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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1290 journals)
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HEALTH AND SAFETY (520 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 183)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access  
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Policy and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Professions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Healthcare
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2227-9032
   Published by MDPI Homepage  [151 journals]
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 30: Progestin Intrauterine Devices and
           Metformin: Endometrial Hyperplasia and Early Stage Endometrial Cancer
           Medical Management

    • Authors: Oroma Nwanodi
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Globally, endometrial cancer is the sixth leading cause of female cancer-related deaths. Non-atypical endometrial hyperplasia (EH), has a lifetime progression rate to endometrial cancer ranging from less than 5%, if simple without atypia, to 40%, if complex with atypia. Site specific, long-acting intrauterine devices (IUDs) provide fertility sparing, progestin-based EH medical management. It is unclear which IUD is most beneficial, or if progesterone sensitizing metformin offers improved outcomes. For resolution, PubMed searches for “Mirena” or “Metformin,” “treatment,” “endometrial hyperplasia,” or “stage 1 endometrial cancer,” were performed, yielding 33 articles. Of these, 19 articles were included. The 60 mg high-dose frameless IUD/20 mcg levonorgestrel has achieved sustained regression of Grade 3 endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia for 14 years. Case series on early stage endometrial cancer (EC) treatment with IUDs have 75% or greater regression rates. For simple through complex EH with atypia, the 52 mg-IUD/10–20 mcg-LNG-14t has achieved 100% complete regression in 6-months. Clearly, IUDs have an outcome advantage over oral progestins. However, studies on metformin for EH, and of progestins or metformin for early stage EC management are underpowered, with inadequate dose ranges to achieve significant differences in, or optimal outcomes for, the treatment modalities. Therefore, outcomes from the feMMe trial for the 52 mg-IUD/10–20 mcg-LNG-14t and metformin will fill a gap in the literature.
      Citation: Healthcare
      PubDate: 2017-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5030030
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 31: End Stage Renal Disease—A Nephrologist’s
           Perspective of Two Different Circumstances as Typified by Kidney
           Transplantation Experience in a Nigerian Hospital Versus a Large US
           Medical School

    • Authors: Macaulay Onuigbo
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Renal transplantation is the sine qua non consummate form of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end stage renal disease (ESRD). Despite the increasing ESRD burden worldwide, developing countries continue to experience a gross lack of RRT options for its teeming citizens with ESRD. This report is a demonstration of a nephrologist’s experience and dilemma trying to make sense of the yawning disparity between RRT options, especially renal transplantation, as it applies to the citizens of the USA versus the citizens of Nigeria. The limited three-year experience of renal transplantation at Garki Hospital, located in Abuja, the capital of Nigeria, which is one of the very few centers carrying out renal transplantation in Nigeria, was starkly contrasted with this author’s first-hand experience at the University of Maryland Medical School, in Baltimore, Maryland, USA, as a Nephrology Fellow between 2000 and 2002. The potential role of public-private partnership (PPP) ventures in developing countries is considered as a way to help bridge this gap.
      Citation: Healthcare
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5030031
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 32: Integrating Mental and Physical Health Care
           for Low-Income Americans: Assessing a Federal Program’s Initial Impact
           on Access and Cost

    • Authors: Evan Goldstein
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Individuals with mental health disorders often die decades earlier than the average person, and low-income individuals disproportionately experience limited access to necessary services. In 2014, the U.S. Health Resources & Services Administration (HRSA) leveraged Affordable Care Act funds to address these challenges through behavioral health integration. The objective of this study is to assess the US$55 million program’s first-year impact on access and cost. This analysis uses multivariable difference-in-difference regression models to estimate changes in outcomes between the original 219 Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) Behavioral Health Integration grantees and two comparison groups. The primary outcome variables are annual depression screening rate, percentage of mental health and substance use patients served, and per capita cost. The results change when comparing the Behavioral Health Integration (BHI) grantees to a propensity score-matched comparison group versus comparing the grantees to the full population of health centers. After one year of implementation, the grant program appeared ineffective as measured by this study’s outcomes, though costs did not significantly rise because of the program. This study has limitations that must be discussed, including non-randomized study design, FQHC data measurement, and BHI program design consequences. Time will tell if FQHC-based behavioral–physical health care integration will improve access among low-income, medically-underserved populations.
      Citation: Healthcare
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5030032
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 33: Lateral Violence in Nursing Survey:
           Instrument Development and Validation

    • Authors: Lynne Nemeth, Karen Stanley, Mary Martin, Martina Mueller, Diana Layne, Kenneth Wallston
      First page: 33
      Abstract: An examination of the psychometric properties of the Lateral Violence in Nursing Survey (LVNS), an instrument previously developed to measure the perceived incidence and severity of lateral violence (LV) in the nursing workplace, was carried out. Conceptual clustering and principal components analysis were used with survey responses from 663 registered nurses and ancillary nursing staff in a southeastern tertiary care medical center. Where appropriate, Cronbach’s alpha (α) evaluated internal consistency. The prevalence/severity of lateral violence items constitute two distinct subscales (LV by self and others) with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.74 and 0.86, respectively. The items asking about potential causes of LV are unidimensional and internally consistent (alpha = 0.77) but there is no conceptually coherent theme underlying the various causes. Respondents rating a potential LV cause as “major” scored higher on both prevalence/severity subscales than those rating it a “minor” cause or not a cause. Subsets of items on the LVNS are internally reliable, supporting construct validity. Revisions of the original LVNS instrument will improve its use in future work.
      Citation: Healthcare
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5030033
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 34: Pediatric Respiratory Support Technology and
           Practices: A Global Survey

    • Authors: Amélie O. von Saint André-von Arnim, Shelina M. Jamal, Grace C. John-Stewart, Ndidiamaka L. Musa, Joan Roberts, Larissa I. Stanberry, Christopher R. A. Howard
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Objective: This global survey aimed to assess the current respiratory support capabilities for children with hypoxemia and respiratory failure in different economic settings. Methods: An online, anonymous survey of medical providers with experience in managing pediatric acute respiratory illness was distributed electronically to members of the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Society, and other critical care websites for 3 months. Results: The survey was completed by 295 participants from 64 countries, including 28 High-Income (HIC) and 36 Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC). Most respondents (≥84%) worked in urban tertiary care centers. For managing acute respiratory failure, endotracheal intubation with mechanical ventilation was the most commonly reported form of respiratory support (≥94% in LMIC and HIC). Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) was the most commonly reported form of non-invasive positive pressure support (≥86% in LMIC and HIC). Bubble-CPAP was used by 36% HIC and 39% LMIC participants. ECMO for acute respiratory failure was reported by 45% of HIC participants, compared to 34% of LMIC. Oxygen, air, gas humidifiers, breathing circuits, patient interfaces, and oxygen saturation monitoring appear widely available. Reported ICU patient to health care provider ratios were higher in LMIC compared to HIC. The frequency of respiratory assessments was hourly in HIC, compared to every 2–4 h in LMIC. Conclusions: This survey indicates many apparent similarities in the presence of respiratory support systems in urban care centers globally, but system quality, quantity, and functionality were not established by this survey. LMIC ICUs appear to have higher patient to medical staff ratios, with decreased patient monitoring frequencies, suggesting patient safety should be a focus during the introduction of new respiratory support devices and practices.
      Citation: Healthcare
      PubDate: 2017-07-21
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5030034
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 35: Student Perceptions and Acceptance of Mobile
           Technology in an Undergraduate Nursing Program

