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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1292 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (18 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (86 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (524 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (377 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (105 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (101 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (81 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (524 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 234)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Healthy-Mu Journal     Open Access  
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Case Studies in Fire Safety
  [SJR: 0.182]   [H-I: 1]   [12 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2214-398X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Ultrasonically dispersed dyed water mists as a substitute for colored
           powders

    • Authors: Yi-Chan Chiu; Wan-Ting Hong; Nelson Chen
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Fire Safety
      Author(s): Yi-Chan Chiu, Wan-Ting Hong, Nelson Chen
      Colored powders such as colored corn starch are used in events such as The Color Run to blanket the air and surroundings with decorative color. Their use, however, presents a risk of dust explosion. The fact that such powders are used at events drawing large crowds makes any fire or explosion likely to result in a mass casualty incident. For instance, the Formosa Fun Coast explosion on June 27, 2015, resulted in multiple deaths and injuries. Development of alternatives to flammable/explosive colored powders would eliminate this hazard. We demonstrate as a proof-of-concept that an ultrasonically driven water mist can produce effects similar to those created by colored powders. Food coloring was dissolved in water, and the colored water was subsequently dispersed from various ultrasonic devices and photographed. Colored clouds were formed from the colored water. Colored clouds were visible under various conditions, and color combinations were possible. Possible risks of colored corn starch and water mists are discussed. An ultrasonic misting system is capable of safely replacing colored powders with regard to appearance.

      PubDate: 2016-09-13T22:20:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csfs.2016.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2016)
       
  • Assessing the influence of fuel geometrical shape on fire dynamics
           simulator (FDS) predictions for a large-scale heavy goods vehicle tunnel
           fire experiment

    • Authors: Xiaoyun Wang; Charles Fleischmann; Michael Spearpoint
      Pages: 34 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Fire Safety, Volume 5
      Author(s): Xiaoyun Wang, Charles Fleischmann, Michael Spearpoint
      This paper uses four different simple geometrical shapes to simulate a large-scale heavy goods vehicle (HGV) tunnel fire experiment using Fire Dynamics Simulator, version 6 (FDS6) in order to investigate the influence of using different fuel package shapes. Simulations also investigate the influence on temperature profiles when a large target is placed downstream of the fuel package. Predictions of flame extension, temperature profiles and gas species concentrations are compared with the experimental data. The use of the geometrical shapes causes significant differences in flame extension lengths during the fully developed fire phase. The variation in temperature predictions caused by using the different fuel shapes are insignificant when a large target is present behind the fire, however this is not the case if the target is omitted especially during the fully developed phase.

      PubDate: 2016-06-14T10:10:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csfs.2016.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • THE EFFECTS OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE US AND SAUDI ARABIA ON
           EMERGENCY EVACUATION—ANALYSIS OF SELF REPORTED RECOGNTION/REACTION TIMES
           AND COGNITIVE STATE

    • Authors: Majed Almejmaj; Jeanine Skorinko; Brian Meacham
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Fire Safety
      Author(s): Majed Almejmaj, Jeanine Skorinko, Brian Meacham
      Engineers rely on studies that publish building evacuation data from various occupancies when conducting an egress analysis; this usually includes the people’s pre-movement and movement times. However, much of the available data was collected in Western cultures, such as the U.S., which brings into question their validity to other non-Western cultures, such as Saudi Arabia. This study examines how cultural differences between the U.S. and Saudi Arabia can affect occupants’ self-reported recognition/reaction times, and the cognitive state of occupants during a fire drill. The results of this research indicate that the U.S. populations are more likely to recognize and react to a fire alarm faster than the Saudi populations during a fire drill.

      PubDate: 2016-12-21T15:33:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csfs.2016.12.002
       
  • Using Correlative Data Analysis to Develop Weather Index That Estimates
           the Risk of Forest Fires in Lebanon & Mediterranean: Assessment versus
           Prevalent Meteorological Indices

    • Authors: Nizar Hamadeh; Ali Karouni; Bassam Daya; Pierre Chauvet
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Fire Safety
      Author(s): Nizar Hamadeh, Ali Karouni, Bassam Daya, Pierre Chauvet
      Forest fires are among the most dangerous natural threats that bring calamities to a community and can turn it totally upside down. In this paper, to enable a prevention mechanism, we rely on analytics to build a novel fire danger index model that predicts the risk of a developing fire in north Lebanon. We use correlation methods such as statistical regression, Pearson, Spearman and Kendall’s Tau correlation to identify the most affecting parameters on fire ignition during the last six years in north Lebanon. The correlations of these attributes with fire occurrence are studied in order to develop the fire danger index. The strongly correlated attributes are then derived. We rely on linear regression to model the fire index as function of a reduced set of weather parameters that are easy to measure. This is critical as it facilitates the application of such prevention models in developing countries like Lebanon. The outcomes resulting from validation tests of the proposed index show high performance in the Lebanese regions. An assessment versus common widespread weather models is then made and has showed the significance the selected parameters. It is strongly believed that this index will help improve the ability of fire prevention measures in the Mediterranean basin area.

