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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1283 journals)
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HEALTH AND SAFETY (514 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 179)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription  
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access  
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Policy and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Professions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Health Sciences Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Health Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals
  [SJR: 0.606]   [H-I: 19]   [10 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1036-1073 - ISSN (Online) 2201-1617
   Published by RMIT Publishing Homepage  [403 journals]
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Application of ecological momentary assessment in
           workplace health evaluation
    • Abstract: Engelen, Lina; Chau, Josephine Y; Burks-Young, Sarah; Bauman, Adrian
      Issue addressed: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves repeated sampling of current behaviours and experiences in real-time at random intervals. EMA is an innovative measurement method for program evaluation, using mobile technology (e.g. smartphones) to collect valid contextual health promotion data with good compliance. The present study examined the feasibility of using EMA for measuring workplace health outcomes.

      Methods: Twenty-two office-based adults were prompted at four random times per work-day during a 5-day period to respond to a short survey via a smartphone application. The prompting stopped when participants had either responded 12 times or the 5-day period had ended. The questions pertained to posture, task currently being undertaken, social interactions, musculoskeletal issues, mood, and perceptions of engagement and creativity.

      Results: In total 156 responses were collected. Nine participants completed all 12 surveys; the average completion rate was 58% (7/12). The average completion time was initially 50 s and reduced to 24 s during the later surveys. On average the participants were sitting and standing in 79% and 14% of survey instances, respectively. The participants reported they were working alone at their desks in 68% of instances. Reported productivity and stress were on average 6 and 3 out of 10, respectively, but varied up to 6-8 points within one person, hence the method appears sensitive to temporal variations in perceptions and mood.

      Conclusion: Given the rich real-time data, minimal participant burden and use of readily available technology, EMA has substantial potential in workplace health promotion evaluation through the measurement of participants' well being, activities, and behaviour change.

      PubDate: Thu, 15 Dec 2016 09:46:20 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Evaluation of the implementation of 'Get Healthy at
    • Abstract: Khanal, Santosh; Lloyd, Beverley; Rissel, Chris; Portors, Claire; Grunseit, Anne; Indig, Devon; Ibrahim, Ismail; McElduff, Sinead
      Issue addressed: Get Healthy at Work (GHaW) is a statewide program to reduce chronic disease risk among NSW workers by helping them make small changes to modifiable lifestyle chronic disease risk factors and create workplace environments that support healthy lifestyles. It has two primary components: a workplace health program (WHP) for businesses and online or face-to-face Brief Health Checks (BHCs) for workers. In this paper, we discuss our evaluation to identify areas for improvement in the implementation of WHP and to assess the uptake of BHCs by workers.

      Methods: Routinely collected WHP and BHC program data between July 2014 and February 2016 were analysed. A baseline online survey regarding workplace health promotion was conducted with 247 key contacts at registered GHaW worksites and a control group of 400 key contacts from a range of businesses. Seven telephone interviews were conducted with service provider key contacts.

      Results: As at February 2016, 3133 worksites (from 1199 businesses) across NSW had registered for GHaW, of which 36.8% started the program. Similar proportions of GHaW (34.0%) and control (31.7%) businesses had existing WHPs. BHCs were completed by 12 740 workers, and of those whose risks were assessed, 78.9% had moderate or high risk of diabetes and 33.6% had increased or high risk of cardiovascular disease. Approximately half (50.6%) of eligible BHC participants were referred to Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service (GHS) and 37.7% to Quitline. The uptake of face-to-face BHCs compared with online was significantly higher for males, people aged over 35 years, those undertaking less physical activity and those less likely to undertake active travel to work. Service providers suggested that the program's structured five-step pathway did not offer adequate flexibility to support worksites' progress through the program.

      Conclusions: During the evaluation period, a substantial number of NSW worksites registered for GHaW but their progress was slow because of the limited flexibility offered by the program model.

      PubDate: Thu, 15 Dec 2016 09:43:50 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - The usefulness of GPS bicycle tracking data for
           evaluating the impact of infrastructure change on cycling behaviour
    • Abstract: Heesch, Kristiann C; Langdon, Michael
      Issue addressed: A key strategy to increase active travel is the construction of bicycle infrastructure. Tools to evaluate this strategy are limited. This study assessed the usefulness of a smartphone GPS tracking system for evaluating the impact of this strategy on cycling behaviour.

      Methods: Cycling usage data were collected from Queenslanders who used a GPS tracking app on their smartphone from 2013-2014. 'Heat' and volume maps of the data were reviewed, and GPS bicycle counts were compared with surveillance data and bicycle counts from automatic traffic-monitoring devices.

      Results: Heat maps broadly indicated that changes in cycling occurred near infrastructure improvements. Volume maps provided changes in counts of cyclists due to these improvements although errors were noted in geographic information system (GIS) geo-coding of some GPS data. Large variations were evident in the number of cyclists using the app in different locations. These variations limited the usefulness of GPS data for assessing differences in cycling across locations.

      Conclusion: Smartphone GPS data are useful in evaluating the impact of improved bicycle infrastructure in one location. Using GPS data to evaluate differential changes in cycling across multiple locations is problematic when there is insufficient traffic-monitoring devices available to triangulate GPS data with bicycle traffic count data.

      PubDate: Thu, 15 Dec 2016 09:42:51 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Reach, engagement, and effectiveness: A systematic
           review of evaluation methodologies used in health promotion via social
           networking sites
    • Abstract: Lim, Megan SC; Wright, Cassandra JC; Carrotte, Elise R; Pedrana, Alisa E
      Issue addressed: Social networking sites (SNS) are increasingly popular platforms for health promotion. Advancements in SNS health promotion require quality evidence; however, interventions are often not formally evaluated. This study aims to describe evaluation practices used in SNS health promotion.

      Methods: A systematic review was undertaken of Medline, PsycINFO, Scopus, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, Communication and Mass Media Complete, and Cochrane Library databases. Articles published between 2006 and 2013 describing any health promotion intervention delivered using SNS were included.

      Results: Forty-seven studies were included. There were two main evaluation approaches: closed designs (n = 23), which used traditional research designs and formal recruitment procedures; and open designs (n = 19), which evaluated the intervention in a real-world setting, allowing unknown SNS users to interact with the content without enrolling in research. Closed designs were unable to assess reach and engagement beyond their research sample. Open designs often relied on weaker study designs with no use of objective outcome measures and yielded low response rates.

      Conclusions: Barriers to evaluation included low participation rates, high attrition, unknown representativeness and lack of comparison groups. Acceptability was typically assessed among those engaged with the intervention, with limited population data available to accurately assess intervention reach. Few studies were able to assess uptake of the intervention in a real-life setting while simultaneously assessing effectiveness of interventions with research rigour.

      PubDate: Thu, 15 Dec 2016 09:29:08 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Advancing evaluation practice in health promotion
    • Abstract: Smith, Ben J; Rissel, Chris; Shilton, Trevor; Bauman, Adrian
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Dec 2016 22:40:19 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Children, poverty and health promotion in Australia
    • Abstract: Binns, Colin; Howat, Peter; Smith, James A; Jancey, Jonine
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Dec 2016 22:40:19 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Applying systems theory to the evaluation of a whole
           school approach to violence prevention
    • Abstract: Kearney, Sarah; Leung, Loksee; Joyce, Andrew; Ollis, Debbie; Green, Celia
      Issue addressed: Our Watch led a complex 12-month evaluation of a whole school approach to Respectful Relationships Education (RRE) implemented in 19 schools. RRE is an emerging field aimed at preventing gender-based violence. This paper will illustrate how from an implementation science perspective, the evaluation was a critical element in the change process at both a school and policy level.

      Methods: Using several conceptual approaches from systems science, the evaluation sought to examine how the multiple systems layers - student, teacher, school, community and government - interacted and influenced each other. A distinguishing feature of the evaluation included 'feedback loops'; that is, evaluation data was provided to participants as it became available. Evaluation tools included a combination of standardised surveys (with pre- and post-intervention data provided to schools via individualised reports), reflection tools, regular reflection interviews and summative focus groups.

      Results: Data was shared during implementation with project staff, department staff and schools to support continuous improvement at these multiple systems levels. In complex settings, implementation can vary according to context; and the impact of evaluation processes, tools and findings differed across the schools. Interviews and focus groups conducted at the end of the project illustrated which of these methods were instrumental in motivating change and engaging stakeholders at both a school and departmental level and why.

      Conclusion: The evaluation methods were a critical component of the pilot's approach, helping to shape implementation through data feedback loops and reflective practice for ongoing, responsive and continuous improvement. Future health promotion research on complex interventions needs to examine how the evaluation itself is influencing implementation.

      PubDate: Mon, 12 Dec 2016 22:40:19 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Designing evaluation plans for health promotion
           mHealth interventions: A case study of the Milk Man mobile app
    • Abstract: White, Becky K; Burns, Sharyn K; Giglia, Roslyn C; Scott, Jane A
      Evaluating complex health promotion interventions that use mobile apps requires comprehensive and adaptive evaluation plans. As mobile usage becomes increasingly sophisticated and personalised, broad evaluation plans are important in determining the impact and efficacy of a mobile health (mHealth) app. Evaluation should consider user feedback and outcome measures, as well as examine elements such as the robustness of the technology, the intervention principles and engagement strategies, and the interaction of the user with the technology. This paper introduces four mHealth evaluation models and tools and describes the evaluation plan that has been developed for Milk Man, a breastfeeding app targeting new and expectant fathers. Milk Man is a socially connected, gamified app that is being tested in a large Randomised Control Trial (RCT). While there is a need for mobile apps to be evaluated in adequately powered RCTs, trialling mobile apps over a long period of time presents challenges. Incorporating robust evaluation design will help ensure that technological performance, app intervention principles, as well as health and behavioural outcomes are measured. The detail and scope of the Milk Man app evaluation plan will ensure the findings add to the evidence base and have broad relevance to health promotion practitioners.