    • Authors: Tracy P. George, Claire DeCristofaro, Pamela F. Murphy, Archie Sims
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Mobile technology allows healthcare students to access current evidence-based resources. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the student experience of implementing point-of-care (POC) smartphone applications in a first-semester undergraduate nursing program. Teaching methods included using case studies in the laboratory to familiarize students with the apps. At community screening sites, evidence-based guidelines were referenced when students discussed screening results with patients. Surveys were administered prior to implementing this innovation and after the students utilized the apps in direct patient interactions. Survey results were analyzed to evaluate student perceptions and acceptance of mobile technology. Students felt that healthcare smartphone apps were a helpful and convenient way to obtain evidence-based clinical information pertinent to direct care settings. Over 90% of students planned to continue using healthcare smartphone apps. In conclusion, healthcare smartphone apps are a way for students to become comfortable accessing evidence-based clinical resources. It is important to encourage students to use these resources early in the curriculum. Community screenings are an independent health promotion activity which assists in the attainment of health equity and fosters nursing leadership.
      Citation: Healthcare
      PubDate: 2017-07-21
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5030035
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 36: Through the Patients’ Eyes: The Experience
           of End-Stage Renal Disease Patients Concerning the Provided Nursing Care

    • Authors: Areti Stavropoulou, Maria G. Grammatikopoulou, Michail Rovithis, Konstantina Kyriakidi, Andriani Pylarinou, Anastasia G. Markaki
      First page: 36
      Abstract: Chronic kidney disease is a condition that affects both the physical and mental abilities of patients. Nursing care is of pivotal importance, in particular when end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients are concerned, since the quality of the provided care may severely influence the patient’s quality of life. This is why it is important to explore patient experiences concerning the rendered care. However, limited up-to-date studies have addressed this issue. The aim of the present study was to stress the experiences of ESRD patients concerning the provided nursing care in the hemodialysis unit at the University Hospital in Heraklion, Crete. A qualitative methodological approach was used, based on the principles of phenomenological epistemology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, and open-ended questions were applied to record how patients experienced the rendered care during dialysis. The recorded data were analyzed via qualitative content analysis, which revealed three main themes: ‘Physical Care’, ‘Psychological Support’ and ‘Education’. Patients’ views were conceptualized into sub-themes within each main theme. The interviews revealed the varied and distinct views of ESRD patients, indicating that the rendered care should be individualized.
      Citation: Healthcare
      PubDate: 2017-07-21
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5030036
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 37: Healtheatre: Drama and Medicine in Concert

    • Authors: Ian Walsh, Paul Murphy
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Introduction: Clinical practice includes expressing empathy and understanding key features of humanity, such as mortality and illness. The Stanislavski “System” of actor training negotiates a journey from the unconscious via feeling, will and intellect to a proposed supertask. This study explored these areas during collaborative learning amongst undergraduate medical and drama students. Materials and Methods: Each of two interactive sessions involved teams of final year medical students rotating through challenging simulated clinical scenarios, enacted by undergraduate drama students, deploying key techniques from the Stanslavski system of actor training. Team assessment of performance was via a ratified global scoring system and dynamic debriefing techniques. Results: Medical students reported an enhanced immersive experience within simulated clinical scenarios. Drama students reported increased challenge and immersion within their roles. Medical faculty and standardised patients reported positive utility and value for the approach. Clinical team assessment scores increased by 47% (p < 0.05) with this intervention. Discussion: Qualitative and quantitative data demonstrated the merit and utility of such interdisciplinary learning. All students and faculty appreciated the value of the activity and described enhanced learning. Collaborative dynamic debriefing allowed for a continuation of the immersive experience and allowed for an exploration of arenas such as empathy. Conclusions: The deployment of drama students trained in the Stanislavski system significantly enriched medical and drama student experience and performance. Team assessment scores further demonstrated the effectiveness of this approach. Feedback from students, faculty and standardised patients was uniformly positive. The approach facilitated exploration of empathy.
      Citation: Healthcare
      PubDate: 2017-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5030037
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 38: Challenges in Expanding Access to Dialysis

    • Authors: Harriet Etheredge, June Fabian
      First page: 38
      Abstract: South Africa is a country with two distinct health sectors, which are both characterised by inequalities. Within this context, patients with end stage renal disease face unique and sometimes impenetrable barriers to accessing dialysis. There are a number of reasons for this situation. These include: the South African government’s endorsement of discordant, unequal policies, which disadvantage the most vulnerable; a lack of robust national guidelines; and divisive rationing practices, which are ad hoc and place the burden of responsibility for rationing dialysis on the clinician. In this paper, we trace the socio-economic mechanisms of how we have come to be in this situation, and overlay this with a detailed examination of South African legislation. Finally, we make comprehensive practical recommendations for rectifying the situation, which include engagement with key stakeholders, public–private partnerships, and more equitable funding mechanisms.
      Citation: Healthcare
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5030038
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 39: A Population-Based, Cross-Sectional Study
           Examining Health Services Deficits of US Veterans Using 2014 Behavioral
           Risk Factor Surveillance System Data: Is Rural Residency an Independent
           Risk Factor after Controlling for Multiple Covariates'

