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HEALTH AND SAFETY (520 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 183)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access  
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Policy and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Professions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover African Health Sciences
  [SJR: 0.441]   [H-I: 25]   [2 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1680-6905
   Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [266 journals]
  • Editorial: Infections, reproductive health, non - communicable diseases
           and health systems dominate articles in this June issue of African Health

    • Authors: James K. Tumwine
      Abstract: No Abstract
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Expression of miR-126 and its potential function in coronary artery

    • Authors: Xiaoyan Wang, Yajun Lian, Xin Wen, Jing Guo, Zhiping Wang, Sheng Jiang, Yaodong Hu
      Abstract: Objective: This study aimed to explore the role of miR-126 in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and the potential gene targets of miR-126 in atherosclerosis.Methodology: A total of 60 CAD patients and 25 healthy control subjects were recruited in this study. Among the 60 CAD patients, 18 cases were diagnosed of stable angina pectoris (SAP), 20 were diagnosed of unstable angina pectoris (UAP) and 22 were diagnosed of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Plasma miR-126 levels from both groups of participants were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. ELISA was used to measure plasma level of placenta growth factor (PLGF).Results: The results showed that the miR-126 expression was significantly down-regulated in the circulation of CAD patients compared with control subjects (P<0.01). Plasma PLGF level was significantly upregulated in patients with unstable angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared with controls (both P<0.01) the miR-126 expression in AMI was significantly associated with PLGF.Conclusion: miR-126 may serve as a novel biomarker for CAD.Keywords: miR-126; PLGF; PCR; coronary artery disease; atherosclerosis
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Assessment of hospital-based adult triage at emergency receiving areas in
           hospitals in Northern Uganda

    • Authors: Keneth Opiro, Lee Wallis, Martin Ogwang
      Abstract: Background: Limited health service resources must be used in a manner which does “the most for the most”. This is partly achieved through the use of a triage system. Whereas efforts have been made to introduce paediatric triage in Uganda such as Emergency Triage Assessment and Treatment Plus (ETAT+), it is not clear if hospitals have local protocols for adult triage being used in each setting.Objectives: To determine the presence of existing hospital triage systems, the cadre of staff undertaking triage and barriers to development/improvement of formal triage systems.Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Acholi sub-region was randomly selected for the study among the three sub-regions in Northern Uganda. The study was conducted in 6 of the 7 hospitals in the region. It was a written self-administered questionnaire.Results: Thirty-three participants from 6 hospitals consented and participated in the study. Only one hospital (16.7%) of the 6 hospitals surveyed had a formal hospital-based adult triage protocol in place. Only 2 (33.3%) hospitals had an allocated emergency department, the rest receive emergency patients/perform triage from OPD and wards. Lack of training, variation of triage protocols from hospital to another, shortage of staff on duty, absence of national guidelines on triage and poor administrative support were the major barriers to improvement /development of formal triage in all these hospitals.Conclusion: Formal adult hospital-based triage is widely lacking in Northern Uganda and staff do perform subjective “eyeball” judgments to make triage decisions.Keywords: Triage, “eyeball” triage, emergency receiving areas, and emergency health conditions
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Distraction-related road traffic collisions

    • Authors: Hani O. Eid, Fikri M. Abu-Zidan
      Abstract: Objectives: We aimed to prospectively study distraction-related road traffic collision injuries, their contributory factors, severity, and outcome.Methods: Data were prospectively collected on all hospitalized road traffic collision trauma patients in Al-Ain City who were drivers at the collision time over one and half years. Driver’s inattentive behaviors preceding the collision were collected by interviewing the admitted drivers.Results: There were 444 drivers, 330 of them were fully oriented patients, out of them only 44 (13%) were distracted. Nineteen (5.8%) drivers were distracted by using mobile phones, 12 (3.6%) were pre-occupied with deep thinking, six (1.8%) were talking with other passengers, four (1.2%) were picking things in the vehicle, and three (0.9%) were using entertainment systems. The maximum distraction occurred during the time of 6 am - 12 noon when the traffic was crowded. There were no significant differences between distracted and non-distracted drivers in demographical and physiological factors, injured regions, and outcomes.Conclusion: Distraction of alert drivers causes 13% of road traffic collisions in Al-Ain city. About 40 percent of the distracted drivers involved in road traffic collisions (RTC) were using mobile phones. Our study supports the ban of use of cell phones while driving.Keywords: Distraction, prevention, road traffic collision, mobile phone
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Effect of low-dose ketamine on post-operative serum IL-6 production among
           elective surgical patients: a randomized clinical trial

    • Authors: Tonny Stone Luggya, Tony Roche, Lameck Ssemogerere, Andrew Kintu, John Mark Kasumba, Arthur Kwizera, Jose V.B. Tindimwebwa
      Abstract: Background: Surgery and Anesthesia cause an excessive pro-inflammatory response. Mulago Hospital is faced with staff shortage making post-operative pain management difficult.Interleukin-6 (IL-6) drives inflammatory pain, endothelial cell dysfunction and fibrogenesis. Ketamine is cheap and, readily available. We hypothesized that its attenuation of serum IL-6 was a surrogate for clinical benefit.Materials and methods: Institutional Review Board’s approval was sought and RCT was registered at clinical (identifier number: NCT01339065). Consenting patients were randomized to receive pre-incision intravenous ketamine - 0.5mg/kg or 0.9% saline placebo in weighted dosing. Blood samples were collected and laboratory analyzed at baseline, post-operatively in PACU, 24 and 48 hours respectively.Results: We recruited 39 patients of whom 18 were randomized to the ketamine arm and 21 in the placebo arm with follow up at 24 and 48 hours. Serum IL-6 and IL-1β levels were analyzed using ELIZA assay of pre-coated micro wells. Ketamine suppressed serum IL-6 at PACU with reduced increase at 24 hours. There was no reaction in 98% of IL-1β assayed.Conclusion: Low-dose ketamine attenuated early serum IL-6 levels due to surgical response with reduced 24 hour increase, but the difference was not statistically significant and we recommend more studies.Keywords: Ketamine, post-operative inflammation, interleukin 6, interleukin 1- β
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Major limb amputations in a tertiary hospital in North Western Nigeria

