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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1278 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (18 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (509 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (379 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (106 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (99 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (80 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (509 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 175)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription  
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Policy and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Professions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Health Sciences Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Health Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Healthcare Delivery Reform Initiatives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover African Health Sciences
  [SJR: 0.441]   [H-I: 25]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1680-6905
   Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [265 journals]
  • Pediatric out-of-hospital deaths following hospital discharge: a
           mixed-methods study

    • Authors: Lacey English, Elias Kumbakumba, Charles P Larson, Jerome Kabakyenga, Joel Singer, Niranjan Kissoon, J Mark Ansermino, Hubert Wong, Julius Kiwanuka, MO Wien
      Abstract: Background: Out-of-hospital death among children living in resource poor settings occurs frequently. Little is known about the location and circumstances of child death following a hospital discharge.
      Objectives: This study aimed to understand the context surrounding out-of-hospital deaths and the barriers to accessing timely care for Ugandan children recently discharged from the hospital.
      Methods: This was a mixed-methods sub-study within a larger cohort study of post-discharge mortality conducted in the Southwestern region of Uganda. Children admitted with an infectious illness were eligible for enrollment in the cohort study, and then followed for six months after discharge. Caregivers of children who died outside of the hospital during the six month post-discharge period were eligible to participate in this sub-study. Qualitative interviews and univariate logistic regression were conducted to determine predictors of out-of-hospital deaths.
      Results: Of 1,242 children discharged, 61 died during the six month post-discharge period, with most (n=40, 66%) dying outside of a hospital. Incremental increases in maternal education were associated with lower odds of out-of-hospital death compared to hospital death (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.19 – 0.81). The qualitative analysis identified health seeking behaviors and common barriers within the post-discharge period which delayed care seeking prior to death. For recently discharged children, caregivers often expressed hesitancy to seek care following a recent episode of hospitalization.
      Conclusion: Mortality following discharge often occurs outside of a hospital context. In addition to resource limitations, the health knowledge and perceptions of caregivers can be influential to timely access to care. Interventions to decrease child mortality must consider barriers to health seeking among children following hospital discharge.
      Keywords: Pediatrics, post-discharge mortality, Uganda, qualitative interviews, infectious disease
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Nutritional status, feeding practices and state of other related
           indicators at onset of a multi-model community nutrition intervention
           program in Mpigi District, Uganda

    • Authors: Nazarius Mbona Tumwesigye, Florence Basiimwa Tushemerirwe, Richard Kajjura, Victoria Nabunya, Ronald Andrew Naitala, Cissie Namanda
      Abstract: Introduction: In Uganda, malnutrition level has persistently remained high among the under-fives and this has led NGOs like World Vision, Uganda into finding innovative ways for intervention. This paper presents an assessment of nutrition status and values of related indicators at onset of a community intervention program in four sub-counties of Mpigi district in Central Uganda.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study to provide baseline information for a nutrition intervention. The study units were index children aged 6-59 months from 818 households. Face to face interviews were conducted using semi-structured questionnaires. Values of key indicators were computed and compared between designated control and intervention areas.Results: Stunting level was 32% while wasting was 3% and underweight at 10%. Most of the index children (78%) started breastfeeding within the first hour of birth. Nearly a third of the households visited had a kitchen garden and this did not differ by intervention status.Conclusion: Like at regional level, nutrition status and feeding practices in the study area were poor. The values of these indicators did not significantly change by designated intervention status. Much effort was needed to realize a difference in nutrition and feeding practices in designated intervention areas.Keywords: Local institution, nutrition, feeding practices, community participation, interventions, malnutrition, morbidity, control,  baseline, World Vision Uganda
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Effect of mother support groups on nutritional status in children under
           two years of age in Laisamis village, Kenya

    • Authors: Mattias Undlien, Håvard-Amund Viervoll, Berit Rostad
      Abstract: Background: In tackling the ongoing malnutrition problem in many parts of Kenya, the government has initialized preventive actions such as mother support groups in order to improve health and nutrition among children. Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of such intervention.Objective: This study aimed at determining how mother support groups affect the nutrition status of children under 2 years of age.Methods: 41 children participated. Anthropometric measurements were taken of the children once a month during 12 months. Medical history, nutrition status and socioeconomic factors were collected by interviews with the mothers. The children were divided into two groups depending on their mother’s assigned group; mother support group or not.Results: Nutritional status was significantly better among children in the mother support group (P=0.001). There were significantly more children with severe acute malnutrition among the children not in support group (P=0.040). The mean height (P=0.001) and mean weight (P=0.0281) were significantly higher among children in the non-support group.Conclusion: Mother support groups may have a beneficial effect on the nutritional status of children under 2 years of age. Cases of severe acute malnutrition seemed to be less prevalent in children whose mothers attend mother support groups.Keywords: Malnutrition, mother support groups, breastfeeding, Kenya
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • A systematic review of factors affecting energy intake of adolescent girls

    • Authors: Bibi Mushirah Jodhun, Dhandevi Pem, Rajesh Jeewon
      Abstract: Background: Adolescence is considered a critical period marked by an increase in energy intake to meet the body’s physiological needs especially during puberty. This study reviews existing literature and critically analyses factors associated with eating habits and energy intake of adolescent girls.Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted to identify at least 200 peer reviewed articles which dealt with the factors affecting energy intake (EI) and eating habits of adolescent girls. Studies were identified using a reference period between 1994 and 2016, based primarily on the PubMed/ CINL/ Science Direct/Google Scholar databases using keywords adolescent/ teenagers, factors/determinants and energy intake.Results: No studies investigated all factors affecting energy intake among adolescents. Some studies found mixed association among the determinants of EI in adolescent girls. However, a number of reviews confirm that many factors namely physical activity level, socio-economic status, diet, individual and social factors do contribute to either a higher or a lower EI of adolescents.Conclusion: There is a dire need to consider factors associated with EI when designing nutritional intervention programs to prevent health problems in adulthood. The goal is not to change behavior of all but to increase the percentage of people adopting healthier lifestyle.Keywords: Adolescent girls, energy intake, physical activity level, socio-economic status, nutrition education
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Community-made mobile videos as a mechanism for maternal, newborn and
           child health education in rural Uganda; a qualitative evaluation

    • Authors: Juliet Ntuulo Mutanda, Peter Waiswa, Sarah Namutamba
      Abstract: Introduction: In Uganda, the maternal, newborn and child mortality is highest in rural areas, which are least served by health services and are also least reached by effective behavior change communication for health. Though maternal and child health related messages are available, they are still not culture and context specific for effective behaviour change.Aim: This study aimed at evaluating the feasibility of using locally made videos by local community groups in local languages as a channel for increasing knowledge, practices, demand and use of maternal and child health messages among women living in rural communities in Eastern Uganda.Methods: This paper describes the qualitative findings from a quasi experimental study targeting the rural semi-illiterate populations in hard to reach areas. Videos were developed and implemented based on Ministry of Health. Focus group discussions and KIs targeted pregnant and post natal mothers. Data transcription and content analysis was done.Results: Local mobile community videos were effective in communicating knowledge about key maternal and child health messages to both women and their male partners.Conclusion: Locally made mobile community videos are effective in improving knowledge, attitudes, practices and use of maternal and child health messages among rural semi-illiterate communities.Keywords: Community-made mobile videos, maternal, newborn, child health education, rural Uganda, a qualitative evaluation
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Raising a child with down’s syndrome: perspectives from South
           African urban care-givers