      PubDate: Mon, 12 Dec 2016 22:40:19 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Improving the translation of health promotion
           interventions using effectiveness - implementation hybrid designs in
           program evaluations
    • Abstract: Wolfenden, Luke; Williams, Christopher M; Wiggers, John; Nathan, Nicole; Yoong, Sze Lin
      Bridging the gap between research-based evidence and public health policy and practice is a considerable challenge to public health improvement this century, requiring a rethinking of conventional approaches to health research production and use. Traditionally the process of research translation has been viewed as linear and unidirectional, from epidemiological research to identify health problems and determinants, to efficacy and effectiveness trials and studies of strategies to maximise the implementation and dissemination of evidence-based interventions in practice. A criticism of this approach is the considerable time it takes to achieve translation of health research into practice. Hybrid evaluation designs provide one means of accelerating the research translation process by simultaneously collecting information regarding intervention impacts and implementation and dissemination strategy. However, few health promotion research trials employ such designs and often fail to report information to enable assessment of the feasibility and potential impact of implementation and dissemination strategies. In addition to intervention effects, policy makers and practitioners also want to know the impact of implementation strategies. This commentary will define the three categories of effectiveness-implementation hybrid designs, describe their application in health promotion evaluation, and discuss the potential implications of more systematic use of such designs for the translation of health promotion and evaluation.

      PubDate: Mon, 12 Dec 2016 22:40:19 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Assessing change in perceived community leadership
           readiness in the Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle program
    • Abstract: Kostadinov, Iordan; Daniel, Mark; Jones, Michelle; Cargo, Margaret
      Issue addressed: The context of community-based childhood obesity prevention programs can influence the effects of these intervention programs. Leadership readiness for community mobilisation for childhood obesity prevention is one such contextual factor. This study assessed perceived community leadership readiness (PCLR) at two time points in a state-wide, multisite community-based childhood obesity prevention program.

      Methods: PCLR was assessed across 168 suburbs of 20 intervention communities participating in South Australia's Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) program. Using a validated online PCLR tool, four key respondents from each community rated each suburb within their respective community on a nine-point scale for baseline and 2015. Average PCLR and change scores were calculated using the general linear model with suburbs nested in communities. Relationships between demographic variables and change in PCLR were evaluated using multiple regression. Ease of survey use was also assessed.

      Results: Average PCLR increased between baseline (3.51, s.d. = 0.82) and 2015 (5.23, s.d. = 0.89). PCLR rose in 18 of 20 intervention communities. PCLR was inversely associated with suburb population size (r2 = 0.03, P = 0.03, beta = -0.25) and positively associated with intervention duration (r2 change = 0.08, P = 0.00, beta = 0.29). Only 8% of survey respondents considered the online assessment tool difficult to use.

      Conclusions: PCLR increased over the course of the OPAL intervention. PCLR varied between and within communities. Online assessment of PCLR has utility for multisite program evaluations.

      PubDate: Mon, 12 Dec 2016 22:40:19 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Validity of four measures in assessing school canteen
           menu compliance with state-based healthy canteen policy
    • Abstract: Reilly, Kathryn; Nathan, Nicole; Wolfenden, Luke; Wiggers, John; Sutherland, Rachel; Wyse, Rebecca; Yoong, Sze Lin
      Issue addressed: In order to assess the impact of healthy school canteen policies on food availability for students, valid methods of measuring compliance are needed that can be applied at scale. The aim of this study is to assess the validity and direct cost of four methods to assess policy compliance: 1) principal and 2) canteen manager self-report via a computer-assisted telephone interview; and 3) comprehensive and 4) quick menu audits by dietitians, compared with observations.

      Methods: A cross-sectional study took place in the Hunter region of NSW, Australia, in a sample of 38 primary schools that had previously participated in a randomised controlled trial to improve healthy canteen policy compliance. Policy compliance was assessed using the four methods specified above. Percentage agreement, kappa, sensitivity and specificity compared with observations was calculated together with the direct time taken and costs of each method. Indirect costs (including set-up costs) for all measures have not been included.

      Results: Agreement with observations was substantial for the quick menu audit (kappa = 0.68), and moderate for the comprehensive menu audit (kappa = 0.42). Principal and canteen manager self-report resulted in poor agreement and low specificity with the gold standard. The self-reported measures had the lowest cost, followed by the quick menu audit and lastly the comprehensive menu audit.

      Conclusion: The quick menu audit represents a valid and potentially low-cost method of supporting policy implementation at scale.

      PubDate: Mon, 12 Dec 2016 22:40:19 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Beyond fun runs and fruit bowls: An evaluation of the
           meso-level processes that shaped the Australian Healthy Workers Initiative
    • Abstract: Grunseit, Anne C; Rowbotham, Samantha; Pescud, Melanie; Indig, Devon; Wutzke, Sonia
      Issue addressed: The Australian National Partnership Agreement on Preventive Health (NPAPH) charged states and territories with the development and implementation of the Healthy Workers Initiative (HWI) to improve workplace health promotion. Most evaluation efforts focus on the setting (micro) level. In the present study the HWI at the meso-level (state program development) was examined to understand how jurisdictions navigated theoretical, practical, and political priorities to develop their programs, and the programmatic choices that support or hinder perceived success.

      Methods: Interviews with HWI program coordinators and managers across seven Australian jurisdictions explored decision-making processes related to developing and implementing the HWI and the impact of defunding. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis.

      Results: Despite taking a variety of approaches to the HWI, jurisdictions had common goals, namely achieving sustainability and capacity for meaningful change. These goals transcended the performance indicators set out by the NPAPH, which were considered unachievable in the given timeframe. Four ways jurisdictions sought to achieve their goals were identified, these were: 1) taking an embedded approach to workplace health promotion; 2) ensuring relevance of the HWI to businesses; 3) engaging in collaborative partnerships with agencies responsible for implementation; and 4) cultivating evolution of the HWI.

      Conclusions: This meso-level evaluation has provided valuable insights into how health promotion program coordinators translate broad, national-level initiatives into state-specific programs and how they define program success. The study findings also highlight how broader, contextual factors, such as jurisdiction size, political imperatives and funding decisions impact on the implementation and success of a national health promotion initiative.

      PubDate: Mon, 12 Dec 2016 22:40:19 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Sectoral system capacity development in health
           promotion: Evaluation of an Aboriginal nutrition program
    • Abstract: Genat, Bill; Browne, Jennifer; Thorpe, Sharon; MacDonald, Catherine
      Issue addressed: The study examined effective ways to build the capacity of health organisations and professionals in the public health sector to reduce Aboriginal chronic disease risk factors. It investigated the capacity-building strategies of the Victorian Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation (VACCHO) nutrition team in the facilitation of the statewide implementation of the Victorian Aboriginal Nutrition and Physical Activity Strategy 2009-2014 (VANPAS).

      Methods: Using a qualitative design, the study analysed the VACCHO program from 2009-2014 across five domains of capacity development: workforce, resources, organisations, partnerships and leadership. Data were sourced from archival program documents and 62 semi-structured participant interviews.

      Results: Diverse Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal professional, organisation representatives and community participants engaged in the implementation of the VANPAS. The VACCHO team used the VANPAS to solidify participant buy-in, strengthen workforce effectiveness, increase health promotion and resource appropriateness, improve organisational policy and build an evidence-base through collaborative dialogue using action-reflection principles.

      Conclusion: A credible, high-profile Aboriginal community led and evidence-based statewide program and a commitment to dialogue through action-reflection provided a meaningful basis for both Aboriginal community and mainstream organisational engagement. Upon this foundation, the VACCHO team built a coherent sectoral system with increased capacity to enhance the nutrition of Aboriginal Victorians.

      PubDate: Mon, 12 Dec 2016 22:40:19 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Building research and evaluation capacity in
           population health: The NSW Health approach
    • Abstract: Edwards, Barry; Stickney, Beth; Milat, Andrew; Campbell, Danielle; Thackway, Sarah
      Issue addressed: An organisational culture that values and uses research and evaluation (R and E) evidence to inform policy and practice is fundamental to improving health outcomes. The 2016 NSW Government Program Evaluation Guidelines recommend investment in training and development to improve evaluation capacity. The purpose of this paper is to outline the approaches taken by the NSW Ministry of Health to develop R and E capacity and assess these against existing models of practice.

      Method: The Ministry of Health's Centre for Epidemiology and Evidence (CEE) takes an evidence-based approach to building R and E capacity in population health. Strategies are informed by: the NSW Population Health Research Strategy, R and E communities of practice across the Ministry and health Pillar agencies and a review of the published evidence on evaluation capacity building (ECB). An internal survey is conducted biennially to monitor research activity within the Ministry's Population and Public Health Division. One representative from each of the six centres that make up the Division coordinates completion of the survey by relevant staff members for their centre.

