Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1495 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (86 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (693 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (385 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (106 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (121 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (693 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
AJOB Empirical Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 261)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences: Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Apuntes Universitarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Suicide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archivos de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atención Primaria Práctica     Open Access  
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 7)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biosalud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Birat Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Boletin Médico de Postgrado     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
British Journal of Health Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Carta Comunitaria     Open Access  
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
CASUS : Revista de Investigación y Casos en Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
CES Salud Pública     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia & Trabajo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Innovación en Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia y Salud Virtual     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cities & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clinical and Experimental Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clocks & Sleep     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de la Escuela de Salud Pública     Open Access  
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health     Hybrid Journal  
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Design for Health     Hybrid Journal  
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Diversity of Research in Health Journal     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drogues, santé et société     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Düzce Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi / Journal of Duzce University Health Sciences Institute     Open Access  
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência : Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
EsSEX : Revista Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios sociales : Revista de alimentación contemporánea y desarrollo regional     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethics & Human Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Eurasian Journal of Health Technology Assessment     Open Access  
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Family & Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare : Finjehew     Open Access  
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Digital Health     Open Access  
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ganesha Journal     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Advances in Health and Medicine     Open Access  
Global Challenges     Open Access  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Global Health Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Reproductive Health     Open Access  
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Transitions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastane Öncesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
HCU Journal     Open Access  
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Health and Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Equity     Open Access  
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Notions     Open Access  
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.471
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 15  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1935-7893 - ISSN (Online) 1938-744X
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [386 journals]
  • DMP volume 13 issue 5-6 Cover and Front matter
    • PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2019.150
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • DMP volume 13 issue 5-6 Cover and Back matter
    • PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2019.151
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • Editorial
    • Authors: Donald A. Donahue
      Pages: 833 - 833
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2019.139
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • Clarification of the Concept of Risk Communication and its Role in Public
           Health Crisis Management in China
    • Authors: Wuqi Qiu; Cordia Chu
      Pages: 834 - 836
      Abstract: Risk communication plays a very important role in the prevention of public health crisis events and has been considered by the World Health Organization (WHO) to be 1 of the main functions of an emergency public health crisis. However, it is a relatively new research field in China, so many people have mistaken understandings of risk communication. This article will describe the concept and importance of risk communication and briefly introduce the role of risk communication in public health crisis management. It also provides information for the prevention of public health crisis events in the future.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2019.10
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • Revisiting the Battle of Solferino: The Worsening Plight of Civilian
           Casualties in War and Conflict
    • Authors: Frederick M. Burkle
      Pages: 837 - 841
      Abstract: The toll of civilian deaths in current wars and conflicts has been building for decades. Civilian populations, particularly since WWII, have suffered most of the consequences of armed violence and today represent the most at-risk population. This is attributed to the rise of religious and ethnic hatreds, the collapse of State structures, the battle for control of natural resources, the vast availability of weapons, the proliferation of acts of terrorism, and the spread of so-called asymmetric conflicts. Protections provided to innocent civilians under International Humanitarian Law and the Geneva Conventions have been ignored. This commentary captures the experience of the immediate care and transportation provided to military casualties of the Battle of Solferino in 1859 with civilian casualties recently documented in a Stanford-led study during the “golden hour” after injury in 13 conflicts from 1990 to 2017. Despite many advances in triage and management of war injuries over the intervening decades, the common thread of these 2 scenarios is that transport times and early resuscitation capacity and capabilities, first recognized in the 19th century wars and now accepted as global norms and markers for survival from trauma, are as unavailable today to civilians caught up in war and conflict as they were to soldiers in the 19th century.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2019.77
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • Response Functions in Disasters: Iran Flash Flood 2016
    • Authors: Reza Abbaszadeh Dizaji; Ali Ardalan, Farin Fatemi
      Pages: 842 - 844
