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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1278 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (18 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (509 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (379 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (106 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (99 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (80 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (509 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 174)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription  
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Policy and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Professions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Health Sciences Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Health Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Healthcare Delivery Reform Initiatives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover HIV & AIDS Review
  [SJR: 0.17]   [H-I: 4]   [9 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal  (Not entitled to full-text)
   ISSN (Print) 1730-1270
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3032 journals]
  • Relationship between chest radiographic patterns of tuberculosis and CD4+
           cell count among HIV-infected patients at Katsina, Nigeria: A
           retrospective study
    • Authors: Abdulrahman Tahir; Tijjani Sani; Sabiu Abdu Gwalabe
      Pages: 177 - 179
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:HIV & AIDS Review, Volume 15, Issue 4
      Author(s): Abdulrahman Tahir, Tijjani Sani, Sabiu Abdu Gwalabe
      Aim To determine the relationship between the chest radiographic patterns of PTB and CD4+ cell count among HIV-infected patients at FMC Katsina, Nigeria. Background The diagnostic usefulness plain chest X-ray (CXR) for patients with HIV/PTB co-infection is dependent on the degree of immunosuppression. Materials and methods We obtained and analysed, retrospectively, the hospital records of 182 patients treated for PTB with or without HIV infection at FMC Katsina, between 1st of January to 31st December, 2010. The Chest radiographic (CXR) features of PTB were reported as typical or atypical. Ziehl–Neelsen stained smear results were also used. Results Of the 182 patients’ records used for this study, 102 (56.0%) males and 80 (44.0%) females with mean age of 40.2±15.6 years and range of 18–85 years. The CXR of 182 patients recorded showed that 140 (76.9%) have typical features of PTB with 42 (23.1%) reported as atypical features. Those with HIV/PTB co-infection showed significantly higher atypical CXR features (p =0.000) and even based on their CD4 cell count (p =0.017). Conclusion Atypical chest radiographic features are commoner among HIV-infected PTB patients, especially those with low CD4+ cell counts, who also have low sputum smear yield. Providing facilities for TB culture in health care centres in Nigeria may reduce misdiagnosis.

      PubDate: 2017-03-19T17:58:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hivar.2016.11.009
       
  • Acknowledgement of Reviewers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:HIV & AIDS Review, Volume 15, Issue 4


      PubDate: 2017-03-19T17:58:41Z
       
  • Efavirenz as component of initial combination antiretroviral therapy –
           Data from the Polish Observational Cohort of HIV/AIDS Patients (POLCA)
           Study Group
    • Authors: J. Kubicka; J. Gizińska; J.D. Kowalska; E. Siwak; P. Swiecki; P. Pulik; B. Szulborska; E. Burkacka-Firlag; A. Horban
      Pages: 55 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 May 2016
      Source:HIV & AIDS Review
      Author(s): J. Kubicka, J. Gizińska, J.D. Kowalska, E. Siwak, P. Swiecki, P. Pulik, B. Szulborska, E. Burkacka-Firlag, A. Horban
      Aim We have investigated treatment effects among patients from Polish Observational Cohort of HIV/AIDS Patients (POLCA) who started efavirenz (EFV) in their first combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Background Combination antiretroviral therapy has dramatically influenced HIV epidemic and patients outcomes. With wider access to care and treatment and newer forms of cART HIV-positive persons’ prognosis continue to further improve, yet still strongly dependent on optimal adherence and virological efficacy. Materials and Methods POLCA is an observational cohort where information is collected in real-time from clinic database. Patients were included into analyses, if being naïve prior and starting EFV-based cART regimen and followed until 24 months, treatment modification or death whichever occurred first. Results In total 285 patients started EFV-based cART and 55.1% continued the treatment after two years. Majority of patients were male (85.6%) and HIV infected through sexual contacts (97.5%). The median age at starting cART was 31.9 years. Baseline CD4 count was 228cells/μl. Thirty patients (10.5%) had treatment failure defined as <200copies/μl in two subsequent measurements and/or viral rebound above 500copies/μl. In terms of toxicities we have observed continuous increase in proportion of patients with normal urine protein level from 75.3% at baseline to 89.3% after 24 month of treatment. The proportion of patients with normal triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol decreased over time on efavirenz-based treatment, whereas proportion of those with normal HDL cholesterol increased. 16.4% of patients discontinued EFV due to CNS-related toxicities. Conclusions EFV-based cART proved to be effective and safe treatment option for HIV-positive patients observed in POLCA study.

