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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1424 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (86 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (641 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (379 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (103 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (112 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (81 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (641 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 245)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences: Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Apuntes Universitarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 7)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Birat Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Boletin Médico de Postgrado     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Carta Comunitaria     Open Access  
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Innovación en Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Salud Virtual     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical and Experimental Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clocks & Sleep     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de la Escuela de Salud Pública     Open Access  
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Diversity of Research in Health Journal     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Düzce Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi / Journal of Duzce University Health Sciences Institute     Open Access  
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Ethics & Human Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Eurasian Journal of Health Technology Assessment     Open Access  
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Family & Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare : Finjehew     Open Access  
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ganesha Journal     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Challenges     Open Access  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Global Reproductive Health     Open Access  
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastane Öncesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
HCU Journal     Open Access  
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 10)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Equity     Open Access  
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Notions     Open Access  
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Health Psychology Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Security     Hybrid Journal  
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Healthcare Technology Letters     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.862
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1873-9326 - ISSN (Online) 1873-9318
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Evaluating the colonization and distribution of fungal and bacterial
           bio-aerosol in Rajkot, western India using multi-proxy approach
    • Abstract: Bio-aerosol is an emerging pollutant of the technological age. Air pollution related episodes that are a region-specific phenomenon in our atmosphere, with bio-aerosols being the main area of the problem. The present research was focused on assessing the particulate, and culturable concentration of bacteria at five different spatially located sites in the Rajkot city and surroundings, in the western part of India. The highest (108.33 × 109 CFU m−3) and lowest (318 × 103 CFU m−3) bacterial concentrations were found in dump site and residential area, respectively. With reference to particulate concentration, higher (101.79 ± 8.09) concentrations were reported in the industrial area than other sampling locations. All sampling sites under the present study displayed greater variability of bacteria than that of particle concentration. The growth potential of various bacterial isolates from perspective bioaerosol was measured spectroscopically by measuring OD at 600 nm in rich medium. The isolate 1A displayed significantly higher growth compared to all other isolates after 24 h. Outcomes of the current work suggested that bacterial concentration was observed in the respirable fraction (< 2.5 μm) and so had the potential to penetrate the deeper part of the lungs. In addition, meteorological parameters (i.e., wind speed, temperature, and relative humidity) were measured to understand whether they had any effect on biotic matter. The temperature and relative humidity are the most important meteorological parameters responsible for the enhanced viability of bacteria. Land use and land cover feature were also studied to understand the spatial characteristics of bio-aerosol in the study area. This viewpoint summarizes available information on bio-aerosols and its impact on human health, devising strategies to understand characteristics of bio-aerosols and emphasizing the vital gaps in available knowledge such as to develop a relationship between biological agents and solid/liquid or a mixture of both to the assessment of dispersion behavior and toxicological nature during exposure.
      PubDate: 2019-04-03
       
  • Highly size-resolved characterization of water-soluble inorganic ions in
           submicron atmospheric particles
    • Abstract: Up to date, few attentions have been given to the special characterization of water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIs) in the submicron atmospheric particles. In this study, to implement a highly size-resolved characterization of WSIs in the submicron atmospheric particles, ten sets of size-segregated submicron atmospheric particles were collected in Hangzhou (China) from November to December 2015, with cut-off diameters of 0.060, 0.108, 0.170, 0.260, 0.400, 0.650, and 1.000 μm. The particulate WSIs, including Cl−, NO3−, SO42−, Na+, NH4+, K+, and Ca2+ were analyzed by ion chromatography, and their mode distributions and potential sources were assessed. It was found that the particulate WSIs constituted a substantial part (40.4~70.9%) in each fraction of submicron particles, of which the secondary inorganic ions (SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+) were the dominant species. The sulfur oxidation rate (SOR) and nitrogen oxidation rate (NOR) were increased when the submicron particles became coarser, indicating the enhanced secondary formation processes of SO42− and NO3− in the coarser submicron particles, thus resulting in the higher fractional contribution of secondary inorganic aerosols in the coarser submicron atmospheric particles. The correlation coefficients between K+ and Cl−, NO3−, and SO42− were 0.9293 (P = 0.002), 0.9702 (P < 0.001), and 0.9723 (P < 0.001), suggesting their dominant contribution from the biomass burning. Furthermore, it was found that PM0.4–1 (aerodynamic diameter of 0.400–1.000 μm) was a substantial part (66.6%) of submicron atmospheric particles. Compared to PM0.4 (aerodynamic diameter ≤ 0.400 μm), the concentration of WSIs in PM0.4–1 was prominently higher, and the secondary formation processes of SO42− and NO3− in PM0.4–1 were significantly enhanced.