    • Authors: Catherine St. Hill, Michael Swanoski, Martin Lipsky, May Lutfiyya
      First page: 39
      Abstract: Introduction: In 2014, it was reported that there was a backlog of an estimated 1.2 million claims nationwide at the United States Veterans Administration (VA). This ecological occurrence opened up a space for asking and answering some important questions about health service deficits (HSD) of US veterans, which is the focus of the research reported on in this paper. The purpose of this study was to ascertain if rural veterans were more likely to experience HSDs than urban military veterans after controlling for a number of covariates. Methods: Bivariate and multivariate data analysis strategies were used to examine 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey data. HSD was the dependent variable. Results: Two multivariate models were tested. The first logistic regression analysis yielded that rural veterans had higher odds of having at least one HSD. The second yielded that rural US veterans in 2014 who had higher odds of having at least one HSD were: 18–64 years of age, unemployed seeking employment, living in households with annual incomes lower than $75,000, without a university degree, not part of a married or unmarried couple, a current smoker, and/or a binge drinker within the last 30 days. Conclusions: The study described here fills identified epidemiological gaps in our knowledge regarding rural US military veterans and HSDs. The findings are not only interesting but important, and should be used to inform interventions to reduce HSDs for rural veterans.
      Citation: Healthcare
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5030039
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 40: Chronic Respiratory Disorders and Their
           Treatment among Older People with Intellectual Disability and/or Autism
           Spectrum Disorder in Comparison with the General Population

    • Authors: Anna Axmon, Peter Höglund, Gerd Ahlström
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Respiratory disorders are common among people with intellectual disabilities (ID). However, few studies have investigated these disorders among older people with ID. We identified 7936 people, aged 55+ years, with ID and a reference cohort from the general population. Data on diagnoses of chronic respiratory disorders, with a focus on asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), were collected, as was information on health care visits due to such disorders. We also added data on the prescription of drugs for obstructive airway diseases. Whereas the risk of having at least one diagnosis of asthma during the study period was similar in the two cohorts, people with ID were less likely than the general population to have been diagnosed with COPD. The same was found for health care visits due to asthma and COPD, respectively. The patterns of drug prescription were similar among people with ID and the general population, with the exception of adrenergics for systemic use, which were more commonly prescribed to people with ID. Thus, older people with ID do not seem to have an increased risk of asthma or COPD. Moreover, the indications are that when diagnosed with any of these disorders, they receive treatment adapted to their particular needs.
      Citation: Healthcare
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5030040
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 41: Using Jazz as a Metaphor to Teach
           Improvisational Communication Skills

    • Authors: Paul Haidet, Jodi Jarecke, Chengwu Yang, Cayla Teal, Richard Street, Heather Stuckey
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Metaphor helps humans understand complex concepts by “mapping” them onto accessible concepts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using jazz as a metaphor to teach senior medical students improvisational communication skills, and to understand student learning experiences. The authors designed a month-long course that used jazz to teach improvisational communication. A sample of fourth-year medical students (N = 30) completed the course between 2011 and 2014. Evaluation consisted of quantitative and qualitative data collected pre- and post-course, with comparison to a concurrent control group on some measures. Measures included: (a) Student self-reports of knowledge and ability performing communicative tasks; (b) blinded standardized patient assessment of students’ adaptability and quality of listening; and (c) qualitative course evaluation data and open-ended interviews with course students. Compared to control students, course students demonstrated statistically significant and educationally meaningful gains in adaptability and listening behaviors. Students’ course experiences suggested that the jazz components led to high engagement and creativity, and provided a model to guide application of improvisational concepts to their own communication behaviors. Metaphor proved to be a powerful tool in this study, partly through enabling increased reflection and decreased resistance to behaviors that, on the surface, tended to run counter to generally accepted norms. The use of jazz as a metaphor to teach improvisational communication warrants further refinement and investigation.
      Citation: Healthcare
      PubDate: 2017-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5030041
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 18: Disability and Psychiatric Symptoms in Men
           Referred for Treatment with Work-Related Problems to Primary Mental Health

    • Authors: S. Bailey, Christopher Mushquash, John Haggarty
      First page: 18
      Abstract: The relationship between male sex and employment as barriers to accessing mental health care is unclear. The aim of this research was to examine (1) whether the clinical features of men referred to a shared mental health care (SMHC) service through primary care differed when symptoms were affecting them in the work domain; and (2) empirically re-evaluate the effectiveness of a SMHC model for work-related disability using a pre-post chart review of N = 3960 referrals to SMHC. ANOVA and logistic regression were performed to examine symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ) and disability (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule, WHODAS 2) at entry and discharge. Men were RR (relative risk) = 1.8 (95% C.I.: 1.60–2.05) times more likely to be referred to SMHC with work problems than women. Having greater disability and more severe somatic symptoms increased the likelihood of a work-related referral. There were no significant differences after treatment. Problems in the work domain may play an important role in men’s treatment seeking and clinicians’ recognition of a mental health care need. This study is relevant because men are underrepresented in mental health (MH) treatment and primary care is the main gateway to accessing MH care. Asking men about functioning in the work domain may increase access to helpful psychiatric services.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5020018
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 19: Healthcare Engagement as a Potential Source
           of Psychological Distress among People without Religious Beliefs: A
           Systematic Review

    • Authors: Samuel Weber, James Lomax, Kenneth Pargament
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Research into religion and mental health is increasing, but nonbelievers in terms of religion are often overlooked. Research has shown that nonbelievers experience various forms of psychological distress and that the negative perception of nonbelievers by others is a potential source of distress. This review builds on that research by identifying another potential source of psychological distress for nonbelievers: engagement with the healthcare system. Poor understanding of nonbelievers by healthcare professionals may lead to impaired communication in the healthcare setting, resulting in distress. Attempts by nonbelievers to avoid distress may result in different patterns of healthcare utilization. Awareness of these concerns may help healthcare providers to minimize distress among their nonbelieving patients.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5020019
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 20: Hand Motion Detection in fNIRS Neuroimaging

    • Authors: Mohammadreza Abtahi, Amir Amiri, Dennis Byrd, Kunal Mankodiya
      First page: 20
      Abstract: As the number of people diagnosed with movement disorders is increasing, it becomes vital to design techniques that allow the better understanding of human brain in naturalistic settings. There are many brain imaging methods such as fMRI, SPECT, and MEG that provide the functional information of the brain. However, these techniques have some limitations including immobility, cost, and motion artifacts. One of the most emerging portable brain scanners available today is functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). In this study, we have conducted fNIRS neuroimaging of seven healthy subjects while they were performing wrist tasks such as flipping their hand with the periods of rest (no movement). Different models of support vector machine is applied to these fNIRS neuroimaging data and the results show that we could classify the action and rest periods with the accuracy of over 80% for the fNIRS data of individual participants. Our results are promising and suggest that the presented classification method for fNIRS could further be applied to real-time applications such as brain computer interfacing (BCI), and into the future steps of this research to record brain activity from fNIRS and EEG, and fuse them with the body motion sensors to correlate the activities.
      PubDate: 2017-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5020020
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 21: Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Clinical
           Manifestations, Dietary Influences, and Management