    • Authors: Megan D. Barr, Pragashnie Govender, Gina Rencken
      Abstract: Objectives: This study addresses a gap from a South African urban perspective on the knowledge and emotional responses of caregivers with children diagnosed with Down’s syndrome (DS). The study is an initial step towards informing health professionals who adopt a biopsychosocial approach, in an effort to improve interventions for both caregivers and children.Methods: A simple descriptive survey was utilized with 57 participants who were caregivers of children with DS. Data was analyzed descriptively using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) (version 21).Results: The caregivers’ initial reactions when discovering that the child had DS included shock, sadness and anxiety. When considering the etiology of Down’s syndrome, findings reflected that caregivers understood DS as a medical condition relating to chromosomal abnormalities rather than attribution of the syndrome to a fault of their own. Despite the immediate reactions, the caregivers’ initial emotions toward the child rather than the situation were positive and unchanged by the subsequent challenges in caring for the child. The caregivers indicated feelings of love toward the child notwithstanding the diagnosis.Conclusion: This study allowed for the subjective experience, perceptions and attitudes of caregivers to be investigated, and raised further questions into the deeper meanings and experiences of caregivers towards assisting practitioners in understanding the dynamics surrounding care-giving that may influence holistic interventions.Keywords: Down’s syndrome, caregivers, perceptions, emotional responses
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of autism among children attending
           primary and secondary schools in south east Nigeria

    • Authors: Josephat M. Chinawa, Pius C. Manyike, Elias C. Aniwada, Awoere T. Chinawa, Herbert A. Obu, Odutola I. Odetunde, Ada R.C. Nwokocha, Roland R. Ibekwe
      Abstract: Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence and socio-economic determinants of autism among children attending primary and secondary schools in South East, Nigeria.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that assessed the prevalence and socio-economic pattern of childhood autism among children attending primary and secondary schools in Enugu and Ebonyi states, South East Nigeria. The questionnaire was adapted from American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR, 2000). The study was carried out between June and October, 2014.The schools were selected by listing all the mixed schools in the urban and semi- urban areas by simple random sampling.Results: A total of 721 subjects completed the questionnaire. The age of respondents ranged between 3 and 18 years, with mean age of 12.71 and standard deviation of 3.03 years. Twenty one children fulfilled the criteria for autism giving a prevalence of 2.9%. There is a significant association between age in categories (fishers exact test, p = 0.013) and social class (p=0.033).Conclusion: The prevalence of autism was 2.9%; and the socio-economic characteristics of childhood autism in South East Nigeria are similar to those in other parts of the world.Keywords: Childhood autism; primary and secondary schools; Nigeria
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Caries and dental erosion: are Soroti children and adolescents at risk
           from increased soft-drink availability in Uganda'

    • Authors: Jordan Cheng, Karen Campbell
      Abstract: Objective: An initial field study to investigate dental caries and dental erosion in children and adolescents in the community of Soroti, Uganda.Methods: A stratified two-stage cluster sample of 84 children (ages 8-10) and adolescents (ages 16-19) were recruited. A survey was undertaken to assess the state of determinants of oral health, oral hygiene practices, and soft-drink and sweetened-tea consumption. Intra-oral photographs were taken and reviewed to measure Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth (DMFT) and dental erosion.Results: A significant difference was observed in DMFT between children and adolescents (3.7 ± 2.7 versus 2.1 ± 2.4 p=.02). A trend of lower erosion scores was seen in children compared to adolescents. Greater frequency of sweetened-tea consumption over soft-drinks was noted in both groups.Conclusion: This study did not reveal any relationship between different levels of cariogenic beverage consumption and DMFT or dental erosion in this sample group.Keywords: Caries , dental erosion, soft-drink availability in Uganda
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Physical activity, body mass index and blood pressure in primary school
           pupils attending private schools

    • Authors: Wilson E. Sadoh, Ayebo E. Sadoh, Alphonsus N. Onyiriuka
      Abstract: Background: Lack of physical activity contributes to overweight and obesity. It is recommended that children accumulate at least one hour of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity daily.Objective: The level of physical activity, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) were evaluated in pupils attending private primary schools.Method: The intensity and duration of physical activity of the pupils selected by multiple stage sampling method were obtained with the aid of a questionnaire. The BMI and BP were measured. Analysis was by SPSS.Results: Of the 353 pupils, 132(37.4%) pupils were adequately physically active while overweight and obesity prevalences were 54(15.3%) and 65(18.4%) respectively. Hypertension prevalence in overweight/ obese children (6.5%) was significantly higher than in children with healthy weight 1.5%, P = 0.04.Conclusion: Only a third of pupils met the recommended level of physical activity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was high while the overweight and obese pupils were more likely to have hypertension compared to those with healthy weight. Physical activity programmes for primary school pupils in school and at home are therefore recommended.Keywords: Physical activity; body mass index; school children; hypertension
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Long-term outcome of Tunisian children with primary ciliary dyskinesia
           confirmed by transmission electron microscopy

    • Authors: Hamouda Samia, Boussetta Khadija, Hamzaoui Agnes, Khalsi Fatma, Trabelsi Ines, Jaafoura Hafedh, Tinsa Faten
      Abstract: Background: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is rare. Its diagnosis requires experienced specialists and expensive infrastructure. Its prognosis is variable.Objective: To study the long-term outcome of PCD in Tunisian children with ciliary ultra-structure defects detected by electron microscope.Methods: Covering a period of 20 years (1996-2015), this retrospective study included all patients with definite PCD (outer dynein arms (DA) defects and/or situs inversus) and presumed PCD (other ciliary ultra-structure defects). The clinical data and the investigations made were registered at diagnosis and during the follow-up.Results: Patients with a definite PCD (G1, n=7) were diagnosed earlier compared to those with a presumed PCD (G2, n=13) (2.5 vs. 9.3 years on average). At diagnosis, bronchiectasis was more frequent in G1 (3/7 vs. 4/13). The inner DA loss was constant in G1 and predominant in G2. The treatment adhesion was more often irregular in G2 (2/7 vs. 8/13). During a mean follow-up of 11 years, G1 showed less severe outcome (clubbing (0 vs. 3), bronchiectasis (3 vs. 11; more expanded in G2), proximal and distal airway obstruction (0/3 vs. 5/7), lobectomy (0 vs. 2), and death (0 vs. 2)).Conclusion: Precocious diagnosis and regular treatment may enhance the PCD prognosis.Keywords: Primary ciliary dyskinesia, cilia, child, recurrent pneumonia, bronchiectasis
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Pattern of utilization of ante-natal and delivery services in a semi-urban
           community of North-Central Nigeria

