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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1313 journals)
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HEALTH AND SAFETY (538 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 229)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access  
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access  
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Notions     Open Access  
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Healthy-Mu Journal     Open Access  
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Global Health : Science and Practice
  [SJR: 0.897]   [H-I: 5]   [5 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2169-575X - ISSN (Online) 2169-575X
   Published by U.S. Agency for International Development Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Modeling Outputs Can Be Valuable When Uncertainty Is Appropriately
           Acknowledged, but Misleading When Not

    • Authors: Steve Hodgins
      Pages: 530 - 533
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T14:38:26-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-17-00444
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • Extended Effectiveness of the Etonogestrel-Releasing Contraceptive Implant
           and the 20 {micro}g Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System for 2
           Years Beyond U.S. Food and Drug Administration Product Labeling

    • Authors: Moazzam Ali; Luis Bahamondes, Sihem Bent Landoulsi
      Pages: 534 - 539
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T14:38:26-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-17-00296
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • From Research to Policy: The WHO Experience With Developing Guidelines on
           the Potential Risk of HIV Acquisition and Progestogen-Only Contraception

    • Authors: Leo Han; Eva Patil, Nancy Kidula, Mary Lyn Gaffield, Petrus S. Steyn
      Pages: 540 - 546
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T14:38:26-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-17-00278
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • Interventions for Preventing Unintended, Rapid Repeat Pregnancy Among
           Adolescents: A Review of the Evidence and Lessons From High-Quality

    • Authors: Maureen Norton; Venkatraman Chandra-Mouli, Cate Lane
      Pages: 547 - 570
      Abstract: Background:In 2017, of the 22.5 million parenting adolescents (ages 15–19) in 60 countries, approximately 4.1 million gave birth to a second or higher-order child. Adolescent pregnancy in general, and rapid repeat pregnancies specifically, expose young mothers and their children to multiple health and socioeconomic risks. The purpose of this article is to review the impact of interventions designed to prevent unintended, rapid repeat pregnancies among adolescents, including those aimed at changing norms to postpone “intended” closely spaced pregnancies to promote healthy spacing.Methods:We searched PubMed and other databases for evaluations of interventions published in English from 1990 through 2016. We included evaluations that assessed a programmatic intervention specifically designed to prevent rapid repeat pregnancy (occurring less than 24 months after the index birth) or birth (occurring less than 33 months after the index birth), or that reported on contraceptive continuation for at least 2 years. We first assessed the quality of the evaluations, then ranked the interventions based on the quality of the evaluation and the level of impact on repeat pregnancy or birth (statistically significant impact, positive trends but not statistically significant, or no impact) to identify the most effective interventions. Finally, we extracted program design and implementation lessons from the interventions included in the high-quality evaluations.Results:Our search identified 2,187 articles, of which 40 evaluations met the inclusion criteria (24=high quality, 14=moderate quality, 2=less rigorous). We found 14 high-quality evaluations in which the intervention achieved a statistically significant impact on repeat pregnancy or birth. These interventions fell into 5 broad categories: (1) contraceptive services and information, with proactive monitoring of contraceptive use and outreach to families; (2) postpartum contraceptive counseling and services provided soon after delivery; (3) activities that help adolescents improve planning skills, including preparing contraceptive plans; (4) social and behavioral change activities that help adolescents understand the role contraception can play in determining positive life outcomes, and the implications of their reproductive health decisions for their future; and (5) activities that provide mentoring, goal setting, and motivation.Conclusion:Effective interventions that prevent rapid adolescent childbearing link clinical contraceptive services with non-clinical activities that build planning skills, enhance understanding of the role that contraceptives can play in determining positive life outcomes, and provide mentoring and goal setting. Recognizing potentially synergistic effects, we recommend testing various combinations of these interventions, with access to contraception as the foundational activity.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T14:38:26-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-17-00131
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • Maternal and Neonatal Directed Assessment of Technologies (MANDATE):
           Methods and Assumptions for a Predictive Model for Maternal, Fetal, and
           Neonatal Mortality Interventions

