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HEALTH AND SAFETY (542 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 212)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Innovación en Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access  
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Notions     Open Access  
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Healthcare Technology Letters     Open Access  
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Public Health     Open Access  
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals
  [SJR: 0.606]   [H-I: 19]   [8 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1036-1073 - ISSN (Online) 2201-1617
   Published by RMIT Publishing Homepage  [400 journals]
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Health promotion futures
    • Abstract: Binns, Colin; Howat, Peter; Barnett, Lisa; Smith, James A; Jancey, Jonine
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 18:26:14 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Are motivational signs to increase stair use a thing
           of the past': A multi-building study
    • Abstract: Engelen, Lina; Gale, Joanne; Chau, Josephine Y; Bauman, Adrian
      Issue addressed: Only half of Australia's adult population is sufficiently physical active. One method thought to increase incidental physical activity at work is the use of stair-promoting interventions. Stairs are readily available and stair climbing is considered vigorous physical activity. Motivational signs have been extensively and effectively trialled to increase stair use, but are they suitable for contemporary populations'

      Methods: Participants were occupants of three selected University of Sydney buildings using the elevators or stairs. Infrared people counters were installed to monitor stair and elevator use for 24 h/day during two baseline weeks, followed by two intervention weeks, where motivational and directional signs were placed at points of choice.

      Results: At baseline there was a large between-building variation in the change in stair to elevator proportion, where we observed a small increase in two buildings (81-84%, odds ratio (OR): 1.16 (1.09, 1.23), and 26-27%, OR: 1.09 (1.03, 1.15)), and a decrease (30-25%, OR: 0.75 (0.72, 0.77) in the third building.

      Conclusions: Differences in stair use among buildings could be due to building design and function. Motivational and directional signs to promote stair use showed small or nil effects. The future of interventions promoting stair use in occupational settings may need more interactive or personalised intervention methods.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 18:26:14 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - A survey of cervical screening among refugee and
           non-refugee African immigrant women in Brisbane, Australia
    • Abstract: Anaman, Judith A; Correa-Velez, Ignacio; King, Julie
      Issue addressed: To compare the level of cervical screening uptake between refugee and non-refugee African immigrant women living in Brisbane, Australia, and examine factors associated with Pap smear testing.

      Methods: Cross-sectional survey with a convenience sample of 254 women aged 21-62 years from 22 African countries (144 refugees, 110 non-refugees). Chi-square tests were used to compare the demographic and health-related characteristics between refugee and non-refugee women. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between the outcome variable (Pap smear testing) and the independent variables.

      Results: Two-thirds of women had used Pap smear services in Australia. Chi-square test analysis established that non-refugee women were significantly more likely to have used Pap smear services than refugee women (73.6% vs 61.8% respectively; P = 0.047). Immigration status, however, was not a significant predictor of cervical screening uptake in the multiple regression analyses. The significant predictors for screening uptake in these analyses were work arrangement, parity, healthcare visit, knowledge about Pap smear and perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer.

      Conclusion: Most women relied on opportunistic screening after receiving invitation letters to screen or after visiting health professionals for antenatal or postnatal care.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 18:26:14 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Are regional and remote Western Australian children
           eating for good health': An investigation into fruit and vegetable
    • Abstract: Godrich, Stephanie L; Lo, Johnny; Davies, Christina R; Darby, Jill; Devine, Amanda
      Issue addressed: Little is known about the fruit and vegetable (F&V) habits of regional and remote Western Australian (WA) children beyond quantities consumed. This study aimed to ascertain the proportion of regional and remote WA children who met the Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADG) for F and V; the types and varieties of F and V consumed; and whether consumption behaviour was associated with remoteness.

      Methods: Caregiver and child dyads (n = 256 dyads) completed similar paper-based surveys, 196 of these children completed 24-h dietary records. Statistical analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS (version 23).

      Results: Overall, children were less likely to adhere to vegetables (15.4%) than fruit (65.8%) guidelines. Adherence to the ADG did not significantly differ between regional and remote locations. However, a higher proportion of remote children consumed dried fruit compared with regional children, while significantly more regional children compared with remote children consumed from the 'pome, tropical and stone fruit' group and the 'starchy vegetables', 'red/orange vegetables' and 'dark green leafy vegetables' groups.

      Conclusions: Many regional and remote WA children consumed F and V in suboptimal amounts. Further research should aim to ascertain factors that increase or decrease the likelihood of ADG adherence across regional and remote WA and determine why certain F&V variety groups and types differed in consumption across Remoteness Areas.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 18:26:14 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Position paper on the need for portion-size education
           and a standardised unit of measurement
    • Abstract: Bucher, Tamara; Rollo, Megan E; Smith, Shamus P; Dean, Moira; Brown, Hannah; Sun, Mingui; Collins, Clare
      Large portion sizes contribute to weight gain in western societies. Portion-size interventions, aids and education can be effective in helping prevent weight gain, but consumers are unsure what appropriate portions are and express confusion about existing guidelines. A lack of clarity about suggested serving size recommendations is a major barrier to food portionsize control. Therefore, standardised measurement units and unambiguous terminologies are required. This position paper summarises the evidence regarding the impact and importance of portion-size education and estimation, and outlines strategies for improving consumer understanding and application of this through the development of an international food measurement system and a range of appropriate portion control tools. In this position paper, the authors call for the standardisation of food volume measurement terminologies, units, implementation recommendations, as well as consumer education. The target audience for this paper includes nutrition and behavioural researchers, policy makers, and stakeholders who potentially influence and implement changes in national food measurement systems, which in turn impact on consumer choice.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 18:26:14 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Informing health promotion in rural men's sheds by
           examination of participant health status, concerns, interests, knowledge
           and behaviours
    • Abstract: Misan, Gary MH; Oosterbroek, Chloe; Wilson, Nathan J
      Issue addressed: Despite the growth of Australian men's sheds, the body of evidence regarding the health status of members, their health concerns, interests, help- or health-seeking behaviour and their preferred format for receiving health information is limited.

      Methods: The study involved a cross-sectional study design with data collected from 11 rural South Australian (SA) men's sheds. The survey collected information across 5 domains: demographics; health history, status, concerns and interests; health knowledge; help-seeking behaviours and health information format preferences.

      Results: Data from 154 shed members were available for analysis. Rural SA sheds primarily cater for older, retired, lesser educated men from lower socioeconomic strata. The key health issues were age-related chronic conditions yet self-reported health status remained high. The GP was the preferred source of health advice. Key knowledge deficits were in the areas of reproductive and psychological health. The preferred mode for health education was hands-on or kinaesthetic approaches as opposed to seminars or internet based information.

      Conclusions: Priority topics for health promotion programs should include prostate disorders, reproductive and sexual health issues, psychological health, risk factors for common chronic disease and bowel cancer. Programs should incorporate hands-on education approaches. Shed and shed member diversity should be considered when designing programs.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 18:26:14 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - A snapshot of physical activity programs targeting
           Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia
    • Abstract: Macniven, Rona; Elwell, Michelle; Ride, Kathy; Bauman, Adrian; Richards, Justin
      Issue addressed: Participation in physical activity programs can be an effective strategy to reduce chronic disease risk factors and improve broader social outcomes. Health and social outcomes are worse among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders than non-Indigenous Australians, who represent an important group for culturally specific programs. The extent of current practice in physical activity programs is largely unknown. This study identifies such programs targeting this population group and describes their characteristics.

      Methods: Bibliographic and Internet searches and snowball sampling identified eligible programs operating between 2012 and 2015 in Australia (phase 1). Program coordinators were contacted to verify sourced information (phase 2). Descriptive characteristics were documented for each program.

      Results: A total of 110 programs were identified across urban, rural and remote locations within all states and territories. Only 11 programs were located through bibliographic sources; the remainder through Internet searches. The programs aimed to influence physical activity for health or broader social outcomes. Sixty five took place in community settings and most involved multiple sectors such as sport, health and education. Almost all were free for participants and involved Indigenous stakeholders. The majority received Government funding and had commenced within the last decade. More than 20 programs reached over 1000 people each; 14 reached 0-100 participants. Most included process or impact evaluation indicators, typically reflecting their aims.

      Conclusion: This snapshot provides a comprehensive description of current physical activity program provision for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people across Australia. The majority of programs were only identified through the grey literature. Many programs collect evaluation data, yet this is underrepresented in academic literature.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 18:26:14 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Surveying all outdoor smokefree signage in contrasting
           suburbs: Methods and results
    • PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 18:26:14 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Corrigendum to: Changes in smoking, drinking,
           overweight and physical inactivity in young Australian women 1996-2013
    • PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 18:26:14 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Achieving equity in Crunch and Sip: A pilot
    • Abstract: Hector, Debra; Edwards, Shelley; Gale, Joanne; Ryan, Helen
      Issue addressed: Anecdotal evidence from teachers in Western Sydney Local Health District (WSLHD) indicated that many primary school children are regularly unable to participate in the Crunch and Sip (C and S) program (breaks during class time to eat fruit and/or vegetables and drink water) as they do not bring produce from home. Actual reach of the program may therefore be currently overestimated, and inequitable. This study examined the feasibility, acceptability and efficacy of providing school children supplementary, fresh free produce in supporting equitable participation in C and S.

      Methods: Free fruit and vegetables were provided for 10 weeks to four schools in a socioeconomically-disadvantaged area in Western Sydney. WSLHD sourced the produce at a discounted rate and storage and distribution was arranged in partnership with industry. Schools determined methods of allocation to children who did not have fruit or vegetables for the C and S break. Pre- and late-intervention (Week 9) classroom surveys provided quantitative data of intervention efficacy. Qualitative methods were used with key school persons to explore barriers and enablers to implementation.

      Results: Participation of children in C&S increased significantly from 46.7% pre-intervention to 92.0% in Week 9. The proportion of children bringing fruit or vegetables from home also increased significantly, from 46.7% to 54.0%. Schools perceived the supplementary strategy to be highly feasible and acceptable.

      Conclusion: Expansion of this equity strategy warrants consideration, although issues of sustainability would need to be addressed. The criteria for 'full implementation' should include high proportional participation by students in participating classes.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 18:26:14 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Barriers and facilitators to participation in
           workplace health promotion (WHP) activities: Results from a
           cross-sectional survey of public-sector employees in Tasmania, Australia
    • Abstract: Kilpatrick, Michelle; Blizzard, Leigh; Sanderson, Kristy; Teale, Brook; Jose, Kim; Venn, Alison
      Issue addressed: Workplaces are promising settings for health promotion, yet employee participation in workplace health promotion (WHP) activities is often low or variable. This study explored facilitating factors and barriers associated with participation in WHP activities that formed part of a comprehensive WHP initiative run within the Tasmanian State Service (TSS) between 2009 and 2013.

      Methods: TSS employee (n = 3228) completed surveys in 2013. Data included sociodemographic characteristics, employee-perceived availability of WHP activities, employee-reported participation in WHP activities, and facilitators and barriers to participation. Ordinal log-link regression was used in cross-sectional analyses.

      Results: Significant associations were found for all facilitating factors and participation. Respondents who felt their organisation placed a high priority on WHP, who believed that management supported participation or that the activities could improve their health were more likely to participate. Time- and health-related barriers were associated with participation in fewer activities. All associations were independent of age, sex, work schedule and employee-perceived availability of programs. Part-time and shift-work patterns, and location of activities were additionally identified barriers.

      Conclusion: Facilitating factors relating to implementation, peer and environmental support, were associated with participation in more types of activities, time- and health-related barriers were associated with less participation.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 18:26:14 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Outdoor gyms and older adults - acceptability,
           enablers and barriers: A survey of park users
    • Abstract: Stride, Vicki; Cranney, Leonie; Scott, Ashleigh; Hua, Myna
      Issue addressed: Increasing the proportion of older adults meeting current recommendations for physical activity is important. This study aimed to determine the acceptability of outdoor gym use among older adults by assessing their outdoor gym use, intention to use, motivators, frequency and preference for use, and barriers and enablers to use.

      Methods: Interviews were conducted with 438 consenting English speaking park users_50 years after installation and promotion of an outdoor gym.

      Results: Forty-two percent of older adults interviewed had used the outdoor gym. Outdoor gym users had a significantly higher proportion of local residents (c2 = 10.43; P < 0.01), were more frequent park users (c2 = 8.75; P < 0.01) and spoke a language other than English (c2 = 15.44; P < 0.0001) compared with general park users. Shade and different equipment types were the most cited enablers.

      Conclusions: Outdoor gyms may be an acceptable form of physical activity for older adult park users. Installations should offer a variety of equipment types and shade.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 18:26:14 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Cyclists' perceptions of motorist harassment pre- to
           post-trial of the minimum passing distance road rule amendment in
           Queensland, Australia
    • Abstract: Heesch, Kristiann C; Schramm, Amy; Debnath, Ashim Kumar; Haworth, Narelle
      Issues addressed: Cyclists' perceptions of harassment from motorists discourages cycling. This study examined changes in cyclists' reporting of harassment pre- to post-introduction of the Queensland trial of the minimum passing distance road rule amendment (MPD-RRA).

      Methods: Cross-sectional online surveys of cyclists in Queensland, Australia were conducted in 2009 (pre-trial; n = 1758) and 2015 (post-trial commencement; n = 1997). Cyclists were asked about their experiences of harassment from motorists while cycling. Logistic regression modelling was used to examine differences in the reporting of harassment between these time periods, after adjustments for demographic characteristics and cycling behaviour.

