as an emergency. A total of 19/32 presented with isolated haematemesis, 8/32 with isolated melaena and 5/32 with a combination of melaena and haematemesis. On admission, the mean haemoglobin of patients who presented with isolated haematemesis was 11 g/dL, those with isolated melaena 9.3 g/dL and those with a combination 7.8 g/dL. Blood transfusion was required in 3/19 with haematemesis and 3/5 with haematemesis and melaena. A total of 19/32 underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Endoscopic findings were oesophageal varices (5/19) of which 4 required banding; bleeding gastric ulcer (1/19) requiring clips, haemospray and adrenaline; gastric vascular malformation (1/19) treated with Argon plasma coagulation therapy; duodenal ulcer (3/19) which required surgery in two cases; oesophagitis (5/19); and gastritis +/− duodenitis (3/19). A total of 13/32 patients did not undergo endoscopy and the presumed aetiology was a Mallory–Weiss tear (4/13); ingestion of foreign body (2/13); gastritis (3/13); viral illness (1/13); unknown (2/13). While UGIB is uncommon in children, the morbidity associated with it is very significant. Melaena, dropping haemoglobin, and requirement for a blood transfusion appear to be significant markers of an underlying cause of UGIB that requires therapeutic intervention. A multi-disciplinary team comprising gastroenterologists and surgeons is essential.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-11-03
      DOI: 10.3390/children4110095
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 11 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 96: Risk and Resilience Factors Related to
           Parental Bereavement Following the Death of a Child with a Life-Limiting

    • Authors: Tiina Jaaniste, Sandra Coombs, Theresa Donnelly, Norm Kelk, Danielle Beston
      First page: 96
      Abstract: This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on risk and resilience factors impacting on parental bereavement outcomes following the death of a child with a life-limiting condition. Over the past few decades, bereavement research has focussed primarily on a risk-based approach. In light of advances in the literature on resilience, the authors propose a Risk and Resilience Model of Parental Bereavement, thus endeavouring to give more holistic consideration to a range of potential influences on parental bereavement outcomes. The literature will be reviewed with regard to the role of: (i) loss-oriented stressors (e.g., circumstances surrounding the death and multiple losses); (ii) inter-personal factors (e.g., marital factors, social support, and religious practices); (iii) intra-personal factors (e.g., neuroticism, trait optimism, psychological flexibility, attachment style, and gender); and (iv) coping and appraisal, on parental bereavement outcomes. Challenges facing this area of research are discussed, and research and clinical implications considered.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-11-09
      DOI: 10.3390/children4110096
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 11 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 97: Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Children with
           Recurrent Wheeze/Asthma: A Single Centre Study

    • Authors: Marco Zaffanello, Emma Gasperi, Laura Tenero, Michele Piazza, Angelo Pietrobelli, Luca Sacchetto, Franco Antoniazzi, Giorgio Piacentini
      First page: 97
      Abstract: The relationship between asthma and sleep-disordered breathing is bidirectional due to common risk factors that promote airway inflammation. Obstructive sleep-disordered breathing and recurrent wheeze/asthma are conditions that involve the upper and the lower respiratory system, respectively. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sleep disordered breathing in children with recurrent wheeze/asthma. This was a retrospective study concerning children older than 2 years who underwent—between January 2014 and November 2016—an in-laboratory overnight polygraphic study. We match the children between those who do or do not have recurrent wheeze/asthma disease. We examined the clinical records of 137 children. We excluded eight patients because of neurological and genetic conditions. Children with recurrent wheeze/asthma (N = 28) were younger (p = 0.002) and leaner (p = 0.013) compared to non-affected children (N = 98). Children with wheeze/asthma and unaffected ones had a similar obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (p = 0.733) and oxygen desaturation index (p = 0.535). The logistic regression analysis, in which the condition of wheeze/asthma (yes/no) was a dependent variable, while demographic (age, sex, body mass index (BMI) Z-score) and polygraphic results during sleep (obstructive apnea-hypopnea index, central apnea index, peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), and snoring) were covariates, showed that children with wheeze/asthma had higher central apnea index (Exp(B) = 2.212; Wald 6.845; p = 0.009). In conclusion, children with recurrent wheeze/asthma showed an increased number of central sleep apneas than unaffected children. This finding may suggest a dysfunction of the breathing control in the central nervous system during sleep. Systemic or central inflammation could be the cause.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-11-14
      DOI: 10.3390/children4110097
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 11 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 98: Clinical Profile Associated with Adverse
           Childhood Experiences: The Advent of Nervous System Dysregulation