      PubDate: 2016-05-13T22:40:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hivar.2016.04.006
       
  • Reported quality of life of HIV-positive people in Maseru, Lesotho: The
           need to strengthen social protection programmes
    • Authors: Eltony Mugomeri; Peter Chatanga; Mamokhoabo Junicia ’Notoane
      Pages: 61 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2016
      Source:HIV & AIDS Review
      Author(s): Eltony Mugomeri, Peter Chatanga, Mamokhoabo Junicia ’Notoane
      Aim The study assessed the physical, psychological, social and environmental aspects of people living with HIV & AIDS (PLWHA) in Lesotho to determine the quality of life (QoL) aspects which need interventions. Background Determination of QoL of PLWHA is important to assess the impact of HIV & AIDS intervention programmes. Data on QoL of PLWHA in Lesotho are scarce. Materials and methods This was a cross-sectional descriptive study based on the World Health Organization QoL Brief (WHOQoL-Bref) questionnaire distributed to PLWHA in Maseru, Lesotho. Differences between QoL mean scores by clinical and socio-demographic variables were tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results Of the 500 questionnaires distributed, 460 were returned with data acceptable for analysis. PLWHA were least satisfied with the physical domain followed by the environmental domain. In the physical domain, age (p =0.01), level of education (p =0.01), marital status (p =0.02), employment status (p =0.04) and social support (p <0.001) significantly determined QoL. In the environmental domain, level of education (p =0.001), employment status (p <0.001), marital status (p =0.031), social support (p <0.001) and type of housing (p =0.035) significantly determined QoL. However, CD4 counts, body mass index, number and type of dependents, and source of water were not significant variables determining QoL. Conclusion PLWHA in Lesotho are least satisfied with the physical and environmental aspects of their lives. Their QoL is determined by age, level of education, marital status, economic status and level of social support. Lesotho needs to scale up the implementation of social protection policy to improve QoL of PLWHA.

      PubDate: 2016-04-15T11:01:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hivar.2016.03.006
       
  • HIV–TB co-infection and associated risk factors among HIV positive
           patients at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Ogun State,
           South-West Nigeria
    • Authors: E. Ranti Kolade; O. Glory Atilola; T. Victoria Babalola; O. Isaac Komolafe
      Pages: 69 - 72
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 April 2016
      Source:HIV & AIDS Review
      Author(s): E. Ranti Kolade, O. Glory Atilola, T. Victoria Babalola, O. Isaac Komolafe
      Aim The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of active Mycobacterium tuberculosis co-infection in a cohort of HIV patients enrolled in a University Teaching Hospital in Ogun state, Nigeria. Background Nigeria ranks the highest tuberculosis-burdened country in Africa. More worrisome is the grim prediction burden of over four million cases of tuberculosis in Nigeria of which one million HIV/TB co-infections are anticipated between 2015 and 2020. Materials and methods This is a retrospective assessment of 1992 HIV patients, of which 657 (33%) were males and 1335 (67%) were females. All patients were enrolled between 2008 and 2011 at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital in Ogun State. The main outcome was the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were utilized in data analysis. Results Study findings showed that 3.5% (95% CI: 2.7% – 4.4%) of HIV patients had active tuberculosis within the study period. In addition, divorced patients had significantly four times greater odds of tuberculosis relative to single patients (OR: 4.09; 95% CI: 1.20–14.00). Highest rate of tuberculosis was observed in 2008 (9.7%) with a progressive decline to zero case of co-infection in 2011. Conclusion Study findings provide evidence of a decline in TB burden over time. However, given the retrospective nature of this study, there is a dire need for a more robust and expanded investigation into the true nature of active TB epidemiology in south-western Nigeria, in order to further our insight and target intervention delivery.

      PubDate: 2016-04-05T14:37:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hivar.2016.03.004
       
  • Is there an association between African national HIV prevalence values and
           socio-economic status of their albino populations?
    • Authors: Bayo Aluko-Olokun; Ademola Abayomi Olaitan; Regina Enubi Morgan; Fadekemi Olufunmi Oginni; Oluseun A. Aluko-Olokun; Oluwaseyi Ibukun-Obaro; Funmilola Seun Adenaike; Mayowa Oluwatosin Alade
      Pages: 73 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016
      Source:HIV & AIDS Review
      Author(s): Bayo Aluko-Olokun, Ademola Abayomi Olaitan, Regina Enubi Morgan, Fadekemi Olufunmi Oginni, Oluseun A. Aluko-Olokun, Oluwaseyi Ibukun-Obaro, Funmilola Seun Adenaike, Mayowa Oluwatosin Alade
      Background Albinos are predisposed to poverty as a result of inability to compete economically due to low education, caused by poor eye sight. Besides stigmatization and discrimination, albinos are specific sexual targets of HIV sufferers. This study investigates the relationship between HIV prevalence and socio-economic status among albinos in a tertiary hospital in Abuja, Nigeria. Method Bio-data (age, sex, and marital status) and socio-economic status (monthly income in US Dollars at time of presentation, level of education, and employment status) of all consecutive adult albino and normal-pigmented patients who underwent surgery were collected and analyzed. All consenting patients were tested for HIV and included in the study. The study population was divided into four groups comprising of (1) HIV positive albino patients, (2) HIV positive normal-pigmented patients, (3) HIV negative albino patients, and (4) HIV negative normal-pigmented patients. Socio-economic status of these groups was compared. Results A total of 198 adult patients were included in the study. 20 (20.2%) albino patients tested positive for HIV, out of which 4 had exposure to post-high school education, while 3 (3.03%) normal-pigmented patients tested positive for the virus, with 2 having had exposure to post-high school education. 21 out of 79 HIV negative albinos had exposure to post-high school education, while 73 of 96 normal-pigmented patients had such exposure. HIV positive albino patients earned an average of 0.70 dollars per day, while HIV negative patients earned 1.97 dollars per day. Normal-pigmented HIV positive patients earned an average of 9.00 dollars per day, while those who tested negative earned 13.79 dollars per day. Conclusion There is an association between national HIV prevalence values in Africa and socio-economic status of their albino populations. It shows poverty-stricken African albinos to be apparently more likely to be HIV positive than their normal-pigmented counterparts. Neglecting the special educational needs of this group exposes the general society to danger.