    • Authors: Chikwendu Nwosu, Misbau O. Babalola, Muhammad H. Ibrahim, Siyaka I. Suleiman
      Abstract: Background: Amputation is the removal of whole or part of a limb, often as a life saving measure. It is a mutilating surgical procedure altering the body image and producing severe functional deficit. It is a common orthopedic surgical procedure performed worldwide.Aims and objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the pattern and indications for amputation in Federal Medical Centre, Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria; between January 2008 and December 2014, in a bid to proffer preventive measures.Patients and methods: This was a retrospective study of consecutive patients who had major limb amputations at the Federal Medical Centre, Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria; between January 2008 and December 2014. Case notes of patients were retrieved with relevant information extracted and analyzed.Results: A total of 112 amputations were studied. The age range of patients was between 3-89 years. Amputation in 23.5% of patients was due to trauma, followed by diabetic foot gangrene in 21% of cases. About 42.9% of the amputations were above knee, followed by below knee amputations in 37% of cases. The lower limbs were involved in 84.8% of cases and upper limbs in 15.2% of cases.Conclusion: Trauma was the most predominant indication for amputation in this study. This was followed by diabetic foot gangrene. This is usually due to the high rate of road traffic accidents and consequent mismanagement by traditional bone setters.Keywords: Limb amputations, tertiary hospital, North Western Nigeria
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Disordered eating attitudes: demographic and clinico-anthropometric
           correlates among a sample of Nigerian students

    • Authors: Babatunde Fadipe, Motunrayo Atinuke Oyelohunnu, Andrew Toyin Olagunju, Olatunji Francis Aina, Abiola Adelphine Akinbode, Tajudeen Folorunsho Suleiman
      Abstract: Objectives: We set out in this study to determine the demographic and clinico-anthropometric correlates of disordered eating attitudes among undergraduate students of two higher institutions in Lagos, Nigeria.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 1,054 participants after written informed consent. A socio-demographic questionnaire, the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) and 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) were administered to the participants. In addition, their blood pressure, height and weight were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated.Results: The study participants comprised of 561(55.6%) males with median age of 21.4 years. The mean (±SD) score on EAT-26 was 11.52(±8.54), and 16% of all the respondents were categorized as having disordered eating attitude. A significant relationship was found between disordered eating attitude and age (p= 0.027), gender (p= <0.001), institution of study (p= 0.005), systolic blood pressure (p=0.019), BMI (p= 0.027) and psychological distress (p=0.005).Conclusion: Our study observed disordered eating attitude to be prevalent among young adults, and demographic along with clinico-anthropometric factors constituted associated factors. Our findings strengthen the basis to incorporate health awareness programs aimed at improving nutrition and eating behavior among the young adult population. Future research is needed.Keywords: Anthropometric, correlates, disordered eating attitudes, Nigeria, students
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Lifestyle factors influencing bone health in young adult women in Saudi

    • Authors: Lina F. Hammad, Nada Benajiba
      Abstract: Aim: To analyze risk factors leading to osteopenia and osteoporosis among young female students.Methods: Quantitative Ultrasonography measurements were performed in the calcaneal region of 101 young Saudi females. Dietary habits, exercising and sun exposure were assessed using questionnaires. The association between the different studied factors was assessed by Pearson test and multiple linear regression model.Results: Participants diagnosed with either osteopenia or osteoporosis (>33%.) showed significant higher soft drinks consumption, reduced exercise, limited intake of milk and dairy products, calcium and vitamin D supplementation compared to the healthy group. Multiple regression analysis showed that T-score and Z-score were negatively associated with soft drink intake and positively associated with exercising, milk and dairy products consumption, and calcium and vitamin D supplementation use (p <0.05)Conclusion: High soft drink intake, lack of exercising and limited calcium and vitamin D supplementation are the combined lifestyle factors leading to osteopenia and osteoporosis among young Saudi females. These findings might serve as a basis of nutrition education intervention to promote healthy bones among this population.Keywords: Lifestyle factors, osteoporosis, osteopenia, young women, Saudi Arabi
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Secular trend of the leading causes of death in China from 2003 to 2013

    • Authors: Yongcheng Ren, Ming Zhang, Xinping Luo, Jingzhi Zhao, Lei Yin, Chao Pang, Tianping Feng, Shu Wang, Bingyuan Wang, Hongyan Zhang, Xiangyu Yang, Dongsheng Hu
      Abstract: Background: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics and secular trends of the leading causes of death in China.Methods: Data on the leading causes of death was collected from the Statistical Yearbook of China. Data for 11 years, from 2003 to 2013, was analyzed by regression analysis and chi-square test.Results: The top 3 causes of death from 2009 to 2013 were cancer, cerebrovascular disease, and cardiopathy, with the role of cardiopathy increasing over time (P<0.01). The proportion of deaths related to cardio-cerebrovascular diseases in urban and rural areas increased to 41.9% and 44.8%, respectively, in 2013, and was significantly higher than that for cancer, 25.5% and 22.4% (both P<0.01). Injury and poisoning in urban or rural areas represented the fifth leading cause of death. In 2006, endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases were the sixth main cause of death, with 3.3% in urban areas. The role of genito-urinary,
      respiratory, and digestive system diseases in urban areas and genito-urinary system diseases in rural areas decreased during this period (all P<0.05).Conclusion: Cancer, cerebrovascular disease, and cardiopathy accounted for more than 67% of all deaths from 2007 to 2013 in China, and significantly increased in proportion from 2003 to 2013.Keywords: Causes of death; China; cancer; cardiovascular disease
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Family type, domestic violence and under-five mortality in Nigeria

    • Authors: Ayotunde Titilayo, Oludare O. Anuodo, Martin E. Palamuleni
      Abstract: Background: Nigeria still showcases unacceptably high under-five mortality despite all efforts to reduce the menace. Investigating the significant predictors of this occurrence is paramount.Objective: To examine the interplay between family setting, domestic violence and under-five death in Nigeria.Methods: Cross-sectional secondary data, the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, (NDHS) women dataset was utilized. Subset of 26,997 ever married and ever had childbirth experience respondents were extracted from the nationally representative women dataset. Dependent and Independent variables were recoded to suit the statistical analysis for the study.Results: The study revealed that 33.7% of the respondents were in polygyny family setting; one-quarter of the ever married women reported ever experiencing one form of domestic violence or the other. The results of the logistic regressions indicate that family type and domestic violence were significant predictors of under-five children mortality in Nigeria.Conclusion: The study concludes that women who belong to polygyny family setting and who ever experienced sexual domestic violence are highly susceptible to experience under-five children mortality than their counterparts. The study recommends that strategies and policies aimed at improving child survival should strengthen women empowerment initiatives, discourage multiple wives and campaign against domestic violence in Nigeria.Keywords: Polygyny, monogamous, domestic violence, Nigerians
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Near vision spectacle coverage and barriers to near vision correction
           among adults in the Cape Coast Metropolis of Ghana

