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HEALTH AND SAFETY (520 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 180)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription  
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access  
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Policy and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Professions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
  [SJR: 0.883]   [H-I: 47]   [19 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1660-4601
   Published by MDPI Homepage  [151 journals]
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 831: Assessing Risks from Cyclones for Human Lives
           and Livelihoods in the Coastal Region of Bangladesh

    • Authors: Mohammad Quader, Amanat Khan, Matthieu Kervyn
      First page: 831
      Abstract: As a disaster prone country, Bangladesh is regularly hit by natural hazards, including devastating cyclones, such as in 1970, 1991 and 2007. Although the number of cyclones’ fatalities reduced from 0.3 million in 1970 to a few thousand or fewer in recent events, loss of lives and impact on livelihoods remains a concern. It depends on the meteorological characteristics of cyclone and the general vulnerability and capacity of the exposed population. In that perspective, a spatially explicit risk assessment is an essential step towards targeted disaster risk reduction. This study aims at analyzing the spatial variation of the different factors contributing to the risk for coastal communities at regional scale, including the distribution of the hazards, exposure, vulnerability and capacity. An exploratory factor analysis method is used to map vulnerability contrasts between local administrative units. Indexing and ranking using geospatial techniques are used to produce maps of exposure, hazard, vulnerability, capacities and risk. Results show that vulnerable populations and exposed areas are distributed along the land sea boundary, islands and major inland rivers. The hazard, assessed from the density of historical cyclone paths, is highest in the southwestern part of the coast. Whereas cyclones shelters are shown to properly serve the most vulnerable populations as priority evacuation centers, the overall pattern of capacity accounting for building quality and road network shows a more complex pattern. Resultant risk maps also provide a reasonable basis from which to take further structural measures to minimize loss of lives in the upcoming cyclones.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14080831
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 8 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 832: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Implementing a
           More Severe Drunk-Driving Law in China: Findings from Two Open Access Data

    • Authors: Wangxin Xiao, Peishan Ning, David Schwebel, Guoqing Hu
      First page: 832
      Abstract: In 2011, China implemented a more severe drunk-driving law. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the law on road traffic morbidity and mortality attributed to alcohol use. Data were from two open-access data sources, the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2015 update and police data. Poisson regression examined the significance of changes in morbidity and mortality. Large gaps in crude death estimates from road traffic crashes attributed to alcohol use emerged between the two data sources. For the GBD 2015 update, crude and age-standardized mortality displayed consistent trends between 1990 and 2015; age-standardized mortality per 100,000 persons increased from 5.71 in 1990 to 7.48 in 2005 and then continuously decreased down to 5.94 in 2015. Police data showed a decrease for crude mortality per 100,000 persons from 0.29 in 2006 to 0.15 in 2010 and then an increase to 0.19 in 2015. We conclude available data are inadequate to determine the effectiveness of the implementation of the more severe drunk-driving law in China since the two data sources present highly inconsistent results. Further effort is needed to tackle data inconsistencies and obtain reliable and accurate data on road traffic injury attributable to alcohol use in China.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14080832
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 8 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 833: Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Commonly
           Used Fruits and Vegetables in Kuwait

    • Authors: Mustapha Jallow, Dawood Awadh, Mohammed Albaho, Vimala Devi, Nisar Ahmad
      First page: 833
      Abstract: The presence of pesticide residues in primary and derived agricultural products raises serious health concerns for consumers. The aim of this study was to assess the level of pesticide residues in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in Kuwait. A total of 150 samples of different fresh vegetables and fruits were analyzed for the presence of 34 pesticides using the quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe (QuEChERS) multi-residue extraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Pesticide residues above the maximum residue limits (MRL) were detected in 21% of the samples and 79% of the samples had no residues of the pesticides surveyed or contained residues below the MRL. Multiple residues were present in 40% of the samples with two to four pesticides, and four samples were contaminated with more than four pesticide residues. Of the pesticides investigated, 16 were detected, of which imidacloprid, deltamethrin, cypermethrin, malathion, acetamiprid, monocrotophos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, and diazinon exceeded their MRLs. Aldrin, an organochlorine pesticide, was detected in one apple sample, with residues below the MRL. The results indicate the occurrence of pesticide residues in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in Kuwait, and pointed to an urgent need to develop comprehensive intervention measures to reduce the potential health risk to consumers. The need for the regular monitoring of pesticide residues and the sensitization of farmers to better pesticide safety practices, especially the need to adhere to recommended pre-harvest intervals is recommended.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14080833
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 8 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 834: Schools, Air Pollution, and Active
           Transportation: An Exploratory Spatial Analysis of Calgary, Canada

    • Authors: Stefania Bertazzon, Rizwan Shahid
      First page: 834
      Abstract: An exploratory spatial analysis investigates the location of schools in Calgary (Canada) in relation to air pollution and active transportation options. Air pollution exhibits marked spatial variation throughout the city, along with distinct spatial patterns in summer and winter; however, all school locations lie within low to moderate pollution levels. Conversely, the study shows that almost half of the schools lie in low walkability locations; likewise, transitability is low for 60% of schools, and only bikability is widespread, with 93% of schools in very bikable locations. School locations are subsequently categorized by pollution exposure and active transportation options. This analysis identifies and maps schools according to two levels of concern: schools in car-dependent locations and relatively high pollution; and schools in locations conducive of active transportation, yet exposed to relatively high pollution. The findings can be mapped and effectively communicated to the public, health practitioners, and school boards. The study contributes with an explicitly spatial approach to the intra-urban public health literature. Developed for a moderately polluted city, the methods can be extended to more severely polluted environments, to assist in developing spatial public health policies to improve respiratory outcomes, neurodevelopment, and metabolic and attention disorders in school-aged children.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14080834
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 8 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 835: Health Inequities among Lesbian, Gay, and
           Bisexual Adults in North Carolina, 2011–2014

    • Authors: Melissa Barnhill, Joseph Lee, Ann Rafferty
      First page: 835
      Abstract: Inequalities in health have been identified for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations nationally. Policies in the U.S. South offer fewer protections for LGB people than in other regions, yet, limited data exist for this region. North Carolina (NC) BRFSS data from 2011 to 2014 were combined (LGB n = 604; heterosexual n = 33,170) and analyzed using SAS survey procedures to estimate health characteristics by sexual orientation within gender. Many examined indicators were not different by sexual orientation, however, other results were significant and consistent with findings from state population surveys in other regions of the country. Both genders showed inequities in mental health, having over twice the odds of five or more poor mental health days in the past month and of having ever been diagnosed with a depressive disorder. Sexual minority women had higher odds compared with heterosexual women for ever having smoked cigarettes, current smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke both in the workplace and at home, and both alcohol risk factors, binge and heavy drinking. Being part of the LGB population in NC is associated with worse health. The implementation of anti-LGB policies in the NC warrants ongoing monitoring of LGB health inequities in NC and in other southeastern states for potential effects on the health and well-being of sexual minorities.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14080835
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 8 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 734: Developing a Hierarchical Model for the
           Spatial Analysis of PM10 Pollution Extremes in the Mexico City
           Metropolitan Area

    • Authors: Alejandro Aguirre-Salado, Humberto Vaquera-Huerta, Carlos Aguirre-Salado, Silvia Reyes-Mora, Ana Olvera-Cervantes, Guillermo Lancho-Romero, Carlos Soubervielle-Montalvo
      First page: 734
      Abstract: We implemented a spatial model for analysing PM 10 maxima across the Mexico City metropolitan area during the period 1995–2016. We assumed that these maxima follow a non-identical generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution and modeled the trend by introducing multivariate smoothing spline functions into the probability GEV distribution. A flexible, three-stage hierarchical Bayesian approach was developed to analyse the distribution of the PM 10 maxima in space and time. We evaluated the statistical model’s performance by using a simulation study. The results showed strong evidence of a positive correlation between the PM 10 maxima and the longitude and latitude. The relationship between time and the PM 10 maxima was negative, indicating a decreasing trend over time. Finally, a high risk of PM 10 maxima presenting levels above 1000 μ g/m 3 (return period: 25 yr) was observed in the northwestern region of the study area.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-06
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070734
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 735: Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Suicide-Related
           Emergency Calls

    • Authors: Miriam Marco, Antonio López-Quílez, David Conesa, Enrique Gracia, Marisol Lila
      First page: 735
      Abstract: Considerable effort has been devoted to incorporate temporal trends in disease mapping. In this line, this work describes the importance of including the effect of the seasonality in a particular setting related with suicides. In particular, the number of suicide-related emergency calls is modeled by means of an autoregressive approach to spatio-temporal disease mapping that allows for incorporating the possible interaction between both temporal and spatial effects. Results show the importance of including seasonality effect, as there are differences between the number of suicide-related emergency calls between the four seasons of each year.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-06
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070735
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 738: Place of Birth and Sleep Duration: Analysis of
           the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)

    • Authors: Valerie Newsome, Azizi Seixas, Juliet Iwelunmor, Ferdinand Zizi, Sanjeev Kothare, Girardin Jean-Louis
      First page: 738
      Abstract: While sleep disturbance has been related to a number of negative health outcomes, few studies have examined the relationship between place of birth and sleep duration among individuals living in the US. Data for 416,152 adult participants in the 2000–2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), who provided self-reported hours of sleep and place of birth were examined. Associations were explored between healthy sleep (7–8 h), referenced to unhealthy sleep (<7 or >8 h), and place of birth using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The mean age of the sample was 47.4 ± 0.03 years; 56% were female. Of the respondents, 61.5% reported experiencing healthy sleep, 81.5% reported being born in the US and 18.5% were foreign-born adults. Descriptive statistics revealed that Indian Subcontinent-born respondents (71.7%) were more likely to report healthy sleep compared to US-born respondents (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.37–1.71, p < 0.001), whereas African-born respondents (43.5%) were least likely to report healthy sleep (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.70–0.87, p < 0.001). These findings suggest that place of birth should be considered in the assessment of risk factors for unhealthy sleep.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070738
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 739: Development of a New Microextraction Fiber
           Combined to On-Line Sample Stacking Capillary Electrophoresis UV Detection
           for Acidic Drugs Determination in Real Water Samples

    • Authors: Maria Espina-Benitez, Lilia Araujo, Avismelsi Prieto, Alberto Navalón, José Vílchez, Paola Valera, Ana Zambrano, Vincent Dugas
      First page: 739
      Abstract: A new analytical method coupling a (off-line) solid-phase microextraction with an on-line capillary electrophoresis (CE) sample enrichment technique was developed for the analysis of ketoprofen, naproxen and clofibric acid from water samples, which are known as contaminants of emerging concern in aquatic environments. New solid-phase microextraction fibers based on physical coupling of chromatographic supports onto epoxy glue coated needle were studied for the off-line preconcentration of these micropollutants. Identification and quantification of such acidic drugs were done by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) using ultraviolet diode array detection (DAD). Further enhancement of concentration sensitivity detection was achieved by on-line CE “acetonitrile stacking” preconcentration technique. Among the eight chromatographic supports investigated, Porapak Q sorbent showed higher extraction and preconcentration capacities. The screening of parameters that influence the microextraction process was carried out using a two-level fractional factorial. Optimization of the most relevant parameters was then done through a surface response three-factor Box-Behnken design. The limits of detection and limits of quantification for the three drugs ranged between 0.96 and 1.27 µg∙L−1 and 2.91 and 3.86 µg∙L−1, respectively. Recovery yields of approximately 95 to 104% were measured. The developed method is simple, precise, accurate, and allows quantification of residues of these micropollutants in Genil River water samples using inexpensive fibers.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070739
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 740: Do Inequalities in Neighborhood Walkability
           Drive Disparities in Older Adults’ Outdoor Walking'

    • Authors: Razieh Zandieh, Johannes Flacke, Javier Martinez, Phil Jones, Martin van Maarseveen
      First page: 740
      Abstract: Older residents of high-deprivation areas walk less than those of low-deprivation areas. Previous research has shown that neighborhood built environment may support and encourage outdoor walking. The extent to which the built environment supports and encourages walking is called “walkability”. This study examines inequalities in neighborhood walkability in high- versus low-deprivation areas and their possible influences on disparities in older adults’ outdoor walking levels. For this purpose, it focuses on specific neighborhood built environment attributes (residential density, land-use mix and intensity, street connectivity, and retail density) relevant to neighborhood walkability. It applied a mixed-method approach, included 173 participants (≥65 years), and used a Geographic Information System (GIS) and walking interviews (with a sub-sample) to objectively and subjectively measure neighborhood built environment attributes. Outdoor walking levels were measured by using the Geographic Positioning System (GPS) technology. Data on personal characteristics was collected by completing a questionnaire. The results show that inequalities in certain land-use intensity (i.e., green spaces, recreation centers, schools and industries) in high- versus low-deprivation areas may influence disparities in older adults’ outdoor walking levels. Modifying neighborhood land use intensity may help to encourage outdoor walking in high-deprivation areas.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070740
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 741: Vulnerability Reduction Needed to Maintain
           Current Burdens of Heat-Related Mortality in a Changing
           Climate—Magnitude and Determinants

    • Authors: Christofer Åström, Daniel Åström, Camilla Andersson, Kristie Ebi, Bertil Forsberg
      First page: 741
      Abstract: The health burden from heatwaves is expected to increase with rising global mean temperatures and more extreme heat events over the coming decades. Health-related effects from extreme heat are more common in elderly populations. The population of Europe is rapidly aging, which will increase the health effects of future temperatures. In this study, we estimate the magnitude of adaptation needed to lower vulnerability to heat in order to prevent an increase in heat-related deaths in the 2050s; this is the Adaptive Risk Reduction (ARR) needed. Temperature projections under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 from 18 climate models were coupled with gridded population data and exposure-response relationships from a European multi-city study on heat-related mortality. In the 2050s, the ARR for the general population is 53.5%, based on temperature projections under RCP 4.5. For the population above 65 years in Southern Europe, the ARR is projected to be 45.9% in a future with an unchanged climate and 74.7% with climate change under RCP 4.5. The ARRs were higher under RCP 8.5. Whichever emission scenario is followed or population projection assumed, Europe will need to adapt to a great degree to maintain heat-related mortality at present levels, which are themselves unacceptably high, posing an even greater challenge.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070741
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 742: Health Impact of PM10, PM2.5 and Black Carbon
           Exposure Due to Different Source Sectors in Stockholm, Gothenburg and
           Umea, Sweden

    • Authors: David Segersson, Kristina Eneroth, Lars Gidhagen, Christer Johansson, Gunnar Omstedt, Anders Engström Nylén, Bertil Forsberg
      First page: 742
      Abstract: The most important anthropogenic sources of primary particulate matter (PM) in ambient air in Europe are exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from road traffic and combustion of solid biomass. There is convincing evidence that PM, almost regardless of source, has detrimental health effects. An important issue in health impact assessments is what metric, indicator and exposure-response function to use for different types of PM. The aim of this study is to describe sectorial contributions to PM exposure and related premature mortality for three Swedish cities: Gothenburg, Stockholm and Umea. Exposure is calculated with high spatial resolution using atmospheric dispersion models. Attributed premature mortality is calculated separately for the main local sources and the contribution from long-range transport (LRT), applying different relative risks. In general, the main part of the exposure is due to LRT, while for black carbon, the local sources are equally or more important. The major part of the premature deaths is in our assessment related to local emissions, with road traffic and residential wood combustion having the largest impact. This emphasizes the importance to resolve within-city concentration gradients when assessing exposure. It also implies that control actions on local PM emissions have a strong potential in abatement strategies.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070742
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 743: In Vitro Evaluation of the Inhibitory Activity
           of Thymoquinone in Combatting Candida albicans in Denture Stomatitis

    • Authors: Ahmad Al-Thobity, Khalifa Al-Khalifa, Mohammed Gad, Mohammed Al-Hariri, Aiman Ali, Talal Alnassar
      First page: 743
      Abstract: Candida albicans adhesion and proliferation on denture bases may lead to denture stomatitis, which is a common and recurrent problem in denture wearers. The goal of this study was to assess the inhibitory effect of thymoquinone incorporated in the polymethyl methacrylate denture base material against Candida albicans. Eighty acrylic resin specimens were fabricated and divided into eight groups (n = 10) according to thymoquinone concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, 3%, and 5% of acrylic powder. Two methods were used to evaluate the effect of thymoquinone on Candida albicans: the slide count and the serial dilution test. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and the post-hoc Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test were performed to compare the difference of means between the observations taken at various intervals with baseline. The p value was statistically significant at ≤0.05. According to the slide count and the serial dilution test, the mean number of adhered Candida albicans in the control group was 5436.9 ± 266 and 4691.4 ± 176.8; however, this number dramatically decreased to 0 ± 0 and 32.4 ± 1.7 in group 8 (concentration 5%). These results suggest that the incorporation of thymoquinone into the acrylic resin denture base material might be effective in preventing Candida albicans adhesion.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070743
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 744: Using Health Impact Assessment as an
           Interdisciplinary Teaching Tool