    • Authors: Bonnie Jones-Hepler; Katelin Moran, Jennifer Griffin, Elizabeth M McClure, Doris Rouse, Carolina Barbosa, Emily MacGuire, Elizabeth Robbins, Robert L Goldenberg
      Pages: 571 - 580
      Abstract: Maternal, fetal, and neonatal mortality disproportionately impact low- and middle-income countries, and many current interventions that can save lives are often not available nor appropriate for these settings. Maternal and Neonatal Directed Assessment of Technologies (MANDATE) is a mathematical model designed to evaluate which interventions have the greatest potential to save maternal, fetal, and neonatal lives saved in sub-Saharan Africa and India. The MANDATE decision-support model includes interventions such as preventive interventions, diagnostics, treatments, and transfers to different care settings to compare the relative impact of different interventions on mortality outcomes. The model is calibrated and validated based on historical and current rates of disease in sub-Saharan Africa and India. In addition, each maternal, fetal, or newborn condition included in MANDATE considers disease rates specific to sub-Saharan Africa and India projected to intervention rates similar to those seen in high-income countries. Limitations include variance in quality of data to inform the estimates and generalizability of findings of the effectiveness of the interventions. The model serves as a valuable resource to compare the potential impact of multiple interventions, which could help reduce maternal, fetal, and neonatal mortality in low-resource settings. The user should be aware of assumptions in evaluating the model and interpret results accordingly.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T14:38:26-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-16-00174
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • Re-Evaluating the Possible Increased Risk of HIV Acquisition With
           Progestin-Only Injectables Versus Maternal Mortality and Life Expectancy
           in Africa: A Decision Analysis

    • Authors: Maria Isabel Rodriguez; Mary E Gaffield, Leo Han, Aaron B Caughey
      Pages: 581 - 591
      Abstract: Objective:The association between increased risk of HIV acquisition and use of progestin-only injectables (POIs) is controversial. We sought to compare the competing risks of maternal mortality and HIV acquisition with use of POIs using updated data on this association and considering an expanded number of African countries.Methods:We designed a decision-analytic model to compare the benefits and risks of POIs on the competing risks of maternal mortality and HIV acquisition on life expectancy for women in 9 African countries. For the purposes of this analysis, we assumed that POIs were associated with an increased risk of HIV acquisition (hazards ratio of 1.4). Our primary outcome was life-years and the population was women of reproductive age (15–49 years) in these countries, who did not have HIV infection and were not currently planning a pregnancy. Probabilities for each variable included in the model, such as HIV incidence, access to antiretroviral therapy, and contraceptive prevalence, were obtained from the literature. Univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses were performed to check model assumptions and explore how uncertainty in estimates would affect the model results.Results:In all countries, discontinuation of POIs without replacement with an equally effective contraceptive method would result in decreased life expectancy due to a significant increase in maternal deaths. While the removal of POIs from the market would result in the prevention of some new cases of HIV, the life-years gained from this are mitigated due to the marked increase in neonatal HIV cases and maternal mortality with associated life-years lost. In all countries, except South Africa, typical-use contraceptive failure rates with POIs would need to exceed 39%, and more than half of women currently using POIs would have to switch to another effective method, for the removal of POIs to demonstrate an increase in total life-years.Conclusion:Women living in sub-Saharan Africa cope with both high rates of HIV infection and high rates of pregnancy-related maternal death relative to the rest of the world. Based on the most current estimates, our model suggests that removal of POI contraception from the market without effective and acceptable contraception replacement would have a net negative effect on maternal health, life expectancy, and mortality under a variety of scenarios.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T14:38:26-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-17-00243
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • Improving Contraceptive Access, Use, and Method Mix by Task Sharing
           Implanon Insertion to Frontline Health Workers: The Experience of the
           Integrated Family Health Program in Ethiopia

    • Authors: Yewondwossen Tilahun; Candace Lew, Bekele Belayihun, Kidest Lulu Hagos, Mengistu Asnake
      Pages: 592 - 602
      Abstract: In 2009, the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health launched an Implanon scale-up program with the goal of improving the availability of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods at the community level. The Integrated Family Health Program (IFHP) supported the ministry to train Health Extension Workers (HEWs), a cadre of frontline health workers, on Implanon insertion. Prior to this task-sharing initiative, HEWs were only permitted to provide short-acting contraceptive methods; Implanon insertion services were only available at higher-level health facilities, such as health centers and above. To train HEWs on Implanon insertion, IFHP followed a phase-based approach, which consisted of a learning phase (July to September 2009) that transitioned into a scale-up phase (December 2009 to December 2015). Training began with a series of service delivery-based training of trainers (TOT) sessions for clinical care providers selected from health centers followed by rollout trainings on Implanon insertion for HEWs selected from health posts. Immediately after the Implanon rollout trainings, each trained HEW was provided with consumables and Implanon implants to enable them to initiate the Implanon services at their respective health post. To reinforce knowledge and skills, we conducted mentoring visits and performance review meetings. From July 2009 to September 2015, 98 TOT sessions trained 2,328 clinicians and 320 rollout trainings reached 8,436 HEWs. A total of 1,382,318 women received contraceptive services through any IFHP-supported service delivery point, 1,273,990 of whom received an Implanon implant. The IFHP approach proved to be a successful model for increasing access to contraceptive methods in the community, and the program supported the integration of Implanon services into the existing public health service delivery system.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T14:38:26-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-17-00215
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • Equal Opportunity, Equal Work: Increasing Women's Participation in the
           U.S. President's Malaria Initiative Africa Indoor Residual Spraying