      Results: At both time periods, the most reported types of harassment were deliberately driving too close (causing fear or anxiety), shouting abuse and making obscene gestures or engaging in sexual harassment. The percentage of cyclists who reported tailgating by motorists increased between 2009 and 2015 (15.1% to 19.5%; P < 0.001). The percentage of cyclists reporting other types of harassment did not change significantly.

      Conclusions: Cyclists in Queensland continue to perceive harassment while cycling on the road. The amendment to the minimum passing distance rule in Queensland appears to be having a negative effect on one type of harassment but no significant effects on others.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 18:26:14 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Nurse provision of support to help inpatients quit
    • Abstract: Malone, V; Ezard, N; Hodge, S; Ferguson, L; Schembri, A; Bonevski, B
      Issue addressed: Identification of the factors that facilitate nurses to provide smoking cessation advice to hospitalised patients.

      Method: Six semistructured focus groups with 26 nurses were conducted in June 2015. Participants completed a structured survey to collect patient demographic data and assess attitudes towards their role in addressing smoking cessation among inpatients.

      Results: Important themes that emerged from the qualitative data were: nurses' negative perceptions of smokers, nurses' confidence in their knowledge of smoking cessation care and nurses' uncertainty around whose role it is to provide smoking cessation care.

      Conclusion: Nurses require training in order to confidently and competently address smoking among inpatients as part of routine care. Formal ways to document the smoking status of inpatients and the offer of smoking cessation support from a nurse to an inpatient would enhance the communication between nurses around which inpatients had been asked about their smoking status and which had not. For patients who are resistant to conventional cessation strategies, innovative ways are needed to reduce the harm caused to them by tobacco use.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 18:26:14 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 3 - Changes in smoking, drinking, overweight and physical
           inactivity in young Australian women 1996-2013
    • Abstract: Powers, Jennifer R; Loxton, Deborah; Anderson, Amy E; Dobson, Annette J; Mishra, Gita D; Hockey, Richard; Brown, Wendy J
      Issue addressed: Smoking, risky drinking, overweight and obesity, and physical inactivity are health-risk factors (HRFs) that contribute significantly to morbidity worldwide. Several initiatives have been introduced over the past two decades to reduce these HRFs. This paper examines changes in the prevalence of HRFs in young women (aged 18-23 years) between 1996 and 2013, overall and within demographic groups.

      Methods: Data from two cohorts of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, born in 1973-78 (n = 14 247) and 1989-95 (n = 17 012) were weighted to provide national estimates. Prevalence ratios were used to compare HRFs in 2013 relative to 1996.

      Results: In 1996, 32% were current smokers, 38% were risky drinkers, 22% were overweight or obese and 7% were physically inactive. In 2013, corresponding estimates were 19%, 35%, 33% and 6%. Between 1996 and 2013, overall smoking prevalence decreased, but remained over 43% among least educated women. Overweight and obesity increased in all demographic groups.

      Conclusions: The findings suggest that only smoking, which has been the subject of changes in taxation, legislation and regulation, declined significantly, in all except the least educated women. In contrast, the prevalence of overweight and obesity, which has largely been addressed through awareness campaigns and voluntary actions by the food industry, increased markedly in all demographic sub-groups.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 18:26:14 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Engaging South Australian local governments in the
           development of healthy eating policies
    • Abstract: Matwiejczyk, Louisa; Mehta, Kaye; Scott, Jane
      Issue addressed: Local governments are uniquely placed to influence the food environment of their communities through healthy eating policies (HEPs) but very few have done so.

      Methods: Using a community-based participatory approach, Healthy Eating Local Policies and Programs built the capacity of South Australian local governments to develop and implement a HEP by leading the development of a HEP framework then mentoring local governments to develop their own local policy tailored to their community.

      Results: Over a 2-year period, 31 of the 68 local governments worked towards developing a HEP, with 14 receiving endorsement by December 2013.

      Conclusions: Local governments are ready to model healthy eating practices and adopt healthy eating policy that supports the health of their communities. A HEP developed using a participatory approach and with the flexibility to be tailored to local preferences and demographics appears feasible, although the process may be lengthy. This process and outcome appears applicable and transferable to other local governments.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Acceptability of alcohol supply to children -
           associations with adults' own age of initiation and social norms
    • Abstract: Gilligan, Conor; Ward, Bernadette; Kippen, Rebecca; Buykx, Penny; Chapman, Kathy
      Issue addressed: The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of adults' perceived acceptability of introducing alcohol to children less than 18 years of age.

      Methods: An online survey. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, and social norms and adults' own age of initiation.

      Results: Alcohol consumption, age of initiation and perception of the acceptability of drunkenness were all correlated with the acceptability of introducing children to alcohol. The strongest predictor was adults' own age of initiation.

      Conclusions: Adults who began drinking before the age of 18, and those who drink more heavily, are more likely to perceive the provision of alcohol to children as acceptable.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Behaviours and attitudes of recreational fishers
           toward safety at a 'blackspot' for fishing fatalities in Western Australia
    • Abstract: Jasper, Randall; Stewart, Barbara A; Knight, Andrew
      Issue addressed: Recreational fishing, particularly rock fishing, can be dangerous; 30 fatalities were recorded in Western Australia from 2002-2014. This study investigates differences in behaviours and attitudes towards safety among fishers at a fishing fatality 'black spot' in Australia.

      Methods: A total of 236 fishers were surveyed at Salmon Holes, Western Australia in 2015. Fishers were grouped by country of origin and significant differences among groups for behaviours and attitudes towards personal safety were identified.

      Results: Of fishers surveyed, 53% were born in Asia. These fishers self-assessed as poorer swimmers (F = 23.27, P < 0.001), yet were more likely to have fished from rocks (c2 = 20.94, P < 0.001). They were less likely to go close to the water to get a snagged line (c2 = 15.44, P < 0.001) or to drink alcohol while fishing (c2 = 8.63, P < 0.001), and were more likely to agree that they would drown if swept into the sea (c2 = 9.49, P < 0.001). Although most respondents agreed that wearing a life jacket made fishing safer, 78% 'never' wore a life jacket while fishing.

      Conclusions: Some fishers who were poor swimmers and were aware of the dangers of rock fishing still choose to fish from rocks.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Underestimation of homeless clients' interest in
           quitting smoking: A case for routine tobacco assessment
    • Abstract: Maddox, Sarah; Segan, Catherine
      Issue addressed: In Australia smoking rates among the homeless are extremely high; however, little is known about their interest in quitting and few homeless services offer cessation assistance. In an Australian homeless service, this research examined the clients' smoking from the client, staff and organisational perspectives in order to assess the need for cessation assistance for clients and identify opportunities to increase access to it.

      Methods: Twenty-six nurses completed an anonymous survey describing their attitudes to providing smoking-cessation support, current practices and estimates of client smoking and interest in quitting. Subsequently, nurses administered a survey to 104 clients to determine their smoking prevalence and interest in quitting. Organisation-wide tobacco-related policy and practices were audited.

      Results: Most clients (82%) smoked, half of these (52%) reported wanting to quit and 64% reported trying to quit or reduce their smoking in the previous 3 months. Nurses approximated clients' smoking prevalence (88% vs 82% reported by clients), but underestimated interest in quitting (33% vs 52% reported by clients). Among nurses 93% agreed that cessation support should be part of normal client care. The organisation's client-assessment form contained fields for 'respiratory issues' and 'drug issues', but no specific field for smoking status. The organisation's smoking policy focused on providing a smoke-free work environment.

      Conclusions: Many smokers using homeless services want to quit and are actively trying to reduce and quit smoking. Smoking-cessation assistance that meets the needs of people experiencing homelessness is clearly warranted.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Australian university smoke-free policy
           implementation: A staff and student survey
    • Abstract: Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; Wiggers, John; Germov, John; Mitchell, Dylan; Bunch, Diane
      Issue addressed: Universities represent important settings for the implementation of public health initiatives such as smoke-free policies. The study aimed to assess staff and student attitudes towards policy enforcement and compliance as well as the acceptability of the provision of cessation support in this setting.

      Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted following the introduction of a designated-areas partial smoke-free policy at two campuses of one Australian university in 2014. Staff (n = 533) and students (n = 3060) completed separate online surveys assessing attitudes towards smoke-free policy enforcement and compliance, and acceptability of university-provided cessation support.

      Results: Students held significantly stronger beliefs than staff that the smoke-free policy required staff enforcement (69% vs 60%) and violation penalties (67% vs 60%; both P's
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - The influence of front-of-pack nutrition information
           on consumers' portion size perceptions
    • Abstract: Brown, Hannah May; de Vlieger, Nienke; Collins, Clare; Bucher, Tamara
      Issue addressed: Portion size guidance strategies have been suggested as an important component of weight management; therefore, the Health Star Rating (HSR) front-of-pack labels could influence consumers' portion-size decisions. However, this has not been investigated to date. This study aims to evaluate whether presenting energy content information and HSRs influences portion size self-selection of specific foods and meals.

      Methods: Adults were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups in this randomised controlled experiment. Each participant was given either a kJ/100 g food label or a HSR label, or was given no information on nutrient composition. They were then asked to serve themselves an adequate portion of breakfast cereal (Kellogg's Nutri-Grain), fruit salad and chocolate, plus a three-component meal (chicken, fries and mixed vegetables). Portion serves and meal weights were compared between each experimental group using ANOVA and the discretionary foods were also compared with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE).

      Results: Neither the kilojoule nor HSR information influenced the self-served portion size of foods or meal components. Mean self-served portion size of the discretionary foods were significantly greater than the standard serving sizes as specified in the AGHE.

      Conclusion: Although food labels have the potential to assist consumers in making product choices, this study indicates that presenting nutrition information does not affect portion size decisions in young adults.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Does on-site chaplaincy enhance the health and well
           being of fly-in, fly-out (FIFO) personnel'
    • Abstract: Ebert, Angela; Strehlow, Karin
      Issue addressed: The fly-in, fly-out (FIFO) work style has been linked to mental-health and interpersonal issues and a need for strategies that maintain a healthy workforce. This study investigated whether 24/7 on-site chaplains deliver a service that promotes the health and well being of FIFO personnel.

      Methods: A phenomenological approach was used to explore the perceptions of FIFO personnel working in different roles and organisational sections on a remote mine site in Western Australia. Multi-pronged strategies recruited 29 participants who represented management, supervisors, workers and support staff. Participants took part in semistructured interviews conducted either one-on-one or in pairs.

      Results: Chaplains were described as making a valuable contribution to the physical and mental health of FIFO personnel. Specific aspects of the service such as active outreach, effective trust building and the on-site availability were identified as central to the service being accessed and overcoming barriers embedded in mining culture and masculinity. Conclusions: On-site chaplaincy appears to be effective in promoting the physical and mental health of FIFO personnel working at a remote mine site.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Going up, going down: The experience, control and
           management of gestational diabetes mellitus among Southeast Asian migrant
           women living in urban Australia
    • Abstract: Jirojwong, Sansnee; Brownhill, Suzanne; Dahlen, Hannah G; Johnson, Maree; Schmied, Virginia
      Issue addressed: In many developed countries the rate of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) for Asian-born women is higher than other groups. Studies suggest that some women have limited knowledge of the disease and poor self-management leading to health problems for themselves and their baby. Few studies report the experience of GDM among Southeast Asian migrant women living in Australia and factors that influence their management of the disease.

      Methods: A qualitative interpretive design was used to explore Southeast Asian migrant women's experience and management of GDM. Women diagnosed with the disease during pregnancy were recruited from an antenatal clinic at two Sydney metropolitan hospitals. Nineteen women were interviewed in their first language. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data.

      Results: A diagnosis of GDM conferred an unanticipated 'up and down' experience for this group of Southeast Asian women. Their experience of the disease, likened to an elevator ride, was modulated by 'insulin' and 'information' used to control the disease and manage blood glucose levels, dietary levels, exercise levels and anxiety levels.

      Conclusions: Health promotion material that captures the fluctuating experience of GDM has the potential to help women, particularly at the time of diagnosis, to be better prepared, and health professionals to be better informed to control and manage the disease more effectively.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Evaluation of a pilot school-based physical activity
           challenge for primary students
    • Abstract: Passmore, E; Donato-Hunt, C; Maher, L; Havrlant, R; Hennessey, K; Milat, A; Farrell, L
      Issue addressed: Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour among children are growing public health concerns. The Culture Health Communities Activity Challenge (hereafter known as the Challenge) is a school-based pedometer program in which classes compete to achieve the highest class average daily steps in an 8-week period. The Challenge aims to encourage physical activity in primary school students, with a focus on engaging Aboriginal students. The program was piloted in 15 classes in New South Wales in 2014.

      Methods: The evaluation aimed to explore students' and teachers' experiences of the Challenge, and assess its impact on the students' physical activity levels. Data sources were a pre- and post-intervention survey of students' physical activity levels and sedentary time (n = 209), qualitative interviews with teachers (n = 11) and discussions with 10 classes.

