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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1279 journals)
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HEALTH AND SAFETY (508 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 170)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access  
Apuntes Universitarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access  
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription  
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Heart Insight     Full-text available via subscription  
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Policy and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Professions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Health Sciences Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Health Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Healthcare Delivery Reform Initiatives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Healthcare Information Systems and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Global Health : Science and Practice
  [SJR: 0.897]   [H-I: 5]   [4 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2169-575X - ISSN (Online) 2169-575X
   Published by U.S. Agency for International Development Homepage  [1 journal]
  • New Ways of Approaching Indoor Residual Spraying for Malaria

    • Authors: Michael Macdonald
      Pages: 511 - 513
      PubDate: 2016-12-28T09:32:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-16-00354
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
  • Vasectomy: A Long, Slow Haul to Successful Takeoff

    • Authors: James D Shelton; Roy Jacobstein
      Pages: 514 - 517
      PubDate: 2016-12-28T09:32:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-16-00355
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
  • Limits of “Skills And Drills” Interventions to Improving Obstetric and
           Newborn Emergency Response: What More Do We Need to Learn'

    • Authors: Jim Ricca
      Pages: 518 - 521
      PubDate: 2016-12-28T09:32:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-16-00372
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
  • Improving the Safety and Security of Those Engaged in Global Health
           Traveling Abroad

    • Authors: Ranit Mishori; Andrew Eastman, Jessica Evert
      Pages: 522 - 528
      PubDate: 2016-12-28T09:32:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-16-00203
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
  • Indoor Residual Spraying Delivery Models to Prevent Malaria: Comparison of
           Community- and District-Based Approaches in Ethiopia

    • Authors: Benjamin Johns; Yemane Yeebiyo Yihdego, Lena Kolyada, Dereje Dengela, Sheleme Chibsa, Gunawardena Dissanayake, Kristen George, Hiwot Solomon Taffese, Bradford Lucas
      Pages: 529 - 541
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackground:Indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria prevention has traditionally been implemented in Ethiopia by the district health office with technical and operational inputs from regional, zonal, and central health offices. The United States President's Malaria Initiative (PMI) in collaboration with the Government of Ethiopia tested the effectiveness and efficiency of integrating IRS into the government-funded community-based rural health services program.Methods:Between 2012 and 2014, PMI conducted a mixed-methods study in 11 districts of Oromia region to compare district-based IRS (DB IRS) and community-based IRS (CB IRS) models. In the DB IRS model, each district included 2 centrally located operational sites where spray teams camped during the IRS campaign and from which they traveled to the villages to conduct spraying. In the CB IRS model, spray team members were hired from the communities in which they operated, thus eliminating the need for transport and camping facilities. The study team evaluated spray coverage, the quality of spraying, compliance with environmental and safety standards, and cost and performance efficiency.Results:The average number of eligible structures found and sprayed in the CB IRS districts increased by 19.6% and 20.3%, respectively, between 2012 (before CB IRS) and 2013 (during CB IRS). Between 2013 and 2014, the numbers increased by about 14%. In contrast, in the DB IRS districts the number of eligible structures found increased by only 8.1% between 2012 and 2013 and by 0.4% between 2013 and 2014. The quality of CB IRS operations was good and comparable to that in the DB IRS model, according to wall bioassay tests. Some compliance issues in the first year of CB IRS implementation were corrected in the second year, bringing compliance up to the level of the DB IRS model. The CB IRS model had, on average, higher amortized costs per district than the DB IRS model but lower unit costs per structure sprayed and per person protected because the community-based model found and sprayed more structures.Conclusion:Established community-based service delivery systems can be adapted to include a seasonal IRS campaign alongside the community-based health workers' routine activities to improve performance efficiency. Further modifications of the community-based IRS model may reduce the total cost of the intervention and increase its financial sustainability.
      PubDate: 2016-12-28T09:32:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-16-00165
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
  • Pilot Research as Advocacy: The Case of Sayana Press in Kinshasa,
           Democratic Republic of the Congo