      Abstract: Objective:Heavy rain and flash flooding left behind a trail of disaster in the western and south-western provinces of Iran in April 2016. The purpose of this study is to highlight the response functions that should be undertaken when such disasters strike.Methods:Secondary data, such as documents, organizational reports, and forms completed during response to the flood visits, were the methods of data collection in this study. Then, collected data were analyzed according to the response functions to disasters.Results:The study found that a strong disaster response function was the early warning system, by the Iran Meteorological Organization, announced 1 week before the flood. Weaker functions were the lack of coordination among response organizations and the lack of a safety officer in the Incident Command System structure during the flash flood.Conclusions:The list of the disaster response functions identified by this study should aid the decision makers and first responders in facing natural or man-made disasters and enable them to better prepare for response functions in the future disasters.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2018.94
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • Legal Rules for the Response and Recuperation Before the Phenomenon of El
           Niño Costero, Peru, 2017
    • Authors: Celso Bambaren; Maria del Socorro Alatrista
      Pages: 845 - 848
      Abstract: Objective:The aim of this study was to identify regulations that were established and implemented as an emergency disaster response to intense rain and floods generated by the El Niño coastal phenomenon.Methods:A search was conducted for the legal norms approved and published between December 1, 2016 and December 31, 2017, in El Peruano, Peru’s official newspaper. Twenty legal norms involved disaster emergency response, rehabilitation, and the reconstruction of the affected regions.Results:Forty-six legal norms were identified, of which 41% were aimed at the declaration of emergencies and alerts, 22% to facilitate the management of economic resources, and 13% for coordination actions. Sixty-two percent of the approved standards were set for the regional level, 22% for the national level, 7% for the municipal level, and the remaining 10% corresponded with more than 1 level of government.Conclusions:The actions during and after the El Niño coastal phenomenon required the approval of standards included in the legal framework of Peru’s disaster risk management, as well as a large number of unforeseen standards to address existing regulatory gaps and specific problems that occurred during this natural disaster.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2018.158
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • Riots in Beirut: Description of the Impact of a New Type of Mass Casualty
           Event on the Emergency System in Lebanon
    • Authors: Mohamad El Warea; Roula Sasso, Rana Bachir, Mazen El Sayed
      Pages: 849 - 852
      Abstract: Introduction:In the summer of 2015, Beirut experienced a garbage crisis that led to rioting. Riot control measures resulted in multiple casualties. This study examines injury patterns of riot victims presenting to the emergency department of a tertiary care center in a developing country.Methods:A retrospective study was conducted in the emergency department of the American University of Beirut Medical Center between August 22 and August 30, 2015. Patients seen in the emergency department with riot injuries were included. Patient characteristics, injuries, and resources utilized in the emergency department were analyzed.Results:Ninety-five patients were identified. Most patients presented to the emergency department within a short time period. The mean age of the patients was 28.0 ± 8.7 years. Most (90.5%) of the patients were males and 92.6% were protestors. Emergency medical services were utilized by 41.0% of patients. Laceration was the most common presenting complaint (28.5%), and blunt trauma was the most common type of injury (50.5%). The head/face/neck was the most common injured body region (55.8%). Most patients did not require blood tests or procedures (91.6% and 61.0%, respectively), and 91.2% of patients were treated in the emergency department and discharged. One patient required intensive care unit admission and another was dead on arrival.Conclusions:Most patients had mild injuries on presentation. The emergency department experienced a high influx of patients. Complications and deaths can occur from seemingly nonlethal weapons used during riots and warrant effective prehospital and hospital disaster planning.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2018.162
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • The Development of an Active Learning Program for the Medical Responders
           in a Nuclear Disaster
    • Authors: Takakiyo Tsujiguchi; Katsuhiro Ito, Daishi Sato, Junko Mikami, Yoshitaka Shiroma, Arifumi Hasegawa, Hitoshi Yamamura, Ikuo Kashiwakura
      Pages: 853 - 858
      Abstract: Objective:In Japan, with the revision of the Nuclear Emergency Response Guidelines in 2015, nuclear emergency medical assistance teams responsible for the medical treatment in the acute phase of nuclear disaster have been developed nationwide. The purpose of this research is to develop active learning materials for the education of medical staff, to confirm the educational effect of the materials, and to identify the gaps in nuclear disaster risk reduction in Japan.Methods:We established a working group and created active learning materials. We trained members of the nuclear emergency medical assistance team using the developed active learning materials and then conducted a questionnaire survey for trainees who participated in the training.Results:Regarding the developed teaching materials, out of 33 trainees, 33 (100%) answered “easy to understand” or “a little understandable” to the item dealing with how to use the radiation detectors and attaching/detaching personal protective equipment. Regarding the simulation about practicing hospital support and medical provision, 3 (8%) answered “a little confusing.”Conclusion:The study demonstrated that the developed materials have an educational effect. Additionally, the results of the trainee questionnaire showed the necessity for improvement in the triage system and new protocols to help both the patients and responders.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2018.168
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • Retiring the Flip Phones: Exploring Social Media Use for Managing Public
           Health Incidents
    • Authors: Yasmin Khan; Shannon Tracey, Tracey O’Sullivan, Effie Gournis, Ian Johnson
      Pages: 859 - 867
      Abstract: Objective:Communication is essential during public health emergencies and incidents. This research aimed to understand current uses and challenges for public health agencies using social media during these incidents.Methods:An exploratory, qualitative study was conducted using the structured interview matrix facilitation technique. Focus groups were held with professionals from local public health agencies across Ontario, Canada. Representation from different geographic regions was sought to capture differences in participant experience. An inductive approach to content analysis was used to identify emergent themes.Results:A diverse group of public health professionals (n = 36) participated. Six themes were identified. Social media is identified as a communication tool used to expand reach of messages, to engage in dialogue with the public, and to inform the scope of potential incidents. Barriers to its use include hesitancy to adapt, lack of trust and credibility, and organizational structure and capacity constraints. Key strategies proposed to promote social media use and address barriers resulted from participant discussions and are presented.Conclusion:Social media use is highly variable across public health agencies in Ontario. This study identifies and provides strategies to address barriers and practice gaps related to public health agencies’ use of social media during emergencies.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2018.147
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • Lived Experience of Afghan Refugees in Iran Concerning Primary Health Care
           Delivery
    • Authors: Nemat Azizi; Bahram Delgoshaei, Aidin Aryankhesal
      Pages: 868 - 873
