Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1540 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (86 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (721 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (390 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (108 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (131 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (721 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Adversity and Resilience Science : Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AJOB Empirical Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Akademika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 279)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences: Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Apuntes Universitarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Suicide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Archivos de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atención Primaria Práctica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 5)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biosafety and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biosalud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Birat Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Boletin Médico de Postgrado     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
British Journal of Health Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos de Saúde     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Carta Comunitaria     Open Access  
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
CASUS : Revista de Investigación y Casos en Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
CES Salud Pública     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia & Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia & Trabajo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Innovación en Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciencia y Salud Virtual     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cities & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical and Experimental Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clocks & Sleep     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuaderno de investigaciones: semilleros andina     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cuadernos de la Escuela de Salud Pública     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Das österreichische Gesundheitswesen ÖKZ     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Design for Health     Hybrid Journal  
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Diversity and Equality in Health and Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Diversity of Research in Health Journal     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drogues, santé et société     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Düzce Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi / Journal of Duzce University Health Sciences Institute     Open Access  
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência : Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
EsSEX : Revista Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios sociales : Revista de alimentación contemporánea y desarrollo regional     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethics & Human Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Eurasian Journal of Health Technology Assessment     Open Access  
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Family & Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 15)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare : Finjehew     Open Access  
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Frontiers of Health Services Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ganesha Journal     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gestão e Desenvolvimento     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Advances in Health and Medicine     Open Access  
Global Challenges     Open Access  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Global Health Annual Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Health Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Reproductive Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Transitions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastane Öncesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
HCU Journal     Open Access  
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health and Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health and Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Health Behavior Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Health & Justice
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.304
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2194-7899
Published by SpringerOpen Homepage  [261 journals]
  • Navigating complexity to support justice-involved youth with FASD and
           other neurodevelopmental disabilities: needs and challenges of a regional
           workforce

    • Abstract: Background Young people with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) can face significant challenges in their lives, including overrepresentation in the justice system from a young age. Police questioning and court proceedings can be difficult for these young people to navigate. Practice and policy responses are necessary to identify these individuals, provide appropriate support/rehabilitation, and upskill the justice workforce. The aim of this research was to determine the unmet workforce development needs of a regional workforce providing care and support to youth involved with the justice system. Interviews were conducted with 29 participants from 14 organisations to understand the support provided to youth, existence and uptake of referral pathways, and unmet needs. Results Results revealed a workforce that wants to see improvements to outcomes for young people with FASD and other neurodevelopmental disabilities who enter the youth justice system. However more support is required through training, ongoing funding, and assistance to develop FASD informed work practices. Conclusions The workforce supporting youth to navigate the justice system requires practical interventions to achieve best practice so that young people with FASD and other neurodevelopmental disabilities receive the support that they need. Following the interviews a model of care tool was developed and piloted in the sector. The tool includes current pathways through the justice system and provides resources to assist staff in achieving best practice care for young people with FASD and other neurodevelopmental disabilities.
      PubDate: 2021-02-27
       
  • Correction to: Undoing resilience: immigrant status and poor health
           following incarceration

    • Abstract: An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.
      PubDate: 2021-02-26
       
  • Using multiple case studies of health and justice services to inform the
           development of a new complex intervention for prison-leavers with common
           mental health problems (Engager)

    • Abstract: Background People in the criminal justice system have complex needs but often do not make use of services outside of prison, in many cases due to poorly joined up working between health and criminal justice services. The ‘Engager’ programme aimed to develop a complex collaborative care intervention for people leaving prison with common mental health problems that could support their transition into the community and facilitate joined up working between health, justice and social services. To augment our core intervention theory, we wanted to learn from innovative and forward-thinking services providing interagency support and/or treatment for people experiencing common mental health problems within the criminal justice system. We wanted to identify key elements of interagency practice to understand what was and was not effective in engaging people, maintaining their contact and improving mental health and other aspects of their lives. Method We used a multiple case study design with a focused ethnographic approach in four study sites. Data came from three sources (documents, field notes and semi-structured interviews) underwent a framework analysis. Results We identified seven main themes, namely: collaboration, client engagement, client motivation, supervision, therapeutic approach, peers and preparations for ending. Engaging and motivating clients was dependent on the relationship built with the professional. This relationship was developed through building trust and rapport, which required time and respectful, open and honest communication. Professionals were often unable to build this relationship effectively if they did not work in effective interagency collaborations, particularly those which included shared practices and were supported by effective supervision. Conclusions The multiple case study design contributed insights as to how health and justice services work together. The main themes identified are well known factors in health and justice co-working. However, the novel insights were gleaned examining interdependence and interactions in complex, multifactorial phenomena and practice, in particular the importance of shared practice and supervision models. The approach of selecting a small number of cases representing identified knowledge gaps contributed a valuable addition to the program theory and delivery for an innovative complex intervention.
      PubDate: 2021-02-17
       