    • Authors: Arsene Binanga; Jane T Bertrand
      Pages: 542 - 551
      Abstract: ABSTRACTIn the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the Ministry of Health authorizes only physicians and nurses to give injections, with one exception—medical and nursing students may also give injections if supervised by a clinical instructor. The emergence of the injectable contraceptive Sayana Press in some African countries prompted the DRC to test the acceptability and feasibility of distributing Sayana Press and other contraceptive methods at the community level through medical and nursing students. Sayana Press is similar in formulation to the injectable contraceptive Depo-Provera but contains a lower dose and is administered subcutaneously using a single-use syringe with a short needle called the Uniject system. The Uniject system allows Sayana Press to be administered by community health workers without clinical training or by self-injection. In this pilot, the advocacy objective was to obtain approval from the Ministry of Health to allow medical and nursing students to inject Sayana Press, as a first step toward authorization for community health workers to provide the method. The pilot described in this article documents a process whereby an innovative approach moved from concept to implementation to replication in less than 2 years. It also paved the way for testing additional progressive strategies to increase access to contraception at the community level. Because the pilot project included a research component designed to assess benefits and challenges, it provided the means to introduce the new task-shifting approach, which might not have been approved otherwise. Key pilot activities included: (1) increasing awareness of Sayana Press among family planning stakeholders at a national conference on family planning, (2) enlisting the support of key decision makers in designing the pilot, (3) obtaining marketing authorization to distribute Sayana Press in the DRC, (4) implementing the pilot from July to December 2015, (5) conducting quantitative and qualitative studies to assess acceptability and feasibility, and (6) disseminating the findings to family planning stakeholders. Before the pilot, Sayana Press was relatively unknown in the DRC, and there was no precedent for medical and nursing students providing family planning methods or giving injections at the community level. In less than 12 months, the approach gained legitimacy and acceptance. The key Ministry of Health decision maker orchestrated the closing session of the dissemination meeting on next steps, paving the way for pilot tests of 3 new task-shifting approaches: insertion of Implanon NXT by medical and nursing students, self-injection for Sayana Press with supervision by students, and injection of Sayana Press by community health workers with no formal clinical training.
      PubDate: 2016-12-28T09:32:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-16-00236
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
  • Benefits and Limitations of a Community-Engaged Emergency Referral System
           in a Remote, Impoverished Setting of Northern Ghana

    • Authors: Sneha Patel; John Koku Awoonor-Williams, Rofina Asuru, Christopher B Boyer, Janet Awopole Yepakeh Tiah, Mallory C Sheff, Margaret L Schmitt, Robert Alirigia, Elizabeth F Jackson, James F Phillips
      Pages: 552 - 567
      Abstract: ABSTRACTAlthough Ghana has a well-organized primary health care system, it lacks policies and guidelines for developing or providing emergency referral services. In 2012, an emergency referral pilot—the Sustainable Emergency Referral Care (SERC) initiative—was launched by the Ghana Health Service in collaboration with community stakeholders and health workers in one subdistrict of the Upper East Region where approximately 20,000 people reside. The pilot program was scaled up in 2013 to a 3-district (12-subdistrict) plausibility trial that served a population of approximately 184,000 over 2 years from 2013 to 2015. The SERC initiative was fielded as a component of a 6-year health systems strengthening and capacity-building project known as the Ghana Essential Health Intervention Program. Implementation research using mixed methods, including quantitative analysis of key process and health indicators over time in the 12 intervention subdistricts compared with comparison districts, a survey of health workers, and qualitative systems appraisal with community members, provided data on effectiveness of the system as well as operational challenges and potential solutions. Monitoring data show that community exposure to SERC was associated with an increased volume of emergency referrals, diminished reliance on primary care facilities not staffed or equipped to provide surgical care, and increased caseloads at facilities capable of providing appropriate acute care (i.e., district hospitals). Community members strongly endorsed the program and expressed appreciation for the service. Low rates of adherence to some care protocols were noted: referring facilities often failed to alert receiving facilities of incoming patients, not all patients transported were accompanied by a health worker, and receiving facilities commonly failed to provide patient outcome feedback to the referring facility. Yet in areas where SERC worked to bypass substandard points of care, overall facility-based maternal mortality as well as accident-related deaths decreased relative to levels observed in facilities located in comparison areas.
      PubDate: 2016-12-28T09:32:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-16-00253
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
  • Strengthening Government Leadership in Family Planning Programming in
           Senegal: From Proof of Concept to Proof of Implementation in 2 Districts