      Abstract: Objective:Access to primary health care (PHC) is very important for refugees. The aim of this study was to illuminate lived experience of Afghan refugees in Iran regarding PHC delivery.Methods:This qualitative study was conducted in 2016–2017 by using the content analysis technique. Data were collected through individual deep interviews with Afghan refugees who lived in Iran. The data were analyzed by using a method by Graneheim and Lundman.Results:Four main categories and 12 subcategories were emerged, including (1) challenges before PHC delivery: large number of children, high service cost, not having medical insurance, access to health centers, appointment to get services, simultaneity of breastfeeding, and pregnancy; (2) challenges during PHC delivery: understanding Iranian words, health care provider’s behavior, delay in getting service in PHC centers; (3) challenges after delivery PHC: referral patient, high costs of paraclinics; and (4) free and good services.Conclusion:Our results showed that Afghan refugees have several challenges in every stage of PHC delivery. Awareness of such problems can help medical personnel improve delivery of service to Afghan refugees, as well as using trained Afghani nurses to serve the refugees.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2018.169
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • Use of Predictive Modeling to Plan for Special Event Medical Care During
           Mass Gathering Events
    • Authors: Rachel L. Allgaier; Nina Shaafi-Kabiri, Carla A. Romney, Lee A. Wallis, John Joseph Burke, Jaspreet Bhangu, Kevin C. Thomas
      Pages: 874 - 879
      Abstract: Objectives:In 2010, South Africa (SA) hosted the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup (soccer). Emergency Medical Services (EMS) used the SA mass gathering medicine (MGM) resource model to predict resource allocation. This study analyzed data from the World Cup and compared them with the resource allocation predicted by the SA mass gathering model.Methods:Prospectively, data were collected from patient contacts at 9 venues across the Western Cape province of South Africa. Required resources were based on the number of patients seeking basic life support (BLS), intermediate life support (ILS), and advanced life support (ALS). Overall patient presentation rates (PPRs) and transport to hospital rates (TTHRs) were also calculated.Results:BLS services were required for 78.4% (n = 1279) of patients and were consistently overestimated using the SA mass gathering model. ILS services were required for 14.0% (n = 228), and ALS services were required for 3.1% (n = 51) of patients. Both ILS and ALS services, and TTHR were underestimated at smaller venues.Conclusions:The MGM predictive model overestimated BLS requirements and inconsistently predicted ILS and ALS requirements. MGM resource models, which are heavily based on predicted attendance levels, have inherent limitations, which may be improved by using research-based outcomes.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2019.1
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • The Mass Casualty Incident in Turin, 2017: A Case Study of Disaster
           Responders’ Mental Health in an Italian Level I Hospital
    • Authors: Valeria Caramello; Leticia Bertuzzi, Fulvio Ricceri, Umberto Albert, Giuseppe Maina, Adriana Boccuzzi, Francesco Della Corte, Merritt C Schreiber
      Pages: 880 - 888
      Abstract: Objective:To assess the psychological impact of a mass casualty incident (MCI) in a subset of personnel in a level I hospital.Methods:Emergency department staff responded to an MCI in June 2017 in Turin, Italy by an unexpected sudden surge of casualties following a stampede (mass escape). Participants completed the Psychological Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment Responder Self-Triage System (PsySTART-R), which classified the potential risk of psychological distress in “no risk” versus “at risk” categorization and identified a range of impacts aggregated for the population of medical responders. Participants were administered a questionnaire on the perceived effectiveness of management of the MCI. Two months later, the participants were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6), and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-5).Results:The majority of the responders were classified as “no risk” by the PsySTART-R; no significant differences on HADS, K6, and PCL-5 were found in the participants grouped by the PsySTART-R categories. The personnel acquainted to work in emergency contexts (emergency department and intensive care unit) scored significantly lower in the HADS than the personnel usually working in other wards. The number of positive PsySTART-R criteria correlated with the HADS depression score.Conclusions:Most of the adverse psychological implications of the MCI were well handled and averted by the responders. A possible explanation could be related to factors such as the clinical condition of the victims (most were not severely injured, no fatalities), the small number of casualties (87) brought to the hospital, the event not being considered life-threatening, and its brief duration, among others. Responders had mainly to cope with a sudden surge in casualties and with organizational issues.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2019.2
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • Exposure to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Associated Resource Loss, and
           Long-Term Mental and Behavioral Outcomes
    • Authors: Rajeev Ramchand; Rachana Seelam, Vanessa Parks, Bonnie Ghosh-Dastidar, Matthew R. Lee, Melissa Finucane
      Pages: 889 - 897
      Abstract: Objective:The aim of this study was to (1) assess the long-term mental and behavioral health outcomes of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill of residents in the Gulf Coast and to (2) identify populations that may be particularly vulnerable to future disasters.Methods:The Survey of Trauma, Resilience, and Opportunity in Neighborhoods in the Gulf (STRONG) is a population-representative sample of 2520 coastal residents surveyed in Texas, Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida in 2016. We present prevalence estimates for positive screens of depression, anxiety, and alcohol misuse, as well as receipt of health care services. We examine differences in these outcomes across states, affected occupational groups, and demographic groups.Results:Resource loss attributed to the spill was associated with positive screens for depression and anxiety. Almost 50% of adults screened positive for depression, anxiety, or alcohol misuse, but less than 20% of these currently access mental health care. Black residents were less likely to have health insurance and a usual source of care but were more likely to have visited the emergency room in the past 12 months.Conclusions:Surveillance data from STRONG can help policy-makers and other stakeholders develop targeted approaches to foster resilience, particularly among vulnerable populations, and thereby mitigate the effects of future disasters.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2019.3
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • A Comparative Survival Analysis Between Evacuees and Nonevacuees Among
           Dialysis Patients in Fukushima Prefecture After Japan’s 2011 Fukushima
           Nuclear Incident
    • Authors: Shuhei Nomura; Yukie Matsuzaki, Yuko Sato, Jyunko Takasaki, Yuki Sonoda, Hiroaki Shimmura, Yuko Kodama
      Pages: 898 - 904