      PubDate: 2019-04-02
       
  • (1 → 3) β-Glucan induces multimodal toxicity responses in parallel
           exposures of model human lung epithelial cells and immature macrophage
    • Abstract: Many epidemiological studies have associated bioaerosol exposures with a variety of adverse health effects; however, the role of bioaerosol components in the development and manifestation of hypersensitivity and non-infectious respiratory diseases remains unclear. Despite many studies which have examined allergic responses to bioaerosols, less is known about non-allergenic effects. In order to elucidate the mechanisms by which bioaerosols can exert non-atopic stresses on a cellular level, there is a need for improving existing in vitro approaches. In response, a cohort of toxicology assays were optimized to create a robust analytical suite for studying the effects that biogenic atmospheric pollutants generate on two model human lung cell lines (A549 epithelial line and GDM-1 immature macrophage line). To demonstrate the utility for studying the cellular responses to select bioaerosols, cells exposed to curdlan (a linear (1 → 3)-β-glucan) were examined in a composite cytometry platform. Results suggest that curdlan has the potential to elicit significant responses in A549 and GDM-1 in two or more toxicological modes associated with exposure to airborne particulate matter. As designed, this suite provided a more powerful tool for characterizing curdlan-induced toxicological potential than any individual assay. Responses to curdlan were distinctly modal and cell line dependent, suggesting that the use of a suite of toxicological assays, in a common platform on different cell lines, can help provide important insights into the formative toxigenic responses that primary bioaerosols can induce in respiratory cells.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Chemical sensitivity, asthma, and effects from fragranced consumer
           products: National Population Study in the United Kingdom
    • Abstract: Consumer products, such as those with a fragrance, can adversely affect air quality and health. This national study in the United Kingdom (UK) investigated the prevalence of chemical sensitivity, a condition associated with chemical pollutant exposures, and the medical diagnosis of multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS). In addition, it investigated the co-occurrence of chemical sensitivity with asthma and asthma-like conditions, and with fragrance sensitivity (adverse health effects from fragranced consumer products). Using a nationally representative population sample (n = 1100), an online survey was conducted of adults in the UK, comprising England, Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland. The survey found that, across the UK population, 16.3% report chemical sensitivity; 6.6% medically diagnosed MCS; 25.3% are asthmatic, diagnosed with asthma (17.1%), an asthma-like condition (9.0%), or both; and 27.8% are fragrance sensitive. The conditions frequently co-occur: among the chemically sensitive, 57.0% are asthmatic and 77.7% are fragrance sensitive; and among asthmatics, 36.7% are chemically sensitive and 54.0% are fragrance sensitive. Air fresheners and deodorizers trigger health problems for 15.5% of the general population, 52.5% of chemically sensitive, and 38.8% of asthmatics. Disabling health problems can result from exposure to fragranced products for 41.7% of the chemically sensitive and 37.3% of asthmatics. Further, 21.2% of the chemically sensitive and 14.0% of asthmatics lost workdays or a job in the past year due to fragranced products in the workplace. Results indicate that chemical sensitivity is widespread in the UK, affecting over 5.7 million adults, with over 2.3 million diagnosed MCS, 8.9 million asthmatics, and 9.8 million fragrance sensitive. Reducing chemical exposure to problematic sources, such as fragranced consumer products, is a critical step to reduce adverse health and societal effects.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Deep learning PM 2.5 concentrations with bidirectional LSTM RNN