    • Authors: Melissa Chinchilla, Mariana Arcaya
      First page: 744
      Abstract: Health Impact Assessment (HIA) courses are teaching public health and urban planning students how to assess the likely health effects of proposed policies, plans, and projects. We suggest that public health and urban planning have complimentary frameworks for training practitioners to address the living conditions that affect health. Planning perspectives emphasize practical skills for impacting community change, while public health stresses professional purpose and ethics. Frameworks from both disciplines can enhance the HIA learning experience by helping students tackle questions related to community impact, engagement, social justice, and ethics. We also propose that HIA community engagement processes can be enriched through an empathetic practice that focuses on greater personal introspection.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070744
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 745: Adoption of Clean Cookstoves after Improved
           Solid Fuel Stove Programme Exposure: A Cross-Sectional Study in Three
           Peruvian Andean Regions

    • Authors: Jennyfer Wolf, Daniel Mäusezahl, Hector Verastegui, Stella Hartinger
      First page: 745
      Abstract: This study examined measures of clean cookstove adoption after improved solid fuel stove programmes in three geographically and culturally diverse rural Andean settings and explored factors associated with these measures. A questionnaire was administered to 1200 households on stove use and cooking behaviours including previously defined factors associated with clean cookstove adoption. Logistic multivariable regressions with 16 pre-specified explanatory variables were performed for three outcomes; (1) daily improved solid fuel stove use, (2) use of liquefied petroleum gas stove and (3) traditional stove displacement. Eighty-seven percent of households reported daily improved solid fuel stove use, 51% liquefied petroleum gas stove use and 66% no longer used the traditional cookstove. Variables associated with one or more of the three outcomes are: education, age and civil status of the reporting female, household wealth and size, region, encounters of problems with the improved solid fuel stove, knowledge of somebody able to build an improved solid fuel stove, whether stove parts are obtainable in the community, and subsidy schemes. We conclude that to be successful, improved solid fuel stove programmes need to consider (1) existing household characteristics, (2) the household’s need for ready access to maintenance and repair, and (3) improved knowledge at the community level.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070745
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 746: Birth Trends among Female Physicians in
           Taiwan: A Nationwide Survey from 1996 to 2013

    • Authors: Yi-Jen Wang, Shu-Chiung Chiang, Tzeng-Ji Chen, Li-Fang Chou, Shinn-Jang Hwang, Jui-Yao Liu
      First page: 746
      Abstract: Background: Although more and more women are becoming physicians, their decisions regarding pregnancy may be affected by the lengthy period of medical education and postgraduate training. The aim of this study was to explore the birth trends among female physicians in Taiwan; Methods: Retrospective analyses of maternal ages at delivery from 1996 to 2013, both for physicians and the general population, were conducted using a nationwide dataset called National Health Insurance Research Database; Results: During the study period, 8540 female physicians were identified. The physicians delivered a total of 4940 births in that time, with a rise from 210 in 1996 to 440 in 2013. In addition, the mean maternal age of the physicians at delivery increased from 32.19 years (standard deviations (SD) 2.80) in 1996 to 33.61 (SD 3.21) in 2013, values significantly higher than those for non-physicians of 27.81 (SD 4.74) in 1996 (p < 0.001) and 31.36 (SD 4.78) in 2013 (p < 0.001); Conclusion: Female physicians usually gave birth at an older age than non-physicians, but the discrepancy between the two groups gradually declined over the 18-year course of the study. The establishment of a maternity-friendly environment for female physicians should be considered by those who determine healthcare system policies.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070746
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 747: Disinfection of the Water Borne Pathogens
           Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by Solar Photocatalysis Using
           Sonochemically Synthesized Reusable Ag@ZnO Core-Shell Nanoparticles

    • Authors: Sourav Das, Neha Ranjana, Ananyo Jyoti Misra, Mrutyunjay Suar, Amrita Mishra, Ashok J. Tamhankar, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg, Suraj K. Tripathy
      First page: 747
      Abstract: Water borne pathogens present a threat to human health and their disinfection from water poses a challenge, prompting the search for newer methods and newer materials. Disinfection of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive coccal bacterium Staphylococcus aureus in an aqueous matrix was achieved within 60 and 90 min, respectively, at 35 °C using solar-photocatalysis mediated by sonochemically synthesized Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles. The efficiency of the process increased with the increase in temperature and at 55 °C the disinfection for the two bacteria could be achieved in 45 and 60 min, respectively. A new ultrasound-assisted chemical precipitation technique was used for the synthesis of Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles. The characteristics of the synthesized material were established using physical techniques. The material remained stable even at 400 °C. Disinfection efficiency of the Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles was confirmed in the case of real world samples of pond, river, municipal tap water and was found to be better than that of pure ZnO and TiO2 (Degussa P25). When the nanoparticle- based catalyst was recycled and reused for subsequent disinfection experiments, its efficiency did not change remarkably, even after three cycles. The sonochemically synthesized Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles thus have a good potential for application in solar photocatalytic disinfection of water borne pathogens.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070747
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 748: Post-Disaster Food and Nutrition from Urban
           Agriculture: A Self-Sufficiency Analysis of Nerima Ward, Tokyo

    • Authors: Giles Sioen, Makiko Sekiyama, Toru Terada, Makoto Yokohari
      First page: 748
      Abstract: Background: Post-earthquake studies from around the world have reported that survivors relying on emergency food for prolonged periods of time experienced several dietary related health problems. The present study aimed to quantify the potential nutrient production of urban agricultural vegetables and the resulting nutritional self-sufficiency throughout the year for mitigating post-disaster situations. Methods: We estimated the vegetable production of urban agriculture throughout the year. Two methods were developed to capture the production from professional and hobby farms: Method I utilized secondary governmental data on agricultural production from professional farms, and Method II was based on a supplementary spatial analysis to estimate the production from hobby farms. Next, the weight of produced vegetables [t] was converted into nutrients [kg]. Furthermore, the self-sufficiency by nutrient and time of year was estimated by incorporating the reference consumption of vegetables [kg], recommended dietary allowance of nutrients per capita [mg], and population statistics. The research was conducted in Nerima, the second most populous ward of Tokyo’s 23 special wards. Self-sufficiency rates were calculated with the registered residents. Results: The estimated total vegetable production of 5660 tons was equivalent to a weight-based self-sufficiency rate of 6.18%. The average nutritional self-sufficiencies of Methods I and II were 2.48% and 0.38%, respectively, resulting in an aggregated average of 2.86%. Fluctuations throughout the year were observed according to the harvest seasons of the available crops. Vitamin K (6.15%) had the highest self-sufficiency of selected nutrients, while calcium had the lowest (0.96%). Conclusions: This study suggests that depending on the time of year, urban agriculture has the potential to contribute nutrients to diets during post-disaster situations as disaster preparedness food. Emergency responses should be targeted according to the time of year the disaster takes place to meet nutrient requirements in periods of low self-sufficiency and prevent gastrointestinal symptoms and cardiovascular diseases among survivors.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070748
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 749: Challenges and Opportunities for Mainstreaming
           Climate Change Adaptation into WaSH Development Planning in Ghana

    • Authors: Salley Alhassan, Wade L. Hadwen
      First page: 749
      Abstract: Climate change threatens water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) facilities and services, as these are intimately linked to the water cycle and are vulnerable to changes in the quantity and quality of available water resources. Floods and droughts, which pollute and reduce water delivery respectively, have now become a perennial issue to deal with in the northern regions of Ghana. This study aimed to assess the degree to which climate change adaptation measures are mainstreamed into the water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) development planning process in Ghana. Stakeholders from government and non-government agencies were interviewed to gain perspectives on the threat of climate change, the inclusion of climate change in WaSH planning and the barriers preventing mainstreaming. Despite awareness of climate change, adaptation measures have not been considered, and the immediate WaSH needs remain the priority. Overall, stakeholders felt the adaptive capacity of the Municipality was low and that mainstreaming has not yet occurred. Despite the lack of progress, there are great opportunities for mainstreaming climate change adaptation into planning through increasing awareness and capacity, legislative and institutional changes and the development of participatory systems to provide early warning systems and disaster risk analyses that will inform future planning.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070749
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 750: Assessing the Potential of Land Use
           Modification to Mitigate Ambient NO2 and Its Consequences for Respiratory

    • Authors: Meenakshi Rao, Linda A. George, Vivek Shandas, Todd N. Rosenstiel
      First page: 750
      Abstract: Understanding how local land use and land cover (LULC) shapes intra-urban concentrations of atmospheric pollutants—and thus human health—is a key component in designing healthier cities. Here, NO2 is modeled based on spatially dense summer and winter NO2 observations in Portland-Hillsboro-Vancouver (USA), and the spatial variation of NO2 with LULC investigated using random forest, an ensemble data learning technique. The NO2 random forest model, together with BenMAP, is further used to develop a better understanding of the relationship among LULC, ambient NO2 and respiratory health. The impact of land use modifications on ambient NO2, and consequently on respiratory health, is also investigated using a sensitivity analysis. We find that NO2 associated with roadways and tree-canopied areas may be affecting annual incidence rates of asthma exacerbation in 4–12 year olds by +3000 per 100,000 and −1400 per 100,000, respectively. Our model shows that increasing local tree canopy by 5% may reduce local incidences rates of asthma exacerbation by 6%, indicating that targeted local tree-planting efforts may have a substantial impact on reducing city-wide incidence of respiratory distress. Our findings demonstrate the utility of random forest modeling in evaluating LULC modifications for enhanced respiratory health.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070750
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 751: The Cell Surface Markers Expression in
           Postmenopausal Women and Relation to Obesity and Bone Status

    • Authors: Mira Horváthová, Silvia Ilavská, Kornélia Štefíková, Michaela Szabová, Zora Krivošíková, Eva Jahnová, Jana Tulinská, Viera Spustová, Martin Gajdoš
      First page: 751
      Abstract: The age-related changes and hormonal deprivation in postmenopausal women are associated with the immune response alteration. The excessive fat accumulation, local and systemic inflammation may lead to dysregulation in immune function and relevant health problems, including obesity and osteoporosis. We analyzed the expression of cell surface markers in the venous blood specimens, stained with fluorophores-conjugated monoclonal antibodies and analysed by multicolour flow cytometry. The significant changes of cytotoxic, naive, and memory T-lymphocytes, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs) were in postmenopausal women versus fertile women. Body mass index (BMI) affected markedly the cell surface expression of CD265/RANK. Osteoporosis is linked to reduced percentage of plasmacytoid DCs, and elevated natural Treg cells (p < 0.05). The confounding factors such as women age, BMI, bone mineral density (BMD), waist size and tissue fat affect the expression of RANK on myeloid DCs and CD40L on T-lymphocytes that might be the immunophenotypic modulators after menopause.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070751
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 752: Physical and Emotional Benefits of Different
           Exercise Environments Designed for Treadmill Running

    • Authors: Hsiao-Pu Yeh, Joseph Stone, Sarah Churchill, Eric Brymer, Keith Davids
      First page: 752
      Abstract: (1) Background: Green physical activity promotes physical health and mental wellbeing and interesting questions concern effects of this information on designing indoor exercise environments. This study examined the physical and emotional effects of different nature-based environments designed for indoor treadmill running; (2) Methods: In a counterbalanced experimental design, 30 participants performed three, twenty-minute treadmill runs at a self-selected pace while viewing either a static nature image, a dynamic nature image or self-selected entertainment. Distance ran, heart rate (HR) and five pre-and post-exercise emotional states were measured; (3) Results: Participants ran farther, and with higher HRs, with self-selected entertainment compared to the two nature-based environment designs. Participants attained lowered anger, dejection, anxiety and increased excitement post exercise in all of the designed environments. Happiness increased during the two nature-based environment designs compared with self-selected entertainment; (4) Conclusions: Self-selected entertainment encouraged greater physical performances whereas running in nature-based exercise environments elicited greater happiness immediately after running.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070752
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 753: Effect of Wind Farm Noise on Local
           Residents’ Decision to Adopt Mitigation Measures

    • Authors: Anabela Botelho, Pedro Arezes, Carlos Bernardo, Hernâni Dias, Lígia Pinto
      First page: 753
      Abstract: Wind turbines’ noise is frequently pointed out as the reason for local communities’ objection to the installation of wind farms. The literature suggests that local residents feel annoyed by such noise and that, in many instances, this is significant enough to make them adopt noise-abatement interventions on their homes. Aiming at characterizing the relationship between wind turbine noise, annoyance, and mitigating actions, we propose a novel conceptual framework. The proposed framework posits that actual sound pressure levels of wind turbines determine individual homes’ noise-abatement decisions; in addition, the framework analyzes the role that self-reported annoyance, and perception of noise levels, plays on the relationship between actual noise pressure levels and those decisions. The application of this framework to a particular case study shows that noise perception and annoyance constitutes a link between the two. Importantly, however, noise also directly affects people’s decision to adopt mitigating measures, independently of the reported annoyance.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070753
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 754: Body Shape and Weight Loss as Motivators for
           Breastfeeding Initiation and Continuation

    • Authors: Sophie Schalla, Gemma Witcomb, Emma Haycraft
      First page: 754
      Abstract: Breastfeeding rates in the UK are low. Efforts to promote breastfeeding typically include the known health benefits for mother and child, many of which are not immediate. Gaining immediate benefits can be effective motivators of behaviour. Body-related changes resulting from breastfeeding could be an immediate benefit. This study explored breastfeeding mothers’ reports of body-related changes as benefits of breastfeeding. Mothers (N = 182) who currently, or had recently, breastfed an infant completed a survey detailing their infant feeding choices and the perceived benefits of breastfeeding on their bodies. Half of the mothers felt that breastfeeding had a positive effect on their body. Benefits were grouped into five themes: (1) Returning to pre-pregnancy body shape; (2) Health benefits; (3) Physical benefits; (4) Eating benefits; (5) Psychological benefits. These themes highlight the numerous body-related benefits that mothers identified as resulting from breastfeeding and suggest that immediate, personal, and appearance-related gains of breastfeeding are highly valued. These findings indicate that interventions would likely benefit from emphasising the more immediate physical and psychological benefits of breastfeeding, alongside the health and bonding benefits, as a way to promote breastfeeding initiation and continuation in more women. This may be particularly effective for groups such as young mothers, where breastfeeding rates are low and whose emphasis on body image may be greater.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070754
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 755: Assessing Women’s Negative Sanitation
           Experiences and Concerns: The Development of a Novel Sanitation Insecurity

    • Authors: Bethany Caruso, Thomas Clasen, Kathryn Yount, Hannah Cooper, Craig Hadley, Regine Haardörfer
      First page: 755
      Abstract: Lack of access to acceptable sanitation facilities can expose individuals, particularly women, to physical, social, and mental health risks. While some of the challenges have been documented, standard metrics are needed to determine the extent to which women have urination- and defecation-related concerns and negative experiences. Such metrics also are needed to assess the effectiveness of interventions to mitigate them. We developed a sanitation insecurity measure to capture the range and frequency of women’s sanitation-related concerns and negative experiences. Research was conducted in rural Odisha, India with women across various life course stages to reflect a range of perspectives. This paper documents the mixed data collection methods and the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses we employed to arrive at a final measure. The final sanitation insecurity measure includes 50 items across seven factors that reflect the physical environment, the social environment, and individual-level constraints. Most factor scores were significantly higher for unmarried women and for women who lacked access to functional latrines, indicating social and environmental influence on experiences. This measure will enable researchers to evaluate how sanitation insecurity affects health and to determine if and how sanitation interventions ameliorate women’s concerns and negative experiences associated with sanitation.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070755
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 756: Knowledge of and Attitudes to Influenza
           Vaccination among Community Pharmacists in Catalonia (Spain). 2013–2014
           Season: A Cross Sectional Study

    • Authors: Diana Toledo, Núria Soldevila, Rafel Guayta-Escolies, Pau Lozano, Pilar Rius, Pilar Gascón, Angela Domínguez
      First page: 756
      Abstract: Annual recommendations on influenza seasonal vaccination include community pharmacists, who have low vaccination coverage. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between influenza vaccination in community pharmacists and their knowledge of and attitudes to vaccination. An online cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists in Catalonia, Spain, was conducted between September and November 2014. Sociodemographic, professional and clinical variables, the history of influenza vaccination and knowledge of and attitudes to influenza and seasonal influenza vaccination were collected. The survey response rate was 7.33% (506 out of 6906); responses from 463 community pharmacists were included in the final analyses. Analyses were performed using multivariable logistic regression models and stepwise backward selection method for variable selection. The influenza vaccination coverage in season 2013–2014 was 25.1%. There was an association between vaccination and correct knowledge of the virus responsible for epidemics (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 1.74; 95% CI 1.03–2.95), recommending vaccination in the postpartum (aOR = 3.63; 95% CI 2.01–6.55) and concern about infecting their clients (aOR = 5.27; 95% CI 1.88–14.76). In conclusion, community pharmacists have a very low influenza vaccination coverage, are not very willing to recommend vaccination to all their customers but they are concerned about infecting their clients.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070756
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 757: Positive Emotional Effects of Leisure in Green
           Spaces in Alleviating Work–Family Spillover in Working Mothers