    • Authors: Ronald Ikechi, Bradford Fischer, Joshua DeSipio, Sangita Phadtare
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by symptoms of chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habits in the absence of an overtly identifiable cause. It is the most commonly diagnosed functional gastrointestinal disorder, accounting for about one third of gastroenterology visits. It generally presents as a complex of symptoms, including psychological dysfunction. Hypersensitivity to certain foods, especially foods that contain high amounts of fructose, plays a role in the pathophysiology of IBS. Elevated consumption of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has been discussed in this aspect. The treatment options for IBS are challenging and varied. In addition to dietary restrictions for HFCS-induced IBS, such as low-FODMAP (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharide, Monosaccharides, and Polyols) diets, existing drug therapies are administered based on the predominant symptoms and IBS-subtype. Patients with IBS are likely to suffer from issues, such as anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic-stress disorder. Biopsychosocial factors particularly socioeconomic status, sex, and race should, thus, be considered for diagnostic evaluation of patients with IBS.
      PubDate: 2017-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5020021
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 22: Reliability and Validity of the Medical
           Outcomes Study Short Form-12 Version 2 (SF-12v2) in Adults with Non-Cancer

    • Authors: Corey Hayes, Naleen Bhandari, Niranjan Kathe, Nalin Payakachat
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Limited evidence exists on how non-cancer pain (NCP) affects an individual’s health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study aimed to validate the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-12 Version 2 (SF-12v2), a generic measure of HRQoL, in a NCP cohort using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Longitudinal Files. The SF Mental Component Summary (MCS12) and SF Physical Component Summary (PCS12) were tested for reliability (internal consistency and test-retest reliability) and validity (construct: convergent and discriminant; criterion: concurrent and predictive). A total of 15,716 patients with NCP were included in the final analysis. The MCS12 and PCS12 demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha and Mosier’s alpha > 0.8), and moderate and high test-retest reliability, respectively (MCS12 intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC): 0.64; PCS12 ICC: 0.73). Both scales were significantly associated with a number of chronic conditions (p < 0.05). The PCS12 was strongly correlated with perceived health (r = 0.52) but weakly correlated with perceived mental health (r = 0.25). The MCS12 was moderately correlated with perceived mental health (r = 0.42) and perceived health (r = 0.33). Increasing PCS12 and MCS12 scores were significantly associated with lower odds of reporting future physical and cognitive limitations (PCS12: OR = 0.90 95%CI: 0.89–0.90, MCS12: OR = 0.94 95%CI: 0.93–0.94). In summary, the SF-12v2 is a reliable and valid measure of HRQoL for patients with NCP.
      PubDate: 2017-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5020022
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 23: Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for
           Inpatients with Psychosis (the REACH Study): Protocol for Treatment
           Development and Pilot Testing

    • Authors: Brandon Gaudiano, Carter Davis, Gary Epstein-Lubow, Jennifer Johnson, Kim Mueser, Ivan Miller
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders frequently require treatment at inpatient hospitals during periods of acute illness for crisis management and stabilization. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), a “third wave” cognitive-behavioral intervention that employs innovative mindfulness-based strategies, has shown initial efficacy in randomized controlled trials for improving acute and post-discharge outcomes in patients with psychosis when studied in acute-care psychiatric hospitals in the U.S. However, the intervention has not been widely adopted in its current form because of its use of an individual-only format and delivery by doctoral-level research therapists with extensive prior experience using ACT. The aim of the Researching the Effectiveness of Acceptance-based Coping during Hospitalization (REACH) Study is to adapt a promising acute-care psychosocial treatment for inpatients with psychosis, and to pilot test its effectiveness in a routine inpatient setting. More specifically, we describe our plans to: (a) further develop and refine the treatment and training protocols, (b) conduct an open trial and make further modifications based on the experience gained, and (c) conduct a pilot randomized controlled trial in preparation for a future fully-powered clinical trial testing the effectiveness of ACT.
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5020023
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 24: Microbiota and Particulate Matter Assessment
           in Portuguese Optical Shops Providing Contact Lens Services

    • Authors: Carla Viegas, Tiago Faria, Cátia Pacífico, Mateus Dos Santos, Ana Monteiro, Carla Lança, Elisabete Carolino, Susana Viegas, Sandra Cabo Verde
      First page: 24
      Abstract: The aim of this work was to assess the microbiota (fungi and bacteria) and particulate matter in optical shops, contributing to a specific protocol to ensure a proper assessment. Air samples were collected through an impaction method. Surface and equipment swab samples were also collected side-by-side. Measurements of particulate matter were performed using portable direct-reading equipment. A walkthrough survey and checklist was also applied in each shop. Regarding air sampling, eight of the 13 shops analysed were above the legal requirement and 10 from the 26 surfaces samples were overloaded. In three out of the 13 shops fungal contamination in the analysed equipment was not detected. The bacteria air load was above the threshold in one of the 13 analysed shops. However, bacterial counts were detected in all sampled equipment. Fungi and bacteria air load suggested to be influencing all of the other surface and equipment samples. These results reinforce the need to improve air quality, not only to comply with the legal requirements, but also to ensure proper hygienic conditions. Public health intervention is needed to assure the quality and safety of the rooms and equipment in optical shops that perform health interventions in patients.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5020024
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 25: Linoleic Acid: A Nutritional Quandary

    • Authors: Ronald J. Jandacek
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Over the course of the twentieth century, there was a 20-fold increase in consumption of vegetable oils resulting both from their increased availability and from recommendations to consume these oils as an aid to lower blood cholesterol levels. This dietary change markedly increased the consumption of linoleic acid to current levels of approximately 6% of total dietary energy. While considerable research has focused on the effects of dietary linoleic acid on cardiovascular health, questions about optimum dietary levels remain. For example, meta-analyses disagree about the role of dietary linoleic acid in atherosclerosis, and recent publications indicate that linoleic acid’s reduction of blood cholesterol levels does not predict its effect on the development of atherosclerosis. Further, there are also detrimental effects of elevated dietary linoleic acid on human health related to its role in inflammation and its activity as a promoter of cancer in animals. Current data do not allow determination of the level of dietary linoleic acid needed for optimum health. Studies of the effects of a wide range of linoleic acid consumption may help determine dietary recommendations that are optimal for human health.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5020025
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 26: Breast Cancer: Exploring the Facts and
           Holistic Needs during and beyond Treatment