    • Authors: Barry Aichatou; Cheikh Seck, Thierno Souleymane Baal Anne, Gabrielle Clementine Deguenovo, Alexis Ntabona, Ruth Simmons
      Pages: 568 - 581
      Abstract: ABSTRACTGiven Senegal's limited resources, the country receives substantial support from externally funded partner organizations to provide family planning and maternal and child health services. These organizations often take a strong and sometimes independent role in implementing interventions with their own structures and personnel, thereby bypassing the government district health system. This article presents findings from the Initiative Sénégalaise de Santé Urbaine (ISSU) (Senegal Urban Health Initiative) that assessed in 2 districts, Diamniadio and Rufisque, the extent to which it was feasible to create stronger government ownership and leadership in implementing a simplified package of family planning interventions from among those previously tested in other districts. The simplified package consisted of both supply- and demand-side interventions, introduced in October 2014 and concluding at the end of 2015. The interventions included ensuring adequate human resources and contraceptive supplies, contraceptive technology updates for providers, special free family planning service days to bring services closer to where people live, family planning integration into other routine services, household visits for family planning education, religious sermons to clarify Islam's position on family planning, and radio broadcasts. District leadership in Diamniadio and Rufisque were actively involved in guiding and implementing interventions, and they also contributed some of their own resources to the project. However, reliance on external funding continued because district budgets were extremely limited. Monitoring data on the number of contraceptive methods provided by district facilities supported by a sister project, the Informed Push Model project, indicate overall improvement in contraceptive provision during the intervention period. In Diamniadio, contraceptive provision increased by 43% between the 6-month period prior to the ISSU interventions (November 2013 through April 2014) and a 6-month intervention period (November 2014 through April 2015), from about 8,000 units to nearly 12,000 units. In Rufisque, contraceptive provision increased by 30%, from more than 17,000 units to more than 22,000 units. Couple-years of protection provided in Diamniadio increased by 82% and in Rufisque by 56%. The experience in these 2 districts in Senegal suggests that it is feasible for districts to play a leadership role in implementing family planning services and mobilizing some of their own resources and that international projects can facilitate capacity building and sustainability within public-sector systems.
      PubDate: 2016-12-28T09:32:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-16-00250
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
  • Limited Effectiveness of a Skills and Drills Intervention to Improve
           Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care in Karnataka, India: A
           Proof-of-Concept Study

    • Authors: Beena Varghese; Jayanna Krishnamurthy, Blaze Correia, Ruchika Panigrahi, Maryann Washington, Vinotha Ponnuswamy, Prem Mony
      Pages: 582 - 593
      Abstract: ABSTRACTObjective:The majority of the maternal and perinatal deaths are preventable through improved emergency obstetric and newborn care at facilities. However, the quality of such care in India has significant gaps in terms of provider skills and in their preparedness to handle emergencies. We tested the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a “skills and drills” intervention, implemented between July 2013 and September 2014, to improve emergency obstetric and newborn care in the state of Karnataka, India.Methods:Emergency drills through role play, conducted every 2 months, combined with supportive supervision and a 2-day skills refresher session were delivered across 4 sub-district, secondary-level government facilities by an external team of obstetric and pediatric specialists and nurses. We evaluated the intervention through a quasi-experimental design with 4 intervention and 4 comparison facilities, using delivery case sheet reviews, pre- and post-knowledge tests among providers, objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs), and qualitative in-depth interviews. Primary outcomes consisted of improved diagnosis and management of selected maternal and newborn complications (postpartum hemorrhage, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and birth asphyxia). Secondary outcomes included knowledge and skill levels of providers and acceptability and feasibility of the intervention.Results:Knowledge scores among providers improved significantly in the intervention facilities; in obstetrics, average scores between the pre- and post-test increased from 49% to 57% (P=.006) and in newborn care, scores increased from 48% to 56% (P=.03). Knowledge scores in the comparison facilities were similar but did not improve significantly over time. Skill levels were significantly higher among providers in intervention facilities than comparison facilities (mean objective structured clinical examination scores for obstetric skills: 55% vs. 46%, respectively; for newborn skills: 58% vs. 48%, respectively; P
      PubDate: 2016-12-28T09:32:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-16-00143
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
  • Key Role of Drug Shops and Pharmacies for Family Planning in Urban Nigeria
           and Kenya

