Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1540 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (724 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (387 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (108 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (130 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (724 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Adversity and Resilience Science : Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AJOB Empirical Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Akademika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 270)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences: Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Apuntes Universitarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Suicide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archivos de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atención Primaria Práctica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biosafety and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biosalud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Birat Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Boletin Médico de Postgrado     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
British Journal of Health Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos de Saúde     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Carta Comunitaria     Open Access  
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
CASUS : Revista de Investigación y Casos en Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
CES Salud Pública     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia & Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia & Trabajo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Innovación en Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciencia y Salud Virtual     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cities & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical and Experimental Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clocks & Sleep     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuaderno de investigaciones: semilleros andina     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cuadernos de la Escuela de Salud Pública     Open Access  
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Design for Health     Hybrid Journal  
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Diversity and Equality in Health and Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Diversity of Research in Health Journal     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drogues, santé et société     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Düzce Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi / Journal of Duzce University Health Sciences Institute     Open Access  
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência : Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
EsSEX : Revista Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios sociales : Revista de alimentación contemporánea y desarrollo regional     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethics & Human Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Eurasian Journal of Health Technology Assessment     Open Access  
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Family & Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 15)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare : Finjehew     Open Access  
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Digital Health     Open Access  
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers of Health Services Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ganesha Journal     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gestão e Desenvolvimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Advances in Health and Medicine     Open Access  
Global Challenges     Open Access  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Global Health Annual Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Health Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Reproductive Health     Open Access  
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Transitions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastane Öncesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
HCU Journal     Open Access  
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Health and Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health and Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

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Journal Cover
Frontiers in Public Health
Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2296-2565
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [86 journals]
  • Prospective Randomized Observational Pilot Trial Evaluating the Effect of
           Different Durations of Interdisciplinary Early Intervention and Family
           Support in Parents of Very Low Birth Weight Infants (Early Bird Study)

    • Authors: Bernhard Resch, Claudia Hofbauer-Krug, Jasmin Pansy, Karin Prechtl, Alexander Avian, Ronald Kurz
      Abstract: Background: Early childhood intervention (ECI) is a holistic approach for infants with or at risk for psychomotor and/or cognitive and/or behavioral impairment. It aims to optimally support them and positively influence their neurodevelopmental outcome. The right dosage of intervention and when the intervention should start are still to be determined. Hypothesis: Parents are more satisfied when the duration of ECI is longer (120 min once a week) than the usual 90-min session.Methods: We developed a parental questionnaire (both mother and father) that evaluated the level of satisfaction of parents with the intervention. We compared 120 with 90 min of ECI per week during the school year 2017/18. Included were parents of very low birth weight infants (
      PubDate: 2020-07-03T00:00:00Z
       
  • Commentary: RE-AIM Planning and Evaluation Framework: Adapting to New
           Science and Practice With a 20-Year Review

    • Authors: Kurt C. Stange
      PubDate: 2020-07-03T00:00:00Z
       
  • A RE-AIM Analysis of an Intergenerational Dementia Education Program

    • Authors: Ashleigh E. Smith, Georgina L. Kamm, Samantha Lai, Melissa J. Hull, Jess R. Baker, Rachel Milte, Julie Ratcliffe, Tobias Loetscher, Hannah A. D. Keage
      Abstract: Objectives: Children often have a lack of dementia understanding and poor attitudes toward people with dementia. Intergenerational programs are increasingly common, but the effects on knowledge and attitudes related to dementia are mixed, especially in the long-term (6 months). Using a RE-AIM framework, we quantitatively evaluated the effects of an educational dementia program (with and without an intergenerational program) on dementia attitudes in the short and long-term, and qualitatively, which elements of the program facilitated this change.Methods: Eighty-one children (9.63 ± 0.52 years, 35 males) from three classes participated in an 8-week dementia education program and 52 also interacted with older adults through an intergenerational experience. Program reach was measured as the percentage of children who participated in the study. The Kids Insight into Dementia Survey (KIDS) was implemented to measure dementia knowledge and attitudes: efficacy and maintenance. Qualitative interviews with all participant groups informed both adoption and implementation. Cost-benefit analysis was used as a secondary outcome measure for efficacy.Results: The program demonstrated strong levels of impact reaching 93% of school children across the three included classes. Efficacy was demonstrated by a positive change in children's dementia knowledge and attitudes immediately post program, which remained increased (as compared to baseline) 6- months post intervention; there were no differences between groups (those who interacted with older adults and those who did not). Interviews identified positive changes in children's empathy and improved community awareness. Barriers to adoption included the project scope, time constraints incurred by school terms and the management of children-to-adult ratios.Conclusions: These findings provide the first evidence that school-based dementia education improves knowledge of and attitudes toward people with dementia long-term. We demonstrated programs such as this can be successful in both primary school and wider community settings, with support from school and community partners key to the success.
      PubDate: 2020-07-03T00:00:00Z
       