    • Authors: Zhi Ng, Mei Ong, Tamilarasi Jegadeesan, Shuo Deng, Celestial Yap
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Breast cancer patients face challenges throughout the journey of diagnosis, treatment, post-treatment, and recovery. The breast cancer patient is exposed to a multidisciplinary team including doctors, nurses, therapists, counselors, and psychologists. While the team assembled together aims to address multiple facets in breast cancer care, the sub-specialized nature of individual professional practices may constrain the overview of patients’ holistic needs and a comprehensive approach to cancer management. This paper aims to provide an overview of the holistic needs of breast cancer patients at each stage of their cancer journey, addressing their complex physical, psychological, and social needs. As every patient is different, cancer care has to be tailored to each patient based on a holistic needs assessment. This paper also explores how support can be provided from the perspectives of the healthcare providers, family members and caretakers. Examples of general practices at healthcare institutions worldwide as well as supportive care provided by support groups are discussed. The needs of breast cancer patients extend beyond the resolution of cancer as a disease, and the restoration of health as far as possible is a critical component of healing. Understanding the complex issues involved in the journey of breast cancer will aid healthcare providers to be better equipped to sensitively address their concerns and focus on healing the patient holistically. Methodology: This paper provides a literature review of validated practices in different countries and elaborates on the holistic needs of patients at various stages of recovery. This review is based on more than a decade of publications sourced from multiple resources including PubMed journal articles; books and official websites of breast cancer organizations.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5020026
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 27: The Role of Affect and Cognition in
           Processing Messages about Early Diagnosis for Alzheimer’s Disease by
           Older People

    • Authors: Patrick De Pelsmacker, Martine Lewi, Veroline Cauberghe
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Through early diagnosis of symptoms, the Alzheimer’s disease process can be decelerated. The main concern is to encourage the population at risk to take responsible actions at the earliest stage of the onset of the disease. Persuasive communication is essential to achieve this. In an experimental study, the evaluation of awareness messages for early diagnosis containing weak and strong arguments and negative and positive images was performed on a sample of older Belgians. The mediating role of affective responses and message thoughts was explored. Strong arguments led to a more positive evaluation of the message than weak arguments directly and indirectly via the positive effect they had on message affect and thoughts, which, in turn, positively affected message evaluation. A negative message image led to a more positive message evaluation than a positive one. This effect was not mediated by either message affect or message thoughts.
      PubDate: 2017-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5020027
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 28: Population Characteristics in a Tertiary
           Pain Service Cohort Experiencing Chronic Non-Cancer Pain: Weight Status,
           Comorbidities, and Patient Goals

    • Authors: Katherine Brain, Tracy Burrows, Megan Rollo, Chris Hayes, Fiona Hodson, Clare Collins
      First page: 28
      Abstract: We describe the characteristics of patients attending an Australian tertiary multidisciplinary pain service and identify areas for nutrition interventions. This cross-sectional study targets patients experiencing chronic pain who attended the service between June–December 2014. Self-reported data was captured from: (1) an Electronic Persistent Pain Outcomes Collaboration (ePPOC) referral questionnaire, incorporating demographics, pain status, and mental health; (2) a Pain Assessment and Recovery Plan (PARP), which documents patients’ perceived problems associated with pain and personal treatment goals. The ePPOC referral questionnaire was completed by 166 patients and the PARP by 153. The mean (SD) patient age was 53 ± 13 years, with almost 60% experiencing pain for >5 years. Forty-five percent of patients were classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, mean (SD) BMI was 31 ± 7 kg/m2), with a mean waist circumference of 104 ± 19.4 cm (SD). The most frequent patient nominated treatment goals related to physical activity (39%), followed by nutritional goals (23%). Traditionally, pain management programs have included physical, psychosocial, and medical, but not nutritional, interventions. By contrast, patients identified and reported important nutrition-related treatment goals. There is a need to test nutrition treatment pathways, including an evaluation of dietary intake and nutrition support. This will help to optimize dietary behaviors and establish nutrition as an important component of multidisciplinary chronic pain management.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5020028
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 29: Saturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular
           Disease: Replacements for Saturated Fat to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk

    • Authors: Michelle Briggs, Kristina Petersen, Penny Kris-Etherton
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Dietary recommendations to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have focused on reducing intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) for more than 50 years. While the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advise substituting both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids for SFA, evidence supports other nutrient substitutions that will also reduce CVD risk. For example, replacing SFA with whole grains, but not refined carbohydrates, reduces CVD risk. Replacing SFA with protein, especially plant protein, may also reduce CVD risk. While dairy fat (milk, cheese) is associated with a slightly lower CVD risk compared to meat, dairy fat results in a significantly greater CVD risk relative to unsaturated fatty acids. As research continues, we will refine our understanding of dietary patterns associated with lower CVD risk.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5020029
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 2: Impact of Menthol Smoking on Nicotine
           Dependence for Diverse Racial/Ethnic Groups of Daily Smokers

    • Authors: Julia Soulakova, Ryan Danczak
      First page: 2
      Abstract: Introduction: The aims of this study were to evaluate whether menthol smoking and race/ethnicity are associated with nicotine dependence in daily smokers. Methods: The study used two subsamples of U.S. daily smokers who responded to the 2010–2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. The larger subsample consisted of 18,849 non-Hispanic White (NHW), non-Hispanic Black (NHB), and Hispanic (HISP) smokers. The smaller subsample consisted of 1112 non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN), non-Hispanic Asian (ASIAN), non-Hispanic Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (HPI), and non-Hispanic Multiracial (MULT) smokers. Results: For larger (smaller) groups the rates were 45% (33%) for heavy smoking (16+ cig/day), 59% (51%) for smoking within 30 min of awakening (Sw30), and 14% (14%) for night-smoking. Overall, the highest prevalence of menthol smoking corresponded to NHB and HPI (≥65%), followed by MULT and HISP (31%–37%), and then by AIAN, NHW, and ASIAN (22%–27%) smokers. For larger racial/ethnic groups, menthol smoking was negatively associated with heavy smoking, not associated with Sw30, and positively associated with night-smoking. For smaller groups, menthol smoking was not associated with any measure, but the rates of heavy smoking, Sw30, and night-smoking varied across the groups. Conclusions: The diverse associations between menthol smoking and nicotine dependence maybe due to distinction among the nicotine dependence measures, i.e., individually, each measure assesses a specific smoking behavior. Menthol smoking may be associated with promoting smoking behaviors.
      PubDate: 2017-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5010002
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 3: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Healthcare in

    • Authors: Healthcare Editorial Office
      First page: 3
      Abstract: n/a
      PubDate: 2017-01-10
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5010003
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 4: Brazilian Specialists’ Perspectives on the
           Patient Referral Process