      Results: Fifteen Year 5 and 6 classes comprising 318 students participated. Fifty percent of participants were girls, the average age was 11 years and the majority (57%) were Aboriginal students. Participation in the Challenge was associated with a slight but statistically significant increase in students' physical activity levels (P < 0.05), and a significant decrease in weekend screen time (P < 0.05). However, when stratified by Aboriginality these changes were not statistically significant for Aboriginal students. Qualitative feedback from teachers and students indicated high levels of engagement and satisfaction with the Challenge. Teachers and students reported positive impacts, including increased motivation to be physically active, and improved student attendance and engagement in class activities and teamwork.

      Conclusions: Participation in the Challenge was associated with increased physical activity and decreased screen time for some students. Students and teachers also reported a range of positive social and educational outcomes.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Establishing a sustainable childhood obesity
           monitoring system in regional Victoria
    • Abstract: Crooks, Nicholas; Strugnell, Claudia; Bell, Colin; Allender, Steve
      Issue addressed: Childhood obesity poses a significant immediate and long-term burden to individuals, societies and health systems. Infrequent and inadequate monitoring has led to uncertainty about trends in childhood obesity prevalence in many countries. High-quality data, collected at regular intervals, over extended timeframes, with high response rates and timely feedback are essential to support prevention efforts. Our aim was to establish a sustainable childhood obesity monitoring system in regional Australia to collect accurate anthropometric and behavioural data, provide timely feedback to communities and build community engagement and capacity.

      Methods: All schools from six government regions of South-West Victoria were invited to participate. Passive (opt-out) consent was used to collect measured anthropometric and self-reported behavioural data from children in years 2, 4, and 6, aged 7-12 years.

      Results: We achieved a 70% school participation rate (n = 46) and a 93% student response rate (n = 2198) among government and independent schools. Results were reported within 10 weeks post data collection. Harnessing high levels of community engagement throughout the planning, data collection and reporting phases increased community capacity and data utility.

      Conclusions: The monitoring system achieved high response rates, community engagement and community capacity building, and delivered results back to the community in a timely manner.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Response to Editorial: Children, poverty and health
           promotion in Australia
    • Abstract: Schultz, Rosalie; Kochmann, Karin; O'Sullivan, Jane
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Hope headquarters: Recovery college
    • Abstract: Jay, Leighton; MacAdam, Bruce; Gardner, Pamela; Mahboub, Lyn
      The mental health and well being of the Australian population remains an ongoing, unresolved issue. A 2007 survey of Australians aged 16-85 years estimated that almost half (45%, or 7.3 million people) had experienced mental ill health at some time in their lives and that approximately 20% of the population had experienced mental disorders in the 12 months before the survey. In addition, data from the 2013 National Mental Health Report indicated that 2-3% of all Australians, or around 600 000 people, had severe mental health disorders as determined by diagnosis, intensity, duration of symptoms and degree of functional impairment. This group included people with severe and disabling forms of depression and anxiety in addition to people experiencing psychoses. Another 4-6% of the population (or 1 million) have moderate disorders, and a further 9-12% ( 2 million) have mild disorders.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Sitting ducks face chronic disease: An analysis of
           newspaper coverage of sedentary behaviour as a health issue in Australia
    • Abstract: Chau, Josephine Y; Bonfiglioli, Catriona; Zhong, Amy; Pedisic, Zeljko; Daley, Michelle; McGill, Bronwyn; Bauman, Adrian
      Issue addressed: This study examines how sedentary behaviour (too much sitting) was covered as a health issue by Australian newspapers and how physical activity was framed within this newspaper coverage. Methods: Articles featuring sedentary behaviour published in Australian newspapers between 2000 and 2012 were analysed for content and framing. Main outcome measures were volume, number and content of newspaper articles; framing and types of sedentary behaviour; responsibility for the problem of and solutions to high levels of sedentary behaviour; and physical activity mentions and how it was framed within sedentary behaviour coverage.

      Results: Out of 48 articles, prolonged sitting was framed as bad for health (52%) and specifically as health compromising for office workers (25%). Adults who sat a lot were framed as 'easy targets' for ill health (21% of headlines led with 'sitting ducks' or 'sitting targets'). Prolonged sitting was framed as an issue of individual responsibility (> 90%) with less mention of environmental and sociocultural contributors. Thirty-six of 48 articles mentioned physical activity; 39% stated that being physically active does not matter if a person sits for prolonged periods of time or that the benefits of physical activity are undone by too much sitting.

      Conclusions: News coverage should reflect the full socio-ecological model of sedentary behaviour and continually reinforce the independent and well-established benefits of health-enhancing physical activity alongside the need to limit prolonged sitting.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - The strong family program: An innovative model to
           engage Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander youth and elders with
           reproductive and sexual health community education
    • Abstract: Duley, P; Botfield, JR; Ritter, T; Wicks, J; Brassil, A
      Issue addressed: Aboriginal youth in Australia often experience high rates of intimate partner violence (family violence) and poorer reproductive and sexual health than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. To address some of the disparities, the Strong Family Program was developed to deliver reproductive and sexual health education to Aboriginal communities in New South Wales.

      Methods: Development of the program was based on an extensive consultation process with Aboriginal communities. It was implemented in three communities, with two groups from each hosting Aboriginal youth and Elders in a yarning circle within the culturally respectful frameworks of 'men and boys'' and 'women and girls'' business. An evaluation was conducted to measure reproductive and sexual health knowledge and attitude changes upon program completion, using pre- and post-program surveys and yarning (focus group discussions).

      Results: Program participants comprised 48 females and 28 males. Overall, mean knowledge and attitude scores improved upon completion of the program (from 77% to 82% and from 4.15 to 4.32 out of 5, respectively). Among participants aged 20 years and under (the youngest participant was 13 years), there was an increase in knowledge (P = 0.034); among participants aged over 20 years (the oldest participant was 78 years), there was an increase in positive attitudes (P = 0.001). Participants perceived the information provided to be useful and relevant, with many reporting improved knowledge and attitudes around rights and respectful relationships.

      Conclusions: Reproductive and sexual health education in Aboriginal communities should be based on community consultations and carried out within a culturally appropriate framework to promote greater success. Continued implementation of the Strong Family Program will promote increased understanding of respectful relationships and improved health outcomes for Aboriginal young people.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Local community playgroup participation and
           associations with social capital
    • Abstract: Strange, Cecily; Bremner, Alexander; Fisher, Colleen; Howat, Peter; Wood, Lisa
      Issue addressed: The study aim was to investigate the relationships between social capital measures and playgroup participation in a local residential area for parents with children of playgroup age (1-4 years) compared with non-participation and participation in a playgroup outside the local residential area. Research indicates playgroup participation has benefits for families, however, less is known about the potential local community social capital for parents who participate in playgroups.

      Methods: Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey from March 2013 to January 2014 in Perth, Western Australia. The data from a group of parents (n = 405) who had at least one child aged between 1 and 4 years were analysed using multivariable regression. Reported playgroup participation (local, outside the area or non-participation) in the previous 12 months was investigated for associations with three measures (Neighbourhood Cohesion Index, Social Capital and Citizenship Survey and local reciprocity) that capture attributes of social capital.

      Results: Participation in playgroup locally was generally associated with higher levels of social capital than both participation in playgroup outside the local area and non-participation. Mothers with two or more children fared better for social capital measures than mothers with one child. Conclusions: Participation in a locally placed playgroup may provide an important opportunity for families with children of playgroup age (1-4 years) to build social capital in their local community.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Impact of increasing social media use on sitting time
           and body mass index
    • Abstract: Alley, Stephanie; Wellens, Pauline; Schoeppe, Stephanie; de Vries, Hein; Rebar, Amanda L; Short, Camille E; Duncan, Mitch J; Vandelanotte, Corneel
      Issue addressed: Sedentary behaviours, in particular sitting, increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity and poorer mental health status. In Australia, 70% of adults sit for more than 8 h per day. The use of social media applications (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram) is on the rise; however, no studies have explored the association of social media use with sitting time and body mass index (BMI).

      Methods: Cross-sectional self-report data on demographics, BMI and sitting time were collected from 1140 participants in the 2013 Queensland Social Survey. Generalised linear models were used to estimate associations of a social media score calculated from social media use, perceived importance of social media, and number of social media contacts with sitting time and BMI. Results: Participants with a high social media score had significantly greater sitting times while using a computer in leisure time and significantly greater total sitting time on non-workdays. However, no associations were found between social media score and sitting to view TV, use motorised transport, work or participate in other leisure activities; or total workday, total sitting time or BMI.

      Conclusions: These results indicate that social media use is associated with increased sitting time while using a computer, and total sitting time on non-workdays.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 2 - Health promotion leads the way in 'knowledge
           translation': But just a new coat'
    • Abstract: Jancey, Jonine; Binns, Colin; Smith, James; Barnett, Lisa; Howat, Peter
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Public attitudes to government intervention to
           regulate food advertising, especially to children
    • Abstract: Berry, Narelle M; Carter, Patricia; Nolan, Rebecca; Grande, Eleonora Dal; Booth, Sue
      The World Health Organization has called on governments to implement recommendations on the marketing of foods and beverages to children. This study describes high public support for government intervention in marketing of unhealthy food to children and suggests more effort is needed to harness public opinion to influence policy development.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Smoking status and associated factors among male
           Chinese restaurant workers in metropolitan Sydney
    • Abstract: Jiang, Wei; Leung, Brenda; Tam, Nancy; Xu, Huilan; Gleeson, Suzanne; Wen, Li Ming
      Issue addressed: The smoking rate among male Chinese migrants in Australia is higher than among the general population. This study investigated the smoking rate of male Chinese restaurant workers in metropolitan Sydney, and explored factors associated with smoking and quitting.

      Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was completed by Chinese workers in selected Chinese restaurants in metropolitan Sydney from October-December 2012. Eighty-nine Chinese restaurants were approached and 54 (61%) took part in the study. The questionnaire asked participants about their smoking status, knowledge of and attitudes to smoking and quitting as well as socio-demographic information. Multivariable logistic regression was built to assess the associated factors.

      Results: Of the 382 participants who completed the survey, 171 (45%) were current smokers and 50% of current smokers wanted to quit smoking. Participants who spoke Mandarin, had lower English proficiency, did not realise environmental smoke harms children, did not prefer a smoke-free environment or had more than 50% of relatives or friends who smoked were more likely to be current smokers. Participants who were aged 18-29 years, did not understand the benefits of quitting smoking or did not prefer a smoke-free environment were less likely to want to quit.

      Conclusions: Nearly 50% of male Chinese restaurant workers surveyed in this study were current smokers. Key factors associated with the participants' smoking or quitting status are: aged 18-29 years; speaking Mandarin; lower English literacy; and not knowing the dangers of smoking.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Take Charge of Pain: Evaluating a community-targeted
           self-management education program for people with musculoskeletal pain
    • Abstract: Hoon, Elizabeth; Smith, Karen; Black, Julie; Burnet, Simon; Hill, Catherine; Gill, Tiffany K
      Issue addressed: Musculoskeletal conditions are highly prevalent, affecting 28% of the Australian population. Given the persistent nature of many musculoskeletal conditions self-management is recognised as an important aspect of effective disease management. However, participant recruitment and retention for formal self-management programs is a challenge.

      Methods: Arthritis SA (Arthritis Foundation of South Australia, a non-profit community health organisation) redesigned a shorter, community-orientated self-management education program delivered by health professionals. The program utilises aspects of the Stanford model of chronic disease self-management and motivational interviewing as well as principles of adult learning to create an effective learning environment. The program aims to guide participants to learn and practise a range of pain management strategies that are known to be effective in improving quality of life. This study used a pre- and post-test (at 6 weeks) design to determine whether this program achieved benefits in self-reported health outcomes. Outcomes that were measured included pain, fatigue, health distress, self-efficacy and communication.

      Results: A response rate of 47% (n = 102) was achieved and small but statistically significant improvements in mean [s.d.] pain scores (6.1 [2.3] to 5.4 [2.4], P = 0.001), health distress (2.3 [1.3] to 2.0 [1.3], P = 0.002) and self-efficacy (6.2 [2.1] to 6.8 [2.2], P = 0.002) were found.

      Conclusion: Community-based participants of this shorter, focused program recorded small but significant improvements in self-reported pain, health distress and self-efficacy. For those who completed the current program, Arthritis SA is currently exploring the potential of developing a booster session to promote sustainable positive health outcomes.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Indicators of a health-promoting local food
           environment: A conceptual framework to inform urban planning policy and
    • Abstract: Murphy, Maureen; Badland, Hannah; Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Trapp, Georgina; Villanueva, Karen; Mavoa, Suzanne; Davern, Melanie; Giles-Corti, Billie
      Global obesity prevalence has risen dramatically over the past 30 years in both adults and children. This presents a major public health challenge because of its contribution to chronic disease and inequities in the distribution of obesity within populations.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Handbook on gender and health [Book Review]
    • Abstract: Broom, Dorothy H
      Review(s) of: Handbook on gender and health, Edited by Jasmine Gideon, Edward Elgar Publishing: Cheltenham, UK. 2016, Hardback, 640 pp with index, ISBN 9781784710859.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Barriers and challenges affecting the contemporary
           church's engagement in health promotion
    • Abstract: Ayton, Darshini; Manderson, Lenore; Smith, Ben J
      Issue addressed: Christian churches have historically undertaken welfare and community service activities to practise faith and increase their relevance to communities. However, the church in Australia has received little attention from health promotion practitioners and researchers. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore the barriers and challenges that affect church engagement in health promotion to assist practitioners' understanding of the potential for these civil society organisations to play a role in health promotion programs and partnerships.