  • A Perspective on Emerging Therapeutic Interventions for COVID-19

    • Authors: Muhammad Torequl Islam, Md. Nasiruddin, Ishaq N. Khan, Siddhartha Kumar Mishra, Md. Kudrat-E-Zahan, Thoufiqul Alam Riaz, Eunus S. Ali, M. Safiur Rahman, Mohammad S. Mubarak, Miquel Martorell, William C. Cho, Daniela Calina, Anca Oana Docea, Javad Sharifi-Rad
      Abstract: Coronaviruses are enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses with an unusual large RNA genome and a unique replication mechanism, which are characterized by club-like spikes that protrude from their surface. An outbreak of a novel coronavirus 2019 infection has posed significant threat to the health and economies in the whole world. This article reviewed the viral replication, pathogenicity, prevention and treatment strategies. With a lack of approved treatment options for this virus, alternative approaches to control the spread of disease is in urgent need. This article also covers some management strategies which may be applied to this virus outbreak. Ongoing clinical studies related to possible treatments for COVID-19, potential vaccines, and alternative medication such as natural compounds are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2020-07-03T00:00:00Z
       
  • Corrigendum: Do Humidity and Temperature Impact the Spread of the Novel
           Coronavirus'

    • Authors: Shu Yuan, Si-Cong Jiang, Zi-Lin Li
      PubDate: 2020-07-03T00:00:00Z
       
  • Survival-Convolution Models for Predicting COVID-19 Cases and Assessing
           Effects of Mitigation Strategies

    • Authors: Qinxia Wang, Shanghong Xie, Yuanjia Wang, Donglin Zeng
      Abstract: Countries around the globe have implemented unprecedented measures to mitigate the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We aim to predict the COVID-19 disease course and compare the effectiveness of mitigation measures across countries to inform policy decision making using a robust and parsimonious survival-convolution model. We account for transmission during a pre-symptomatic incubation period and use a time-varying effective reproduction number (Rt) to reflect the temporal trend of transmission and change in response to a public health intervention. We estimate the intervention effect on reducing the transmission rate using a natural experiment design and quantify uncertainty by permutation. In China and South Korea, we predicted the entire disease epidemic using only early phase data (2–3 weeks after the outbreak). A fast rate of decline in Rt was observed, and adopting mitigation strategies early in the epidemic was effective in reducing the transmission rate in these two countries. The nationwide lockdown in Italy did not accelerate the speed at which the transmission rate decreases. In the United States, Rt significantly decreased during a 2-week period after the declaration of national emergency, but it declined at a much slower rate afterwards. If the trend continues after May 1, COVID-19 may be controlled by late July. However, a loss of temporal effect (e.g., due to relaxing mitigation measures after May 1) could lead to a long delay in controlling the epidemic (mid-November with fewer than 100 daily cases) and a total of more than 2 million cases.
      PubDate: 2020-07-03T00:00:00Z
       
  • Community Drivers Affecting Adherence to WHO Guidelines Against COVID-19
           Amongst Rural Ugandan Market Vendors