      PubDate: 2016-03-21T17:02:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hivar.2016.02.001
       
  • Kaposi sarcoma presenting as “diffuse gingival enlargement”:
           Report of three cases
    • Authors: Jacob K. Stern; Ilanit Stern; Scott S. De Rossi; Saiprasad M. Zemse; Rafik Abdelsayed
      Pages: 80 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2016
      Source:HIV & AIDS Review
      Author(s): Jacob K. Stern, Ilanit Stern, Scott S. De Rossi, Saiprasad M. Zemse, Rafik Abdelsayed
      Background Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is an angio-proliferative disorder, associated with human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) infection. Its occurrence may be favored by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and iatrogenic immunosuppression. Methods In this article, we report on three cases of oral KS, presented as diffuse gingival enlargement. Results All cases were in men; one was HIV-negative, receiving immunosuppressive therapy. The other two patients were subsequently found to have HIV/AIDS. The clinical, histopathological and immuno-histochemical features of the lesions are presented and relevant literature is reviewed. Conclusions Patients presenting reddish blue macules, plaques or nodular lesions on the skin or oropharyngeal mucosa, should be suspected for having KS whenever an immunosuppressive therapy is involved. If the patient is not treated by immunosuppressive medications, it is important to determine the HIV status, as it is crucial in the overall management of patients diagnosed with KS.

      PubDate: 2016-05-08T01:03:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hivar.2016.04.001
       
  • Peripheral facial palsy leading to the diagnosis of acute HIV infection
    • Authors: M. Espinosa; F. Pulido; R. Rubio; C. Lumbreras; M. del Palacio
      Pages: 88 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 April 2016
      Source:HIV & AIDS Review
      Author(s): M. Espinosa, F. Pulido, R. Rubio, C. Lumbreras, M. del Palacio
      Acute HIV infection is a challenging diagnosis that is easily missed due to the nonspecific symptoms of the HIV seroconversion syndrome; some patients might develop neurological symptoms, usually around three weeks after the onset of illness. A high HIV viral load in CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) has been associated with the presence of neurological symptoms, and a correlation between the CSF HIV RNA level and the severity of neurological symptoms has been described. We present the case of a patient who developed a peripheral facial palsy and a trigeminal neuralgia during an acute HIV infection, and the laboratory and microbiological findings, including the HIV viral load in CSF, which strongly suggest an HIV primary infection as the etiology of these neuropathies.

      PubDate: 2016-04-21T03:35:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hivar.2016.03.001
       
  • Exogenous Cushing's syndrome as a result of ritonavir–budesonide
           interaction – A case report
    • Authors: Maria Teresa Pereira; Lia Ferreira; Ana Aboim Horta; André Couto de Carvalho
      Pages: 91 - 93
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2016
      Source:HIV & AIDS Review
      Author(s): Maria Teresa Pereira, Lia Ferreira, Ana Aboim Horta, André Couto de Carvalho
      Ritonavir is currently a commonly prescribed protease inhibitor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Its potent inhibition of hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme may increase systemic glucocorticoids concentrations, leading to potential suppression of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) and iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome (CS). We describe a case of a 43-year-old woman with HIV infection that presented with a clinical overt CS resulting from the interaction between ritonavir and intranasal budesonide at low doses. Similar cases have been described with long-term concomitant use of many glucocorticoids with ritonavir but very few concerning inhaled or intranasal budesonide. This case reinforces the importance of physicians to be aware of this interaction, promoting its early recognition and providing a careful assessment of potentially serious drug–drug interactions, especially when ritonavir is prescribed to a HIV-patient with bronchial hyperresponsiveness or rhinitis.

      PubDate: 2016-04-15T11:01:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hivar.2016.03.002
       
  • Isolated cryptococcuria in a patient with impaired immunity
    • Authors: Ramon E.A. Jacobs
      Pages: 94 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2016
      Source:HIV & AIDS Review
      Author(s): Ramon E.A. Jacobs
      Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast that is often associated with serious pulmonary and central nervous system (CNS) infections in immunocompromised hosts. Disseminated cryptococcosis occurs hematogenously. Isolated cryptococcuria has been rarely described in patients without evidence of systemic cryptococcal infection. We describe isolated cryptococcuria in a patient on chronic corticosteroid therapy for sclerosing mesenteritis that was later found to have metastatic adenocarcinoma as well as combined T- and B-cell deficiency.