      Results: The review identified several ECB success factors including: implementing a tailored multifaceted approach; an organisational commitment to R and E; and offering experiential training and ongoing technical support to the workforce. The survey of research activity found that the Division funded a mix of research assets, research funding schemes, research centres and commissioned R and E projects. CEE provides technical advice and support services for staff involved in R and E and in 2015, 22 program evaluations were supported. R and E capacity building also includes a series of guides to assist policy makers, practitioners and researchers to commission, undertake and use policy-relevant R and E. Staff training includes workshops on critical appraisal, program logic and evaluation methods. From January 2013 to June 2014 divisional staff published 84 peer-reviewed papers and one book chapter.

      Conclusion: A strategic approach to R and E capacity building compares favourably with organisational dimensions of ECB and has facilitated the generation of high quality population health R and E in NSW.

      PubDate: Mon, 12 Dec 2016 22:40:19 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - The medicalisation of prevention: Health promotion is
           more than a pill a day
    • Abstract: Binns, Colin; Howat, Peter; Smith, James; Jancey, Jonine
      PubDate: Thu, 4 Aug 2016 19:19:37 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Tick tock: Time for a change?
    • Abstract: Pettigrew, Simone; Talati, Zenobia; Neal, Bruce
      Issue addressed: New developments in front-of-pack nutrition labelling are substantially improving the nutrition information available at the point of purchase. This has led to a need to reconsider the role of health logos such as the National Heart Foundation's 'Tick'.

      Methods: Using a qualitative, exploratory approach involving 10 focus groups with adults and children, this study investigated consumers' attitudes to the Tick and its relevance to their purchase decisions.

      Results: Both adults and children exhibited awareness of the Tick and its aim to indicate healthier product alternatives. Views on the effectiveness of the Tick were polarised, with some considering it a useful tool and others querying the basis of its licensing arrangements.

      Conclusions: While the Tick has in the past played a role in assisting consumers to make more informed decisions and encouraging favourable modification of the food supply, recent questions relating to its role and credibility have resulted in the Heart Foundation deciding to retire it.

      PubDate: Thu, 4 Aug 2016 19:19:37 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - A picture's worth a thousand words: A food-selection
           observational method
    • Abstract: Carins, Julia E; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn R; Parkinson, Joy E
      Issue addressed: Methods are needed to accurately measure and describe behaviour so that social marketers and other behaviour change researchers can gain consumer insights before designing behaviour change strategies and so, in time, they can measure the impact of strategies or interventions when implemented. This paper describes a photographic method developed to meet these needs.

      Methods: Direct observation and photographic methods were developed and used to capture food-selection behaviour and examine those selections according to their healthfulness. Four meals (two lunches and two dinners) were observed at a workplace buffet-style cafeteria over a 1-week period. The healthfulness of individual meals was assessed using a classification scheme developed for the present study and based on the Australian Dietary Guidelines.

      Results: Approximately 27% of meals (n = 168) were photographed. Agreement was high between raters classifying dishes using the scheme, as well as between researchers when coding photographs. The subset of photographs was representative of patterns observed in the entire dining room. Diners chose main dishes in line with the proportions presented, but in opposition to the proportions presented for side dishes.

      Conclusions: The present study developed a rigorous observational method to investigate food choice behaviour. The comprehensive food classification scheme produced consistent classifications of foods. The photographic data collection method was found to be robust and accurate. Combining the two observation methods allows researchers and/or practitioners to accurately measure and interpret food selections. Consumer insights gained suggest that, in this setting, increasing the availability of green (healthful) offerings for main dishes would assist in improving healthfulness, whereas other strategies (e.g. promotion) may be needed for side dishes.

      PubDate: Thu, 4 Aug 2016 19:19:37 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Feed Safe: A multidisciplinary partnership approach
           results in a successful mobile application for breastfeeding mothers
    • Abstract: White, Becky; White, James; Giglia, Roslyn; Tawia, Susan
      Issue addressed: Mobile applications are increasingly being used in health promotion initiatives. Although there is evidence that developing these mobile health applications in multidisciplinary teams is good practice, there is a gap in the literature with respect to evaluation of the process of this partnership model and how best to disseminate the application into the community. The aim of this paper is twofold, to describe the partnership model in which the Feed Safe application was developed and to investigate what worked in terms of dissemination.

      Methods: The process of working in partnership was measured using the Vic Health partnership analysis tool for health promotion. The dissemination strategy and reach of the application was measured using both automated analytics data and estimates of community-initiated promotion.

      Results: The combined average score from the partnership analysis tool was 138 out of a possible 175. A multipronged dissemination strategy led to good uptake of the application among Australian women.

      Conclusions: Multidisciplinary partnership models are important in the development of health promotion mobile applications. Recognising and utilising the skills of each partner organisation can help expand the reach of mobile health applications into the Australian population and aid in good uptake of health promotion resources.

      PubDate: Thu, 4 Aug 2016 19:19:37 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Promoting physical activity among children and youth
           in disadvantaged South Australian CALD communities through alternative
           community sport opportunities
    • Abstract: Rosso, Edoardo; McGrath, Richard
      Issue addressed: Recently arrived migrants and refugees from a culturally and linguistically diverse background (CALD) may be particularly vulnerable to social exclusion. Participation in sport is endorsed as a vehicle to ease the resettlement process; however, in Australia, this is often thought as a simple matter of integration into existing sport structures (e.g. clubs). This approach fails to place actual community needs at the centre of sport engagement efforts.

      Methods: A consultation framework was established with South Australian CALD community leaders and organisations to scope needs for community-based alternatives to participation in traditional sport (e.g. clubs), co-design a suitable community sport program and pilot it in five communities. Interviews and questionnaire surveys were conducted with participants, community representatives, stakeholders and volunteers.

      Results: Regular, free soccer activities engaged 263 young people from a great variety of nationalities, including over 50% refugees, in secondary state school and community-based sites.

      Conclusion: Alternative community sport programs can provide a basic but valuable forum to promote physical activity and associated well being in CALD and refugee communities.

      PubDate: Thu, 4 Aug 2016 19:19:37 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Cancer screening education: Can it change knowledge
           and attitudes among culturally and linguistically diverse communities in
           Queensland, Australia?
    • Abstract: Cullerton, Katherine; Gallegos, Danielle; Ashley, Ella; Do, Hong; Voloschenko, Anna; Fleming, Marylou; Ramsey, Rebecca; Gould, Trish
      Issue addressed: Screening for cancer of the cervix, breast and bowel can reduce morbidity and mortality. Lowparticipation rates in cancer screening have been identified among migrant communities internationally. Attempting to improve low rates of cancer screening, the Ethnic Communities Council of Queensland developed a pilot Cancer Screening Education Program for breast, bowel and cervical cancer. This study determines the impact of education sessions on knowledge, attitudes and intentions to participate in screening for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities living in Brisbane, Queensland.

      Methods: Seven CALD groups (Arabic-speaking, Bosnian, South Asian (including Indian and Bhutanese), Samoan and Pacific Island, Spanish-speaking, Sudanese and Vietnamese) participated in a culturally-tailored cancer screening education pilot program that was developed using the Health Belief Model. A pre- and post-education evaluation session measured changes in knowledge, attitudes and intention related to breast, bowel and cervical cancer and screening. The evaluation focussed on perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness and the target population's beliefs about reducing risk by cancer screening.

      Results: There were 159 participants in the three cancer screening education sessions. Overall participants' knowledge increased, some attitudes toward participation in cancer screening became more positive and intent to participate in future screening increased (n = 146).

      PubDate: Thu, 4 Aug 2016 19:19:37 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - A cross-sectional study examining the extent of
           unwanted sexual attention and unhealthy intimate relationships among
           female university students
    • Abstract: Hayden, Kelly; Graham, Melissa; Lamaro, Greer
      Issue addressed: Unwanted sexual attention and unhealthy intimate relationships have the potential to have serious negative health consequences. To date, there has been scant focus on these issues among university students in Australia. The aim of the current study was to describe the extent of unwanted sexual attention and unhealthy intimate relationships experienced in their lifetime by female university students aged 18-25 years.

      Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken involving 465 female students aged 18-25 years. Students were recruited through one faculty within a Victorian university and invited to complete an anonymous online questionnaire.

      Results: Sixty-seven per cent (n = 312) of female students reported experiencing unwanted sexual attention in their lifetime. The most common form of unwanted sexual attention was kissing or touching over clothes (98%; n = 306). Over 43% (n = 124) of the female students reported that the experience of unwanted sexual experience occurred after their protests were ignored. Thirty per cent (n = 135) of the female students reported experiencing at least one element of an unhealthy intimate relationship.

      Conclusions: The high rates of unwanted sexual attention and unhealthy intimate relationships among female university students is of concern given the negative impact such events can have on individual's physical, emotional and social well being.

      PubDate: Thu, 4 Aug 2016 19:19:37 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Reorientation of health services: Enablers and
    • Abstract: McFarlane, K; Judd, J; Devine, S; Watt, K
      Issue addressed: Primary healthcare settings are important providers of health promotion approaches. However, organisational challenges can affect their capacity to deliver these approaches. This review identified the common enablers and barriers health organisations faced and it aimed to explore the experiences health organisations, in particular Aboriginal organisations, had when increasing their health promotion capacity.

      Methods: A systematic search of peer-reviewed literature was conducted. Articles published between 1990-2014 that focused on a health care-settings approach and discussed factors that facilitated or hindered an organisation's ability to increase health promotion capacity were included.