    • Authors: Ibe Michael Usman, Fred Ssempijja, Robinson Ssebuufu, Ann Monima Lemuel, Victor Bassey Archibong, Emmanuel Tiyo Ayikobua, Joshua Ojodale Aruwa, Stelamaris Kembabazi, Eric Simidi Kegoye, John Tabakwot Ayuba, Olatayo Segun Okeniran, Isaac Echoru, Azeez Adeoye, Regan Mujinya, Viola Nankya, Keneth Iceland Kasozi
      Abstract: Background: Market vendors occupy a strategic position in the fight against the spread of SARS CoV-2 in rural Uganda. To successfully contain the spread of the virus, special attention needs to be given to this set of people by assessing the type of information, source of information, and practices they inculcate as regards adherence to WHO guidelines in the fight against COVID-19 in Uganda. The study aimed to assess the role of information sources, education level, and phone internet connectivity in influencing COVID-19 knowledge among the rural market vendors; and the relationship existing between knowledge, attitude, and practices among them.Methods: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional study among rural market vendors (n = 248) in southwestern Uganda. Information was collected using a questionnaire and descriptively presented as frequency and percentages.Results: The study showed that the majority of the rural market vendors had sufficient information regarding COVID-19 with the majority being female individuals and have attained a secondary level of education, The general percentage score for knowledge, attitude, and practices were (75.57, 82.6, and 76.50% respectively). There was a positive correlation between attitude and practices (r = 0.17, p = 0.007), as well as their knowledge with practices (r = 0.29, p < 0.001). The majority of the people in the population did not have their phones connected to the internet (OR = 1.96, 95%CI: 1.16–3.31, P = 0.01). The majority of people received their information regarding COVID-19 from one source (radio) (OR = 1.55).Conclusion: Where and how the rural market vendors get their information and education level are vital in breaking COVID 19 infection circle in line with WHO guidelines. Therefore, sources of information and education level played a key role in molding their knowledge and practices. However, the level of knowledge on COVID 19 among our respondents was not linked with phone internet connectivity.
      PubDate: 2020-07-03T00:00:00Z
       
  • Healthcare Capacity, Health Expenditure, and Civil Society as Predictors
           of COVID-19 Case Fatalities: A Global Analysis

    • Authors: Jahidur Rahman Khan, Nabil Awan, Md. Mazharul Islam, Olav Muurlink
      Abstract: Background: The rapid growth in cases of COVID-19 has challenged national healthcare capacity, testing systems at an advanced ICU, and public health infrastructure level. This global study evaluates the association between multi-factorial healthcare capacity and case fatality of COVID-19 patients by adjusting for demographic, health expenditure, population density, and prior burden of non-communicable disease. It also explores the impact of government relationships with civil society as a predictor of infection and mortality rates.Methods: Data were extracted from the Johns Hopkins University database, World Bank records and the National Civic Space Ratings 2020 database. This study used data from 86 countries which had at least 1,000 confirmed cases on 30th April 2020. Negative binomial regression model was used to assess the association between case fatality (a ratio of total number of confirmed deaths to total number of confirmed cases) and healthcare capacity index adjusting for other covariates.Findings: Regression analysis shows that greater healthcare capacity was related to lesser case-fatality [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.5811; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4727–0.7184; p < 0.001] with every additional unit increase in the healthcare capacity index associated with a 42% decrease in the case fatality. Health expenditure and civil society variables did not reach statistical significance but were positively associated with case fatalities.Interpretation: Based on preliminary data, this research suggests that building effective multidimensional healthcare capacity is the most promising means to mitigate future case fatalities. The data also suggests that government's ability to implement public health measures to a degree determines mortality outcomes.
      PubDate: 2020-07-03T00:00:00Z
       
  • Clinical Use of Short-Course and Low-Dose Corticosteroids in Patients With
           Non-severe COVID-19 During Pneumonia Progression

