Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2194-9921 - ISSN (Online) 2195-3007
Published by SpringerOpen [188 journals]
- Macau parents’ perceptions of underage children’s gambling
Abstract: Objectives The study examined Macau parents’ perceptions of underage children’s gambling involvement, and parents’ attitudes towards help seeking if their children had a gambling problem. The parents’ gambling behavior in the past year was also investigated. Methods This is a parent survey using a self-administered questionnaire. A convenience sample of 311 Macau parents (106 fathers and 205 mothers) with underage children aged 3–17 years was recruited. The response rate is 77.8%. The participants were asked if they had ever approved or taught their underage children to gamble, and how did they award their children when they won in gambling games. The parents were also asked if they had gambled in the previous 12 months, and their gambling behavior was assessed by the Chinese Problem Gambling Severity Index (CPGSI). Results Half of the parents surveyed (52%) did not approve underage gambling but 81% taught their underage children to play different gambling games. Children were awarded with money (55%), praises (17.5%), toys (15%) and food (12.5%) when they won in games. One-fifth (20.6%) were distressed with their children’s gambling problem. Many (68.8%) were willing to seek help to cope with children’s gambling problems. Only 21.2% (n = 66) of the parents reported gambling in the past year. Using the CPGSI, 4.5% of these gamblers could be identified as problem gamblers, and 16.7% were moderate-risk gamblers. Conclusion The study results indicate parent education should be included in prevention of underage gambling.
- Prevalence and risk factors of problematic internet use and the associated
psychological distress among graduate students of Bangladesh
Abstract: Abstract A growing body of epidemiological literature suggests that problematic Internet use (PIU) is associated with a range of psychological health problems in adolescents and young adults. This study aimed to explore socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of PIU and examine its association with psychological distress. A total of 573 graduate students from Dhaka University of Bangladesh responded to a self-administered questionnaire that included internet addiction test (IAT), 12-items General Health Questionnaire and a set of socio-demographic and behavioural factors. The study found that nearly 24% of the participants displayed PIU on the IAT scale. The prevalence of PIU significantly varied depending on gender, socioeconomic status, smoking habit and physical activity (p < 0.05). The multiple regression analyses suggested that PIU is strongly associated with psychological distress regardless of all other explanatory variables (adjusted OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.57, 3.58). Further research is warranted to confirm this association by employing prospective study designs.
- The New England 4G framework for the treatment of a common health
concerns: a gambling case analysis
Abstract: Abstract Approaches using self-help have proved successful at treating a range of mental and physical conditions. Guidance by a trained worker enhances the effects of self-help materials, in particular those based on Cognitive-Behavior Therapy. In the United Kingdom, the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) program was introduced to provide better outcomes for people experiencing mild or moderate anxiety and depression. This stepped care approach included low intensity, guided self-help offered by a newly trained workforce of Psychological Wellbeing Workers. The IAPT program has been extensively evaluated and shown to be cost effective and leads to positive treatment outcomes. This paper describes how the IAPT model has been adapted for use in Australia with gamblers. Two case studies illustrate the application of this guided approach to systematically accessing existing self-help treatments for problem gamblers. Assessment information is gathered, before a plan of action, including a problem statement and achievable goals, is agreed upon by the worker and the person with the gambling problem. The worker then gives the person options based on self-help CBT interventions and, once an option has been chosen, the worker guides the person as they work through various activities. The benefits of this approach are discussed.
- Role of smartphone addiction in gambling passion and schoolwork
engagement: a Dualistic Model of Passion approach
Abstract: Abstract There are growing concerns that seem to suggest that students no longer engage in school-related activities as they ought to. Recent observation has revealed that students now spend excessive time participating in Internet gambling with their smartphone during school period. This trend could have far-reaching consequences on their schoolwork engagement and by extension, academic performance. Drawing on the Dualistic Model of Passion, this study therefore, examined the mediatory role of smartphone addiction in the gambling passion—schoolwork engagement relation. A cross-sectional design was adopted. Male undergraduates (N = 278) of a large public university in Nigeria who engage in Internet gambling participated in the study. They completed self-report measures of gambling passion, smartphone addiction, and schoolwork engagement. Results showed that harmonious gambling passion was not related to smartphone addiction whereas it was positively related to schoolwork engagement. Obsessive gambling passion had positive and negative relations with smartphone addiction and schoolwork engagement, respectively. Smartphone addiction was negatively related to schoolwork engagement and mediated only the obsessive gambling passion—schoolwork engagement relation but not that between harmonious gambling passion and schoolwork engagement. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
- Gambling among adolescents with and without hearing loss
Abstract: Objectives This exploratory study investigates the prevalence of gambling, preferred types of gambling, and problem gambling in Swedish young people aged 15–18 years with and without hearing loss. Methods A cross-sectional health survey was conducted in Örebro County, Sweden in 2014. A standardized questionnaire was distributed to 4888 students, and 4329 filled it. There were 318 (8 %) students with hearing loss. The response rate was 82 %. The 2-item Lie/Bet questionnaire (Johnson et al. in Psychol Rep 80:83–88, 1997) was used for measuring problem gambling. Results More students with hearing loss had gambled during their lifetime (35 %) and in the past year (25 %) than their hearing counterparts (lifetime: 24 %; past-year: 19 %). More students with hearing loss compared to normal hearing students were identified as problem gamblers (7.7 % compared to 4.3 %). Conclusion More research is needed on gambling among people with hearing loss as well as other disabilities.