      Methods: The research was based on interviews with five directors of church-affiliated organisations and with the church leaders (ministers, pastors, priests) of 30 churches in urban and rural Victoria. Analysis was iterative using open, axial and thematic coding.

      Results: The challenges to church involvement in health promotion, as articulated by church leaders, fell under the themes of the social context of churches and the attributes of congregations. Major issues raised were perceived relevance, mistrust, contested agendas, discordant values within congregations, and risk management.

      Conclusion: Although churches may take a different stance to health promotion agencies on a range of social and health issues, many have experience addressing social disadvantage and are prepared to commit resources to meet the needs of people outside their congregations. However, several factors inhibit the engagement of churches in health promotion including perceived irrelevance and community mistrust, agendas of conversion and values that conflict with health promotion.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Depression and diabetes in the remote Torres Strait
    • Abstract: Taylor, Sean; McDermott, Robyn; Thompson, Fintan; Usher, Kim
      Issue addressed: Diabetes is associated with significant depression, which can result in poorer clinical outcomes, including increased mortality. Little is known about the prevalence of depression among Torres Strait Islander adults with diabetes.

      Methods: Self-reported depression was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9 translated into Torres Strait Creole, and associations with socioeconomic, behavioural and clinical indicators in Torres Strait Islander adults with diabetes in five remote Torres Strait Islands were examined.

      Results: Seventy-three men and 115 women completed interviews. The median PHQ-9 score was 5.5 (IQR 0-7); 42% of respondents scored 0-4 (none-minimal), 46% scored 5-9 (mild) and 12% scored 10+ (moderate-severe). Mean HbA1c was 8.3% (67.4 mmol). HbA1c was not related to PHQ-9 scores (b = 0.20, P = 0.323), however exercise in hours (b = -0.34, P < 0.001) and screen time in hours (b = 0.11, P < 0.001) were significant predictors of depression after adjusting for other study variables.

      Conclusions: This sample of remote living Torres Strait Islanders reported relatively low rates of depression compared with national samples, and depression was not related to glycaemic control. Exercise and screen time were the strongest predictors of depression based on PHQ-9 scores. This represents an opportunity for health promotion.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Online canteens: Awareness, use, barriers to use, and
           the acceptability of potential online strategies to improve public health
           nutrition in primary schools
    • Abstract: Wyse, Rebecca; Yoong, Sze Lin; Dodds, Pennie; Campbell, Libby; Delaney, Tessa; Nathan, Nicole; Janssen, Lisa; Reilly, Kathryn; Sutherland, Rachel; Wiggers, John; Wolfenden, Luke
      Issue addressed: This study of primary school principals assessed the awareness, use, barriers to use and acceptability of online canteens. Methods: A telephone survey of 123 primary school principals within the Hunter New England Region of New South Wales, Australia was conducted from September 2014 to November 2014.

      Results: Fifty-six percent of principals were aware of the existence of online canteens, with 8% having implemented such a system, and 38% likely to do so in the future. Medium/large schools were more likely to be aware of or to use online canteens, however there were no differences in awareness or use in relation to school rurality or socioeconomic advantage. Principals cited parent internet access as the most commonly identified perceived barrier to online canteen use, and the majority of principals (71-93%) agreed that it would be acceptable to implement a range of consumer behaviour strategies via an online canteen.

      Conclusions: Study findings suggest that despite relatively low levels of current use, online canteens have the potential to reach a large proportion of school communities in the future, across geographical and socioeconomic divides, and that the nutrition interventions which they have the capacity to deliver are considered acceptable to school principals.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Evaluating the Sharing Stories youth theatre program:
           An interactive theatre and drama-based strategy for sexual health
           promotion among multicultural youth
    • Abstract: Roberts, Meagan; Lobo, Roanna; Sorenson, Anne
      Issue addressed: Rates of sexually transmissible infections among young people are high, and there is a need for innovative, youth-focused sexual health promotion programs. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Sharing Stories youth theatre program, which uses interactive theatre and drama-based strategies to engage and educate multicultural youth on sexual health issues. The effectiveness of using drama-based evaluation methods is also discussed.

      Methods: The youth theatre program participants were 18 multicultural youth from South East Asian, African and Middle Eastern backgrounds aged between 14 and 21 years. Four sexual health drama scenarios and a sexual health questionnaire were used to measure changes in knowledge and attitudes.

      Results: Participants reported being confident talking to and supporting their friends with regards to safe sex messages, improved their sexual health knowledge and demonstrated a positive shift in their attitudes towards sexual health. Drama-based evaluation methods were effective in engaging multicultural youth and worked well across the cultures and age groups.

      Conclusions: Theatre and drama-based sexual health promotion strategies are an effective method for up-skilling young people from multicultural backgrounds to be peer educators and good communicators of sexual health information. Drama-based evaluation methods are engaging for young people and an effective way of collecting data from culturally diverse youth.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Is there a relationship between primary school
           children's enjoyment of recess physical activities and health-related
           quality of life': A cross-sectional exploratory study
    • Abstract: Hyndman, Brendon; Benson, Amanda C; Lester, Leanne; Telford, Amanda
      Issue addressed: An important strategy for increasing children's physical activity is to enhance children's opportunities for school recess physical activities, yet little is known about the influence of school recess physical activities on children's health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between Australian primary school children's enjoyment of recess physical activities and HRQOL.

      Methods: The study consisted of children at two Australian primary schools (n = 105) aged 8-12 years. The Lunchtime Enjoyment Activity and Play questionnaire was used to measure school children's enjoyment of school recess physical activities. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 was used to measure children's HRQOL. Researchers applied linear regression modelling in STATA (ver. 13.0) to investigate the relationship between children's enjoyment of school recess physical activities and HRQOL.

      Results: It was discovered that primary school children's enjoyment of more vigorous-type school recess physical activities and playing in a range of weather conditions was associated with children's improved HRQOL.

      Conclusion: The findings from this study suggest that health providers and researchers should consider providing primary school children with opportunities and facilities for more vigorous-intensity school recess physical activities as a key strategy to enhance children's HRQOL.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Partnerships in obesity prevention: Maximising
    • Abstract: Jones, Michelle; Verity, Fiona
      Issue addressed: Partnerships were used to increase healthy eating and active living in children for the Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) program, a systems-wide, community-based childhood obesity prevention program in South Australia. This part of the multi-component evaluation examines stakeholders' perceptions of how OPAL staff worked in partnership and factors contributing to strong partnerships.

      Methods: Pre- and post-interviews and focus groups with multi-sector stakeholders (n = 131) across six OPAL communities were analysed using NVivo8 qualitative data analysis software.

      Results: Stakeholders reflected positively on projects developed in partnership with OPAL, reporting that staff worked to establish co-benefits. They identified several factors that contributed to the strengthening of partnerships: staff skills, visibility, resources and sustainability.

      Conclusions: Rather than implementing projects with stakeholders with shared organisational goals, local shared projects were implemented that included a breadth of co-benefits, allowing multi-sector stakeholders to meet their own organisational goals. Practitioners who have the capacity to be flexible, persistent, knowledgeable and skilled communicators are required to negotiate projects, achieving benefit for both health and stakeholders' organisational goals.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - How well are health information websites displayed on
           mobile phones': Implications for the readability of health information
    • Abstract: Cheng, Christina; Dunn, Matthew
      Issue addressed: More than 87% of Australians own a mobile phone with Internet access and 82% of phone owners use their smartphones to search for health information, indicating that mobile phones may be a powerful tool for building health literacy. Yet, online health information has been found to be above the reading ability of the general population. As reading on a smaller screen may further complicate the readability of information, this study aimed to examine how health information is displayed on mobile phones and its implications for readability.

      Methods: Using a cross-sectional design with convenience sampling, a sample of 270 mobile webpages with information on 12 common health conditions was generated for analysis, they were categorised based on design and position of information display.

      Results: The results showed that 71.48% of webpages were mobile-friendly but only 15.93% were mobile-friendly webpages designed in a way to optimise readability, with a paging format and queried information displayed for immediate viewing.

      Conclusion: With inadequate evidence and lack of consensus on how webpage design can best promote reading and comprehension, it is difficult to draw a conclusion on the effect of current mobile health information presentation on readability.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Consumer evaluation of 'Veggycation', a website
           promoting the health benefits of vegetables
    • Abstract: Rekhy, Reetica; Khan, Aila; Van Ogtrop, Floris; McConchie, Robyn
      Issue addressed: Whether the website Veggycation appeals to particular groups of consumers significantly more than other groups. Methods: Australian adults aged >=18 years (n = 1000) completed an online survey. The website evaluation instrument used was tested for validity and reliability. Associations between demographic variables and website evaluation dimensions of attractiveness, content, user-friendliness and loyalty intentions were examined using a general linear model (GLM). The appraisal of the website was further investigated based on the respondents' daily consumption level of vegetables and the importance they attach to vegetable consumption in their diet, using GLM and a Tukey's all-pair comparison.

      Results: Veggycation has a high level of acceptance among the Australian community with certain groups evaluating the website more favourably. These include women, people aged
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - System reform in the human services: What role can
           health promotion play'
    • Abstract: Smith, James A; Jancey, Jonine; Binns, Colin
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Positioning health promotion as a policy priority in
    • Abstract: Smith, James A; Herriot, Michele
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Process evaluation of the Albany Physical Activity and
           Nutrition (APAN) program, a home-based intervention for metabolic syndrome
           and associated chronic disease risk in rural Australian adults
    • Abstract: Blackford, Krysten; Lee, Andy; James, Anthony P; Waddell, Tracy; Hills, Andrew P; Anderson, Annie S; Howat, Peter; Jancey, Jonine
      Issue addressed: The Albany Physical Activity and Nutrition (APAN) study investigated the effects of the APAN program, a home-based intervention on dietary and physical activity behaviours and chronic disease risk for rural Australian adults. This paper reports on the process evaluation to gain insight into the link between intervention elements and outcomes.

      Methods: The APAN program comprised resources to improve participants' diet and physical activity. Printed and online resources were provided to participants, complemented by motivational interviews via telephone. Process evaluation used mixed-methods, with a sample of 201 intervention participants residing in a disadvantaged rural area. Participants were aged 50 to 69 years with, or at risk of, metabolic syndrome. Quantitative data were collected using an online survey (n = 73); qualitative data were collected via telephone exit interviews with intervention completers (n = 8) and non-completers (n = 8), and recruitment notes recorded by research assistants.

      Results: The attrition rate of the program was 18%; major reasons for withdrawal were health and personal issues and a loss of interest. The majority of participants found the printed resources useful, attractive, and suitable to their age group. The website was the least preferred resource. Reasons for completing the program included the desired health benefits, wanting to honour the commitment, and wanting to assist with research.

      Conclusions: Carefully planned recruitment will reduce the burden on resources and improve uptake. Understanding reasons for attrition such as family or personal barriers and health issues will assist practitioners to support participants overcome these barriers. Given participants' preference for printed resources, and the known effectiveness of these in combination with other strategies, investigating methods to encourage use of telephone and online support should be a priority.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Advancing evaluation practice in health promotion
    • Abstract: Smith, Ben J; Rissel, Chris; Shilton, Trevor; Bauman, Adrian
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Children, poverty and health promotion in Australia
    • Abstract: Binns, Colin; Howat, Peter; Smith, James A; Jancey, Jonine
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Reach, engagement, and effectiveness: A systematic
           review of evaluation methodologies used in health promotion via social
           networking sites
    • Abstract: Lim, Megan SC; Wright, Cassandra JC; Carrotte, Elise R; Pedrana, Alisa E
      Issue addressed: Social networking sites (SNS) are increasingly popular platforms for health promotion. Advancements in SNS health promotion require quality evidence; however, interventions are often not formally evaluated. This study aims to describe evaluation practices used in SNS health promotion.

      Methods: A systematic review was undertaken of Medline, PsycINFO, Scopus, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, Communication and Mass Media Complete, and Cochrane Library databases. Articles published between 2006 and 2013 describing any health promotion intervention delivered using SNS were included.

      Results: Forty-seven studies were included. There were two main evaluation approaches: closed designs (n = 23), which used traditional research designs and formal recruitment procedures; and open designs (n = 19), which evaluated the intervention in a real-world setting, allowing unknown SNS users to interact with the content without enrolling in research. Closed designs were unable to assess reach and engagement beyond their research sample. Open designs often relied on weaker study designs with no use of objective outcome measures and yielded low response rates.

      Conclusions: Barriers to evaluation included low participation rates, high attrition, unknown representativeness and lack of comparison groups. Acceptability was typically assessed among those engaged with the intervention, with limited population data available to accurately assess intervention reach. Few studies were able to assess uptake of the intervention in a real-life setting while simultaneously assessing effectiveness of interventions with research rigour.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - The usefulness of GPS bicycle tracking data for
           evaluating the impact of infrastructure change on cycling behaviour
    • Abstract: Heesch, Kristiann C; Langdon, Michael
      Issue addressed: A key strategy to increase active travel is the construction of bicycle infrastructure. Tools to evaluate this strategy are limited. This study assessed the usefulness of a smartphone GPS tracking system for evaluating the impact of this strategy on cycling behaviour.

      Methods: Cycling usage data were collected from Queenslanders who used a GPS tracking app on their smartphone from 2013-2014. 'Heat' and volume maps of the data were reviewed, and GPS bicycle counts were compared with surveillance data and bicycle counts from automatic traffic-monitoring devices.