    • Authors: Po-Ju Chang, So Bae
      First page: 757
      Abstract: Studies have shown that family and work spillover affects well-being and that leisure activities can alleviate the negative effects of work-related stress on health. However, few studies have focused on investigating the effects of specific leisure activities among specific populations. To examine whether leisure activities in green spaces can promote individual recovery processes and alleviate the effects of work and family spillover on positive emotions, this study applied the effort-recovery model to a population of working mothers. Through online and paper questionnaires, sample data were collected from 221 working mothers in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling was used to test the experimental hypothesis, and mediation analysis was used to determine whether leisure in green spaces is a mediating factor. The results indicated that leisure in green spaces is a mediator of the relationship of negative work and family spillover with positive emotions. In addition, strolls and park visits were found to provide greater psychological benefits to working mothers, compared with picnics.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070757
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 758: Evaluating Childhood Vaccination Coverage of
           NIP Vaccines: Coverage Survey versus Zhejiang Provincial Immunization
           Information System

    • Authors: Yu Hu, Yaping Chen
      First page: 758
      Abstract: Vaccination coverage in Zhejiang province, east China, is evaluated through repeated coverage surveys. The Zhejiang provincial immunization information system (ZJIIS) was established in 2004 with links to all immunization clinics. ZJIIS has become an alternative to quickly assess the vaccination coverage. To assess the current completeness and accuracy on the vaccination coverage derived from ZJIIS, we compared the estimates from ZJIIS with the estimates from the most recent provincial coverage survey in 2014, which combined interview data with verified data from ZJIIS. Of the enrolled 2772 children in the 2014 provincial survey, the proportions of children with vaccination cards and registered in ZJIIS were 94.0% and 87.4%, respectively. Coverage estimates from ZJIIS were systematically higher than the corresponding estimates obtained through the survey, with a mean difference of 4.5%. Of the vaccination doses registered in ZJIIS, 16.7% differed from the date recorded in the corresponding vaccination cards. Under-registration in ZJIIS significantly influenced the coverage estimates derived from ZJIIS. Therefore, periodic coverage surveys currently provide more complete and reliable results than the estimates based on ZJIIS alone. However, further improvement of completeness and accuracy of ZJIIS will likely allow more reliable and timely estimates in future.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070758
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 759: Is the Grass Always Greener in Suburban

    • Authors: Mika R. Moran, Pnina Plaut, Dafna Merom
      First page: 759
      Abstract: Children’s outdoors play (OP) is an important source of physical activity that has been decreasing in recent years due to changes in neighborhood design, parent safety concerns and child sedentary leisure. However, few studies examined such determinants from children’s perspectives. This study explores environmental and socio-cultural aspects of children’s OP using a qualitative and quantitative approach. Data was collected in two phases: (1) a survey on OP and related variables among 5th and 6th graders (10–12 years old) (n = 573); and (2) a mapping activity and semi-structured interview among a subsample of the survey (n = 80). The most common locations for routine OP were parks (40%) followed by public facilities (26%) and streets (17%). OP was significantly associated with perceived environment, independent mobility and gender, but not with neighborhood type. Inner-city participants reported a higher number and greater variety of OP areas (23 vs. 14). Three main barriers of OP were identified—low quality and poorly maintained play areas, other people in public spaces, and social norms that undermine OP. Thus, in order to encourage routine OP, environmental change to create safe and attractive OP settings should be accompanied by community interventions to enhance social norms that are supportive of OP.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070759
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 760: Progress Evaluation for the Restaurant
           Industry Assessed by a Voluntary Marketing-Mix and Choice-Architecture
           Framework That Offers Strategies to Nudge American Customers toward
           Healthy Food Environments, 2006–2017

    • Authors: Vivica Kraak, Tessa Englund, Sarah Misyak, Elena Serrano
      First page: 760
      Abstract: Consumption of restaurant food and beverage products high in fat, sugar and sodium contribute to obesity and non-communicable diseases. We evaluated restaurant-sector progress to promote healthy food environments for Americans. We conducted a desk review of seven electronic databases (January 2006–January 2017) to examine restaurant strategies used to promote healthful options in the United States (U.S.). Evidence selection (n = 84) was guided by the LEAD principles (i.e., locate, evaluate, and assemble evidence to inform decisions) and verified by data and investigator triangulation. A marketing-mix and choice-architecture framework was used to examine eight voluntary strategies (i.e., place, profile, portion, pricing, promotion, healthy default picks, priming or prompting and proximity) to evaluate progress (i.e., no, limited, some or extensive) toward 12 performance metrics based on available published evidence. The U.S. restaurant sector has made limited progress to use pricing, profile (reformulation), healthy default picks (choices), promotion (responsible marketing) and priming and prompting (information and labeling); and some progress to reduce portions. No evidence was available to assess progress for place (ambience) and proximity (positioning) to promote healthy choices during the 10-year review period. Chain and non-chain restaurants can apply comprehensive marketing-mix and nudge strategies to promote healthy food environments for customers.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070760
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 761: Response to Comment on Giuseppe Genchi et al.
           Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health
           2017, 14, 74

    • Authors: Giuseppe Genchi, Maria Sinicropi, Alessia Carocci, Graziantonio Lauria, Alessia Catalano
      First page: 761
      Abstract: n/a
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070761
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 762: Impact of First Aid on Treatment Outcomes for
           Non-Fatal Injuries in Rural Bangladesh: Findings from an Injury and
           Demographic Census

    • Authors: Dewan Hoque, Md Islam, Shumona Sharmin Salam, Qazi Rahman, Priyanka Agrawal, Aminur Rahman, Fazlur Rahman, Shams El-Arifeen, Adnan Hyder, Olakunle Alonge
      First page: 762
      Abstract: Non-fatal injuries have a significant impact on disability, productivity, and economic cost, and first-aid can play an important role in improving non-fatal injury outcomes. Data collected from a census conducted as part of a drowning prevention project in Bangladesh was used to quantify the impact of first-aid provided by trained and untrained providers on non-fatal injuries. The census covered approximately 1.2 million people from 7 sub-districts of Bangladesh. Around 10% individuals reported an injury event in the six-month recall period. The most common injuries were falls (39%) and cuts injuries (23.4%). Overall, 81.7% of those with non-fatal injuries received first aid from a provider of whom 79.9% were non-medically trained. Individuals who received first-aid from a medically trained provider had more severe injuries and were 1.28 times more likely to show improvement or recover compared to those who received first-aid from an untrained provider. In Bangladesh, first-aid for non-fatal injuries are primarily provided by untrained providers. Given the large number of untrained providers and the known benefits of first aid to overcome morbidities associated with non-fatal injuries, public health interventions should be designed and implemented to train and improve skills of untrained providers.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070762
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 763: Constancy and Change: Key Issues in Housing
           and Health Research, 1987–2017

    • Authors: Roderick Lawrence
      First page: 763
      Abstract: The low impact of scientific research on the relations between housing and health during the last 30 years can be attributed to a number of reasons. First, statistical analyses have meant to improve understanding of the relations between what are interpreted and measured as causal factors. However, any single statistical approach fails to account for the dynamic non-linear relations between multiple factors and therefore cannot analyze systemic complexity. Second, there has been too little accumulation and validation of knowledge from scientific research owing to the dominance of cross-sectional studies, and the lack of coordinated research agendas using these approaches in order to confirm empirical findings. Hence, there is little evidence indicating that public policies in both the housing and the public health sectors in specific localities have benefited from the accumulated evidence of empirical research. Third, the findings from empirical studies have been published in academic journals and monographs but rarely disseminated to actors and institutions in the public and private sectors. Hence housing and health research and policy formulation have not been consolidated during the last three decades. The author of this communication argues for a radical shift from conventional disciplinary and multi-disciplinary contributions to transdisciplinary research programmes and projects that formulate and apply innovative approaches founded on conceptual frameworks that apply systems thinking for the integration of knowledge and know-how of researchers, policy makers, and professional practitioners in precise localities.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070763
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 764: Day-Ahead PM2.5 Concentration Forecasting
           Using WT-VMD Based Decomposition Method and Back Propagation Neural
           Network Improved by Differential Evolution

    • Authors: Deyun Wang, Yanling Liu, Hongyuan Luo, Chenqiang Yue, Sheng Cheng
      First page: 764
      Abstract: Accurate PM2.5 concentration forecasting is crucial for protecting public health and atmospheric environment. However, the intermittent and unstable nature of PM2.5 concentration series makes its forecasting become a very difficult task. In order to improve the forecast accuracy of PM2.5 concentration, this paper proposes a hybrid model based on wavelet transform (WT), variational mode decomposition (VMD) and back propagation (BP) neural network optimized by differential evolution (DE) algorithm. Firstly, WT is employed to disassemble the PM2.5 concentration series into a number of subsets with different frequencies. Secondly, VMD is applied to decompose each subset into a set of variational modes (VMs). Thirdly, DE-BP model is utilized to forecast all the VMs. Fourthly, the forecast value of each subset is obtained through aggregating the forecast results of all the VMs obtained from VMD decomposition of this subset. Finally, the final forecast series of PM2.5 concentration is obtained by adding up the forecast values of all subsets. Two PM2.5 concentration series collected from Wuhan and Tianjin, respectively, located in China are used to test the effectiveness of the proposed model. The results demonstrate that the proposed model outperforms all the other considered models in this paper.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070764
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 765: Modeling Nitrogen Dynamics in a Waste
           Stabilization Pond System Using Flexible Modeling Environment with MCMC

    • Authors: Hussnain Mukhtar, Yu-Pin Lin, Oleg Shipin, Joy Petway
      First page: 765
      Abstract: This study presents an approach for obtaining realization sets of parameters for nitrogen removal in a pilot-scale waste stabilization pond (WSP) system. The proposed approach was designed for optimal parameterization, local sensitivity analysis, and global uncertainty analysis of a dynamic simulation model for the WSP by using the R software package Flexible Modeling Environment (R-FME) with the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. Additionally, generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) was integrated into the FME to evaluate the major parameters that affect the simulation outputs in the study WSP. Comprehensive modeling analysis was used to simulate and assess nine parameters and concentrations of ON-N, NH3-N and NO3-N. Results indicate that the integrated FME-GLUE-based model, with good Nash–Sutcliffe coefficients (0.53–0.69) and correlation coefficients (0.76–0.83), successfully simulates the concentrations of ON-N, NH3-N and NO3-N. Moreover, the Arrhenius constant was the only parameter sensitive to model performances of ON-N and NH3-N simulations. However, Nitrosomonas growth rate, the denitrification constant, and the maximum growth rate at 20 °C were sensitive to ON-N and NO3-N simulation, which was measured using global sensitivity.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070765
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 766: Urban Green Space Perception and Its
           Contribution to Well-Being

    • Authors: Gyula Kothencz, Ronald Kolcsár, Pablo Cabrera-Barona, Péter Szilassi
      First page: 766
      Abstract: Individual perceptions are essential when evaluating the well-being benefits from urban green spaces. This study predicted the influence of perceived green space characteristics in the city of Szeged, Hungary, on two well-being variables: the green space visitors’ level of satisfaction and the self-reported quality of life. The applied logistic regression analysis used nine predictors: seven perceived green space characteristics from a questionnaire survey among visitors of five urban green spaces of Szeged; and the frequency of green space visitors’ crowd-sourced recreational running paths and photographs picturing green space aesthetics. Results revealed that perceived green space characteristics with direct well-being benefits were strong predictors of both dependent variables. Perceived green space characteristics with indirect, yet fundamental, well-being benefits, namely, regulating ecosystem services had minor influence on the dependent variables. The crowd-sourced geo-tagged data predicted only the perceived quality of life contributions; but revealed spatial patterns of recreational green space use and aesthetics. This study recommends that regulating ecosystem services should be planned with a focus on residents’ aesthetic and recreational needs. Further research on the combination of green space visitors´ perceptions and crowd-sourced geo-tagged data is suggested to promote planning for well-being and health benefits of urban green spaces.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070766
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 767: Dental Providers’ Perspectives on
           Diagnosis-Driven Dentistry: Strategies to Enhance Adoption of Dental
           Diagnostic Terminology

    • Authors: Enihomo Obadan-Udoh, Lisa Simon, Jini Etolue, Oluwabunmi Tokede, Joel White, Heiko Spallek, Muhammad Walji, Elsbeth Kalenderian
      First page: 767
      Abstract: The routine use of standardized diagnostic terminologies (DxTMs) in dentistry has long been the subject of academic debate. This paper discusses the strategies suggested by a group of dental stakeholders to enhance the uptake of DxTMs. Through unstructured interviewing at the ‘Toward a Diagnosis-Driven Profession’ National Conference held on 19 March 2016 in Los Angeles, CA, USA participants were asked how enthusiastic they were about implementing and consistently using DxTMs at their work. They also brainstormed on strategies to improve the widespread use of DxTMs. Their responses are summarized by recursive abstraction and presented in themes. Conference participants were very enthusiastic about using a DxTM in their place of work. Participants enumerated several strategies to make DxTMs more appealing including: the use of mandates, a value proposition for providers, communication and education, and integration with EHRs and existing systems. All groups across the dental healthcare delivery spectrum will need to work together for the success of the widespread and consistent use of DxTMs. Understanding the provider perspective is however the most critical step in achieving this goal, as they are the group who will ultimately be saddled with the critical task of ensuring DxTM use at the point of care.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070767
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 768: Investigation, Pollution Mapping and
           Simulative Leakage Health Risk Assessment for Heavy Metals and Metalloids
           in Groundwater from a Typical Brownfield, Middle China

    • Authors: Fei Li, Zhenzhen Qiu, Jingdong Zhang, Wenchu Liu, Chaoyang Liu, Guangming Zeng
      First page: 768
      Abstract: Heavy metal and metalloid (Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, As and Hg) concentrations in groundwater from 19 typical sites throughout a typical brownfield were detected. Mean concentrations of toxic metals in groundwater decreased in the order of Cr > Zn > Cu > Cd > Ni > Pb > Hg > As. Concentration of Cr6+ in groundwater was detected to further study chromium contamination. Cr6+ and Cd in groundwater were recommended as the priority pollutants because they were generally 1399-fold and 12-foldgreater than permissible limits, respectively. Owing to the fact that a waterproof curtain (WPC) in the brownfield is about to pass the warranty period, a steady two-dimensional water quality model and health risk assessment were applied to simulate and evaluate adverse effects of Cr6 + and Cd on the water quality of Xiangjiang River and the drinking-water intake of Wangcheng Waterworks. The results indicated that when groundwater in the brownfield leaked with valid curtain prevention, the water quality in Xiangjiang River and drinking-water intake downstream were temporarily unaffected. However, if there was no curtain prevention, groundwater leakage would have adverse impact on water quality of Xiangjiang River. Under the requirements of Class III surface water quality, the pollution belt for Cr6+ was 7500 m and 200 m for Cd. The non-carcinogenic risk of toxic metals in Xiangjiang River exceeded the threshold in a limited area, but did not threaten Wangcheng Waterworks. By contrast, the carcinogenic risk area for adults was at a transverse distance of 200 m and a longitudinal distance of 18,000 m, which was close to the Wangcheng Waterworks (23,000 m). Therefore, it was essential to reconstruct the WPC in the brownfield for preventing pollution diffusion.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070768
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 769: Effects of Promotional Materials on Attitudes
           and Fear towards Colorectal Cancer Screening among Chinese Older Adults:
           An Experimental Study

    • Authors: Doris Leung, Joanne Chen, Vivian Lou, Eliza Wong, Aileen Chan, Winnie So, Carmen Chan
      First page: 769
      Abstract: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is a cost-effective prevention and control strategy. However, the promotion of CRC screening for older adults may be difficult because reading CRC prevention information may evoke embarrassment, fear, and anxiety towards the screening procedure and cancer diagnosis. This study aims to (1) examine the effects of three promotional materials for CRC screening on the attitudes toward CRC screening tests (screening interest, screening effectiveness, and trust in the screening results) and cancer fear, and (2) to explore the interaction effect of cancer fear with screening effectiveness and trust in the screening results on screening interest of the three screening tests (fecal occult blood test (FOBT), flexible sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy) among Chinese older adults. A total of 114 community-dwelling older adults were asked to look at the corresponding promotional materials (pamphlet, cartoon, and video) of one of the three study groups. The pamphlet and video represent convention strategies and the cartoon represents an innovative strategy. No significant difference was observed in the screening interest and cancer fear across groups. FOBT was the most preferred screening modality. The video group has a large proportion agreed screening effectiveness of flexible sigmoidoscopy than pamphlet and cartoon groups and trusted in the screening results for FOBT and flexible sigmoidoscopy than the pamphlet group. Logistic regression results showed that the effect of trust in the screening results on screening interest for colonoscopy was greater among participants with higher cancer fear than those with lower cancer fear level. In conclusion, the three promotional groups had produced similar results in their attitudes toward CRC screening and cancer fear. The use of cartoons may be a comparable approach with conventional methods in the promotion of CRC screening. Additional components that can arouse fear and boost response efficacy simultaneously might also be useful for the effective promotion of colonoscopy among Chinese older adults.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070769
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 770: Synchronization of Human Autonomic Nervous
           System Rhythms with Geomagnetic Activity in Human Subjects