      PubDate: 2016-12-14T15:00:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csfs.2016.12.001
       
  • Fire behaviour of gypsum plasterboard wall assemblies: CFD simulation of a
           full-scale residential building

    • Authors: Dionysios I. Kolaitis; Eleni K. Asimakopoulou; Maria A. Founti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Fire Safety
      Author(s): Dionysios I. Kolaitis, Eleni K. Asimakopoulou, Maria A. Founti
      Gypsum “dehydration” phenomena, occurring when gypsum plasterboard wall assemblies are exposed to a high temperature environment, result in water vapour production and subsequent dispersion in the fire compartment; these phenomena are often neglected in relevant Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. Aiming to investigate the impact of gypsum dehydration in full-scale CFD simulations of lightweight drywall buildings, the FDS code is used to simulate a two-storey residential building, exposed to a typical domestic fire scenario. The building employs a structural steel frame combined with gypsum plasterboard wall assemblies. Temperature-dependent thermo-physical properties are used for all construction materials. The effects of gypsum dehydration are assessed by using two alternative modelling approaches, an effective specific heat model and a solid reaction kinetics model; the obtained predictions are compared to a benchmark test case, where no such phenomena are modelled. The obtained results demonstrate that when the highly endothermic gypsum dehydration phenomena are simulated, lower overall heat release rates, gas and wall surface temperatures are predicted. In addition, the developed solid reaction kinetics model allows, for the first time, quantitative predictions of gypsum dehydration induced water vapour production and dispersion phenomena.

      PubDate: 2016-11-30T13:42:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csfs.2016.11.001
       
  • Influence of the built environment on design fires

    • Authors: Jonathan Wahlqvist; Patrick van Hees
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2015
      Source:Case Studies in Fire Safety
      Author(s): Jonathan Wahlqvist, Patrick van Hees
      Design fires are often used to the evaluate performance based designs by fire protection engineers all over the world and can be an invaluable tool if used properly. One potential big issue however is the fact that the exact same design fire is recommended by authorities in similar building types despite the fact that some building characteristics, such as building material, can differ greatly. This paper focused on investigating several key characteristics of a building (building material, openings, room floor area size and ceiling height) and its effect on the design fire using computational fluid dynamics. When well to moderately insulating materials was used the design fire growth rate and maximum heat release rate was in many cases significantly increased, especially if the room was well ventilated, the ceiling height was relatively low and the room floor area was moderate. However, using thermally thin materials (steel sheet) or materials with large heat storing capacity (concrete) very little change was seen on the growth rate or maximum heat release rate. In conclusion it was recommended that one should take precaution when using recommended design fires in buildings with certain characteristics since it potentially can overestimate the safety in such case.

      PubDate: 2016-01-03T04:27:22Z
       
  • Modelling large-scale evacuation of music festivals

    • Authors: Ronchi F.Nieto; Uriz Criel Reilly
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2015
      Source:Case Studies in Fire Safety
      Author(s): E. Ronchi, F.Nieto Uriz, X. Criel, P. Reilly
      This paper explores the use of multi-agent continuous evacuation modelling for representing large-scale evacuation scenarios at music festivals. A 65,000 people capacity music festival area was simulated using the model Pathfinder. Three evacuation scenarios were developed in order to explore the capabilities of evacuation modelling during such incidents, namely 1) a preventive evacuation of a section of the festival area containing approximately 15,000 people due to a fire breaking out on a ship, 2) an escalating scenario involving the total evacuation of the entire festival area (65,000 people) due to a bomb threat, and 3) a cascading scenario involving the total evacuation of the entire festival area (65,000 people) due to the threat of an explosion caused by a ship engine overheating. This study suggests that the analysis of the people-evacuation time curves produced by evacuation models, coupled with a visual analysis of the simulated evacuation scenarios, allows for the identification of the main factors affecting the evacuation process (e.g., delay times, overcrowding at exits in relation to exit widths, etc.) and potential measures that could improve safety.

      PubDate: 2016-01-03T04:27:22Z
       
  • Forest Fire Propagation Simulations for a Risk Assessment Methodology
           Development for a Nuclear Power Plant