    • Abstract: A better understanding of spatiotemporal distribution of PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 micrometer) concentrations in a continuous space-time domain is critical for risk assessment and epidemiologic studies. Existing spatiotemporal interpolation algorithms are usually based on strong assumptions by restricting the interpolation models to the ones with explicit and simple mathematical descriptions, thus neglecting plenty of hidden yet critical influencing factors. In this study, we developed a novel deep-learning-based spatiotemporal interpolation model, which includes the bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) as the main ingredient. Our model is able to take into account both spatial and temporal hidden influencing factors automatically. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time of applying the bidirectional LSTM RNN in the spatiotemporal interpolation of air pollutants concentrations. We evaluated our novel method using a dataset that contains daily PM2.5 measurements in 2009 over the contiguous southeast region of the USA. Results demonstrate a good performance of our model. We also conducted simulations to explore the properties of spatiotemporal correlations. In particular, we found the temporal correlation is stronger than the spatial correlation.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Seasonal behavior of water-soluble organic nitrogen in fine particulate
           matter (PM 2.5 ) at urban coastal environments in Hong Kong
    • Abstract: Water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was determined at urban coastal environments in China based on 1-year measurement. The WSON concentrations were in a range of 14.3–257.6 nmol N m−3 and accounted for 22.0–61.2% of the water-soluble nitrogen (WSN) in composition. The average total concentration of free amino acid (FAA) was 1264.5 ± 393.0 pmol m−3, which was lower than those in continental urban cities but nevertheless comparable to the rural area of Pearl River Delta (PRD) in China. The total quantified amines and amino compounds ranged from 223.8 to 806.0 pmol m−3 in which methylamine, ethylamine, and ethanolamine were the most abundant compounds. The average concentration of urea was 7.8 ± 3.0 nmol m−3 and at least one order of magnitude higher than those in marine and rural areas but comparable to other continental cities in China during non-dust period. Summer showed the highest average concentration of WSON (95.0 ± 66.6 nmol N m−3) and composition in WSN (49.3%) compared to other seasons (27.9–37.0%). The results were consistent with previous findings that the inorganics can contribute more than the organics in secondary aerosol formation. There were no distinctive seasonal variations of organic compositions of FAA, amine and amino compounds, and urea. This observation was possibly attributed to a mix of original sources in urban and different prevailing wind directions. Fair correlations (r < 0.4) between WSON compounds and atmospheric oxidants [ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)] suggest that biogenic oxidation is possibly not a major contributing factor in atmospheric coastal urban location.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Indoor air quality assessment with respect to culturable airborne
           bacteria, total volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde, PM 10 , CO 2 ,
           NO 2 , and O 3 in underground subway stations and parking lots
    • Abstract: We measured the concentrations of indoor pollutants (fine particulate matter (PM10)), culturable airborne bacteria (CAB), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), formaldehyde (HCHO), CO2, NO2, and O3 in subway stations and public parking lots at a national scale in South Korea in order to determine their possible relationships with other underground environmental factors and facility characteristics. Indoor pollutants were sampled at 59 underground facilities with a total of 187 samples in subway stations and parking lots. Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney analyses were used to examine the relationships between atmospheric pollutants at underground facilities and indoor/outdoor differences in PM10 and O3 concentrations. Underground PM10 concentrations were higher than outdoor concentrations at all underground facilities (p < 0.001), while underground O3 concentrations were lower than outdoor O3 concentrations at all underground facilities (p < 0.001).