    • Authors: Rollin McCraty, Mike Atkinson, Viktor Stolc, Abdullah Alabdulgader, Alfonsas Vainoras, Minvydas Ragulskis
      First page: 770
      Abstract: A coupling between geomagnetic activity and the human nervous system’s function was identified by virtue of continuous monitoring of heart rate variability (HRV) and the time-varying geomagnetic field over a 31-day period in a group of 10 individuals who went about their normal day-to-day lives. A time series correlation analysis identified a response of the group’s autonomic nervous systems to various dynamic changes in the solar, cosmic ray, and ambient magnetic field. Correlation coefficients and p values were calculated between the HRV variables and environmental measures during three distinct time periods of environmental activity. There were significant correlations between the group’s HRV and solar wind speed, Kp, Ap, solar radio flux, cosmic ray counts, Schumann resonance power, and the total variations in the magnetic field. In addition, the time series data were time synchronized and normalized, after which all circadian rhythms were removed. It was found that the participants’ HRV rhythms synchronized across the 31-day period at a period of approximately 2.5 days, even though all participants were in separate locations. Overall, this suggests that daily autonomic nervous system activity not only responds to changes in solar and geomagnetic activity, but is synchronized with the time-varying magnetic fields associated with geomagnetic field-line resonances and Schumann resonances.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070770
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 771: Green Streets: Urban Green and Birth Outcomes

    • Authors: Kathryn Abelt, Sara McLafferty
      First page: 771
      Abstract: Recent scholarship points to a protective association between green space and birth outcomes as well a positive relationship between blue space and wellbeing. We add to this body of literature by exploring the relationship between expectant mothers’ exposure to green and blue spaces and adverse birth outcomes in New York City. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the NYC Street Tree Census, and access to major green spaces served as measures of greenness, while proximity to waterfront areas represented access to blue space. Associations between these factors and adverse birth outcomes, including preterm birth, term birthweight, term low birthweight, and small for gestational age, were evaluated via mixed-effects linear and logistic regression models. The analyses were conducted separately for women living in deprived neighborhoods to test for differential effects on mothers in these areas. The results indicate that women in deprived neighborhoods suffer from higher rates adverse birth outcomes and lower levels of residential greenness. In adjusted models, a significant inverse association between nearby street trees and the odds of preterm birth was found for all women. However, we did not identify a consistent significant relationship between adverse birth outcomes and NDVI, access to major green spaces, or waterfront access when individual covariates were taken into account.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070771
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 772: Stroke Mortality Attributable to Ambient
           Particulate Matter Pollution from 1990 to 2015 in China: An
           Age-Period-Cohort and Spatial Autocorrelation Analysis

    • Authors: Lisha Luo, Junfeng Jiang, Ganshen Zhang, Lu Wang, Zhenkun Wang, Jin Yang, Chuanhua Yu
      First page: 772
      Abstract: In this study, we analyzed the temporal and spatial variations of stroke mortality attributable to ambient particulate matter pollution (stroke mortality-PM2.5) in China from 1990 to 2015. Data were collected from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2015 study and analyzed by an age-period-cohort model (APC) with an intrinsic estimator (IE) algorithm, as well as spatial autocorrelation based on the Geographic Information System. Based on APC analysis with the IE method, stroke mortality-PM2.5 increased exponentially with age, its relative risk reaching 42.85 (95% CI: 28.79, 63.43) in the 75–79 age group. The period effects showed a reversed V-shape and its highest relative risk was 1.22 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.27) in 2005. The cohort effects decreased monotonically from 1915–1919 to 1990–1994. The change rate fluctuated from 1920–1924 to 1990–1994, including three accelerating and three decelerating decreases. There was a positive spatial autocorrelation in stroke mortality-PM2.5 from 1990 to 2015. Hot-spots moved from the northeastern areas to the middle and southwestern areas, whereas cold-spots lay mostly in coastal provinces. Besides the aging process in recent years, stroke mortality-PM2.5 had significantly declined from 2005 to 2015 due to socio-economic and healthcare development. Stroke mortality-PM2.5 varied substantially among different regions, and cost-effective prevention and control should be implemented more in the middle and southwestern areas of China.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070772
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 773: Physiological Effects of Touching Coated Wood

    • Authors: Harumi Ikei, Chorong Song, Yoshifumi Miyazaki
      First page: 773
      Abstract: This study examined the physiological effects of touching wood with various coating with the palm of the hand on brain activity and autonomic nervous activity. Participants were 18 female university students (mean age, 21.7 ± 1.6 years). As an indicator of brain activity, oxyhemoglobin concentrations were measured in the left and right prefrontal cortices using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy. Heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate were used as indicators of autonomic nervous activity. The high-frequency (HF) component of HRV, which reflects parasympathetic nervous activity, and the low-frequency (LF)/HF ratio, which reflects sympathetic nervous activity, were measured. Plates of uncoated, oil-finished, vitreous-finished, urethane-finished, and mirror-finished white oak wood were used as tactile stimuli. After sitting at rest with their eyes closed for 60 s, participants touched the stimuli with their palm for 90 s each. The results indicated that tactile stimulation with uncoated wood calmed prefrontal cortex activity (vs. urethane finish and mirror finish), increased parasympathetic nervous activity (vs. vitreous finish, urethane finish, and mirror finish), and decreased heart rate (vs. mirror finish), demonstrating a physiological relaxation effect. Further, tactile stimulation with oil- and vitreous-finished wood calmed left prefrontal cortex activity and decreased heart rate relative to mirror-finished wood.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070773
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 774: Biodegradable and Petroleum-Based
           Microplastics Do Not Differ in Their Ingestion and Excretion but in Their
           Biological Effects in a Freshwater Invertebrate Gammarus fossarum

    • Authors: Sandrine Straub, Philipp E. Hirsch, Patricia Burkhardt-Holm
      First page: 774
      Abstract: Research on the uptake and effects of bioplastics by aquatic organisms is still in its infancy. Here, we aim to advance the field by comparing uptake and effects of microplastic particles (MPP) of a biodegradable bioMPP (polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)) and petroleum-based MPP (polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)) in the freshwater amphipod Gammarus fossarum. Ingestion of both MPP in different particle sizes (32–250 µm) occurred after 24 h, with highest ingestion of particles in the range 32–63 µm and almost complete egestion after 64 h. A four-week effect-experiment showed a significant decrease of the assimilation efficiency in amphipods exposed to the petroleum-based MPP from week two onwards. The petroleum-based PMMA affected assimilation efficiency significantly in contrast to the biodegradable PHB, but overall differences in direct comparison of MPP types were small. Both MPP types led to a significantly lower wet weight gain relative to the control treatments. After four weeks, differences between both MPP types and silica, used as a natural particle control, were detected. In summary, these results suggest that both MPP types provoke digestive constraints on the amphipods, which go beyond those of natural non-palatable particles. This highlights the need for more detailed research comparing environmental effects of biodegradable and petroleum-based MPP and testing those against naturally occurring particle loads.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070774
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 775: An Analysis of Anxiety-Related Postings on
           Sina Weibo

    • Authors: Xianyun Tian, Fang He, Philip Batterham, Zheng Wang, Guang Yu
      First page: 775
      Abstract: This study examines anxiety-related postings on Sina Weibo to gain insight into social networking about mental health. The themes of a random sample of anxiety-related postings (n = 1000) were assessed. The disclosure of anxiety was the most common theme. The prevalence of anxiety was higher in certain areas where the economy is stronger than others, and the people living there suffered from more stress. Users who talked about feeling anxious tended to be more active on social media during leisure hours and less active during work hours. Our findings may be developed to detect and help individuals who may suffer from anxiety disorders at a low cost.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070775
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 776: The Impact of a Horse Riding Intervention on
           the Social Functioning of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    • Authors: Androulla Harris, Joanne Williams
      First page: 776
      Abstract: This paper reports a case-control study of a horse riding intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A sample of 26 children, aged 6 to 9 years, were assigned to either the intervention (n = 12) or control group conditions (n = 14). Pre- and post-tests were carried out using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale, Second Edition (CARS2) and the Aberrant Behaviour Checklist-Community Edition (ABC-C). An observational measure of compliance and behaviour during the horse riding sessions was completed for the intervention group. There was a significant reduction in the severity of ASD symptoms and hyperactivity from pre- to post-test for the intervention group only. These results indicate that the intervention improves some aspects of social functioning for children with ASD.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070776
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 777: In Vitro and In Vivo Control of Secondary
           Bacterial Infection Caused by Leishmania major

    • Authors: Hany Yehia, Ebtesam Al-Olayan, Manal El-Khadragy, Dina Metwally
      First page: 777
      Abstract: Bacterial infections of cutaneous leishmaniasis cause skin ulcers on mice, resulting in increased tissue deterioration, and these infections can be controlled with liquid allicin. To isolate and identify the incidences of real secondary bacterial infections in mice, we performed the current study by injecting mice (n = 50) with Leishmania major. L. major infections were initiated by an intramuscular injection of 0.1 mL Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI 1640 media/mouse (107 promastigote/mL)). Scarring appeared 2–6 weeks after injection, and the bacteria were isolated from the skin ulcer tissues. Allicin (50 µL/mL) and ciprofloxacin (5 μg; Cip 5) were used for controlling L. major and bacteria. One hundred samples from skin ulcers of mice were examined, and 200 bacterial colonies were isolated. Forty-eight different genera and species were obtained and identified by Gram staining and physiological and biochemical characterization using identification kits. All samples were positive for secondary bacterial infections. Of the isolates, 79.16% were identified as Gram-negative bacteria, and 28.84% were identified as Gram-positive bacteria; only one yeast species was found. Interestingly, pure allicin liquid at a concentration 50 µL/mL exhibited antibacterial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative and some Gram-positive bacteria, in addition to yeast, and was 71.43% effective. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of all genera and species were determined using 15 different antibiotics. Allicin (50 µL/mL) and Cip 5 were the most effective against L. major and 92.30% of isolated bacteria. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was the most resistant bacterium to the tested antibiotics with a survival rate of 73.33%, and it exhibited resistance to allicin.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070777
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 778: Modeling the Effects of Urban Design on
           Emergency Medical Response Calls during Extreme Heat Events in Toronto,

    • Authors: Drew Graham, Jennifer Vanos, Natasha Kenny, Robert Brown
      First page: 778
      Abstract: Urban residents are at risk of health-related illness during extreme heat events but the dangers are not equal in all parts of a city. Previous studies have found a relationship between physical characteristics of neighborhoods and the number of emergency medical response (EMR) calls. We used a human energy budget model to test the effects of landscape modifications that are designed to cool the environment on the expected number of EMR calls in two neighborhoods in Toronto, Canada during extreme heat events. The cooling design strategies reduced the energy overload on people by approximately 20–30 W m−2, resulting in an estimated 40–50% reduction in heat-related ambulance calls. These findings advance current understanding of the relationship between the urban landscape and human health and suggest straightforward design strategies to positively influence urban heat-health.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070778
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 779: Dendritic Architecture of Principal
           Basolateral Amygdala Neurons Changes Congruently with Endocrine Response
           to Stress

    • Authors: Akshaya Hegde, Poh Soh Yee, Rupshi Mitra
      First page: 779
      Abstract: Animals cope with changing environments through changes in behavior. Such plasticity is, however, marked by substantial inter-individual variability. Neuroendocrine reactivity to challenging environments can be an important predictor of resilience. Both basolateral amygdala (BLA) neurons and adrenal glucocorticoid signaling are integral parts of the stress neuroendocrine response. In this report, we test if individual variation in hormonal response to stress is associated with individual variation in the dendritic complexity of BLA neurons. We report a positive correlation between inter-individual variability in glucocorticoid response and neuronal plasticity in the BLA subsequent to a stressor. This suggests that stressful experiences in the past act as significant sculptors of BLA neuronal plasticity and congruent neuroendocrine response.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070779
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 780: Spatial Variation of Soil Organic Carbon and
           Total Nitrogen in the Coastal Area of Mid-Eastern China

    • Authors: Yan Xu, Lijie Pu, Qilin Liao, Ming Zhu, Xue Yu, Tianying Mao, Chenxing Xu
      First page: 780
      Abstract: Soils play an important role in sequestrating atmospheric CO2. Coastal tidal flats have been intensively reclaimed for food security and living spaces worldwide. We aimed to identify the changes of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) following coastal reclamation and their spatial variation in the coastal area of mid-Eastern China to provide information for coastal cropland management. We measured SOC and TN of 463 soil samples in the coastal plain of mid-Eastern China. The results showed that SOC and TN increased highly from the uncultivated coastal tidal flat (2.49 g·kg−1 and 0.21 g·kg−1, respectively) to the cropland (10.73 g·kg−1 and 1.3 g·kg−1, respectively). After long-term cultivation, SOC and TN in the old farmland (12.98 g·kg−1 and 1.49 g·kg−1, respectively) were greater than those in the young farmland (5.76 g·kg−1 and 0.86 g·kg−1, respectively). The density of SOC in the uncultivated coastal tidal flat, young farmland, and old farmland were 0.68 kg·C·m−2, 1.52 kg·C·m−2, and 3.31 kg·C·m−2, respectively. The density of TN in the uncultivated coastal tidal flat, young farmland and old farmland were 0.05 kg·N·m−2, 0.23 kg·N·m−2, and 0.38 kg·N·m−2, respectively. The C/N (11.17) in the uncultivated coastal tidal flat was highest comparing to that in the young and old farmland due to lower nitrogen. The C/N increased from 6.78 to 8.71 following cultivation. Reclaimed coastal tidal flats had high carbon and nitrogen sequestration potential that not only mitigated the threat of global warming, but also improved soil fertility for crop production. Coastal management of cropland should consider the spatial distribution of SOC and TN to improve ecosystem services of coastal soils.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070780
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 781: Considerations and Future Research Directions
           for E-Cigarette Warnings—Findings from Expert Interviews

    • Authors: Olivia Wackowski, David Hammond, Richard O’Connor, Andrew Strasser, Cristine Delnevo
      First page: 781
      Abstract: Tobacco warning labels are important sources of risk information but research historically has been cigarette-centric. This qualitative study aimed to inform future direction and research on warnings for e-cigarettes. Between June and August 2016, we conducted interviews with 10 researchers with expertise in tobacco warning label research. Interviewees were registrants of a 2016 National Cancer Institute grantee meeting on tobacco warnings. Several participants agreed that the Food and Drug Administration’s new nicotine addiction warning for e-cigarettes could be informative but that it might not resonate with young people. Many agreed that more than one warning would be important as e-cigarette science evolves and that research on additional warning themes (e.g., nicotine exposure, harmful constituents) and execution styles (including use of pictorials) was important. Participants were somewhat mixed about the use of reduced-risk messages within e-cigarette warnings, but agreed that research on how to communicate about cigarette/e-cigarette relative risks was needed. Overall, more research is needed on tobacco warnings for non-cigarette products, including on the message content, placement, execution and potential impact on audiences’ product knowledge, risk perceptions and use intentions. This is particularly needed for products such as e-cigarettes which may have harm-reduction potential relative to cigarettes and require unique considerations.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070781
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 782: Environmental Drivers and Predicted Risk of
           Bacillary Dysentery in Southwest China

    • Authors: Han Zhang, Yali Si, Xiaofeng Wang, Peng Gong
      First page: 782
      Abstract: Bacillary dysentery has long been a considerable health problem in southwest China, however, the quantitative relationship between anthropogenic and physical environmental factors and the disease is not fully understand. It is also not clear where exactly the bacillary dysentery risk is potentially high. Based on the result of hotspot analysis, we generated training samples to build a spatial distribution model. Univariate analyses, autocorrelation and multi-collinearity examinations and stepwise selection were then applied to screen the potential causative factors. Multiple logistic regressions were finally applied to quantify the effects of key factors. A bootstrapping strategy was adopted while fitting models. The model was evaluated by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), Kappa and independent validation samples. Hotspot counties were mainly mountainous lands in southwest China. Higher risk of bacillary dysentery was found associated with underdeveloped socio-economy, proximity to farmland or water bodies, higher environmental temperature, medium relative humidity and the distribution of the Tibeto-Burman ethnicity. A predictive risk map with high accuracy (88.19%) was generated. The high-risk areas are mainly located in the mountainous lands where the Tibeto-Burman people live, especially in the basins, river valleys or other flat places in the mountains with relatively lower elevation and a warmer climate. In the high-risk areas predicted by this study, improving the economic development, investment in health care and the construction of infrastructures for safe water supply, waste treatment and sewage disposal, and improving health related education could reduce the disease risk.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070782
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 783: Predictors of Daily Mobility of Adults in
           Peri-Urban South India

    • Authors: Margaux Sanchez, Albert Ambros, Maëlle Salmon, Santhi Bhogadi, Robin Wilson, Sanjay Kinra, Julian Marshall, Cathryn Tonne
      First page: 783
      Abstract: Daily mobility, an important aspect of environmental exposures and health behavior, has mainly been investigated in high-income countries. We aimed to identify the main dimensions of mobility and investigate their individual, contextual, and external predictors among men and women living in a peri-urban area of South India. We used 192 global positioning system (GPS)-recorded mobility tracks from 47 participants (24 women, 23 men) from the Cardiovascular Health effects of Air pollution in Telangana, India (CHAI) project (mean: 4.1 days/person). The mean age was 44 (standard deviation: 14) years. Half of the population was illiterate and 55% was in unskilled manual employment, mostly agriculture-related. Sex was the largest determinant of mobility. During daytime, time spent at home averaged 13.4 (3.7) h for women and 9.4 (4.2) h for men. Women’s activity spaces were smaller and more circular than men’s. A principal component analysis identified three main mobility dimensions related to the size of the activity space, the mobility in/around the residence, and mobility inside the village, explaining 86% (women) and 61% (men) of the total variability in mobility. Age, socioeconomic status, and urbanicity were associated with all three dimensions. Our results have multiple potential applications for improved assessment of environmental exposures and their effects on health.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070783
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 784: Correlations of Biomarkers and Self-Reported
           Seafood Consumption among Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women in Southeastern
           Louisiana after the Gulf Oil Spill: The GROWH Study