    • Authors: Yasushi Okano; Hidemasa Yamano
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2015
      Source:Case Studies in Fire Safety
      Author(s): Yasushi Okano , Hidemasa Yamano
      After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant [NPP] accident, there has been an increased concern with the safety of NPPs in terms of external hazards, one of which is a forest fire which can create potential challenges to safety functions and the structural integrity of an NPP. As a part of the development of a risk assessment methodology for forest fires as an external hazard, forest fire propagation simulations have been performed by using the FARSITE simulator. These simulations have been used to evaluate two intensity parameters (i.e. fireline intensity and reaction intensity) and three other key parameters (i.e. flame length, rate-of-spread, and forest fire arrival time) which are related to “heat” and “flame” effects on an NPP. Sensitivity analyses for a wide range of weather conditions were performed in order to identify the variable ranges of the intensity and other key parameters. The location studied was selected from among areas with typical topographical and vegetation surrounding NPPs in Japan. The NPP is facing the sea and surrounded by hills, distanced from an urban area, with mostly broad leaf forests, several paddy fields and a few pasture areas. Low-to-high frequency weather conditions have been utilized in this analysis; forest fire propagation simulations were performed “with/without prevailing wind” (i.e. 0-24m/s wind speed) and “high/low values for ambient temperature and relative humidity” (-4.3-37°C and 5-99%, respectively) according to the recorded data ranges for the typical NPP site. The maximum values of fireline intensity and rate-of-spread are 4.7×102 kW/m and 2.4m/min. and they depend very much on prevailing wind speed and relative humidity (around 2.3 and 1.8 times respectively) but less on ambient temperature (around 1.1 times). Reaction intensity and flame length change within relatively narrow ranges (around 1.7 and 1.5 times respectively) even for all the variation in weather parameters. The forest fire arrival time at the site is reduced by a factor of 5 with changing prevailing wind speed from the recorded-highest to zero. The arrival time increases some 3.4 times with the highest humidity compared to the recorded-lowest conditions, although it is changed little even by varying ambient temperature. Given that this study shows that the maximum height of a flame on a canopy top is close to the range of power line height, a loss of offsite power is recognized as a possible subsequent event during a forest fire.

      PubDate: 2015-06-29T07:40:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csfs.2015.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Modeling wildland fire propagation using a semi-physical network model

    • Authors: J.K. Adou; A.D.V. Brou; B. Porterie
      Pages: 11 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2015
      Source:Case Studies in Fire Safety
      Author(s): J.K. Adou , A.D.V. Brou , B. Porterie
      In this paper we present a surface wildfire model which can be used to develop and test new firefighting strategies and land use planning practices. This model is simple, easy to implement and can predict the rate of fire spread, the fire contour and both burning and burned areas. It also incorporates weather conditions and land topography. The predictive capability of the model is partially assessed by comparison with data from laboratory-scale and prescribed burning experiments. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify the most influential input model parameters controlling fire propagation.

      PubDate: 2015-06-29T07:40:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csfs.2015.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Geographic Information System Software Application developed by a Regional
           Emergency Agency

    • Authors: César Martín-Gómez; Javier Vergara-Falces; Asier Elvira-Zalduegui
      Pages: 19 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2015
      Source:Case Studies in Fire Safety
      Author(s): César Martín-Gómez , Javier Vergara-Falces , Asier Elvira-Zalduegui
      This paper presents a methodology for risk analysis and assessment to manage territorial data based on Geographical Information Systems from the viewpoints of climatology, geography, disaster science, environmental science, fire safety and urban services. The results in this methodology are intended to support local and provincial government agencies to: make resource allocation decisions; make high-level planning decisions and raise public awareness of disasters risk, its causes, and ways to manage it. The Autonomous Community of Navarra, as a result of a special administrative status, possesses a number of specific features that have let it build up a high technological development in several fields. The main areas of research are healthcare and renewable energies, but also focused in the implementation of security systems at territorial level.These advances and particularities of the GIS software used by the fire fighters of this Community will be the ones shown in this paper, as well as its prospective improvements in the collaboration with the experts responsible for urban planning of a School of Architecture.

      PubDate: 2015-07-14T09:25:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csfs.2015.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Fire safety assessment of Super Tall Buildings: A case study on Shanghai
           Tower

    • Authors: Jian Jiang; Lingzhu Chen; Shouchao Jiang; Guo-Qiang Li; Asif Usmani
      Pages: 28 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2015
      Source:Case Studies in Fire Safety
      Author(s): Jian Jiang , Lingzhu Chen , Shouchao Jiang , Guo-Qiang Li , Asif Usmani
      Shanghai Tower is an existing super high-rise building composed of mega frame-core-outrigger lateral resisting systems. Its structural safety in fire has been given great attention. This paper presents an independent review of the performance of Shanghai Tower in case of fire. Two fire scenarios: standard fires and parametric fires have been considered. The fire resistance of key component, including the concrete core, mega columns, the composite floor, outrigger trusses and belt trusses were examined first. Their real fire resistance periods proved to be far beyond the design fire resistance. The components with weak fire resistance such as peripheral steel columns and web members of belt trusses were then removed to study the resistance of the residual structure against progressive collapse. The results show that Shanghai Tower has a minimum of 3 hour fire resistance against fire-induced progressive collapse. The concrete components have smaller residual displacements compared to the steel components. It is recommended, for the design of other similar structures, that effective fire protection should be provided for the outrigger trusses to guarantee the connection between the core and mega columns.