- Adolescent gambling behaviour, a single latent construct and indicators of
Abstract: Abstract This study explores underlying latent construct/s of gambling behaviour, and identifies indicators of “unhealthy gambling”. Data were collected from Youth’07 a nationally representative sample of New Zealand secondary school students (N = 9107). Exploratory factor analyses, item-response theory analyses, multiple indicators-multiple causes, and differential item functioning analyses were used to assess dimensionality of gambling behaviour, underlying factors, and indicators of unhealthy gambling. A single underlying continuum of gambling behaviour was identified. Gambling frequency and ‘gambling because I can’t stop’ were most strongly associated with unhealthy gambling. Gambling to ‘feel better about myself’ and to ‘forget about things’ provided the most precise discriminants of unhealthy gambling. Multivariable analyses found that school connectedness was associated with lower levels of unhealthy gambling.
- Gaming behavior and addiction among Hong Kong adolescents
Abstract: Objectives Game playing is very popular among Hong Kong teenagers. This study aimed to investigate adolescent gaming behavior and addiction at the Internet cafe, and to explore perceived benefits and harms associated with the activity. Methods A convenient sample of 13 male high school students aged 12–15 years (mean age = 13.6 years) were interviewed at two Internet cafes. Young’s (Caught in the net, Wiley, New York, 1998) criteria of Internet addiction were modified to assess gaming addiction. Results Internet cafes were described as a safe and ideal rendezvous for gamers. The benefits of gaming included fun and satisfaction, fostering social support and teamwork, meeting new friends and becoming sociable, boosting cognitive techniques and intellectual agility, improved responsiveness and quick thinking. Perceived harms of gaming addiction were reduced time and interest in other important activities, poor academic performance, physical harms and emotional distress, disrupted friendship with non-gaming peers, risked family relationship and financial problems. Five interviewees (38.5 %) could be categorized as pathological gamers and two were problem gamers (15.4 %). The psychological factors associated with gaming addiction include low self-esteem, a strong desire for aggressive and exciting experiences, reliance on gaming to kill time and to obtain satisfaction, coping with problems and negative emotions, and obsession with achieving higher rankings in games. The social and environmental risk factors are accessibility to the Internet cafés, aggressive promotional activities at the Internet cafes, peer pressure, family influence and early gaming experiences, perceived parental approval, lack of parental supervision, and poor family relationship. Conclusions The study results throw light on prevention programs.
- Development, implementation, and evaluation of a multi-addiction
prevention program for primary school students in Hong Kong: the B.E.S.T.
Abstract: Abstract Based on the evaluation findings of the B.E.S.T. Teen Program which aimed at promoting behavioral, emotional, social, and thinking competencies in primary school students, it is argued in this paper that promotion of psychosocial competence to prevent addiction in primary school students is a promising strategy. A total of 382 Primary 5 (Grade 5) and 297 Primary 6 (Grade 6) students from five primary schools in Hong Kong participated in the program. Different evaluation strategies were adopted to evaluate the program. First, objective outcome evaluation adopting a non-equivalent group pretest–posttest experimental-control group design was conducted to examine change in the students. Second, to gauge students’ perceptions of the program, subjective outcome evaluation was conducted. The evaluation findings basically converged to tentatively suggest that young adolescents benefited from participating in the program. Implications on the development, implementation, and evaluation of addiction prevention programs for teenagers are discussed.