    • Authors: Jorina Elbers, Cynthia Rovnaghi, Brenda Golianu, Kanwaljeet Anand
      First page: 98
      Abstract: Background: We report the prevalence of children with multiple medical symptoms in a pediatric neurology clinic, describe their symptom profiles, and explore their association with adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive patients from an outpatient pediatric neurology clinic. Patients were included if they were ≥5 years old and reported ≥4 symptoms that were unexplained for ≥3-months. Symptom profiles across six functional domains were recorded: (1) executive dysfunction, (2) sleep disturbances, (3) autonomic dysregulation, (4) somatization, (5) digestive symptoms, and (6) emotional dysregulation. ACEs were scored for all patients. Results: Seventeen patients reported ≥4 medical symptoms. Somatization, sleep disturbances, and emotional dysregulation occurred in 100% patients, with executive dysfunction (94%), autonomic dysregulation (76%), and digestive problems (71%) in the majority. Forty-two children reported ≥1 ACE, but children with ≥4 symptoms were more likely to report ACEs compared to other children (88% vs. 33%; p < 0.0001) and had a higher median total ACE score (3 vs. 1; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Children with multiple medical symptoms should be screened for potential exposure to ACEs. A clinical profile of symptoms across multiple functional domains suggests putative neurobiological mechanisms involving stress and nervous system dysregulation that require further study.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-11-15
      DOI: 10.3390/children4110098
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 11 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 99: Optimal Line and Tube Placement in Very
           Preterm Neonates: An Audit of Practice

    • Authors: Daragh Finn, Hannah Kinoshita, Vicki Livingstone, Eugene Dempsey
      First page: 99
      Abstract: Background: Placement of endotracheal tubes (ETTs) and umbilical catheters (UCs) is essential in very preterm infant care. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an educational initiative to optimize correct placement of ETTs and UCs in very preterm infants. Methods: A pre–post study design, evaluating optimal radiological position of ETTs and UCs in the first 72 h of life in infants <32 weeks gestational age (GA) was performed. Baseline data was obtained from a preceding 34-month period. The study intervention consisted of information from the pre-intervention audit, surface anatomy images of the newborn for optimal UC positioning, and weight-based calculations to estimate insertion depths for endotracheal intubation. A prospective evaluation of radiological placement of ETTs and UCs was then conducted over a 12-month period. Results: During the study period, 211 infants had at least one of the three procedures performed. One hundred and fifty-seven infants were included in the pre-education group, and 54 in the post-education group. All three procedures were performed in 50.3% (79/157) in the pre-education group, and 55.6% (30/54) in the post-education group. There was no significant difference in accurate placement following the introduction of the educational sessions; depth of ETTs (50% vs. 47%), umbilical arterial catheter (UAC) (40% vs. 43%,), and umbilical venous catheter (UVC)(14% vs. 23%). Conclusion: Despite education of staff on methods for appropriate ETT, UVC and UAC insertion length, the rate of accurate initial insertion depth remained suboptimal. Newer methods of determining optimal position need to be evaluated.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-11-17
      DOI: 10.3390/children4110099
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 11 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 100: Parent Cardiac Response in the Context of
           Their Child’s Completion of the Cold Pressor Task: A Pilot Study