    • Authors: Michael Ntodie, Sampson L. Abu, Samuel Kyei, Samuel Abokyi, Emmanuel K. Abu
      Abstract: Purpose: To determine the near vision spectacle coverage and barriers to obtaining near vision correction among adults aged 35 years and older in the Cape Coast Metropolis of Ghana.Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study design was adopted and 500 out of 576 participants aged 35 years and older were examined from 12 randomly selected clusters in Cape Coast, Ghana. All participants underwent a comprehensive eye examination which included: distance and near visual acuities measurements and external and internal ocular health assessments. Distance and near refractions were performed using subjective refraction technique. Information on participants’ demographics, near vision correction status, near visual needs and barriers to acquiring near vision correction were obtained through a questionnaire administered as part of the study.Results: The mean age of participants was 52.3±10.3 years of whom 280 (56%) were females and 220 (44%) were males. The near vision spectacle coverage was 25%, 33% “met need” for near vision correction in the presbyopic population, and 64% unmet need in the entire study population. After controlling for other variables, age (5th and 6th decades) and educational level were associated with “met need” for near vision correction (OR=2.7 (1.55-4.68), p =0.00, and OR=2.36 (1.18-4.72), p=0.02 respectively). Among those who needed but did not have near vision correction, 64 (26%) did not feel the need for correction, 55 (22%) stated that they were unaware of available interventions, and 53 (21%) found the cost of near vision correction prohibitive.Conclusion: There was a low near vision spectacle coverage in this population which suggests the need for strategies on health education and promotion to address the lack of awareness of spectacle need and cost of services.Keywords: Presbyopia, near vision, spectacle coverage, unmet needs, Ghana
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Why should modified Atkins diet be encouraged for treating epilepsy in
           emerging countries'

    • Authors: Amal Satte, Eric Heath Kossoff, Mohamed Belghiti, Abderrahim Zerhouni, Hamid Ouhabi, Hassania Guerinech, Jamal Mounach
      Abstract: No Abstract
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Vitamin B6 and homocysteine levels in carbamazepine treated epilepsy of
           Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

    • Authors: Shakirullah Shakir, Niaz Ali, Zia Udin, Haleema Nazish, Muhammad Nabi
      Abstract: Objectives: The study focused on the plasma levels of vitamin B6 and homocysteine in different genotypes of MTHFR (C677T, A1298C) and GABRG2 (C588T, C315T) genes in carbamazepine resistant epilepsy in the population of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.Methodology: Patients who were possible candidates for carbamazepine therapy were followed for six months for their seizure control. Plasma levels of vitamin B6 and homocysteine were determined using immunoassay based techniques at baseline and after six months. MTHFR (C677T, A1298C) and GABRG2 (C588T, C315T) genes were genotyped using restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Seizure control during therapy was recorded on a standardized proforma.Results: Low vitamin B6 levels and hyperhomocysteinemia were found in 61.7% of resistant patients (n=34). Resistant patients had the following frequencies of variant genotypes (677CT=38.1% and 677TT=24.4%; 1298AC=42.2% and 1298CC=26.1%; 588CT= 47.6% and 315TT= 33.3%) of MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) and GABRG2 (C588T and C315T) genes. A significant decline in vitamin B6 (P<0.0001) and hyperhomocysteinemia were found in variant genotypes of MTHFR (C677T, A1298C) and GABRG2 (C588T, C315T) genes.Conclusion: Following six months of carbamazepine of therapy in heterozygous variant genotypes of MTHFR (677CT and 1298AC) and GABRG2 (588CT and 315CT) genes, we observed a significant fall in vitamin B6 levels and hyperhomocysteinemia.Keywords: Carbamazepine, epileptics, homocysteine, seizure control, RFLP, vitamin B6
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Characterization and antitumor activity of camptothecin from endophytic
           fungus Fusarium solani isolated from Camptotheca acuminate

    • Authors: Xueqin Ran, Gen Zhang, Sheng Li, Jiafu Wang
      Abstract: Background: Camptothecin (CPT) is a potent drug against cancers, originally from plants. The endophytic fungi could produce the secondary metabolite same as the host and is used as medicine.Objectives: The aim of this paper was to investigate an endophytic fungal CPT with anti-neoplastic activity.Methods: Endophytic fungi were isolated from Camptotheca acuminata in China. CPT from strain S-019 was characterized by TLC, HPLC and EI-MS analysis. Anti-tumor activity of fungal CPT was detected by MTT and fluorescent dye methods using Vero and PC-3 cells.Results: A total of 94 endophytic fungi strains were isolated from tissues of C. acuminata and 16 fungi strains displayed cytotoxic activity on Vero or PC3 cells. Of which, the fungal strain S-019, classified as Fusarium solani, displayed impressive cytotoxic activity on cancer cells and was found to produce CPT by analysis of TLC, HPLC and EI-MS methods. Bioassay studies confirmed that the fungi CPT had potent cytotoxicity on Vero cells and induced apoptosis of Vero cells.Conclusion: The endophytic fungi from camptotheca trees are a reliable source for natural anticancer compounds. The endophytic fungi could produce CPT same as plant. The fungal CPT exhibited effective activity at inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis on Vero cells.Keywords: Endophytic fungi, camptothecin, anti-tumor, Camptotheca acuminate
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Psychosocial health challenges of the elderly in Nigeria: a narrative

    • Authors: Victor J. Animasahun, Helena J. Chapman
      Abstract: Background: Globally, national health systems are challenged to build successful aging models to prepare for biomedical, psychological and social changes. The integral component of psychosocial health in overall quality of life and well-being, however, is underscored and requires greater focus. Changing demographics in Nigeria, in addition to cultural considerations and absence of a social security system, present unique challenges to elderly.Objective: We aimed to review the literature that describes the current situation and challenges in psychosocial health status in the elderly in Nigeria and provide recommendations that promote health and well-being during the aging process.Results: Four primary factors affect psychosocial health status of elderly Nigerians, namely: changes in family dynamics, increased demand for healthcare services, increased economic stress, and decreased functional independence.Conclusion: Like other developing countries, the Nigerian national system faces similar challenges in preparing a national framework that can maximize coverage to citizens in the midst of demographic changes in aging. By focusing on five target areas such as the educational system, health services, community-based initiatives, local or regional policies and national strategies, current framework in Nigeria can be modified to prepare for changing demographics in aging.Keywords: Aging, family support, Nigeria, psychosocial
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Responsible conduct of research: enhancing local opportunities