    • Authors: Abigail Donner; Allison Belemvire, Ben Johns, Keith Mangam, Elana Fiekowsky, Jayleen Gunn, Mary Hayden, Kacey Ernst
      Pages: 603 - 616
      Abstract: Background:One of the primary control measures for malaria transmission is indoor residual spraying (IRS). Historically, few women have worked in IRS programs, despite the income-generating potential. Increasing women's roles in IRS requires understanding the barriers to women's participation and implementing measures to address them. The U.S. President's Malaria Initiative (PMI) Africa Indoor Residual Spraying (AIRS) Project is the largest implementer of IRS globally. To address gender inequity in IRS operations, PMI AIRS assessed the barriers to the participation of women and developed and implemented policies to address these barriers.Methods:The PMI AIRS Project initially identified barriers through a series of informal assessments with key stakeholders. PMI AIRS then implemented a series of gender-guided policies, starting in 2015, in Benin, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Madagascar, Mozambique, Rwanda, Senegal, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The policies included adapting physical work environments to ensure privacy for women; ensuring the safety of women in the workplace; guaranteeing safety and job security of women during pregnancy; and encouraging qualified women to apply for supervisory positions. The project collected routine programmatic data on staff, spray quality, and spray efficiency; data from 2012 through the end of 2015 were analyzed (up through 1 year after implementation of the gender policies). In addition, PMI AIRS conducted surveys in 2015, 2016, and 2017 before and after the spray campaigns in 4 countries to determine changes in gender norms among spray operators through questions about decision making and agency.Results:The PMI AIRS Project increased women's employment with the program. Specifically, women's employment increased overall from 23% in 2012 to 29% in 2015, with a 2015 range from 16% (Mali) to 40% (Madagascar). Growth among supervisor roles was even stronger, with the percentage of women in supervisory roles increasing from 17% in 2012 to 46% in 2015, with a 2015 range from 9% (Mali) to 50% (Madagascar). While the data showed that in most countries women sprayed fewer houses per day than men in 2015, the differences were not meaningful, ranging from 0.1 to 1.2 households per day. Gender norms shifted toward more egalitarian views in 2 of the 4 countries with survey data.Conclusion:Preliminary results suggest the PMI AIRS Project gender policies are increasing the engagement of women in all aspects of spray operations, especially in supervisory roles. Expansion of these policies to all countries implementing IRS and to malaria control implementation more broadly is recommended.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T14:38:26-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-17-00189
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • Jordan's 2002 to 2012 Fertility Stall and Parallel USAID Investments in
           Family Planning: Lessons From an Assessment to Guide Future Programming

    • Authors: Esther Spindler; Nisreen Bitar, Julie Solo, Elizabeth Menstell, Dominick Shattuck
      Pages: 617 - 629
      Abstract: Health practitioners, researchers, and donors are stumped about Jordan's stalled fertility rate, which has stagnated between 3.7 and 3.5 children per woman from 2002 to 2012, above the national replacement level of 2.1. This stall paralleled United States Agency for International Development (USAID) funding investments in family planning in Jordan, triggering an assessment of USAID family planning programming in Jordan. This article describes the methods, results, and implications of the programmatic assessment. Methods included an extensive desk review of USAID programs in Jordan and 69 interviews with reproductive health stakeholders. We explored reasons for fertility stagnation in Jordan's total fertility rate (TFR) and assessed the effects of USAID programming on family planning outcomes over the same time period. The assessment results suggest that the increased use of less effective methods, in particular withdrawal and condoms, are contributing to Jordan's TFR stall. Jordan's limited method mix, combined with strong sociocultural determinants around reproduction and fertility desires, have contributed to low contraceptive effectiveness in Jordan. Over the same time period, USAID contributions toward increasing family planning access and use, largely focused on service delivery programs, were extensive. Examples of effective initiatives, among others, include task shifting of IUD insertion services to midwives due to a shortage of female physicians. However, key challenges to improved use of family planning services include limited government investments in family planning programs, influential service provider behaviors and biases that limit informed counseling and choice, pervasive strong social norms of family size and fertility, and limited availability of different contraceptive methods. In contexts where sociocultural norms and a limited method mix are the dominant barriers toward improved family planning use, increased national government investments toward synchronized service delivery and social and behavior change activities may be needed to catalyze national-level improvements in family planning outcomes.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T14:38:26-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-17-00191
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • Food Security and Nutrition Outcomes of Farmer Field Schools in Eastern
           Democratic Republic of the Congo