    • Authors: Zhiliang Hu, Yanling Lv, Chuanjun Xu, Wenkui Sun, Wei Chen, Zhihang Peng, Chen Chen, Xiang Cui, Damin Jiao, Cong Cheng, Yun Chi, Hongxia Wei, Chunmei Hu, Yi Zeng, Xia Zhang, Yongxiang Yi
      Abstract: Background: The emerging coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a serious public health concern with a high number of fatalities. It is unclear whether corticosteroids could be a candidate for an early intervention strategy for patients with COVID-19.Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed data from 28 corticosteroid-treated patients with non-severe but advanced COVID-19, in which short-course and low-dose corticosteroids were administered because of unremitting or worsening clinical conditions during hospitalization. To compare the effect of corticosteroids on viral clearance, 44 corticosteroid-untreated patients were included as controls.Results: At the time of admission, corticosteroid-treated patients (n = 28) had a more advanced baseline illness compared with corticosteroid-untreated patients (n = 44), as reflected by poorer blood laboratory parameters (lymphocytes, C-reactive protein, and lactate dehydrogenase) and more extensive chest computed tomography (CT) abnormalities. Corticosteroids were given because of radiological evidence of pneumonia progression (26/28) and/or unremitting fever (22/28) after admission. The median time from illness onset to corticosteroid treatment was 9 days (IQR, 7–10). The median duration and accumulated dose of corticosteroid treatment were 4.5 days [interquartile range (IQR), 3–5] and 140 mg of methylprednisolone (IQR, 120–200). Intravenous immunoglobulin (20 g per day for 3–5 days) was co-administered with corticosteroids. With the corticosteroid treatment, all patients achieved an abatement of fever within 1 day, and 78.6% (22/28) of the patients achieved radiological remission when evaluated about 3 days later. Only one (3.6%) patient progressed to severe COVID-19, and all patients recovered and were discharged without any sequela. The median time from illness onset to viral clearance was similar, as compared with 44 corticosteroid-untreated patients with relatively milder disease [18 (IQR 14.3–23.5) days vs. 17 (IQR, 12–20) days, p = 0.252]. When adjusted for age, sex, underlying comorbidities, baseline blood laboratory parameters, viral load, and chest radiological findings, the causal hazard ratio of corticosteroid treatment for the viral clearance was 0.79 (95%CI, 0.48–1.30, p = 0.34).Conclusion: Short-course and low-dose applications of corticosteroids, when co-administered with intravenous immunoglobulin, in non-severe COVID-19 patients during the stage of clinical deterioration may possibly prevent disease progression, while having a negligible impact on the viral clearance.
      PubDate: 2020-07-03T00:00:00Z
       
  • COVID-19 Patient Health Prediction Using Boosted Random Forest Algorithm

    • Authors: Celestine Iwendi, Ali Kashif Bashir, Atharva Peshkar, R. Sujatha, Jyotir Moy Chatterjee, Swetha Pasupuleti, Rishita Mishra, Sofia Pillai, Ohyun Jo
      Abstract: Integration of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques in wireless infrastructure, real-time collection, and processing of end-user devices is now in high demand. It is now superlative to use AI to detect and predict pandemics of a colossal nature. The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which originated in Wuhan China, has had disastrous effects on the global community and has overburdened advanced healthcare systems throughout the world. Globally; over 4,063,525 confirmed cases and 282,244 deaths have been recorded as of 11th May 2020, according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control agency. However, the current rapid and exponential rise in the number of patients has necessitated efficient and quick prediction of the possible outcome of an infected patient for appropriate treatment using AI techniques. This paper proposes a fine-tuned Random Forest model boosted by the AdaBoost algorithm. The model uses the COVID-19 patient's geographical, travel, health, and demographic data to predict the severity of the case and the possible outcome, recovery, or death. The model has an accuracy of 94% and a F1 Score of 0.86 on the dataset used. The data analysis reveals a positive correlation between patients' gender and deaths, and also indicates that the majority of patients are aged between 20 and 70 years.
      PubDate: 2020-07-03T00:00:00Z
       
  • The North American Layman's Understanding of COVID-19: Are We Doing
           Enough'