  • Undoing resilience: immigrant status and poor health following
           incarceration

    • Abstract: Background In the United States, foreign-born persons often have better health outcomes than their native-born peers, despite exposure to adversity. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether this pattern extends to the consequences of life events, such as incarceration, that separate immigrants from their supportive networks and increase exposure to adversity. Accordingly, using four waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, hierarchical generalized linear models were used to examine within-individual changes in self-rated health following first incarceration (N = 31,202 person-waves). Results The results showed that incarceration was associated with modest health declines that were similar in magnitude for immigrant and native-born persons. Supplemental analyses revealed that these effects did not vary by immigrant race or ethnicity, or by age at immigration. The only exception was for immigrants from low- and middle-income countries, who were marginally less likely to experience health declines following incarceration. Conclusions In general, incarceration appears to be similarly health damaging for immigrants and non-immigrants. These findings raise important questions about how incarceration is linked to health declines for foreign- and native-born populations and emphasize the importance of access to healthcare for individuals released from correctional facilities. More research is needed, however, to further examine the cumulative impacts of incarceration on immigrants’ health across the life course, and to assess a broader spectrum of health outcomes.
      PubDate: 2021-02-05
       
  • Adaptation of a standard extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) protocol for
           rural re-entering offenders with OUD

    • Abstract: Background Despite a growing body of empirical support for the effectiveness of extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) to reduce opioid relapse among people with opioid use disorder (OUD) transitioning from a correctional facility to the community, continuity of care following release remains challenging. This paper describes a research-based adaptation of a state’s standard of care XR-NTX protocol using the ADAPT-ITT framework for delivery in a non-traditional, non-treatment, community criminal justice setting (P&P office), as well as the expansion of services by a local Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) provider who would, for the first time, be going to the jail and P&P office to provide XR-NTX and related treatment. Method The present study focuses on the first seven phases (Assessment through Training) of the ADAPT-ITT framework in the adaptation of the Department of Corrections (DOC) protocol in preparation for a pilot trial for induction in a rural jail and during the transition to a rural community. Expert clinical review and focus groups with key stakeholders in criminal justice supervision and the local providers in the FQHC informed the needed adaptations to the existing XR-NTX protocol for initiation at the jail and ongoing administrations in the community. Results Findings from stakeholder focus groups, study team review, topical expert review, and a theater test suggested that there were critical adaptations needed in both content and context at the patient and clinic level. Conclusion Health and justice officials should consider the need to tailor and adapt evidence-based approaches for real-world locations that high-risk, justice-involved individuals visit in order to reduce barriers and increase access to critically needed treatment for OUD.
      PubDate: 2021-02-05
       
  • Testing an evidence-based drug abuse and violence preventive approach
           adapted for youth in juvenile justice diversionary settings

    • Abstract: Background Universal school-based prevention programs for alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use are typically designed for all students within a particular school setting. However, it is unclear whether such broad-based programs are effective for youth at risk for substance use and violence in juvenile justice settings. Method The present study tested the feasibility, appropriateness, and efficacy of a preventive intervention to reduce risk factors for substance use and delinquency among youth in juvenile justice diversionary settings by promoting positive youth development and building personal strengths and prosocial relationships. Participants in the study (N = 288) were predominantly male (69%) and in the 9th grade (14 years old) or higher (91%), received the preventive intervention, and completed confidential questionnaires at the pre-test and post-test. Results The majority of youth who participated in the intervention rated the program topics (77.9%) and activities (72%) as appropriate for their age, would recommend it to their peers (73.6%), and would use the skills learned in the future (85.4%). Comparison of post-test adjusted means revealed that the prevention program had a significant positive impact on key knowledge, attitudes, and skills including goal-setting, stress-management, and communication skills. Conclusions The findings indicate that an evidence-based prevention approach adapted for youth diversionary settings can be effectively implemented and well-received by participating youth, and can produce positive changes in psychosocial skills and protective factors known to prevent multiple risk behaviors among youth. Future efforts to implement substance use prevention in community juvenile justice settings may benefit from highlighting a positive youth development, skills-based approach.
      PubDate: 2021-02-02
       