    • Authors: Kaytlin Constantin, Rachel Moline, C. McMurtry, Heidi Bailey
      First page: 100
      Abstract: Parents’ ability to regulate their emotions is essential to providing supportive caregiving behaviours when their child is in pain. Extant research focuses on parent self-reported experience or observable behavioural responses. Physiological responding, such as heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV), is critical to the experience and regulation of emotions and provides a complementary perspective on parent experience; yet, it is scarcely assessed. This pilot study examined parent (n = 25) cardiac response (HR, HRV) at rest (neutral film clip), immediately before the cold pressor task (pre-CPT), and following the CPT (post-CPT). Further, variables that may influence changes in HR and HRV in the context of pediatric pain were investigated, including (1) initial HRV, and (2) parent perception of their child’s typical response to needle procedures. Time-domain (root mean square of successive differences; RMSSD) and frequency-domain (high-frequency heart rate variability; HF-HRV) parameters of HRV were computed. HR and HF-HRV varied as a function of time block. Typical negative responses to needle pain related to higher parental HR and lower HRV at rest. Parents with higher HRV at baseline experienced the greatest decreases in HRV after the CPT. Consequently, considering previous experience with pain and resting HRV levels are relevant to understanding parent physiological responses before and after child pain.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/children4110100
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 11 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 101: Factors Associated with the Need for, and the
           Impact of, Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Children with Congenital
           Heart Disease during Admissions for Cardiac Surgery

    • Authors: Salvatore Aiello, Rohit Loomba
      First page: 101
      Abstract: Introduction: This study aimed to determine factors associated with the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) during admission for cardiac surgery (CS). A secondary aim was to determine how ECMO impacted length, cost, and mortality of the admission. Methods: Data from the Kids’ Inpatient Database (KIDS) were utilized. Admissions with CHD under 18 years of age with cardiac surgery were included. Need for ECMO in these admissions was then identified. Univariate analysis was conducted to compare characteristics between admissions with and without ECMO. Regression analyses were conducted to determine what factors were independently associated with ECMO and whether ECMO independently impacted admission characteristics. Results: A total of 46,176 admissions with CHD and CS were included in the final analysis. Of these, 798 (1.7%) required ECMO. Median age of ECMO admissions was 0.5 years. The following were associated with ECMO: decreased age, heart failure, acute kidney injury, arrhythmia, double outlet right ventricle, atrioventricular septal defect, transposition, Ebstein anomaly, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, common arterial trunk, tetralogy of Fallot, coronary anomaly, valvuloplasty, repair of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection, arterial switch, RV to PA conduit placement, and heart transplant (p < 0.01). ECMO independently increased length of stay by 17.8 days, cost of stay by approximately $415,917, and inpatient mortality 22-fold. Conclusion: Only a small proportion of CHD patients undergoing CS require ECMO, although these patients require increased resource utilization and have high mortality. Specific cardiac lesions, cardiac surgeries, and comorbidities are associated with increased need for ECMO.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/children4110101
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 11 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 102: South Asian Children Have Increased Body Fat
           in Comparison to White Children at the Same Body Mass Index

    • Authors: Emma Eyre, Michael Duncan, Alan Nevill
      First page: 102
      Abstract: The ability of body mass index (BMI) to predict excess fat in South Asian children is unknown. This cross-sectional study examines the influence of ethnicity on body fatness in children. Weight status and body fat were determined using BMI, waist circumference (WC), two skinfold sites (SF; triceps and subscapula) and leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA; Tanita BF350, Tanita, Tokyo, Japan) in 194 children aged 8.47 ± 0.50 years from Coventry, United Kingdom. Biological maturity was also determined. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) identified significant differences between ethnic (p < 0.001) and gender groups’ BMI (p = 0.026), with a significant covariate for skinfold (p < 0.001) and bioelectrical impedance (p < 0.001). For a given body fat value, South Asian children and females had a lower BMI value (−1.12 kg/m2, p < 0.001 and −0.50 kg/m2, p = 0.026, respectively, when adjusted for SF; −1.56 kg/m2, p < 0.001 and −0.31 kg/m2, p = 0.16, respectively, when adjusted for BIA) compared with white children and boys. The prediction model including ethnicity, gender and BIA explained 80.4% of the variance in BMI. Maturation was not found to be a significant covariate (p > 0.05). To conclude, the findings suggest that BMI cut-points may need to be lowered in South Asian children, and thus age-by-sex-by-ethnicity specific BMI cut-points are needed in children. Further research examining body composition with health parameters in this population is needed.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/children4110102
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 11 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 84: Sleep Disorders in Childhood Neurological