    • Authors: Jimoh Maryam Abimbola, Akande Tanimola Makanjuola, Salaudeen Adekunle Ganiyu, Uthman Mohammed Mubashir Babatunde, Durowade Kabir Adekunle, Aremu Ayodele Olatayo
      Abstract: Background: Nigeria accounts for only 2% of the world’s population, but contributes up to 10 % of the global estimates of maternal deaths. The study assesses the utilization of antenatal and delivery services by women of reproductive age in Afon community.Methodology: It was a descriptive cross-sectional study that collected both quantitative and qualitative data using semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire and focus group discussions (FGD). Interviews were house-hold based. FGD had two homogenous groups. Data was analysed using Epi-info version 3.5.1 software package. Level of statistical significance was set at p <0.05.Results: There was a high level of utilization of antenatal/delivery services in the community. Barriers to utilization of ANC/ delivery services include lack of money, distance from health facility, long waiting time, poor attitude of health workers and no permission from husbands. Level of education and employment status were significantly associated with utilization of ANC/ delivery services.Conclusion: Girl- child education and women empowerment are required to improve utilization of services. Ante-natal care providers need to be trained to improve quality of care in the discharge of their duties.Keywords: Utilization, antenatal services, Nigeria
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence of geophagia and its contributing factors among pregnant women
           at Dr. George Mukhari Academic Hospital, Pretoria

    • Authors: L.R. Macheka, J.O. Olowoyo, L Matsela, A.A. Khine
      Abstract: Introduction: Geophagia is very common among pregnant women, particularly in Africa. There are many reasons given for geophagia such as cultural, medicinal and religious, making it an acceptable norm regardless of health risks involved.Objectives: The study explored prevalence and factors influencing geophagia among women visiting an antenatal clinic in Pretoria.Methods: A quantitative survey was done on a convenience sample of 597 pregnant women and structured interviews conducted. Statistical analysis was done using simple percentage and interview data analyzed using Epi Info statistical software.Results: Geophagia was reported by 54.0% of the women (n=323) and of these, 75.2% (n=243) ate at least 3 teaspoons per day. Reasons for the practice ranged from simple unexplained craving to belief that soil acts as an iron supplement. The study revealed that education levels did not act as a contributing factor as both literate and illiterate women were consumers. Partners of consumers played a key role in influencing the practice as most consumers were not married.Conclusion: Geophagia is practiced by a considerable proportion of pregnant women in this area. Greater vigilance may be needed as part of the antenatal classes to avoid potentially harmful effects of the habit.Keywords: Geophagia, pregnant women, Dr. George Mukhari Academic Hospital, Pretoria
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence and risk factors of pre-hypertension in Congolese pre and post
           menopausal women

    • Authors: M.J.S. Muchanga, F.B. Lepira, R Tozin, E.P. Mbelambela, N.R. Ngatu, E.K. Sumaili, J.R. Makulo, N Suganuma
      Abstract: Objectives: We aimed to assess the prevalence of prehypertension and its associated factors in a population of Congolese pre and postmenopausal women.Methods: We had consecutively recruited 200 women (100 premenopausal and 100 postmenopausal) aged 40 – 60 years at the department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Kinshasa Hospital, and AKRAM Medical Center in Kinshasa, DRC. An interview was carried out using a questionnaire that comprised questions related to lifestyle, menses characteristics, medical history of diabetes, CVD, hypertension, current antihypertensive medication and use of traditional medicine. In addition, physical examination and biological measurements were performed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess associated factors with prehypertension.Results: Of the participants, 34% were normotensive, 38.5 % prehypertensive and 27.5% hypertensive. Compared to normal blood pressure, prehypertension was common in the older (age>50 years of age) women. Menopause, the use of traditional medicine and older age were associated with prehypertension. However, only menopause (aOR: 2.71; 95%CI: 1.10-3.52) and the use of traditional medicine (aOR: 2.24; 95% CI: 1.07-4.7) remained associated with prehypertension in a multivariate logistic regression analysis.Conclusion: This study showed that prehypertension is common among Congolese menopausal women, and that menopause and the use of traditional medicine were the main factors associated with prehypertension.Keywords: Pre-hypertension, Congolese pre and post menopausal women
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Child marriage and maternal health risks among young mothers in Gombi,
           Adamawa State, Nigeria: implications for mortality, entitlements and
           freedoms

    • Authors: Olaide Adedokun, Oluwagbemiga Adeyemi, Cholli Dauda
      Abstract: Background: Efforts toward liberation of the girl-child from the shackles of early marriage have continued to be resisted through tradition, culture and religion in some parts of Nigeria.Objective: This study therefore examines the maternal health implications of early marriage on young mothers in the study area.Methods: Multistage sampling technique was employed to obtained data from 200 young mothers aged 15-24 years who married before aged 16 years.Findings: The study reveals that more than 60% had only primary education while more than 70% had experienced complications before or after childbirth. Age at first marriage, current age, level of education and household decision-making significantly influence (P<0.005) maternal health risks in the study area. The study establishes that respondents in age group 15-19 years are 1.234 times more likely to experience complications when compared with the reference category 20-24 years. Entitlements and freedom that are highly relevant to reduction of maternal mortality, provided by international treaties are inaccessible to young women in the study area.Conclusion: Strategies to end child marriage in the study area should include mass and compulsory education of girls, provision of other options to early marriage and childbearing and involvement of fathers in preventing and ending the practice.Keywords: Child marriage, maternal health risks, Nigeria, mortality, entitlements and freedoms
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Chemical constituents of Cyperus rotundus L. and their inhibitory effects
           on uterine fibroids

    • Authors: Ying Ju, Bing Xiao
      Abstract: Background: Xiang Fu (Cyperus rotundus L) enters the liver, spleen and triple warmer meridians, and has qi stagnation-removing, qi circulation-promoting, menstruation-regulating and pain-relieving effects. Besides, it can improve ovarian function, and has hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic and neuroprotective actions.Objectives: To study the biflavone constituents in Cyperus rotundus L and to investigate the effect and mechanism of amentoflavone on inhibition of uterine tumors. Modern chromatographic techniques were applied for isolation and purification of compounds, which were then structurally elucidated based on their physicochemical properties and spectral data.Methods: Female SD rats were injected with diethylstilbestrol and progesterone to establish the pathological model of uterine fibroids. The rats were then randomly divided into amentoflavone high-, medium- and low-dose groups, mifepristone group, model group and blank control group (n=10 in each group), and these administered for six consecutive weeks. 24 h after the last administration, the rats were sacrificed, changes in uterine coefficient were observed, and morphological features of apoptotic cells in uterine smooth muscle tissues were detected. Afterwards, serum estradiol and progesterone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay, as well as NOS level in uterine fibroid tissue homogenates. Pro- and anti-apoptotic genes Bcl-2 and Bax were determined by immunohistochemical assay.Results: Four biflavone constituents were isolated and obtained. Amentoflavone could markedly reduce the uterine coefficient in model rats, lower serum estrogen levels in rats with uterine fibroids, improve the pathological conditions of uterine tissues, markedly reduce the number of Bcl-2- and Bax-positive dots in smooth muscles, and significantly inhibit the tumor-like proliferation in model rats (P<0.01), which were most obvious in the amentoflavone high-dose group.Conclusion: It concludes that amentoflavone has a significant inhibitory effect on uterine tumors in rats. Its mechanism may be by elevating Bax protein expression, down-regulating Bcl-2 expression, forming homodimers Bax/Bax, and reducing plasma estradiol and progesterone to promote apoptosis of uterine fibroid cells.Keywords: Cyperus rotundus L., biflavone, chemical constituent, anti-tumor
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • IgG isotypic antibodies to crude Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage antigen
           associated with placental malaria infection in parturient Cameroonian
           women