    • Authors: Shannon Doocy; Sarah Cohen, Jillian Emerson, Joseph Menakuntuala, the Jenga Jamaa II Study Team, Jozimo Santos Rocha
      Pages: 630 - 643
      Abstract: Background:Food and nutrition security in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo are threatened by political instability and chronic poverty. The Jenga Jamaa II project, implemented between 2011 and 2016 in South Kivu Province, aimed to improve household food security and child nutritional status using various intervention strategies, including farmer field school (FFS) programs.Objective:To characterize the changes in agricultural production techniques, household food security, and child nutritional status associated with participation in FFS programs.Methods:We used a community-matched design to select FFS intervention and control households from 3 health zones in which the project was operating. Data on food security (Household Dietary Diversity Score [HDDS] and Household Food Insecurity Access Scale [HFIAS]) and child anthropometry were collected semiannually for 3.5 years in both groups. Additional data on agricultural practices were collected annually in the FFS group only. Focus groups with FFS staff and beneficiaries were conducted in the final project year. Statistical analyses included basic descriptive statistics such as paired t tests and analysis of covariance; regression models using a bootstrap were applied to generate P values and confidence intervals while accounting for differences between groups.Results:The study enrolled 388 FFS beneficiaries and their households in the intervention group and 324 non-FFS households in the control group. FFS participants reported increasing the number of different agricultural techniques they used by an average of 2.7 techniques over the project period, from 5.1 in 2013 to 7.9 in 2016 (P
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T14:38:26-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-17-00203
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • What Factors Contribute to Postabortion Contraceptive Uptake By Young
           Women' A Program Evaluation in 10 Countries in Asia and sub-Saharan

    • Authors: Janie Benson; Kathryn Andersen, Joan Healy, Dalia Brahmi
      Pages: 644 - 657
      Abstract: Background:Unintended pregnancy disproportionately affects young women and adolescents in developing countries. The abortion care setting offers a unique opportunity for adolescents and young women to access a full range of contraceptive services. This evaluation assesses the factors that influence contraceptive uptake among adolescents and young women seeking abortion care in health facilities.Methods:Following provider training, we analyzed client log book data from 921,918 abortion care cases in 4,881 health facilities in 10 countries from July 2011 through June 2015. Log book data included client characteristics such as age, pregnancy gestation, type of service provided, and contraceptive method provision. Health facility characteristics were obtained through administration of a site baseline form prior to initiation of programmatic support by Ipas, an international NGO. Programmatic support included integration of postabortion contraceptive services with abortion care, improvements in commodities logistics, health worker training, upgraded recordkeeping, and post-training follow-up with providers and sites to solve problems and improve performance. We analyzed abortion cases by 3 age categories, ≤19 years, 20–24 years, and ≥25 years, and conducted unadjusted and adjusted analyses for the primary outcomes of interest: receipt of a contraceptive method at the time of care; type of contraceptive method selected; and the client, clinical care, and facility characteristics associated with contraceptive uptake.Results:Overall, 77% of women left the facility with a contraceptive method. The majority (84%) of contraceptive acceptors selected a short-acting method, especially oral contraceptives. In the adjusted model, women ≤19 were less likely to choose a method than women 25 years or older (odds ratio [OR], 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 0.96). Adolescents and young women were also significantly less likely to choose a long-acting, reversible contraceptive than those ages 25 or older (≤19 years: OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.67; 20–24 years: OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.73). Women treated by an Ipas-trained provider were significantly more likely to select postabortion contraception than women treated by non-Ipas-trained providers (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.57).Conclusions:Programmatic support to health systems, including provider training in contraceptive counseling and provision, was associated with women's higher acceptance of postabortion contraception. However, gaps remained for young women, especially adolescents, who were significantly less likely than older women to accept postabortion contraception. Health systems and facilities should pay increased attention to meeting the contraceptive needs of young women and adolescents.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T14:38:26-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-17-00085
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • Harmonizing Methods for Estimating the Impact of Contraceptive Use on
           Unintended Pregnancy, Abortion, and Maternal Health