- Bread, milk and a Tattslotto ticket: the interpretive repertoires of young
adult gambling in Australia
Abstract: Abstract The discourse of Australian young adults who gamble regularly was analysed to explore key dilemmas and challenges of a generation who grew up with the positive and negative impacts of gambling advertisements. Qualitative interviews of seven young recreational gamblers who regularly frequent gaming machine venues were conducted. The discourse that they used to describe their gambling involvement, motivation, development and subjective views were analysed and three central repertoires: ‘Culture not self,’ ‘If it makes you happy,’ and ‘No problem here!’ were identified. The current findings demonstrate the participants’ attempts to understand and legitimise their gambling. Further, it was suggested that young adults face a series of dilemmas when deciding whether to gamble and to what extent they gamble. Their discourse highlights the tension between individual agency, societal expectations and familial influence. The respondents primarily gambled for social reasons in a manner which they perceived as culturally acceptable. The importance of harm minimization and public awareness campaigns directed at young adults was also discussed.
- Gambling participation and policies in Malaysia
Abstract: Abstract Regulatory policies for responsible gambling practices in Asia are constantly evolving as the gambling industry and technological landscape change over time. Malaysia makes an interesting case study for a commentary on gambling participation and policies, as this country has a unique dual justice system with religious and ethnic diversity that may impact on the way in which gambling activities are regulated. This regulatory ecosystem has important consequences on behaviour change, treatment approaches and recovery processes involved in gambling disorder. This commentary will discuss evidence for Malaysian gambling antecedents, public policy and socioeconomic impacts of gambling, possible costs and benefits of gambling legalization, and issues pertinent to regulating gambling activities in Malaysia.
- Gender differences in the prospective association between maternal alcohol
consumption trajectories and young adult offspring’s problem gambling at
Abstract: Abstract Although a large number of studies have examined the association between young adult’s alcohol consumption and their problem gambling behaviours, none of these studies address the prospective association between mother’s alcohol consumption and their young adult offspring’s problem gambling behaviours. Using data from a 30 year prospective pre-birth cohort study in Brisbane, Australia (n = 1691), our study examines whether different maternal alcohol consumption trajectories predict offspring’s risk of problem gambling behaviours and whether these associations differ by the young adults’ gender. Offspring’s level of problem gambling behaviours was assessed by the short version of the Canadian Problem Gambling Index, with about 10.6 % of young adults having some risk of problem gambling behaviours. Trajectories of maternal alcohol consumption were determined by group-based trajectory modelling over five time points. Our study found that mother’s alcohol consumption pattern fits into three drinking trajectory groups, namely abstainers (17.2 %), a low-stable drinkers group (64.6 %) and a moderate-escalating drinkers group (18.2 %). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the moderate-escalating alcohol trajectory group is independently associated with a risk of their male young adult offspring having problem gambling behaviours at 30 years—even after adjustment for a range of potential confounding variables. Mothers who exhibit a persistent life course pattern of moderate-escalating drinking have male children who have a high risk of engaging in problem gambling behaviours. Offspring’s alcohol consumption partially mediated the association between maternal drinking trajectories and young adult’s risk of problem behaviours. High levels of maternal alcohol consumption may lead to male offspring antisocial behaviours. Programs intended to address problem gambling behaviours by young adults may need to focus on male group with a focus which specifically addresses family influences as these contribute to gambling behaviour.
- Gambling related family coping and the impact of problem gambling on
families in Hong Kong
Abstract: Abstract Despite substantial evidence that problem gambling is associated with a wide range of family difficulties, limited effort has been devoted to studying the negative impacts on family members as a result of problem gambling and how they cope and function under the impacts of problem gambling in Chinese communities. Among the very few Chinese-specific gambling-related family impact studies, none have examined how gambling-related family coping responses are related to gambling-related family impacts. Based on a sample of treatment-seeking Chinese family members of problem gamblers, this study aimed to explore: (1) the demographic characteristics and health and psychological well-being of the family members; (2) the gambling-related family member impacts (active disturbance, worrying behavior); (3) the family coping strategies (engaged, tolerant-inactive and withdrawal coping); (4) the relationship between gambling-related family member impacts, psychological distress and family coping strategies. It was hypothesized that positive significant relationships would be found between family member impacts, psychological distress and family coping strategies. From March 2011 to February 2012, a total of 103 family members of problem gamblers who sought help from Tung Wah Group of Hospitals Even Centre in Hong Kong were interviewed. Results showed that a majority of family members were partners or ex-partners of the gambler with low or no income. A large proportion of participants reported moderate to high psychological distress (72.6 %), poor to fair general health (60.2 %), and poor to neither good nor bad quality of life (61.1 %). Family member impacts were positively significantly correlated to all family coping strategies and psychological distress. Tolerant-inactive coping had the strongest relationships with family member impacts and psychological distress. Strong relationships between family member impacts and psychological distress were also found. The results provide preliminary support for aspects of the stress–strain–coping–support model in the Chinese culture. It is suggested that family member-specific treatment groups targeting family coping are required to alleviate the level of negative impacts of gambling disorder on family members.