  • Two-year prevalence rates of mental health and substance use disorder
           diagnoses among repeat arrestees

    • Abstract: Background Individuals with mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders often rapidly cycle through the justice system with multiple arrests. Therefore, is it imperative to examine the prevalence of mental health and substance use diagnoses among arrestees and repeat arrestees to identify opportunities for intervention. Methods We linked police arrest and clinical care data at the individual level to conduct a retrospective cohort study of all individuals arrested in 2016 in Indianapolis, Indiana. We classified arrestees into three levels: 1 arrest, 2 arrests, or 3 or more arrests. We included data on clinical diagnoses between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2015 and classified mental health diagnoses and substance use disorder (SUD) based on DSM categories using ICD9/10 diagnoses codes. Results Of those arrested in 2016, 18,236 (79.5%) were arrested once, 3167 (13.8%) were arrested twice, and 1536 (6.7%) were arrested three or more times. In the 2 years before the arrest, nearly one-third (31.3%) of arrestees had a mental health diagnosis, and over a quarter (27.7%) of arrestees had an SUD diagnosis. Most of those with a mental health or SUD diagnosis had both (22.5% of all arrestees). Arrestees with multiple mental health (OR 2.68, 95% CI 2.23, 3.23), SUD diagnoses (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.38, 1,82), or co-occurring conditions (1.72, 95% CI 1.48, 2.01) in the preceding 2 years had higher odds of repeat arrest. Conclusions Our findings show that linked clinical and criminal justice data systems identify individuals at risk of repeat arrest and inform opportunities for interventions aimed at low-level offenders with behavioral health needs.
      PubDate: 2021-01-07
       
  • A longitudinal study of justice characteristics among girls participating
           in a sex trafficking court program

    • Abstract: Background Sex trafficking is a public health and social justice issue that has traditionally been addressed with criminal justice solutions. Because many sex trafficking survivors are incarcerated for crimes related to their exploitation, specialty, human trafficking courts were developed to offer resources and assistance to labor and sex trafficking survivors. This study assessed justice-involved youth participating in a specialty, anti-trafficking court program. The purpose of this study was to investigate justice-related outcomes of participants in a specialty court program. We examined: (1) the relationship between age at first citation and justice characteristics (number of bench warrants, number of citations, number placements, and number of times ran away); and (2) the number of months between first citation and enrollment into the program with the aforementioned justice characteristics. We used negative binomial models to estimate the relationships between age at first citation, number of months between first citation and program enrollment, with the four justice characteristics (n = 181). Results Adjusted models showed that younger age at first citation was associated with significantly more bench warrants and citations while in the program. Likewise, fewer months between first citation and program entry was related to more bench warrants and citations. Conclusions There is a need to evaluate the appropriateness of specialty, trafficking court programs in reducing continued justice involvement and these programs ability to meet the evolving needs of sex trafficking survivors over time. We recommend universal screening for trafficking indicators for all systems-involved youth and relocating trafficking specialty courts out of juvenile courts to dependency courts.
      PubDate: 2021-01-06
       
  • COVID-19 cases and testing in 53 prison systems

    • Abstract: Background COVID-19 has entered United States prison systems at alarming rates. Disparities in social and structural determinants of health disproportionately affect those experiencing incarceration, making them more vulnerable to COVID-19. Additionally, prisons are sites of congregate living, making it impossible to practice social distancing, and most prisons have relied only on incremental measures to reduce risk and spread of COVID-19. To more fully understand the impact that COVID-19 is having on incarcerated populations, it is critical to have systematic data on testing, test positivity, cases, and case fatality. Using data from the COVID Prison Project, we present data on 53 prison systems COVID-19 testing, test positivity, case, and case fatality by state and compare these data with each state’s general population. We do this for the early stages of the pandemic, utilizing data through July 15, 2020. Results Many states are not reporting full information on COVID testing with some also not reporting on case fatality. Among those reporting data, there is a wide variation between testing, test positivity, and case rates within prison systems and as compared to the general population. However, when more tests are deployed more cases are identified with the majority of state prisons having higher case rates than their general population. Conclusions These findings underscore the need for the implementation and study of COVID-19 mitigation and surveillance strategies to flatten the COVID-19 curve in prisons across the country. We call for future research to build on these data from the COVID Prison Project to protect the health of our nations’ often forgotten residents.
      PubDate: 2020-12-11
       