    • Authors: Meghan Corroon; Essete Kebede, Gean Spektor, Ilene Speizer
      Pages: 594 - 609
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackground:The Family Planning 2020 initiative aims to reach 120 million new family planning users by 2020. Drug shops and pharmacies are important private-sector sources of contraception in many contexts but are less well understood than public-sector sources, especially in urban environments. This article explores the role that drug shops and pharmacies play in the provision of contraceptive methods in selected urban areas of Nigeria and Kenya as well as factors associated with women's choice of where to obtain these methods.Methods:Using data collected in 2010/2011 from representative samples of women in selected urban areas of Nigeria and Kenya as well as a census of pharmacies and drug shops audited in 2011, we examine the role of drug shops and pharmacies in the provision of short-acting contraceptive methods and factors associated with a women's choice of family planning source.Results:In urban Nigeria and Kenya, drug shops and pharmacies were the major source for the family planning methods of oral contraceptive pills, emergency contraceptives, and condoms. The majority of injectable users obtained their method from public facilities in both countries, but 14% of women in Nigeria and 6% in Kenya obtained injectables from drug shops or pharmacies. Harder-to-reach populations were the most likely to choose these outlets to obtain their short-acting methods. For example, among users of these methods in Nigeria, younger women (
      PubDate: 2016-12-28T09:32:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-16-00197
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
  • Referral Systems to Integrate Health and Economic Strengthening Services
           for People with HIV: A Qualitative Assessment in Malawi

    • Authors: Clinton Sears; Zach Andersson, Meredith Cann
      Pages: 610 - 625
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackground:Supporting the diverse needs of people living with HIV (PLHIV) can help reduce the individual and structural barriers they face in adhering to antiretroviral treatment (ART). The Livelihoods and Food Security Technical Assistance II (LIFT) project sought to improve adherence in Malawi by establishing 2 referral systems linking community-based economic strengthening and livelihoods services to clinical health facilities. One referral system in Balaka district, started in October 2013, connected clients to more than 20 types of services while the other simplified approach in Kasungu and Lilongwe districts, started in July 2014, connected PLHIV attending HIV and nutrition support facilities directly to community savings groups.Methods:From June to July 2015, LIFT visited referral sites in Balaka, Kasungu, and Lilongwe districts to collect qualitative data on referral utility, the perceived association of referrals with client and household health and vulnerability, and the added value of the referral system as perceived by network member providers. We interviewed a random sample of 152 adult clients (60 from Balaka, 57 from Kasungu, and 35 from Lilongwe) who had completed their referral. We also conducted 2 focus group discussions per district with network providers.Findings: Clients in all 3 districts indicated their ability to save money had improved after receiving a referral, although the percentage was higher among clients in the simplified Kasungu and Lilongwe model than the more complex Balaka model (85.6% vs. 56.0%, respectively). Nearly 70% of all clients interviewed had HIV infection; 72.7% of PLHIV in Balaka and 95.7% of PLHIV in Kasungu and Lilongwe credited referrals for helping them stay on their ART. After the referral, 76.0% of clients in Balaka and 92.3% of clients in Kasungu and Lilongwe indicated they would be willing to spend their savings on health costs. The more diverse referral network and use of an mHealth app to manage data in Balaka hindered provider uptake of the system, while the simpler system in Kasungu and Lilongwe, which included only 2 referral options and use of a paper-based referral tool, seemed simpler for the providers to manage.Conclusions:Participation in the referral systems was perceived positively by clients and providers in both models, but more so in Kasungu and Lilongwe where the referral process was simpler. Future referral networks should consider limiting the number of service options included in the network and simplify referral tools to the extent possible to facilitate uptake among network providers.
      PubDate: 2016-12-28T09:32:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-16-00195
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
  • Social Mobilization and Community Engagement Central to the Ebola Response
           in West Africa: Lessons for Future Public Health Emergencies

    • Authors: Amaya M Gillespie; Rafael Obregon, Rania El Asawi, Catherine Richey, Erma Manoncourt, Kshiitij Joshi, Savita Naqvi, Ade Pouye, Naqibullah Safi, Ketan Chitnis, Sabeeha Quereshi
      Pages: 626 - 646
      Abstract: ABSTRACTFollowing the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern regarding the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in July 2014, UNICEF was asked to co-lead, in coordination with WHO and the ministries of health of affected countries, the communication and social mobilization component—which UNICEF refers to as communication for development (C4D)—of the Ebola response. For the first time in an emergency setting, C4D was formally incorporated into each country's national response, alongside more typical components such as supplies and logistics, surveillance, and clinical care. This article describes the lessons learned about social mobilization and community engagement in the emergency response to the Ebola outbreak, with a particular focus on UNICEF's C4D work in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. The lessons emerged through an assessment conducted by UNICEF using 4 methods: a literature review of key documents, meeting reports, and other articles; structured discussions conducted in June 2015 and October 2015 with UNICEF and civil society experts; an electronic survey, launched in October and November 2015, with staff from government, the UN, or any partner organization who worked on Ebola (N = 53); and key informant interviews (N = 5). After triangulating the findings from all data sources, we distilled lessons under 7 major domains: (1) strategy and decentralization: develop a comprehensive C4D strategy with communities at the center and decentralized programming to facilitate flexibility and adaptation to the local context; (2) coordination: establish C4D leadership with the necessary authority to coordinate between partners and enforce use of standard operating procedures as a central coordination and quality assurance tool; (3) entering and engaging communities: invest in key communication channels (such as radio) and trusted local community members; (4) messaging: adapt messages and strategies continually as patterns of the epidemic change over time; (5) partnerships: invest in strategic partnerships with community, religious leaders, journalists, radio stations, and partner organizations; (6) capacity building: support a network of local and international professionals with capacity for C4D who can be deployed rapidly; (7) data and performance monitoring: establish clear C4D process and impact indicators and strive for real-time data analysis and rapid feedback to communities and authorities to inform decision making. Ultimately, communication, community engagement, and social mobilization need to be formally placed within the global humanitarian response architecture with proper funding to effectively support future public health emergencies, which are as much a social as a health phenomenon.
      PubDate: 2016-12-28T09:32:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-16-00226
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
  • A Review of 10 Years of Vasectomy Programming and Research in Low-Resource