    • Authors: Judith K. Anchang-Kimbi, Eric Akum Achidi, Blaise Nkegoum, Joseph-Marie N. Mendimi, Eva Sverremark-Ekström, Marita Troye-Blomberg
      Abstract: Background: Few studies have reported an association between placental malaria (PM) infection and levels of isotypic antibodies against non-pregnancy associated antigens.Objective: To determine and evaluate IgG isotypic antibody levels to crude P. falciparum blood stage in women with and without PM infection.Methods: Levels of IgG (IgG1-IgG4) and IgM to crude P. falciparum blood stage antigen were measured by ELISA in 271 parturient women. Placental malaria infection was determined by placental blood microscopy and placental histology. Age, parity and intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) usage were considered during analysis.Results: P. falciparum-specific IgG1 (96.5%) and IgG3 (96.7%) antibodies were predominant compared with IgG2 (64.6%) and IgG4 (49.1%). Active PM infection was associated with significant increased levels of IgG1, IgG4 and IgM while lower levels of these antibodies were associated with uptake of two or more IPTp-SP doses. PM infection was the only independent factor associated with IgG4 levels. Mean IgG1 + IgG3/IgG2 + IgG4 and IgG1 + IgG2 +IgG3/ IgG4 ratios were higher among the PM-uninfected group while IgG4/IgG2 ratio prevailed in the infected group.Conclusion: PM infection and IPTp-SP dosage influenced P. falciparum-specific isotypic antibody responses to blood stage antigens. An increase in IgG4 levels in response to PM infection is of particular interest.Keywords: Placental malaria infection, isotypic antibodies, crude Plasmodium falciparum antigen
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Price elasticity of demand for psychiatric consultation in a Nigerian
           psychiatric service

    • Authors: Oluyomi Esan
      Abstract: Objective: This paper addresses price elasticity of demand (PED) in a region where most patients make payments for consultations out of pocket. PED is a measure of the responsiveness of the quantity demanded of goods or services to changes in price. The study was done in the context of an outpatient psychiatric clinic in a sub –Saharan African country.Methods: The study was performed at the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria. Aggregate data were collected on weekly clinic attendance over a 24- month period October 2008 - September 2010 representing 12 months before, to 12 months after a 67% increase in price of outpatient psychiatric consultation. The average weekly clinic attendance prior to the increase was compared to the average clinic attendance after the price increase. Arc-PED for consultation was also estimated.Results: Clinic attendance dropped immediately and significantly in the weeks following the price increase. There was a 34.4% reduction in average weekly clinic attendance. Arc-PED for psychiatric consultation was -0.85.Conclusion: In comparison to reported PED on health care goods and services, this study finds a relatively high PED in psychiatric consultation following an increase in price of user fees of psychiatric consultation.Keywords: Price Elasticity of Demand (PED), outpatient psychiatric clinic, Nigerian
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Referral letters to the psychiatrist in Nigeria: is communication
           adequate'

    • Authors: Oluyomi Esan, Oluremi Oladele
      Abstract: Objective: Over half of patients with psychiatric disorders are first seen by primary care physicians before referral to the psychiatrist. An efficient referral system is, therefore, important to offering quality care to such patients. Communication between physicians is often sub-optimal and referral letters to specialists sometimes provide inadequate information. The current study’s aim was to observe the prevalence of deficiencies in the referral letters to a department of psychiatry in a Nigerian teaching hospital.Methods: All referral letters to the Department of Psychiatry, University College Hospital Ibadan, Nigeria over a three- year period from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2012, were retrieved and assessed for quality using the Consultation and Referral Request Letter Assessment Tool.Result: A majority (>80%) of the referral letters had no information on the current medication list, relevant psychosocial history, outline of management to date, results of investigations to date, and known allergies.Conclusion: Deficits in communication or information transfer through referral letters to the psychiatrist are common. Interventions such as the use of standardized formats for such letters may facilitate more efficient communication.Keywords: Communication; Letter; Nigeria; Psychiatrist; Referrals
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempt: associations with psychiatric
           disorders and HIV/AIDS in post-conflict Northern Uganda

    • Authors: James Mugisha, Herbert Muyinda, Ashraf Kagee, Peter Wandiembe, Stephen M. Kiwuwa, Davy Vancampfort, Eugene Kinyanda
      Abstract: Background: Research on the prevalence of suicidal ideation, attempt, and cormorbid psychiatric disorders in post-conflict areas is still limited.Aim: We explored the prevalence of suicidal ideation, attempt, associated psychiatric disorders and HIV/AIDS in post-conflict Northern Uganda, an area that experienced civil strife for over two decades.Methods: A total of 2400 respondents (aged 18 and above) and randomly selected in three districts (Gulu, Amuru and Nwoya), were interviewed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess for associations between suicidality (suicidal ideation and attempt) and psychiatric cormorbidities.Results: The prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempt were 12.1 % and 6.2 % respectively. Suicidality was significantly (P<0.001) higher among respondents with major depressive disorder (adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) = 9.5; 95%CI= 7.4, 12.1) and post-traumatic stress disorder (adjusted OR =2.4; 95%CI= 1.6, 3.6). Men had lower odds of ideating or attempting suicide compared to women (adjusted OR = 0.55; 95%CI: 0.38, 0.82).Conclusion: The prevalence rate of suicide ideation and attempt indicate a major public health problem in post-conflict Northern Uganda. Effective public mental health programs that that target both suicidality and psychiatric co-morbodities will be vital. Special attention should be given to women in post conflict Northern Uganda.Keywords: Suicide attempt, ideation, cormorbidity, post-conflict Northern Uganda
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Socio-demographic correlates of treatment response among patients with
           schizophrenia in a tertiary hospital in South-East Nigeria

    • Authors: Mark S. Ezeme, Richard Uwakwe, Appolos C. Ndukuba, Monday N. Igwe, Paul C. Odinka, Kennedy Amadi, Nichodemus O. Obayi
      Abstract: Background: Many patients with schizophrenia respond poorly to antipsychotic medication. Few studies have systematically examined the relationship of social and demographic characteristics of these patients to treatment response in our environment.Objective: To identify the social and demographic variables associated with treatment response in patients with schizophrenia.Method: A total of 172 participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia receiving antipsychotics took part in the study. Participants were consecutively recruited involving patients presenting for the first time, or relapsed patients who had stopped antipsychotics in the previous six months. Both in-patients and out-patients who met the inclusion criteria were studied. Socio-demographic interview schedule and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) were administered at the initial encounter and between 4 and 6 weeks, subsequently.Results: Defining good treatment response as ≥ 20% reduction in PANSS score, 68% had a good response while 32% had poor response. Good response to treatment was associated with late age of onset of illness, satisfactory family relationship, acquisition of skilled occupation and being married. However, there was no association between treatment response and gender.Conclusion: Knowledge about these variables in relation to treatment response would improve mental health services as regards articulation of prognosis and psycho education.Keywords: Socio-demographic correlates, schizophrenia, South-East Nigeria
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Aerobic exercise improves quality of life, psychological well-being and
           systemic inflammation in subjects with Alzheimer’s disease