      PubDate: 2015-07-14T09:25:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csfs.2015.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Combustion performance of flame-ignited high-speed train seats via
           full-scale tests

    • Authors: Jie Zhu; Xiao Ju Li; Cheng Feng Mie
      Pages: 39 - 48
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2015
      Source:Case Studies in Fire Safety
      Author(s): Jie Zhu , Xiao Ju Li , Cheng Feng Mie
      Determining the combustion characteristics of combustibles in high-speed trains is the foundation of evaluating the fire hazard on high-speed trains scientifically, and establishing effective active and passive fire precautions. In this study, the double seats in the compartments of CRH1 high-speed trains were used as the main research object. Under different test conditions, including the power of ignition sources and ventilation rates, full-scale furniture calorimeter tests were conducted to study important fire combustion characteristics such as the ignition characteristics of seats, heat release rate, mass loss rate, total heat release, temperature variation, and smoke release rate. The relationships among these parameters were analyzed and summarized into combustion behavior and characteristics, thus providing fundamental data and reference for the development of fire precautions and safety design of high-speed trains. The results in this tests are as follows: (i) The double seats of high-speed trains are relatively easy to ignite and susceptible to the fire ground environment.(ii) The combustion temperature in the test apparatus exceeded 600°C in only 2minutes for the larger ignition source.(iii)The heat release rate exceeded800kW. (iv) The total heat release resulted mainly from flame combustion.(v) The final mass loss rate was ∼30%.(vi) The lowest light transmittance was <25%.(vii)The change process of temperature with time has the same trend as the change process of heat release rate.(viii)Suppressing flame combustion and controlling the smoke generated from the seat materials themselves played key roles in retarding the combustion of high-speed train seats.

      PubDate: 2015-06-29T07:40:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csfs.2015.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Informing the practice of fire safety engineering

    • Authors: Brian J. Meacham
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2015
      Source:Case Studies in Fire Safety
      Author(s): Brian J. Meacham


      PubDate: 2015-08-30T12:04:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csfs.2015.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Realisation of Fire and Intrusion Protection at the “Diabolo” Train
           Tunnel Complex at Brussels Int’l Airport

    • Authors: Lieven Schoonbaert; Stijn Eeckhaut
      Pages: 25 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2015
      Source:Case Studies in Fire Safety
      Author(s): Lieven Schoonbaert , Stijn Eeckhaut
      Between October 2007 and June 2012, the Belgian Railways Group and its partners built a new railway tunnel under the main runway of Brussels Airport, to unlock the – also enlarged - station from the unidirectional connection that was available at that time. To facilitate evacuation, intervention and rescue in this newly built 4km long infrastructure of the so-called Diabolo project, we designed an automated fire scenario system which is part of the tunnel’s and station’s safety concept based on EU Directive 2001/16/EC, NFPA 130 and UNECE TRANS/AC.9/9. Furthermore we implemented access control and intrusion detection as part of the complex’ security concept. In this paper we present our design and our experiences of setting up the system. We also present our real “burning” train test, which took place during the commissioning phase of the project and was a unique opportunity to test the system’s response to “a train on fire” entering the tunnel complex.

      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:43:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csfs.2015.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Structural fire resistance: rating system manifests crude, inconsistent
           design

    • Authors: Eoin O’Loughlin; Simon Lay
      Pages: 36 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2015
      Source:Case Studies in Fire Safety
      Author(s): Eoin O’Loughlin , Simon Lay
      This paper highlights a shortcoming in the current system of structural fire resistance design, proposes how it can be addressed and shows how the perceived barriers to change can be overcome. It is an opinion piece intended to stimulate discussion. Whilst structural fire engineering knowledge may be relatively underdeveloped compared to other engineering disciplines, the industry has made great progress in recent decades in understanding and analysing fire behaviour and the response of structures, as well as developing fire protection products that can be accurately specified to meet performance criteria. In addition, through modern fire and risk engineering there are also methods to establish the appropriate fire resistance rating for a building (or element) based on risk profile, fire loading, building fabric and potential ventilation amongst other things. It is the objective of many within the industry for structural fire engineering to become an integrated part of the design process, ultimately leading to safer and more efficient structures. However, this paper questions whether current structural fire resistance design methods achieve the consistent level of crudeness required for this, or whether the means by which structural performance in fire is quantified, standard fire resistance, represents a weak link that undermines the entire process. Although the concept of standard fire resistance, benchmarked against performance under normalised furnace test heating regimes, is useful in that it allows for the comparison necessary to safeguard consistency across products, design methods and geographies, the historic 15-minute fire resistance increments (for example 60, 75, 90 minutes) result in inconsistent levels of safety. Refined grades, as in fact already allowed under fire resistance testing standards, would yield significant benefits for reliability and design efficiency. The paper uses hypothetical case studies to exhibit the merits of refined fire resistance grades and explains how implementing the enhanced classification system may be readily achievable.