    • Authors: Leah Zilversmit, Jeffrey Wickliffe, Arti Shankar, Robert Taylor, Emily Harville
      First page: 784
      Abstract: Seafood contains health-promoting fatty acids, but is often contaminated with mercury (Hg), complicating recommendations and choices around fish consumption during pregnancy. Self-reported diet may be subject to inaccuracy and this inaccuracy could differ according to pregnancy status. We investigated correlations between self-reported seafood consumption and blood levels of Hg and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in women affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated comparing log blood Hg and n-3 PUFAs to seafood consumption, then stratified by pregnancy status. Crude and adjusted linear regression models were constructed using biomarkers of Hg and n-3 PUFA and seafood consumption, adjusting for age and pregnancy status. Weak but significant correlations were found between log Hg levels and intake of Hg-containing seafood ( r = 0.15) and were slightly stronger among pregnant women ( r = 0.22, vs. r = 0.10). Biomarkers for n-3 PUFAs were significantly correlated with seafood consumption ( r = 0.12). Hg-containing seafood consumption was associated with increased blood level Hg in the highest quartile in both unadjusted (β = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.15–0.53) and adjusted models (β = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.08–0.48). Self-reported seafood consumption was correlated with biomarkers of both n-3 PUFA and Hg, but this association was different when stratified by pregnancy status. Pregnant women may have better recall of Hg-containing seafood compared to nonpregnant women.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070784
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 785: Celiac Disease Presenting with Peripheral
           Neuropathy in Children: A Case Report

    • Authors: Alessandra Pacitto, Alessandra Paglino, Lorenza Di Genova, Alberto Leonardi, Edoardo Farinelli, Nicola Principi, Giuseppe di Cara, Susanna Esposito
      First page: 785
      Abstract: Background: Clinically relevant neurological manifestations in children with celiac disease (CD) are unusual, especially when they are considered as signs of the onset of the disease. In this paper, a case of Guillain-Barrè syndrome (GBS) as the first manifestation of CD in a 23-month-old child is reported. Case presentation: We describe a case of CD onset with peripheral neuropathy in a 23-month-old Bulgarian boy presenting with a sudden refusal to walk and absence of deep tendon reflexes in both lower limbs. Neurological symptoms were preceded by two months of gastrointestinal symptoms such as vomiting, abdominal distention, and clear signs of malnutrition and weight loss. When we evaluated the child six months after the onset of the symptoms, clinical and laboratory findings showed clear signs of peripheral neuropathy associated with malnutrition. Serum deamidated gliadin and tissue transglutaminase antibodies were therefore measured. The anti-gliadin levels were more than sixteen times higher than normal and the IgA anti-transglutaminase levels were four times higher than normal. Anti-endomysium antibodies were positive, and human leukocyte antigens (HLA) II typing confirmed a genetic predisposition to CD (DQ2 positive and DQ8 negative). Given the association between the clinical evidence of the disease and the results of the celiac screening tests, a diagnosis of CD was made without biopsy confirmation of the enteropathy. The child began a restricted gluten-free diet that led to complete recovery of the peripheral neuropathy, walking, reflexes, and overall improvement after three months on the diet. Conclusion: Our case underlines the rare but possible associations between CD and peripheral neuropathy in children as an onset symptom, even in the absence of gastrointestinal manifestations, thus suggesting that CD should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy in children. A good knowledge of the extra-intestinal manifestations of CD is essential for the rapid introduction of a gluten-free diet that could be useful for the resolution of the neurological symptoms.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070785
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 786: Into the Woods or a Stroll in the Park: How
           Virtual Contact with Nature Impacts Positive and Negative Affect

    • Authors: Elizabeth McAllister, Navjot Bhullar, Nicola S. Schutte
      First page: 786
      Abstract: This study examined the effects of virtual contact with nature on positive and negative affect, and investigated the psychological process of perceived restorativeness as a mediator of this relationship. A sample of 220 Australians aged between 18 and 75 years (M = 49.07, SD = 14.34, female = 72%) participated in the study. Participants were randomly allocated to one of the three experimental conditions experienced through video presentations: (1) ‘wild’ nature, (2) ‘urban’ nature, and (3) non-nature control. They then completed measures of perceived restorativeness as well as positive and negative affect. Compared to the non-nature control condition, the experience of wild nature resulted in significantly higher levels of positive affect and lower levels of negative affect. The experience of urban nature resulted in significantly lower levels of negative affect only compared to the non-nature control video. Experience of wild and urban nature resulted in greater perceptions of restorativeness as compared to the non-nature control video. Restorativeness was a significant underlying psychological mediating path through which nature experience exerted its influence on affect. These results have the potential to inform nature-based green care interventions for mental health as well as for urban planning to maximize beneficial effects of natural environments.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070786
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 787: Airborne PM2.5-Induced Hepatic Insulin
           Resistance by Nrf2/JNK-Mediated Signaling Pathway

    • Authors: Jinxia Xu, Wei Zhang, Zhongbing Lu, Fang Zhang, Wenjun Ding
      First page: 787
      Abstract: Animal and epidemiological studies have suggested that exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) is associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanism underlying this risk is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of PM2.5 exposure on glucose homeostasis and related signaling pathways in mice. Wild-type and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) knockout (Nrf2−/−) C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to either ambient concentrated PM2.5 or filtered air (FA) for 12 weeks through a whole-body PM exposure system. At the end of the exposure, we assessed liver damage, and performed metabolic studies, gene expressions, as well as molecular signal transductions to determine the signaling pathways involving oxidative responses, insulin signaling, and glucose metabolism. Our results indicated that PM2.5 exposure for 12 weeks caused significant liver damage as evidenced by elevated levels of aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Furthermore, PM2.5 exposure induced impaired glucose tolerance and inhibited glycogen synthesis, leading to hepatic insulin resistance indicated by higher glucose levels, higher area under the curve (AUC), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values. We further found that PM2.5 exposure significantly increased the expressions of Nrf2 and Nrf2-regulated antioxidant genes. Moreover, PM2.5 exposure activated the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway and increased insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation at Ser307, but reduced protein kinase B phosphorylation at Ser473. Taken together, our study demonstrated PM2.5 exposure triggered Nrf2-mediated oxidative responses and activated the JNK-mediated inhibitory signaling pathway, resulting in hepatic insulin resistance.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070787
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 788: The Association of Domestic Incense Burning
           with Hypertension and Blood Pressure in Guangdong, China

    • Authors: Xiuling Song, Wenjun Ma, Xiaojun Xu, Tao Liu, Jianpeng Xiao, Weilin Zeng, Xing Li, Zhengmin Qian, Yanjun Xu, Hualiang Lin
      First page: 788
      Abstract: : Domestic incense burning is a common activity in China. Although it generates serious air pollution and has been linked to various health outcomes, it remains unknown whether it is associated with blood pressure and hypertension. A community-based survey including 1153 hypertensive subjects and 4432 normotensive participants in Guangdong (China) was used to examine this question. Two-level logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). The analyses showed that, compared with non-users, OR of hypertension was 1.24 (95% CI: 1.03–1.50) for users, and 1.37 (95% CI: 1.04–1.80) for daily users with a clear dose-response relationship. The estimated increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 1.02 mmHg (95% CI: 0.06–1.99) and 1.26 mmHg (95% CI: 0.69–1.83) for users, 0.67 mmHg (95% CI: −0.35–1.68) and 1.25 mmHg (95% CI: 0.66–1.85) for occasional users, and 2.09 mmHg (95% CI: 0.79–3.39) and 1.28 mmHg (95% CI: 0.52–2.05) for daily users, respectively. The results remained after adjusting for potential confounders and more pronounced associations were found among females. This study suggests that domestic incense burning may increase the risk of hypertension and blood pressure in the study population, and women are more vulnerable to these effects than men.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070788
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 789: Sex Differences in the Relationship between
           Sleep Behavior, Fish Consumption, and Depressive Symptoms in the General
           Population of South Korea

    • Authors: Atin Supartini, Taro Oishi, Nobuyuki Yagi
      First page: 789
      Abstract: Sleep, fish consumption, and depression have a close relationship; however, the role of sex differences in sleep, fish consumption, and depression research is not yet well-established. This study aimed to examine whether the impact of bedtime, sleep-onset latency, sleep duration, sleep quality, and fish consumption on depressive symptoms differed in women and men. An online survey was conducted in South Korea with a stratified random sample of 600 participants between the ages of 20 and 69, whose gender and age were proportional to estimates of Korea’s general population. The 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was used to measure depressive symptoms with a cut-off score of 16. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was applied to evaluate sleep timing, sleep-onset latency, sleep duration, and sleep quality. Our results indicated that late bedtime and short sleep duration were independently associated with depressive symptoms in women. Sleep-onset latency and poor sleep quality were independently associated with increased prevalence of depressive symptoms in both men and women. Higher fish consumption was significantly associated with decreased prevalence of depressive symptoms in men only. Our findings suggested the importance of a different approach for men and women in terms of promoting healthy sleep habits. In addition, higher fish consumption may be beneficial in the primary prevention of depression in Korean men. Further research is needed to confirm the findings from this cross-sectional study.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070789
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 790: Occupational Class Differences in Trajectories
           of Working Conditions in Women

    • Authors: Simo Raittila, Ossi Rahkonen, Eero Lahelma, Juha Alho, Anne Kouvonen
      First page: 790
      Abstract: The aim was to examine occupational class differences in trajectories of working conditions in ageing female municipal employees. Longitudinal survey data were collected among 40 to 60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland. The 2000–2002 baseline survey (N = 8960, response rate 67%) was followed up in 2007 and 2012. Only those female participants who remained employed through all three phases were included (n = 2540). The effects of age, occupational class, and time period on physical and psychosocial working conditions were estimated using a mixed linear growth model. Physical workload decreased with age, except for manual workers, for whom there was no change. Manual workers also had less control over their work than managers and professionals, semi-professionals, or routine non-manual employees. Job control declined similarly in all occupational classes. Although occupational class differences in the levels of job demands were found, with the managers and professionals reporting the most increased demands, job demands were fairly stable and there was virtually no age or period associated linear change in them. Age trajectories in physical workload differ by occupational class, and the differences in psychosocial working conditions between occupational classes do not converge with age.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070790
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 791: Loneliness, Insomnia and Suicidal Behavior
           among School-Going Adolescents in Western Pacific Island Countries: Role
           of Violence and Injury

    • Authors: Bimala Sharma, Tae Lee, Eun Nam
      First page: 791
      Abstract: This study aimed to examine whether being bullied, fighting, and injury, regarded in terms of frequency and nature, were significantly associated with psychological distress and suicidal behavior, independent of substance abuse and parental support in adolescents. Secondary analysis of data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey from Kiribati, the Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu was conducted. Binomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of being bullied, fighting and injury with psychological health outcomes (loneliness, insomnia, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt) at a 5% level of significance. A total of 4122 students were included; 45.5% were male, and 52.0% were 14 years of age or younger. Of the total, 9.3% felt lonely and 9.5% had insomnia most of the time over the last 12 months; 27.6% had suicidal ideation, and 30.9% reported at least one suicide attempt in the last 12 months. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that being bullied, fighting and injury were significantly associated with psychological health outcomes; adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of loneliness, insomnia, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt increased with increased exposure to bullying, fighting, and injury compared to non-exposed group. Among the types of bullying victimization, the highest AORs of insomnia and suicide attempt were among students who were left out of activities, compared to the non-bullied. Among the causes of injury, adolescents injured due to a physical attack were the most likely to report the highest AORs of loneliness, insomnia and suicidal ideation compared to those not injured. Preventing violence and injury among adolescents might contribute to better mental health and reduction of suicidal behavior.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-15
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070791
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 792: The Influence of Spatial Configuration of
           Residential Area and Vector Populations on Dengue Incidence Patterns in an
           Individual-Level Transmission Model

    • Authors: Jeon-Young Kang, Jared Aldstadt
      First page: 792
      Abstract: Dengue is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that is endemic in tropical and subtropical countries. Many individual-level simulation models have been developed to test hypotheses about dengue virus transmission. Often these efforts assume that human host and mosquito vector populations are randomly or uniformly distributed in the environment. Although, the movement of mosquitoes is affected by spatial configuration of buildings and mosquito populations are highly clustered in key buildings, little research has focused on the influence of the local built environment in dengue transmission models. We developed an agent-based model of dengue transmission in a village setting to test the importance of using realistic environments in individual-level models of dengue transmission. The results from one-way ANOVA analysis of simulations indicated that the differences between scenarios in terms of infection rates as well as serotype-specific dominance are statistically significant. Specifically, the infection rates in scenarios of a realistic environment are more variable than those of a synthetic spatial configuration. With respect to dengue serotype-specific cases, we found that a single dengue serotype is more often dominant in realistic environments than in synthetic environments. An agent-based approach allows a fine-scaled analysis of simulated dengue incidence patterns. The results provide a better understanding of the influence of spatial heterogeneity on dengue transmission at a local scale.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-15
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070792
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 793: Cross-Sectional Study to Determine the
           Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C Virus Infection in High Risk Groups in the
           Northeast Region of Brazil

    • Authors: Jakeline Ribeiro Barbosa, Cristianne Sousa Bezerra, Filipe Carvalho-Costa, Carolina Pimentel de Azevedo, Geane Lopes Flores, Jeová Baima Colares, Danielle Malta Lima, Elisabeth Lampe, Lívia Melo Villar
      First page: 793
      Abstract: Background: HBV (Hepatitis B Virus) and HCV (Hepatitis C Virus) infections are more prevalent in vulnerable populations than the general population. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in HIV-positive patients (GI), chronic renal failure (CRF) patients (GII) and coagulation disorder individuals (GIII). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2014 to March 2015. Serum samples were tested for markers of hepatitis B and C by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sociodemographic, epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data and accompanying statistical analyses were performed using Epi Info™ 7. Results: A total of 348 individuals were recruited, i.e., 154 HIV-positive, 143 CRF and 51 coagulopathy patients. Among them, more than 66% were men, and the predominant age group was 26–35 years in GI and 56–65 years in GIII. Most patients had more than 8 years of education (66.2% in GI, 60.6% in GIII and 46.1% in GII), with a family income between 100–400 dollars in more than 48% of patients. The prevalence of the HBsAg marker was 3.9%, 7% and 3.9%, total anti-HBc was 28.6%, 55.9% and 31.4%, and anti-HCV was 1.3%, 12.6% and 47% for GI, GII and GIII, respectively. However, the prevalence of anti-HBs was greater than 70% in all groups. Conclusions: This study shows a high prevalence of HBV and HCV among specific groups compared to the general population. Factors such as age, income, number of sexual partners, sexually transmitted disease burden, blood transfusion history or blood products and blood transfusions before 1994 were associated with a higher prevalence for these infections.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070793
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 794: The Role of Perceived Social Norms in Rural
           Sanitation: An Explorative Study from Infrastructure-Restricted Settings
           of South Ethiopia

    • Authors: Josef Novotný, Jana Kolomazníková, Helena Humňalová
      First page: 794
      Abstract: The perception of social sanitation norms (PSSNs) around unacceptability of open defecation has been a key aspect of recent sanitation interventions. However, underlying mechanisms through which “reconstructed” PSSNs affect sanitation outcomes have been a black box. This explorative cross-sectional study examines direct and indirect links between PSSNs and sanitation safety using data from structured interviews and observations in 368 households in rural South Ethiopia. In addition to a positive association between PSSNs and sanitation safety, we propose and examine the following two mechanisms: First, we confirm a potentially adverse feedback of PSSNs on future sanitation safety by enhancing the emotional satisfaction with current sanitation practice (satisfaction independent of the functionality of sanitation facilities). Second, inspired by the social amplification/attenuation of risk framework, we demonstrate that PSSNs work as a “social filter” that can amplify or attenuate the effects of other variables targeted in sanitation interventions such as perceived health-related and non-health risks and benefits associated with open defecation and private latrine ownership, respectively, and factual hygiene and sanitation knowledge. These findings imply that PSSNs are not only important per se, but they are also important instrumentally because sanitation outcomes depend upon the capacity of social influences to shape the perception of sanitation risks and benefits and sanitation-related awareness in desirable ways. The mechanisms outlined in this paper as well as the sustainability of sanitation outcomes depend on whether and how social sanitation norms are internalized.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070794
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 795: Individual and Interactive Effects of
           Socio-Ecological Factors on Dengue Fever at Fine Spatial Scale: A
           Geographical Detector-Based Analysis