    • Authors: Shehab M. Abd El-Kader, Osama H. Al-Jiffri
      Abstract: Background: Alzheimer’s disease has a destructive drawbacks on the patient and his/her entire family as this disease badly affects the behavior, cognition and abilities to do activities of daily living (ADL). The physical and mental benefits of exercise are widely known but seldom available to persons suffering from Alzheimer’s disease.Objective: The aim of this study was to measure quality of life, systemic inflammation and psychological well-being response to aerobic exercises in Alzheimer’s.Methods: Forty Alzheimer elderly subjects were enrolled in two groups; the first group received treadmill aerobic exercise, while the second group was considered as a control group and received no training intervention for two months. Assessment of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES),Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Profile of Mood States(POMS) and SF-36 health quality of life (SF-36 HRQL) were taken before and at the end of the study.Results: There was a 25.2%, 19.4%, 23.5%, 21.3%, 17.7% , 11.7%, 12.5% and 10.1 % reduction in mean values of TNF-α, IL-6, BDI, POMS, health transition SF-36 subscale, bodily pain SF-36 subscale, role functioning: emotional SF-36 subscale and mental health SF-36 subscale respectively in addition to 15.7%, 13.1%, 12.6%, 11.1%, 13.2% and 11.2 % increase in mean values of RSES, physical functioning SF-36 subscale, role functioning:physical SF-36 subscale, general health SF-36 subscale, Vitality SF-36 subscale and Social functioning SF-36 subscale respectively in group (A) received aerobic exercise training, so that there was a significant reduction in the mean values of TNF-α, IL-6, BDI & POMS and increase in the mean values of SF-36 HRQL subscale scores, RSES in group (A) as a result of aerobic exercise training, while the results of group (B) who received no training intervention were not significant. Also, there were significant differences between mean levels of the investigated parameters in group (A) and group (B) at the end of the study (P<0.05).Conclusion: Treadmill walking exercise training is an effective treatment policy to improve quality of life, systemic inflammation and psychological wellbeing in Alzheimer’s.Keywords: Aerobic exercise, quality of life, psychological well-being, systemic inflammation, Alzheimer's
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Effects of vasodilator and esmolol-induced hemodynamic stability on early
           post-operative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients: a randomized
           trial

    • Authors: Sheng-Hui Sun, Lin Yang, De-Feng Sun, Yue Wu, Jun Han, Ruo-Chuan Liu, Li-Jie Wang
      Abstract: Objective: To investigate the effect of continuous intravenous injection of nicardipine and/or nitroglycerin with or without esmolol on the occurrence of early post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in elderly patients.Methods: Elderly patients (n=340) who underwent radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation were randomized into five groups: A, nicardipine; B nicardipine+esmolol; C, (nitroglycerin) group; D nitroglycerin+esmolol; E (control) groups. The hemodynamic parameters were recorded, and Mini Mental State Examination was used to assess cognitive function.Results: At 30 min and 60 minutes after anesthesia and at the conclusion of surgery, the rate pressure product value was significantly lower in Groups B (10621.1±321.7, 10544.2±321.8, and 10701.3±325.5, respectively) and D (10807.4±351.1, 10784.3±360.3, and 10771.7±345.7, respectively) than in Group E (13217.1±377.6, 13203.5±357.3, and 13119.2±379.5, respectively). The heart rate was significantly higher in Groups A (104.1±10.3, 104.9±11.1, and 103.9±11.8, respectively) and C (103.7±11.3, 105.5±10.5, and 107.7±11.7, respectively) than in Group E (89.3±12.0, 88.5±11.5, and 85.5±11.6, respectively). The incidence of POCD was significantly lower in Groups A and B than in Groups C, D, and E. Univariate regression analysis showed that regimens in Groups A, B, and E and doses of propofol and fentanyl were risk factors for POCD. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed significant associations between the incidence of POCD and interventions in Groups A and B.Conclusion: Maintenance of stable intraoperative hemodynamics using nicardipine and nitroglycerin or their combinations with esmolol, especially nicardipine with esmolol, reduced the incidence of POCD in the elderly with potential cardiovascular diseases.Keywords: Nicardipine, esmolol, nitroglycerin, hemodynamics, post-operative cognitive dysfunction
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Opiate withdrawal syndrome in buprenorphine abusers admitted to a
           rehabilitation center in Tunisia

    • Authors: Ines Derbel, Asma Ghorbel, Férièle Messadi Akrout, Abdelmajid Zahaf
      Abstract: Background: Illicit use of high dosage buprenorphine has been well documented in several countries, including Tunisia.Objectives: The aim of this survey is to assess the buprenorphine withdrawal syndrome time course, and how it may be affected by the population characteristics among subjects admitted to a rehabilitation center in Tunisia.Methods: A prospective research has permitted study of the socio-demographic characteristics and assessment of buprenorphine withdrawal syndrome among 32 subjects admitted for buprenorphine dependence by using the clinical opiate withdrawal scale. An ANOVA was conducted to examine the effect of different factors on the withdrawal scores.Results: 32 subjects were included. Among them 30 were males, 27 had been injecting buprenorphine, 16 were poly-drug abusers and 2 had a history of mental disorders. Buprenorphine withdrawal syndrome was of a mild intensity and had a delayed onset. Withdrawal mean scores varied between 0 and 9, and maximum values were reached at day 21. These scores varied significantly over time (p<0,001). The sex v time interaction and the mode of consumption of buprenorphine had significant effects on the withdrawal scores (p<0,001). The poly-drug consumption and the history of mental disorders did not have any significant effect on the withdrawal scores.Conclusion: This study has permitted description of buprenorphine withdrawal syndrome among patients going through a detoxification treatment at a rehabilitation center. Understanding this syndrome would help elaborate effective and suitable buprenorphine dependence management plans.Keywords: Buprenorphine, dependence, withdrawal
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Exercise alleviates depression related systemic inflammation in chronic
           obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    • Authors: Shehab M. Abd El-Kade, Osama H. Al-Jiffri
      Abstract: Background: Depression is a highly prevalent co-morbidity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) which was shown to be associated with a worse course of disease, including reduced quality of life and increased symptoms burden, healthcare use, and even mortality. It has been speculated that systemic inflammation may play a role in the presence of depression. Currently, physical activity is an important lifestyle factor that has the potential to modify inflammatory cytokines and depression, however our understanding of how to use exercise effectively in COPD patients to alleviate depression related systemic inflammation is incomplete and has prompted our interest to identify the type and intensities of effective exercise.Objective: The aim of this study was to measure the changes in depression related systemic inflammation of aerobic exercise training in COPD patients in Jeddah area.Material and methods: Eighty patients with moderate severity of COPD participated in this study and were divided into two groups; the first group received aerobic exercise, whereas the second group received no exercise training for 12 weeks.Results: The mean values of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores were significantly decreased in in group (A) after treatments, but the changes in group (B) were not significant .Also, there were significant differences between mean levels of the investigated parameters in group (A) and group (B) at the end of the study.Conclusion: Aerobic exercise is an effective treatment policy to improve depression related to systemic inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.Keywords: Aerobic exercise; depression; inflammatory cytokine; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Low sero-prevalence of hepatitis delta antibodies in HIV/ hepatitis B
           co-infected patients attending an urban HIV clinic in Uganda