    • Authors: Ali Salimi, Hassan ElHawary, Nermin Diab, Lee Smith
      Abstract: Background: In the absence of an effective vaccine, public health policies are aimed at awareness, and education of the general public in order to contain the quickly spreading COVID-19 pandemic. Most of the recommended precautionary measures are dependent on human behaviors and therefore their effectiveness largely depends on peoples' perception and attitudes toward the disease. This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge, risk perception, and precautionary measures taken in response to COVID-19 in North America.Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, an online survey targeted to North Americans focused on the public's knowledge of COVID-19, risk perception, and precautionary behaviors taken in response to this pandemic. Descriptive analyses were performed for the whole population and the subgroup analyses contrasted the differences between Americans and Canadians.Results: The cohort comprised 1,264 relatively young participants with an average age of 28.6 ± 9.8 years. The vast majority (>90%) were knowledgeable about COVID-19. Regarding risk perception, about a quarter assumed to be at less risk to contract the disease, and 42.8% considered themselves to be less contagious than others. While the vast majority avoided performing risky behaviors, only a small proportion (13.2%) wore a face mask—which is in line with the public health recommendations of the two countries at the time of data collection. Overall, a larger proportion of Canadian participants (55.8%) were satisfied with the performance of their national public health in response to the current pandemic, compared to their American counterparts (12.2%).Discussion: Data regarding the public's knowledge of COVID-19, risk perception, and behaviors in response to this pandemic is limited. The results of this study highlight that this relatively young and educated sample of North Americans had a high level of knowledge about COVID-19 and a large proportion of them were taking the precautionary measures against this pandemic. However, a significant number of individuals believe to be at less risk of contracting the disease compared to the general population. Educating the public that no one is safe from this disease, could play a role in further limiting risky behaviors and ultimately facilitating disease containment.
      PubDate: 2020-07-03T00:00:00Z
       
  • Equity in Essential Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health Interventions in
           Northeastern China, 2008 to 2018

    • Authors: Ying Wang, Ran Liao, Xing Lin Feng
      Abstract: Objectives: We aim to analyze equity in maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) interventions in Jilin, a northeastern province of China, 2008–2018.Study design: Cross-sectional study.Methods: We used provincially representative survey data from 2008, 2013, and 2018. We included 18 essential MNCH interventions, analyzed equity, and calculated the composite coverage score. We used logistic and multiple linear regressions to adjust sampling clusters and covariates.Results: Coverage of hospital-based interventions, such as hospital delivery and antenatal B-ultrasound tests, was nearly universal in Jilin province. Cesarean sections persisted at alarmingly high rates (57.6%). Enormous unmet needs and rural–urban inequalities existed for community-based interventions, such as improved drinking water sources (85.4 vs. 97.9%, p < 0.01), improved sanitation facilities (52.5 vs. 94.2%, p < 0.01), four government-funded antenatal care services (55.8 vs. 84.1%, p < 0.01), and at least eight antenatal care sessions (26.8 vs. 46.3%, p < 0.05). Compared to rural–urban inequity, individual-level disparities across income and education were either small in scale or statistically insignificant. The inequity in coverage of maternal and newborn care shrank during 2008–2018.Conclusions: Despite its success in reducing mortality, China's unique obstetrician-led safe motherhood strategy may come at the cost of over-medicalization and health inequity. Jilin province's recent efforts to revitalize primary health care show the potential to make a change. An integrated system that links families, communities, and all levels of health care organizations seems to be the most effective and efficient model to offer continuing MNCH care.
      PubDate: 2020-07-02T00:00:00Z
       
  • Risk Prediction for Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Based on Biochemical
           and Dietary Variables in a Chinese Han Population

    • Authors: Xinting Pan, Xiaoxu Xie, Hewei Peng, Xiaoling Cai, Huiquan Li, Qizhu Hong, Yunli Wu, Xu Lin, Shanghua Xu, Xian-e Peng
      Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease globally, but there are no optimal methods for its prediction or diagnosis. The present cross-sectional study proposes a non-invasive tool for NAFLD screening. The study included 2,446 individuals, of whom 574 were NAFLD patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for NAFLD and incorporate them in a risk prediction nomogram model; the variables included both clinical and lifestyle-related variables. Following stepwise regression, BMI, waist circumference, serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, presence of diabetes and hyperuricemia, tuber and fried food consumption were identified as significant risk factors and used in the model. The final nomogram was found to have good discrimination ability (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.843 [95% CI: 0.819-0.867]), and reasonable accuracy for the prediction of NAFLD risk. A cut-off score of
      PubDate: 2020-07-02T00:00:00Z
       