      Results: Twenty-five articles met the inclusion criteria. Qualitative (n = 18) and quantitative (n = 7) study designs were included. Only one article described the experiences of an Aboriginal health organisation. Enablers included: management support, skilled staff, provision of external support to the organisation, committed staffing and financial resources, leadership and the availability of external partners to work with. Barriers included: lack of management support, lack of dedicated health promotion staff, staff lacking skills or confidence, competing priorities and a lack of time and resources allocated to health promotion activities.

      Conclusions: While the literature highlighted the importance of health promotion work, barriers can limit the delivery of health promotion approaches within primary healthcare organisations. A gap in the literature exists about how Aboriginal health organisations face these challenges.

      PubDate: Thu, 4 Aug 2016 19:19:37 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Partnerships and the past: Reflections on 1940s
           community centre endeavours of the National Fitness Council
    • Abstract: Madsen, Wendy
      Issue addressed: Multisectoral and multilevel partnerships have been used in Australia since the 1940s to promote health. Examination of historical partnerships can offer insights into current practice.

      Methods: Historical method was used to analyse archival material regarding the role of the National Fitness Council (NFC) and its partnerships under the Federal Government's program to establish community centres. Results: Inadequate funding, messy organisational structures, a broadly defined goal and limited capacity within the NFC inhibited its work in regards to community centres.

      Conclusions: Although the policy of establishing community centres was ultimately unsuccessful, this examination has analysed the partnerships between the NFC and various levels of governments, and the effect of the political and economic context on them.

      PubDate: Thu, 4 Aug 2016 19:19:37 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - The impact of alcohol management practices on sports
           club membership and revenue
    • Abstract: Wolfenden, L; Kingsland, M; Rowland, B; Dodds, P; Sidey, M; Sherker, S; Wiggers, J
      Issue addressed: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an alcohol management intervention on community sporting club revenue (total annual income) and membership (number of club players, teams and spectators).

      Methods: The study employed a cluster randomised controlled trial design that allocated clubs either an alcohol accreditation intervention or a control condition. Club representatives completed a scripted telephone survey at baseline and again 3 years following. Demographic information about clubs was collected along with information about club income.

      Results: Number of players and senior teams were not significantly different between treatment groups following the intervention. The intervention group, however, showed a significantly higher mean number of spectators. Estimates of annual club income between groups at follow-up showed no significant difference in revenue.

      Conclusions: This study found no evidence to suggest that efforts to reduce alcohol-related harm in community sporting clubs will compromise club revenue and membership.

      PubDate: Thu, 4 Aug 2016 19:19:37 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Primary caregivers of young children are unaware of
           food neophobia and food preference development
    • Abstract: Norton, Julie; Raciti, Maria M
      Issues addressed: This research explored primary caregivers' awareness of food neophobia and how food preferences develop in young children aged between 1 and 2.5 years.

      Methods: This qualitative study used case study methodology and comprised interviews with 24 primary caregivers of young children aged between 1 and 2.5 years.

      Results and conclusions: Primary caregivers of young children are unaware of food neophobia and food preference development in young children.

      PubDate: Thu, 4 Aug 2016 19:19:37 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - The influence of population mobility on changing
           patterns of HIV acquisition: Lessons for and from Australia
    • Abstract: Crawford, G; Lobo, R; Brown, G; Maycock, B
      Investment, bipartisan support and involvement from affected communities have characterised Australia's HIV response, and helped maintain a low prevalence epidemic. Patterns of HIV acquisition are changing, with an increasing number of infections acquired overseas by migrant and mobile populations. A coordinated national response is required to address HIV acquisition in the context of population mobility.

      PubDate: Thu, 4 Aug 2016 19:19:37 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Implementation of a driver licensing support program
           in three Aboriginal communities: A brief report from a pilot program
    • Abstract: Cullen, Patricia; Clapham, Kathleen; Byrne, Jake; Hunter, Kate; Rogers, Kris; Senserrick, Teresa; Keay, Lisa; Ivers, Rebecca
      Issue addressed: Aboriginal people face significant barriers to accessing the driver licensing system in New South Wales (NSW). Low rates of licence participation contribute to transport disadvantage and impede access to employment, education and essential health services. The Driving Change program has been piloted in three communities to increase licensing rates for young Aboriginal people. This brief report reviews implementation to determine whether Driving Change is being delivered as intended to the target population.

      Methods: Descriptive analysis of routinely collected program data collected between April 2013 and October 2014 to monitor client demographics (n = 194) and program-specific outcomes.

      Results: The target population is being reached with the majority of clients aged 16-24 years (76%) and being unemployed (53%). Licensing outcomes are being achieved at all pilot sites (learner licence 19%; provisional or unrestricted licence 16%). There is variation in program delivery across the three pilot sites demonstrating the intended flexibility of the program.

      Conclusions: Driving Change is delivering all aspects of the program as intended at the three pilot sites. The program is reaching the target population and providing a sufficiently flexible program that responds to community and client identified need.

      PubDate: Thu, 4 Aug 2016 19:19:37 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Cultural experiences of student and new-graduate
           dietitians in the Gomeroi gaaynggal ArtsHealth program: A quality
           assurance project
    • Abstract: Rae, Kym; Bohringer, Emma; Ashman, Amy; Brown, Leanne; Collins, Clare
      Issue addressed: Undergraduate dietetic students are required to demonstrate cultural awareness and culturally respectful communication to meet national competencies, but exposure to practical experiences may be limited. The Gomeroi gaaynggal ArtsHealth Centre was established in 2009 after community consultation with the Indigenous community in Tamworth, New South Wales. The Centre provides a safe and welcoming space where women can create art while discussing health issues with visiting health professionals and students. The present study aimed to evaluate the cultural experiences of student and new-graduate dietitians visiting an Aboriginal ArtsHealth centre through a quality assurance project.

      Methods: Six student and new-graduate dietitians were invited to provide feedback on their experiences for this report. A generic inductive approach was used for qualitative data analysis.

      Results: Key qualitative themes of 'building rapport' and 'developing cultural understanding' were identified. Four of the participants interviewed felt they gained a deeper understanding of the context around health disparity for Indigenous Australians through their experiences. Key ways to build rapport with community members were identified.

      Conclusions: Results suggest that first-hand experiences working in an Aboriginal ArtsHealth centre are effective in building cultural competency skills for student and new-graduate dietitians. These experiences could be better supported through improved preparation for the cultural setting, and ongoing monitoring of participant experiences is recommended.

      PubDate: Thu, 4 Aug 2016 19:19:37 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Willingness of Australian health educators and health
           promotion officers to conduct rapid HIV testing
    • Abstract: Santella, Anthony J; Fraser, Jacquie; Prehn, Angela W; Boye-Codjoe, Eugenia
      Issue addressed: Rapid HIV tests were recently approved by the Australian government. This paper examines the attitudes and willingness to conduct rapid HIV testing (RHT) of Australian health educators and health promotion officers (HE/HPO) from various settings and disciplines. Methods: The aim of the Promoting Research on Methods in Screening Expertise study was to explore knowledge of HIV, attitudes towards people living with HIV, and willingness to conduct RHT among HE/HPO in Australia; this information was attained via an online survey of HE/HPO. Descriptive statistics, X2 tests, t-tests, and multivariate logistic regression were then conducted. Results: Data from 156 HE/HPOs were analysed. Overall, 60% of participants believed that HE/HPO should offer RHT. Additionally, 70% were personally willing to undergo training in conducting RHT. Fifty-nine percent of participants scored as having 'high' HIV knowledge (at least 12 out of 13 correct answers), with 32% answering all questions correctly. Knowledge was strongly associated with willingness to be trained to conduct RHT. Conclusions: HE/HPO with advanced training in developing evidence-based approaches to improve the health and wellbeing of marginalised and disadvantaged groups may be an appropriate workforce to train to conduct RHT and counselling.

      PubDate: Thu, 4 Aug 2016 19:19:37 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Assessing the potential to combine attitude tracking
           and health campaign evaluation surveys
    • Abstract: Hollier, Lauren P; Pettigrew, Simone; Minto, Carolyn; Slevin, Terry; Strickland, Mark
      Issue addressed: Online surveys are becoming increasingly popular in health research because of the low cost and fast completion time. A large proportion of online survey costs are allocated to setup and administration expenses, which suggests that conducting fewer, longer surveys would be a cost-effective approach. The current study assessed whether the incorporation of a health campaign evaluation survey within a longitudinal attitudes and behaviours tracking survey produced different outcomes compared with the separate administration of the evaluation survey. Methods: Data were collected via an online panel, with 688 respondents completing the combined survey and 657 respondents completing the evaluation-only survey. Regression analyses were conducted to examine whether survey type was related to the campaign evaluation results. Results: Those who completed the combined survey perceived the campaign advertisement to be more personally relevant than those completing the evaluation-only survey. There were no differences in results relating to campaign awareness and reported behavioural change as a result of campaign exposure. Conclusions: There were minimal differences between results obtained from combining an attitude/behaviour tracking survey with a campaign evaluation survey. Any priming or order effects were limited to respondents' cognitive responses to the advertisement.