    • Authors: Carmen Juliani, Maura MacPhee, Wilza Spiri
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Since 1988, healthcare has been considered a citizen’s right in Brazil. The Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), has undergone development and expansion to ensure universal health coverage for the Brazilian public, the world’s fifth largest population. The coordination of effective communications between primary care physicians, specialists and patients is a significant challenge, particularly the referral process. Our study objective was to understand the facilitators and barriers associated with referral process communications between primary care physicians and regional university hospital specialists in the State of Sao Paulo. This paper reports specialists’ perspectives of the referral process. This was a phenomenological study that employed a qualitative research method with three components (description, reduction and comprehension). We conducted focus groups with 54 hospital residents from different specialties (surgery, medicine, obstetrics/gynecology, pediatrics) from July to October 2014. The main results showed lack of an adequate referral-return referral process resulting in treatment delays and inappropriate use of emergency services. Communications were impeded by lack of integrated, computerized booking and standardized referral-return referral processes; underlying lack of trust in primary care physicians; and patients’ inappropriate use of healthcare services. Although computerized systems will facilitate communications between primary and specialty care, other strategies are needed to promote collaboration between services, and ensure appropriate utilization of them.
      PubDate: 2017-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5010004
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 5: The Role of Lipid Biomarkers in Major

    • Authors: Amy Parekh, Demelza Smeeth, Yasmin Milner, Sandrine Thure
      First page: 5
      Abstract: In the UK, the lifetime-documented prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is currently 10%. Despite its increasing prevalence and devastating impact on quality of life, the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning MDD remain to be fully elucidated. Current theories of neurobiological components remain incomplete and protein-centric, rendering pharmacological treatment options suboptimal. In this review, we highlight the pivotal role of lipids in intra- and inter-neuronal functioning, emphasising the potential use of lipids as biomarkers for MDD. The latter has significant implications for improving our understanding of MDD at the cellular and circuit level. There is particular focus on cholesterol (high and low density lipoprotein), omega-3, and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids due to established evidence in the literature of a link between atherosclerotic disease and major depression. We argue that there is significant potential scope for the use of such peripheral biomarkers in the diagnosis, stratification and treatment of MDD.
      PubDate: 2017-02-03
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5010005
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 6: Reducing Low Birth Weight among African
           Americans in the Midwest: A Look at How Faith-Based Organizations Are
           Poised to Inform and Influence Health Communication on the Developmental
           Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)

    • Authors: Crystal Lumpkins, Jarron Saint Onge
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Low birth weight (LBW) rates remain the highest among African Americans despite public health efforts to address these disparities; with some of the highest racial disparities in the Midwest (Kansas). The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) perspective offers an explanation for how LBW contributes to racial health disparities among African Americans and informs a community directed health communication framework for creating sustainable programs to address these disparities. Trusted community organizations such as faith-based organizations are well situated to explain health communication gaps that may occur over the life course. These entities are underutilized in core health promotion programming targeting underserved populations and can prove essential for addressing developmental origins of LBW among African Americans. Extrapolating from focus group data collected from African American church populations as part of a social marketing health promotion project on cancer prevention, we theoretically consider how a similar communication framework and approach may apply to address LBW disparities. Stratified focus groups (n = 9) were used to discover emergent themes about disease prevention, and subsequently applied to explore how faith-based organizations (FBOs) inform strategic health care (media) advocacy and health promotion that potentially apply to address LBW among African Americans. We argue that FBOs are poised to meet health promotion and health communication needs among African American women who face social barriers in health.
      PubDate: 2017-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5010006
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 7: Socio-Demographic Determinants of Diet
           Quality in Australian Adults Using the Validated Healthy Eating Index for
           Australian Adults (HEIFA-2013)

    • Authors: Amanda Grech, Zhixian Sui, Hong Siu, Miaobing Zheng, Margaret Allman-Farinelli, Anna Rangan
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Diet quality indices have been shown to predict cardiovascular disease, cancer, Type 2 Diabetes, obesity and all-cause mortality. This study aimed to determine the socio-demographics of Australian adults with poor diet quality. Diet quality was assessed for participants of the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey aged 18 years or above (n = 9435), with the validated 11-component Healthy Eating Index for Australians (HEIFA-2013), based on the 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines. Differences in scores by demographics (ANOVA) and regression models for associations between the HEIFA-2013 score and demographic characteristics were conducted. The mean (SD) HEIFA-2013 score was 45.5 (14.7) out of 100 due to poor intakes of vegetables, fruit, grains, dairy and fat and high intakes of added sugar, sodium and discretionary foods. Lower mean HEIFA-2013 scores (SD) were found for males 43.3 (14.7), young-adults 41.6 (14.2) obese 44.1 (14.3), smokers 40.0 (14.2), low socio-economic status 43.7 (14.9) and Australian country-of-birth 44.2 (14.6) (p < 0.05). The overall diet quality of the Australian population is poor and targeted interventions for young-adults, males, obese and those with lower socio-economic status are recommended.
      PubDate: 2017-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5010007
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 8: Preventive Healthcare: A Neural Network
           Analysis of Behavioral Habits and Chronic Diseases

    • Authors: Viju Raghupathi, Wullianallur Raghupathi
      First page: 8
      Abstract: The research aims to explore the association between behavioral habits and chronic diseases, and to identify a portfolio of risk factors for preventive healthcare. The data is taken from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) database of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, for the year 2012. Using SPSS Modeler, we deploy neural networks to identify strong positive and negative associations between certain chronic diseases and behavioral habits. The data for 475,687 records from BRFS database included behavioral habit variables of consumption of soda and fruits/vegetables, alcohol, smoking, weekly working hours, and exercise; chronic disease variables of heart attack, stroke, asthma, and diabetes; and demographic variables of marital status, income, and age. Our findings indicate that with chronic conditions, behavioral habits of physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption are negatively associated; soda, alcohol, and smoking are positively associated; and income and age are positively associated. We contribute to individual and national preventive healthcare by offering a portfolio of significant behavioral risk factors that enable individuals to make lifestyle changes and governments to frame campaigns and policies countering chronic conditions and promoting public health.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5010008
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 9: UK Dietary Policy for the Prevention of
           Cardiovascular Disease