  • Intervention Effects of a Kindergarten-Based Health Promotion Programme on
           Motor Abilities in Early Childhood

    • Authors: Susanne Kobel, Lea Henle, Christine Laemmle, Olivia Wartha, Bertram Szagun, Juergen Michael Steinacker
      Abstract: Background: Physical activity is positively related to motor abilities. Especially in childhood, an active lifestyle is important to support healthy motor development. The low-threshold health promotion programme “Join the Healthy Boat” in kindergartens promotes physical activity in order to also improve motor abilities. Here, effects of the programme on children's motor abilities after 1 year were investigated.Materials and Methods: The longitudinal study included 419 children (3.7 ± 0.6 years) from 58 kindergartens throughout south-west Germany (intervention: 254, control: 165). Children in the intervention group received physical activity promotion with a focus on motor ability development, led by teachers, through one kindergarten year; children in the control group followed the normal kindergarten routine. At baseline and follow-up, motor tests (3-min-run, one-leg-stand, standing long jump, sit-and-reach-test) were performed, anthropometric measures (body weight and height) were taken and a parental questionnaire was issued. Intervention effects were assessed using differential measures (follow-up – baseline) adjusted for gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES) and baseline values, with covariance analyses.Results: Children in the intervention group showed a significant improvement in endurance performance (F(1.329)=20.95, p
      PubDate: 2020-06-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • On Perceived Stress and Social Support: Depressive, Anxiety and
           

    • Authors: Kerem Böge, Carine Karnouk, Eric Hahn, Zaynab Demir, Malek Bajbouj
      Abstract: Current literature points toward several challenges in the access to sufficient and effective psychosocial care for Syrian refugees in host settings. This study is a comparative investigation into the relationship between “perceived social stress” and “perceived social support” on three of the most prevalent symptom dimensions in Syrian refugees across two host capitals, Berlin and Amman. Eighty nine Syrians refugees were recruited between January 2017 and March 2018. Participants were contacted through local institutions and organizations collaborating with the Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin. Assessments include the PHQ-9, GAD-7, HTQ, MSPSS, and PSS. Primary analyses consist of non- or parametric tests and multiple linear regression analyses. Subsample analyses showed relevant depressive, anxiety and trauma-related symptoms. Significant differences in PTSD symptoms (p < 0.04) were found. Participants reported high perceived stress and moderate to high social support. Linear regressions revealed that perceived stress had a significant negative effect (p < 0.01) on clinical outcomes in both subsamples. Perceived social support had a positive influence on depressive (p = 0.02) and PTSD symptoms (p = 0.04) for participants in Berlin. Analyses revealed significant positive effects of “significant others” (p = 0.05) on depressive- in Berlin and “family” (p = 0.03) support for PTSD symptoms in Amman. Study results show that levels of “perceived stress” appear to be the same across different host countries, whereas types of social support and their effect on mental health differ significantly depending on the host setting. Outcomes may guide future comparative study designs and investigations to promote well-being, integration, and the development of effective social support structures for the diverse needs of Arabic-speaking refugees.
      PubDate: 2020-06-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • Households in HIV Care: Designing an Intervention to Stimulate HIV
           Competency in Households in South Africa

    • Authors: Caroline Masquillier, Edwin Wouters, Linda Campbell, Anton Delport, Neo Sematlane, Lorraine Tanyaradzwa Dube, Lucia Knight
      Abstract: Despite the Universal Test and Treat program and widespread antiretroviral treatment rollout, South Africa is still facing HIV prevention and treatment challenges, which are aggravated by human resource shortages in the healthcare sector. Individual- and community-level responses to these HIV-related challenges are increasingly being explored, for example, in community and home-based care. The role of the household as a crucial mediating social level has, however, largely been omitted. This paper outlines the design of an intervention to stimulate the involvement of the household in support for people living with HIV in South Africa. The 6SQuID model guided the intervention development process in four phases: (1) formative research, theory formulation, and a review of the existing literature, (2) integration of the results from the formative research into the “Positive Communication Process” (P2CP model) as a mechanism of change, (3) design of a community-health-worker-led intervention as the way to deliver the change mechanism, and (4) testing and revision of the developed intervention material—called Sinako—in a small-scale pilot study. The Sinako intervention anticipates that the future of chronic HIV care in resource-constrained settings will need to integrate the patient's household into the fight against HIV.
      PubDate: 2020-06-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • Development and Application of a Program for Reinforcing Global Health
           Competencies in University Nursing Students