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • An experimental and numerical study of air pollution near unpaved roads
    • Abstract: Aiming to advance in the understanding of pollutant dispersion near roads, we measured, simultaneously, vehicle traffic, meteorological parameters, and 24-h average concentration of particulate matter (TSP, PM10, and PM2.5) at several locations downwind two unpaved roads, located on a flat region without any other relevant source of pollutants. We also implemented on a commercial software of computational fluids dynamics (CFD) an air quality model to simulate the dispersion of particles and gas-phase pollutants emitted from roads. Numerical results of monthly and daily averages of total suspended particles (TSP) concentrations showed high correlation with experimental measurements (R2 > 0.94). We found, numerically and experimentally, that the plots of pollutant concentrations vs distance to the road edge converge into a single curve when they are expressed in terms of dimensionless numbers. Profiles of vertical concentration sketch an exponential function at the road edge, an S shape downwind and a flat shape far from the road. Particle size distribution fits a Rosin-Rammler function with average diameter of ~ 7 μm. This distribution remains unaltered downwind the road, which implies that at any location within 1.5 km from the road, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations are a constant fraction of TSP concentration. Experimental data confirmed this observation. Previous results can be used to determine the size of the area impacted by roads, identify mitigating and adaptive countermeasures, and to improve the accuracy of vehicular emission factors.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Comparative health risk assessment of BTEX exposures from landfills,
           composting units, and leachate treatment plants
    • Abstract: This study assessed and compared the carcinogenic risks and hazard ratios of exposure to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) within different units of a municipal solid waste disposal facility (Tehran, Iran), including the leachate treatment plant (LTP), the landfill, and a composting unit. Eight stations within the landfill site were sampled during summer and winter using NIOSH method 1501. The health risk assessment was conducted using the probabilistic risk model Oracle Crystal Ball. The probability distributions of risks were estimated. The average concentrations (±SD) of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and total BTEX were 9.01 (± 5.22), 11.44 (± 6.62), 14.56 (± 9.8), 24.06 (± 14.86), and 59.09 (± 32.38) ppbv, respectively. BTEX concentrations were significantly higher downwind of the disposal site compared to those in the upwind direction. The maximum carcinogenic risks of benzene in LTP, landfill, and composting unit were in excess of 1 × 10−4. Hazard ratios of BTEX were sufficiently low so as not to pose a significant risk to the workers’ health. However, maximum hazard ratios of benzene and total BTEX within landfill exceeded 1. In general, lifetime cancer risks and hazard ratios of BTEX were higher in landfill area compared to leachate treatment plant or the composting unit. Sensitivity analyses indicated that concentration and exposure duration had the largest impacts on the variance of the estimated risks. Individuals working in the landfill were at higher risk. An action plan is needed to reduce the risks from BTEX exposure in waste facilities by reducing the concentrations and/or exposure duration.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • How have the characteristics of air quality in a typical large Chinese
           city changed between 2011 and 2017'
    • Abstract: Great efforts have been made to control air pollution in China, and these have markedly changed air quality. Here, a detailed analysis of changes in air pollution in Nanjingbetween 2011 and 2017 based on hourly concentration measurements of six air pollutants is presented. The concentrations of most of these pollutants have decreased since 2013. This has resulted in the annual proportion of days meeting the new Chinese air quality standards increasing by 17.5%, as well as the proportion of days of severe or strong pollution decreasing by 8.0%. However, the ozone (O3) concentration increased between 2011 and 2017, and the number of days that O3 concentrations exceeded the Chinese standard dramatically increased from 8 days in 2011 to 60 days in 2017. Clearly, O3 has replaced fine particulate matter (PM2.5) as the most frequent dominant pollutant since 2016. Our results indicate that air pollution in Nanjing has evolved from being dominated by primary pollutants to being dominated by secondary pollutants, reflecting interaction of multiple emissions and chemical processes. Current policies and strategies need to be reassessed and modified to deal with interactions between emissions from different sources under variable meteorological conditions.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • The effect of speed bumps and humps on the concentrations of CO, NO and NO
           2 in ambient air