      Abstract: Objective:There has been little research on the health consequences of evacuation in the disaster context. A comparative analysis of survival between evacuated and nonevacuated hospital dialysis patients was conducted following Japan’s Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant incident, which occurred on March 11, 2011.Methods:The study included 554 patients (mean age: 70.9) receiving dialysis therapy at one of the Tokiwakai Group hospitals—all of which are located in and around Iwaki City, approximately 50 km from the Fukushima nuclear plant—as of the incident date. The patients’ survival after the incident was tracked until March 3, 2017. Significant differences in mortality rates between postincident evacuees and nonevacuees were tested using the Bayesian survival analysis with Weibull multivariate regression.Results:Out of 554 dialysis patients, 418 (75.5%) were evacuated after the incident. The postincident mortality rate (adjusted for covariates) of evacuees was not statistically significantly different from that of nonevacuees. The hazard ratio was 1.17 (95% credible intervals: 0.77-1.74).Conclusions:If performed in a well-planned manner with satisfactory arrangements for appropriate selection of evacuees and their transportation, evacuation could be a reasonable option, which might save more lives of vulnerable people.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2019.4
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • Prefabricated Temporary Housing and Eczema or Respiratory Symptoms in
           Schoolchildren after the Great East Japan Earthquake: The ToMMo Child
           Health Study
    • Authors: Yasutaka Kuniyoshi; Masahiro Kikuya, Masako Miyashita, Chizuru Yamanaka, Mami Ishikuro, Taku Obara, Hirohito Metoki, Naoki Nakaya, Fuji Nagami, Hiroaki Tomita, Atsushi Hozawa, Ichiro Tsuji, Shigeo Kure, Nobuo Yaegashi, Shinichi Kuriyama
      Pages: 905 - 911
      Abstract: Objective:We aimed to investigate the association between types of housing and allergic symptoms at 3–4 years following the Great East Japan Earthquake.Methods:Our study was based on the ToMMo Child Health Study conducted in 2014 and 2015, a cross-sectional survey of public school children in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. Of the 46 648 invited schoolchildren in the 2nd to 8th grades, 9884 were included. Presence of eczema, wheezing, and mental health symptoms was defined with questionnaires. To calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for the associations between types of housing and eczema or respiratory symptoms, we fitted generalized linear mixed models, included a random effect for municipality of residence, and adjusted for sex, school grade, survey year, and mental health symptoms.Results:Prefabricated temporary housing was significantly associated with eczema symptoms (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.06–2.02). Even after adjusting for the presence of mental health symptoms, our analysis produced similar results (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.03–1.96). Conversely, it was not significantly associated with respiratory symptoms (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.61–1.54).Conclusions:Children living in prefabricated temporary housing had a higher prevalence of eczema symptoms; however, prevalence of respiratory symptoms was not significantly higher.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2019.8
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • US Governmental Spending for Disaster-Related Research, 2011–2016:
           Characterizing the State of Science Funding Across 5 Professional
           Disciplines
    • Authors: Thomas D. Kirsch; Mark Keim
      Pages: 912 - 919
      Abstract: Objective:Disaster-related research funding in the United States has not been described. This study characterizes Federal funding for disaster-related research for 5 professional disciplines: medicine, public health, social science, engineering, emergency management.Methods:An online key word search was performed using the website, www.USAspending.gov, to identify federal awards, grants, and contracts during 2011–2016. A panel of experts then reviewed each entry for inclusion.Results:The search identified 9145 entries, of which 262 (3%) met inclusion criteria. Over 6 years, the Federal Government awarded US $69 325 130 for all disaster-related research. Total funding levels quadrupled in the first 3 years and then halved in the last 3 years. Half of the funding was for engineering, 3 times higher than social sciences and emergency management and 5 times higher than public health and medicine. Ten (11%) institutions received 52% of all funding. The search returned entries for only 12 of the 35 pre-identified disaster-related capabilities; 6 of 12 capabilities appear to have received no funding for at least 2 years.Conclusion:US federal funding for disaster-related research is limited and highly variable during 2011–2016. There are no clear reasons for apportionment. There appears to be an absence of prioritization. There does not appear to be a strategy for alignment of research with national disaster policies.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2019.14
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • Characterizing the Current State of Training Courses Available to US
           Disaster Professionals
    • Authors: Thomas Kirsch; Mark Keim, Kandra Strauss-Riggs
      Pages: 920 - 926
      Abstract: Objective:The objective of this study is to characterize US-based disaster training courses available to disaster response and disaster health professionals. Its purpose is to better inform policies and decision-making regarding workforce and professional development to improve performance.Methods:Courses were identified from 4 inventories of courses: (1) National Library of Medicine Disaster Lit database; (2) TRAIN National Learning Network; (3) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) National Preparedness Course Catalog; and (4) Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Centers. An online search used 30 disaster-related key words. Data included the course title, description, target audience, and delivery modality. Levels of learning, target capability, and function were categorized by 3 expert reviewers. Descriptive statistics were used.Results:There were 3662 trainings: 2380 (65%) for professionals (53% for public health); 83% of the courses were distance learning, with 16% via classroom. Half of all trainings focused on 3 of 37 disaster capabilities and 38% of them were related to chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosives (CBRNE). The educational approach was knowledge-based for all courses and 99.6% imparted only lower levels of learning.Conclusion:Despite thousands of courses available, there remain significant gaps in target audience, subject matter content, educational approaches, and delivery modalities, particularly for health and public health professionals.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2019.15
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • Emotional and Physical Child Abuse in The Context of Natural Disasters: A
           Focus on Haiti
    • Authors: Sony Subedi; Susan Bartels, Colleen Davison
      Pages: 927 - 935
      Abstract: Objective:To investigate the social and living conditions of households in Haiti before and after the 2010 earthquake and to determine the prevalence of emotional and physical abuse of children aged 2 to 14 in households after the earthquake.Methods:Nationally representative samples of Haitian households from the 2005/2006 and 2012 phases of the Demographic and Health Surveys were used. Descriptive data were summarized with frequencies and measures of central tendency. Chi-squared and independent t tests were used to compare pre-earthquake and post-earthquake data. Basic mapping was used to explore patterns of child abuse in relation to proximity to the epicenter.Results:Comparison of pre-earthquake and post-earthquake data showed noteworthy improvements in the education attainment of the household head and possession of mobile phones after the earthquake. The prevalence of emotional, physical, and severe physical abuse in 2012 was estimated to be 78.5%, 77.0%, and 15.4%, respectively. Mapping revealed no conclusive patterns between the proximity of each region to the epicenter and the prevalence of the different forms of abuse. However, the prevalence of severe physical abuse was notably higher in settlement camps (25.0%) than it was in Haiti overall (15.4%).Conclusions:The high prevalence of child abuse in Haiti highlights an urgent need for interventions aimed at reducing occurrences of household child abuse.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2019.16