    • Authors: Erisa S. Mwaka
      Abstract: Introduction: Research integrity is the foundation of credible research and a pre-requisite for a successful academic research environment. Lately, a lot of revelations of fraud and other unacceptable behaviour in research have been highly publicized in scientific journals and mass media. Whereas institutions in developed countries have developed guidelines and regulations to ensure responsible conduct of research and appropriately deal with cases of research misconduct, low- and middle-income countries seem to be lagging behind. In Uganda, there seems to be lack of coordinated efforts to address the problem of research misconduct both at the national and institutional level.Objective: To propose a framework for fostering scientific integrity and deterring misconduct in research in Ugandan research and academic institutions.Methods: A review of literature on scientific integrity, scientific misconduct, responsible conduct of research, and international ethical guidelines was done.Results: Basing on the 2012 Inter-Academy Council policy report, initiatives to promote responsible conduct of research in Ugandan research and academic institutions are proposed.Conclusion: With the proposed framework, an honest and trustworthy research enterprise in Uganda based on principles of scientific integrity is envisioned.Keywords: Research misconduct, scientific integrity, responsible conduct of research
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Effect of economic and security challenges on the Nigerian health sector

    • Authors: Folashade T. Alloh, Pramod R. Regmi
      Abstract: No Abstract
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Recovery from severe dysphagia in systemic sclerosis - myositis overlap: a
           case report

    • Authors: Keith J. Chinniah, Girish M. Mody
      Abstract: Background: Dysphagia is common in inflammatory myopathies and usually responds to corticosteroids. Severe dysphagia requiring feeding by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is associated with significant morbidity and high mortality.Clinical case: A 56-year old African Black woman initially presented with systemic sclerosis (SSC) - myositis overlap and interstitial lung disease. She responded to high dose corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide followed by azathioprine, with improvement in her lung function and regression of the skin changes. Six years later she had a myositis flare with severe dysphagia. Her myositis improved after high doses of corticosteroids, azathioprine and two doses of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). As her dysphagia persisted, she was fed via a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube and given a course of rituximab. Her dysphagia gradually resolved and the PEG tube was removed within two months. She received another dose of rituximab six months later and continued low dose prednisone and azathioprine. Her muscle power improved, weight returned to normal and she remained well 20 months after hospital discharge.Conclusion: Our patient with SSC-myositis overlap and severe dysphagia requiring PEG feeding, improved with high dose corticosteroids, azathioprine, two courses of IVIG and rituximab, and remained in remission 20 months after hospital discharge.Keywords: Severe dysphagia, systemic sclerosis, myositis overlap
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Letter to editor: Humidity is an ambient parameter to development of Zika
           virus: an Indonesian case

    • Authors: Ramadhan Tosepu
      Abstract: No Abstract
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Letter to editor: Emerging epidemic of drug resistant tuberculosis in
           vulnerable populations of developing countries

    • Authors: Hafiza Jawairia Hashmi, Hasnain Javed, Nazia Jamil
      Abstract: No Abstract
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • The burden, pattern and factors that contribute to periportal fibrosis in
           HIV-infected patients in an S. mansoni endemic rural Uganda

    • Authors: Ponsiano Ocama, Kenneth Christopher Opio, Emmanuel Seremba, Paul Ajal, Betty Stephanie Apica, Emmanuel Odongo Aginya
      Abstract: Introduction: Both Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and S.mansoni infections are common in Uganda and can cause liver disease. No study has determined co-infection significance in Uganda. We carried out a study on the burden, pattern and factors that contribute to peri-portal fibrosis (PPF) in HIV infected patients attending a Primary healthcare setting at Pakwach.Methodology: We conducted a cross-sectional study in the HIV clinic at Pakwach health centre IV. Data on demographics, contact with the Nile, CD4+ cell count, ART and alcohol use were collected. Urinary Circulating Cathodic Antigen (CCA), was done for S. Mansoni detection. Liver scan was done for presence and pattern of PPF. HBsAg testing was performed on all participants. Data was analyzed using Stata Version 10.Results: We enrolled 299 patients, median age 39 years (IQR 16), most were female, 210 (73%). Overall, 206 (68.9%) had PPF, majority 191 (92.7%) had pattern c, either alone (63 participants) or in combination with pattern d (128 participants). Age of 30-50 years was significantly associated with PPF (OR 2.28 p-value-0.003)Conclusion: We found high prevalence of S. mansoni and PPF in the HIV infected population and age was a significant factor for PPF. We recommend all HIV infected patients be examined routinely for S. mansoni infection for early anti-schistosomal treatment.Keywords: HIV, S.Mansoni, peri-portal fibrosis
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Effect of vitamin A and vitamin C supplementation on oxidative stress in
           HIV and HIV-TB co-infection at Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH)

    • Authors: Oluwamayowa Makinde, Kunle Rotimi, Victor Ikumawoyi, Titilope Adeyemo, Sunday Olayemi
      Abstract: Background: HIV and TB infections are both associated with elevated oxidative stress parameters. Anti-oxidant supplementation may offer beneficial effects in positively modulating oxidative stress parameters in HIV and HIV-TB infected patients. We investigated the effects of vitamin A and C supplementation on oxidative stress in HIV infected and HIV-TB co-infected subjects.Methods: 40 HIV/TB co-infected and 50 HIV mono-infected patients were divided into 2 equal groups. Participants provided demographic information and blood was collected to determine oxidative stress parameters before and after vitamin A (5000 IU) and C (2600 mg) supplementation for 1 month.Results: There was a significantly (p < 0.05) higher level of Malondialdehyde (MDA) at baseline for HIV infected subjects compared with HIV-TB co-infected subjects. There was a significantly (p < 0.05) lower level of MDA and higher level of Catalase (CAT) in subjects administered supplementation compared to subjects without supplementation for the HIV infected group. There was a significantly lower level of Reduced Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and higher level of MDA after one month of supplementation compared with baseline levels for HIV/TB co infected subjects. A similar result was also obtained for the HIV mono-infected groups which had a significantly lower level of SOD, MDA and CAT compared to the baseline. There was a significantly lower level of GSH and SOD, and higher level of MDA after supplementation compared with the baseline for HIV/TB co-infected subjects. Comparing the indices at baseline and post no-supplementation in HIV/TB co-infection showed no significant differences in the oxidative stress parametersConclusion: HIV/TB co-infection and HIV mono-infection seems to diminish the capacity of the anti-oxidant system to control oxidative stress, however exogenous anti-oxidant supplementation appears not to have beneficial roles in positively modulating the associated oxidative stress.Keywords: Oxidative stress, HIV, TB, anti-oxidants, vitamin A,vitamin C
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Demographic and epidemiological characteristics of HIV opportunistic
           infections among older adults in Nigeria