  • The health effects of gendered and devalued work: health outcomes of
           incarcerated women engaging in sex work and care/service work

    • Abstract: Background Women with a history of incarceration are often engaged in highly gendered work, either sex work or low-wage care/service work jobs. While employment is an important element of reentry plans, low-wage jobs may not necessarily help women leave illicit activities, including commercial sex work. Incarcerated women often move between care/service work and sex work to supplement income, putting them at greater risk for negative health outcomes. Results Using survey data from 400 women detained in a large urban jail, we examined how incarcerated women’s experience with sex work and low-wage care/service work affects four health-related outcomes: overall health concerns, clinical depression, regular drug use, and self-esteem. Of the survey participants, 24% engaged exclusively in sex work and 34% in care/service work. However, 41% of women held both sex work and care/service work jobs, prior to incarceration. Compared to women engaged in care/service work, a greater proportion of women engaged in sex work reported overall health concerns, clinical depression, and regular drug use. On the other hand, women in care/service work jobs exclusively reported lower levels of self-esteem than women engaging in sex work. Conclusions Many reentry programs emphasize the importance of employment for former inmates, and yet, job options for women detained in jail are often limited to low-wage care/service jobs, which do not necessarily provide adequate security to lift women’s economic burdens. Consequently, many women with a history of incarceration may supplement their income with sex work to meet their basic economic needs. However, both of these highly gendered and devalued jobs may negatively affect health and wellbeing of women.
      PubDate: 2020-11-18
       
  • Identifying barriers and facilitators to implementing advance care
           planning in prisons: a rapid literature review

    • Abstract: Background Limited information is available describing advance care planning (ACP) within correctional facilities, despite its increasing relevance due to the ageing population in prisons and the high rates of complex medical comorbidities. In Western countries, self-determination with respect to making future medical decisions is a human right that prisoners do not lose when they are remanded into custody. ACP enables individuals to plan for their health and personal care so their values, beliefs and preferences are made known to inform future decision-making, for a time when they can no longer communicate their decisions. This paper examines the limited academic literature relating to ACP within prisons to identify barriers and facilitators that influence the uptake of ACP and advance care directive (ACD) documentation. Common themes related to ACP in a correctional setting were extracted and synthesised to produce a high-level analysis of barriers and facilitators influencing ACP uptake for prisoners within a correctional setting. Results Six articles met the selection criteria and reported on the experience of ACP and ACDs in prisons; five from the United States of America and one from Switzerland. Three dominant themes were identified, with related subthemes: system-level factors, attitudes and perceptions, and ACP knowledge and comprehension. Barriers to ACP and ACD implementation were more prominent in articles than facilitators. Conclusions Limited academic literature regarding the implementation and experience of ACP in prisons is available. The dominance of barriers identified in studies highlights key challenges for improving ACP uptake in correctional settings. Further research is required to understand the barriers, enablers, and attitudes to ACP in prisons.
      PubDate: 2020-09-21
       
  • Making change happen in criminal justice settings: leveraging
           implementation science to improve mental health care

    • Abstract: Background It is a constitutional right to receive health care, including mental health care, while incarcerated. Yet, even basic evidence-based mental health care practices have not been routinely integrated into criminal justice (CJ) settings. Strategies from implementation science, or the study of methods for integrating evidence-based practices into routine care, can accelerate uptake of established interventions within low-resource, high-need settings such as prisons and jails. However, most studies of mental health practices in CJ settings do not use implementation frameworks to guide efforts to integrate treatments, systematically select or report implementation strategies, or evaluate the effectiveness of strategies used. Case presentations After introducing implementation science and articulating the rationale for its application within CJ settings, we provide two illustrative case examples of efforts to integrate mental health interventions within CJ settings. Each case example demonstrates how an implementation framework either was applied or could have been applied to promote intervention adoption. The first focuses on poor implementation of a mental health screener in a county jail, retrospectively highlighting how use of a determinants framework (e.g., the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research [CFIR]) could help staff identify factors that led to the implementation failure. The second describes an investigator-initiated research study that used a process framework (the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment [EPIS] framework) to systematically investigate and document the factors that led to successful implementation of a psychotherapy group for survivors of sexual violence in a women’s community corrections center. Both are presented in accessible language, as our goal is that this article can be used as a primer for justice health researchers, community partners, and correctional leadership who are unfamiliar with implementation science. Conclusions Scientific research on the application of implementation science to justice settings is growing, but lags behind the work done in health systems. Given the tremendous need for mental and behavioral health intervention across the full spectrum of justice settings, information on how to successfully implement evidence-based intervention and prevention efforts is sorely needed but possible to obtain with greater integration of knowledge from implementation science.
      PubDate: 2020-09-06
       