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • National Assessment of Nursing Schools and Nurse Educators Readiness for
           Radiation Emergencies and Nuclear Events
    • Authors: Tener Goodwin Veenema; Roberta Proffitt Lavin, Sarah Schneider-Firestone, Mary Pat Couig, Joanne C. Langan, Kristine Qureshi, Danny Scerpella, Lesley Sasnett
      Pages: 936 - 945
      Abstract: Nurses will play a crucial role in responding to a public health emergency resulting from nuclear war or other large-scale release of radiation into the environment and in supporting the National Health Security Strategy. Schools of nursing are ultimately responsible for developing a competent nursing workforce prepared to assess a population’s public health emergency needs and respond to these low-frequency but high-impact events. This responsibility includes the provision of specific content and training regarding how to respond and care for patients and communities in the event of a nuclear or radiation emergency. To date, however, there has been a lack of empirical evidence focusing specifically on nursing schools’ capacity to prepare nurses for radiation emergencies and nuclear events, as well as perception of risk. This study employed a cross-sectional survey administered to a nationwide sample of nursing school administrators and faculty to assess content, faculty expertise, planning, and perception of risk related to radiation emergencies and nuclear events.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2019.17
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • Disaster Medicine: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature From 2016
    • Authors: Ritu R. Sarin; John L. Hick, Alicia A. Livinski, Jennifer Nieratko, Meghan Treber, Audrey Mazurek, Shayne Brannman, Paul Biddinger, Jonathan Burstein, Gregory Ciottone, Scott Goldberg, Andrew Milsten, Ira Nemeth, Eric Goralnick
      Pages: 946 - 957
      Abstract: Objective:The Society of Academic Emergency Medicine Disaster Medicine Interest Group, the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response – Technical Resources, Assistance Center, and Information Exchange (ASPR TRACIE) team, and the National Institutes of Health Library searched disaster medicine peer-reviewed and gray literature to identify, review, and disseminate the most important new research in this field for academics and practitioners.Methods:MEDLINE/PubMed and Scopus databases were searched with key words. Additional gray literature and focused hand search were performed. A Level I review of titles and abstracts with inclusion criteria of disaster medicine, health care system, and disaster type concepts was performed. Eight reviewers performed Level II full-text review and formal scoring for overall quality, impact, clarity, and importance, with scoring ranging from 0 to 20. Reviewers summarized and critiqued articles scoring 16.5 and above.Results:Articles totaling 1176 were identified, and 347 were screened in a Level II review. Of these, 193 (56%) were Original Research, 117 (34%) Case Report or other, and 37 (11%) were Review/Meta-Analysis. The average final score after a Level II review was 11.34. Eighteen articles scored 16.5 or higher. Of the 18 articles, 9 (50%) were Case Report or other, 7 (39%) were Original Research, and 2 (11%) were Review/Meta-Analysis.Conclusions:This first review highlighted the breadth of disaster medicine, including emerging infectious disease outbreaks, terror attacks, and natural disasters. We hope this review becomes an annual source of actionable, pertinent literature for the emerging field of disaster medicine.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2019.18
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • Disasters in Germany and France: An Analysis of the Emergency Events
           Database From a Pediatric Perspective
    • Authors: Markus Ries; Matthias Zielonka, Noah Ries, Thomas Breil, Sven Garbade, Konstantin Mechler
      Pages: 958 - 965
      Abstract: Objective:The objective of this study was to conduct comprehensive analyses of disaster patterns for Germany and France from a pediatric perspective.Methods:An analysis of the Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT), epidemiological database with standard methods of descriptive and comparative statistics respecting the strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) criteria, was performed.Results:Between 2006 and 2016, there were 41 and 42 disasters in Germany and France claiming 259 and 4973 lives, respectively. Ages of afflicted individuals were not specified in EM-DAT. In Germany, most events were storms (37%), extreme temperatures (17%), floods (17%), and transport accidents (17%). In France, most events were storms (45%), extreme temperatures (17%), floods (19%), and transport accidents (14%). In Germany, most lives (96) were lost in transport accidents. In France, most casualties were due to the heat waves of 2006 and 2015 (1388 and 3275). Reported event types in Germany and France were similar, but heat waves struck France more significantly than Germany.Conclusions:Pediatric data are not explicitly captured in EM-DAT, but reported disaster patterns suggest that exposures to heat and cold, storms, trauma, chemicals, water, and infectious agents are possible mechanisms of injury. Age-stratified disaster data are needed to enable a timely, transparent, coordinated, and sustained data-driven approach to pediatric disaster resilience.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2019.24
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • Visualizing the History and Perspectives of Disaster Medicine: A
           Bibliometric Analysis
    • Authors: Xinxin Hao; Yunling Liu, Xiaoxue Li, Jingchen Zheng
      Pages: 966 - 973
      Abstract: Objective:To analyze the development of disaster medicine and to identify the main obstacles to improving disaster medicine research and application.Methods:A topic search strategy was used to search the Web of Science Core Collection database. The 100 articles with the highest local citation scores were selected for bibliometric analysis; summarizing informetric indicators; and preparing a historiography, themes network, and key word co-occurrence map.Results:The 100 articles with the highest local citation scores were published from 1983 to 2013 in 9 countries, mainly in the United States. The most productive authors were Koenig and Rubinson. The lead research institution was Columbia University. The most commonly cited journal was the Annals of Emergency Medicine. The development of disaster medicine could be separated into 3 consecutive periods. All results indicate that the development of disaster medicine faces some obstacles that need to be addressed.Conclusions:Research works have provided a solid foundation for disaster medicine, but its development has been in a slow growth period for a long time. Obstacles to the development of disaster medicine include the lack of scientist communities, transdisciplinary research, innovative research perspectives, and continuous research. Future research should overcome these obstacles so as to make further advances in this field.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2019.31
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • Separated After a Disaster: Trust and Privacy Issues in Sharing
           Children’s Personal Information
    • Authors: Rachel L. Charney; Terri Rebmann, Flavio Esposito, Kristin Schmid, Sarita Chung
      Pages: 974 - 981