    • Authors: Joshua O. Akinyemi, Babatunde O. Ogunbosi, Adetona S. Fayemiwo, Olubukola A. Adesina, Michael Obaro, Modupe A. Kuti, Olutosin A. Awolude, David O. Olaleye, Isaac F. Adewole
      Abstract: Background: In view of the maturing HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, better understanding of its epidemiology among older adults is necessary in order to design appropriate care and treatment programmes for them.Objectives: To describe the demographic and epidemiological characteristics of HIV opportunistic infections among newly enrolled patients aged 50 years and above in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria.Methods: Analysis of data extracted from electronic records of 17, 312 subjects enrolled for HIV/AIDS care and treatment between January 2006 and December 2014 at the ART clinic, University College Hospital, Ibadan.Results: Age of the patients ranged from 18 to 90 years with a mean of 36.4 years (SD= 10.3) with older adults constituting 12.0% (2075). Among older adults, about half (52.9%) were females. Majority (59.1%) were currently married while 25.9% were widowed. Prevalence of opportunistic infections was 46.6%. The commonest opportunistic infections (OIs) were: oral candidiasis (27.6%), chronic diarrhoea (23.5% and peripheral neuropathy (14.8%). Significant factors associated with opportunistic infections in older adults were: CD4 count less than 350 (OR=3.12, CI: 2.29-4.25) and hepatitis C virus co-infection (OR=2.17, CI: 1.14-4.13).Conclusion: There is need for prompt response to the peculiar challenges associated with the emerging shift in the epidemiology of HIV and associated infections in sub-Saharan Africa.Keywords: HIV/AIDS, older adults, epidemiological characteristics, opportunistic infections, Nigeria
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Isolation and evaluation of Candida species and their association with
           CD4+ T cells counts in HIV patients with diarrhoea

    • Authors: Ayobami Awoyeni, Olarinde Olaniran, Babatunde Odetoyin, Rachel Hassan-Olajokun, Bolatito Olopade, David Afolayan, Oluwakayode Adekunle
      Abstract: Background: Gastrointestinal infection is one of the most common infections among HIV patients. Candida spp have been implicated in the aetiology of chronic diarrhoea in HIV patients, but little is known about this in Nigeria.Objectives: We determined the prevalence of faecal candidiasis in HIV patients in relation to diarrhoea, CD4 counts, and other socio-demographic factors and the spectrum of Candida isolates involved.Methods: One hundred and fifty four HIV patients were investigated. Candida species were identified by standard techniques. Socio-demographic and clinical information was obtained from the patients using a structured questionnaire. The CD4 count was estimated using a single platform flow cytometer.Results: Candida overgrowth was detected in 61 (39.5%) HIV patients, and diarrhoea was associated with candidiasis in the subjects (P=0.001). Candidiasis was commonly detected among subjects in the 29-39 years’ age group. A CD4 count below 200 cells/mm2 (62.3%) was a risk factor for acquiring candidiasis among HIV patients (P=0.001). Candida albicans (65.6%) was the most frequently recovered species followed by Candida krusei (16.4%) and Candida tropicalis (14.8%).Conclusion: Candidiasis is an important opportunistic infection in HIV-patients in Ile-Ife. There is need for regular checks for opportunistic infections, including candidiasis in HIV patients to monitor disease progression and prevent subsequent complications.Keywords: Candida species, CD4+ T cells counts, HIV, diarrhoea
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Risk factors associated with acquiring superficial fungal infections in
           school children in South Western Nigeria: a comparative study

    • Authors: Olaide Oke Olutoyin, Olaniyi Onayemi, Akinlolu Omisore Gabriel
      Abstract: Introduction: Superficial fungal infections (SFI) are caused mainly by dermatophytes and yeasts. SFI is of major public health concern and is a common cause of skin disease among school children.Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with acquiring superficial fungal infections in school children in Ile-Ife, South West Nigeria as this will assist in instituting appropriate interventions.Methods: A total of 560 children; 280 with superficial fungal infections as subjects and 280 age and sex matched school children as controls were recruited through multistage sampling method from 10 primary schools (private and public owned) in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.Discussion: Pupils were aged 5-16 years with a mean age of 9.42±2.00. Risk factors documented in this study included poor living conditions, use of barbers’ clippers, low socio-economic status, poor hygiene, attendance of public schools and not living with both parents. The last four factors remained significant on binary logistic regression.Conclusion: The study shows that the risk for acquiring superficial fungal infections remains high in school children and in communities with low socio-economic positions.Keywords: Risk factors, school children, skin, superficial fungal infections
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Effect of smoking on acute phase reactants, stress hormone responses and
           vitamin C in pulmonary tuberculosis

    • Authors: John O. Opolot, Annette J. Theron, Patrick MacPhail, Charles Feldman, Ronald Anderson
      Abstract: Background: Chronic inflammation, possibly exacerbated by cigarette smoking, is considered to be the primary cause of pulmonary damage in patients with tuberculosis (TB). However, the mechanisms which underpin these harmful inflammatory responses, have not been well documented.Objectives: The current study was undertaken to determine possible associations between systemic biomarkers of inflammation (acute phase reactants, stress hormones, leukocyte vitamin C) and smoking status in patients (n=71, 20 smokers) with newly-diagnosed pulmonary TB presenting at a tertiary hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa.Methods: Plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine and leukocyte vitamin C were measured using a combination of immunonephelometric, radioimmunoassay, immunochromatographic and spectrophotometric procedures. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data was captured and analysed by parametric and non-parametric analyses where appropriate.Results: Smokers were predominantly males (P<0.0001), of older age (P<0.0003) with a significantly lower body mass index (P<0.03). Plasma levels of CRP, ferritin and dopamine were higher in the group of smokers in the setting of lower levels of epinephrine, and leukocyte vitamin C, with CRP and vitamin C attaining statistical significance (P<0.04 and P<0.02 respectively). Those of cortisol and norepinephrine were comparable to those of non-smokers, as were radiographic changes and clinical indices of disease activity.Conclusion: Cigarette smoking is associated with an exaggerated systemic inflammatory response in pulmonary TB in the setting of decreased concentrations of leukocyte vitamin C. Although no significant associations with radiographic changes and most clinical indices of disease activity were evident on presentation, these pro-inflammatory interactions may have prognostic significance.Keywords: Catecholamines, C-reactive protein, ferritin, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, leukocyte vitamin C
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Dissemination and genetic support of broad-spectrum beta-lactam-resistant
           Escherichia coli strain isolated from two Tunisian hospitals during