    • Abstract: Traffic-calming measures act as the instruments to reduce the speed of vehicles. They make a major contribution to road safety; however, on the other hand, air pollution is more likely to occur due to the fact that motor vehicles use brakes and accelerate more frequently. The study reviewed two types of traffic-calming devices, that is, trapezoid-shaped speed humps made of asphalt and plastic circular speed bumps. The obtained results showed an increase in the concentrations of NO, NO2 and CO found in the pollutants emitted from the vehicles approaching speed bumps/humps compared to the concentrations of the same types of pollutants at the check points. As for trapezoidal speed humps, the concentration of nitrogen dioxide increased on average by 1.8 times, that of nitrogen monoxide by 4.3 times and that of carbon monoxide by 2.2 times. Meanwhile, the concentration of nitrogen dioxide at circular plastic speed bumps rose on average by 2.5 times, that of nitric monoxide by 5.0 times and that of carbon monoxide by 3.2 times.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • A national analysis of the geographic aspects and ecological correlates of
           PM 2.5 in China based on ground observational data
    • Abstract: Increasing studies have investigated the characteristics of fine particulate matter of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) using ground-level observations among Chinese cities in recent years. This article analyzed the geographic aspects and ecological correlates of PM2.5 based on in situ ambient air quality observations for 367 cities and prefectures across China. Results of global and local Moran’s I analyses suggested a significant clustered pattern of PM2.5 across the country with hot spots mainly concentrated in cities located in the North China Plain. Spatially interpolated PM2.5 estimates showed that most of China’s territories experienced unhealthy concentrations of PM2.5 except during summer, while much larger proportions of China’s population was exposed to unhealthy PM2.5 all year round. Results from regression analyses suggested that the spatial variations of PM2.5 were positively associated with air pollution but inversely related to meteorological factors. Findings from this research can provide new insights into air pollution mitigation policies and public health efforts in China and beyond.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Analysis of a severe dust storm and its impact on air quality conditions
           using WRF-Chem modeling, satellite imagery, and ground observations
    • Abstract: This study presents a comprehensive analysis of an extreme dust event recorded in the Arabian Peninsula and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) between 31 March and 3 April 2015. Simulations of the dust event with the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with the Chemistry module (WRF-Chem) were analyzed and verified using MSG-SEVIRI imagery and aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the recent 1-km Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm for MODIS Terra/Aqua. Data from the National Centers for Atmospheric Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) and the upper-air radiosonde observations were used to understand the synoptic of the event. In addition, the impact of the event on atmospheric and air quality conditions is investigated. The Air Quality Index (AQI) was calculated prior, during, and after the event to assess the degradation of air quality conditions. Simulated temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and surface radiation were compared to observations at six monitoring stations in the UAE giving R2 values of 0.84, 0.63, 0.60, and 0.84, respectively. From 1 to 2 April 2015, both observations and simulations showed an average drop in temperature from 33 to 26 °C and radiance reduction from about 950 to 520 Wm−2. The AOD modeled by WRF-Chem showed a good correlation with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements in the UAE with R2 of 0.83. The AQI over the UAE reached hazardous levels during the peak of the dust event before rapidly decreasing to moderate–good air quality levels. This work is the first attempt to demonstrate the potential of using WRF-Chem to estimate AQI over the UAE along with two satellite products (MODIS-MAIAC and MSG-SEVIRI) for dust detection and tracking.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Long-range transported biomass-burning aerosols from large-scale wildfires
           in Russia and surrounding regions with respect to radioactive tracers
    • Abstract: Biomass burning caused by anthropogenic activity such as agriculture-burning periods (common practice during harvesting, post-harvesting, or preplanting) or naturally occurring forest fires, and domestic biofuel combustion is a frequent phenomenon causing global concern. Agricultural burning, although restricted in some countries, significantly contributes to regional air-quality deterioration and national emissions. This work focuses on atmospheric measurements at the suburbs of Athens, on August 2010, during extensive forest fires in the European Russian central plains. The effect of these fires on the measured concentrations of specific radioactive isotopes and biomass-burning tracers was studied, for long-range transport of aerosols from Russian plains. Mean total beta radioactivity was found more than 2.5 times higher during the incident compared to background values. High values were also reported for the isotope 40K, and its fluctuations were following the course of the event. 7Be showed no significant difference between the two periods, which is expected due to its origin. During the event 234Th (238U), activity concentrations were also detected. Their fluctuations showed no significant correlation with the course of the event. The average values during the period before and right after the incident is for organic carbon 2.74 μg/m3, elemental carbon 1.53 μg/m3, and for carbonate carbon 0.16 μg/m3. During the incident, the highest values were observed on August 18, with concentrations for organic carbon 5.49 μg/m3, elemental carbon 0.64 μg/m3, and carbonate carbon 0.32 μg/m3. This fact may be considered as an indicator of biomass-burning incident during the period 12–19 August 2010.