    • Authors: Elizabeth Katwesigye, Emmanuel Seremba, Fred Semitala, Ponsiano Ocama
      Abstract: Background: Co-infection with hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis D (HDV) is common among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals in developing countries and it aggressively accelerates progression of liver disease to cirrhosis and other complications. There is scarcity of data on HDV in sub-Saharan Africa .We investigated the sero-prevalence and factors associated with HDV antibody among HIV/HBV co-infected patients attending a large urban HIV clinic in Uganda.Methods: We screened 189 HIV/HBV co-infected individuals for anti-HDV immunoglobulin G (IgG) and performed logistic regression to determine the associated factors. Socio-demographic, clinical data, immunological status, and liver fibrosis (as determined by the Aspartate transaminase to platelet ratio index and transient elastography) were included.Results: Participants were predominately young and of sound immunologic status (median age 40 years, median CD4 440 cells/μl). 98% were on ART regimens containing anti-HBV active medications (95.2% were on TDF/3TC while 4.8% on 3TC containing regimen). Median duration on ART was 36 months (IQR 22-72). Anti-HDV was detected in 6/198, 3.2% (95% CI 1.14-6.92%), associated with male gender and a duration of more than 5 years since HIV diagnosis.Conclusions: The sero-prevalence of HDV antibodies among the HIV/HBV co-infected patients is low in a Ugandan urban cohort.Keywords: Co-infection in Uganda, hepatitis delta antibodies, hepatitis B virus, HIV
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Post-transplant withdrawal of lamivudine results in fatal hepatitis flares
           in kidney transplant recipients, under immune suppression, with inactive
           hepatitis B infection

    • Authors: Bin Miao, Xiang-Ming Lao, Guo-Li Lin
      Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the consequences of lamivudine withdrawal in kidney transplant recipients, under immunosuppression, with inactive hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.Introduction: HBV infection is more frequent in kidney transplant recipients than in the general population mainly due to the high risk of acquisition during dialysis, before kidney transplantation.Methods: The records of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive, immunosuppressed kidney transplant recipients, where lamivudine was withdrawn after transplantation along with reduction in immunosuppressant dose, admitted to our hospital between 2005 and 2012, were retrospectively evaluated.Discussion: Three patients aged 33, 42 and 33, experienced hepatitis flares 2-3 months after lamivudine withdrawal. Serum HBV DNA levels were 2.5×107, 3.4×104 and 4×103 IU/ml in cases 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Lamivudine was re-initiated in all cases which led to rapid viral suppression. However, liver function continued to deteriorate leading to severe jaundice, coagulopathy and encephalopathy. All patients died of acute liver failure within six months after the onset of withdrawal hepatitis.Conclusion: Lamivudine should be continued as long as immunosuppressive therapy lasts.Keywords: Hepatitis B virus, lamivudine, kidney transplantation
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Patient satisfaction with TB care clinical consultations in Kampala: a
           cross sectional study

    • Authors: Willy Ssengooba, Bruce Kirenga, Catherine Muwonge, Steven Kyaligonza, Samuel Kasozi, Frank Mugabe, Martin Boeree, Moses Joloba, Alphonse Okwera
      Abstract: Background: Patient satisfaction towards care during encounter with clinicians is key for better treatment outcomes. We assessed patient satisfaction with TB clinical care consultations in Kampala, Uganda.Methods: This was a facility-based cross sectional study done between September 2012 and February 2013 using qualitative method of data collection. Participants consecutively completed a pre-tested structured satisfaction questionnaire. A criteria of the rating as good; >75% was considered acceptable, (50-75%) as more effort is needed and <50 as unacceptable and require immediate action was used to categorize data for analysis using Epi-info 7.1.4.0.Results: Of the 260 registered TB patients, 178(68.5%) completed the questionnaire. Overall, 162 (91.0%) were satisfied with the clinical consultation. Factors that contributed to high patient satisfaction, were: time spent with clinician (85.4%), explanation of what was done (87.6%), technical skills (91.6%), personal manner of the clinician seen (91.6%). Factors for low satisfaction were; waiting time before getting an appointment (61.8%), convenience of location of consultation office (53.4%), getting through to the office by phone (21.3%) and length of time waiting at the office (61.2%).Conclusion: Tuberculosis patients in Kampala are satisfied with TB clinical care consultations. Addressing factors with low patient satisfaction may significantly impact on treatment outcome.Keywords: Patient satisfaction, TB care clinical consultations, cross sectional study
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Glyceryl trinitrate is a novel inhibitor of quorum sensing in Pseudomonas
           aeruginosa

    • Authors: Hisham A. Abbas, Moutaz A. Shaldam
      Abstract: Background: Targeting quorum sensing is an alternative approach to antibiotics.Targeting quorum sensing-regulated virulence will disarm the pathogen without exerting pressure on its growth. As a result, emergence of resistance is avoided and the immune system can easily eradicate bacteria.Objectives: Investigation of the possible inhibition of quorum sensing-regulated virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by glyceryltrinitrate.Methods: The quorum sensing inhibiting activity of glyceryl trinitrate was assessed by inhibition of violacein production in Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. Its ability to inhibit pyocyanin, protease, biofilm and tolerance to oxidative stress was evaluated. Docking study was performed to study the interference of glyceryl trinitrate with the binding of autoinducers with LasR and rhlR receptors.Results: Glyceryl trinitrate exerted a significant biofilm inhibiting and eradicating activities. It decreased the production of quorum-sensing dependent violacein production. It significantly inhibited the production of pyocyanin and protease and diminished the tolerance against oxidative stress. Molecular docking study showed that glyceryl trinitrate interferes with the binding of autoinducers to their receptors. It could bind to Las Rand rhlr receptors with binding energy of -93.47 and -77.23, respectively.Conclusion: Glyceryl trinitrate can be an antivirulence agent in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa topical infections such as burn infections.Keywords: Glyceryl trinitrate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, quorum sensing, virulence inhibition
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Concurrent use of Antiretroviral and African traditional medicines amongst
           people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWA) in the eThekwini Metropolitan area of
           KwaZulu Natal

    • Authors: Mncengeli Sibanda, Nlooto M. Manimbulu, Panjasaram Naidoo
      Abstract: Background: People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWA) often use African Traditional Medicines (ATM) either alone or in combination with Western medicines including Antiretrovirals (ARV).Objective: To explore the prevalence of concurrent Antiretrovirals (ARV) and African Traditional medicines (ATM) use and determine the effects of any concurrent use on the CD4+ Lymphocyte count and Viral Load (VL) of PLWA in the eThekwini Metropolitan area.Methods: A descriptive and exploratory study was carried out on 360 patients. Information was gathered on patients socioeconomic characteristics, ATM usage, outcome measures of HIV disease progression (CD4+ Count, VL). The data was analysed using descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate analyses.Results: 4.98% (14/281) of the patients used ATM and ARV concurrently during the study period. Over 65% (185/281) reported ATM use before diagnosis with HIV whilst 77.6% (218/281) reported previous ATM use after their HIV diagnosis but before initiation with ARV. Place of residence (p=0.004), age (p<0.001) and education level (P=0.041) were found to be significantly and positively correlated with ATM use. There were no statistically significant changes in mean plasma CD4+ Count and inconclusive effects on VL during the period of the study in the group taking ARV alone when compared with the group using ARV and ATM concomitantly.Conclusion: Concurrent ARV and ATM use is quite low (4.98%) when compared to ATM use before HIV diagnosis and after HIV diagnosis but before initiation with ARV. This may point to efficient pre-counselling efforts before ARV initiation by health care professionals. This study also demonstrated that there were no significant differences in the CD4+ and inconclusive effects on VL, between patients taking both ARV and ATM concomitantly and those using ARV alone.Keywords: African traditional medicines, AIDS; ARV; complimentary medicines, Drug-Herb interactions, Herbal medicine,HIV; Indigenous medicine, Medical Pluralism, South Africa
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Factors associated with community-acquired urinary tract infections among
           adults attending assessment centre, Mulago Hospital Uganda