    • Authors: Ian Askew; Michelle Weinberger, Aisha Dasgupta, Jacqueline Darroch, Ellen Smith, John Stover, Melanie Yahner
      Pages: 658 - 667
      Abstract: Estimates of the potential impacts of contraceptive use on averting unintended pregnancies, total and unsafe abortions, maternal deaths, and newborn, infant, and child deaths provide evidence of the value of investments in family planning programs and thus are critically important for policy makers, donors, and advocates alike. Several research teams have independently developed mathematical models that estimate the number of adverse health outcomes averted due to contraceptive use. However, each modeling approach was designed for different purposes, and as such the methodological assumptions, data inputs, and mathematical algorithms initially used in each model differed; consequently, the models did not produce comparable estimates for the same outcome indicators. To address this, a series of expert group meetings took place in which 5 models—Adding it Up, Impact 2, ImpactNow, Reality Check, and FamPlan/Lives Saved Tool (LiST)—were reviewed and harmonized where possible. The group identified the main reasons for the inconsistencies in the estimates generated by the models for each of the adverse health outcome indicators. The group then worked together to align the methodologies for estimating numbers of unintended pregnancies, abortions, and maternal deaths averted due to contraceptive use, and reviewed the challenges with estimating the impact of contraceptive use on newborn, infant, and child deaths, including the lack of a conceptually clear pathway and rigorous evidence. The assumption that most influenced harmonization was the comparison pregnancy rate used by the models to estimate the counterfactual scenario—that is, if women who are currently using contraception were not using a method, how many would become pregnant' All the models now base this on the number of unintended pregnancies among women with unmet contraceptive need, bringing the estimates for unintended pregnancies, total and unsafe abortion, and maternal deaths much closer together. The agreed approaches have already been adopted by the Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) initiative and Track20, a project that supports FP2020. The experts will continue to update their models collaboratively to ensure that the most current estimation methodologies and data available are used. Valid and reliable methodologies for estimating these impacts from family planning are critically important, not only for advocacy to sustain resource allocation commitments but also to enable measurement and tracking of global development indicators. Conflicting estimates can be counterproductive to generating support for family planning programs, and this harmonization process has created a more unified voice for quantifying the benefits of family planning.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T14:38:26-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-17-00121
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • An NGO-Implemented Community-Clinic Health Worker Approach to Providing
           Long-Term Care for Hypertension in a Remote Region of Southern India

    • Authors: Sujatha Sankaran; Prema S Ravi, Yichen Ethel Wu, Sharan Shanabogue, Sangeetha Ashok, Kaylan Agnew, Margaret C Fang, Raman A Khanna, Madhavi Dandu, James D Harrison
      Pages: 668 - 677
      Abstract: Poor blood pressure control results in tremendous morbidity and mortality in India where the leading cause of death among adults is from coronary heart disease. Despite having little formal education, community health workers (CHWs) are integral to successful public health interventions in India and other low- and middle-income countries that have a shortage of trained health professionals. Training CHWs to screen for and manage chronic hypertension, with support from trained clinicians, offers an excellent opportunity for effecting systemwide change in hypertension-related burden of disease. In this article, we describe the development of a program that trained CHWs between 2014 and 2015 in the tribal region of the Sittilingi Valley in southern India, to identify hypertensive patients in the community, refer them for diagnosis and initial management in a physician-staffed clinic, and provide them with sustained lifestyle interventions and medications over multiple visits. We found that after 2 years, the CHWs had screened 7,176 people over age 18 for hypertension, 1,184 (16.5%) of whom were screened as hypertensive. Of the 1,184 patients screened as hypertensive, 898 (75.8%) had achieved blood pressure control, defined as a systolic blood pressure less than 140 and a diastolic blood pressure less than 90 sustained over 3 consecutive visits. While all of the 24 trained CHWs reported confidence in checking blood pressure with a manual blood pressure cuff, 4 of the 24 CHWs reported occasional difficulty documenting blood pressure values because they were unable to write numbers properly. They compensated by asking other CHWs or members of their community to help with documentation. Our experience and findings suggest that a CHW blood pressure screening system linked to a central clinic can be a promising avenue for improving hypertension control rates in low- and middle-income countries.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T14:38:26-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-17-00192
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • More Than Bar Codes: Integrating Global Standards-Based Bar Code
           Technology Into National Health Information Systems in Ethiopia and
           Pakistan to Increase End-to-End Supply Chain Visibility