      PubDate: 2019-03-25
       
  • Assessment of the tools to monitor air pollution in the Spanish ports
           system
    • Abstract: In general, seaports are located in urban areas or in their environs, whereby their activity has a very direct effect on the population. Therefore, reducing environmental contamination and improving air quality are priority management goals for port authorities (PAs). In Spain, the state-owned seaport system consists of 28 PAs that manage 46 ports. Its regulation received a major impulse through the enactment of the Spanish Ports Law in 2010. The law establishes especially the obligation that, annually, the PA prepare a sustainability report with 111 sustainability indicators. This study is founded on a database that was created with information from the reports from 2011 to 2016. A statistical analysis studies the evolution of the implementation of 20 measures for the reduction of atmospheric contamination in Spanish ports and identify the strategic lines carried out by the PAs and the measures adopted depending on the size of the ports.
      PubDate: 2019-03-22
       
  • Influence of dataset density on CO 2 and CH 4 trend calculation
    • Abstract: Trend analysis requires long-time series of observations, the continuity of which is not usually obtained since gaps emerge linked to problems with the device or external reasons. This paper explores the influence of dataset density on the parameters involved in linear trends of CO2 and CH4 half-hourly observations and daily ranges measured at a semi-rural site over a 6-year period. Half-hourly observation trends were 2.40 and 0.0085 ppm year−1 for CO2 and CH4 respectively, and a noticeable value of 1.98 ppm year−1 was obtained for the CO2 daily range, whereas the CH4 daily range remained steady. Random samples of variable numbers of observations were extracted from these time series. Robust statistics of location, spread, symmetry and concentration of observations were calculated and fitted with a third-degree polynomial expression for half-hourly observations and a linear equation for the daily range. In general, medians and interquartile ranges provided the best fits. Confidence intervals were also obtained. Around 350 and 760 half-hourly observations for CO2 and CH4 provided 95% of statistically significant correlations at the 0.1% level. Finally, daily evolution revealed the contrast between the two trace gases where CO2 increased with a ramp during the night that ended with a cliff whereas a sinusoidal evolution was associated with CH4. Moreover, the interquartile range presented a daily cycle for CO2 but not for CH4.
      PubDate: 2019-03-15
       
  • Uncertainty associated with ambient ozone metrics in epidemiologic studies
           and risk assessments
    • Abstract: Epidemiologic studies relating ambient ozone concentrations to adverse health outcomes have typically relied on spatial averages of concentrations from nearby monitoring stations, referred to as “composite monitors.” This practice reflects the assumption that ambient ozone concentrations within an urban area are spatially homogenous. We tested the validity of this assumption by comparing ozone data measured at individual monitoring sites within selected US urban areas to their respective composite monitor time series. We first characterized the temporal correlation between the composite monitor and individual monitors in each area. Next, we analyzed the heteroskedasticity of each relationship. Finally, we compared the distribution of concentrations measured at individual monitors to the composite monitor distribution. Individual monitors showed high correlation with the composite monitor over much of the range of ambient ozone concentrations, though correlations were lower at higher concentrations. The variance between individual monitors and the composite monitor increased as a function of concentration in nearly all the urban areas. Finally, we observed statistical bias in the composite monitor concentrations at the high end of the distribution. The degree to which these results introduce uncertainty into studies that utilize composite monitors depends on the contributions of peak ozone concentrations to reported health effect associations.