      Results: Heat maps broadly indicated that changes in cycling occurred near infrastructure improvements. Volume maps provided changes in counts of cyclists due to these improvements although errors were noted in geographic information system (GIS) geo-coding of some GPS data. Large variations were evident in the number of cyclists using the app in different locations. These variations limited the usefulness of GPS data for assessing differences in cycling across locations.

      Conclusion: Smartphone GPS data are useful in evaluating the impact of improved bicycle infrastructure in one location. Using GPS data to evaluate differential changes in cycling across multiple locations is problematic when there is insufficient traffic-monitoring devices available to triangulate GPS data with bicycle traffic count data.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Applying systems theory to the evaluation of a whole
           school approach to violence prevention
    • Abstract: Kearney, Sarah; Leung, Loksee; Joyce, Andrew; Ollis, Debbie; Green, Celia
      Issue addressed: Our Watch led a complex 12-month evaluation of a whole school approach to Respectful Relationships Education (RRE) implemented in 19 schools. RRE is an emerging field aimed at preventing gender-based violence. This paper will illustrate how from an implementation science perspective, the evaluation was a critical element in the change process at both a school and policy level.

      Methods: Using several conceptual approaches from systems science, the evaluation sought to examine how the multiple systems layers - student, teacher, school, community and government - interacted and influenced each other. A distinguishing feature of the evaluation included 'feedback loops'; that is, evaluation data was provided to participants as it became available. Evaluation tools included a combination of standardised surveys (with pre- and post-intervention data provided to schools via individualised reports), reflection tools, regular reflection interviews and summative focus groups.

      Results: Data was shared during implementation with project staff, department staff and schools to support continuous improvement at these multiple systems levels. In complex settings, implementation can vary according to context; and the impact of evaluation processes, tools and findings differed across the schools. Interviews and focus groups conducted at the end of the project illustrated which of these methods were instrumental in motivating change and engaging stakeholders at both a school and departmental level and why.

      Conclusion: The evaluation methods were a critical component of the pilot's approach, helping to shape implementation through data feedback loops and reflective practice for ongoing, responsive and continuous improvement. Future health promotion research on complex interventions needs to examine how the evaluation itself is influencing implementation.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Designing evaluation plans for health promotion
           mHealth interventions: A case study of the Milk Man mobile app
    • Abstract: White, Becky K; Burns, Sharyn K; Giglia, Roslyn C; Scott, Jane A
      Evaluating complex health promotion interventions that use mobile apps requires comprehensive and adaptive evaluation plans. As mobile usage becomes increasingly sophisticated and personalised, broad evaluation plans are important in determining the impact and efficacy of a mobile health (mHealth) app. Evaluation should consider user feedback and outcome measures, as well as examine elements such as the robustness of the technology, the intervention principles and engagement strategies, and the interaction of the user with the technology. This paper introduces four mHealth evaluation models and tools and describes the evaluation plan that has been developed for Milk Man, a breastfeeding app targeting new and expectant fathers. Milk Man is a socially connected, gamified app that is being tested in a large Randomised Control Trial (RCT). While there is a need for mobile apps to be evaluated in adequately powered RCTs, trialling mobile apps over a long period of time presents challenges. Incorporating robust evaluation design will help ensure that technological performance, app intervention principles, as well as health and behavioural outcomes are measured. The detail and scope of the Milk Man app evaluation plan will ensure the findings add to the evidence base and have broad relevance to health promotion practitioners.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Improving the translation of health promotion
           interventions using effectiveness - implementation hybrid designs in
           program evaluations
    • Abstract: Wolfenden, Luke; Williams, Christopher M; Wiggers, John; Nathan, Nicole; Yoong, Sze Lin
      Bridging the gap between research-based evidence and public health policy and practice is a considerable challenge to public health improvement this century, requiring a rethinking of conventional approaches to health research production and use. Traditionally the process of research translation has been viewed as linear and unidirectional, from epidemiological research to identify health problems and determinants, to efficacy and effectiveness trials and studies of strategies to maximise the implementation and dissemination of evidence-based interventions in practice. A criticism of this approach is the considerable time it takes to achieve translation of health research into practice. Hybrid evaluation designs provide one means of accelerating the research translation process by simultaneously collecting information regarding intervention impacts and implementation and dissemination strategy. However, few health promotion research trials employ such designs and often fail to report information to enable assessment of the feasibility and potential impact of implementation and dissemination strategies. In addition to intervention effects, policy makers and practitioners also want to know the impact of implementation strategies. This commentary will define the three categories of effectiveness-implementation hybrid designs, describe their application in health promotion evaluation, and discuss the potential implications of more systematic use of such designs for the translation of health promotion and evaluation.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Assessing change in perceived community leadership
           readiness in the Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle program
    • Abstract: Kostadinov, Iordan; Daniel, Mark; Jones, Michelle; Cargo, Margaret
      Issue addressed: The context of community-based childhood obesity prevention programs can influence the effects of these intervention programs. Leadership readiness for community mobilisation for childhood obesity prevention is one such contextual factor. This study assessed perceived community leadership readiness (PCLR) at two time points in a state-wide, multisite community-based childhood obesity prevention program.

      Methods: PCLR was assessed across 168 suburbs of 20 intervention communities participating in South Australia's Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) program. Using a validated online PCLR tool, four key respondents from each community rated each suburb within their respective community on a nine-point scale for baseline and 2015. Average PCLR and change scores were calculated using the general linear model with suburbs nested in communities. Relationships between demographic variables and change in PCLR were evaluated using multiple regression. Ease of survey use was also assessed.

      Results: Average PCLR increased between baseline (3.51, s.d. = 0.82) and 2015 (5.23, s.d. = 0.89). PCLR rose in 18 of 20 intervention communities. PCLR was inversely associated with suburb population size (r2 = 0.03, P = 0.03, beta = -0.25) and positively associated with intervention duration (r2 change = 0.08, P = 0.00, beta = 0.29). Only 8% of survey respondents considered the online assessment tool difficult to use.

      Conclusions: PCLR increased over the course of the OPAL intervention. PCLR varied between and within communities. Online assessment of PCLR has utility for multisite program evaluations.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Validity of four measures in assessing school canteen
           menu compliance with state-based healthy canteen policy
    • Abstract: Reilly, Kathryn; Nathan, Nicole; Wolfenden, Luke; Wiggers, John; Sutherland, Rachel; Wyse, Rebecca; Yoong, Sze Lin
      Issue addressed: In order to assess the impact of healthy school canteen policies on food availability for students, valid methods of measuring compliance are needed that can be applied at scale. The aim of this study is to assess the validity and direct cost of four methods to assess policy compliance: 1) principal and 2) canteen manager self-report via a computer-assisted telephone interview; and 3) comprehensive and 4) quick menu audits by dietitians, compared with observations.

      Methods: A cross-sectional study took place in the Hunter region of NSW, Australia, in a sample of 38 primary schools that had previously participated in a randomised controlled trial to improve healthy canteen policy compliance. Policy compliance was assessed using the four methods specified above. Percentage agreement, kappa, sensitivity and specificity compared with observations was calculated together with the direct time taken and costs of each method. Indirect costs (including set-up costs) for all measures have not been included.

      Results: Agreement with observations was substantial for the quick menu audit (kappa = 0.68), and moderate for the comprehensive menu audit (kappa = 0.42). Principal and canteen manager self-report resulted in poor agreement and low specificity with the gold standard. The self-reported measures had the lowest cost, followed by the quick menu audit and lastly the comprehensive menu audit.

      Conclusion: The quick menu audit represents a valid and potentially low-cost method of supporting policy implementation at scale.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Beyond fun runs and fruit bowls: An evaluation of the
           meso-level processes that shaped the Australian Healthy Workers Initiative
    • Abstract: Grunseit, Anne C; Rowbotham, Samantha; Pescud, Melanie; Indig, Devon; Wutzke, Sonia
      Issue addressed: The Australian National Partnership Agreement on Preventive Health (NPAPH) charged states and territories with the development and implementation of the Healthy Workers Initiative (HWI) to improve workplace health promotion. Most evaluation efforts focus on the setting (micro) level. In the present study the HWI at the meso-level (state program development) was examined to understand how jurisdictions navigated theoretical, practical, and political priorities to develop their programs, and the programmatic choices that support or hinder perceived success.

      Methods: Interviews with HWI program coordinators and managers across seven Australian jurisdictions explored decision-making processes related to developing and implementing the HWI and the impact of defunding. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis.

      Results: Despite taking a variety of approaches to the HWI, jurisdictions had common goals, namely achieving sustainability and capacity for meaningful change. These goals transcended the performance indicators set out by the NPAPH, which were considered unachievable in the given timeframe. Four ways jurisdictions sought to achieve their goals were identified, these were: 1) taking an embedded approach to workplace health promotion; 2) ensuring relevance of the HWI to businesses; 3) engaging in collaborative partnerships with agencies responsible for implementation; and 4) cultivating evolution of the HWI.

      Conclusions: This meso-level evaluation has provided valuable insights into how health promotion program coordinators translate broad, national-level initiatives into state-specific programs and how they define program success. The study findings also highlight how broader, contextual factors, such as jurisdiction size, political imperatives and funding decisions impact on the implementation and success of a national health promotion initiative.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Evaluation of the implementation of 'Get Healthy at
    • Abstract: Khanal, Santosh; Lloyd, Beverley; Rissel, Chris; Portors, Claire; Grunseit, Anne; Indig, Devon; Ibrahim, Ismail; McElduff, Sinead
      Issue addressed: Get Healthy at Work (GHaW) is a statewide program to reduce chronic disease risk among NSW workers by helping them make small changes to modifiable lifestyle chronic disease risk factors and create workplace environments that support healthy lifestyles. It has two primary components: a workplace health program (WHP) for businesses and online or face-to-face Brief Health Checks (BHCs) for workers. In this paper, we discuss our evaluation to identify areas for improvement in the implementation of WHP and to assess the uptake of BHCs by workers.

      Methods: Routinely collected WHP and BHC program data between July 2014 and February 2016 were analysed. A baseline online survey regarding workplace health promotion was conducted with 247 key contacts at registered GHaW worksites and a control group of 400 key contacts from a range of businesses. Seven telephone interviews were conducted with service provider key contacts.

      Results: As at February 2016, 3133 worksites (from 1199 businesses) across NSW had registered for GHaW, of which 36.8% started the program. Similar proportions of GHaW (34.0%) and control (31.7%) businesses had existing WHPs. BHCs were completed by 12 740 workers, and of those whose risks were assessed, 78.9% had moderate or high risk of diabetes and 33.6% had increased or high risk of cardiovascular disease. Approximately half (50.6%) of eligible BHC participants were referred to Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service (GHS) and 37.7% to Quitline. The uptake of face-to-face BHCs compared with online was significantly higher for males, people aged over 35 years, those undertaking less physical activity and those less likely to undertake active travel to work. Service providers suggested that the program's structured five-step pathway did not offer adequate flexibility to support worksites' progress through the program.

      Conclusions: During the evaluation period, a substantial number of NSW worksites registered for GHaW but their progress was slow because of the limited flexibility offered by the program model.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Sectoral system capacity development in health
           promotion: Evaluation of an Aboriginal nutrition program
    • Abstract: Genat, Bill; Browne, Jennifer; Thorpe, Sharon; MacDonald, Catherine
      Issue addressed: The study examined effective ways to build the capacity of health organisations and professionals in the public health sector to reduce Aboriginal chronic disease risk factors. It investigated the capacity-building strategies of the Victorian Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation (VACCHO) nutrition team in the facilitation of the statewide implementation of the Victorian Aboriginal Nutrition and Physical Activity Strategy 2009-2014 (VANPAS).

      Methods: Using a qualitative design, the study analysed the VACCHO program from 2009-2014 across five domains of capacity development: workforce, resources, organisations, partnerships and leadership. Data were sourced from archival program documents and 62 semi-structured participant interviews.

      Results: Diverse Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal professional, organisation representatives and community participants engaged in the implementation of the VANPAS. The VACCHO team used the VANPAS to solidify participant buy-in, strengthen workforce effectiveness, increase health promotion and resource appropriateness, improve organisational policy and build an evidence-base through collaborative dialogue using action-reflection principles.

      Conclusion: A credible, high-profile Aboriginal community led and evidence-based statewide program and a commitment to dialogue through action-reflection provided a meaningful basis for both Aboriginal community and mainstream organisational engagement. Upon this foundation, the VACCHO team built a coherent sectoral system with increased capacity to enhance the nutrition of Aboriginal Victorians.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Building research and evaluation capacity in
           population health: The NSW Health approach
    • Abstract: Edwards, Barry; Stickney, Beth; Milat, Andrew; Campbell, Danielle; Thackway, Sarah
      Issue addressed: An organisational culture that values and uses research and evaluation (R and E) evidence to inform policy and practice is fundamental to improving health outcomes. The 2016 NSW Government Program Evaluation Guidelines recommend investment in training and development to improve evaluation capacity. The purpose of this paper is to outline the approaches taken by the NSW Ministry of Health to develop R and E capacity and assess these against existing models of practice.