      Abstract: Background:After disasters, unaccompanied children may present to an emergency department requiring reunification. An effective reunification system depends on the willingness of guardians to utilize it.Objective:Assess guardian willingness to share children’s personal information for reunification purposes after a disaster, perceived concerns and beliefs, and trust in reunification agencies.Methods:Guardians of children presenting to 2 pediatric emergency departments were approached to participate in a survey-based study. Willingness to share their children’s personal information was scored on a scale of 1 to 19 (1 point per item). Perceived concerns about and importance of sharing information, level of trust in reunification agencies, and guardian demographics were collected. Chi-square was used to compare trust and attitudes/beliefs. Multivariate linear regression was used to determine factors associated with willingness to share information.Results:A total of 363 surveys were completed (response rate, 80%). Most guardians (95.6%) were willing to share at least some information (mean, 16 items; range, 1-19). Half were concerned about protection (55.4%) or abuse (52.3%) of their child’s information. Hospitals were trusted more than other reunification agencies (P < .001). Perception of reunification importance was associated with willingness to share (P < .001).Conclusions:Guardians are willing to share their children’s information to facilitate reunification after disasters, but have privacy concerns.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2019.32
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • Implementation and Evaluation of the Value of Improved and Sustained
           Information Access by Library Expertise (VISIBLE) Program
    • Authors: Terri Rebmann; Donghua Tao, James Austin Turner, Travis M. Loux, Sanath Srinivasan, Alexander Garza
      Pages: 982 - 988
      Abstract: Objective:To increase knowledge of National Library of Medicine resources by using a train-the-trainer approach.Methods:Workshops were held in spring 2016 to increase knowledge of 4 National Library of Medicine tools. Data were collected before the workshop and immediately, 3 months, and 1 year after the workshop. Knowledge questions were scored as 1 point per question; an aggregated knowledge score could range from 0 to 16 points. A paired t test assessed the change in knowledge from before to after the workshop.Results:Four workshops were hosted, with a total of 74 attendees. The response rate for the surveys ranged from 50% to 100%. Knowledge scores changed significantly from 7.2 to 11.9 (t = 15, P < .001). One year after the workshop, more of the participants reported having informally trained others (56.8%) than reported providing 1 or more formal training session (8.1%)(P < .001).Conclusion:Objective measures of knowledge and information dissemination showed that the National Library of Medicine workshop was successful and resulted in both short- and long-term gains. This workshop could be repeated with other populations to further disseminate information regarding the National Library of Medicine tools, which could help improve disaster response.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2019.33
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • Addressing Disease-Related Stigma During Infectious Disease Outbreaks
    • Authors: Leah S. Fischer; Gordon Mansergh, Jonathan Lynch, Scott Santibanez
      Pages: 989 - 994
      Abstract: Outbreaks of emerging infectious disease are a constant threat. In the last 10 years, there have been outbreaks of 2009 influenza A (H1N1), Ebola virus disease, and Zika virus. Stigma associated with infectious disease can be a barrier to adopting healthy behaviors, leading to more severe health problems, ongoing disease transmission, and difficulty controlling infectious disease outbreaks. Much has been learned about infectious disease and stigma in the context of nearly 4 decades of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome pandemic. In this paper, we define stigma, discuss its relevance to infectious disease outbreaks, including how individuals and communities can be affected. Adapting lessons learned from the rich literature on HIV-related stigma, we propose a strategy for reducing stigma during infectious disease outbreaks such as Ebola virus disease and Zika virus. The implementation of brief, practical strategies such as the ones proposed here might help reduce stigma and facilitate more effective control of emerging infectious diseases.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2018.157
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive (CBRNE) Science
           and the CBRNE Science Medical Operations Science Support Expert (CMOSSE)
    • Authors: C. Norman Coleman; Judith L. Bader, John F. Koerner, Chad Hrdina, Kenneth D. Cliffer, John L. Hick, James J. James, Monique K. Mansoura, Alicia A. Livinski, Scott V. Nystrom, Andrea DiCarlo-Cohen, Maria Julia Marinissen, Lynne Wathen, Jessica M. Appler, Brooke Buddemeier, Rocco Casagrande, Derek Estes, Patrick Byrne, Edward M. Kennedy, Ann A. Jakubowski, Cullen Case, David M. Weinstock, Nicholas Dainiak, Dan Hanfling, Andrew L. Garrett, Natalie N. Grant, Daniel Dodgen, Irwin Redlener, Thomas F. MacKAY, Meghan Treber, Mary J. Homer, Tammy P. Taylor, Aubrey Miller, George Korch, Richard Hatchett
      Pages: 995 - 1010
      Abstract: A national need is to prepare for and respond to accidental or intentional disasters categorized as chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive (CBRNE). These incidents require specific subject-matter expertise, yet have commonalities. We identify 7 core elements comprising CBRNE science that require integration for effective preparedness planning and public health and medical response and recovery. These core elements are (1) basic and clinical sciences, (2) modeling and systems management, (3) planning, (4) response and incident management, (5) recovery and resilience, (6) lessons learned, and (7) continuous improvement. A key feature is the ability of relevant subject matter experts to integrate information into response operations. We propose the CBRNE medical operations science support expert as a professional who (1) understands that CBRNE incidents require an integrated systems approach, (2) understands the key functions and contributions of CBRNE science practitioners, (3) helps direct strategic and tactical CBRNE planning and responses through first-hand experience, and (4) provides advice to senior decision-makers managing response activities. Recognition of both CBRNE science as a distinct competency and the establishment of the CBRNE medical operations science support expert informs the public of the enormous progress made, broadcasts opportunities for new talent, and enhances the sophistication and analytic expertise of senior managers planning for and responding to CBRNE incidents.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2018.163
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • Subacute Phase After an Earthquake: An Even More Important Period
    • Authors: Ping Gao; Yun-Dou Wang
      Pages: 1011 - 1016
      Abstract: An earthquake is a very common natural disaster. Numerous studies have focused on the acute phase, but studies concerning the subacute phase after an earthquake were very limited. This aroused more attention being paid to medical relief in the subacute phase, and this study elaborated on the division of the medical relief period and the definition of medical relief targets. More importantly, major types of disease were analyzed by reviewing the relevant published studies, which were identified by searching electronic databases. Findings suggested that the clear division of medical relief stage is vital for determining the priority of medical aid and allocating medical resources scientifically, and all concerned populations should be targeted for medical assistance. The focus of acute phase is injury (64.2%), and the subacute phase is disease (27.8% respiratory disease, 22.9% common disease, 12.5% wound/injury, 10.5% skin disease, 8.7% gynecological and pediatric disease, 8.5% digestive disease). However, due to the limited available studies, the included articles perhaps did not reflect the actual proportion of each type of disease. More studies are needed to better understand the proportion of different diseases in each phase of an earthquake.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2019.7