    • Authors: Abdullah Tolaymat, Zhao Liu
      First page: 84
      Abstract: Sleep problems are frequently addressed as a primary or secondary concern during the visit to the pediatric neurology clinic. Sleep disorders can mimic other neurologic diseases (e.g., epilepsy and movement disorders), and this adds challenges to the diagnostic process. Sleep disorders can significantly affect the quality of life and functionality of children in general and those with comorbid neurological diseases in particular. Understanding the pathophysiology of sleep disorders, recognizing the implications of sleep disorder in children with neurologic diseases and behavioral difficulties, and early intervention continue to evolve resulting in better neurocognitive outcomes.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/children4100084
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 85: Coconut Allergy Revisited

    • Authors: Katherine Anagnostou
      First page: 85
      Abstract: Despite concerns voiced often by food-allergic patients, allergy to coconut is rare, not directly associated with nut allergy and few cases are reported so far in the literature. We present an interesting case of coconut allergy in a child that was previously tolerant to coconut and regularly exposed via both the skin and gastrointestinal route.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/children4100085
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 86: A Potential Novel Mechanism for Vagus Nerve
           Stimulator-Related Central Sleep Apnea

    • Authors: Inga Forde, Meghna Mansukhani, Bhanu Kolla, Suresh Kotagal
      First page: 86
      Abstract: The treatment of epilepsy with vagus nerve stimulation can inadvertently cause obstructive and central sleep apnea (CSA). The mechanism for CSA seen in patients with a vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) is not fully known. We describe the case of a 13-year-old girl in whom VNS activation induced tachypnea and post-hyperventilation central apnea. Following adjustment of VNS settings, the post-hyperventilation CSA resolved. Polysomnography may assist with management when patients with epilepsy develop sleep disruption after VNS placement.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/children4100086
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 87: Oligoarticular Hemarthroses and Osteomyelitis
           Complicating Pasteurella Meningitis in an Infant

    • Authors: Charles Nessle, Allison Black, Justin Farge, Victoria Statler
      First page: 87
      Abstract: A 5-month-old previously healthy female presented with a one-week history of fever and increased fussiness. Her presentation revealed an ill-appearing infant with an exam and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies concerning bacterial meningitis; CSF cultures grew Pasteurella multocida. Additionally, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated cervical osteomyelitis. Despite multiple days of antibiotic therapy, she remained febrile with continued pain; MRI showed oligoarticular effusions, and aspiration of these joints yielded bloody aspirates. Evaluations for coagulopathy and immune complex-mediated arthropathy were negative. The patient improved following appropriate antibiotic therapy and spontaneous resolution of hemarthroses, and was discharged to a short-term rehabilitation hospital. P. multocida is a small, encapsulated coccobacillus that is part of the commensal oral flora of animals. It most commonly causes skin infections in humans, yet is a rare cause of meningitis in the pediatric population, especially in children <1 year of age. Transmission due to P. multocida is most commonly due to direct contact with animals. To our knowledge, this is the first case of oligoarticular hemarthroses and cervical osteomyelitis complicating P multocida meningitis. This case highlights the physician’s potential for cognitive bias and premature anchoring, and the resulting implications in delivering excellent patient care.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/children4100087
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 88: Factors Associated with Malnutrition among
           Under-Five Children: Illustration using Bangladesh Demographic and Health
           Survey, 2014 Data

    • Authors: Ashis Talukder
      First page: 88
      Abstract: Child malnutrition remains one of the major public health problems in many parts of the world, especially in a developing country like Bangladesh. Several socioeconomic and demographic factors are responsible for this condition. The present study was conducted to uncover the risk factors associated with malnutrition among under-five children in Bangladesh by analyzing the data from a nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) in 2014. The ordinal dependent variable—child nutrition status (severely malnourished, moderately malnourished, and nourished)—was developed by calculating weight-for-age Z score (WAZ). Bivariate analysis was conducted by performing gamma measure and chi-square test of independence to explore the association between child nutrition status and selected independent variables. To know the adjusted effects of covariates, a popular ordinal model—namely, the proportional odds (PO) model—was considered. All the selected covariates were found highly significant (p < 0.01) in the bivariate setup. However, in the multivariate setup, father’s and mother’s education, wealth index, mother’s body mass index (BMI), and antenatal care service during pregnancy were found highly significant (p < 0.01) factors for child malnutrition. Among the divisions, only Dhaka had more control on child malnutrition, compared to the Sylhet division. Birth interval of children was also reported as a significant factor at a 5% level of significance. Finally, the results of this paper strongly highlighted the necessity of increasing parent’s education level, improving the mother’s nutritional status, and increasing facilities providing antenatal care service in order to achieve better nutrition status among under-five children in Bangladesh.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/children4100088
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 89: Is There a Causal Relationship between
           Intussusception and Food Allergy'