    • Authors: Won Ju Hwang, Hyun Hee Jo
      Abstract: Purpose: With globalization, the importance of global health is being stressed. Although nurses are indispensable healthcare professionals, programs to develop nurses with global health competencies and relevant studies are rare. Accordingly, this study was designed to develop a program to increase global health competencies and global leadership in nursing students and test its effect.Methods: A single group pre- and post-test study design was used. A 13-weeks program was developed and implemented with 204 students. Data were analyzed using paired t-test. The program to promote global health competencies was designed to improve nursing students' knowledge of global health, global leadership, global health competencies, critical thinking ability, and student-student partnership.Results: Global health competencies (t = −19.96, p < 0.001), self-assessed global leadership (t = −7.67, p < 0.001), and critical thinking ability (t = −7.67, p < 0.001) all significantly increased.Discussion: The study findings of increased global health competencies and global leadership in nursing students after participation in the program indicated ways in which global health competencies of nurses need to be developed. Therefore, the following aspects should be considered. First, nursing educators should understand the need and importance of global health education and accordingly, current nursing curriculums should be revised to include courses about global health. A systematic course of studies about global health should be developed and implemented based on discussions among experts and researchers. Second, as future health care professionals, nursing students should take an interest in global health problems and recognize various issues that need to be solved beyond borders between countries. To develop global health competencies, various efforts and systematic curriculum revisions are necessary.
      PubDate: 2020-06-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • Feasibility and Acceptability of a Culturally- and Linguistically-Adapted
           Smoking Cessation Text Messaging Intervention for Latino Smokers

    • Authors: Francisco Cartujano-Barrera, Lisa Sanderson Cox, Evelyn Arana-Chicas, Mariana Ramírez, Jaime Perales-Puchalt, Pamela Valera, Francisco J. Díaz, Delwyn Catley, Edward F. Ellerbeck, Ana Paula Cupertino
      Abstract: Objective: Assess the feasibility and acceptability of a culturally- and linguistically-adapted smoking cessation text messaging intervention for Latino smokers.Methods: Using a community-based strategy, 50 Latino smokers were recruited to participate in a smoking cessation pilot study. Participants received a 12-week text messaging intervention and were offered Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) at no cost. We assessed biochemically verified abstinence at 12 weeks, text messaging interactivity with the program, NRT utilization, self-efficacy, therapeutic alliance, and satisfaction.Results: Participants were 44.8 years old on average (SD 9.80), and they were primarily male (66%) and had no health insurance (78%). Most of the participants were born in Mexico (82%) and were light smokers (1–10 CPD) (68%). All participants requested the first order of NRT, and 66% requested a refill. Participants sent an average of 39.7 text messages during the 12-week intervention (SD 82.70). At 12 weeks, 30% of participants were biochemically verified abstinent (88% follow-up rate) and working alliance mean value was 79.2 (SD 9.04). Self-efficacy mean score increased from 33.98 (SD 10.36) at baseline to 40.05 (SD 17.65) at follow-up (p = 0.04). The majority of participants (90.9%, 40/44) reported being very or extremely satisfied with the program.Conclusion: A culturally- and linguistically-adapted smoking cessation text messaging intervention for Latinos offers a promising strategy to increase the use of NRT, generated high satisfaction and frequent interactivity, significantly increased self-efficacy, produced high therapeutic alliance, and resulted in noteworthy cessation rates at the end of treatment. Additional testing as a formal randomized clinical trial is warranted.
      PubDate: 2020-06-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • Surprising Differences in the Practice of Exclusive Breastfeeding in
           Non-Roma and Roma Population in Serbia