      Method: The Ministry of Health's Centre for Epidemiology and Evidence (CEE) takes an evidence-based approach to building R and E capacity in population health. Strategies are informed by: the NSW Population Health Research Strategy, R and E communities of practice across the Ministry and health Pillar agencies and a review of the published evidence on evaluation capacity building (ECB). An internal survey is conducted biennially to monitor research activity within the Ministry's Population and Public Health Division. One representative from each of the six centres that make up the Division coordinates completion of the survey by relevant staff members for their centre.

      Results: The review identified several ECB success factors including: implementing a tailored multifaceted approach; an organisational commitment to R and E; and offering experiential training and ongoing technical support to the workforce. The survey of research activity found that the Division funded a mix of research assets, research funding schemes, research centres and commissioned R and E projects. CEE provides technical advice and support services for staff involved in R and E and in 2015, 22 program evaluations were supported. R and E capacity building also includes a series of guides to assist policy makers, practitioners and researchers to commission, undertake and use policy-relevant R and E. Staff training includes workshops on critical appraisal, program logic and evaluation methods. From January 2013 to June 2014 divisional staff published 84 peer-reviewed papers and one book chapter.

      Conclusion: A strategic approach to R and E capacity building compares favourably with organisational dimensions of ECB and has facilitated the generation of high quality population health R and E in NSW.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Application of ecological momentary assessment in
           workplace health evaluation
    • Abstract: Engelen, Lina; Chau, Josephine Y; Burks-Young, Sarah; Bauman, Adrian
      Issue addressed: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves repeated sampling of current behaviours and experiences in real-time at random intervals. EMA is an innovative measurement method for program evaluation, using mobile technology (e.g. smartphones) to collect valid contextual health promotion data with good compliance. The present study examined the feasibility of using EMA for measuring workplace health outcomes.

      Methods: Twenty-two office-based adults were prompted at four random times per work-day during a 5-day period to respond to a short survey via a smartphone application. The prompting stopped when participants had either responded 12 times or the 5-day period had ended. The questions pertained to posture, task currently being undertaken, social interactions, musculoskeletal issues, mood, and perceptions of engagement and creativity.

      Results: In total 156 responses were collected. Nine participants completed all 12 surveys; the average completion rate was 58% (7/12). The average completion time was initially 50 s and reduced to 24 s during the later surveys. On average the participants were sitting and standing in 79% and 14% of survey instances, respectively. The participants reported they were working alone at their desks in 68% of instances. Reported productivity and stress were on average 6 and 3 out of 10, respectively, but varied up to 6-8 points within one person, hence the method appears sensitive to temporal variations in perceptions and mood.

      Conclusion: Given the rich real-time data, minimal participant burden and use of readily available technology, EMA has substantial potential in workplace health promotion evaluation through the measurement of participants' well being, activities, and behaviour change.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - The medicalisation of prevention: Health promotion is
           more than a pill a day
    • Abstract: Binns, Colin; Howat, Peter; Smith, James; Jancey, Jonine
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Tick tock: Time for a change'
    • Abstract: Pettigrew, Simone; Talati, Zenobia; Neal, Bruce
      Issue addressed: New developments in front-of-pack nutrition labelling are substantially improving the nutrition information available at the point of purchase. This has led to a need to reconsider the role of health logos such as the National Heart Foundation's 'Tick'.

      Methods: Using a qualitative, exploratory approach involving 10 focus groups with adults and children, this study investigated consumers' attitudes to the Tick and its relevance to their purchase decisions.

      Results: Both adults and children exhibited awareness of the Tick and its aim to indicate healthier product alternatives. Views on the effectiveness of the Tick were polarised, with some considering it a useful tool and others querying the basis of its licensing arrangements.

      Conclusions: While the Tick has in the past played a role in assisting consumers to make more informed decisions and encouraging favourable modification of the food supply, recent questions relating to its role and credibility have resulted in the Heart Foundation deciding to retire it.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - A picture's worth a thousand words: A food-selection
           observational method
    • Abstract: Carins, Julia E; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn R; Parkinson, Joy E
      Issue addressed: Methods are needed to accurately measure and describe behaviour so that social marketers and other behaviour change researchers can gain consumer insights before designing behaviour change strategies and so, in time, they can measure the impact of strategies or interventions when implemented. This paper describes a photographic method developed to meet these needs.

      Methods: Direct observation and photographic methods were developed and used to capture food-selection behaviour and examine those selections according to their healthfulness. Four meals (two lunches and two dinners) were observed at a workplace buffet-style cafeteria over a 1-week period. The healthfulness of individual meals was assessed using a classification scheme developed for the present study and based on the Australian Dietary Guidelines.

      Results: Approximately 27% of meals (n = 168) were photographed. Agreement was high between raters classifying dishes using the scheme, as well as between researchers when coding photographs. The subset of photographs was representative of patterns observed in the entire dining room. Diners chose main dishes in line with the proportions presented, but in opposition to the proportions presented for side dishes.

      Conclusions: The present study developed a rigorous observational method to investigate food choice behaviour. The comprehensive food classification scheme produced consistent classifications of foods. The photographic data collection method was found to be robust and accurate. Combining the two observation methods allows researchers and/or practitioners to accurately measure and interpret food selections. Consumer insights gained suggest that, in this setting, increasing the availability of green (healthful) offerings for main dishes would assist in improving healthfulness, whereas other strategies (e.g. promotion) may be needed for side dishes.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Feed Safe: A multidisciplinary partnership approach
           results in a successful mobile application for breastfeeding mothers
    • Abstract: White, Becky; White, James; Giglia, Roslyn; Tawia, Susan
      Issue addressed: Mobile applications are increasingly being used in health promotion initiatives. Although there is evidence that developing these mobile health applications in multidisciplinary teams is good practice, there is a gap in the literature with respect to evaluation of the process of this partnership model and how best to disseminate the application into the community. The aim of this paper is twofold, to describe the partnership model in which the Feed Safe application was developed and to investigate what worked in terms of dissemination.

      Methods: The process of working in partnership was measured using the Vic Health partnership analysis tool for health promotion. The dissemination strategy and reach of the application was measured using both automated analytics data and estimates of community-initiated promotion.

      Results: The combined average score from the partnership analysis tool was 138 out of a possible 175. A multipronged dissemination strategy led to good uptake of the application among Australian women.

      Conclusions: Multidisciplinary partnership models are important in the development of health promotion mobile applications. Recognising and utilising the skills of each partner organisation can help expand the reach of mobile health applications into the Australian population and aid in good uptake of health promotion resources.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Promoting physical activity among children and youth
           in disadvantaged South Australian CALD communities through alternative
           community sport opportunities
    • Abstract: Rosso, Edoardo; McGrath, Richard
      Issue addressed: Recently arrived migrants and refugees from a culturally and linguistically diverse background (CALD) may be particularly vulnerable to social exclusion. Participation in sport is endorsed as a vehicle to ease the resettlement process; however, in Australia, this is often thought as a simple matter of integration into existing sport structures (e.g. clubs). This approach fails to place actual community needs at the centre of sport engagement efforts.

      Methods: A consultation framework was established with South Australian CALD community leaders and organisations to scope needs for community-based alternatives to participation in traditional sport (e.g. clubs), co-design a suitable community sport program and pilot it in five communities. Interviews and questionnaire surveys were conducted with participants, community representatives, stakeholders and volunteers.

      Results: Regular, free soccer activities engaged 263 young people from a great variety of nationalities, including over 50% refugees, in secondary state school and community-based sites.

      Conclusion: Alternative community sport programs can provide a basic but valuable forum to promote physical activity and associated well being in CALD and refugee communities.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Cancer screening education: Can it change knowledge
           and attitudes among culturally and linguistically diverse communities in
           Queensland, Australia'
    • Abstract: Cullerton, Katherine; Gallegos, Danielle; Ashley, Ella; Do, Hong; Voloschenko, Anna; Fleming, Marylou; Ramsey, Rebecca; Gould, Trish
      Issue addressed: Screening for cancer of the cervix, breast and bowel can reduce morbidity and mortality. Lowparticipation rates in cancer screening have been identified among migrant communities internationally. Attempting to improve low rates of cancer screening, the Ethnic Communities Council of Queensland developed a pilot Cancer Screening Education Program for breast, bowel and cervical cancer. This study determines the impact of education sessions on knowledge, attitudes and intentions to participate in screening for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities living in Brisbane, Queensland.

      Methods: Seven CALD groups (Arabic-speaking, Bosnian, South Asian (including Indian and Bhutanese), Samoan and Pacific Island, Spanish-speaking, Sudanese and Vietnamese) participated in a culturally-tailored cancer screening education pilot program that was developed using the Health Belief Model. A pre- and post-education evaluation session measured changes in knowledge, attitudes and intention related to breast, bowel and cervical cancer and screening. The evaluation focussed on perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness and the target population's beliefs about reducing risk by cancer screening.

      Results: There were 159 participants in the three cancer screening education sessions. Overall participants' knowledge increased, some attitudes toward participation in cancer screening became more positive and intent to participate in future screening increased (n = 146).

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - A cross-sectional study examining the extent of
           unwanted sexual attention and unhealthy intimate relationships among
           female university students
    • Abstract: Hayden, Kelly; Graham, Melissa; Lamaro, Greer
      Issue addressed: Unwanted sexual attention and unhealthy intimate relationships have the potential to have serious negative health consequences. To date, there has been scant focus on these issues among university students in Australia. The aim of the current study was to describe the extent of unwanted sexual attention and unhealthy intimate relationships experienced in their lifetime by female university students aged 18-25 years.

      Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken involving 465 female students aged 18-25 years. Students were recruited through one faculty within a Victorian university and invited to complete an anonymous online questionnaire.

      Results: Sixty-seven per cent (n = 312) of female students reported experiencing unwanted sexual attention in their lifetime. The most common form of unwanted sexual attention was kissing or touching over clothes (98%; n = 306). Over 43% (n = 124) of the female students reported that the experience of unwanted sexual experience occurred after their protests were ignored. Thirty per cent (n = 135) of the female students reported experiencing at least one element of an unhealthy intimate relationship.

      Conclusions: The high rates of unwanted sexual attention and unhealthy intimate relationships among female university students is of concern given the negative impact such events can have on individual's physical, emotional and social well being.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Reorientation of health services: Enablers and
    • Abstract: McFarlane, K; Judd, J; Devine, S; Watt, K
      Issue addressed: Primary healthcare settings are important providers of health promotion approaches. However, organisational challenges can affect their capacity to deliver these approaches. This review identified the common enablers and barriers health organisations faced and it aimed to explore the experiences health organisations, in particular Aboriginal organisations, had when increasing their health promotion capacity.

      Methods: A systematic search of peer-reviewed literature was conducted. Articles published between 1990-2014 that focused on a health care-settings approach and discussed factors that facilitated or hindered an organisation's ability to increase health promotion capacity were included.

      Results: Twenty-five articles met the inclusion criteria. Qualitative (n = 18) and quantitative (n = 7) study designs were included. Only one article described the experiences of an Aboriginal health organisation. Enablers included: management support, skilled staff, provision of external support to the organisation, committed staffing and financial resources, leadership and the availability of external partners to work with. Barriers included: lack of management support, lack of dedicated health promotion staff, staff lacking skills or confidence, competing priorities and a lack of time and resources allocated to health promotion activities.

      Conclusions: While the literature highlighted the importance of health promotion work, barriers can limit the delivery of health promotion approaches within primary healthcare organisations. A gap in the literature exists about how Aboriginal health organisations face these challenges.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Partnerships and the past: Reflections on 1940s
           community centre endeavours of the National Fitness Council
    • Abstract: Madsen, Wendy
      Issue addressed: Multisectoral and multilevel partnerships have been used in Australia since the 1940s to promote health. Examination of historical partnerships can offer insights into current practice.

      Methods: Historical method was used to analyse archival material regarding the role of the National Fitness Council (NFC) and its partnerships under the Federal Government's program to establish community centres. Results: Inadequate funding, messy organisational structures, a broadly defined goal and limited capacity within the NFC inhibited its work in regards to community centres.

      Conclusions: Although the policy of establishing community centres was ultimately unsuccessful, this examination has analysed the partnerships between the NFC and various levels of governments, and the effect of the political and economic context on them.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - The impact of alcohol management practices on sports
           club membership and revenue
    • Abstract: Wolfenden, L; Kingsland, M; Rowland, B; Dodds, P; Sidey, M; Sherker, S; Wiggers, J
      Issue addressed: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an alcohol management intervention on community sporting club revenue (total annual income) and membership (number of club players, teams and spectators).

      Methods: The study employed a cluster randomised controlled trial design that allocated clubs either an alcohol accreditation intervention or a control condition. Club representatives completed a scripted telephone survey at baseline and again 3 years following. Demographic information about clubs was collected along with information about club income.

      Results: Number of players and senior teams were not significantly different between treatment groups following the intervention. The intervention group, however, showed a significantly higher mean number of spectators. Estimates of annual club income between groups at follow-up showed no significant difference in revenue.

      Conclusions: This study found no evidence to suggest that efforts to reduce alcohol-related harm in community sporting clubs will compromise club revenue and membership.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Primary caregivers of young children are unaware of
           food neophobia and food preference development
    • Abstract: Norton, Julie; Raciti, Maria M
      Issues addressed: This research explored primary caregivers' awareness of food neophobia and how food preferences develop in young children aged between 1 and 2.5 years.