      PubDate: 2019-03-07
       
  • Artificial turf: chemical flux and development of silicone wristband
           partitioning coefficients
    • Abstract: This work uses passive samplers to identify PAHs and OPAHs not previously associated with artificial turf, and to provide the first quantitative measure of in situ flux of semi-volatile contaminants on artificial turf fields. Both air (1.5-m height) and turf air (immediately above turf surface) were sampled using two sampling materials: low-density polyethylene and silicone. Utilizing a broad targeted screen, we assess both artificial turf and samples of crumb rubber for over 1530 chemicals including pesticides, phthalates, and personal care products. We report the presence of 25 chemicals that have not yet been reported in artificial turf literature, including some with known human effects. The samplers were also quantitatively analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons yielding gas-phase concentrations at breathing height and surface level—the first such report on an artificial turf outdoor field. Turf pore-air and air chemicals were highly correlated at all sites, and particularly at the recently installed indoor site. Flux of chemicals between air and turf surface appear to follow field age although more research is needed to confirm this trend. The thermal extraction process and silicone passive samplers used are suitable for larger-scale environmental sampling campaigns that aim for less solvent and sample processing. By co-deploying silicone passive samplers and conventional low-density polyethylene, partitioning coefficients are derived that can be used for future silicone passive air sampling environmental assessment. This study provides an initial demonstration that passive samplers can be used to quantify volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals from artificial turf.
      PubDate: 2019-03-07
       
  • Spatiotemporal distribution of aerosols over the Indian subcontinent and
           its dependence on prevailing meteorological conditions
    • Abstract: The prevailing meteorological conditions that influence the advection and diffusion of the atmosphere govern the distribution of atmospheric particles from its sources. The present study explores the spatiotemporal distribution of atmospheric aerosols over the Indian subcontinent (5°–40° N, 65°–100° E) and its dependence on the prevailing meteorological conditions. Eleven years (2002–2012) of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) along with meteorological parameters extracted from reanalysis data are analysed at monthly timescales. Wind speed, wind divergence and planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) are studied as parameters for advection and diffusion of atmospheric aerosols. The result shows higher aerosol loading during the monsoon season with increased spatial variability. Wind speed and divergence correlate with AOD values both over land (R = 0.75) and ocean (R = 0.82) with increased aerosol loading at higher wind speeds, which are converging in nature. Owing to the varied climatology of the Indian subcontinent, land and ocean areas were classified into subregions. Analysis was carried out over these subregions to infer the influence of meteorological conditions on aerosol loading. Results are indicative of a distinct characteristic in the prevailing meteorological conditions that influence the distribution of certain aerosol types. Further, the PBLH was analysed as an indicator of atmospheric diffusion to infer its importance in aerosol distribution. The results indicate that PBLH explains almost 30 to 90% of the total variance in AOD over the subregions which is particularly evident during the winter and pre-monsoon seasons.
      PubDate: 2019-02-26
       
  • Modeling air quality impact of pollutants emitted by an oil/gas plant in
           complex terrain in view of a health impact assessment
    • Abstract: The present study focuses on the estimation of the air quality impact of an oil/gas pre-treatment plant, the Centro Olio Val d’Agri (COVA), in view of a more comprehensive epidemiological study regarding the inhabitants of two small towns settled in close proximity of the plant. We used the RMS (RAMS/MIRS/SPRAY) modeling system to estimate the ground level concentration of SO2, NOx, and CO as a result of the incineration of residues and electric and thermic power generation. Simulations were run for 1 meteorological year. The spatial interpolation of measured H2S, proxy of the other types of emission, allowed for a more detailed picture of the plant impact. The spatial correlation between estimated NOx and SO2 and measured H2S strengthens the hypothesis of exploiting NOx maps as a proxy for the population exposure to the mixture of industry-emitted pollutants. Overall results suggest that the plant affects the inhabitants of the two towns differently. Furthermore, the simulations show that the area impacted by the plumes is much larger than that of the two municipalities within range of the plant, suggesting both the need to extend the monitoring area and to include the population living in that area in the health study.
      PubDate: 2019-02-26
       
 
 
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