      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:43:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csfs.2015.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Fire Load Energy Densities for Risk-Based Design of Car Parking Buildings

    • Authors: M.J. Spearpoint; M.Z.M. Tohir; A.K. Abu; P. Xie
      Pages: 44 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 April 2015
      Source:Case Studies in Fire Safety
      Author(s): M.J. Spearpoint , M.Z. Mohd Tohir , A.K. Abu , P. Xie
      The time-equivalence method is one way to determine the appropriate fire severity in buildings. One of the input parameters required is the fire load energy density (FLED) and in a deterministic design this is taken to be a fixed value. This paper illustrates the use of a simple Monte Carlo tool that accounts for statistical variations in car energy content as a function of vehicle size to determine probabilistic FLED values for a risk-based calculation approach to the design of car parking buildings. The paper briefly discusses FLED values for car parking buildings that can be found in the literature and results from the Monte Carlo tool suggest that 260 MJ/m2 could be used as an appropriate design value in lieu of using a probabilistic approach.

      PubDate: 2015-05-02T09:19:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csfs.2015.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Detection of fires in the toilet compartment and driver sleeping
           compartment of buses and coaches—Installation considerations based on
           full scale tests

    • Authors: Ola Willstrand; Jonas Brandt Robert Svensson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2015
      Source:Case Studies in Fire Safety
      Author(s): Ola Willstrand, Jonas Brandt, Robert Svensson
      Effective fire detection systems properly installed in bus and coach toilet compartments and driver sleeping compartments may save human lives and property loss. Rapid detection allows for early evacuation and extinguishment of a small fire, while late or no detection may allow the fire to spread. The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to provide recommendations on how to install fire detection systems in toilet compartments and driver sleeping compartments. The recommendations also cover what type of detection system is most suited. As a basis for the recommendations, full scale fire tests were performed with different detection systems. The fire tests were conducted in realistic mockups of a toilet compartment and a sleeping compartment. Different heat and smoke detection systems were analyzed at different positions for different fire scenarios to provide information on how to best install detection systems in these compartments. Five different scenarios were run and the most interesting finding was that two realistic fire scenarios in the toilet compartment did not activate fire detectors in the ceiling at realistic air flow rates. It is very rare that fire detectors are placed anywhere else than on the ceiling in toilet compartments on buses and the fire would then be very large upon detection.

      PubDate: 2015-12-04T01:17:11Z
       
  • On the problem of ventilation control in case of a tunnel fire event

    • Authors: Peter Sturm; Michael Beyer; Mehdi Rafiei
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2015
      Source:Case Studies in Fire Safety
      Author(s): Peter Sturm, Michael Beyer, Mehdi Rafiei
      The proper operation of a ventilation system plays a key role in tunnel safety. Foremost, the ventilation system needs to provide acceptable air quality for the safe passage of tunnel users. Further, it needs to provide tenable environment and to facilitate rescue conditions during a smoke or fire event. While accomplishing the first task (normal operation), i.e. providing sufficient fresh air, is relatively straightforward, dealing with the second issue is the subject of considerable debate since defining the best means to ventilate a tunnel during a fire emergency is not always clear. Although fire tests in tunnels have been performed since the early 1960s, and although the topic of fire ventilation was raised in early national and international guidelines, relatively little interest was given to fire ventilation until several big fire events occurred in the 1990s. The tunnel ventilation systems and ventilation methodologies existing at that time proved to work well under normal operation, but failed during fire ventilation. Nowadays, the design and operation of the ventilation system during fire incidents (commonly called ‘fire ventilation’) is a major topic. While the design might follow the well-established principles, the question, ‘how to control tunnel ventilation during a fire event?’, is quite controversial. This paper discusses methods of fire ventilation with a focus on the methodologies themselves as well as on the requirements for sensors and control technologies.

      PubDate: 2015-12-04T01:17:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csfs.2015.11.001
       
  • Work Health &amp; Safety legislation; the fire engineer’s
           neglected duty?

    • Authors: P.A. (Tony) Enright
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Case Studies in Fire Safety, Volume 2
      Author(s): P.A. (Tony) Enright
      Fire engineers are in general, aware of their duties under Building legislation. However, they are often unfamiliar of separate duties under Work Health and Safety legislation. This paper describes an Australian case-study, but one that is presented generally so as to have applicability in those other jurisdictions where similar Work Health and Safety obligations exist. As society becomes safer, Work Health and Safety has evolved from being solely about the employer–employee relationship, to also impose duties on other participants, such as building designers. Fire engineers are building designers that by the very nature of their work, directly influence the safety of a workplace. Most buildings upon which fire engineering is practiced are workplaces. Under Building legislation, fire engineers must design to minimum performance requirements. In the process, usually adopting the most cost effective approach and thereby creating economic benefits. Under Work Health and Safety legislation however, fire engineers have a duty to adopt the highest possible level of precautions, unless it is not reasonably practicable to do so. The reasonably practicable test must follow the hierarchy of controls and consider all relevant matters, the last of which is cost. Fire engineers that ignore Work Health and Safety duties, intentionally or not, are exposed to claims of negligence.