    • Authors: Khaoula Ayari, Amel Bourouis, Hela Chihi, Sihem Mahrouki, Thierry Naas, Omrane Belhadj
      Abstract: Background: The dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria presented a great concern worldwide. Gram-negative organisms such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the most frequently isolated pathogens responsible for nosocomial infections.Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate and to follow the emergence of resistance and the characterization of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) among broad-spectrum beta-lactam-Escherichia coli clinical isolates recovered from the military hospital and Habib Thameur hospital in Tunisia.Methods: A total of 113 E.coli isolates obtained during the period 2004 through 2012 showed a significant degree of multi-resistance. Among these strains, the double-disk synergy test confirmed the ESBL phenotype in 46 isolates. These included 32(70%) strains from Hospital A and 14(30%) from Hospital B.Results: The ESBL was identified as CTX-M-15. The ESBL resistance was transferred by a 60 kb plasmid CTXM-15-producing isolates were unrelated according to the PFGE analysis and characterization of the regions surrounding the blaCTX-M-15 showed the ISEcp1 elements located in the upstream region of the bla gene and 20 of them truncated by IS26.Conclusion: ESBL producing E. coli strains are a serious threat in the community in Tunisia and we should take into consideration any possible spread of such epidemiological resistance.Keywords: CTX-M-15, diverse clones, ESBLs, Escherichia coli
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Molecular screening of antibiotic-resistant determinants among
           multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis from SouthWest

    • Authors: Olumuyiwa Samuel Alabi, Nuno Mendonça, Olufemi Ezekiel Adeleke, Gabriela Jorge da Silva
      Abstract: Background: Globally, and particularly in developing countries, the menace of anti-microbial resistance is an accelerating problem. In Nigeria, increase in bacterial resistance has been phenotypically established but due to high cost, few molecular studies have been reported.Objectives: This study screened for presence of transferable resistance genes and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) such as integron among multi-drug resistant (MDR) P. mirabilis.Methods: A total of 108 P. mirabilis strains collected from five tertiary hospitals in SouthWest Nigeria were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility study using disc-diffusion method. Transferable resistance genes and MGEs were amplified using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and amplicons sequenced.Results: Varied resistance was observed against all the antibiotics tested. About 56% of the isolates were MDR including those from 0-12 years old children. PCR analysis revealed the presence of aac(6’)-Ib (33.3%), plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes [qnrA (36.7%), acc(6’)-Ib-cr (5%)], TEM (48.3%), CTX-M (6.7%) and integrons class 1 (58.3%) and class 2 (26.7%). Sequencing analysis revealed blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-15 associated with ISEcp1 and eight different arrays of gene cassettes: aadA1, aadA1-qacH, aadB-aadA2, aadA5, dfrA7, dfrA15, dfrA17, dfrA17-aadA5.Conclusion: Transferable resistance genes in association with MGEs are present in Nigerian P. mirabilis thus their potential in disseminating resistance.Keywords: Multidrug resistance, resistance determinants, integrase, gene cassettes, Proteus mirabilis
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Osteopontin as a marker for response to pegylated interferon Alpha-2b
           treatment in Chronic HCV Saudi patients

    • Authors: Yousri Mostafa Hussein, Ayman Alhazmi, Saad Alzahrani, Ahmad El-Askary, Abdulrahman Alghamdy, Eman Bayomy, Assmaa Selim, Mohammed Alghamdy
      Abstract: Background: Many recent studies support the idea that osteopontin (OPN) can be used to predict the success of pegylated interferon (PEG IFN) alpha-2b/ribavirin therapy in chronic HCV patients.Objective: Our aim was to investigate the role of plasma OPN and its gene polymorphism at nt – 443 in response to PEG IFN in Saudi patients with chronic HCV.Methods: Blood was collected from 87 patients with chronic hepatitis C before treatment, then patients received PEG IFN α2b plus ribavirin combination therapy. Another 25 healthy subjects, matched for age and sex to patients, were enrolled as controls. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in OPN at nt – 443 and its blood level were analyzed.Results: The frequency of patients who reached sustained virological response (SVR) was increased in patients with T/T at nt – 443 than in those with C/C or C/T. Also the frequency of T allele was increased in responders than in non-responders. However, this increase was not statistically significant. The blood level of OPN was significantly increased in non-responders (Mean±SD=37.21±3.9) in comparison to responders (Mean±SD=33.22±4.1).Conclusion: Osteopontin blood level can be considered as a reliable predictor to PEG IFN α2b plus ribavirin therapy in chronic HCV Saudi Patients.Keywords: OPN, PEG IFN, HCV, SVR, SNP, RT-PCR
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • A VAR2CSA:CSP conjugate capable of inducing dual specificity antibody

    • Authors: Sungwa Matondo, Susan Thrane, Christoph Mikkel Janitzek, Reginald Adolph Kavishe, Steven Boniface Mwakalinga, Thor Grundtvig Theander, Ali Salanti, Morten Agertoug Nielsen, Adam Frederik Sander
      Abstract: Background: Vaccine antigens targeting specific P. falciparum parasite stages are under pre-clinical and clinical development. It seems plausible that vaccine with multiple specificities will offer higher protection. With this hypothesis, we exploited the Spy- Tag/SpyCatcher conjugation system to make a, post expression, dual antigen conjugate vaccine, comprising two clinically tested antigen candidates (CSP and VAR2CSA).Methods: The DBL1x-DBL2x-ID2a region of VAR2CSA was genetically fused with SpyTag at N-terminus. The full-length CSP antigen was genetically fused to C-terminal SpyCatcher peptide. The covalent interaction between SpyTag/ SpyCatcher enables the formation of DBL1x-DBL2x-ID2a:CSP conjugate vaccine. Immunogenicity and quality of antibody responses induced by the conjugate vaccine, as well as a control CSP-SpyCatcher vaccine, was tested in BALB/c mice.Results: Serum samples obtained from mice immunized with the conjugate vaccine were able to recognize both untagged DBL1x-DBL2x-ID2a as well as CSP antigen. Moreover, the geometric mean anti-CSP antibody titer was 1.9-fold higher in serum (at day 35 and 55 post-first immunization) from mice immunized with the conjugate vaccine, as compared to mice receiving the control vaccine.Conclusion: The data obtained in this study serves as proof-of-concept for the simultaneous induction of antibodies directed against individual antigen components in a dual stage anti-malaria vaccine.Keywords: Malaria vaccine, Circumsporozoite protein, VAR2CSA, CSP SpyCatcher, SpyTag-DBL1x-DBL2x-ID2a, bacterial superglue, DBL1x-DBL2x-ID2a:CSP conjugate
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • A qualitative study of sexual health education among Iranian engaged

    • Authors: Zahra Bostani Khalesi, Masoumeh Simbar, Seyed Ali Azin
      Abstract: Background: Sexual health education for Iranian engaged couples is always ignored in the premarital education program.Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the necessity of sexual health education for Iranian engaged couples.Materials and methods: This qualitative study was conducted in Rasht, Iran. The studied sample consisted of 38 engaged men and women; and also 9 health experts and policymakers. We used interview guides to collect data. The data was analyzed through content analysis method.Results: Analyzing participants’ perspectives revealed six themes including: (1) socio-cultural changes, (2) emerging social pathologies, (3) inadequate sexual knowledge; (4) challenges in providing sexual health services, (5) individual consequences and (6) social consequences.Conclusion: Most participants emphasized the necessity of sexual health education not only because of medical concerns, but also from the perspective of social issues. Providing these services should be considered a priority.Keywords: Sexual health, health education, qualitative study, Iran
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Does female education explain the disparity in the use of antenatal and
           natal services in Nigeria' Evidence from demographic and health survey