- Problem gambling and family violence in the Asian context: a review
Abstract: Background Few empirical studies have specifically evaluated the causal connection between problem gambling and domestic or family violence within East and South-East Asian populations. Evidence from qualitative and quantitative studies suggests that at the very least, an association exists. Lifetime prevalence of intimate partner violence has been drawn from various Asian communities, and ranges from 15.4 to 61.1%, which is generally higher than in western countries such as US, UK and Australia (17–26%). Problem gambling rates are similarly higher in certain Asian countries (3.8–6%), when compared to the international average (2.3%). The aim of this review was to evaluate the available literature on problem gambling and family violence in East and South-East Asian populations, and to highlight any consistencies between the two phenomena. The authors conducted an online literature search using the terms: “Asia”, “gambling”, “domestic violence”, “family violence”, and “abuse”; and accessed physical libraries for literature not available online. Discussion As evidenced by qualitative and quantitative studies, it is reasonable to suggest that a link does indeed exist between family violence and problem gambling in certain Asian communities. The authors argue that there may be specific cultural factors that underpin the acceptance, maintenance, and under reporting of both problem gambling and family violence in some Asian communities. Such cultural factors include: patriarchal family systems, low help seeking and under reporting, the impact of collectivist culture on gambling normalisation, and immigration and acculturation stresses. Summary This paper concludes East and South-East Asian communities display high rates of problem gambling and family violence. At the very least, there is some evidence to suggest a relationship between these two issues; however, immigration stresses and cultural beliefs may mediate this effect amongst migrant samples. The current state of research in this area is incomplete and requires rigorous methodological inquiry. Given strong preliminary evidence of a problem gambling-family violence link, it is recommended that future research endeavours focus on accurately assessing a causal relationship between problem gambling and family violence. Further research should be longitudinal, carried out in Asian countries, and use local resident populations to consider whether or not underlying cultural traditions and beliefs engender or contribute to problem gambling and family violence. These findings have implications for the field of problem gambling and family violence by informing prevention and treatment strategies and services within the public health and welfare sectors.
- Brief intervention based on Naikan therapy for a severe pathological
gambler with a family history of addiction: emphasis on guilt and
Abstract: Abstract In this article, treatment with a brief intervention based on Naikan (self-reflection) therapy for a patient presenting with pathological gambling is described. The patient, a 66-year-old woman, had suffered from this disorder for 13 years. She also harbored guilt toward her mother, and resentment toward her father, which governed her own behavior and exerted an influence on her gambling. Treatment consisted of six individual sessions based on Naikan therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). At 1-year follow-up, the patient was much improved, with an absence of gambling behavior and its associated symptoms. The implications of this case for clinical research and practice are discussed.
- Development and validation of the Japanese version of the Gambling Related
Cognitions Scale (GRCS-J)
Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to develop and test the Japanese version of the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS-J) to investigate its reliability and validity for assessing gambling cognitions in a Japanese sample. Five hundred and thirty-six participants (351 male, 185 female; Mean age = 29.75 years) from a community sample living in Japan were included in the analyses. The results of a confirmatory factor analysis confirmed that a five-factor model was appropriate for the data (goodness of fit index = .87, comparative fit index = .90, root mean square error of approximation = .07). The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was .94 for the total scale and ranged from .74 to .85 for the subscales. The concurrent validities for the GRCS-J were also good. Further, the results of a t-test revealed significant gender differences in the GRCS-J subscale scores and the total score. These results indicated that the GRCS-J was a valid and reliable measure for assessing gambling cognitions in a non-clinical Japanese sample.
- Senior gambling in Hong Kong: through the lenses of Chinese senior
gamblers – an exploratory study
Abstract: Abstract The meanings of gambling among senior gamblers in Hong Kong were investigated using semi-structured interviews based on an ethnographic approach. 18 senior gamblers (10 men; 8 women) over the age of 55 years were asked to describe their childhood, adolescent and early adult experience and developmental history of gambling and gambling trajectories. They also completed the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) of the Canadian Problem Gambling Index. Most senior gamblers (n = 15) were non-problem gamblers, except 3 participants who were classified as pathological gamblers. The majority of the senior gamblers began their lifelong gambling career when they were young. Their family members often introduced the participants to gambling. Some participants reported that an early big win was a focal memorable experience in their early gambling history. Women played mahjong most frequently, whereas men gambled on horse races and sports betting such as football lotteries. The main motivation of gambling for older adult women was socialisation with friends, whereas older adult men were motivated to gamble because of potential financial gain. To senior women, games of mahjong with friends have provided an oasis and a comfort zone, within which they can find peace and comfort away from hustles of daily life. Cultural conditions in Hong Kong and their link to senior gambling have been also discussed.