    • Authors: Zheng Cao, Tao Liu, Xing Li, Jin Wang, Hualiang Lin, Lingling Chen, Zhifeng Wu, Wenjun Ma
      First page: 795
      Abstract: Background: Large spatial heterogeneity was observed in the dengue fever outbreak in Guangzhou in 2014, however, the underlying reasons remain unknown. We examined whether socio-ecological factors affected the spatial distribution and their interactive effects. Methods: Moran’s I was applied to first examine the spatial cluster of dengue fever in Guangzhou. Nine socio-ecological factors were chosen to represent the urbanization level, economy, accessibility, environment, and the weather of the 167 townships/streets in Guangzhou, and then the geographical detector was applied to analyze the individual and interactive effects of these factors on the dengue outbreak. Results: Four clusters of dengue fever were identified in Guangzhou in 2014, including one hot spot in the central area of Guangzhou and three cold spots in the suburban districts. For individual effects, the temperature (q = 0.33) was the dominant factor of dengue fever, followed by precipitation (q = 0.24), road density (q = 0.24), and water body area (q = 0.23). For the interactive effects, the combination of high precipitation, high temperature, and high road density might result in increased dengue fever incidence. Moreover, urban villages might be the dengue fever hot spots. Conclusions: Our study suggests that some socio-ecological factors might either separately or jointly influence the spatial distribution of dengue fever in Guangzhou.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070795
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 796: Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure during
           Pregnancy and Child Neurodevelopment

    • Authors: Kinga Polanska, Anna Krol, Dorota Merecz-Kot, Danuta Ligocka, Karolina Mikolajewska, Fiorino Mirabella, Flavia Chiarotti, Gemma Calamandrei, Wojciech Hanke
      First page: 796
      Abstract: The developing fetus is especially vulnerable to environmental toxicants, including tobacco constituents. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during pregnancy on child neurodevelopment within the first two years of life. The study population consisted of 461 non-smoking pregnant women (saliva cotinine level <10 ng/mL). Maternal passive smoking was assessed based on the cotinine level in saliva analyzed by the use of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI + MS/MS) and by questionnaire data. The cotinine cut-off value for passive smoking was established at 1.5 ng/mL (sensitivity 63%, specificity 71%). Psychomotor development was assessed in children at the age of one- and two-years using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. Approximately 30% of the women were exposed to ETS during pregnancy. The multivariate linear regression model indicated that ETS exposure in the 1st and the 2nd trimesters of pregnancy were associated with decreasing child language functions at the age of one (β = −3.0, p = 0.03, and β = −4.1, p = 0.008, respectively), and two years (β = −3.8, p = 0.05, and β = −6.3, p = 0.005, respectively). A negative association was found for cotinine level ≥1.5 ng/mL in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy and child cognition at the age of 2 (β = −4.6, p = 0.05), as well as cotinine levels ≥1.5 ng/mL in all trimesters of pregnancy and child motor abilities at two years of age (β = −3.9, p = 0.06, β = −5.3, p = 0.02, and β = −4.2, p = 0.05, for the 1st, the 2nd, and the 3rd trimester of pregnancy, respectively; for the 1st trimester the effect was of borderline statistical significance). This study confirmed that ETS exposure during pregnancy can have a negative impact on child psychomotor development within the first two years of life and underscore the importance of public health interventions aiming at reducing this exposure.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070796
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 797: Physical Outdoor Activity versus Indoor
           Activity: Their Influence on Environmental Behaviors

    • Authors: Wei-Ta Fang, Eric Ng, Mei-Chuan Chang
      First page: 797
      Abstract: There are strong evidences linking physical outdoor activity and health benefits; however, little is known about the impact on environmental behaviors. Thus, this study aims to close this gap by investigating the influence of physical outdoor activity on environmental behaviors. A total of 416 surveys were distributed to students in eight public primary schools located near the Hsinchu Science and Industrial Park in Taiwan. Findings from the analysis revealed that subjective norms had a more influential effect on environmental behaviors for participants who engaged in physical activity at outdoor parks. In contrast, descriptive norms had a direct predictive impact on environmental behaviors for participants whose main physical activity venue was at the indoor after-school centers. Research results also highlighted attitude as the strongest predictive variable influence on environmental behaviors for children who engaged in physical indoor and outdoor activities.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070797
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 798: Online Vape Shop Customers Who Use
           E-Cigarettes Report Abstinence from Smoking and Improved Quality of Life,
           But a Substantial Minority Still Have Vaping-Related Health Concerns

    • Authors: Dinska Van Gucht, Karolien Adriaens, Frank Baeyens
      First page: 798
      Abstract: (1) Background: Characteristics and usage patterns of vapers (e-cigarette users) have mainly been studied in web-based convenience samples or in visitors of brick-and-mortar vape shops. We extended this by targeting customers of one particular online vape shop in the Netherlands; (2) Methods: Customers were questioned on their smoking history, current smoking and vaping status, reasons for vaping, perceived harmfulness, and potential health changes due to vaping; (3) Results: Almost everyone (99%, 95% CI 0.96, 1.00) smoked before they started vaping. A great majority agreed that unlike with other smoking-cessation aids, they could quit smoking (81%, 95% CI 0.79, 0.90) due to vaping. Almost all customers were regular vapers (93.6%, 95% CI 0.89, 0.96) who used state-of-the-art open system devices without modifications and e-liquid with 10 mg/mL nicotine on average. Vapers reported using e-cigs to quit smoking, because e-cigs are healthier, and for financial reasons. The majority (52.6%, 95% CI 0.46, 0.60) perceived vaping as not that harmful to not harmful at all, but one fifth (21.8%, 95% CI 0.16, 0.28) believed vaping to be harmful. More than half (57.8%, 95% CI 0.50, 0.65) reported gaining more pleasure from vaping than from smoking. A substantial majority (84.2%, 95% CI 0.78, 0.89) agreed that their health had improved since they started vaping; (4) Conclusions: Findings are similar to those obtained in other vape shop studies, but also to the results of convenience samples of less-well-defined populations.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070798
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 799: Tobacco Harm Reduction with Vaporised Nicotine
           (THRiVe): The Study Protocol of an Uncontrolled Feasibility Study of Novel
           Nicotine Replacement Products among People Living with HIV Who Smoke

    • Authors: Stephanie Bell, Judith Dean, Charles Gilks, Mark Boyd, Lisa Fitzgerald, Allyson Mutch, Peter Baker, Graham Neilsen, Coral Gartner
      First page: 799
      Abstract: Smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and premature mortality among people living with HIV (PLHIV), who have high rates of tobacco smoking. Vaporised nicotine products (VNPs) are growing in popularity as a quit aid and harm reduction tool. However, little is known about their acceptability and use among PLHIV. Using a pragmatic, uncontrolled, mixed methods design this exploratory clinical trial aims to examine the feasibility of conducting a powered randomised clinical trial of VNPs as a smoking cessation and harm reduction intervention among vulnerable populations, such as PLHIV who smoke tobacco. Convenience sampling and snowball methods will be used to recruit participants (N = 30) who will receive two VNPs and up to 12 weeks’ supply of nicotine e-liquid to use in a quit attempt. Surveys will be completed at weeks 0 (baseline), 4, 8, 12 (end of treatment) and 24 (end of the study) and qualitative interviews at weeks 0 and 12. As far as we are aware, this feasibility study is the first to trial VNPs among PLHIV for smoking cessation. If feasible and effective, this intervention could offer a new approach to reducing the high burden of tobacco-related disease among PLHIV and other vulnerable populations.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070799
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 800: Management Effectiveness of a Secondary
           Coniferous Forest for Landscape Appreciation and Psychological Restoration

    • Authors: Norimasa Takayama, Akio Fujiwara, Haruo Saito, Masahiro Horiuchi
      First page: 800
      Abstract: We investigated the influence of forest management on landscape appreciation and psychological restoration in on-site settings by exposing respondents to an unmanaged, dense coniferous (crowding) forest and a managed (thinned) coniferous forest; we set the two experimental settings in the forests of the Fuji Iyashinomoroi Woodland Study Center. The respondents were individually exposed to both settings while sitting for 15 min and were required to answer three questionnaires to analyze the psychological restorative effects before and after the experiment (feeling (the Profile of Mood States), affect (the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), and subjective restorativeness (the Restorative Outcome Scale). To compare landscape appreciation, they were required to answer another two questionnaires only after the experiment, for scene appreciation (the semantic differential scale) and for the restorative properties of each environment (the Perceived Restorativeness Scale). Finally, we obtained these findings: (1) the respondents evaluated each forest environment highly differently and evaluated the thinned forest setting more positively; (2) the respondents’ impressions of the two physical environments did not appear to be accurately reflected in their evaluations; (3) forest environments have potential restorative effects whether or not they are managed, but these effects can be partially enhanced by managing the forests.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070800
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 801: Physiological Effects of Touching Wood

    • Authors: Harumi Ikei, Chorong Song, Yoshifumi Miyazaki
      First page: 801
      Abstract: This study aimed to clarify the physiological effects of touching wood with the palm, in comparison with touching other materials on brain activity and autonomic nervous activity. Eighteen female university students (mean age, 21.7  ±  1.6 years) participated in the study. As an indicator of brain activity, oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentrations were measured in the left/right prefrontal cortex using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy. Heart rate variability (HRV) was used as an indicator of autonomic nervous activity. The high-frequency (HF) component of HRV, which reflected parasympathetic nervous activity, and the low-frequency (LF)/HF ratio, which reflected sympathetic nervous activity, were measured. Plates of uncoated white oak, marble, tile, and stainless steel were used as tactile stimuli. After sitting at rest with their eyes closed, participants touched the materials for 90 s. As a result, tactile stimulation with white oak significantly (1) decreased the oxy-Hb concentration in the left/right prefrontal cortex relative to marble, tile, and stainless steel and (2) increased ln(HF)-reflected parasympathetic nervous activity relative to marble and stainless steel. In conclusion, our study revealed that touching wood with the palm calms prefrontal cortex activity and induces parasympathetic nervous activity more than other materials, thereby inducing physiological relaxation.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070801
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 802: Socioeconomic Differences in and Predictors of
           Home-Based Palliative Care Health Service Use in Ontario, Canada

    • Authors: Jiaoli Cai, Denise N. Guerriere, Hongzhong Zhao, Peter C. Coyte
      First page: 802
      Abstract: The use of health services may vary across people with different socioeconomic statuses, and may be determined by many factors. The purposes of this study were (i) to examine the socioeconomic differences in the propensity and intensity of use for three main home-based health services, that is, home-based palliative care physician visits, nurse visits and personal support worker (PSW) hours; and (ii) to explore the determinants of the use of home-based palliative care services. A prospective cohort study was employed. A total of 181 caregivers were interviewed biweekly over the course of the palliative care trajectory, yielding a total of 994 interviews. The propensity and intensity of health service use were examined using logistic regression and negative binomial regression, respectively. The results demonstrated that both the propensity and intensity of home-based nurse and PSW visits fell with socioeconomic status. The use of home-based palliative care services was not concentrated in high socioeconomic status groups. The common predictors of health service use in the three service categories were patient age, the Palliative Performance Scale (PPS) score and place of death. These findings may assist health service planners in the appropriate allocation of resources and service packages to meet the complex needs of palliative care populations.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070802
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 803: As(V) Sorption/Desorption on Different Waste
           Materials and Soil Samples

    • Authors: Ana Quintáns-Fondo, David Fernández-Calviño, Juan Nóvoa-Muñoz, Manuel Arias-Estévez, María Fernández-Sanjurjo, Esperanza Álvarez-Rodríguez, Avelino Núñez-Delgado
      First page: 803
      Abstract: Aiming to investigate the efficacy of different materials as bio-sorbents for the purification of As-polluted waters, batch-type experiments were employed to study As(V) sorption and desorption on oak ash, pine bark, hemp waste, mussel shell, pyritic material, and soil samples, as a function of the As(V) concentration added. Pyritic material and oak ash showed high sorption (90% and >87%) and low desorption (<2% and <7%). Alternatively, hemp waste showed low retention (16% sorption and 100% desorption of the amount previously sorbed), fine shell and pine bark sorbed <3% and desorbed 100%, the vineyard soil sample sorbed 8% and released 85%, and the forest soil sample sorbed 32% and desorbed 38%. Sorption data fitted well to the Langmuir and Freundlich models in the case of both soil samples and the pyritic material, but only to the Freundlich equation in the case of the various by-products. These results indicate that the pyritic material and oak ash can be considered efficient As(V) sorbents (thus, useful in remediation of contaminated sites and removal of that pollutant), even when As(V) concentrations up to 6 mmol L−1 are added, while the other materials that were tested cannot retain or remove As(V) from polluted media.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070803
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 804: Evaluating Otto the Auto: Does Engagement in
           an Interactive Website Improve Young Children’s Transportation

    • Authors: David Schwebel, Anna Johnston, Jiabin Shen, Peng Li
      First page: 804
      Abstract: Transportation-related injuries are a leading cause of pediatric death, and effective interventions are limited. Otto the Auto is a website offering engaging, interactive activities. We evaluated Otto among a sample of sixty-nine 4- and 5-year-old children, who participated in a randomized parallel group design study. Following baseline evaluation, children engaged with either Otto or a control website for 2 weeks and then were re-evaluated. Children who used Otto failed to show increases in transportation safety knowledge or behavior compared to the control group, although there was a dosage effect whereby children who engaged in the website more with parents gained safer behavior patterns. We conclude Otto may have some efficacy when engaged by children with their parents, but continued efforts to develop and refine engaging, effective, theory-driven strategies to teach children transportation safety, including via internet, should be pursued.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070804
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 805: Comparison of Annoyance from Railway Noise and
           Railway Vibration

    • Authors: Mikael Ögren, Anita Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, Michael Smith, Sara Gustavsson, Kerstin Persson Waye
      First page: 805
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to compare vibration exposure to noise exposure from railway traffic in terms of equal annoyance, i.e., to determine when a certain noise level is equally annoying as a corresponding vibration velocity. Based on questionnaire data from the Train Vibration and Noise Effects (TVANE) research project from residential areas exposed to railway noise and vibration, the dose response relationship for annoyance was estimated. By comparing the relationships between exposure and annoyance for areas both with and without significant vibration exposure, the noise levels and vibration velocities that had an equal probability of causing annoyance was determined using logistic regression. The comparison gives a continuous mapping between vibration velocity in the ground and a corresponding noise level at the facade that are equally annoying. For equivalent noise level at the facade compared to maximum weighted vibration velocity in the ground the probability of annoyance is approximately 20% for 59 dB or 0.48 mm/s, and about 40% for 63 dB or 0.98 mm/s.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070805
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 806: Evaluation of Fitness and the Balance Levels
           of Children with a Diagnosis of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: A Pilot

    • Authors: Antonino Patti, Maria Maggio, Giovanni Corsello, Giuseppe Messina, Angelo Iovane, Antonio Palma
      First page: 806
      Abstract: Background: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a main cause of physical disability and has high economic costs for society. The purpose of this study was to assess the fitness levels and the postural and balance deficits with a specific test battery. Methods: Fifty-six subjects were enrolled in this study. Thirty-nine healthy subjects were included in the control group and seventeen in the juvenile idiopathic arthritis group. All subjects were evaluated using a posturography system. The fitness level was evaluated with a battery of tests (Abalakov test, sit-up test, hand grip test, backsaver sit and reach, the toe touch test). An unpaired t-test was used to determine differences. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between the tests. Results: The battery of tests demonstrated that subjects in the juvenile idiopathic arthritis group have lower fitness levels compared to the control group. The juvenile idiopathic arthritis group showed low postural control with respect to the control group. Pearson analysis of the juvenile idiopathic arthritis group data showed significant correlations between variables. Pearson’s results from the control group data showed a similar trend. Conclusions: The results suggest that the battery of tests used could be an appropriate tool. However, we highlight that these conclusions need to be supported by other studies with a larger population scale.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070806
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 807: Using Iron-Manganese Co-Oxide Filter Film to
           Remove Ammonium from Surface Water

    • Authors: Ruifeng Zhang, Tinglin Huang, Gang Wen, Yongpan Chen, Xin Cao, Beibei Zhang
      First page: 807
      Abstract: An iron-manganese co-oxide filter film (MeOx) has been proven to be a good catalyst for the chemical catalytic oxidation of ammonium in groundwater. Compared with groundwater, surface water is generally used more widely and has characteristics that make ammonium removal more difficult. In this study, MeOx was used to remove ammonium from surface water. It indicated that the average ammonium removal efficiency of MeOx was greater than 90%, even though the water quality changed dramatically and the water temperature was reduced to about 6–8 °C. Then, through inactivating microorganisms, it showed that the removal capability of MeOx included both biological (accounted for about 41.05%) and chemical catalytic oxidation and chemical catalytic oxidation (accounted for about 58.95%). The investigation of the characterizations suggested that MeOx was formed by abiotic ways and the main elements on the surface of MeOx were distributed homogenously. The analysis of the catalytic oxidation process indicated that ammonia nitrogen may interact with MeOx as both ammonia molecules and ammonium ions and the active species of O2 were possibly •O and O2−.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070807
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 808: Coping with Fear of and Exposure to Terrorism
           among Expatriates

    • Authors: Nicholas Beutell, Marianne O’Hare, Joy Schneer, Jeffrey Alstete
      First page: 808
      Abstract: This paper examines existing research on the impact of terrorism on expatriate coping strategies. We consider pre-assignment fear of terrorism, in-country coping strategies, and anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with repatriation. The extant research is small but growing. Our model for expatriate coping at the pre-departure, in-country, and repatriation stages includes strategies specific to each stage. Preparation using proactive coping, systematic desensitization, problem and emotion focused coping, social support, and virtual reality explorations are recommended. Selecting expatriate candidates who are well-adjusted, emotionally intelligent, and possessing good coping skills is essential for successful assignments in terror-prone regions.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070808
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 809: Developing and Validating an Age-Independent
           Equation Using Multi-Frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis for
           Estimation of Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass and Establishing a Cutoff
           for Sarcopenia