    • Authors: Abubakar Sadiq Umar
      Abstract: Background: Nigeria is among the countries with a high number of annual maternal deaths partly due to low utilization of maternal health services (MHS).Objective: This study aimed to explore whether there is an association between women’s level of education and the appropriate use of antenatal and delivery services.Method: A quantitative cross-sectional study was used to analyze the Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) data. Information from 33,385 women aged 15 – 49 years was analyzed using Bivariate Pearson Chi square test and multiple logistic regressions.Results: Education is statistically associated with the number of antenatal clinic visits made (AOR = 3.208; CI 2.875 – 3.578; p < .0001) and the place of delivery (AOR = 2.009; CI 1.449 – 2.785; p < .0001) even after controlling for availability of skilled health workers, parity, income, religion, age and distance.Conclusion: A long term investment in girls’ education will improve income, interaction with health care providers, level of autonomy to seek and pay for appropriate MHS and ultimately use of MHS and positive pregnancy outcomes.Keywords: Education, antenatal, delivery, Nigeria
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Factors influencing women’s utilization of public health care services
           during childbirth in Malawi Public health facility utilization

    • Authors: Kennedy Machira, Martin Palamuleni
      Abstract: Background: Maternal mortality remains a public health challenge claiming many lives at the time of giving birth lives. However, there have been scanty studies investigating factors influencing women’s use of public health facilities during childbirth.Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the factors associated with women choice of public health facility during childbirth.Methods: The study used 2010 Malawi Demographic Health Survey dataset and a binary logistics regression analysis to estimate the determinants influencing women’s use of public health facilities at the time they give birth.Results: Of 23020 women respondents, 8454(36.7%) chose to give birth in public health facilities. Multivariate analysis reported that frequency of antenatal care (ANC), birth order, women’s education, wealth status and quality of care were the major predictors increasing women’s choice to use public health facilities at childbirth.Conclusion: There is need to use multimedia approach to engage women on significance of utilizing public health facilities during childbirth and promote quality of care in facilities if their health outcome is to improve in Malawi.Keywords: Childbirth, public health, health care, Malawi
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Uptake of long-acting reversible contraceptive devices in Western region
           of the Gambia

    • Authors: Matthew Anyanwu, Bom Wekye Ndam Alida
      Abstract: Background: The contraceptive method has become an essential factor in the life of most women of reproductive age group; although it varies in different stages of their life course. The use of long acting reversible methods (LARC) is proposed as a strategy to reverse undesirable maternal health consequences in developing countries.Objective: To determine the uptake of long-acting reversible contraceptive in The Gambia.Methods: A community based cross-sectional study of women attending family planning clinic were studied using intervieweradministered questionnaire which included information on socio-demographic factors, reproductive health and contraceptive use of the participants.Results: About 89 % of study participants used long acting reversible contraceptive methods. Of the three commonly available long acting reversible contraceptive methods, Depo Provera was the most commonly used method; 78 of 141 (55.32%); followed by implants (43.3%) and intrauterine contraceptive (1.42%). Being housewives, with 3-4 living children and having secondary level education were associated with high uptake of LARC.Conclusion: The uptake of long acting reversible contraceptive was high; with Depo Provera as the most commonly used contraceptive method in The Gambia. There seemed to be an increase in the uptake of implants; with intrauterine contraceptive device being the least commonly used method.Keywords: Uptake, LARC, methods
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Evidence for decreasing sperm count in African population from 1965 to

    • Authors: Pallav Sengupta, Uchenna Nwagha, Sulagna Dutta, Elzbieta Krajewska-Kulak, Emmanuel Izuka
      Abstract: Purpose: This meta-analysis, following our previous reports those documented an overall 57% diminution in mean sperm concentration around the globe over past 35 years and 32.5% decline in past 50 years in European population, attempts to report the declining trend of sperm concentrations in African population between 1965 and 2015.Methods: In the course of retrieval of data following MOOSE guidelines and PRISMA checklist, we found a total of fourteen studies that have been conducted during that period on altering sperm concentration in the African male.Results: Following analysis of the data, a time-dependent decline of sperm concentration (r = -0.597, p = 0.02) and an overall 72.6% decrease in mean sperm concentration was noted in the past 50 years. The major matter of concern is the present mean concentration (20.38×106/ml) is very near to WHO cut-off value of 2010 of 15×106/ml. Several epidemic diseases, genital tract infection, pesticides and heavy metal toxicity, regular consumption of tobacco and alcohol are reported as predominant causative factors.Conclusion: This comprehensive, evidence-based meta-analysis and systematic review concisely presents the evidence of decreased sperm concentration in the African male over past 50 years with possible causative factors to serve the scientific research zone related to male reproductive health.Keywords: Semen quality, sperm concentration, sperm count
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Allostatic load and heart rate variability as health risk indicators

    • Authors: Margaretha Viljoen, Nicolaas Claassen
      Abstract: Background: Uncertainty often exists about the comparability of results obtained by different health risk indicator systems.Objectives: To compare two health risk indicator systems, i.e, allostatic load and heart rate variability (HRV). Additionally, to investigate the feasibility of inclusion of HRV indicators into allostatic load assessments and which HRV indicators are best to introduce.Methods: Allostatic loads were calculated based on blood pressure, waist-to-hip ratio, BMI, cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, CRP, albumin, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood glucose and cortisol excretion. Allostatic load scores were compared to HRV results obtained by frequency domain, time domain and Poincaré analyses.Results: Negative correlations were found between allostatic loads and total HRV, for all periods and all HRV analytical techniques (r=-0.67, p=0.0001 to r=-0.435, p=0.035), and between allostatic loads and vagal measures of HRV for supine (r=-0.592, p=0.001 to r=-0.584, p=0.001) and the first 5 minutes standing (r=-0.443, p=0.021 to r=-0.407, p=0.035), with all HRV techniques. Heart rate responses declined with increases in allostatic loads.Conclusion: HRV and allostatic load scores give comparable results as health risk indicators. Baseline total HRV and vagal, rather than sympathetic, measures of HRV should be introduced into allostatic load assessments. Results are in line with the concept of vagal tone as a regulator of allostatic systems. Inclusion of heart rate responses to orthostatic stress, into allostatic load assessments, warrants further investigation.Keywords: Psychosocial stress; allostatic load; heart rate variability
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • An under-diagnosed geriatric syndrome: sleep disorders among older adults