- A Hong Kong school-based survey: impacts of parental gambling on
adolescent gambling behavior and mental health status
Abstract: Abstract A school-based survey was conducted to examine the impact of parental gambling on adolescent gambling behavior and mental health status. A self-administered standardized questionnaire was distributed to 1,095 high school students. The response rate was 84.5%. Almost half of the participants (46.5%) reported gambling in the past year. Using the DSM-IV-MR-J (Journal of Gambling Studies 16: 253-273, 2000), 3.3% (n = 31) of the participants could be identified as at-risk gamblers, and 0.9% (n = 8) could be classified as probable pathological gamblers. Only 16.7% of the participants (n = 155) disclosed having a parent who gambled excessively but the perceived harms in the family were alarming including disrupted family relationships, family financial difficulties and diminished need fulfillment. When compared with participants without parental gambling problems, adolescents with perceived parental gambling problems had significantly higher scores on the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21) (Behavior Research and Therapy 33: 335-345, 1995). The study results have implications for preventive initiatives, intervention strategies and future research.
- Mindfulness and problem gambling treatment
Abstract: Abstract Mindfulness originated from Buddhist contemplative practice 2500 years ago. Mindfulness has increasingly been integrated into a variety of health care programs to address issues such as chronic pain, mental health problems, and addictions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of teaching problem gamblers about mindfulness meditation as part of regular treatment for problem gambling. The study evaluated an 8-week mindfulness group program that included 17 clients from the Problem Gambling Institute of Ontario at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (88% male) using questionnaires that were distributed before the first group session and after the final group session. The evaluation was a mixed method design that included both qualitative and quantitative feedback about the group. All of the participants showed an improvement in their levels of mindfulness after the 8-week treatment program. The Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) scores increased from a pre-test score of 3.65 (SD = 1.01) to a post-test score of 4.40 (SD = 0.78). Qualitative feedback about the group also highlighted a number of improvements in the clients’ lives that included being more in control, relaxed and able to stay in the now. The results indicated that mindfulness was successfully taught during the 8-week group program. This study evaluated the suitability of mindfulness as an intervention as part of a problem gambling treatment service. However, the study did not evaluate whether mindfulness improved the clients’ ability to resist relapse. Future studies are needed to examine the long-term impact of mindfulness sessions.
- The experience of recovering gamblers in Malaysia: a phenomenological
Abstract: Abstract Understanding the problem gambling recovery process is essential in the development of effective prevention and treatment programs. Existing empirical studies have examined the determinants and treatment of gambling behaviour but little research has investigated the experiences of Asian gamblers and their perceptions of gambling impact on family and significant others. This study utilizes a phenomenological approach to examine the experiences of ten gamblers who were enrolled in a gambling recovery program. Data analyses on qualitative interview sessions revealed four main themes comprising meaning of gambling, beliefs about gambling, perception of themselves (gamblers), family and significant others, and factors associated with the cessation of gambling behaviour. Within each theme, there are interrelated sub-themes that will be discussed within the study. In sum, the common factors that were evident are the importance of the gambler’s motivation to quit gambling and also their family’s support in the recovery process. Suggestions and implications for treatment and recovery are discussed.
- Negative impacts of gambling on Asian families and communities in New
Abstract: Abstract This paper outlines a project that investigated the impact of gambling and problem gambling on the health and wellbeing of Asian families and communities in New Zealand. This 2-year, multi-phase qualitative project included focus group discussions and individual face-to-face interviews with stakeholders and individuals who have experienced or been impacted by problem gambling across New Zealand’s five major Asian ethnic subgroups of Chinese, Indian, Korean, Southeast Asian and Asian with Refugee background. This paper provides details on two major themes that emerged from the data: the role of settlement, the environment and coping behaviours in problem gambling amongst Asians; and, the impacts and consequences of gambling for Asian people and their families. Problem gamblers were found to employ dysfunctional coping strategies to deal with settlement adversities with adverse effects on the mental health and social and financial wellbeing of individuals, families and communities. Based on the data provided by participants, potential strategies have been developed for enhancing resilience through other variables that protect against problem gambling, and moderating those variables that may increase risk for problem gambling. These include: utilising cultural strengths, building trust, normalising help-seeking, educating Asian communities about the dangers of gambling, and creating a supportive social and institutional environment for Asian immigrants.