      PubDate: Thu, 4 Aug 2016 19:19:37 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Betty Durston - inaugural editor of the HPJA 5
           November 1926-7 June 2016
    • Abstract: Watson, Charles; Shilton, Trevor
      PubDate: Thu, 4 Aug 2016 19:19:37 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Using a competition model to help rural communities
           become healthier: Lessons from the NSW Healthy Town Challenge quality
           assurance process
    • PubDate: Thu, 4 Aug 2016 19:19:37 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - We need a comprehensive approach to health promotion
    • Abstract: Jancey, Jonine; Barnett, Lisa; Smith, James; Binns, Colin; Howat, Peter
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2016 20:53:03 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Risky business or not?: FIFOs, sexual risk taking and
           the Australian mining industry
    • Abstract: O'Mullan, Cathy; Debattista, Joseph; Browne, Matthew
      Issue addressed: The fly-in, fly-out (FIFO) and drive-in, drive-out (DIDO) models of mining in Australia have led to concerns about adverse health and psychosocial impacts. Despite speculation that increased levels of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Australia, including HIV, are associated with FIFO/DIDO work, we know little about sexual risk-taking behaviours in mining populations. This study explores differences in sexual risk taking and perceptions of risk between FIFO/DIDO miners and residential miners.

      Methods: A cross-sectional survey was administered to a sample (n = 444) of male miners working in Queensland, Australia. The self-completed survey contained 49 questions relating to knowledge, attitudes and behaviour and included demographic information and specific items related to sex and relationships.

      Results: FIFO/DIDO status was not associated with any differential sexual risk-taking behaviours, except for an increased probability of reporting 'ever being diagnosed with an STI'; 10.8% of FIFO/DIDO respondents versus 3.6% of others (x2 (1) = 4.43, P = 0.35).

      Conclusions: Our results appear to counter anecdotal evidence that FIFO/DIDO miners engage in higher sexual risk behaviours when compared with residential miners.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2016 20:53:03 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - The relationship between alcohol consumption and
           related harm among young university students
    • Abstract: Hart, Ellen; Burns, Sharyn
      Issue addressed: Research has shown that Australian university students consume alcohol at a higher level than their peers from the general population and are therefore more likely to witness and experience alcohol-related harm. This study measured the prevalence of alcohol consumption among 18-24-year-old university students and the association between alcohol consumption and witnessed and experienced harms.

      Methods: A random cross-sectional sample of university students aged 18-24 years (n = 2466) was recruited via the University Survey Office and through random intercept at campus market day. All participants completed an online survey that included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Alcohol Problems Scale and an additional scale measuring witnessed harm.

      Results: Principal Components Analysis revealed three factors within the Alcohol Problems Scale; i.e. Criminal and Aggressive Behaviour, Health and Emotional Harms and Sexual Harms. Students who consume alcohol at high-risk levels were significantly more likely to score highly on each factor, 1.6 times more likely to experience harm and 1.1 times more likely to witness harm than students who consume alcohol at low-risk levels.

      Conclusions: The positive association between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm supports previous findings. This study adds previous research through the categorisation of harm into factors.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2016 20:53:03 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Diet quality and 6-year risk of overweight and obesity
           among mid-age Australian women who were initially in the healthy weight
    • Abstract: Aljadani, Haya M; Patterson, Amanda J; Sibbritt, David; Collins, Clare E
      Issue addressed: The present study investigated the association between diet quality, measured using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), and 6-year risk of becoming overweight or obese in mid-age women from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health (ALSWH).

      Methods: Women (n = 1107) aged 47.6-55.8 years who were a healthy weight (body mass index (BMI) between
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2016 20:53:03 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Exploring Australian health promotion and
           environmental sustainability initiatives
    • Abstract: Patrick, Rebecca; Kingsley, Jonathan
      Issue addressed: Health promotion practitioners have important roles in applying ecosystem approaches to health and actively promoting environmental sustainability within community-level practice. The present study identified the nature and scope of health promotion activities across Australia that tackle environmental sustainability.

      Methods: A mixed-method approach was used, with 82 participants undertaking a quantitative survey and 11 undertaking a qualitative interview. Purposeful sampling strategies were used to recruit practitioners whowere delivering community-level health promotion and sustainability programs in Australia. The data were analysed thematically and interpretation was guided by the principles of triangulation.

      Results: Study participants were at various stages of linking health promotion and environmental sustainability. Initiatives focused on healthy and sustainable food, active transport, energy efficiency, contact with nature and capacity building.

      Conclusion: Capacity building approaches were perceived as essential to strengthening this field of practice. Healthy and sustainable food and active transport were suitable platforms for simultaneously promoting community health and sustainability. There was potential for expansion of programs that emphasise contact with nature and energy issues, as well as interventions that emphasise systems thinking and interdisciplinary approaches.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2016 20:53:03 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Planning for the next generation of public health
           advocates: Evaluation of an online advocacy mentoring program
    • Abstract: O'Connell, Emily; Stoneham, Melissa; Saunders, Julie
      Issue addressed: Despite being viewed as a core competency for public health professionals, public health advocacy lacks a prominent place in the public health literature and receives minimal coverage in university curricula. The Public Health Advocacy Institute of Western Australia (PHAIWA) sought to fill this gap by establishing an online e-mentoring program for public health professionals to gain knowledge through skill-based activities and engaging in a mentoring relationship with an experienced public health advocate. This study is a qualitative evaluation of the online e-mentoring program.

      Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with program participants at the conclusion of the 12-month program to examine program benefits and determine the perceived contribution of individual program components to overall advocacy outcomes.

      Results: Increased mentee knowledge, skills, level of confidence and experience, and expanded public health networks were reported. Outcomes were dependent on participants' level of commitment, time and location barriers, mentoring relationship quality, adaptability to the online format and the relevance of activities for application to participants' workplace context. Program facilitators had an important role through the provision of timely feedback and maintaining contact with participants.

      Conclusion: An online program that combines public health advocacy content via skill-based activities with mentoring from an experienced public health advocate is a potential strategy to build advocacy capacity in the public health workforce.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2016 20:53:03 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - A qualitative investigation of factors influencing
           participation in bowel screening in New South Wales
    • Abstract: Dawson, Greer; Crane, Melanie; Lyons, Claudine; Burnham, Anna; Bowman, Tara; Travaglia, Joanne
      Issue addressed: Bowel cancer is Australia's second biggest cancer killer. Yet, despite the existence of a free national bowel-screening program, participation in this program remains low. The aim of the present study was to understand the current factors contributing to this trend to help inform future strategies to increase participation.

      Methods: Eight focus groups (n = 61 in total) were conducted with participants aged 45 years and over from metropolitan and regional New South Wales (NSW). Discussions canvassed awareness, knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding bowel cancer and screening, and explored how these factors influenced decisions to screen.

      Results: The low public profile of bowel cancer compared with other cancers, together with poor knowledge of its prevalence and treatability, has contributed to a low perception of risk in the community. Minimal understanding of the often-asymptomatic presentation of bowel cancer and the role of screening in prevention has appeared to compromise the perceived value of screening. In addition, confusion regarding when, and how often, individuals should screen was apparent. Knowledge of bowel cancer and screening, and its role in motivating intention to screen, emerged as a dominant theme in the data.

      Conclusions: The present study highlights specific knowledge gaps and confusion with regard to bowel cancer and screening. Addressing these gaps through the provision of clear, coordinated information may shift attitudes to screening and increase participation.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2016 20:53:03 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Ethics and health promotion practice: Exploring
           attitudes and practices in Western Australian health organisations
    • Abstract: Reilly, T; Crawford, G; Lobo, R; Leavy, J; Jancey, J
      Issue addressed: Evidence-informed practice underpinned by ethics is fundamental to developing the science of health promotion. Knowledge and application of ethical principles are competencies required for health promotion practice. However, these competencies are often inconsistently understood and applied. This research explored attitudes, practices, enablers and barriers related to ethics in practice in Western Australian health organisations.

      Methods: Semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 health promotion practitioners, purposefully selected to provide a cross-section of government and non-government organisations. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and then themed.

      Results: The majority of participants reported consideration of ethics in their practice; however, only half reported seeking Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) approval for projects in the past 12 months. Enablers identified as supporting ethics in practice and disseminating findings included: support preparing ethics applications; resources and training about ethical practice; ability to access HRECs for ethics approval; and a supportive organisational culture. Barriers included: limited time; insufficient resourcing and capacity; ethics approval not seen as part of core business; and concerns about academic writing.

      Conclusion: The majority of participants were aware of the importance of ethics in practice and the dissemination of findings. However, participants reported barriers to engaging in formal ethics processes and to publishing findings.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2016 20:53:03 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - The case of national health promotion policy in
           Australia: Where to now?
    • Abstract: Smith, James A; Crawford, Gemma; Signal, Louise
      Issue addressed: Over the last three decades there has been an incremental investment in health promotion and prevention across Australia; yet, the Commonwealth Government and some state/territory governments have more recently instigated funding cuts in health promotion and prevention. This paper argues that the role of health promotion is critical in contemporary Australia and discusses strategies needed to move forward within the context of recent disinvestments.

      Discussion: Key areas of concern relating to recent health promotion and prevention disinvestment in Australia include the abolishment of the Australian National Preventive Health Agency, the cessation of the National Partnership Agreement on Preventive Health and significant cuts to Indigenous programs. These changes pose a significant threat to the health, economic and social well being of Australians and the region, particularly those that are most vulnerable.