    • Authors: Yosuke Yamada, Miyuki Nishizawa, Tomoka Uchiyama, Yasuhiro Kasahara, Mikio Shindo, Motohiko Miyachi, Shigeho Tanaka
      First page: 809
      Abstract: Background: Appendicular skeletal muscle (or lean) mass (ALM) estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is considered to be a preferred method for sarcopenia studies. However, DXA is expensive, has limited portability, and requires radiation exposure. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is inexpensive, easy to use, and portable; thus BIA might be useful in sarcopenia investigations. However, a large variety of models have been commercially supplied by different companies, and for most consumer products, the equations estimating ALM are not disclosed. It is therefore difficult to use these equations for research purposes. In particular, the BIA equation is often age-dependent, which leads to fundamental difficulty in examining age-related ALM loss. The aims of the current study were as follows: (1) to develop and validate an equation to estimate ALM using multi-frequency BIA (MF-BIA) based on theoretical models, and (2) to establish sarcopenia cutoff values using the equation for the Japanese population. Methods: We measured height (Ht), weight, and ALM obtained using DXA and a standing-posture 8-electrode MF-BIA (5, 50, 250 kHz) in 756 Japanese individuals aged 18 to 86-years-old (222 men and 301 women as developing equation group and 97 men and 136 women as a cross validation group). The traditional impedance index (Ht2/Z50) and impedance ratio of high and low frequency (Z250/Z5) of hand to foot values were calculated. Multiple regression analyses were conducted with ALM as dependent variable in men and women separately. Results: We created the following equations: ALM = (0.6947 × (Ht2/Z50)) + (−55.24 × (Z250/Z5)) + (−10,940 × (1/Z50)) + 51.33 for men, and ALM = (0.6144 × (Ht2/Z50)) + (−36.61 × (Z250/Z5)) + (−9332 × (1/Z50)) + 37.91 for women. Additionally, we conducted measurements in 1624 men and 1368 women aged 18 to 40 years to establish sarcopenia cutoff values in the Japanese population. The mean values minus 2 standard deviations of the skeletal muscle mass index (ALM/Ht2) in these participants were 6.8 and 5.7 kg/m2 in men and women, respectively. Conclusion: The current study established and validated a theoretical and age-independent equation using MF-BIA to estimate ALM and provided reasonable sarcopenia cutoff values.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070809
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 810: The Limpopo Non-Metropolitan Drinking Water
           Supplier Response to a Diagnostic Tool for Technical Compliance

    • Authors: Avhashoni Nefale, Ilunga Kamika, Chikwelu Obi, Maggy Momba
      First page: 810
      Abstract: Water services providers should supply water that is fit for human consumption, taking into account multi-barrier approaches and technical aspects such as design aspects, operation monitoring, final water quality compliance monitoring, plant monitoring practices, maintenance, and risk management practices. Against this background, this study focused on applying the diagnostic tool for technical compliance as well as assessing the compliance of water treatment plants with management norms. Six plants in the Vhembe District Municipality were selected; the Vondo, Malamulele, Mutshedzi, and Mutale plants (conventional), and the Dzingahe and Tshedza package plants. During the first assessment, four (Malamulele, Mutshedzi, Mutale and Dzingahe) plants scored between 44% and 49% and achieved Class 3 certification, revealing serious challenges requiring immediate intervention. Two water plants (Vondo and Tshedza, scoring 53% and 63%, respectively) were in the Class 2 category, revealing serious challenges requiring attention and improvement. During the second assessment, all plants scored between 63% and 87% (Class 2 category). The greatest improvement (30%) was noted for the Dzingahe and Tshedza plants, followed by the Malamulele plant, while the Mutale, Vondo, and Mutshedzi plants improved their scores by 20%, 17% and 14%, respectively. After corrective actions and re-measurement, no plant complied. It is recommended that Water Services Providers (WSPs) regularly apply the diagnostic tools and water safety plans as developed in order to comply with applicable standards.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070810
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 811: Association between Visual Impairment and Low
           Vision and Sleep Duration and Quality among Older Adults in South Africa

    • Authors: Karl Peltzer, Nancy Phaswana-Mafuya
      First page: 811
      Abstract: This study aims to estimate the association between visual impairment and low vision and sleep duration and poor sleep quality in a national sample of older adults in South Africa. A national population-based cross-sectional Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE) wave 1 was conducted in 2008 with a sample of 3840 individuals aged 50 years or older in South Africa. The interviewer-administered questionnaire assessed socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, sleep duration, quality, visual impairment, and vision. Results indicate that 10.0% of the sample reported short sleep duration (≤5 h), 46.6% long sleep (≥9 h), 9.3% poor sleep quality, 8.4% self-reported and visual impairment (near and/or far vision); and 43.2% measured low vision (near and/or far vision) (0.01–0.25 decimal) and 7.5% low vision (0.01–0.125 decimal). In fully adjusted logistic regression models, self-reported visual impairment was associated with short sleep duration and poor sleep quality, separately and together. Low vision was only associated with long sleep duration and poor sleep quality in unadjusted models. Self-reported visual impairment was related to both short sleep duration and poor sleep quality. Population data on sleep patterns may want to include visual impairment measures.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070811
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 812: Spatio-Temporal Variation of Longevity
           Clusters and the Influence of Social Development Level on Lifespan in a
           Chinese Longevous Area (1982–2010)

    • Authors: Jian Qin, Guoqi Yu, Tianlong Xia, You Li, Xue Liang, Peng Wei, Bingshuang Long, Mingzhi Lei, Xiao Wei, Xianyan Tang, Zhiyong Zhang
      First page: 812
      Abstract: The study aims to determine the spatial and temporal variation of a longevous region and explore the correlation between longevity and socioeconomic development. Population data at the township level were obtained from the last four population censuses (1982–2010). Five main lifespan indicators and the Human Development Index (HDI) were calculated. Getis-Ord G*, Gravity modeling, and Pearson’s r between lifespan indicators and HDI were applied. In this study, a stable longevous gathering area was discovered in Hechi during different periods. Under the influence of social and economic development, more longevous areas appeared. However, the effects of genetic and natural environmental factors on longevity were always dominant in this remote and mountainous city. Furthermore, longevity indicators lacked any significant correlation with life expectancy. No significant positive correlation was detected between lifespan indicators and HDI. Thus, we conclude that lifespan indicators can determine the spatial distribution and variation pattern of longevity from multiple dimensions. The geographical scope of longevity in Hechi City is gradually expanding, and significant spatial clustering was detected in southwestern, southern, and eastern parts of Hechi. This study also found that social economic development is likely to have a certain impact on new longevous areas, but their role on extreme longevity is not significant.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070812
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 813: Antimicrobial Properties of Selected Copper
           Alloys on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in Different
           Simulations of Environmental Conditions: With vs. without Organic

    • Authors: Anna Różańska, Agnieszka Chmielarczyk, Dorota Romaniszyn, Agnieszka Sroka-Oleksiak, Małgorzata Bulanda, Monika Walkowicz, Piotr Osuch, Tadeusz Knych
      First page: 813
      Abstract: Background: Hospital equipment made from copper alloys can play an important role in complementing traditional methods of disinfection. Aims of the study: The aim of this study was to assess the dynamics of the antimicrobial properties of selected copper alloys in different simulations of environmental conditions (with organic contamination vs. without organic contamination), and to test alternatives to the currently used testing methods. Materials and Methods: A modification of Japanese standard JIS Z 2801 as well as Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Escherichia coli (EC) suspended in NaCl vs. tryptic soy broth (TSB) were used in tests performed on seven commonly used copper alloys, copper, and stainless steel. Results: A much faster reduction of the bacterial suspension was observed for the inoculum prepared in NaCl than in TSB. A faster reduction for EC than for SA was observed in the inoculum prepared in NaCl. The opposite results were found for the inoculum based on TSB. A significant correlation between the copper concentration in the copper alloys and the time and degree of bacterial suspension reduction was only observed in the case of EC. Conclusions: This study confirmed the antimicrobial properties of copper alloys, and additionally showed that Staphylococcus aureus was more resistant than Escherichia coli in the variant of the experiment without organic contamination. However, even for SA, a total reduction of the bacterial inoculum’s density took no longer than 2 h. Under conditions simulating organic contamination, all of the tested alloys were shown to have bactericidal or bacteriostatic properties, which was contrary to the results from stainless steel.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070813
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 814: Health Impacts of Climate Change-Induced
           Subzero Temperature Fires

    • Authors: Maria-Monika Metallinou, Torgrim Log
      First page: 814
      Abstract: General fire risk and the special risk related to cold climate cellulosic drying processes are outlined. Four recent subzero temperatures fires are studied with respect to health impacts: a wooden village fire, a single wood structure fire, a wildland urban interface (WUI) fire and a huge wildland fire. The health impacts range from stress related to loss of jobs, psychological effects of lost possessions, exposure to smoke and heat as well as immediate, or delayed, loss of lives. These four fires resulted in 32 fatalities, 385 persons hospitalized for shorter or longer periods, 104 structures lost and 1015 km2 of wildland burned north of, and just south of, the Arctic Circle. It is shown that the combination of subzero temperature dry weather, strong winds, changing agricultural activities and declining snowpack may lead to previously anticipated threats to people and the environment. There are reasons to believe that these fires are a result of the ongoing climate changes. Risk impacts are discussed. Rural districts and/or vulnerable populations seem to be most affected. Training methods to identify and better monitor critical fire risk parameters are suggested to mitigate the health impacts of a possibly increasing number of such fires.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070814
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 815: Comparison of the Results of Studies of Air
           Pollution Fungi Using the SAS Super 100, MAS 100, and Air IDEAL

    • Authors: Cecylia Łukaszuk, Elżbieta Krajewska-Kułak, Andrzej Guzowski, Wojciech Kułak, Bogumiła Kraszyńska
      First page: 815
      Abstract: Although several air sampling devices for identifying and enumerating airborne microorganisms are commercially available, each poses some limitations. The aim of this study was to evaluate air pollution fungi using three such samplers: SAS Super 100, Microbiological Air Sampler (MAS) 100, and Air IDEAL. Mycological air was taken from the cellars of a 17th-century church in Siemiatycze, Poland, and the nearby outdoor environment. With samplers placed 1.5 m above the floor, microbial flora in air samples collected inside and outside the cellar were detected. The number of colony-forming units (CFU) of fungi obtained with the three samplers from the cellars and outdoor environment differed; the most CFU were obtained with the Air IDEAL and the least with the SAS Super 100. Significant differences emerged in CFUs collected from air samples with the MAS 100 and SAS Super 100, on the one hand, and the SAS Super 100 and Air IDEAL, on the other. Otherwise, results among the samplers were different. More Cladosporium species were collected with the MAS 100 sampler, whereas more Fusarium and Aspergillus species were collected with the Air IDEAL sampler. Significant differences among CFU/m3 values among the tested sites depended on the sampler used.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070815
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 816: Effect of Air Pollution on Menstrual Cycle
           Length—A Prognostic Factor of Women’s Reproductive Health

    • Authors: Anna Merklinger-Gruchala, Grazyna Jasienska, Maria Kapiszewska
      First page: 816
      Abstract: Air pollution can influence women’s reproductive health, specifically menstrual cycle characteristics, oocyte quality, and risk of miscarriage. The aim of the study was to assess whether air pollution can affect the length of the overall menstrual cycle and the length of its phases (follicular and luteal). Municipal ecological monitoring data was used to assess the air pollution exposure during the monitored menstrual cycle of each of 133 woman of reproductive age. Principal component analyses were used to group pollutants (PM10, SO2, CO, and NOx) to represent a source-related mixture. PM10 and SO2 assessed separately negatively affected the length of the luteal phase after standardization (b = −0.02; p = 0.03; b = −0.06; p = 0.02, respectively). Representing a fossil fuel combustion emission, they were also associated with luteal phase shortening (b = −0.32; p = 0.02). These pollutants did not affect the follicular phase length and overall cycle length, neither in single- nor in multi-pollutant models. CO and NOx assessed either separately or together as a traffic emission were not associated with overall cycle length or the length of cycle phases. Luteal phase shortening, a possible manifestation of luteal phase deficiency, can result from fossil fuel combustion. This suggests that air pollution may contribute to fertility problems in women.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070816
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 817: Sleep Duration and Quality in Pregnant Women:
           A Cross-Sectional Survey in China

    • Authors: Xianglong Xu, Dengyuan Liu, Zhangyi Zhang, Manoj Sharma, Yong Zhao
      First page: 817
      Abstract: Objectives: Good maternal health and fetal development require sufficient and good quality of sleep during pregnancy. This study investigated sleep duration and quality in pregnant women, assessing factors with possibly influence on sleep. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on pregnant women between June and August in 2015 in 16 hospitals in five provinces in China. A total of 2345 pregnant women aged 18 years and older were surveyed. Insufficient sleeping duration was defined as sleeping of less than 7 h per day. Excessive sleep duration was defined as sleeping of more than 9 h per day. Results: A total of 561 (23.9%) participants reported insufficient sleeping duration, whereas 485 (20.9%) claimed excessive sleep duration. A total of 358 (15.2%) of pregnant women reported problems regarding sleep quality. Compared to pregnant women with sufficient sleeping duration, those with insufficient sleeping duration were prone to have poor sleep quality, whereas those with excessive sleeping duration featured low possibility of poor sleep quality. High-risk groups of insufficient sleep duration include women of Han nationality, with siblings, in their first trimester of pregnancy, receiving care in low-capacity/quality hospital settings, and with daily or 1–3 days of secondhand smoke exposure. High-risk groups of excessive sleep duration include women living in rural areas, unemployed, in their third trimester of pregnancy, and receiving care in medium-capacity/quality hospital settings. High-risk groups of poor sleep quality include women of non-Han nationality, low income level, in their third trimester of pregnancy, and with insufficient sleep duration. Conclusions: Insufficient/excessive sleep duration and poor sleep quality commonly occur during pregnancy in China. Findings provide a better understanding of the influencing factors of insufficient/excessive sleep duration and poor quality of sleep. These findings have some implications for future interventions on sleep among pregnant women.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070817
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 818: Land Use and Land Cover Change in the Qinghai
           Lake Region of the Tibetan Plateau and Its Impact on Ecosystem Services

    • Authors: Jian Gong, Jingye Li, Jianxin Yang, Shicheng Li, Wenwu Tang
      First page: 818
      Abstract: Exploration of land use and land cover change (LULCC) and its impacts on ecosystem services in Tibetan plateau is valuable for landscape and environmental conservation. In this study, we conduct spatial analysis on empirical land use and land cover data in the Qinghai Lake region for 1990, 2000, and 2010 and simulate land cover patterns for 2020. We then evaluate the impacts of LULCC on ecosystem service value (ESV), and analyze the sensitivity of ESV to LULCC to identify the ecologically sensitive area. Our results indicate that, from 1990 to 2010, the area of forest and grassland increased while the area of unused land decreased. Simulation results suggest that the area of grassland and forest will continue to increase and the area of cropland and unused land will decrease for 2010–2020. The ESV in the study area increased from 694.50 billion Yuan in 1990 to 714.28 billion Yuan in 2000, and to 696.72 billion Yuan in 2020. Hydrology regulation and waste treatment are the top two ecosystem services in this region. The towns surrounding the Qinghai Lake have high ESVs, especially in the north of the Qinghai Lake. The towns with high ESV sensitivity to LULCC are located in the northwest, while the towns in the north of the Qinghai Lake experienced substantial increase in sensitivity index from 2000–2010 to 2010–2020, especially for three regulation services and aesthetic landscape provision services.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070818
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 819: Electrochemical Oxidation of EDTA in Nuclear
           Wastewater Using Platinum Supported on Activated Carbon Fibers

    • Authors: Bo Zhao, Wenkun Zhu, Tao Mu, Zuowen Hu, Tao Duan
      First page: 819
      Abstract: A novel Pt/ACF (Pt supported on activated carbon fibers) electrode was successfully prepared with impregnation and electrodeposition method. Characterization of the electrodes indicated that the Pt/ACF electrode had a larger effective area and more active sites. Electrochemical degradation of ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) in aqueous solution with Pt/ACF electrodes was investigated. The results showed that the 3% Pt/ACF electrode had a better effect on EDTA removal. The operational parameters influencing the electrochemical degradation of EDTA with 3% Pt/ACF electrode were optimized and the optimal removal of EDTA and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were 94% and 60% after 100 min on condition of the electrolyte concentration, initial concentration of EDTA, current density and initial value of pH were 0.1 mol/L, 300 mg/L, 40 mA/cm2 and 5.0, respectively. The degradation intermediates of EDTA in electrochemical oxidation with 3% Pt/ACF electrode were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS).
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070819
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 820: Development and Validation of a Behavioural
           Index for Adaptation to High Summer Temperatures among Urban Dwellers