  • A study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a cross-systems
           service delivery model to improve identification and care for HIV, STIs
           and substance use among justice-involved young adults

    • Abstract: Background Justice-involved young adults (JIYA) aged 18–24 are at significant risk for HIV and problematic substance use (SU) but are unlikely to know their HIV status or be linked to HIV or SU treatment and care. Intensive efforts to increase screening and improve linkage to HIV and SU services for JIYA are needed that address youth as well as justice and health/behavioral health system-level barriers. Methods MoveUp is a four-session intervention that integrates evidence-based protocols to promote HIV and STI testing, HIV and SU behavioral risk reduction and engagement in treatment for JIYA. MoveUp is delivered onsite at an alternative sentencing program (ASP) by HIV testing outreach workers from a youth-focused medical and HIV treatment program. N = 450 youth are randomized following baseline assessment into two groups: MoveUp or standard of care. Youth are followed for 12 months following the intervention; unprotected sexual behavior, substance use, HIV and STI testing as well as treatment linkage will be assessed at 3, 6, 9 and 12-months. Discussion This study is one of the first to systematically test an integrated screen/testing, prevention intervention and linkage-to-care services program (MoveUp), using evidence-based approaches to address the overlapping HIV/STI and substance use epidemics in JIYA by providing on-site services to identify HIV/STI and SU risk and treatment need within justice-settings as well as linkage to services in the community. This approach, capitalizing on health and justice partnerships, represents an innovation that can capitalize on missed opportunities for engaging JIYA in health care.
      PubDate: 2020-08-14
       
  • Exploring the promise of intersectionality for promoting justice-involved
           women’s health research and policy

    • Abstract: Abstract The perspective of intersectionality has gained widespread scholarly interest and been employed across many different disciplines, including criminology. This perspective focuses on interlocking systems of oppression and the need to work toward structural changes to promote social justice and equity. The present article aimed to explore the potential of intersectionality for advancing health research and policy regarding justice-involved women, in different phases of the judicial process, based on the extant literature. First, employing an intersectional approach to analyze the issue of health during the pre-incarceration period may facilitate identification of the structural and representational factors underlying the barriers that women face in obtaining health services, which elevates the risk to their health. Furthermore, adopting an intersectionality perspective to explore women’s health during incarceration may shed light on vulnerable, invisible subpopulations of women such as incarcerated older women and their health problems, and help identify the structural barriers to carceral health services and the role of stigma in inflicting and normalizing harmful practices within prison walls. In addition, an intersectionality lens highlights the risk of unintended use of scholarly knowledge regarding the health of justice-involved women. Last, an intersectionality perspective is particularly relevant for research of the reentry of justice-involved women. In particular, it can be used to examine gender-sensitive reentry services that ignore other axes of marginalization, such as class and race, generating a powerful dynamic that results in partial service, denial of access to therapeutic resources, and possible exposure to health-damaging environments. Through an exploration of the extant literature on justice-involved women, I endeavored to demonstrate that an intersectional framework offers powerful tools to both challenge and strengthen gender frameworks within criminology. This will make it possible to move beyond consideration of gender alone, to understand how systems of oppression based on race, age and other social locations intersect and combine to construct health disadvantages among justice-involved women. This highlights the needs for a new research agenda and policy that integrate the intersectional framework with health theories to provide a more developed understanding of health among justice-involved women.
      PubDate: 2020-07-25
       
  • Reducing overdose after release from incarceration (ROAR): study protocol
           for an intervention to reduce risk of fatal and non-fatal opioid overdose
           among women after release from prison