    • Authors: Dominick Shattuck; Brian Perry, Catherine Packer, Dawn Chin Quee
      Pages: 647 - 660
      Abstract: ABSTRACTVasectomy is a highly effective and safe contraceptive method for couples who want to stop childbearing, but only 2.4% of men around the world use this method. We conducted an extensive review of the vasectomy research literature and programmatic reports, published between April 2005 and April 2015, to synthesize barriers and facilitators to vasectomy adoption. Of the more than 230 documents initially retrieved in our search, we ultimately included 75 documents in our review and synthesized the findings according to the Supply–Enabling Environment–Demand (SEED) Programming Model. Regarding promoting demand for vasectomy services, we found there was a general lack of awareness about the method among both men and women, which often fueled erroneous assumptions about how vasectomy affects men. Several types of programmatic activities directly addressed knowledge gaps and negative misperceptions, including community-based and mass media communications, employer-based promotion, and group counseling. For supply of services, the lack of or inaccurate knowledge about vasectomy was also prevalent among providers, particularly among community-based health workers. Programmatic activities to improve service delivery included the use of evidence-based vasectomy techniques such as no-scalpel vasectomy, whole-site trainings, task shifting, cascade training, and mobile outreach. Finally, programmatic approaches to building a more enabling environment included engagement of governments and other community and religious leaders as well as campaigns with gender transformative messaging that countered common myths and encouraged men's positive engagement in family planning and reproductive health. In summary, a successful vasectomy program is comprised of the mutually reinforcing components of continual demand for services and access to and supply of well-trained providers. In addition, there is an underlying need for enabling policies within the cultural and gender environments that extend beyond vasectomy and include men not just as default partners of female family planning clients but as equal beneficiaries of family planning and reproductive health programs in their own right. Accelerating progress toward meaningful integration of vasectomy into a comprehensive contraceptive method mix is only possible when political and financial will are aligned and support the logistical and promotional activities of a male reproductive health agenda.
      PubDate: 2016-12-28T09:32:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-16-00235
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
  • Mobile-Based Nutrition and Child Health Monitoring to Inform Program
           Development: An Experience From Liberia