      PubDate: 2016-04-05T14:37:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hivar.2016.03.003
       
  • Genetic diagnosis of seronegative (HIV−) partner of female patient with
           AIDS in the context of HIV transmission
    • Authors: Katarzyna Zwolińska; Katarzyna Fleischer-Stępniewska; Brygida Knysz; Olga Błachowicz; Egbert Piasecki
      Pages: 97 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 April 2016
      Source:HIV & AIDS Review
      Author(s): Katarzyna Zwolińska, Katarzyna Fleischer-Stępniewska, Brygida Knysz, Olga Błachowicz, Egbert Piasecki
      Aim Complex genetic diagnosis of seronegative (HIV−) long-term partner of female patient with AIDS C3 in the context of HIV transmission. Case report and literature review. Background HIV infection was excluded in 47-year-old man, a long-term sexual partner of female patient diagnosed with AIDS C3. The risk of HIV infection was estimated as high. Objective We focused on the genetic diagnosis of serodiscordant couple. We determined the presence of CCR5-Δ32, CCR2-64I, HLA-B, killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) and their ligand genes and human endogenous retroviruses K113 and K115. Methods Genotyping was performed using PCR methods. Results Analysis of partner's genotype revealed the presence of CCR5-Δ32/Δ32 and KIR genes encoding activating receptors (KIR2DS1, 2DS5, 3DS1), features associated with reduced risk of HIV transmission. Similarities in patient's and her partner's HLA (HLA-B*51) and similar inhibitory KIR repertoire and their ligands (KIR2DL1+HLA-C2, KIR2DL3+HLA-C1, KIR3DL1+HLA-B Bw4-80Ile) could favor the transmission of the virus. Conclusion Genetic diagnosis is not routinely recommended, observation of exposed and uninfected individuals would allow to implement new knowledge into more effective care.

      PubDate: 2016-04-05T14:37:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hivar.2016.03.005
       
  • Stability indicating validated UPLC technique for the simultaneous
           analysis of raltegravir and lamivudine in pharmaceutical dosage forms
    • Authors: Sarif Niroush Konari; Jane T. Jacob
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2016
      Source:HIV & AIDS Review
      Author(s): Sarif Niroush Konari, Jane T. Jacob
      Background WHO study reveals that approximately 2.1 million people became recently infected with HIV, including 240,000 children below 15 years of age in the year of 2013. Latest FDA approved drug combination of raltegravir and lamivudine, which could be used for the treatment of HIV patients (AIDS). This combination therapy can delay the progress of HIV infection and damage to immune system of the HIV patient. A cost-effective and fast analytical method is required to develop for the research establishment to evaluate quality and storage parameters of the each molecule. Material and method A simple and quick approach of stability indicating UPLC technique was established for the simultaneous determination of newly invented anti-HIV drug combo of raltegravir and lamivudine in bulk and pharmaceutical combo within a 4min of chromatographic run. UPLC separation of the two drugs was attained with a BEH Shield RP18 (2.1mm×100mm, 1.7μm), analytical column using buffer potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate pH 3 adjusted with orthophosphoric acid:methanol (30:70, %v/v) in isocratic mode at a flow rate of 0.230ml/min. The column was maintained at an ambient temperature, and detection of two drugs was examined at 254nm using a PDA detector. Conclusions Thus demonstrated technique was exposed for forced degradation studies in five different stress conditions. This projected method was found to be selective and stability indicating, as no obstructing peaks of degradation compounds were detected. The assay of the dosage form and robustness study was obtained within the limit of ICH guidelines.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T14:10:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hivar.2016.11.005
       
  • Knowing your HIV/AIDS response: A pilot test of a new service mapping
           toolkit in Ghana
    • Authors: Amos Laar; Elizabeth Sutherland; Anastasia J. Gage
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2016
      Source:HIV & AIDS Review
      Author(s): Amos Laar, Elizabeth Sutherland, Anastasia J. Gage
      Background “Knowing” an HIV response in a country is a complex undertaking. This requires knowing what actions key implementers in all sectors (government, non-government, public, and private) are deploying; what populations they serve; what the reach of these programs are, amongst others. Aim We aimed to pilot test a set of newly developed data collection tools referred to as the Know Your Response (KYR) toolkit in Ghana. The KYR toolkit addresses three key concepts that are critical for an improved understanding of the HIV-prevention response in terms of location, scale, and needs. Materials and methods Data were collected on HIV programming being undertaken in each of the 16 metropolitan, municipal, and district assemblies (MMDAs) in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Analysis and dissemination of data includes the generation of univariate and bivariate tabulations as well as production of maps of HIV services using Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. Results The toolkit was successful in collecting a great deal of data that describe, at the district level, who is working in HIV prevention, what interventions they are providing, where these interventions are being provided, and to whom the interventions are being targeted. The data generated allows for mapping and understanding of the scope and scale of the HIV-prevention response at the district level. It also identifies challenges and opportunities for scaling the exercise nationally. Conclusions The study provides information needed to guide prioritization, and/or adjustment of the national HIV-prevention programs and interventions being carried out in the Greater Accra region.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T11:27:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hivar.2016.11.004
       