      Methods: This qualitative study used case study methodology and comprised interviews with 24 primary caregivers of young children aged between 1 and 2.5 years.

      Results and conclusions: Primary caregivers of young children are unaware of food neophobia and food preference development in young children.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - The influence of population mobility on changing
           patterns of HIV acquisition: Lessons for and from Australia
    • Abstract: Crawford, G; Lobo, R; Brown, G; Maycock, B
      Investment, bipartisan support and involvement from affected communities have characterised Australia's HIV response, and helped maintain a low prevalence epidemic. Patterns of HIV acquisition are changing, with an increasing number of infections acquired overseas by migrant and mobile populations. A coordinated national response is required to address HIV acquisition in the context of population mobility.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Implementation of a driver licensing support program
           in three Aboriginal communities: A brief report from a pilot program
    • Abstract: Cullen, Patricia; Clapham, Kathleen; Byrne, Jake; Hunter, Kate; Rogers, Kris; Senserrick, Teresa; Keay, Lisa; Ivers, Rebecca
      Issue addressed: Aboriginal people face significant barriers to accessing the driver licensing system in New South Wales (NSW). Low rates of licence participation contribute to transport disadvantage and impede access to employment, education and essential health services. The Driving Change program has been piloted in three communities to increase licensing rates for young Aboriginal people. This brief report reviews implementation to determine whether Driving Change is being delivered as intended to the target population.

      Methods: Descriptive analysis of routinely collected program data collected between April 2013 and October 2014 to monitor client demographics (n = 194) and program-specific outcomes.

      Results: The target population is being reached with the majority of clients aged 16-24 years (76%) and being unemployed (53%). Licensing outcomes are being achieved at all pilot sites (learner licence 19%; provisional or unrestricted licence 16%). There is variation in program delivery across the three pilot sites demonstrating the intended flexibility of the program.

      Conclusions: Driving Change is delivering all aspects of the program as intended at the three pilot sites. The program is reaching the target population and providing a sufficiently flexible program that responds to community and client identified need.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Cultural experiences of student and new-graduate
           dietitians in the Gomeroi gaaynggal ArtsHealth program: A quality
           assurance project
    • Abstract: Rae, Kym; Bohringer, Emma; Ashman, Amy; Brown, Leanne; Collins, Clare
      Issue addressed: Undergraduate dietetic students are required to demonstrate cultural awareness and culturally respectful communication to meet national competencies, but exposure to practical experiences may be limited. The Gomeroi gaaynggal ArtsHealth Centre was established in 2009 after community consultation with the Indigenous community in Tamworth, New South Wales. The Centre provides a safe and welcoming space where women can create art while discussing health issues with visiting health professionals and students. The present study aimed to evaluate the cultural experiences of student and new-graduate dietitians visiting an Aboriginal ArtsHealth centre through a quality assurance project.

      Methods: Six student and new-graduate dietitians were invited to provide feedback on their experiences for this report. A generic inductive approach was used for qualitative data analysis.

      Results: Key qualitative themes of 'building rapport' and 'developing cultural understanding' were identified. Four of the participants interviewed felt they gained a deeper understanding of the context around health disparity for Indigenous Australians through their experiences. Key ways to build rapport with community members were identified.

      Conclusions: Results suggest that first-hand experiences working in an Aboriginal ArtsHealth centre are effective in building cultural competency skills for student and new-graduate dietitians. These experiences could be better supported through improved preparation for the cultural setting, and ongoing monitoring of participant experiences is recommended.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Willingness of Australian health educators and health
           promotion officers to conduct rapid HIV testing
    • Abstract: Santella, Anthony J; Fraser, Jacquie; Prehn, Angela W; Boye-Codjoe, Eugenia
      Issue addressed: Rapid HIV tests were recently approved by the Australian government. This paper examines the attitudes and willingness to conduct rapid HIV testing (RHT) of Australian health educators and health promotion officers (HE/HPO) from various settings and disciplines. Methods: The aim of the Promoting Research on Methods in Screening Expertise study was to explore knowledge of HIV, attitudes towards people living with HIV, and willingness to conduct RHT among HE/HPO in Australia; this information was attained via an online survey of HE/HPO. Descriptive statistics, X2 tests, t-tests, and multivariate logistic regression were then conducted. Results: Data from 156 HE/HPOs were analysed. Overall, 60% of participants believed that HE/HPO should offer RHT. Additionally, 70% were personally willing to undergo training in conducting RHT. Fifty-nine percent of participants scored as having 'high' HIV knowledge (at least 12 out of 13 correct answers), with 32% answering all questions correctly. Knowledge was strongly associated with willingness to be trained to conduct RHT. Conclusions: HE/HPO with advanced training in developing evidence-based approaches to improve the health and wellbeing of marginalised and disadvantaged groups may be an appropriate workforce to train to conduct RHT and counselling.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Assessing the potential to combine attitude tracking
           and health campaign evaluation surveys
    • Abstract: Hollier, Lauren P; Pettigrew, Simone; Minto, Carolyn; Slevin, Terry; Strickland, Mark
      Issue addressed: Online surveys are becoming increasingly popular in health research because of the low cost and fast completion time. A large proportion of online survey costs are allocated to setup and administration expenses, which suggests that conducting fewer, longer surveys would be a cost-effective approach. The current study assessed whether the incorporation of a health campaign evaluation survey within a longitudinal attitudes and behaviours tracking survey produced different outcomes compared with the separate administration of the evaluation survey. Methods: Data were collected via an online panel, with 688 respondents completing the combined survey and 657 respondents completing the evaluation-only survey. Regression analyses were conducted to examine whether survey type was related to the campaign evaluation results. Results: Those who completed the combined survey perceived the campaign advertisement to be more personally relevant than those completing the evaluation-only survey. There were no differences in results relating to campaign awareness and reported behavioural change as a result of campaign exposure. Conclusions: There were minimal differences between results obtained from combining an attitude/behaviour tracking survey with a campaign evaluation survey. Any priming or order effects were limited to respondents' cognitive responses to the advertisement.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Betty Durston - inaugural editor of the HPJA 5
           November 1926-7 June 2016
    • Abstract: Watson, Charles; Shilton, Trevor
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Using a competition model to help rural communities
           become healthier: Lessons from the NSW Healthy Town Challenge quality
           assurance process
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - We need a comprehensive approach to health promotion
    • Abstract: Jancey, Jonine; Barnett, Lisa; Smith, James; Binns, Colin; Howat, Peter
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Risky business or not': FIFOs, sexual risk taking
           and the Australian mining industry
    • Abstract: O'Mullan, Cathy; Debattista, Joseph; Browne, Matthew
      Issue addressed: The fly-in, fly-out (FIFO) and drive-in, drive-out (DIDO) models of mining in Australia have led to concerns about adverse health and psychosocial impacts. Despite speculation that increased levels of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Australia, including HIV, are associated with FIFO/DIDO work, we know little about sexual risk-taking behaviours in mining populations. This study explores differences in sexual risk taking and perceptions of risk between FIFO/DIDO miners and residential miners.

      Methods: A cross-sectional survey was administered to a sample (n = 444) of male miners working in Queensland, Australia. The self-completed survey contained 49 questions relating to knowledge, attitudes and behaviour and included demographic information and specific items related to sex and relationships.

      Results: FIFO/DIDO status was not associated with any differential sexual risk-taking behaviours, except for an increased probability of reporting 'ever being diagnosed with an STI'; 10.8% of FIFO/DIDO respondents versus 3.6% of others (x2 (1) = 4.43, P = 0.35).

      Conclusions: Our results appear to counter anecdotal evidence that FIFO/DIDO miners engage in higher sexual risk behaviours when compared with residential miners.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - The relationship between alcohol consumption and
           related harm among young university students
    • Abstract: Hart, Ellen; Burns, Sharyn
      Issue addressed: Research has shown that Australian university students consume alcohol at a higher level than their peers from the general population and are therefore more likely to witness and experience alcohol-related harm. This study measured the prevalence of alcohol consumption among 18-24-year-old university students and the association between alcohol consumption and witnessed and experienced harms.

      Methods: A random cross-sectional sample of university students aged 18-24 years (n = 2466) was recruited via the University Survey Office and through random intercept at campus market day. All participants completed an online survey that included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Alcohol Problems Scale and an additional scale measuring witnessed harm.

      Results: Principal Components Analysis revealed three factors within the Alcohol Problems Scale; i.e. Criminal and Aggressive Behaviour, Health and Emotional Harms and Sexual Harms. Students who consume alcohol at high-risk levels were significantly more likely to score highly on each factor, 1.6 times more likely to experience harm and 1.1 times more likely to witness harm than students who consume alcohol at low-risk levels.

      Conclusions: The positive association between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm supports previous findings. This study adds previous research through the categorisation of harm into factors.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Diet quality and 6-year risk of overweight and obesity
           among mid-age Australian women who were initially in the healthy weight
    • Abstract: Aljadani, Haya M; Patterson, Amanda J; Sibbritt, David; Collins, Clare E
      Issue addressed: The present study investigated the association between diet quality, measured using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), and 6-year risk of becoming overweight or obese in mid-age women from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health (ALSWH).

      Methods: Women (n = 1107) aged 47.6-55.8 years who were a healthy weight (body mass index (BMI) between
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Exploring Australian health promotion and
           environmental sustainability initiatives
    • Abstract: Patrick, Rebecca; Kingsley, Jonathan
      Issue addressed: Health promotion practitioners have important roles in applying ecosystem approaches to health and actively promoting environmental sustainability within community-level practice. The present study identified the nature and scope of health promotion activities across Australia that tackle environmental sustainability.

      Methods: A mixed-method approach was used, with 82 participants undertaking a quantitative survey and 11 undertaking a qualitative interview. Purposeful sampling strategies were used to recruit practitioners whowere delivering community-level health promotion and sustainability programs in Australia. The data were analysed thematically and interpretation was guided by the principles of triangulation.

      Results: Study participants were at various stages of linking health promotion and environmental sustainability. Initiatives focused on healthy and sustainable food, active transport, energy efficiency, contact with nature and capacity building.

      Conclusion: Capacity building approaches were perceived as essential to strengthening this field of practice. Healthy and sustainable food and active transport were suitable platforms for simultaneously promoting community health and sustainability. There was potential for expansion of programs that emphasise contact with nature and energy issues, as well as interventions that emphasise systems thinking and interdisciplinary approaches.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Planning for the next generation of public health
           advocates: Evaluation of an online advocacy mentoring program
    • Abstract: O'Connell, Emily; Stoneham, Melissa; Saunders, Julie
      Issue addressed: Despite being viewed as a core competency for public health professionals, public health advocacy lacks a prominent place in the public health literature and receives minimal coverage in university curricula. The Public Health Advocacy Institute of Western Australia (PHAIWA) sought to fill this gap by establishing an online e-mentoring program for public health professionals to gain knowledge through skill-based activities and engaging in a mentoring relationship with an experienced public health advocate. This study is a qualitative evaluation of the online e-mentoring program.

      Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with program participants at the conclusion of the 12-month program to examine program benefits and determine the perceived contribution of individual program components to overall advocacy outcomes.

      Results: Increased mentee knowledge, skills, level of confidence and experience, and expanded public health networks were reported. Outcomes were dependent on participants' level of commitment, time and location barriers, mentoring relationship quality, adaptability to the online format and the relevance of activities for application to participants' workplace context. Program facilitators had an important role through the provision of timely feedback and maintaining contact with participants.

      Conclusion: An online program that combines public health advocacy content via skill-based activities with mentoring from an experienced public health advocate is a potential strategy to build advocacy capacity in the public health workforce.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - A qualitative investigation of factors influencing
           participation in bowel screening in New South Wales
    • Abstract: Dawson, Greer; Crane, Melanie; Lyons, Claudine; Burnham, Anna; Bowman, Tara; Travaglia, Joanne
      Issue addressed: Bowel cancer is Australia's second biggest cancer killer. Yet, despite the existence of a free national bowel-screening program, participation in this program remains low. The aim of the present study was to understand the current factors contributing to this trend to help inform future strategies to increase participation.

      Methods: Eight focus groups (n = 61 in total) were conducted with participants aged 45 years and over from metropolitan and regional New South Wales (NSW). Discussions canvassed awareness, knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding bowel cancer and screening, and explored how these factors influenced decisions to screen.

      Results: The low public profile of bowel cancer compared with other cancers, together with poor knowledge of its prevalence and treatability, has contributed to a low perception of risk in the community. Minimal understanding of the often-asymptomatic presentation of bowel cancer and the role of screening in prevention has appeared to compromise the perceived value of screening. In addition, confusion regarding when, and how often, individuals should screen was apparent. Knowledge of bowel cancer and screening, and its role in motivating intention to screen, emerged as a dominant theme in the data.

      Conclusions: The present study highlights specific knowledge gaps and confusion with regard to bowel cancer and screening. Addressing these gaps through the provision of clear, coordinated information may shift attitudes to screening and increase participation.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Ethics and health promotion practice: Exploring
           attitudes and practices in Western Australian health organisations
    • Abstract: Reilly, T; Crawford, G; Lobo, R; Leavy, J; Jancey, J
      Issue addressed: Evidence-informed practice underpinned by ethics is fundamental to developing the science of health promotion. Knowledge and application of ethical principles are competencies required for health promotion practice. However, these competencies are often inconsistently understood and applied. This research explored attitudes, practices, enablers and barriers related to ethics in practice in Western Australian health organisations.