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • Parallel Simulation Decision-Making Method for a Response to
           Unconventional Public Health Emergencies Based on the Scenario–Response
           Paradigm and Discrete Event System Theory
    • Authors: Tian Xie; Mengna Ni, Zhaoyun Zhang, Yaoyao Wei
      Pages: 1017 - 1027
      Abstract: Given the non-repeatability, complexity, and unpredictability of unconventional public health emergencies, building accurate models and making effective response decisions based only on traditional prediction–response decision-making methods are difficult. To solve this problem, under the scenario–response paradigm and theories on parallel emergency management and discrete event system (DES), the parallel simulation decision-making framework (PSDF), which includes the methods of abstract modeling, simulation operation, decision-making optimization, and parallel control, is proposed for unconventional public health emergency response processes. Furthermore, with the example of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) response process, the evolutionary scenarios that include infected patients and diagnostic processes are transformed into simulation processes. Then, the validity and operability of the DES–PSDF method proposed in this paper are verified by the results of a simulation experiment. The results demonstrated that, in the case of insufficient prior knowledge, effective parallel simulation models can be constructed and improved dynamically by multi-stage parallel controlling. Public health system bottlenecks and relevant effective response solutions can also be obtained by iterative simulation and optimizing decisions. To meet the urgent requirements of emergency response, the DES–PSDF method introduces a new response decision-making concept for unconventional public health emergencies.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2019.30
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • Ensuring On-site Ebola Patient Monitoring and Follow-up: Development of a
           Laboratory Structure Embedded in an Ebola Treatment Center
    • Authors: Anita Williams; Mathieu Amand, Rafael Van den Bergh, Hilde De Clerck, Annick Antierens, Pascale Chaillet
      Pages: 1028 - 1034
      Abstract: The capacity to rapidly distinguish Ebola virus disease from other infectious diseases and to monitor biochemistry and viremia levels is crucial to the clinical management of suspected Ebola virus disease cases. This article describes the design and practical considerations of a laboratory straddling the high- and low-risk zones of an Ebola treatment center to produce timely diagnostic and clinical results for informed case management of Ebola virus disease in real-life conditions. This innovation may be of relevance for actors requiring flexible laboratory implementation in contexts of high-communicability, high-lethality disease outbreaks.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2019.39
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • Public Health Threats in Mass Gatherings: A Systematic Review
    • Authors: Manoochehr Karami; Amin Doosti-Irani, Ali Ardalan, Fathemeh Gohari-Ensaf, Zainab Berangi, Eduardo Massad, Mohammad Rebi Yeganeh, Mohsen Asadi-Lari, Mohammad Mehdi Gouya
      Pages: 1035 - 1046
      Abstract: Mass gatherings (MGs) are held throughout the world. The aim of this review was to assess and identify the health threats based on the type of the MG, type of diseases, and injuries. Research platforms such as Web of Science, Medline, and Scopus were searched through June 2017. All epidemiologic studies that investigated the health threats during the MGs, such as communicable diseases, injuries, high-risk behaviors, and environmental health problems, were included in this review. Out of 1264 references, 45 articles were included in the review.Three main types of MGs include religious, festival, and sporting event; and fairs such as trade, book, and agricultural types were also reported in the selected studies. In the religious MGs, infectious diseases were the most common health threat. Road traffic accidents and environmental health problems were additional health threats. At MG sporting events, injuries were the most common health problems. Infectious diseases and alcohol and drug-related disorders were other reported public health concerns. In the festival MGs, alcohol and drug-related problems were commonly reported. This review showed that health threats vary, based on the type of mass gathering. The health organizers of MGs should consider the type of the MG and the health needs and safety of the participants to help them plan their action and provide the needed health care services.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2018.161
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • The Role of Academic Partnership in Disaster Risk Management: A Systematic
           Review
    • Authors: Bahar Seifi; Hesam Seyedin, Ghader Ghanizadeh
      Pages: 1047 - 1058
      Abstract: Objective:The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the community-based academic partnership roles in disaster risk management.Methods:The assessment of the documents was conducted by reviewing abstracts and full papers of the available studies, which provided considerable background and promoted knowledge in academic interventional roles in disaster risk management. The articles were searched with a wide range of key words related to the research topic. The studies included the research available between 2000 and September 2017 in the English language. The selection of articles was conducted based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist.Results:Of 997 articles, we selected 12 full-text articles that met the criteria for the final review based on the study objective. The results show that, although universities can play multidirectional roles in disaster risk management phases, the development of the academic partnership potential and collaboration for disaster risk management and disaster risk reduction for stakeholders is necessary.Conclusion:The universities’ potential in providing sufficient disaster health literacy is not currently considered important enough in communities.Therefore, the proper context-bound models of development based on a community’s skills and universities’ potential should receive more attention.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2018.164
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • Accuracy of Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) in
           Disaster Settings: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review
    • Authors: Christine Lee; Daniel Balk, Jesse Schafer, Jeremy Welwarth, John Hardin, Shaked Yarza, Victor Novack, Beatrice Hoffmann
      Pages: 1059 - 1064
      Abstract: Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) has been incorporated into the initial evaluation of trauma for decades. It is an important screening tool in the detection of intra-abdominal fluid. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the use and accuracy of FAST as an imaging tool for blunt abdominal trauma in disaster/mass casualty settings. A systematic review of literature was conducted using key words and search terms. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts to determine inclusion using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS). For studies passing QUADAS, a meta-analysis was performed calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). FAST results were compared with the gold standard, which was a combination of CT scan results, operative findings, and medical records of the clinical course. Initial database screening resulted in 133 articles, of which 21 were selected for QUADAS evaluation. Five studies passed QUADAS and were selected in the final meta-analysis, with a total of 4263 patients. The sensitivity of FAST was 92.1% (87.8–95.6), specificity 98.7% (96.0–99.9), PPV 90.7% (70.0–98.0), and NPV 98.8% (98.1–99.5) for the detection of intra-abdominal injury. In our meta-analysis, FAST was both sensitive and specific in the evaluation of trauma in the disaster setting.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2019.23