      Conclusions: Future health promotion and prevention efforts will require strategic leadership and action to enhance the promotion of health equity in Australia over the coming decades. We call on governments to (re)invest in health promotion and prevention both in and outside the health sector so that health promotion professionals can continue their advocacy efforts aimed at articulating their professional place in improving population health.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2016 20:53:03 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Smoking among Aboriginal adults in Sydney, Australia
    • Abstract: Arjunan, Punitha; Poder, Natasha; Welsh, Kerry; Bellear, LaVerne; Heathcote, Jeremy; Wright, Darryl; Millen, Elizabeth; Spinks, Mark; Williams, Mandy; Wen, Li Ming
      Issue addressed: Tobacco consumption contributes to health disparities among Aboriginal Australians who experience a greater burden of smoking-related death and diseases. This paper reports findings from a baseline survey on factors associated with smoking, cessation behaviours and attitudes towards smoke-free homes among the Aboriginal population in inner and southwestern Sydney.

      Methods: A baseline survey was conducted in inner and south-western Sydney from October 2010 to July 2011. The survey applied both interviewer-administered and self-administered data collection methods. Multiple logistic regression was performed to determine the factors associated with smoking.

      Results: Six hundred and sixty-three participants completed the survey. The majority were female (67.5%), below the age of 50 (66.6%) and more than half were employed (54.7%). Almost half were current smokers (48.4%) with the majority intending to quit in the next 6 months (79.0%) and living in a smoke-free home (70.4%). Those aged 30-39 years (AOR 3.28; 95% CI: 2.06-5.23) and the unemployed (AOR 1.67; 95% CI: 1.11-2.51) had higher odds for current smoking. Participants who had a more positive attitude towards smoke-free homes were less likely to smoke (AOR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.74-.85).

      Conclusions: A high proportion of participants were current smokers among whom intention to quit was high. Age, work status and attitudes towards smoke-free home were factors associated with smoking.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2016 20:53:03 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Diabetes foot care education movies for Aboriginal
           people: Bran nue leg
    • PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2016 20:53:03 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Developing a guide for community-based groups to
           reduce alcohol-related harm among African migrants
    • Abstract: Jaworski, Alison; Brown, Tony; Norman, Catherine; Hata, Kiri; Toohey, Mark; Vasiljevic, Dubravka; Rowe, Rachel
      Issue addressed: Alcohol-related harm is an issue of concern for African migrant communities living in Australia. However, there has been little information available to guide workers in developing culturally sensitive health promotion strategies.

      Methods: A three-step approach, comprising a literature review, community consultations and an external review, was undertaken to develop a guide to assist organisations and health promotion groups working with African migrant communities to address alcohol-related harms.

      Discussion: There was a high level of agreement between the three steps. Addressing alcohol harms with African migrant communities requires approaches that are sensitive to the needs, structures and experiences of communities. The process should incorporate targeted approaches that enable communities to achieve their resettlement goals as well as strengthening mainstream health promotion efforts.

      Conclusions: The resource produced guides alcohol harm prevention coalitions and workers from the first steps of understanding the influences of acculturation and resettlement on alcohol consumption, through to planning, developing and evaluating an intervention in partnership with communities.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2016 20:53:03 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Inside the black box of food safety: A qualitative
           study of 'non-compliance' among food businesses
    • Abstract: Brough, Mark; Davies, Belinda; Johnstone, Eleesa
      Issue addressed: This paper examines the meaning of food safety among food businesses deemed non-compliant and considers the need for an insider perspective to inform a more nuanced health promotion practice.

      Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 29 food business operators who had recently been deemed 'non-compliant' through Council inspection.

      Results: Paradoxically, these 'non-compliers' revealed a strong belief in the importance of food safety as well as a desire to comply with the regulations as communicated to them by Environmental Health Officers.

      Conclusions: The evidence base of food safety is largely informed by the science of food hazards, yet there is a very important need to consider the practical daily application of food safety practices. This requires a more socially nuanced appreciation of food businesses beyond the simple dichotomy of compliant/ non-compliant.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2016 20:53:03 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Satisfaction with transport and enjoyment of the
           commute by commuting mode in inner Sydney
    • Abstract: Rissel, Chris; Crane, Melanie; Wen, Li Ming; Greaves, Stephen; Standen, Chris
      Issue addressed: Travel satisfaction has become an increasingly popular construct for the assessment and monitoring of transport systems and services. However, satisfaction may not adequately assess emotion or mood towards walking and cycling, especially when infrastructure is biased towards motor vehicle modes. In this exploratory study we sought to examine the associations of both satisfaction with transport and enjoyment from the commute to work or study by commute mode in an Australian inner city context where transport mode choices are readily available.

      Methods: As part of the Sydney Transport and Health Study, 675 baseline study participants (2013) were invited to complete an online questionnaire in September/October 2014 and 512 did so (76% response rate). Participants who did not travel to work were removed from analyses, giving complete data for 473. Participants provided data on usual travel mode to work or study, satisfaction with transport, enjoyment from their commute, and demographics and neighbourhood factors.

      Results: The main mode of travel to work or study in this inner city sample was public transport (41%), followed by motor vehicle (27%), walking (21%) and cycling (10%). Most participants were satisfied with their transport (82%), with little variation by mode. Walkers (49%) and cyclists (52%) reported far higher levels of enjoyment from their commute than car drivers (14%) or public transport users (10%), with an adjusted odds ratio of 6.18 (95% confidence interval 3.10-12.29, P < 0.001) for walking and an adjusted odds ratio of 6.15 (95% confidence interval 2.68-14.08, P < 0.001) for cycling.

      Conclusions: People who walked or cycled to work or study in inner Sydney reported higher levels of enjoyment from their commute compared with those who drove. This suggests enjoyment may be another benefit of active travel.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2016 20:53:03 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - 'Hero to Healing' drink driving program for Indigenous
           communities in Far North Queensland
    • Abstract: Fitts, Michelle S; Palk, Gavan R
      Issue addressed: Alcohol-related road crashes are a leading cause of the injury burden experienced by Indigenous Australians. Existing drink driving programs are primarily designed for the mainstream population. The 'Hero to Healing' program was specifically developed with Indigenous communities and is underpinned by the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA). This paper reports on the formative evaluation of the program from delivery in two Far North Queensland communities.

      Methods: Focus groups and semistructured interviews were conducted with drink driver participants (n = 17) and other Elders and community members (n = 8) after each program. Qualitative content analysis was used to categorise the transcripts.

      Results: The CRA appealed to participants because of its flexible nature and encouragement of rearranging lifestyle factors, without specific focus on alcohol use. Participants readily identified with the social and peer-related risk and protective factors discussed. Cofacilitation of the program with Elders was identified as a key aspect of the program. More in-depth discussion about cannabis and driving, anger management skills and relationship issues are recommended.

      Conclusions: Participants' recognition of content reinforced earlier project results, particularly the use of kinship pressure to motivate younger family members to drink drive. Study findings suggest that the principles of the CRA are useful; however, some amendments to the CRA components and program content were necessary.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2016 20:53:03 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Challenges to translating new media interventions in
           community practice: A sexual health SMS program case study
    • Abstract: Wright, Cassandra JC; Leinberger, Kaytlyn; Lim, Megan SC
      Issue addressed: Herein we discuss translational challenges for new media interventions, using the Sexual Health and Youth (SHY) short message service (SMS) project to illustrate particular challenges relating to recruitment and evaluation.

      Methods: Following the delivery of an SMS sexual health program, available documents (progress reports, communications with project staff, ethics submissions and reporting) were analysed thematically to elucidate the barriers to recruitment, implementation and evaluation.

      Results: Despite being framed by evidence-based research, the project had little impact on the intended population. Only 119 of an expected 5100 young people (2%) enrolled to receive SMS messages. Program documents highlighted the difficulty of recruiting participants for new media interventions. Key issues identified in recruitment included under-resourcing, delays waiting to receive ethics approval and challenges of school-based recruitment.

      Conclusion: The minimal impact of the SHY program illustrates the need for improved research translation in the field of newmedia interventions. It is important that recruitment procedures align with the convenience and appeal of mobile phone-based interventions.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2016 20:53:03 GMT
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Evaluating a health video on diabetic retinopathy
    • Abstract: Meyer, Joos; Johnson, Karim; Bowyer, Joshua; Muir, Josephine; Turner, Angus
      Issue addressed: Indigenous Australians are 14 times more likely than non-Indigenous Australians to develop diabetic retinopathy (DR). Blindness can be prevented in 98% of cases if DR is identified and treated early. While the National Health and Medical Research Council recommend annual screening for Indigenous Australians, screening attendance rates remain low. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a targeted health promotion intervention improved patient compliance and screening rates.

      Methods: Bad Sugars, Bad Eyes - a culturally appropriate video targeting DR awareness and the importance of screening among Indigenous Australians - was developed at the Lions Eye Institute, Western Australia. The study used a patient questionnaire pre and post viewing of the video, as well as semi-structured interviews with Aboriginal Health Workers, to explore the influence the resource had on patient knowledge and attitudes. Eighty-four participants, currently involved in DR screening programs, were recruited from Aboriginal Medical Services (AMS) and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHS).

      Results: The video was found to increase patient knowledge about key DR issues as well as alter patient attitudes identified as potential barriers to screening. The areas most affected by the video resource were knowledge of recommended screening intervals, the severity of potential visual complications if DR is left undiagnosed and untreated and that screening is needed even when asymptomatic. Aboriginal Health Workers positively evaluated the video, all rating it as 'very' culturally appropriate, understandable and relatable.

      Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that Indigenous DR screening attendance rates could be increased through the expanded use of this video.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2016 20:53:03 GMT
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Development and oversight of ethical health promotion
           quality assurance and evaluation activities involving human participants
    • Abstract: Sainsbury, Peter
      Issue addressed: This paper considers the role of ethics and ethics review processes in the development of health promotion quality assurance and evaluation activities involving human participants.

      Content: The Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research and associated documents provide the framework for the ethical conduct and independent review of research (including quality assurance and evaluation) involving humans in Australia. Identifying the level of risk to which participants may be exposed by participation in quality assurance and evaluation activities is essential for health promotion workers undertaking such activities. Organisations can establish processes other than review by a Human Research Ethics Committee for negligible and low risk research activities. Health promotion quality assurance and evaluation activities often involve negligible and low risk to participants. Seven triggers that indicate the need for ethics review of quality assurance and evaluation activities and a procedural checklist for developing ethical quality assurance and evaluation activities are provided.

      Conclusion: Health promotion workers should be familiar with the NHMRC's National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research. When ethical considerations underpin the planning and conduct of all quality assurance and evaluation from the very beginning, the activity is the better for it, independent 'ethics approval' can mostly be secured without much trouble and workers' frustration levels are reduced.

      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jan 2016 22:14:15 GMT
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Why should ethics approval be required prior to
           publication of health promotion research?
    • Abstract: Newson, Ainsley J; Lipworth, Wendy
      Issue addressed: Most academic journals that publish studies involving human participants require evidence that the research has been approved by a human research ethics committee (HREC). Yet journals continue to receive submissions from authors who have failed to obtain such approval. In this paper, we provide an ethical justification of why journals should not, in general, publish articles describing research that has no ethics approval, with particular attention to the health promotion context.

      Methods: Using theoretical bioethical reasoning and drawing on a case study, we first rebut some potential criticisms of the need for research ethics approval. We then outline four positive claims to justify a presumption that research should, in most instances, be published only if it has been undertaken with HREC approval.

      Results: We present four justifications for requiring ethics approval before publication: (1) HREC approval adds legitimacy to the research; (2) the process of obtaining HREC approval can improve the quality of an intervention being investigated; (3) obtaining HREC approval can help mitigate harm; and (4) obtaining HREC approval demonstrates respect for persons.

      Conclusion: This paper provides a systematic and comprehensive assessment of why research ethics approval should generally be obtained before publishing in the health promotion context.

      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jan 2016 22:14:15 GMT
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Health promotion practice, research ethics and
           publishing in the Health Promotion Journal of Australia
    • Abstract: Carter, Stacy M; Braunack-Mayer, Annette; Jancey, Jonine
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jan 2016 22:14:15 GMT
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Ethics and health promotion: Research, theory, policy
           and practice
    • Abstract: Braunack-Mayer, Annette; Carter, Stacy M
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jan 2016 22:14:15 GMT
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Empowerment in healthcare policy making: Three domains
           of substantive controversy
    • Abstract: Chiapperino, Luca; Tengland, Per-Anders
      This paper distinguishes between the uses of empowerment across different contexts in healthcare policy and health promotion, providing a model for the ethical and political scrutiny of those uses. We argue that the controversies currently engendered by empowerment are better understood by means of a historical distinction between two concepts of empowerment, namely, what we call the radical empowerment approach and the new wave of empowerment. Building on this distinction, we present a research agenda for ethicists and policy makers, highlighting three domains of controversy raised by the new wave of empowerment, namely: (1) the relationship between empowerment and paternalistic interferences on the part of professionals; (2) the evaluative commitment of empowerment strategies to the achievement of health-related goals; and (3) the problems arising from the emphasis on responsibility for health in recent uses of empowerment. Finally, we encourage the explicit theorisation of these moral controversies as a necessary step for the development and implementation of ethically legitimate empowerment processes.

      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jan 2016 22:14:15 GMT
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - 'Troubling' moments in health promotion: Unpacking the
           ethics of empowerment
    • Abstract: Spencer, Grace
      Issue addressed: Concepts of empowerment feature strongly in global health discourses. Empowerment is frequently advocated as a positive approach to addressing individual and community-level health needs. Despite its popularity, relatively little has been said about the unintended consequences of empowerment, which may give rise to some troubling ethical issues or, indeed, result in outcomes that may not be considered health promoting.

      Methods: Drawing on current uses of empowerment within health promotion, along with insights from an ethnographic study on young people's health, this paper raises some critical questions about the ethics of empowerment. By doing so, the paper troubles the idea that empowerment is a 'good thing' without some careful attention to the varying ways in which the ethics of empowerment may unfold in practice.

      Results: Findings revealed young people's different perspectives on health and priorities for health promotion. The present analysis highlights how these alternative framings prompt a number of ethical tensions for understanding and operationalising empowerment.

      Conclusions: In conclusion, the findings underscore the importance of promoting ethical reflexivity in health promotion and, crucially, attending to the unintended and potentially ethically problematic consequences of empowerment.

      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jan 2016 22:14:15 GMT
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Operating from different premises: The ethics of
           inter-disciplinarity in health promotion
    • Abstract: Cribb, Alan
      The intersectoral and interdisciplinary nature of health promotion gives rise to ethical questions. This is because health promotion depends upon alliances between people who often have different perspectives on what matters in particular cases or different visions of the good society. This paper draws on the ambivalent relationship that health promoters can have with biomedicine to illustrate and explore the nature of these ethical questions. Examples from everyday life are used to underline the familiar nature of the kinds of coalitions and compromises that are needed to work alongside others with different values to oneself. It is suggested that analogous kinds of compromise are needed in health promotion and that this requires a form of 'diplomatic ethics' for health promoters that, in turn, raises questions about their ethical integrity.

      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jan 2016 22:14:15 GMT
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - 'We don't tell people what to do': Ethical practice
           and Indigenous health promotion
    • Abstract: McPhail-Bell, Karen; Bond, Chelsea; Brough, Mark; Fredericks, Bronwyn
      Health promotion aspires to work in empowering, participatory ways, with the goal of supporting people to increase control over their health. However, buried in this goal is an ethical tension: while increasing people's autonomy, health promotion also imposes a particular, health promotion-sanctioned version of what is good. This tension positions practitioners precariously, where the ethos of empowerment risks increasing health promotion's paternalistic control over people, rather than people's control over their own health. Herein we argue that this ethical tension is amplified in Indigenous Australia, where colonial processes of control over Indigenous lands, lives and cultures are indistinguishable from contemporary health promotion 'interventions'. Moreover, the potential stigmatisation produced in any paternalistic acts 'done for their own good' cannot be assumed to have evaporated within the self-proclaimed 'empowering' narratives of health promotion. This issue's guest editor's call for health promotion to engage 'with politics and with philosophical ideas about the state and the citizen' is particularly relevant in an Indigenous Australian context. Indigenous Australians continue to experience health promotion as a moral project of control through intervention, which contradicts health promotion's central goal of empowerment. Therefore, Indigenous health promotion is an invaluable site for discussion and analysis of health promotion's broader ethical tensions. Given the persistent and alarming Indigenous health inequalities, this paper calls for systematic ethical reflection in order to redress health promotion's general failure to reduce health inequalities experienced by Indigenous Australians.

      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jan 2016 22:14:15 GMT
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Using Indigenist and Indigenous methodologies to
           connect to deeper understandings of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
           peoples' quality of life
    • Abstract: Kite, Elaine; Davy, Carol
      The lack of a common description makes measuring the concept of quality of life (QoL) a challenge. Whether QoL incorporates broader social features or is attributed to health conditions, the diverse range of descriptions applied by various disciplines has resulted in a concept that is multidimensional and vague. The variety of theoretical conceptualisations of QoL confounds and confuses even the most astute. Measuring QoL in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations is even more challenging. Instruments commonly developed and used to measure QoL are often derived from research methodologies shaped by Western cultural perspectives. Often they are simply translated for use among culturally and linguistically diverse Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. This has implications for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations whose perceptions of health are derived from within their specific cultures, value systems and ways of knowing and being. Interconnections and relationships between themselves, their communities, their environment and the natural and spiritual worlds are complex. The way in which their QoL is currently measured indicates that very little attention is given to the diversity of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples' beliefs or the ways in which those beliefs shape or give structure and meaning to their health and their lives. The use of Indigenist or Indigenous methodologies in defining what Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples believe gives quality to their lives is imperative. These methodologies have the potential to increase the congruency between their perceptions of QoL and instruments to measure it.

      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jan 2016 22:14:15 GMT
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Beyond chapter 4.7
    • Abstract: Bandler, Lilon Gretl
      Chapter 4.7 of the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research refers specifically to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. It lays out the points at which researchers working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders must consider their approach, and the engagement with individuals, communities or groups who are involved in or affected by their research. History, of Australia and of research involving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, has informed this approach. The response to that history has been a rational, institutionalised, systematic demand for a different perception of what should direct research and research processes to ensure engagement with and service to the community with whom the researchers wish to do the work. This paper considers whether these principles could inform the approach to other research work.