    • Authors: Zeljka Stamenkovic, Bojana Matejic, Bosiljka Djikanovic, Vesna Bjegovic-Mikanovic
      Abstract: Background: Exclusive breastfeeding is essential for early childhood development, although the use of adaptive milk formulas instead of breastfeeding is widespread nowadays. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of exclusively breastfed infants under the age of 6 months in non-Roma and Roma population and factors associated with this practice.Materials and Methods: This study is a secondary analysis of the Serbian Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey investigating non-Roma and Roma infants under the age of 6 months. The study included mothers of 321 non-Roma and 164 Roma infants younger than 6 months. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression served to analyze factors associated with the practice of exclusive breastfeeding in both populations.Results: The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding was almost the same among mothers in both non-Roma and Roma population (13.3 vs. 13%, p = 0.910). Exclusive breastfeeding was significantly more often (p < 0.001) among wealthier women, women whose newborns were over 2,500 g on birth, multipara, and women who had not established menstrual cycle among both populations. Living outside the capital significantly diminishes the chance for exclusively breastfed infants in the non-Roma community (Vojvodina: OR 0.16, CI 95% 0.03–0.92; eastern Serbia: OR 0.02, CI 95% 0.01–0.35) as well as living in the rural area (urban: OR 10.35, CI 95% 1.94–55.28). Unexpectedly, in the non-Roma population, not staying in the same room with the newborn in the maternity ward increases the chance for the baby to be exclusively breastfed (OR 7.19, CI 95% 1.80–28.68). The same pattern has been observed in Roma population. Non-Roma mothers multipara are more likely to exclusively breastfeed their children than primipara (OR 7.78, CI 95% 1.09–20.93), while among Roma mothers, the inverse association has been found although not significant (OR 0.42, CI 95% 0.14–1.23). Attending a childbirth preparation program more than 18 times increases the chances of infants being exclusively breastfed (OR 18.65, CI 95% 1.34–53.67). In the Roma population, there was no single woman that attended a childbirth preparation program.Conclusion: The pattern of exclusive breastfeeding significantly differs between non-Roma and Roma populations. Preventive work should have focus on strengthening support to mothers and medical staff in maternity wards.
      PubDate: 2020-06-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • The Relationship Between Health Literacy, Social Support, Depression, and
           Frailty Among Community-Dwelling Older Patients With Hypertension and
           Diabetes in China

    • Authors: Yan Liu, Hongdao Meng, Naidan Tu, Danping Liu
      Abstract: Population aging is one of the major challenges facing modern society and has attracted global attention. With population aging becoming a global phenomenon, the impact of age-related diseases on health is increasing rapidly. Frailty is one of the most pressing issues facing older adults. The purpose of this study was to explore the interrelationship between health literacy, social support, depression, and frailty among older patients with hypertension and diabetes in China. No studies have investigated the mediating effects of social support and depression between health literacy and frailty. The findings of this study can be applied to help ameliorate frailty in older hypertensive and diabetic patients. Data were collected from 637 older hypertensive and diabetic patients aged 65 years and older in Sichuan Province, China. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to test the hypothesized relationship among the variables. The results showed that 42.4% of the participants suffered from frailty. The mean scores for health literacy, social support, depression, and frailty were 13.6 ± 5.7, 35.7 ± 6.5, 4.0 ± 3.4, and 3.5 ± 2.1, respectively. Social support had a direct negative association with frailty (β = −0.128, 95%CI: [−0.198, −0.056]), and depression had a direct positive association with frailty (β = 0.326, 95%CI: [0.229, 0.411]), while social support had no direct association with depression. Health literacy had a direct positive association with social support (β = 0.151, 95%CI: [0.077, 0.224]) and a direct negative association with depression (β = −0.173, 95%CI: [−0.246, −0.1]), while health literacy had an indirect negative association with frailty through the mediating effect of social support and depression. To mitigate frailty in older patients with hypertension and diabetes, measures that provide social support, and enhance health literacy, while alleviating depression, should be considered, along with greater attention to patients who are divorced, widowed, or unmarried, those with comorbidities, and those with lower socioeconomic status.
      PubDate: 2020-06-30T00:00:00Z
       
 
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