    • Authors: Deus Kabugo, Samuel Kizito, Dave Dhara Ashok, Alexander Graham Kiwanuka, Ronald Nabimba, Sandra Namunana, Richard M. Kabaka, Beatrice Achan, Florence C. Najjuka
      Abstract: Background: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are a common medical problem affecting the general population and thus commonly encountered in medical practice, with the global burden of UTIs at about 150 million people. Because uropathogens largely originate from colonic flora, they are easy to predict, and this is the rationale for empirical treatment in Community Acquired-UTI (CA-UTIs). With the increasing prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria among adults with CA-UTI in Uganda, it is no longer adequate to manage CA-UTIs on empiric regimen without revising the susceptibility patterns of common CA-UTI causative agents. Thus in this study we set out to identify: The factors associated with CA-UTIs, the common uropathogens and the drug sensitivity patterns of the common uropathogens cultured.Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in adults who presented with symptoms of a UTI at Mulago Hospital, assessment center. There were 139 patients who consented to the study and were recruited, an interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect information from the study participants as regards demographic, social and clinical characteristics and Mid Stream Urine (MSU) samples were collected for urinalysis, culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique was applied to the isolates.Numeric data were summarized using measures of central tendency while the categorical data was summarized using proportions and percentages.Results: Age, female sex and marital status were factors that were significantly associated with CA-UTIs. Fifty four (54) cultures were positive for UTI with 26 giving pure growths. The commonest uropathogen isolated was Escherichia coli at 50%, this was followed by Staphylococcus aureus at 15.4%. The sensitivity of Escherichia coli to Ampicillin and Nitrofurantoin were78.6%, 64.3% respectively, and the sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus to ciprofloxacin, Nitrofurantoin and gentamycin were 100%, 66.7% and 66.7% respectively.Conclusion: There are known factors associated with CA-UTIs such as age, female sex. There was generally high sensitivity to nitrofurantoin and gentamycin by most of the uropathogens isolated, and high resistance to the common antibiotics such as nalidixic acid and erythromycin thus a need for a bigger study that can be used to effect the change of the current recommendations in the Uganda Clinical Guidelines as regards empirical management of CA-UTIs.Keywords: Community-acquired urinary tract infections, assessment centre, Mulago Hospital Uganda
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in patients
           undergoing thyroidectomy in Uganda: tertiary hospital experience

    • Authors: Robert Masereka, Paul K. Okeny, Jane O. Fualal, Dan Wamala
      Abstract: Background: Thyroid disease affects about 5% of the World’s population. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) helps in planning extent of surgery. In some studies, FNAC has been found to have a low accuracy for malignancy.Objective: To estimate the sensitivity and specificity of FNAC in detecting malignancy for thyroid disease using histopathology as the gold standard.Methods: Patients who underwent clinical and laboratory evaluation and thyroidectomy at Mulago National Referral hospital and the Pathology department of Makerere University College of Health Sciences were consecutively recruited over a four months period. Analysis using STATA version 10 focused on sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of FNAC in detecting malignancy.Results: In total, 99 patients were recruited, the F:M ratio was 15.5:1 and median age was 42 years (IQR 34-50). The median duration of symptoms was 364 weeks (IQR 104-986). The proportion of patients with malignancy was 13.3% with papillary thyroid carcinoma being the most predominant type and colloid goiter was the most predominant benign thyroid disease. The sensitivity was 61.5% and specificity 89.5% .Conclusion: This study revealed high specificity and low sensitivity of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) at detecting malignancy in thyroid nodulesKeywords: Diagnostic accuracy, fine needle aspiration, cytology, thyroidectomy, tertiary hospital
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Determinants of isolated systolic hypertension among diabetic patients
           visiting the diabetic clinic at the Tamale Teaching Hospital, Northern
           Ghana

    • Authors: Richard K.D. Ephraim, Abdul-Razak Saasi, Enoch O. Anto, Prince Adoba
      Abstract: Background: Hypertension and diabetes mellitus, two of the leading risk factors for atherosclerosis, are associated with numerous complications, including heart attacks and strokes.Aim: This study established the prevalence and determinants of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) in diabetes mellitus patients visiting the Tamale Teaching Hospital.Materials and methods: In this purposive cross-sectional study, 107 diabetes mellitus patients were recruited from the out-patient diabetes clinic of the Tamale Teaching Hospital (TTH). Blood and urine samples were collected for the estimation of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and routine urinalysis respectively. A well-structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic data and clinical history of participants, and their blood pressure measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer.Results: The prevalence of ISH among the participants was 37.4%. Mean age and FBG were significantly higher among participants with ISH than the normotensives (56.20 ± 10.60 v 48.44 ± 11.6, P= 0.022; and 8.80 ± 3.06 v 6.01 ± 0.50, P= 0.034 respectively). Type of diabetes mellitus was associated with ISH (P= 0.010) and age was a risk factor of ISH (OR= 1.057, P= 0.008).Conclusion: Isolated systolic hypertension was prevalent in 37.4% of diabetes mellitus patients and was associated with older age. Effective measures should, therefore, be instituted to prevent ISH in patients with type 2 diabetes especially the elderly.Keywords: Hypertension, isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), diabetes mellitus, Tamale
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Effect of individualized diabetes education for type 2 diabetes mellitus:
           a single-center randomized clinical trial

    • Authors: Min-Hua Fan, Bing-Tong Huang, Ying-Chun Tang, Xiu-Hua Han, Wei-Wei Dong, Le-Xin Wang
      Abstract: Background: To evaluate the effect of individualized education for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Methods: A total of 280 patients (158 males, mean age 63 ± 10 years) with T2DM were randomly divided into study and control group. Eysenck Personality questionnaire was used to assess the personality of the patients in the study group, which was provided us one-on-one counseling and individualized management plan. Group education was provided to the control group.Results: At the end of the study, the body mass index (21.5±2.5 vs 23.6±1.6 kg/m2, P =0.002), waist circumference (83.7±6.4 vs 85.7±7.7 cm, P =0.03), fasting blood glucose (6.0±0.8 vs 6.9±2.1 mmol/L, P =0.004), HbA1c (6.2±0.6% vs 6.9±3.1%, P =0.03), systolic blood pressure (130.1±8.8 vs 135.1±8.4 mmHg, P =0.003),triglyceride (1.21±0.66 vs 1.46±0.58 mmol/L) and low-density lipoprotein (2.36±0.44 vs 2.84±0.64 mmol/L, P =0.03) in the study group was lower than in the control group.Conclusion: Individualized diabetes education is more effective than group education in facilitating the control of type 2 diabetes.Keywords: Individualization; type 2 diabetes; health education; blood glucose; blood pressure
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Sonographic assessment of the portal vein diameter in apparently healthy
           adults in a Northern Nigerian population