    • Authors: Agnes Guyon; Ariella Bock, Laura Buback, Barbara Knittel
      Pages: 661 - 670
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackground:Implementing complex nutrition and other public health projects and tracking nutrition interventions, such as women's diet and supplementation and infant and young child feeding practices, requires reliable routine data to identify potential program gaps and to monitor trends in behaviors in real time. However, current monitoring and evaluation practices generally do not create an environment for this real-time tracking. This article describes the development and application of a mobile-based nutrition and health monitoring system, which collected monitoring data on project activities, women's nutrition, and infant and young child feeding practices in real time.Program Description:The Liberia Agricultural Upgrading Nutrition and Child Health (LAUNCH) project implemented a nutrition and health monitoring system between April 2012 and June 2014. The LAUNCH project analyzed project monitoring and outcome data from the system and shared selected behavioral and programmatic indicators with program managers through a short report, which later evolved into a visual data dashboard, during program-update meetings. The project designed protocols to ensure representativeness of program participants.Findings:LAUNCH made programmatic adjustments in response to findings from the monitoring system; these changes were then reflected in subsequent quarterly trends, indicating that the availability of timely data allowed for the project to react quickly to issues and adapt the program appropriately. Such issues included lack of participation in community groups and insufficient numbers of food distribution points. Likewise, the system captured trends in key outcome indicators such as breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, linking them to project activities and external factors including seasonal changes and national health campaigns.Conclusion:Digital data collection platforms can play a vital role in improving routine programmatic functions. Fixed gathering locations such as food distribution points represent an opportunity to easily access program participants and enable managers to identify strengths and weaknesses in project implementation. For programs that track individuals over time, a mobile tool combined with a strong database can greatly improve efficiency and data visibility and reduce resource leakages.
      PubDate: 2016-12-28T09:32:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-16-00189
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
  • Web-Based Quality Assurance Process Drives Improvements in Obstetric
           Ultrasound in 5 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    • Authors: Jonathan O Swanson; David Plotner, Holly L Franklin, David L Swanson, Victor Lokomba Bolamba, Adrien Lokangaka, Irma Sayury Pineda, Lester Figueroa, Ana Garces, David Muyodi, Fabian Esamai, Nancy Kanaiza, Waseem Mirza, Farnaz Naqvi, Sarah Saleem, Musaku Mwenechanya, Melody Chiwila, Dorothy Hamsumonde, Elizabeth M McClure, Robert L Goldenberg, Robert O Nathan
      Pages: 675 - 683
      Abstract: ABSTRACTHigh quality is important in medical imaging, yet in many geographic areas, highly skilled sonographers are in short supply. Advances in Internet capacity along with the development of reliable portable ultrasounds have created an opportunity to provide centralized remote quality assurance (QA) for ultrasound exams performed at rural sites worldwide. We sought to harness these advances by developing a web-based tool to facilitate QA activities for newly trained sonographers who were taking part in a cluster randomized trial investigating the role of limited obstetric ultrasound to improve pregnancy outcomes in 5 low- and middle-income countries. We were challenged by connectivity issues, by country-specific needs for website usability, and by the overall need for a high-throughput system. After systematically addressing these needs, the resulting QA website helped drive ultrasound quality improvement across all 5 countries. It now offers the potential for adoption by future ultrasound- or imaging-based global health initiatives.
      PubDate: 2016-12-28T09:32:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-16-00156
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
  • Qualitative Assessment of the Application of a Discrete Choice Experiment
           With Community Health Workers in Uganda: Aligning Incentives With

    • Authors: Aurelie Brunie; Mario Chen, Angela Akol
      Pages: 684 - 693
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackground:Maximizing the benefits of community health worker (CHW) programs requires strategies for improving motivation, performance, and retention. Discrete choice experiments (DCE) are increasingly used to inform policy response to health workforce shortages in rural areas, and may be of value in the context of CHW programs. Participants are presented with pairs of hypothetical jobs that are described by job attributes with varying levels and are asked what their preferred job is within each pair. Responses are then analyzed quantitatively to obtain information on what attributes are important to participants. We conducted a qualitative assessment to examine the appropriateness and validity of applying a DCE to a new population of CHWs with lower literacy.Methods:In 2011, we conducted a mixed-method study with CHWs in Uganda, consisting of 183 surveys and 43 in-depth interviews (IDIs). The DCE was administered to both survey and IDI participants. This article reports on the qualitative assessment of the implementation of the DCE. We compare DCE responses between survey and IDI participants to determine whether administering the DCE in a qualitative (IDI) context altered responses. We then present additional information collected on CHWs' decision-making processes and their experiences with the DCE in the IDIs.Results:Choices made by IDI participants were consistent with the choices made by survey participants. In-depth exploration of CHWs' observations in answering the DCE suggest that, overall, CHWs comprehended the DCE exercise and made reasoned choices. However, the data revealed some level of cognitive difficulty and highlighted some design and implementation challenges that are important to consider, particularly when applying a DCE to populations with lower literacy. These include the need to keep the number of attributes small; to choose levels that are realistic yet show sufficient range; and to clearly define attributes and their levels.Conclusion:DCEs can be an appropriate approach with CHWs but require careful design and implementation.
      PubDate: 2016-12-28T09:32:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-16-00070
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
  • An Implementer's Perspective on Vouchers for Sexual and Reproductive
           Health Services

    • Authors: Matthew Wilson; Caitlin Mazzilli
      Pages: 694 - 695
      PubDate: 2016-12-28T09:32:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-16-00373
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
  • Zika Travel Policies May Reduce Women's Leadership in Global Health

    • Authors: Emma Richardson
      Pages: 696 - 697
      PubDate: 2016-12-28T09:32:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-16-00282
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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