  • Psychological status and its clinical determinants among people living
           with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Northern Peninsular Malaysia
    • Authors: Rashid Radzniwan; Mohsin Alyani; Jaffar Aida; Omar Khairani; Nik Ruzyanei Nik Jaafar; Hizlinda Tohid
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2016
      Source:HIV & AIDS Review
      Author(s): Rashid Radzniwan, Mohsin Alyani, Jaffar Aida, Omar Khairani, Nik Ruzyanei Nik Jaafar, Hizlinda Tohid
      Aim To determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress, and its associated sociodemographic and clinical factors among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Background The number of PLWHA with a near-normal life expectancy has been increasing. This has led them to face various challenges living with the disease, exposing them to multiple psychological problems. Materials and methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted at an HIV clinic in a government hospital in Northern Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 206 PLWHA were recruited using systematic random sampling. Sociodemographic factors and presence of negative emotional states were recorded using a self-administered questionnaire comprising the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21). Results The prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress were 36.9%, 45.1% and 26.7% respectively. The majority had moderate to extremely severe symptoms of depression (71.1%), anxiety (88.2%), and stress (72.27%). After controlling for cofounders using multiple logistic regression, those with a co-morbidity had 3.02 times the odds of having depression compared to those without co-morbidity (p =0.01). The non-Malays had 53% less chance to experience anxiety compared to Malays (p =0.01). Those with lower monthly household income were more likely to experience stress than those with higher income, the worst was among participants with income of <RM1000 (<USD320) per month (p =0.02, OR 5.59). Conclusion Negative emotional states with significant severity were common among PLWH, in particularly depression and anxiety. Thus, these psychological problems should be screened regularly especially among those with co-morbidities and financial constraint to allow provision of adequate emotional and social support.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T11:27:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hivar.2016.11.002
       
  • Identifying HIV distribution pattern based on clustering test using GIS
           software, Kermanshah, Iran
    • Authors: Nahid Khademi; Sohyla Reshadat; Alireza Zanganeh; Shahram Saeidi; SeyedRamin Ghasemi; Ali Zakiei
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2016
      Source:HIV & AIDS Review
      Author(s): Nahid Khademi, Sohyla Reshadat, Alireza Zanganeh, Shahram Saeidi, SeyedRamin Ghasemi, Ali Zakiei
      Aim The present study aimed to investigate the distribution pattern of HIV using the spatial statistics (Mean Center and Standard Distance) and spatial clustering tests (Average Nearest Neighbor, Moran's I index and Getis-Ord generalG) in Kermanshah Metropolis, western Iran. Background It is believed that the application of GIS towards studying the distribution of HIV, could supply the health care policy makers with insights into this disease in Iran. Materials and methods In this analytical study the population of research was the whole of HIV-stricken patients of Kermanshah, Iran. To identify and determine the spatial patterns of HIV in the metropolis of Kermanshah, the statistical models of basic graphics and interpolation (Moran's I index and Getis-Ord generalG) in the environment of GIS were used. Results The standard deviation oval of HIV occurrence in the city of Kermanshah over 1996–2002 explains the fact that HIV prevalence is highly dispersed in different parts of Kermanshah. The results indicate that HIV prevalence is expanding across the metropolis of Kermanshah. In addition, the concentration of the disease is so dominant in east, southeast and west of Kermanshah that has formed a HIV corridor. Conclusion The results of study relating to HIV across the city of Kermanshah demonstrated that HIV prevalence was clustered (not accidental) and followed a regular basis over the period under study.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T11:27:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hivar.2016.11.003
       
  • Preparation and characterization of Efavirenz nanosuspension with the
           application of enhanced solubility and dissolution rate
    • Authors: Pavan Kommavarapu; Arthanareeswari Maruthapillai; Kamaraj Palanisamy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2016
      Source:HIV & AIDS Review
      Author(s): Pavan Kommavarapu, Arthanareeswari Maruthapillai, Kamaraj Palanisamy
      Aim Intend of the present exertion is to prepare β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) based polymeric nanosuspension (PNS) of Efavirenz (EFV) with enhanced aqueous solubility and dissolution rate as compared to pure drug. Background EFV is a low aqueous soluble molecule because of which there is drug absorption problem. To overcome this problem polymeric nanosuspension were prepared using precipitation method which produced successful results. Materials and methods Four formulations (β-CDPNS1, β-CDPNS2, β-CDPNS3 and β-CDPNS4) with varying drug-polymer ratios were prepared by precipitating drug-polymer physical mixtures dissolved in organic phase in an aqueous phase. Solid state characterization of β-CDPNS's were conducted using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-universal attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-UATR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine physical properties and to study the compatibility of EFV with pharmaceutical excipients. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies was performed for nanoparticles evaluation. Results The mean diameter of the nanoparticles ranged between 143.8 and 284.4nm and polydispersity index (Pdi) values for all the nanosuspensions were small (<0.30) indicating the uniform mono-disperse with zeta potential (mV) values ranging from −38.3 to −27.5mV. SEM images revealed the layered morphology for all β-CDPNS. The solubility and dissolution profile of EFV nanosuspensions markedly increased when compared to the original drug. Kinetics of drug release mechanism was studied using eight mathematical models and found that the release profiles of β-CDPNS were best described by Weibull model with dissolution efficiency (DE) >60% in each formulation. Conclusion Successful preparation and characterization of Efavirenz nanosuspension by solvent injection method has been accomplished in this study.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T11:27:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hivar.2016.11.007
       