      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jan 2016 22:14:15 GMT
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Evaluation in health promotion: Thoughts from inside a
           human research ethics committee
    • Abstract: Allen, Judy; Flack, Felicity
      Health promotion research, quality improvement and evaluation are all activities that raise ethical issues. In this paper, the Chair and a member of human research ethics committees provide an insiders' point of viewon how to demonstrate ethical conduct in health promotion research and quality improvement. Several common issues raised by health promotion research and evaluation are discussed including researcher integrity, conflicts of interest, use of information, consent and privacy.

      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jan 2016 22:14:15 GMT
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Building workforce capacity for ethical reflection in
           health promotion: A practitioner's experience
    • Abstract: Axford, Annabel; Carter, Drew
      Health promotion does not have a code of ethics, although attempts have been made to assist practitioners in their understanding and application of ethical concepts. This article describes and analyses one such attempt, sustained from 2006 to 2014 in rural South Australia. The attempt comprised capacity-building activities that were informed by principles of organisational change management, especially the principle of creating champions. The article also presents a framework (largely comprising ethical questions) that may help practitioners as a prompt and guide to ethical reflection. The framework was developed to be as accessible as possible in light of the diverse educational backgrounds found in rural settings. Finally, the article highlights some philosophical dimensions to the framework and defends its role, proposing that ethical reflection is integral to good practice and never simply the province of theorists. The article does all this with a view to stimulating discussion on how to increase the frequency and quality of ethical reflection undertaken by health promotion practitioners.

      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jan 2016 22:14:15 GMT
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - A missing ethical competency?: A review of critical
           reflection in health promotion
    • Abstract: Tretheway, Rebecca; Taylor, Jane; O'Hara, Lily; Percival, Nikki
      Issue addressed: There is increasing emphasis in the health promotion literature on the ethical imperative for the profession to move towards critical practice. A key challenge for health promotion is that critical practice appears both under-developed and under-practiced. This is evident in the omission of critical reflection from Australian and international competencies for health promotion practitioners.

      Methods: A narrative literature review was undertaken to explore the current use of critical reflection in health promotion. Critical reflection models relevant to health promotion were identified and critiqued. Results: There was a dearth of literature on critical reflection within health promotion, despite recognition of its potential to support critical practice. The discipline of critical social work provided literature on the use, effect and outcome of critical reflection in practice. The interdisciplinary critical reflection model was identified as the model most applicable to health promotion. Underpinned by critical theory, this model emphasises both critical and ethical practice.

      Conclusions: Critical reflection is a core competency for health promotion practitioners to address the ethical imperative to move towards critical practice. There is a need to explore the application of a critical reflection model in health promotion to determine how it may support critical and ethical practice.

      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jan 2016 22:14:15 GMT
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Ethical considerations in investigating youth alcohol
           norms and behaviours: A case for mature minor consent
    • Abstract: Hildebrand, J; Maycock, B; Comfort, J; Burns, S; Adams, E; Howat, P
      Mature minor consent only became available in Australia in 2007. There is neither an explicitly defined protocol, nor a clear definition evident in the literature relating to use of the mature minor concept in health research. Due to difficulties in defining fixed age ranges to varying levels of maturity and vulnerability, there is a lack of clarity surrounding when it might be reasonable and ethical to apply for or grant a waiver for parental consent. This paper describes the challenges faced and solutions created when gaining approval for use of mature minor consent in a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) study to explore the social norms and alcohol consumption among 14-17-year-old adolescents (n = 1012) in the community. The University's Human Research Ethics Committee granted mature minor consent for this study, and the techniques applied enabled recruitment of adolescents from community-based settings through use of RDS to achieve the required sample. This paper has relevance for research that requires a waiver for parental consent; it presents a case study for assessing mature minors and makes recommendations on how ethical guidelines can be improved to assist human research ethics application processes.

      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jan 2016 22:14:15 GMT
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Navigating the ethics of cross-cultural health
           promotion research
    • Abstract: Haintz, Greer Lamaro; Graham, Melissa; Mckenzie, Hayley
      Health promotion researchers must consider the ethics of their research, and are usually required to abide by a set of ethical requirements stipulated by governing bodies (such as the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council) and human research ethics committees (HRECs). These requirements address both deontological (rule-based) and consequence-based issues. However, at times there can be a disconnect between the requirements of deontological issues and the cultural sensitivity required when research is set in cultural contexts and settings etic to the HREC. This poses a challenge for health promotion researchers who must negotiate between meeting both the requirements of the HREC and the needs of the community with whom the research is being conducted. Drawing on two case studies, this paper discusses examples from cross-cultural health promotion research in Australian and international settings where disconnect arose and negotiation was required to appropriately meet the needs of all parties. The examples relate to issues of participant recruitment and informed consent, participants under the Australian legal age of consent, participant withdrawal when this seemingly occurs in an ad hoc rather than a formal manner and reciprocity. Although these approaches are context specific, they highlight issues for consideration to advance more culturally appropriate practice in research ethics and suggest ways a stronger anthropological lens can be applied to research ethics to overcome these challenges.

      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jan 2016 22:14:15 GMT
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Ethics and health promotion within policy and practice
           contexts in a small jurisdiction: Perspectives from the Northern Territory
    • Abstract: Smith, James A; Schmitt, Dagmar; Fereday, Lisa; Bonson, Jason
      Health promotion ethics has emerged as a hot topic in health promotion literature over the past decade. Various scholars have discussed theoretical and practical considerations associated with an enhanced understanding of what health promotion ethics constitutes. In particular, differences in rules- versus consequencebased approaches have been discussed. Frameworks for understanding key factors have also been developed, but remain in their relative infancy. Likewise, there have been international calls for a code of ethics in health promotion, but relatively little progress in this regard. There have also been ongoing debates about expectations in both research and practice contexts regarding ethical conduct and requirements for formal ethics approval processes. However, very little scholarship has looked at the unique challenges health promotion professionals working in small jurisdictions across Australia face regarding ethics in health promotion. In this commentary we draw on current academic scholarship and our joint experiences of having worked in senior specialist health promotion policy and/or Aboriginal health promotion positions in the Northern Territory (NT) Department of Health over the past decade. In doing so, we identify key issues of relevance to the intersection between ethics and health promotion in the context of a small jurisdiction, such as the NT.

      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jan 2016 22:14:15 GMT
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Tensions between the conduct of randomised controlled
           trials in health promotion research and the role of autonomy in human
           health and well being
    • Abstract: Buchanan, David R
      The goal of developing increasingly effective interventions to change health-related behaviours, which is an inevitable result of the use of the scientific method, conflicts with respect for the autonomy and dignity of the individual. This paper recommends a new direction for the field of health promotion based on building people's capacity to exercise autonomy, in the ethically relevant meaning of the term, and thereby promote a more comprehensive understanding of the goals of the field, a state of health that includes the irreducible ethical dimension signified by human dignity.

      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jan 2016 22:14:15 GMT
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - An ethical approach to health promotion in
           physiotherapy practice
    • Abstract: Delany, Clare; Fryer, Caroline; van Kessel, Gisela
      Issue addressed: With increased emphasis on reducing the global burden of non-communicable disease, health professionals who traditionally focused on the individual are being encouraged to address population-level health problems. While physiotherapists are broadening their clinical role to include health promotion strategies in their clinical practice, the ethical foundations of this practice focus have received less attention.

      Methods: We use a physiotherapy clinical scenario to highlight different physiotherapeutic approaches and to analyse underpinning ethical values and implications for practice.

      Results: We suggest there are potential harms of incorporating health promotion into physiotherapy management of individuals if the population-based research does not resonate with an individual's particular circumstances, capacity to change or view of what counts as important and meaningful. We propose that critical reasoning and ethical judgment by the physiotherapist is required to determine how health promotion messages applied in primary care settings might work to benefit and enhance a client's well being rather than impose burdens or cause harm.

      Conclusion: We suggest four ethical reasoning strategies designed to assist physiotherapists to frame and understand fundamental ethical principles of beneficence, harm, autonomy and justice when implementing health promotion and self-management approaches in clinical practice.

      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jan 2016 22:14:15 GMT
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - The extent to which the public health 'war on obesity'
           reflects the ethical values and principles of critical health promotion: A
           multimedia critical discourse analysis
    • Abstract: O'Hara, Lily; Taylor, Jane; Barnes, Margaret
      Issue addressed: The discipline of health promotion is responsible for implementing strategies within weight-related public health initiatives (WR-PHI). It is imperative that such initiatives be subjected to critical analysis through a health promotion ethics lens to help ensure ethical health promotion practice.

      Methods: Multimedia critical discourse analysis was used to examine the claims, values, assumptions, power relationships and ideologies within Australian WR-PHI. The Health Promotion Values and Principles Continuum was used as a heuristic to evaluate the extent to which the WR-PHI reflected the ethical values of critical health promotion: active participation of people in the initiative; respect for personal autonomy; beneficence; non-maleficence; and strong evidential and theoretical basis for practice.

      Results: Ten initiatives were analysed. There was some discourse about the need for participation of people in the WR-PHI, but people were routinely labelled as 'target groups' requiring 'intervention'. Strong evidence of a coercive and paternalistic discourse about choice was identified, with minimal attention to respect for personal autonomy. There was significant emphasis on the beneficiaries of the WR-PHI but minimal attention to the health benefits, and nothing about the potential for harm. Discourse about the evidence of need was objectivist, and there was no discussion about the theoretical foundations of the WR-PHI.

      Conclusion: The WR-PHI were not reflective of the ethical values and principles of critical health promotion.

      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jan 2016 22:14:15 GMT
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