    • Authors: Emrah Aydin, Omer Beşer, Esra Ozek, Soner Sazak, Ensar Duras
      First page: 89
      Abstract: Although intussusception and food allergy are common health problems in childhood, the relation between these two diseases remain obscure. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between food allergy and intussusception, and the factors associated with both. Patients diagnosed with intussusception by the Brighton Collaboration Intussusception Working Group criteria were prospectively investigated for food allergy per the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Guideline. They were analyzed per demographic features, clinical, physical and laboratory findings. There were eight (38.1%) patients diagnosed with food allergy, while 13 (61.9%) patients were non-allergic. The mean number of days of presenting symptoms was 1.13 days in the allergy group and 7.85 days in the non-allergy group. The mean number of intussusception attacks was 1.63 in the allergy group while 1 in the non-allergy group (p < 0.05, relative risk (RR) = 2.6). In the allergy group, one (13%) patient was followed up, six (75%) patients were reduced with pneumatic and one (13%) patient reduced manually. In the non-allergy group, four (31%) patients were followed up, six (46%) patients were reduced with pneumotic, one (7%) patient was reduced manually, and resection anastomosis was performed in two (15%) patients. Food allergy is an unrecognized associated factor for intussusception patients, which increases the risk for recurrence. Due to the small patient population, these results should be interpreted with caution.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/children4100089
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 90: Sleep Disturbances in Newborns

    • Authors: Daphna Yasova Barbeau, Michael D. Weiss
      First page: 90
      Abstract: The purpose of this review is to serve as an introduction to understanding sleep in the fetus, the preterm neonate and the term neonate. Sleep appears to have numerous important roles, particularly in the consolidation of new information. The sleep cycle changes over time, neonates spend the most time in active sleep and have a progressive shortening of active sleep and lengthening of quiet sleep. Additionally, the sleep cycle is disrupted by many things including disease state and environment, and the amplitude integrated EEG can be a useful tool in evaluating sleep, and sleep disturbances, in neonates. Finally, there are protective factors for infant sleep that are still being studied.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-10-20
      DOI: 10.3390/children4100090
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 91: Solitary Intra-Osseous Myofibroma of the Jaw:
           A Case Report and Review of Literature

    • Authors: Anita Dhupar, Karla Carvalho, Poonam Sawant, Anita Spadigam, Shaheen Syed
      First page: 91
      Abstract: Myofibroma is a rare benign spindle cell neoplasm in children that usually affects both soft tissue and bone in the head and neck region. Approximately one third of these cases are seen within jaw bones as solitary lesions. Solitary intra-osseous myofibroma of the jaw bone shares its clinical, radiographic and histological features with other spindle cell tumors. The rarity of this lesion can make diagnosis difficult for clinicians and pathologists. We report a case of a solitary intra-osseous myofibroma in the mandible of a nine-year-old child.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-10-24
      DOI: 10.3390/children4100091
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
  • Children, Vol. 4, Pages 92: Pediatric Perioperative Pulmonary Arterial
           Hypertension: A Case-Based Primer

    • Authors: Shilpa Shah, Jacqueline Szmuszkovicz
      First page: 92
      Abstract: The perioperative period is an extremely tenuous time for the pediatric patient with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This article will discuss a multidisciplinary approach to preoperative planning, the importance of early identification of pulmonary hypertensive crises, and practical strategies for postoperative management for this unique group of children.
      Citation: Children
      PubDate: 2017-10-24
      DOI: 10.3390/children4100092
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 10 (2017)
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Heriot-Watt University
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