    • Authors: Asli Tufan, Birkan Ilhan, Gulistan Bahat, Mehmet Akif Karan
      Abstract: Introduction: Sleep disorders are commonly under-diagnosed in the geriatric population. We aimed to determine the prevalence of sleep problems among older adults admitted to the geriatrics out-patient clinic.Methods: Two hundred and three patients (136 female) older than 75 years of age were included in the study. Patients underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment, including identification of sleep problems using the Sleep Disturbance Scale, Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) Single-Question Screen questionnaire (RBD1Q) and The Johns Hopkins Restless Leg Syndrome Severity Scale. Demographic and clinical data including age, sex, medications, comorbid diseases, body mass index and functional scores was noted.Results: The mean age of the patients was 80.92±4.3 years. 35.5% of the patients had findings of REM-SBD and 32.5% of the patients had restless legs syndrome. Ninety-seven percent of the patients answered ‘yes’ to at least one of the sleep disturbance scale questions. There was no significant difference between male and female groups.Conclusion: We observed that sleep disorders were common among older adults. For this reason, the course and quality of sleep should be examined in all patients as a routine part of comprehensive geriatric assessment.Keywords: Comprehensive geriatric assessment, older adults, sleep disorders
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Biochemical markers of mineral bone disorder in South African patients on
           maintenance haemodialysis

    • Authors: Waziri Bala, Duarte Raquel, Naicker Saraladevi
      Abstract: Background and objective: Despite the high mortality and morbidity associated with abnormalities in mineral and bone metabolism in haemodialysis patients, there is limited data on the pattern of mineral bone disorder in African CKD population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of mineral bone disease by evaluating biochemical parameters in patients on maintenance haemodialysis (MHD).Methods: We evaluated the serum/plasma intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), corrected calcium, phosphate, total alkaline phosphatase (TALP) and 25 –OH vitamin D levels of two hundred and seven patients undergoing MHD at two dialysis centers in Johannesburg.Results: The MHD patients (133 men, 74 women) had a mean age of 54.5±15.6 years with a median dialysis vintage of 24 months (IQR, 12-48) and a mean kt/V of 1.45±0.28. The prevalence of hyperparathyroidism (iPTH >150 pg/ml), hyperphosphataemia, hypocalcaemia and 25-OH vitamin D deficiency (<30 ng/ml) was 73.4%, 57.0%, 20.3% and 80.7 % respectively. The combination of markers of bone turnover (iPTH >150pg/ml and TALP> 112 U/L) suggestive of high turnover bone disease, was present in 47.3 % of the study population. In multiple-logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio for developing hyperparathyroidism with hypocalcaemia and hyperphosphataemia were 5.32 (95% CI 1.10 - 25.9, P = 0.03) and 3.06(95 % CI 1.15 - 8.10, P=0.02) respectively. Ninety eight (47.3%) of the MHD patients had iPTH within the recommended kidney disease improving global outcome (KDIGO) guidelines.Conclusion: Secondary hyperparathyroidism and 25–OH vitamin D deficiency were common in our haemodialysis patients. Hypocalcaemia and hyperphosphataemia were strong predictors for developing secondary hyperparathyroidism.Keywords: Biochemical markers, guidelines, mineral bone disorder, haemodialysis
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Changes in mediators of inflammation and pro-thrombosis after 12 months of
           dietary modification in adults with metabolic syndrome

    • Authors: S.K. Rahamon, U.A. Fabian, M.A. Charles-Davies, J.A. Olaniyi, A.A. Fasanmade, K.S. Akinlade, O.E. Oyewole, M.O. Owolabi, J.R. Adebusuyi, O.O. Hassan, B.M. Ajobo, M.O. Ebesunun, K Adigun, O.O. Popoola, W Omiyale, O.G. Arinola, E.O. Agbedana
      Abstract: Objective: This study evaluated the effects of a 12-month dietary modification on indices of inflammation and pro-thrombosis in adults with metabolic syndrome (MS).Materials and methods: This longitudinal study involved 252 adults with MS recruited from the Bodija market, Ibadan and its environs. Participants were placed on 20%, 30% and 50% calories obtained from protein, total fat and carbohydrate respectively and were followed up monthly for 12 months. Anthropometry and blood pressure were measured using standard methods. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)], interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were measured using spectrophotometric methods and ELISA as appropriate. Data was analysed using ANCOVA, Student’s t-test, Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant.Results: After 6 months of dietary modification, there was a significant reduction in waist circumference (WC), while the levels of HDL-C, fibrinogen and PAI-1 were significantly increased when compared with the corresponding baseline values. However, WC and fibrinogen reduced significantly, while HDL-C and IL-10 significantly increased after 12 months of dietary modification as compared with the respective baseline values.Conclusion: Long-term regular dietary modification may be beneficial in ameliorating inflammation and pro-thrombosis in metabolic syndrome.Keywords: Dietary modification, fibrinogen, interleukins, metabolic syndrome, plasminogen activator inhibitor
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
  • Prevalence, severity and factors associated with peripheral neuropathy
           among newly diagnosed diabetic patients attending Mulago hospital: a
           cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Twaha Kisozi, Edris Mutebi, Musubire Kisekka, Samden Lhatoo, Martha Sajatovic, Mark Kaddumukasa, Fredrick Nelson Nakwagala, Elly Katabira
      Abstract: Aims: To determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) among newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients in Mulago Hospital.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 248 newly diagnosed adult diabetic patients. Using the standard Neuropathy Symptom Score (NSS) and Neuropathy Disability Score (NDS) criteria, we screened them for neuropathy. Data on the socio-demographics, age, duration of symptoms and history of diabetic ulcer were analyzed using a multiple logistic regression. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant.Results: The majority of study patients (62.1%) were male. The overall prevalence of DPN was 29.4 %. Nearly sixteen percent had moderate neuropathy and only five percent had severe neuropathy. Age above 60 years was significantly associated with the presence of DPN; (OR 3.72; 95% CI 1.25 – 11.03; p=0.018). The history of ever having a foot ulcer was significantly associated with peripheral neuropathy (OR 2.59; 95% CI: 1.03 – 6.49, p = 0.042).Conclusion: DPN occurs in 1 in 4 of newly diagnosed diabetic patients in Mulago hospital. Two thirds of these patients had moderate to severe neuropathy. DPN was independently associated with increasing age. Early diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, increased diabetes knowledge and regular blood sugar screenings would play an important role in identifying this problem.Keywords: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy, associated factors, newly diagnosed, diabetes mellitus
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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