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • The Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Survivors After a
           Typhoon or Hurricane: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    • Authors: Zhipeng Wang; Xin Wu, Wenjie Dai, Atipatsa C. Kaminga, Xiaoli Wu, Xiongfeng Pan, Ziyan Liu, Shiwu Wen, Shixiong Hu, Aizhong Liu
      Pages: 1065 - 1073
      Abstract: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychological disorder, which could be caused by traumatic events. The prevalence of PTSD among survivors after a typhoon or hurricane varied widely. Therefore, this study aimed to determine a combined prevalence of PTSD among survivors after a typhoon or hurricane. A systematic search of literature was performed in the 3 English databases: PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD), ISI Web of Science (Thomson Reuters, New York, NY), and Embase (Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands). Also, a similar search was performed in the 2 Chinese databases such as Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and WanFang. Loney et al.’s criteria were used to evaluate the quality of the selected articles for this study. The combined prevalence of PTSD among the study population was estimated using the Freeman–Tukey double arcsine transformation method. Subgroup analyses and a meta-regression analysis were carried out to explore the origin of heterogeneity. Thirty-nine eligible articles were included in this study. They comprised 43 123 typhoon and hurricane survivors of which 9373 were diagnosed with PTSD. The combined prevalence of PTSD among this population was 17.81%. Subgroup analyses revealed that the combined prevalence of PTSD related to typhoon and hurricane Categories 5, 4, and 2 showing a corresponding decreasing tendency. About 18% of people who experienced a severe typhoon or hurricane develop PTSD with the prevalence decreasing with reduced severity of the typhoon or hurricane.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2019.26
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • The Golden Hour After Injury Among Civilians Caught in Conflict Zones
    • Authors: Joseph D. Forrester; Auriel August, Lawrence Z. Cai, Adam L. Kushner, Sherry M. Wren
      Pages: 1074 - 1082
      Abstract: Introduction:The term “golden hour” describes the first 60 minutes after patients sustain injury. In resource-available settings, rapid transport to trauma centers within this time period is standard-of-care. We compared transport times of injured civilians in modern conflict zones to assess the degree to which injured civilians are transported within the golden hour in these environments.Methods:We evaluated PubMed, Ovid, and Web of Science databases for manuscripts describing transport time after trauma among civilian victims of trauma from January 1990 to November 2017.Results:The initial database search identified 2704 abstracts. Twenty-nine studies met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Conflicts in Yugoslavia/Bosnia/Herzegovina, Syria, Afghanistan, Iraq, Israel, Cambodia, Somalia, Georgia, Lebanon, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Turkey were represented, describing 47 273 patients. Only 7 (24%) manuscripts described transport times under 1 hour. Transport typically required several hours to days.Conclusion:Anticipated transport times have important implications for field triage of injured persons in civilian conflict settings because existing overburdened civilian health care systems may become further overwhelmed if in-hospital health capacity is unable to keep pace with inflow of the severely wounded.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2019.42
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • Overcoming Challenges in the Medical Response to Hurricane Dorian in the
           Bahamas
    • Authors: Richard J. Randolph; Amy Lafferty
      Pages: 1083 - 1085
      Abstract: In September 2019, the northwest Bahamas suffered unparalleled damages due to Hurricane Dorian. The storm disrupted all the essential community services, including water, electricity, and medicine. Heart to Heart International provided medical support in a very austere environment to the people of Abaco island. This article examines the challenges faced by the response team from Heart to Heart International in the immediate aftermath of Hurricane Dorian.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2019.106
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • Team Rubicon Medical Response to Hurricane Dorian in the Bahamas
    • Authors: Andrew J. Bouland; Jordan Selzer, Madi Yogman, David W. Callaway
      Pages: 1086 - 1089
      Abstract: On September 1, 2019, Hurricane Dorian made landfall as a category 5 hurricane on Great Abaco Island, Bahamas. Hurricane Dorian matched the “Labor Day” hurricane of 1935 as the strongest recorded Atlantic hurricane to make landfall with maximum sustained winds of 185 miles/h.1 At the request of the Government of the Bahamas, Team Rubicon activated a World Health Organization Type 1 Mobile Emergency Medical Team and responded to Great Abaco Island. The team provided medical care and reconnaissance of medical clinics on the island and surrounding cays…
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2019.107
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • Hurricane Dorian and Disaster Response in the Face of Constant Threats
    • Authors: Nicolette A. Louissaint
      Pages: 1090 - 1091
      Abstract: Hurricane Dorian’s impact on Eastern North Carolina and the Bahamas islands demonstrate the devastation and public health needs that can be left in the wake of a catastrophic event. The hurricane created a range of public health and healthcare challenges, strained further by the damage to infrastructure on which critical services, including the medical supply chain, depend. The recovery process is long, but offers an opportunity to build back better, more resilient communities that can withstand today’s threats.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2019.137
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • The Hidden Wounds of Hurricane Dorian: Why Emergency Response Must Look
           Beyond Physical Trauma
    • Authors: Andrea Dunne-Sosa; Tom Cotter
      Pages: 1092 - 1094
      Abstract: Project HOPE, a global health and humanitarian assistance organization, has responded to some of the world’s largest natural disasters and humanitarian and health crises for more than 60 years. As natural disasters increase in frequency and intensity, otherwise effective health systems can become compromised, and - although less visible than traumatic injuries – populations with chronic diseases can be significantly impacted. Emergency preparedness and response efforts must adapt to address issues around continuity of care, access to pharmaceuticals, strengthening cold chain mechanisms, restoring supply chains, and educating patients with chronic illnesses on emergency preparedness. Project HOPE designs medical teams and supply donations to work alongside, rather than parallel to, existing health care infrastructure, laying the foundation for the long-term recovery of the health system.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2019.138
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
  • Securing the Emergency Department During Terrorism Incidents: Lessons
           Learned From the Boston Marathon Bombings - Erratum
    • Authors: Horacio Hojman; Rishi Rattan, Rob Osgood, Mengdi Yao, Nikolay Bugaev
      Pages: 1095 - 1095
      PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2019.51
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5-6 (2019)
       
 
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