  • Prevalence of HIV infection among tuberculosis patients in a teaching
           hospital in south-west Nigeria: A four-year retrospective study
    • Authors: Kolade O. Ranti; Atilola O. Glory; Babalola T. Victoria; Komolafe O. Isaac
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2016
      Source:HIV & AIDS Review
      Author(s): Kolade O. Ranti, Atilola O. Glory, Babalola T. Victoria, Komolafe O. Isaac
      Introduction According to the World Health Organization, Nigeria remains one of the worst affected countries with HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections in the world. Of a critical concern is the emerging threat of co-infection at an unprecedented proportion in the country. In south-west Nigeria, few studies have assessed the prevalence of HIV infection among TB patients. Findings aimed at estimating the prevalence of HIV co-infection among TB patients enrolled in a teaching hospital in Ogun State, south-west Nigeria between 2008 and 2011 are presented in this study. Materials and methods This is a retrospective study of 386 TB patients admitted between January 2008 and 2011 to Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Ogun State, Nigeria of which 206 (53%) were males and 180 (47%) were females. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test and logistic regression were utilized in the analysis of the data. Results An overall HIV prevalence of 29.27% (95% CI: 24.78–34.09) was found. Female TB patients had higher odds of HIV infection (OR 1.91, 95% CI: 1.03–3.55) while patients with the highest education had the least odds of HIV infection [OR 0.08, 95% CI: 0.01–0.56]. Conclusion Evidence of a rising tide of HIV infection in TB patients was found, in particular among single middle-aged women with low education. Further research also needs to be conducted to provide more insight into the epidemiology of co-infection in order to better address the dual burden of HIV and TB among tuberculosis patients in Nigeria.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T11:27:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hivar.2016.11.001
       
  • Acute intermittent porphyria mimicking Guillain–Barré syndrome
           in a HIV patient
    • Authors: Prashilla Soma; Veronica Ueckermann; Sunayana Sasikumar; Sam Mashoeshoe
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2016
      Source:HIV & AIDS Review
      Author(s): Prashilla Soma, Veronica Ueckermann, Sunayana Sasikumar, Sam Mashoeshoe
      The diagnosis of porphyria remains challenging as the condition is characterized by a myriad of clinical and biochemical features. More importantly, an acute attack is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Misdiagnosis of porphyria poses an ongoing problem. We describe a 42-year-old Black female South African patient who presented to Steve Biko Academic Hospital in Pretoria, on the 16 July 2014 with a clinical problem of acute paraparesis. On admission, she had absent reflexes, bilateral cranial nerve VII fallout, patchy sensory fallout and faecal incontinence. When her magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and cervical spine showed no signs suggestive of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, a diagnosis of Guillain–Barré syndrome was made. On the 21 July her condition deteriorated to the point where she needed ventilator support. She also developed a pulmonary embolism and was treated. Due to deterioration of her condition, urine was sent for porphobilinogen test. This was clearly positive. The diagnosis of acute intermittent porphyria was eventually made. This case highlights the complexity related to the diagnosis of porphyria. It confirms that the diagnosis is often incidental and in a vast majority of patients, neurological complications preceded the final biochemical diagnosis.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T11:27:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hivar.2016.11.006
       
  • A study on adverse drug reactions to first-line antiretroviral therapy in
           HIV infected patients at a tertiary care hospital in Northeast India
    • Authors: Ankur Jain; Ratan J. Lihite; Mangala Lahkar; Swaroop K. Baruah
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2016
      Source:HIV & AIDS Review
      Author(s): Ankur Jain, Ratan J. Lihite, Mangala Lahkar, Swaroop K. Baruah
      Background Assam state of Northeast India is surrounded with the states which are very critical in terms of HIV/AIDS. The first line drugs recommended by National AIDS Control Organization for the treatment of HIV infected patients consist of zidovudine (AZT), lamivudine (3TC), nevirapine (NVP), efavirenz (EFV), tenofovir (TDF), and stavudine (d4T). It was observed that the reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) due to these antiretroviral drugs from this region is very low. Aim To study and identify adverse drug reactions to first line treatment in HIV infected patients reported by the nodal centre of antiretroviral therapy (ART) at a tertiary care hospital. Method In this cross-sectional study, 100 HIV infected patients with ADR were reported within 2 months from the nodal ART Centre of Gauhati Medical College and Hospital (GMCH) situated at Guwahati, Assam, Northeast India. WHO-system organ class-body system was used to classify reported ADRs. Causality assessments to reported ADRs were performed by using WHO-UMC causality assessment system. Results In this study, most of the patients have received TDF+3TC+EFV (83%) regimen followed by AZT+3TC+NVP (10%), AZT+3TC+EFV (4%), TDF+3TC+NVP (2%), and d4T+3TC+EFV (1%). Efavirenz was commonly implicated drug which was suspected in 81 patients. In this study, 216 ADRs were reported during study period. Of which, 87 ADRs were related to nervous system disorders and 81 ADRs were under gastrointestinal disorders as per WHO-system organ class-body system. Vertigo (22.68%) and vomiting (13.88%) were commonly reported ADR. In this study, substitution of ART regimen was done in 15 patients after detecting ADR while in 85 patients regimen was continued without any change. As per WHO-UMC causality assessment system, causality was possible in 85 patients while it was probable in 15 patients. Conclusion Vertigo and vomiting were the most commonly reported ADR and regimens containing EFV were more likely to induce ADR.