      PubDate: 2014-07-27T01:37:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csfs.2014.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
       
  • A modified critical velocity for road tunnel fire smoke management with
           dedicated smoke extraction configuration

    • Authors: Yunlong Liu; Sean Cassady
      Pages: 16 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Case Studies in Fire Safety, Volume 2
      Author(s): Yunlong Liu , Sean Cassady
      Life safety is one of the objectives of fire engineering design for road tunnels. Fire engineering design requires maintaining a tenable condition for a period of time to allow occupants to evacuate to safety. This will be achieved by controlling the smoke under credible design fire scenarios in a tunnel. The critical location in a tunnel fire emergency condition is the tunnel region upstream of the fire, where occupants are most likely to reside as traffic jam can usually be created by the fire incident. Tenability for the downstream region of fire is not the main focus of this research because vehicles can generally drive out of the tunnel at a higher speed than that of the smoke flow, and local damper smoke extraction can help keep a tenable condition in the downstream region beyond the local fire zone, in case there is a congestion in the downstream region of the fire. To maintain a tenable condition in the upstream tunnel region from the fire incident, the required minimum longitudinal flow velocity to prevent smoke backlayering can be calculated based on NFPA 502 recommendations. This critical velocity takes no credit of the smoke extraction or active overhead fixed fire suppression effects. Smoke extraction with a dedicated smoke duct along the entire length of the tunnel is gaining popularity because of its efficiency and robustness in providing a tenable environment in the tunnel with unknown upstream and downstream traffic conditions. In this paper, a modified critical velocity to control smoke back-layering while smoke extraction and fire suppression systems are operating has been analyzed. This modified critical velocity is approximately 20% lower than the critical velocity that is recommended in NFPA 502. This allows significant savings on ventilation capacity for road tunnels which have a local smoke exhaust capability using a dedicated smoke duct. It is concluded that the smoke extraction performance is similar whether using ceiling dampers or vertical wall-mounted dampers for smoke capture to maintain tunnel tenability. However, tunnel gradients play a major role on the modified critical velocity for a nominated design fire and the required smoke extraction rate.

      PubDate: 2014-10-13T06:15:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csfs.2014.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
       
  • Fires and related incidents in Dubai, United Arab Emirates
           (2006–2013)

    • Authors: Mohammad A. Alqassim; Niamh Nic Daeid
      Pages: 28 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 October 2014
      Source:Case Studies in Fire Safety
      Author(s): Mohammad A. Alqassim , Niamh Nic Daeid
      Fire incidents in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, reported to the Forensic and Mechanical Engineering section of the Dubai Police Forensic Laboratory during 2006–2013 were reviewed. A detailed examination of more than 5,000 incidents, representing a wide range of fire types is presented. Statistical comparisons on the type of incident and the cause and origin of the fire have been evaluated. City areas covered by each police station are also identified. The outcomes of the study indicate that more than one third of the total number of incidents involved motor vehicles and these accounted for more than half of all deliberately set fires in Dubai. A further one third of the incidents reviewed were in residential units. Electrical failures were shown to pose the highest risk of accidental fire and the Bur Dubai Police Station was the busiest in terms of fire investigation caseload.

      PubDate: 2014-10-30T06:17:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csfs.2014.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
       
  • Differences in the risk profiles and risk perception of flammable liquid
           hazards in San Luis Potosi, Mexico

    • Authors: Claudia Yazmín Ortega Montoya; Alfredo Ávila Galarza; Roberto Briones Gallardo; Israel Razo Soto; Ricardo Medina Cerda
      Pages: 37 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 October 2014
      Source:Case Studies in Fire Safety
      Author(s): Claudia Yazmín Ortega Montoya , Alfredo Ávila Galarza , Roberto Briones Gallardo , Israel Razo Soto , Ricardo Medina Cerda
      The pace of urbanization and industrialization in developing countries is rapidly increasing. Unfortunately, regulatory and private-sector control of hazards has not always kept pace. This work identifies the level of emergency preparedness in chemical industries and evaluates the spatial distribution of hazards using a worst-case release scenario. Consequently, we identified potentially exposed urban communities and evaluated the social perception of a hazard. This research characterizes risk scenarios in a case study of the industrial area in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Intervention zones of major concern are recognized when deficiencies in emergency preparedness join a poor social perception of hazards in communities that are potentially exposed. The worst-case scenario radii of flammable chemicals range from 425 m to 733 m. Potentially exposed communities have a limited perception of chemical risk and no training in emergency response. Proximity to an industrial area influences communities towards a better recognition of hazards. However, communities far from the industrial area have higher exposure to low preparedness worst-case scenarios for flammable chemicals and have a larger level of vulnerability because of their lack of risk perception.