    • Abstract: Background Drug overdose is the leading cause of death after release from prison, and this risk is significantly higher among women compared to men. Within the first 2 weeks after release, the risk of death from drug overdose is 12.7 times higher than the general population, with risk of death further elevated among females. Although female inmates have higher rates of opioid use disorder and post-release overdose fatality, justice-involved women are under-represented in studies of medications for opioid use disorder. The Reducing Overdose After Release from Incarceration (ROAR) pilot intervention and evaluation (recruitment June 2019 through December 2020) aims to reduce opioid overdose among women released to the community following incarceration in state prison. The evaluation further assesses induction, acceptance and effectiveness of extended release naltrexone in a female post-prison population. Methods/design In the week prior to their release, female adults in custody with moderate to severe opioid use disorder start treatment with extended release naltrexone, an injectable opioid antagonist that blocks the effects of opioids for up to 1 month. All ROAR participants receive training to use naloxone rescue kits and are provided nasal naloxone at release. Ongoing support from a certified recovery mentor to facilitate sustained engagement with treatment for substance use disorders begins in the month prior to release from prison and continues for 6 months in community. We evaluate the association between ROAR participation and the primary outcome of opioid overdose. Using administrative data provided by the Oregon Department of Corrections and the Oregon Health Authority, we compare the odds of overdose among ROAR participants versus a comparison group of females released from prison during the study period. Evaluation activities in community includes survey and qualitative interviews for 6 months post release, as well as a review of clinic records to assess retention on medication among the pilot cohort (N = 100). Discussion ROAR is a collaboration between Oregon’s public health, criminal justice, and medical communities. The ROAR intervention and evaluation provide critical information on improving interventions to prevent opioid overdose and improve retention on treatment in community in an overlooked, high-risk population: incarcerated women re-entering the community. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov TRN: NCT03902821.
      PubDate: 2020-07-10
       
  • A call to protect patients, correctional staff and healthcare
           professionals in jails and prisons during the COVID-19 pandemic

    • Abstract: Abstract This editorial describes why surge planning in the community must account for potential infection outbreaks in jails and prisons, and why incarcerated people and those in contact with them, including over 450,000 correctional officers and thousands of healthcare staff working in prisons, are at significant risk of COVID-19 exposure. We then explain how our nation’s jails and prisons will continue to serve as breeding grounds for devastating COVID-19 outcomes and offer specific guidance and a call to action for the immediate development of correctional healthcare strategies designed to protect the health and safety of patients and correctional and healthcare staff and the communities in which they are situated. Correctional officers and correctional healthcare professionals need the nation’s reassurance during this dire time that they will not be abandoned and further stigmatized for responding to the needs of incarcerated people. Our collective health depends on it.
      PubDate: 2020-07-02
       
  • Emergency department utilization by people living with HIV released from
           jail in the US South

    • Abstract: Background Incarceration is disruptive to HIV care, often resulting in poor retention in care for people living with HIV (PLWH) after jail release. This gap in HIV care might result in potentially preventable emergency department (ED) utilization. We analyzed demographic, incarceration, socioeconomic and clinical data for PLWH released from the Dallas County Jail to the community (1450 incarcerations, 1155 unique individuals) between January 2011 and November 2013. Results The study population consisted of predominantly men (77%), with a mean age of 39 years, 67% were black and 14% were Hispanic; half of the releasees visited the ED at least once during the first-year post-jail. In adjusted analyses, female gender, family awareness of HIV status, serious mental illness, and late engagement to HIV care were significantly associated with higher ED utilization. Compared to the general Dallas population, PLWH released from jail had a 5-fold higher proportion of ED visits classified as related to substance use or mental health. Conclusions Further efforts are needed to improve the transition from incarceration to community-based HIV care, substance use disorder treatment and mental health services, and to directly address re-engagement in HIV care for out-of-care PLWH who visit the ED.
      PubDate: 2020-06-27
       
  • Self-report of domestic violence and forced sex are related to sexual risk
           behaviors in a sample of juvenile detainees