    • Authors: Louis Levy, Alison Tedstone
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Nutrition advice is devolved within each of the four UK countries, but share a common evidence base provided through the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN). Current UK dietary recommendations to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) is based upon recommendations from SACN and its predecessor committee. Dietary advice in the UK has recently been revised in relation to intakes of free sugar and fibre. This paper highlights current UK recommendations for the prevention of CVD, in particular related to energy intake, saturated fat, free sugars, salt, fruit, vegetables, oily fish and fibre. It describes how this advice is promulgated including the refresh of the Eatwell Guide and wider action that will impact on CVD.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5010009
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 10: Conceptual Foundations of Systems Biology
           Explaining Complex Cardiac Diseases

    • Authors: George Louridas, Katerina Lourida
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Systems biology is an important concept that connects molecular biology and genomics with computing science, mathematics and engineering. An endeavor is made in this paper to associate basic conceptual ideas of systems biology with clinical medicine. Complex cardiac diseases are clinical phenotypes generated by integration of genetic, molecular and environmental factors. Basic concepts of systems biology like network construction, modular thinking, biological constraints (downward biological direction) and emergence (upward biological direction) could be applied to clinical medicine. Especially, in the field of cardiology, these concepts can be used to explain complex clinical cardiac phenotypes like chronic heart failure and coronary artery disease. Cardiac diseases are biological complex entities which like other biological phenomena can be explained by a systems biology approach. The above powerful biological tools of systems biology can explain robustness growth and stability during disease process from modulation to phenotype. The purpose of the present review paper is to implement systems biology strategy and incorporate some conceptual issues raised by this approach into the clinical field of complex cardiac diseases. Cardiac disease process and progression can be addressed by the holistic realistic approach of systems biology in order to define in better terms earlier diagnosis and more effective therapy.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5010010
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 11: WearSense: Detecting Autism Stereotypic
           Behaviors through Smartwatches

    • Authors: Amir Amiri, Nicholas Peltier, Cody Goldberg, Yan Sun, Anoo Nathan, Shivayogi Hiremath, Kunal Mankodiya
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Autism is a complex developmental disorder that affects approximately 1 in 68 children (according to the recent survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention—CDC) in the U.S., and has become the fastest growing category of special education. Each student with autism comes with her or his own unique needs and an array of behaviors and habits that can be severe and which interfere with everyday tasks. Autism is associated with intellectual disability, impairments in social skills, and physical health issues such as sleep and abdominal disturbances. We have designed an Internet-of-Things (IoT) framework named WearSense that leverages the sensing capabilities of modern smartwatches to detect stereotypic behaviors in children with autism. In this work, we present a study that used the inbuilt accelerometer of a smartwatch to detect three behaviors, including hand flapping, painting, and sibbing that are commonly observed in children with autism. In this feasibility study, we recruited 14 subjects to record the accelerometer data from the smartwatch worn on the wrist. The processing part extracts 34 different features in each dimension of the three-axis accelerometer, resulting in 102 features. Using and comparing various classification techniques revealed that an ensemble of 40 decision trees has the best accuracy of around 94.6%. This accuracy shows the quality of the data collected from the smartwatch and feature extraction methods used in this study. The recognition of these behaviors by using a smartwatch would be helpful in monitoring individuals with autistic behaviors, since the smartwatch can send the data to the cloud for comprehensive analysis and also to help parents, caregivers, and clinicians make informed decisions.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5010011
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 12: Minerals and Trace Elements Intakes and Food
           Consumption Patterns of Young Children Living in Rural Areas of Tibet
           Autonomous Region, P.R. China: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    • Authors: Michael Dermience, Françoise Mathieu, Xiao Li, Stefanie Vandevijvere, William Claus, Viviane De Maertelaer, Ghislaine Dufourny, Li Bin, Dechen Yangzom, Georges Lognay
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Background and objectives: Several studies revealed clinical signs of stunting and rickets among rural populations of Tibet Autonomous Region (T.A.R.), and especially amid children. Further, these populations are affected by a bone disease named Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). However, little is known about the dietary status of this population. This survey aimed to assess the usual intakes of young Tibetan children living in rural areas around Lhasa for energy, water, and ten minerals and trace elements (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se) involved in bone metabolism. Design: A cross-sectional survey was designed. Totally, 250 pre-school children aged 3–5 years living in rural areas were enrolled. The 24-h food recall method was used to collect the intakes for two days, during two different seasons (September 2012 and April 2013). Because Tibetan foods are mainly derived from local agriculture and artisanal production, a combination of food composition tables was compiled, including specific and local food composition data. Results: The Chinese dietary recommended intakes are not met for most of the elements investigated. Intake of sodium is much too high, while usual intakes are too low for K, Ca, Zn, Cu, and Se. Bioavailability of Ca, Fe, and Zn may be of concern due to the high phytic acid content in the diet. Conclusion: These nutrient imbalances may impact growth and bone metabolism of young Tibetan children. The advantages of the implementation of food diversification programs are discussed as well as the relevance of supplements distribution.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5010012
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 13: Knowledge, Attitude and Behaviours towards
           Recommended Vaccinations among Healthcare Workers

    • Authors: Giuseppe La Torre, Stefania Scalingi, Veronica Garruto, Marco Siclari, Massimiliano Chiarini, Alice Mannocci
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are an important group of professionals exposed to biological risk during their work activities. So, the aim of this study is to perform a survey on the knowledge, attitude and behaviour of Italian HCWs towards the vaccinations recommended by the Ministry of Health. A cross-sectional study was carried out during the period September 2014–August 2015 in the Lazio region. The study was conducted by recruiting HCWs and biomedical students. The sample was comprised of 571 responders, of whom 12.4% were physicians, 18.9% were nurses, 34.3% were other HCW, and 34.3% were biomedical students (medical and nurses students). Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is perceived as a risk for personal health by 457 (80%) participants; TB is also worrying (434; 76%). Moreover, HBV (70.9%) and tuberculosis (TB) (79.2%) are perceived as a risk for health, while influenza is not considered so by most participants (46.2%). There is an underestimation of the role of influenza, perceived as a risk for 137 respondents (24%). The vaccination rate among these HCWs is highest for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) (82%), and lowest for influenza (28.5%) and varicella (40.3%). The vast majority of responders are in favour of HBV (77.8%) and TB (64.8%) vaccines. For other vaccinations there is less interest (between 33% and 40% for measles, mumps, rubella, pertussis and influenza). This study shows that knowledge of recommended occupational vaccinations is insufficient in HCWs, with few exceptions represented by HBV and TB. There is a need for novel approaches in this field, with the aim of enhancing vaccine coverage among HCW.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5010013
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 14: Developmental Origins of Health and Disease:
           A Lifecourse Approach to the Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases

    • Authors: Janis Baird, Chandni Jacob, Mary Barker, Caroline Fall, Mark Hanson, Nicholas Harvey, Hazel Inskip, Kalyanaraman Kumaran, Cyrus Cooper
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis, affect individuals in all countries worldwide. Given the very high worldwide prevalence of NCDs across a range of human pathology, it is clear that traditional approaches targeting those at most risk in older adulthood will not efficiently ameliorate this growing burden. It will thus be essential to robustly identify determinants of NCDs across the entire lifecourse and, subsequently, appropriate interventions at every stage to reduce an individual’s risk of developing these conditions. A lifecourse approach has the potential to prevent NCDs, from before conception through fetal life, infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and into older age. In this paper, we describe the origins of the lifecourse concept, the importance of early life influences, for example during pregnancy, examine potential underlying mechanisms in both cell biology and behavior change, and finally describe current efforts to develop interventions that take a lifecourse approach to NCD prevention. Two principal approaches to improving women’s nutritional status are outlined: nutritional supplementation and behavior change.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5010014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 15: Supplementation with Phycocyanobilin,
           Citrulline, Taurine, and Supranutritional Doses of Folic Acid and
           Biotin—Potential for Preventing or Slowing the Progression of Diabetic

    • Authors: Mark McCarty
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Oxidative stress, the resulting uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and loss of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity, are key mediators of the vascular and microvascular complications of diabetes. Much of this oxidative stress arises from up-regulated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity. Phycocyanobilin (PhyCB), the light-harvesting chromophore in edible cyanobacteria such as spirulina, is a biliverdin derivative that shares the ability of free bilirubin to inhibit certain isoforms of NADPH oxidase. Epidemiological studies reveal that diabetics with relatively elevated serum bilirubin are less likely to develop coronary disease or microvascular complications; this may reflect the ability of bilirubin to ward off these complications via inhibition of NADPH oxidase. Oral PhyCB may likewise have potential in this regard, and has been shown to protect diabetic mice from glomerulosclerosis. With respect to oxidant-mediated uncoupling of eNOS, high-dose folate can help to reverse this by modulating the oxidation status of the eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). Oxidation of BH4 yields dihydrobiopterin (BH2), which competes with BH4 for binding to eNOS and promotes its uncoupling. The reduced intracellular metabolites of folate have versatile oxidant-scavenging activity that can prevent oxidation of BH4; concurrently, these metabolites promote induction of dihydrofolate reductase, which functions to reconvert BH2 to BH4, and hence alleviate the uncoupling of eNOS. The arginine metabolite asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), typically elevated in diabetics, also uncouples eNOS by competitively inhibiting binding of arginine to eNOS; this effect is exacerbated by the increased expression of arginase that accompanies diabetes. These effects can be countered via supplementation with citrulline, which efficiently enhances tissue levels of arginine. With respect to the loss of NO bioactivity that contributes to diabetic complications, high dose biotin has the potential to “pinch hit” for diminished NO by direct activation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). High-dose biotin also may aid glycemic control via modulatory effects on enzyme induction in hepatocytes and pancreatic beta cells. Taurine, which suppresses diabetic complications in rodents, has the potential to reverse the inactivating impact of oxidative stress on sGC by boosting synthesis of hydrogen sulfide. Hence, it is proposed that concurrent administration of PhyCB, citrulline, taurine, and supranutritional doses of folate and biotin may have considerable potential for prevention and control of diabetic complications. Such a regimen could also be complemented with antioxidants such as lipoic acid, N-acetylcysteine, and melatonin—that boost cellular expression of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione—as well as astaxanthin, zinc, and glycine. The development of appropriate functional foods might make it feasible for patients to use complex nutraceutical regimens of the sort suggested here.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5010015
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 16: Mobile Phonocardiogram Diagnosis in Newborns
           Using Support Vector Machine

    • Authors: Amir Amiri, Mohammadreza Abtahi, Nick Constant, Kunal Mankodiya
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Phonocardiogram (PCG) monitoring on newborns is one of the most important and challenging tasks in the heart assessment in the early ages of life. In this paper, we present a novel approach for cardiac monitoring applied in PCG data. This basic system coupled with denoising, segmentation, cardiac cycle selection and classification of heart sound can be used widely for a large number of the data. This paper describes the problems and additional advantages of the PCG method including the possibility of recording heart sound at home, removing unwanted noises and data reduction on a mobile device, and an intelligent system to diagnose heart diseases on the cloud server. A wide range of physiological features from various analysis domains, including modeling, time/frequency domain analysis, an algorithm, etc., is proposed in order to extract features which will be considered as inputs for the classifier. In order to record the PCG data set from multiple subjects over one year, an electronic stethoscope was used for collecting data that was connected to a mobile device. In this study, we used different types of classifiers in order to distinguish between healthy and pathological heart sounds, and a comparison on the performances revealed that support vector machine (SVM) provides 92.2% accuracy and AUC = 0.98 in a time of 1.14 seconds for training, on a dataset of 116 samples.
      PubDate: 2017-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5010016
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Healthcare, Vol. 5, Pages 17: Translating Developmental Origins: Improving
           the Health of Women and Their Children Using a Sustainable Approach to
           Behaviour Change

    • Authors: Mary Barker, Janis Baird, Tannaze Tinati, Christina Vogel, Sofia Strömmer, Taylor Rose, Rufia Begum, Megan Jarman, Jenny Davies, Sue Thompson, Liz Taylor, Hazel Inskip, Cyrus Cooper, Don Nutbeam, Wendy Lawrence
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Theories of the developmental origins of health and disease imply that optimising the growth and development of babies is an essential route to improving the health of populations. A key factor in the growth of babies is the nutritional status of their mothers. Since women from more disadvantaged backgrounds have poorer quality diets and the worst pregnancy outcomes, they need to be a particular focus. The behavioural sciences have made a substantial contribution to the development of interventions to support dietary changes in disadvantaged women. Translation of such interventions into routine practice is an ideal that is rarely achieved, however. This paper illustrates how re-orientating health and social care services towards an empowerment approach to behaviour change might underpin a new developmental focus to improving long-term health, using learning from a community-based intervention to improve the diets and lifestyles of disadvantaged women. The Southampton Initiative for Health aimed to improve the diets and lifestyles of women of child-bearing age through training health and social care practitioners in skills to support behaviour change. Analysis illustrates the necessary steps in mounting such an intervention: building trust; matching agendas and changing culture. The Southampton Initiative for Health demonstrates that developing sustainable; workable interventions and effective community partnerships; requires commitment beginning long before intervention delivery but is key to the translation of developmental origins research into improvements in human health.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.3390/healthcare5010017
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
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