      PubDate: 2014-10-30T06:17:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csfs.2014.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
       
  • Impact of jet fan ventilation systems on sprinkler activation

    • Authors: P.A. (Tony) Enright
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Case Studies in Fire Safety, Volume 1
      Author(s): P.A. (Tony) Enright
      Jet fans are increasingly preferred over traditional ducted systems as a means of ventilating pollutants from large spaces such as car parking buildings. Outside of tunnel applications jet fans are considered to have limitations as means of smoke control. This is because their effectiveness is limited without side walls and they de-stratify the smoke layer. Jet fans can however, aid post-event in smoke clearance under the control of the attending fire brigade. The prudent fire mode strategy in those jurisdictions where jet fans are not used for smoke control is for the ventilation system to shut down on a fire alarm signal. The problem lies in the jet fans receiving that signal. A fire has three basic signatures; heat, smoke, and light. Large car parking buildings may be sprinkler-protected. Sprinklers operate on the heat signature. A jet fan is assumed to disrupt this signature by forcing the plume of heat downstream and diluting that plume with cool air. This may delay sprinkler activation. In terms of the smoke signature, the presence of pollutants such as carbon monoxide that could be detected by a specialised detector, are the same signals that would cause a jet fan to increase its flow in normal mode. The response to a smoke signature is contradictory between the desired normal-mode reaction to speed up and the fire-mode reaction to shut down. This leaves light. Fires are very rich across the non-visible light spectra and flame detectors are an effective way to provide a fire signal independent of the normal-mode operation of the jet fans. However, the cost-benefit of installing flame detectors in addition to sprinklers is questionable. A series of detailed computational analyses are therefore undertaken to quantify the impact of the jet fans on delaying sprinkler activation on a typical car park sprinkler arrangement. This article assumes the perspective of a jurisdiction where the fire mode strategy is for the fans to shut down. However, the sprinkler delay will also be of interest where the fire mode strategy is to continue operating. Once sprinkler activation had occurred a fire signal is assumed to have been generated to shut down the jet fans. Separate evaluations can then be made as to whether the delay was acceptable or not, dependent upon to the specific building geometry. The results indicate that for a fast-growing design fire, sprinkler activation occurred at ∼180s with the jet fans off and at ∼210s with them on: an increase of ⩽30s. A separate analysis was undertaken for the case-specific egress safety margin. Comparing the two, it was concluded, that the impact of jet fans upon sprinkler activation was not significant. It was further established that the smoke disturbance due to the jet fan flow did not adversely affect the visibility for those escaping.

      PubDate: 2014-03-16T15:51:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csfs.2013.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 1 (2014)
       
  • Fire safety engineering at a crossroad

    • Authors: Brian J. Meacham
      Pages: 8 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Case Studies in Fire Safety, Volume 1
      Author(s): Brian J. Meacham
      Fire safety engineering (FSE) has become widely accepted throughout the world. This is quite an accomplishment for a young engineering discipline. Fire safety engineers are employed by public and private sector organizations of all types. We are involved in almost all major building and infrastructure projects, enabling amazing buildings to be designed, constructed and occupied. We play critical roles in high hazard industries, helping to mitigate risks and achieve acceptable levels of safety. We undertake groundbreaking research and develop new technologies aimed at reducing the impacts of unwanted fire. However, as an engineering discipline, we lack several attributes that one might expect to see in a mature discipline, including a robust analytical engineering framework. We have not experienced any transformational changes in technology or practice in some time. FSE degree programs and recognition of FSE as a unique discipline remain lacking in several countries, leading to wide variation in the level and consistency of fire safety performance delivered. This has unfortunately led some to question the competency and the efficacy of the profession, in some cases resulting in more regulatory control over the fire safety engineering analysis and design of buildings. The net result is that we are at a crossroad. We face some significant challenges, but we have the opportunity to shape an amazing future. If we are up to the challenges and take advantage of the opportunities, we have a chance to evolve the discipline towards maturity and greater respect. In this article I outline my view of the current situations, some of the challenges we face, steps we might take to overcome them, and areas for research, development and implementation into practice concepts that can lead to a promising future.

      PubDate: 2014-03-16T15:51:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csfs.2013.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 1 (2014)
       
  • Pressurization systems do not work &amp; present a risk to life safety

    • Authors: Simon Lay
      Pages: 13 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Case Studies in Fire Safety, Volume 1
      Author(s): Simon Lay
      This paper considers why some fire safety professionals have become critical of a reliance on pressurization as the dominant form of smoke control in high rise buildings. Design, installation and operational challenges are discussed and alternative solutions presented alongside guidance to building designers and approval authorities.

      PubDate: 2014-03-16T15:51:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csfs.2013.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 1 (2014)
       
  • Performance-based design of road tunnel fire safety: Proposal of new
           Swedish framework

    • Authors: Jonatan Gehandler; Haukur Ingason; Anders Lönnermark; Håkan Frantzich; Michael Strömgren
      Pages: 18 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Case Studies in Fire Safety, Volume 1
      Author(s): Jonatan Gehandler , Haukur Ingason , Anders Lönnermark , Håkan Frantzich , Michael Strömgren
      This paper contains a proposal of new Swedish framework for performance-based design of road tunnel fire safety derived from Swedish and European regulation. The overall purpose of the guideline is to protect life, health, property, environment, and key societal functions from fire. The guideline is structured into five key groups of requirements: #1 Proper management and organisation, #2 to limit the generation and spread of fire and smoke, #3 to provide means for safe self-evacuation, #4 to provide means and safety for the rescue service, and #5 to ensure load-bearing capacity of the construction. Each group contains a hybrid of prescriptive requirements, performance-based requirements, and acceptable solutions. Prescriptive requirements must be fulfilled, however, it is the choice of the design team to either adopt the proposed acceptable solutions, or to design alternative solutions by verifying that performance-based requirements are satisfied. For verification of performance-based requirements through risk analysis the operational, epistemic, and aleatory uncertainties are considerable. Therefore, a scenario-based risk analysis with several specified input variables and methods is recommended for verification of #3 and #5. Indispensable complements are scenario exercises, emergency exercises and similar methods that validate the design and highlight organisational aspects. The proposed design guide has been developed by the authors together with the advisory group established for the work.