      PubDate: 2016-11-15T01:38:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hivar.2016.10.001
       
  • Evaluating the appropriateness of dosing adjustments in the
           coadministration of maraviroc and CYP3A inhibitors: A literature review
    • Authors: James Samuel Alcorn
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2016
      Source:HIV & AIDS Review
      Author(s): James Samuel Alcorn
      Aim To elucidate the appropriateness of once-daily dosing of maraviroc when administered concomitantly with a CYP3A inhibitor, a deviation from the labeled dosing in the United States. Background Practitioners have been known to prescribe doses of 300 mg once daily without clear evidence to improve compliance, primarily in patients with medication adherence issues. Materials and Methods A review of published literature related to maraviroc pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics was performed and data from existing studies is presented and critically evaluated. Results The findings with regards to extended dosing intervals of maraviroc in the agent's pivotal studies are discordant. While the MOTIVATE trials have suggested that the use of MVC once daily is more effective than placebo at reducing HIV-1 RNA levels as well as improving CD4 cell count, the data suggesting this efficacy was determined in studies that had significant limitations, the most important of these limitations being the fact that all patients in the MOTIVATE trials were controlled on optimized background therapy consisting of three to six active antiretroviral agents. MERIT shows that once daily dosing is inadequate due to a lack of viral load suppression. Conclusion The use of an extended (once-daily) dosing interval is not supported by current data and such an adjustment may lead to poor viral suppression and potential treatment failure.

      PubDate: 2016-09-13T07:13:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hivar.2016.08.002
       
  • Does non-protease inhibitor based anti-retroviral therapy modify
           peripheral arterial disease' A vision from eastern India
    • Authors: A. Mukherjee; P. Talukdar; D. Khanra; P. Ghosh; A. Chakraborty; A. Karak; B. Samanta; S. Singha; A. Talukdar; M. Saha
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2016
      Source:HIV & AIDS Review
      Author(s): A. Mukherjee, P. Talukdar, D. Khanra, P. Ghosh, A. Chakraborty, A. Karak, B. Samanta, S. Singha, A. Talukdar, M. Saha
      Aim Assess the effects of ART on PAD over a follow up period of 12 months. Background HIV induced endothelial dysfunction may manifest as peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Reports of follow up study showing the change of PAD in people living with HIV before and after initiation of non-protease inhibitor based ART (NPI-ART) are scarce. Materials and methods ART clinic based longitudinal study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in eastern India, 193 consecutive ART eligible HIV positive subjects of age between 18–49 years underwent ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) measurement before ART initiation and after one year of receiving NPI-ART to examine the effect of ART on PAD. ABPI values of 0.90 or less were defined as PAD. Results Proportion of subjects with PAD among treatment naive subjects was 30.57%. It dropped to 12.95% after 6 months and to 3.62% after 1 year of NPI-ART. Not a single new case of PAD was diagnosed during the study period. Traits like normal BMI and no alcoholism were found to be independently associated with PAD in ART naïve subjects. Interestingly significant improvement of PAD was also seen among normal BMI subjects and never alcoholics (p <0.05). ABPI improvement was also significant among people who were asymptomatic, belonged to urban population and never used tobacco (p value <0.05). Conclusion Prevalence of PAD decreased significantly after one year of ART. Routine ABPI measurement and early initiation of NPI-ART reduced PAD morbidity and improved quality of life.

      PubDate: 2016-09-08T14:39:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hivar.2016.08.001
       
  • Uma nova côr [A new Colour]: Men's accounts of HIV-related stigma and
           discrimination in Portugal
    • Authors: Rui Baptista-Gonçalves; Paul Boyce; Peter Aggleton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2016
      Source:HIV & AIDS Review
      Author(s): Rui Baptista-Gonçalves, Paul Boyce, Peter Aggleton
      Aim To explore the experiences and perspectives on HIV-related stigma and discrimination of men living with HIV in Portugal within health care settings and beyond, examining implications for their health, wellbeing and social needs. Background The prevalence of HIV in Portugal is one of the highest in Western Europe, with men being disproportionately affected, however, little is known about men's experiences of living with HIV in Portugal. Methods The study utilised semi-structured interviews with 20 men living with HIV in urban Portugal, and 10 health care professionals. Results A number of structural issues impact on men's experiences, including general ignorance concerning HIV in the population at large and reduced government attention, leading to the rejection of people living with HIV. Men living with HIV experience a sense of ‘social death’, linked to the everyday invisibility of the condition. Despite moves to reframe HIV from a fatal to a chronic condition, HIV is still regarded as a dangerous disease at social and institutional levels. Adaptation to living with HIV may be facilitated if men had experienced previous biographical disruption. Somewhat paradoxically, and in contrast to earlier accounts of the ‘layering’ of HIV-related stigma, previously ‘spoiled identities’ may make living with HIV somewhat easier, for some men at least. Conclusion The present study captured something of the tensions inherent to living with HIV in a developed country today, which may be important to consider when addressing HIV-related stigma and discrimination.