    • Authors: Pierre Valois, Denis Talbot, Maxime Caron, Marie-Pier Carrier, Alexandre Morin, Jean-Sébastien Renaud, Johann Jacob, Pierre Gosselin
      First page: 820
      Abstract: One of the consequences of climate change is the growing number of extreme weather events, including heat waves, which have substantial impacts on the health of populations. From a public health standpoint, it is vital to ensure that people can adapt to high heat, particularly in cities where heat islands abound. Identifying indicators to include in a parsimonious index would help better differentiate individuals who adapt well to heat from those who do not adapt as well. This study aimed at developing and validating a summer heat adaptation index for residents of the 10 largest cities in the province of Québec, Canada. A sample of 2000 adults in 2015 and 1030 adults in 2016 completed a telephone questionnaire addressing their adoption (or non-adoption) of behaviours recommended by public health agencies to protect themselves during periods of high temperature, and their perceptions of how high summer heat affects their mental and physical health. Item analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, multiple correspondence analysis, measurement invariance analyses and criterion-validity analyses were used to develop a 12-behaviour heat adaptation index for distinguishing between individuals who adapt well to high temperatures and those who do not adapt as well. The results indicated that the measurement and the factor structure of the index were invariant (equivalent) across the two independent samples of participants who completed the questionnaire at different times one year apart, an important prerequisite for unambiguous interpretation of index scores across groups and over time. The results also showed that individuals who perceived more adverse effects on their physical or mental health adopted more preventive behaviours during periods of high temperatures and humidity conditions compared to those who felt lesser or no effects. This study thus presents support for the validity of the index that could be used in future studies to monitor preventive behaviours adoption during summer periods of high temperature.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070820
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 821: Patterns Associated with Adult Mandibular
           Fractures in Southern Taiwan—A Cross-Sectional Retrospective Study

    • Authors: Ko-Chien Lin, Shu-Hui Peng, Pao-Jen Kuo, Yi-Chun Chen, Cheng-Shyuan Rau, Ching-Hua Hsieh
      First page: 821
      Abstract: Purpose: This study aimed to determine the patterns associated with adult mandibular fractures from a Level-I trauma center in southern Taiwan. Methods: The data of adult trauma patients admitted between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2014 were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System and retrospectively reviewed. Fracture site and cause of injury were categorized into groups for comparison, and corresponding odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained by multivariate logistic regression. Results: Motorcycle accidents were the most common cause of mandibular fractures (76.3%), followed by falls (10.9%), motor vehicle accidents (4.8%), and being struck by/against objects (4.5%). Of the 503 cases of mandibular fractures, the condylar neck and head were the most common sites (32.0%), followed by the parasymphysis (21.7%), symphysis (19.5%), angle and ramus (17.5%), and body (9.3%). The location of mandibular fractures in patients who had motorcycle accidents was similar to that in all patients. Motor vehicle accidents resulted in a significantly higher number of body fractures (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.24–8.76, p = 0.017) and struck injury in a significantly higher number of angle and ramus fractures (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.48–10.26, p = 0.006) compared to motorcycle accidents. The helmet-wearing status and body weight were not associated with the location of mandibular fractures in motorcycle accidents. Conclusions: Our study revealed that the anatomic fracture sites of mandible were specifically related to different etiologies. In southern Taiwan, motorcycle accidents accounted for the major cause of mandibular fractures and were associated with the condylar neck and head as the most frequent fracture sites. In contrast, motor vehicle accidents and struck injuries tended to cause more body fracture as well as angle and ramus fracture compared to motorcycle accidents. Furthermore, the status of helmet-wearing and body weight were not associated with the location of mandible fractures caused by motorcycle accidents.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070821
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 822: Dissipation and Residues of Pyrethrins in Leaf
           Lettuce under Greenhouse and Open Field Conditions

    • Authors: Lixiang Pan, Xiaoxiao Feng, Hongyan Zhang
      First page: 822
      Abstract: Pyrethrins are nowadays widely used for prevention and control of insects in leaf lettuce. However, there is a concern about the pesticide residue in leaf lettuce. A reliable analytical method for determination of pyrethrins (pyrethrin—and П, cinerin І and П, and jasmolin І and П) in leaf lettuce was developed by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Recoveries of pyrethrins in leaf lettuce at three spiking levels were 99.4–104.0% with relative standard deviations of 0.9–3.1% (n = 5). Evaluation of dissipation and final residues of pyrethrins in leaf lettuce were determined at six different locations, including the open field, as well as under greenhouse conditions. The initial concentration of pyrethrins in greenhouse (0.57 mg/kg) was higher than in open field (0.25 mg/kg) and the half-life for pyrethrins disappearance in field lettuce (0.7 days) was less than that greenhouse lettuce (1.1 days). Factors such as rainfall, solar radiation, wind speed, and crop growth rate are likely to have caused these results. The final residue in leaf lettuce was far below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) (1 mg/kg established by the European Union (EU), Australia, Korea, Japan).
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070822
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 823: Disposal Situation of Sewage Sludge from
           Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) and Assessment of the
           Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals for Its Land Use in Shanxi, China

    • Authors: Baoling Duan, Wuping Zhang, Haixia Zheng, Chunyan Wu, Qiang Zhang, Yushan Bu
      First page: 823
      Abstract: Land use of sewage sludge is the primary disposal method in Shanxi, accounting for 42.66% of all. To determine the ecological risk of heavy metals in sewage sludge, contents of seven heavy metals in sewage sludge from 9 municipal waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) that had the highest application for land use were determined. The order of the measured concentrations was: Zn > Cr > Cu > Ni > Pb > As > Cd, and all heavy metals contents were within the threshold limit values of the Chinese Control Standards for Pollutants in Sludge from Agriculture Use (GB4284-84). Four indices were used to assess the pollution and the ecological risk of heavy metals. By the mean values of the geoaccumulation index (Igeo), heavy metals were ranked in the following order: Cd > Zn > Cu > As > Cr > Ni > Pb. The values showed that the pollution of Zn in station 3 and Cd in station 1, 2, 3, 4, 8 and 9 were heavily; Cu in station 8 and 9, Zn in station 1, 2, 4, 8 and 9 and Cd in station 5 and 7 were moderately to heavily, and the accumulation of other heavy metals were not significant. The single-factor pollution index (PI) suggested that none of the stations had heavy metals contamination, except for Cu in station 9, Zn in station 3 and 8, and Cd in station 1 and 9, which were at a moderate level. According to the results of the Nemerow’s synthetic pollution index (PN), sewage sludge from all stations was safe for land use with respect to heavy metals contamination, except for stations 3, 8 and 9, which were at the warning line. The monomial potential ecological risk coefficient (Eri) revealed that heavy metals ecological risks in most stations were low. However, station 9 had a moderate risk for Cu; station 6 had a moderate risk, stations 5 and 7 had high risk, other stations had very high risk for Cd. According to the results of the potential ecological risk index (RI), station 1, 8 and 9 had high risk; station 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 had a moderate risk, and station 6 had a low risk. The preliminary results indicated that the potential risk of land exposure to heavy metals in sewage sludge was relatively low, with Zn and Cd as the main contributor to the ecological risk for the applying of sewage sludge on land. Additionally, stations 3, 8 and 9 require more attention regarding the land applications related to heavy metals pollution.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070823
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 824: Illuminating the Psychological Experience of
           Elderly Loneliness from a Societal Perspective: A Qualitative Study of
           Alienation between Older People and Society

    • Authors: Anna Wong, Anson K. C. Chau, Yang Fang, Jean Woo
      First page: 824
      Abstract: Loneliness is a common experience among older people that is associated with health risks and negative well-being. As a psychological phenomenon, it has typically been defined in Western research literature as the discrepancy between desired and actual interpersonal relations. In our qualitative study in Hong Kong, we offer insight into ageing and loneliness in an urban environment of the non-Western world and propose to reconceptualise loneliness by exploring older people’s experience of alienation at the societal level as an important but often neglected dimension of their loneliness. Thirty-seven community-dwelling, Chinese adults aged 65 and above were interviewed in focus groups and their accounts analysed and interpreted using a phenomenological approach. Findings revealed that focus group participants perceived insufficient care for older people, a growing distance between themselves and society, and their disintegrating identity in society to be primary sources of societal alienation. In response, older people adopted a more passive lifestyle, attributed marginalisation and inequality to old age, and developed negative feelings including unease towards ageing, vulnerability and helplessness, and anger. The emergence of these key components and underlying themes of societal alienation illuminated neglected facets of the psychological phenomenon of loneliness and highlighted new implications for policy, practice, and research from a societal perspective to address older people’s loneliness in urban settings.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070824
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 825: Effect of Patulin from Penicillium vulpinum on
           the Activity of Glutathione-S-Transferase and Selected Antioxidative
           Enzymes in Maize

    • Authors: Ahmed Ismaiel, Jutta Papenbrock
      First page: 825
      Abstract: The mycotoxin patulin (PAT) was purified from Penicillium vulpinum CM1 culture that has been isolated from a soil cultivated with maize. The effect of PAT and of a fungal culture filtrate on the activities of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and some antioxidant enzymes viz. ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) was investigated in roots and shoots of 8-day-old maize seedlings. PAT and culture filtrate caused significant reduction effects in a dose-related manner on the total GST activity. Upon application of the high PAT concentration (25 μg·mL−1) and of the concentrated fungal filtrate (100%, v/v), the reduction in GST activity of roots was 73.8–76.0% and of shoots was 60–61.7%. Conversely, significant increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were induced. Application of 25 μg·PAT·mL−1 increased APX, GR, DHAR, and MDHAR activity of root by 2.40-, 2.00-, 1.24-, and 2.16-fold, respectively. In shoots, the enzymatic activity was increased by 1.57-, 1.45-, 1.45-, and 1.61-fold, respectively. Similar induction values of the enzymatic activity were obtained upon application of the concentrated fungal filtrate. This is the first report describing the response of GST and antioxidant enzyme activities of plant cells to PAT toxicity.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070825
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 826: Worldwide Regulations of Standard Values of
           Pesticides for Human Health Risk Control: A Review

    • Authors: Zijian Li, Aaron Jennings
      First page: 826
      Abstract: : The impact of pesticide residues on human health is a worldwide problem, as human exposure to pesticides can occur through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Regulatory jurisdictions have promulgated the standard values for pesticides in residential soil, air, drinking water, and agricultural commodity for years. Until now, more than 19,400 pesticide soil regulatory guidance values (RGVs) and 5400 pesticide drinking water maximum concentration levels (MCLs) have been regulated by 54 and 102 nations, respectively. Over 90 nations have provided pesticide agricultural commodity maximum residue limits (MRLs) for at least one of the 12 most commonly consumed agricultural foods. A total of 22 pesticides have been regulated with more than 100 soil RGVs, and 25 pesticides have more than 100 drinking water MCLs. This research indicates that those RGVs and MCLs for an individual pesticide could vary over seven (DDT drinking water MCLs), eight (Lindane soil RGVs), or even nine (Dieldrin soil RGVs) orders of magnitude. Human health risk uncertainty bounds and the implied total exposure mass burden model were applied to analyze the most commonly regulated and used pesticides for human health risk control. For the top 27 commonly regulated pesticides in soil, there are at least 300 RGVs (8% of the total) that are above all of the computed upper bounds for human health risk uncertainty. For the top 29 most-commonly regulated pesticides in drinking water, at least 172 drinking water MCLs (5% of the total) exceed the computed upper bounds for human health risk uncertainty; while for the 14 most widely used pesticides, there are at least 310 computed implied dose limits (28.0% of the total) that are above the acceptable daily intake values. The results show that some worldwide standard values were not derived conservatively enough to avoid human health risk by the pesticides, and that some values were not computed comprehensively by considering all major human exposure pathways.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070826
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 827: Increased Risk of Drug-Induced Hyponatremia
           during High Temperatures

    • Authors: Anna K Jönsson, Henrik Lövborg, Wolfgang Lohr, Bertil Ekman, Joacim Rocklöv
      First page: 827
      Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the relationship between outdoor temperature in Sweden and the reporting of drug-induced hyponatremia to the Medical Products Agency (MPA). Methods: All individual adverse drug reactions (ADR) reported to MPA from 1 January 2010 to 31 October 2013 of suspected drug-induced hyponatremia and random controls were identified. Reports where the ADR had been assessed as having at least a possible relation to the suspected drug were included. Information on administered drugs, onset date, causality assessment, sodium levels, and the geographical origin of the reports was extracted. A case-crossover design was used to ascertain the association between heat exposure and drug-induced hyponatremia at the individual level, while linear regression was used to study its relationship to sodium concentration in blood. Temperature exposure data were obtained from the nearest observation station to the reported cases. Results: During the study period, 280 reports of hyponatremia were identified. More cases of drug-induced hyponatremia were reported in the warmer season, with a peak in June, while other ADRs showed an opposite annual pattern. The distributed lag non-linear model indicated an increasing odds ratio (OR) with increasing temperature in the warm season with a highest odds ratio, with delays of 1–5 days after heat exposure. A cumulative OR for a lag time of 1 to 3 days was estimated at 2.21 at an average daily temperature of 20 °C. The change in sodium per 1 °C increase in temperature was estimated to be −0.37 mmol/L (95% CI: −0.02, −0.72). Conclusions: Warm weather appears to increase the risk of drug-induced hyponatremia
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070827
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 828: Synthesis and Ion-Exchange Properties of
           Graphene Th(IV) Phosphate Composite Cation Exchanger: Its Applications in
           the Selective Separation of Lead Metal Ions

    • Authors: Tauseef Rangreez, Inamuddin, Abdullah Asiri, Basma Alhogbi, Mu. Naushad
      First page: 828
      Abstract: In this study, graphene Th(IV) phosphate was prepared by sol–gel precipitation method. The ion-exchange behavior of this cation-exchanger was studied by investigating properties like ion-exchange capacity for various metal ions, the effect of eluent concentration, elution behavior, and thermal effect on ion-exchange capacity (IEC). Several physicochemical properties as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) study, thermal studies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were also carried out. The material possessed an IEC of 1.56 meq·dry·g−1 of the exchanger and was found to be nano-composite. The selectivity studies showed that the material is selective towards Pb(II) ions. The selectivity of this cation-exchanger was demonstrated in the binary separation of Pb(II) ions from mixture with other metal ions. The recovery was found to be both quantitative and reproducible.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070828
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 829: Experimental Study on the Health Benefits of
           Garden Landscape

    • Authors: Juyoung Lee
      First page: 829
      Abstract: To mitigate the negative effects of modern cities on health, scientists are focusing on the diverse benefits of natural environments; a conceptual approach to use gardens for promoting human health is being attempted. In this study, the effects of the visual landscape of a traditional garden on psychological and physiological activities were investigated. Eighteen male and female adults participated in this indoor experiment (mean age, 26.7 years). Twelve different landscape images for city and garden were presented continuously for 90 s. In the time series changes of oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb), different patterns of changes were observed between the city and garden. The mean O2Hb values increased for the city landscapes, whereas they decreased for the garden landscapes both in the left and right prefrontal cortices. Significant differences in the negative psychological states of tension, fatigue, confusion, and anxiety were observed between the city and garden landscapes. Important differences in the physiological and psychological responses to the two different landscapes were also detected between male and female participants, providing valuable clues to individual differences in the health benefits of natural landscapes. To validate the use of gardens as a resource for promoting health in urban dwellers, further scientific evidence, active communication, and collaboration among experts in the relevant field are necessary.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070829
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
  • IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 830: Geographic Distribution and Temporal Trends of
           HIV-1 Subtypes through Heterosexual Transmission in China: A Systematic
           Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Authors: Peipei Xiao, Jianjun Li, Gengfeng Fu, Ying Zhou, Xiping Huan, Haitao Yang
      First page: 830
      Abstract: Background: Heterosexual transmission (HST) has become the current predominant transmission pathways of the HIV-1 epidemic in China. The aim of this study was to explore the geographic and dynamic change of HIV-1 subtypes through HST in China from published studies. Methods: Several electronic databases were searched to identify the studies, and the overall prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes was estimated by a meta-analysis method. Subgroup analysis was conducted by study region and time period. Publication bias was evaluated using Egger’s test. The χ2 test was used to evaluate the proportion differences among subgroups. Sensitivity analysis was carried out to assess the stability of the overall prevalence estimates. Results: 42 studies were included in our final analysis. The overall prevalence of CRF01_AE was 46.34% (95% CI: 40.56–52.17%), CRF07_BC was 19.16% (95% CI: 15.02–23.66%), B/B’ was 13.25% (95% CI: 9.68–17.25%), CRF08_BC was 10.61% (95% CI: 7.08–14.70%), and C was 4.29% (95% CI: 1.85–7.48%). In subgroup analysis, the prevalence of CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC increased, while the prevalence of B/B’ decreased over time, whereby the prevalence of CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC have exceeded that of B/B’ since 2010. A significant higher prevalence of CRF01_AE was found in the South provinces, CRF07_BC in East provinces, CRF08_BC and C in Southwest provinces, and B/B’ in North provinces. Conclusions: The HIV-1 prevalent strains have evolved into complicated and diverse subtypes, and the proportion of HIV-1 subtypes through HST has changed constantly in different regions and periods in China. This highlights the urgent need to vigorously strengthen the prevention and control of the HIV-1 epidemic.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2017-07-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070830
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2017)
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