      PubDate: 2014-03-16T15:51:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csfs.2014.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 1 (2014)
       
  • Fire scene reconstruction of a furnished compartment room in a house fire

    • Authors: A.C.Y. Yuen; G.H. Yeoh; R. Alexander; M. Cook
      Pages: 29 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Case Studies in Fire Safety, Volume 1
      Author(s): A.C.Y. Yuen , G.H. Yeoh , R. Alexander , M. Cook
      Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been employed to reconstruct the burning of solid combustible materials of a house fire in Parkes, New South Wales, Australia. Experiment was conducted in a compartment room containing multiple combustible materials with an identified ignition source. Large scale fire development involving the spread of flame and smoke leading to the untenable condition of flashover was observed from on-site visualisations as well as comparison to calculated heat release rates. Significant transient fire events taken from experimental footages including the spread of flame on furniture such as couch and carpet were captured through the numerical model. The present simulation and experimental studies are currently being utilised as components for online fire training program for fire-fighters.

      PubDate: 2014-03-16T15:51:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csfs.2014.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 1 (2014)
       
  • Emergency Lighting Cabinet for Fire Safety Learning

    • Authors: Javier Bermejo-Busto; Natalia Mambrilla-Herrero
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2014
      Source:Case Studies in Fire Safety
      Author(s): César Martín-Gómez , Javier Bermejo-Busto , Natalia Mambrilla-Herrero
      The aim of this innovative educational project is to encourage students’ interest in one of the most underrated fields of fire safety: emergency lighting. So this educational project aims to combine the relationships amongst the evacuation safety theory, real manufacturers products and an specific software for its usage.In order to achieve it, a ‘technical cabinet’ has been designed and built for its use in the Laboratory of a University School. The design, content and learning system of the cabinet confirmed the validity of the initial concept during the first year of use. A protocol has also been developed for the technical cabinet, so that the teaching experience may be of use in other Schools of Architecture.

      PubDate: 2014-12-31T09:44:59Z
       
  • Safety issues in PV systems: design choices for a secure fault detection
           and for preventing fire risk

    • Authors: M.C. Falvo; Capparella
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2014
      Source:Case Studies in Fire Safety
      Author(s): M.C. Falvo , S. Capparella
      Photovoltaic systems have played a key role over the last decade in the evolution of the electricity sector. In terms of safety design, it’s important to consider that a PV plant constitutes a special system of generation, where the Direct Current (DC) presence results in changes to the technical rules. Moreover, if certain electrical faults occur, the plant is a possible source of fire. Choices regarding the grounding of the generator and its protection devices are fundamental for a design that evaluates fire risk. The subject of the article is the analysis of the relation between electrical phenomena in PV systems and the fire risk related to ensuring appropriate fault detection by the electrical protection system. A description of a grid-connected PV system is followed firstly by a comparison of the design solutions provided by international Standards, and secondly by an analysis of electrical phenomena which may trigger a fire. A study of two existing PV systems, where electrical faults have resulted in fires, is then presented. The study highlights the importance of checking all possible failure modes in a PV system design phase, to assess fire risk in advance. Some guidelines for the mitigation of electrical faults that may result in a fire are finally provided.

      PubDate: 2014-12-19T09:22:55Z
       
  • Assessment of Fire Protection Systems in Proscenium Theatres

    • Authors: Jaewook Kwon
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 July 2014
      Source:Case Studies in Fire Safety
      Author(s): Jaewook Kwon
      Stage fire protection measures, details differing from one region to another, have been established, codified and enforced throughout the world and have changed little over the past 100 years. Technological advancements in both stagecraft and fire protection systems have led to a need in the theater community to study the current state of theater fire protection requirements. The objective of the study was to assess the level of protection afforded by stage active fire protection measures, as prescribed by the International Building Code (IBC) [1], NFPA 80 Standard for Fire Doors and Other Opening Protectives [2] and as implemented in current design practice, in the event of a fire in the stagehouse of a proscenium theatre. The study presented herein assesses the effectiveness of each of the fire protection systems required by building codes for proscenium type theatres. The egress study is not part of this study and thus not specifically carried out. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been utilized to examine fire conditions and to assess the effectiveness of the fire protection systems provided within a stage. The input data including representative theater dimensions, fuel loads, and fire scenarios have been determined by a survey of theatre design professionals.

      PubDate: 2014-07-27T01:37:01Z
       
 
 
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