      PubDate: 2016-08-20T06:18:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hivar.2016.07.001
       
  • How successful is influenza vaccination in HIV infected patients'
           Results from an influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine study
    • Authors: C. Schwarze-Zander; B. Steffens; J. Emmelkamp; T. Kümmerle; C. Boesecke; J.C. Wasmuth; C.P. Strassburg; G. Fätkenheuer; J.K. Rockstroh; A.M. Eis-Hübinger
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2016
      Source:HIV & AIDS Review
      Author(s): C. Schwarze-Zander, B. Steffens, J. Emmelkamp, T. Kümmerle, C. Boesecke, J.C. Wasmuth, C.P. Strassburg, G. Fätkenheuer, J.K. Rockstroh, A.M. Eis-Hübinger
      Aim To determine immune response after single vaccination with AS03-adjuvanted pandemic H1N1 vaccine in HIV-infected patients. Background Individuals living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at risk with influenza due to hyporesponsiveness to influenza vaccine and a higher probability for developing severe disease. Especially, immunogenicity and tolerability of adjuvanted influenza vaccines in a pandemic setting are not well characterized in HIV infected individuals. Methods Immune response following vaccination with a single dose of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 AS03-adjuvanted vaccine (H1N1pdm09 vaccine) containing 3.75μg hemagglutinin was evaluated in HIV infected individuals by hemagglutination inhibition assay. Tolerability was assessed by questionnaires. Results Three hundred eighty-nine patients from two German HIV clinics were evaluated. Seroprotection was found in as much as 191/389 (49%) of patients before vaccination. Following vaccination with H1N1pdm09 vaccine seroprotection rate increased to 66% (257/389). Due to high pre-vaccination seroprotection rates seroconversion was only found in a total of 27/389 (7%) of HIV patients. There was no association of seroprotection/seroconversion and current CD4+ T-cell count, HIV-RNA load in plasma, antiretroviral treatment or demographic factors such as gender, age and ethnicity. The vaccine was overall well tolerated. Conclusions In this large cohort of HIV infected patients with high baseline H1N1 seroprotective titers only a moderate antibody response to a single vaccination with H1N1pdm09 AS03-adjuvanted vaccine was detected. Emerging influenza pandemics warrant usage of booster vaccinations in order to achieve higher immunogenicity to protect a vulnerable patient population such as HIV positive individuals against influenza.

      PubDate: 2016-07-05T16:20:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hivar.2016.04.002
       
  • Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and its associated factors among HIV
           positive patients in Nekemte public health institutions, West Ethiopia
    • Authors: Efrem Negash; Negash Wakgari; Belaynew Wasie; Melkie Edris; Gezahegn Bekele
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2016
      Source:HIV & AIDS Review
      Author(s): Efrem Negash, Negash Wakgari, Belaynew Wasie, Melkie Edris, Gezahegn Bekele
      Background Adherence to antiretroviral therapy is a powerful predictor of survival of HIV positive patients. The rate of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy remains high in developing countries, even though it is not well documented in the study area. Hence, this study aimed to assess the level of adherence to antiretroviral therapy and associated factors among HIV positive patients. Materials and methods An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 383 HIV positive patients. Respondents were selected by systematic random sampling technique. A pre-tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The data were entered to Epi-Info and exported to SPSS for further analysis. Results The self-reported adherence level in this study was 89.3%. Common reasons of being non-adherent were: being busy [2.6%], simply forgetting [7.3%], and being away from home [4.7%]. Adherence was more likely common among patients who lived ≤30km far from health care facilities [AOR=16.031, 95% CI: 2.428, 11.483], had normal mood [AOR=5.722, 95% CI: 1.492, 21.945], had not an opportunistic infection [AOR=6.910, 95% CI: 1.980, 24.112], whereas less likely among those who had college and above education [AOR=0.10, 95% CI: 0.013, 0.348] and malnutrition [AOR=0.270, 95% CI: 0.079, 0.919]. Conclusions Self-reported adherence in this study was higher than that seen in developing countries. Management of depression and opportunistic infections using an alarm clock, nutrition education, encouragement of social support and counseling of the patient to attend their follow up at nearer health care facilities are recommended to improve the adherence level.

      PubDate: 2016-06-11T16:40:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hivar.2016.04.004
       
  • Multicentric Castleman Disease and Kaposi sarcoma: Two HHV8 diseases with
           different prognosis and treatment
    • Authors: Mohga Ali; Rania Rayes-Danan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2016
      Source:HIV & AIDS Review
      Author(s): Mohga Ali, Rania Rayes-Danan
      Aim Our aim is to discuss the possibility of the coexistence of multiple diagnoses within the same specimen and not to overlook the less obvious diagnosis, especially if it will affect the prognosis and management of the patient. Background The role of Human Herpes Virus 8 (HHV8), also known as Kaposi Sarcoma Herpes Virus (KSHV) in the pathogenesis of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and most cases of Multicentric Castleman Disease (MCD) in patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), have been previously described. The coexistence of both KS and MCD is not uncommon but due to the difference in their treatment, our goal is to point out the importance of early detection of possible MCD in patients with KS. Materials and Methods We describe the H&E and immunohistochemical findings of an inguinal lymph node and the skin of the neck in a patient with cutaneous and lymph node Kaposi sarcoma. Results HHV8 positive Castleman disease was detected in the same lymph node affected with KS, guiding the clinician to the initiation of the appropriate chemotherapy targeting MCD. Conclusion High clinical suspension is required in cases of cutaneous and lymph node Kaposi sarcoma with diffuse lymphadenopathy and systemic manifestation for early detection and proper treatment of aggressive and possibly fatal MCD.

      PubDate: 2016-06-06T06:30:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hivar.2016.04.005
       
 
 
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