    • Abstract: Background Justice-involved youth have higher rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and a higher prevalence of the associated sexual risk behaviors. Sexual risk behaviors are also associated with alcohol and drug use. Research suggests that a history of trauma is an important predictor of alcohol and drug use in youth offenders, and therefore is a likely contributor to sexual risk behavior in this population. The objective of this analysis is to determine the association of trauma, specifically, domestic violence and forced sex, to six sexual risk behaviors and a history of chlamydia among detained youth. Methods The analysis uses data from a convenience sample of detainees assenting to HIV testing conducted December 2016 – August 2017 using the state-certified Voluntary Counseling Testing and Referral (VCTR) process. Results Of the 379 youth that received VCTR at the facility, 308 (81.3%) were used in this analysis. Report of domestic violence was significantly associated with sex under the influence of alcohol and was also significantly associated with sex under the influence of marijuana. Forced sex was associated with a sexual partner of unknown HIV status. Conclusions Traumatic experiences were related to sexual risk behaviors in this analysis, and substance use was strongly implicated in the association. Trauma is known to be a catalyst to sexual risk behaviors, substance use, and delinquency in adolescence. Results support the findings of other investigators and re-iterate the need for trauma-informed interventions that can improve the life trajectories of detained youth.
      PubDate: 2020-06-23
       
  • The relationship between age and suicidal thoughts and attempted suicide
           among prisoners

    • Abstract: Background Suicide is a major problem across the lifespan, yet rates are highest among middle-aged and older adults; a trend which remains relatively stable across varying sociological settings, including prisons. Despite this understanding, there is limited knowledge on the nature of suicidal thoughts and attempts among older prisoners, especially with respect to how they compare to younger counterparts. The present study aimed to increase insight into the relationship between age and suicidal thoughts and attempted suicide among prisoners, with particular focus on factors that may explain age-based variability. Results Cross-sectional data were drawn from a nationally representative sample of 18,185 prisoners housed within 326 prisons across the United States. In general, analyses revealed that: (a) attempted suicide was more commonly reported among younger prisoners, while suicidal ideation was more commonly reported among older prisoners; (b) the relationship between age and probability of reporting suicidal thoughts and behavior is curvilinear; (c) younger and older prisoners exhibit somewhat differing predictive patterns of suicidal thoughts and behavior (e.g., physical illness is directly associated with suicidal history for younger prisoners, whereas the effect of physical illness on suicidal history for older prisoners is mediated by depression). Conclusions There is evidence to suggest that suicidal thoughts and behavior may manifest differently for younger and older prisoners, with differing patterns of risk. More research is needed on age-based variability in suicidal thoughts and attempted suicide among prisoners, as well as those factors that might explain this variability. Importantly, future research must continue to investigate the nature of suicidal thoughts and behavior among older prisoners.
      PubDate: 2020-06-22
       
  • Adverse childhood experiences: a retrospective study to understand their
           associations with lifetime mental health diagnosis, self-harm or suicide
           attempt, and current low mental wellbeing in a male Welsh prison
           population

    • Abstract: Background Prisoners are at increased risk of poor mental health and self-harming behaviours, with suicide being the leading cause of death in custody. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as child maltreatment are strong predictors of poor mental health and wellbeing yet despite high levels of ACEs in offender populations, relatively few studies have explored the relationships between ACEs and prisoners’ mental health and wellbeing. We conducted an ACE survey with 468 male adult prisoners in a Welsh prison who were not currently considered to be at risk of self-harm and suicide and explored relationships between ACEs, lifetime mental illness diagnosis, self-harm (lifetime and lifetime in prison) or suicide attempt (lifetime and lifetime in prison), and current low mental wellbeing. Results Most participants (84.2%) had suffered at least one ACE and 45.5% had suffered ≥4 ACEs. Prevalence of lifetime mental illness diagnosis, self-harm (lifetime and lifetime in prison) or suicide attempt (lifetime and lifetime in prison), and current low mental wellbeing increased with exposure to ACEs. For example, 2.7% of those with no ACEs reported lifetime self-harm or suicide attempt in prison compared with 31.0% (self-harm in prison) and 18.3% (suicide attempt in prison) of those with ≥4 ACEs. Compared with participants with no ACEs, those with ≥4 ACEs were four times more likely to report lifetime mental illness diagnosis and suicide attempt, and over 10 times more likely to report lifetime self-harm than those with no ACEs. Independent of lifetime mental illness diagnosis, self-harm or suicide attempt, participants with ≥4 ACEs were almost three times more likely to have current low mental wellbeing than those with no ACEs. Conclusions Male prisoners that have suffered multiple ACEs are substantially more likely to have lifetime mental illness diagnosis, self-harm or suicide attempt, and to have current low mental wellbeing whilst in prison. Findings suggest that trauma-informed approaches are needed in prisons to support prisoner mental health and wellbeing.
      PubDate: 2020-06-12
       
 
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