    • Authors: Geofery Luntsi, Mohammed Sani, Joseph Dlama Zira, Nwobi Chigozie Ivor, Sani H. Garba
      Abstract: Background: Sonography is a valuable tool in the assessment of porto-systemic pathologies. This study aimed at determining the mean portal vein diameter based on age, gender and anthropometric variables.Methods: A cross sectional study conducted among 201 apparently healthy adults in Bauchi Metropolis. Participants were recruited from the school of nursing AbubakarTafawa Balewa Teaching Hospital (ATBUTH), Bauchi. Ultrasound machine ALOKA SSD-1000, (IP-1233EV, SN-57324, Japan) with curvilinear transducer with frequency of 3-5MHz was used for a period of four months, (December 2015 to April 2016). Participants’ heights were measured while standing against a meter rule with the head in Frankfurts’ position and weight measured using a weighing scale. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 22.0. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation), and Pearson’s Correlation were used.Results: The mean portal vein diameter was 9.60 ± 1.41mm for both sexes. The mean value for males was 9.71 ± 1.42mm, and 9.35±1.46mm among females. There was a positive correlation correlation between the PV diameter and Body Mass Index (P ≤ 0.01).Conclusion: This study found the mean values of PV diameter in apparently healthy adults in our environment to be 9.60 ± 1.41mm and that PV diameter positively correlates with anthropometric variables.Keywords: Portal vein diameter, sonography, Nigerian population, healthy adults
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Influence of awareness on the usage of motor third party insurance: a case
           study of Kampala district

    • Authors: Henry Kitunzi, Mirembe Helen, Guma Consolate
      Abstract: Background: Motor third party insurance was established in Uganda in 1989 as a social policy to protect motorists and other road users (third parties) in the event of an accident. However, reports show that only a few motorists filed claims to their insurers for compensation despite being involved in road traffic accidents.Objective: To establish whether motorists’ awareness has an influence on the usage of motor third party insurance.Methods: This was a cross-sectional using both qualitative and qualitative methods. Data was collected from 384 motorists in Kampala district using structured and semi-structured questionnaires administered face-to-face. We also collected data from key informants (insurers, insurance regulators as well as enforcers – traffic police officers); and carried out desk review of motor third party insurance documents in Uganda.Results: The results showed that 8 out of 10 motorists in Kampala did not understand motor third party insurance with 95.3% having no knowledge of their rights as policy holders and 87.8% having no knowledge of their obligations when involved in an accident. Majority of the motorists involved in accidents never made claims to their insurers for compensation.Conclusion: The level of awareness among motorists concerning motor third party insurance was low which significantly affected their ability to file claims to their insurers following an accident. We recommended that motorists and the general public be educated on third party motor insurance.Keywords: Awareness, usage, motor third party insurance, motorists, Kampala
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Locally manufactured wheelchairs in Tanzania – are users
           satisfied'

    • Authors: Seyi Amosun, Aston Ndosi, Helen Buchanan
      Abstract: Background: The government of Tanzania created opportunity for the production of wheelchairs that would be appropriate to the local needs and environment.Objectives: The study assessed the extent to which the wheelchairs met the activity and participation needs of the users, as well as the users’ level of satisfaction with the provision, repair and maintenance of these wheelchairs.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional analytical design was utilized to collect data through the administration of a questionnaire among 75 adult wheelchair users.Results: Participants had used wheelchairs for an average period of 9.3 years. Most participants (61%) had sustained spinal cord injuries, and used three-wheeler chairs (76%). More than 90% reported that their wheelchairs positively influenced their activity and participation needs, and 85% were satisfied with their ability to carry out daily activities. Participants expressed satisfaction with the durability of the wheelchairs (89%), and the professional services received (71%), but not with follow-up services (77%). There was difference in satisfaction with features of 3-wheeler and 4-wheeler rigid chairs (p=0.030).Conclusion: The wheelchairs positively impacted participants’ activity and participation needs. Participants were satisfied with the features of the wheelchairs but not with follow-up services. The concerns of dissatisfied users should be addressed.Keywords: Wheelchair, consumer satisfaction, mobility limitation, self-help devices, developing country
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • An anatomical and osteometric study of the femoral sulcus angle in adult
           Malawians

    • Authors: Anthony Mwakikunga, Kondwani Katundu, Boniface Msamati, Anthony Gbenga Adefolaju, Lynne Schepartz
      Abstract: Background: Femoral sulcus angle is particularly important in clinical evaluation of patellofemoral joint. Individuals show considerable differences in asymmetrical dimensions of the femur.Objectives: To determine the size of femoral sulcus angles in adult black Malawians using the skeletal collection in the department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and assess their gender differences; to compare femoral sulcus angles of Malawians with other ethnic groups.Methods: A cross sectional study was done in which femoral sulcus angles of dry bones were measured using a goniometer.Results: There is no significant difference in the mean sulcus angles between right and left femora in males (p=0.8100) and females (p=0.0742); between all males combined and females combined (p=0.8845). There is a significant difference in the mean between all left femora combined and all right femora combined (p=0.0260).Conclusion: This study has provided the mean size of the femoral sulcus angle of adult Malawians. These findings suggest that the size of the sulcus angle cannot determine gender among adult black Malawians suggesting the interpretation that femora asymmetric dimensions are population specific, which should be considered in the patellofemoral joint evaluation.Keywords: Femur, sulcus angle, patellofemoral joint
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness values and their associations with
           ocular and systemic parameters in Black South Africans

    • Authors: Khathutshelo P. Mashige, Olalekan A. Oduntan
      Abstract: Purpose: To measure the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness values and investigate their associations with other parameters in healthy eyes of Black South Africans.Methods: 600 participants with healthy eyes, of whom 305 (50.83%) were males and 295 (49.17%) were females, with a mean age of 28.15 ± 13.09 years, underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination. RNFL thickness was measured by iVue SD-OCT.Results: The mean global RNFL thickness was 110.01 ± 7.39 μm. The RNFL was thickest inferiorly (135.06 ± 9.66 μm) and superiorly (131.72 ± 10.46 μm), thinner nasally (87.24 ± 13.22 μm), and thinnest temporally (73.63 ± 15.66 μm). Multivariate analysis showed that thicker mean global RNFL thickness was significantly associated with younger age, shorter axial length (AL) and hyperopia (p < 0.001). Mean RNFL thickness decreased by approximately 0.11 μm per year of aging life, and by 1.02 μm for each 1-mm of axial elongation. There was a 0.62 μm RNFL thickness increase for every dioptre change in spherical power towards more hyperopia.Conclusion: Mean RNFL thickness values and their associations established in this population may be of clinical value when assessing factors that influence this parameter and diagnosing diseases affecting it.Keywords: Retinal nerve fibre layer, optical coherence tomography, refractive error, axial length, glaucoma
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Child, reproductive, mental health; infections and NCDs in the African
           environment

    • Authors: James K Tumwine
      Abstract: No abstract.
      PubDate: 2016-03-24
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 4 (2016)
       
 
 
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