      Methods: Semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 health promotion practitioners, purposefully selected to provide a cross-section of government and non-government organisations. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and then themed.

      Results: The majority of participants reported consideration of ethics in their practice; however, only half reported seeking Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) approval for projects in the past 12 months. Enablers identified as supporting ethics in practice and disseminating findings included: support preparing ethics applications; resources and training about ethical practice; ability to access HRECs for ethics approval; and a supportive organisational culture. Barriers included: limited time; insufficient resourcing and capacity; ethics approval not seen as part of core business; and concerns about academic writing.

      Conclusion: The majority of participants were aware of the importance of ethics in practice and the dissemination of findings. However, participants reported barriers to engaging in formal ethics processes and to publishing findings.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - The case of national health promotion policy in
           Australia: Where to now'
    • Abstract: Smith, James A; Crawford, Gemma; Signal, Louise
      Issue addressed: Over the last three decades there has been an incremental investment in health promotion and prevention across Australia; yet, the Commonwealth Government and some state/territory governments have more recently instigated funding cuts in health promotion and prevention. This paper argues that the role of health promotion is critical in contemporary Australia and discusses strategies needed to move forward within the context of recent disinvestments.

      Discussion: Key areas of concern relating to recent health promotion and prevention disinvestment in Australia include the abolishment of the Australian National Preventive Health Agency, the cessation of the National Partnership Agreement on Preventive Health and significant cuts to Indigenous programs. These changes pose a significant threat to the health, economic and social well being of Australians and the region, particularly those that are most vulnerable.

      Conclusions: Future health promotion and prevention efforts will require strategic leadership and action to enhance the promotion of health equity in Australia over the coming decades. We call on governments to (re)invest in health promotion and prevention both in and outside the health sector so that health promotion professionals can continue their advocacy efforts aimed at articulating their professional place in improving population health.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Smoking among Aboriginal adults in Sydney, Australia
    • Abstract: Arjunan, Punitha; Poder, Natasha; Welsh, Kerry; Bellear, LaVerne; Heathcote, Jeremy; Wright, Darryl; Millen, Elizabeth; Spinks, Mark; Williams, Mandy; Wen, Li Ming
      Issue addressed: Tobacco consumption contributes to health disparities among Aboriginal Australians who experience a greater burden of smoking-related death and diseases. This paper reports findings from a baseline survey on factors associated with smoking, cessation behaviours and attitudes towards smoke-free homes among the Aboriginal population in inner and southwestern Sydney.

      Methods: A baseline survey was conducted in inner and south-western Sydney from October 2010 to July 2011. The survey applied both interviewer-administered and self-administered data collection methods. Multiple logistic regression was performed to determine the factors associated with smoking.

      Results: Six hundred and sixty-three participants completed the survey. The majority were female (67.5%), below the age of 50 (66.6%) and more than half were employed (54.7%). Almost half were current smokers (48.4%) with the majority intending to quit in the next 6 months (79.0%) and living in a smoke-free home (70.4%). Those aged 30-39 years (AOR 3.28; 95% CI: 2.06-5.23) and the unemployed (AOR 1.67; 95% CI: 1.11-2.51) had higher odds for current smoking. Participants who had a more positive attitude towards smoke-free homes were less likely to smoke (AOR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.74-.85).

      Conclusions: A high proportion of participants were current smokers among whom intention to quit was high. Age, work status and attitudes towards smoke-free home were factors associated with smoking.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Diabetes foot care education movies for Aboriginal
           people: Bran nue leg
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Developing a guide for community-based groups to
           reduce alcohol-related harm among African migrants
    • Abstract: Jaworski, Alison; Brown, Tony; Norman, Catherine; Hata, Kiri; Toohey, Mark; Vasiljevic, Dubravka; Rowe, Rachel
      Issue addressed: Alcohol-related harm is an issue of concern for African migrant communities living in Australia. However, there has been little information available to guide workers in developing culturally sensitive health promotion strategies.

      Methods: A three-step approach, comprising a literature review, community consultations and an external review, was undertaken to develop a guide to assist organisations and health promotion groups working with African migrant communities to address alcohol-related harms.

      Discussion: There was a high level of agreement between the three steps. Addressing alcohol harms with African migrant communities requires approaches that are sensitive to the needs, structures and experiences of communities. The process should incorporate targeted approaches that enable communities to achieve their resettlement goals as well as strengthening mainstream health promotion efforts.

      Conclusions: The resource produced guides alcohol harm prevention coalitions and workers from the first steps of understanding the influences of acculturation and resettlement on alcohol consumption, through to planning, developing and evaluating an intervention in partnership with communities.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Inside the black box of food safety: A qualitative
           study of 'non-compliance' among food businesses
    • Abstract: Brough, Mark; Davies, Belinda; Johnstone, Eleesa
      Issue addressed: This paper examines the meaning of food safety among food businesses deemed non-compliant and considers the need for an insider perspective to inform a more nuanced health promotion practice.

      Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 29 food business operators who had recently been deemed 'non-compliant' through Council inspection.

      Results: Paradoxically, these 'non-compliers' revealed a strong belief in the importance of food safety as well as a desire to comply with the regulations as communicated to them by Environmental Health Officers.

      Conclusions: The evidence base of food safety is largely informed by the science of food hazards, yet there is a very important need to consider the practical daily application of food safety practices. This requires a more socially nuanced appreciation of food businesses beyond the simple dichotomy of compliant/ non-compliant.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Satisfaction with transport and enjoyment of the
           commute by commuting mode in inner Sydney
    • Abstract: Rissel, Chris; Crane, Melanie; Wen, Li Ming; Greaves, Stephen; Standen, Chris
      Issue addressed: Travel satisfaction has become an increasingly popular construct for the assessment and monitoring of transport systems and services. However, satisfaction may not adequately assess emotion or mood towards walking and cycling, especially when infrastructure is biased towards motor vehicle modes. In this exploratory study we sought to examine the associations of both satisfaction with transport and enjoyment from the commute to work or study by commute mode in an Australian inner city context where transport mode choices are readily available.

      Methods: As part of the Sydney Transport and Health Study, 675 baseline study participants (2013) were invited to complete an online questionnaire in September/October 2014 and 512 did so (76% response rate). Participants who did not travel to work were removed from analyses, giving complete data for 473. Participants provided data on usual travel mode to work or study, satisfaction with transport, enjoyment from their commute, and demographics and neighbourhood factors.

      Results: The main mode of travel to work or study in this inner city sample was public transport (41%), followed by motor vehicle (27%), walking (21%) and cycling (10%). Most participants were satisfied with their transport (82%), with little variation by mode. Walkers (49%) and cyclists (52%) reported far higher levels of enjoyment from their commute than car drivers (14%) or public transport users (10%), with an adjusted odds ratio of 6.18 (95% confidence interval 3.10-12.29, P < 0.001) for walking and an adjusted odds ratio of 6.15 (95% confidence interval 2.68-14.08, P < 0.001) for cycling.

      Conclusions: People who walked or cycled to work or study in inner Sydney reported higher levels of enjoyment from their commute compared with those who drove. This suggests enjoyment may be another benefit of active travel.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - 'Hero to Healing' drink driving program for Indigenous
           communities in Far North Queensland
    • Abstract: Fitts, Michelle S; Palk, Gavan R
      Issue addressed: Alcohol-related road crashes are a leading cause of the injury burden experienced by Indigenous Australians. Existing drink driving programs are primarily designed for the mainstream population. The 'Hero to Healing' program was specifically developed with Indigenous communities and is underpinned by the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA). This paper reports on the formative evaluation of the program from delivery in two Far North Queensland communities.

      Methods: Focus groups and semistructured interviews were conducted with drink driver participants (n = 17) and other Elders and community members (n = 8) after each program. Qualitative content analysis was used to categorise the transcripts.

      Results: The CRA appealed to participants because of its flexible nature and encouragement of rearranging lifestyle factors, without specific focus on alcohol use. Participants readily identified with the social and peer-related risk and protective factors discussed. Cofacilitation of the program with Elders was identified as a key aspect of the program. More in-depth discussion about cannabis and driving, anger management skills and relationship issues are recommended.

      Conclusions: Participants' recognition of content reinforced earlier project results, particularly the use of kinship pressure to motivate younger family members to drink drive. Study findings suggest that the principles of the CRA are useful; however, some amendments to the CRA components and program content were necessary.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Challenges to translating new media interventions in
           community practice: A sexual health SMS program case study
    • Abstract: Wright, Cassandra JC; Leinberger, Kaytlyn; Lim, Megan SC
      Issue addressed: Herein we discuss translational challenges for new media interventions, using the Sexual Health and Youth (SHY) short message service (SMS) project to illustrate particular challenges relating to recruitment and evaluation.

      Methods: Following the delivery of an SMS sexual health program, available documents (progress reports, communications with project staff, ethics submissions and reporting) were analysed thematically to elucidate the barriers to recruitment, implementation and evaluation.

      Results: Despite being framed by evidence-based research, the project had little impact on the intended population. Only 119 of an expected 5100 young people (2%) enrolled to receive SMS messages. Program documents highlighted the difficulty of recruiting participants for new media interventions. Key issues identified in recruitment included under-resourcing, delays waiting to receive ethics approval and challenges of school-based recruitment.

      Conclusion: The minimal impact of the SHY program illustrates the need for improved research translation in the field of newmedia interventions. It is important that recruitment procedures align with the convenience and appeal of mobile phone-based interventions.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Evaluating a health video on diabetic retinopathy
    • Abstract: Meyer, Joos; Johnson, Karim; Bowyer, Joshua; Muir, Josephine; Turner, Angus
      Issue addressed: Indigenous Australians are 14 times more likely than non-Indigenous Australians to develop diabetic retinopathy (DR). Blindness can be prevented in 98% of cases if DR is identified and treated early. While the National Health and Medical Research Council recommend annual screening for Indigenous Australians, screening attendance rates remain low. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a targeted health promotion intervention improved patient compliance and screening rates.

      Methods: Bad Sugars, Bad Eyes - a culturally appropriate video targeting DR awareness and the importance of screening among Indigenous Australians - was developed at the Lions Eye Institute, Western Australia. The study used a patient questionnaire pre and post viewing of the video, as well as semi-structured interviews with Aboriginal Health Workers, to explore the influence the resource had on patient knowledge and attitudes. Eighty-four participants, currently involved in DR screening programs, were recruited from Aboriginal Medical Services (AMS) and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHS).

      Results: The video was found to increase patient knowledge about key DR issues as well as alter patient attitudes identified as potential barriers to screening. The areas most affected by the video resource were knowledge of recommended screening intervals, the severity of potential visual complications if DR is left undiagnosed and untreated and that screening is needed even when asymptomatic. Aboriginal Health Workers positively evaluated the video, all rating it as 'very' culturally appropriate, understandable and relatable.

      Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that Indigenous DR screening attendance rates could be increased through the expanded use of this video.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Development and oversight of ethical health promotion
           quality assurance and evaluation activities involving human participants
    • Abstract: Sainsbury, Peter
      Issue addressed: This paper considers the role of ethics and ethics review processes in the development of health promotion quality assurance and evaluation activities involving human participants.

      Content: The Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research and associated documents provide the framework for the ethical conduct and independent review of research (including quality assurance and evaluation) involving humans in Australia. Identifying the level of risk to which participants may be exposed by participation in quality assurance and evaluation activities is essential for health promotion workers undertaking such activities. Organisations can establish processes other than review by a Human Research Ethics Committee for negligible and low risk research activities. Health promotion quality assurance and evaluation activities often involve negligible and low risk to participants. Seven triggers that indicate the need for ethics review of quality assurance and evaluation activities and a procedural checklist for developing ethical quality assurance and evaluation activities are provided.

      Conclusion: Health promotion workers should be familiar with the NHMRC's National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research. When ethical considerations underpin the planning and conduct of all quality assurance and evaluation from the very beginning, the activity is the better for it, independent 'ethics approval' can mostly be secured without much trouble and workers' frustration levels are reduced.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Why should ethics approval be required prior to
           publication of health promotion research'
    • Abstract: Newson, Ainsley J; Lipworth, Wendy
      Issue addressed: Most academic journals that publish studies involving human participants require evidence that the research has been approved by a human research ethics committee (HREC). Yet journals continue to receive submissions from authors who have failed to obtain such approval. In this paper, we provide an ethical justification of why journals should not, in general, publish articles describing research that has no ethics approval, with particular attention to the health promotion context.

      Methods: Using theoretical bioethical reasoning and drawing on a case study, we first rebut some potential criticisms of the need for research ethics approval. We then outline four positive claims to justify a presumption that research should, in most instances, be published only if it has been undertaken with HREC approval.

      Results: We present four justifications for requiring ethics approval before publication: (1) HREC approval adds legitimacy to the research; (2) the process of obtaining HREC approval can improve the quality of an intervention being investigated; (3) obtaining HREC approval can help mitigate harm; and (4) obtaining HREC approval demonstrates respect for persons.

      Conclusion: This paper provides a systematic and comprehensive assessment of why research ethics approval should generally be obtained before publishing in the health promotion context.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Health promotion practice, research ethics and
           publishing in the Health Promotion Journal of Australia
    • Abstract: Carter, Stacy M; Braunack-Mayer, Annette; Jancey, Jonine
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:42 GMT
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