    • Authors: Liuichi Hara; Ramy Guirguis, Keith Hummel, Monica Villanueva
      Pages: 678 - 685
      Abstract: The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) DELIVER PROJECT work together to strengthen public health commodity supply chains by standardizing bar coding under a single set of global standards. From 2015, UNFPA and USAID collaborated to pilot test how tracking and tracing of bar coded health products could be operationalized in the public health supply chains of Ethiopia and Pakistan and inform the ecosystem needed to begin full implementation. Pakistan had been using proprietary bar codes for inventory management of contraceptive supplies but transitioned to global standards-based bar codes during the pilot. The transition allowed Pakistan to leverage the original bar codes that were preprinted by global manufacturers as opposed to printing new bar codes at the central warehouse. However, barriers at lower service delivery levels prevented full realization of end-to-end data visibility. Key barriers at the district level were the lack of a digital inventory management system and absence of bar codes at the primary-level packaging level, such as single blister packs. The team in Ethiopia developed an open-sourced smartphone application that allowed the team to scan bar codes using the mobile phone's camera and to push the captured data to the country's data mart. Real-time tracking and tracing occurred from the central warehouse to the Addis Ababa distribution hub and to 2 health centers. These pilots demonstrated that standardized product identification and bar codes can significantly improve accuracy over manual stock counts while significantly streamlining the stock-taking process, resulting in efficiencies. The pilots also showed that bar coding technology by itself is not sufficient to ensure data visibility. Rather, by using global standards for identification and data capture of pharmaceuticals and medical devices, and integrating the data captured into national and global tracking systems, countries are able to lay the foundation for interoperability and ensure a harmonized language between global health stakeholders.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T14:38:26-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-16-00350
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • High Background Congenital Microcephaly in Rural Guatemala: Implications
           for Neonatal Congenital Zika Virus Infection Screening

    • Authors: Anne-Marie Rick; Gretchen Domek, Maureen Cunningham, Daniel Olson, Molly M Lamb, Andrea Jimenez-Zambrano, Gretchen Heinrichs, Stephen Berman, Edwin J Asturias
      Pages: 686 - 696
      Abstract: Background:Congenital microcephaly is the result of a disturbance in early brain development and can have multiple etiologies. Establishing background prevalence of microcephaly in Zika virus (ZIKV)-affected areas is important for improving identification of ZIKV-affected newborns. However, to date, there is limited consistent guidance for the accurate identification of microcephaly in infants of unknown gestational age, a common concern in low- and middle-income countries.Methods:Occipital frontal head circumference (OFC) obtained from infants (0–13 days) of unknown gestational age at enrollment in a pregnancy registry in rural Guatemala from August 2014 to March 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Trained community health nurses recorded anthropometry in an online database. In April 2015, ZIKV was identified in this population. Gestational age was approximated in 2 ways: presumed term and estimated using z-score of zero for height on modified Fenton growth curves. After which, z-scores for OFC and weight were obtained. Microcephaly and microcephaly background prevalence were estimated using 7 established microcephaly case definitions from national and international organizations and 3 proposed definitions using Fenton growth curves. Independent associations with microcephaly and OFC, including relationship with date of birth, were assessed with prevalence ratios and linear regression.Results:For 296 infants, the mean OFC was 33.1 cm (range, 29.5 to 37 cm) and the mean OFC z-score was −0.68. Depending on case definition, 13 to 125 infants were classified as having microcephaly (background prevalence 439 to 4,223 per 10,000 live births), and 1 to 9 infants were classified as having severe microcephaly (
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T14:38:26-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-17-00116
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • Authors' Response to Editorial: Maternal Death Surveillance and Response:
           A Tall Order for Effectiveness in Resource-Poor Settings

    • Authors: Helen Smith; Charles Ameh, Pamela Godia, Judith Maua, Kigen Bartilol, Patrick Amoth, Matthews Mathai, Nynke van den Broek
      Pages: 697 - 698
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T14:38:26-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-17-00407
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • Corrigendum: Igras et al., Systems Approach to Monitoring and Evaluation
           Guides Scale Up of the Standard Days Method of Family Planning in Rwanda

    • Authors: Susan Igras; Irit Sinai, Marie Mukabatsinda, Fidele Ngabo, Victoria Jennings, Rebecka Lundgren
      Pages: 699 - 699
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T14:38:26-08:00
      DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-17-00359
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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