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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1283 journals)
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HEALTH AND SAFETY (514 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 179)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription  
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access  
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Policy and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Professions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Health Sciences Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Health Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health
  [SJR: 0.706]   [H-I: 19]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1873-9326 - ISSN (Online) 1873-9318
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2329 journals]
  • Analysis of respired amphibole fibers (asbestos and non-asbestos
           classified): discrimination between natural and anthropogenic sources
           using sentinel animals
    • Authors: Silvana Capella; Elisa Fornero; Donata Bellis; Elena Belluso
      Pages: 533 - 542
      Abstract: To evaluate the degree of exposure and to distinguish the contributions of respirable amphibole fibers (both asbestos and non-asbestos) from natural and anthropogenic sources, we investigated their burden in the lungs of sentinel animals. Lung samples of sentinel animals are more easily and continuously available in comparison to humans and are not affected by human variables such as occupational exposure and smoking habit. Fiber identification and quantification have been performed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Results for detected amphibole fibers (both asbestos and non-asbestos) were obtained from six studied areas in Northwest Italy (Piedmont) and correlated to lithological and urbanization data. Detected amphibole fiber species have been classified as asbestos minerals occur naturally (NOA) or to anthropogenically sourced asbestos (ASA). This pilot study is a potentially useful tool for the evaluation of the distribution and sources of respirable inorganic fibers. The model should be applicable in any areas where lithological and anthropogenic characteristics are known.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0448-6
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
  • An assessment of emission event trends within the Greater Houston area
           during 2003–2013
    • Authors: Cynthia Luong; Kai Zhang
      Pages: 543 - 554
      Abstract: Emission events are upsets (unavoidable breakdowns in process or operation) or unscheduled maintenance, startup, or shutdown activities within industrial facilities that can release large amounts of pollutants for several hours or days, potentially causing air quality to exceed standards established to protect the environment and human health. The Greater Houston area is home to the largest petrochemical complexes in the United States, so the likelihood of emission events is higher in this area than in other areas in the nation. Notable emission events in the Greater Houston area have caused unexpected explosions, fires, and releases of toxic chemicals, which have killed workers and triggered various health issues among nearby communities. Understanding how to minimize these emission events can help protect the health of Houstonians. In this study, we analyzed emission event data for the Greater Houston area extracted from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) emission event database during 2003–2013 for criteria and other selected pollutants to identify annual and seasonal trends and industrial classification patterns. We evaluated 7273 emission events and found that total event incidents and releases from nitrogen oxides (NOX), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) have generally decreased from 2003 to 2013, whereas particulate matter (PM) event emissions have generally increased during this period. Our seasonal analyses demonstrated that emission events were more likely to occur during winter for several pollutants. We also found that emission events were mainly generated from the chemical manufacturing and petroleum and coal products manufacturing industries. In addition, we found strong interrelationships between different pairs of pollutants during these emission events. We compared these results against regulatory policy and found potential gaps within the state regulations and TCEQ emission event database explaining our findings, and we provided recommendations on closing these gaps. Our study could drive policy change to lower emission events in the Greater Houston area, potentially improving air quality and reducing the health impacts from these events.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0449-5
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
  • Exposure to hazardous air pollutants in underground car parks in
           Guangzhou, China
    • Authors: Yulong Yan; Qing He; Qi Song; Lili Guo; Qiusheng He; Xinming Wang
      Pages: 555 - 563
      Abstract: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), and PM10 were studied by field sampling in six underground car parks beneath multi-level buildings in Guangzhou, China. CO and PM10 in the car parks range from 3.0 to 69.0 ppm and 0.087 to 0.698 mg m−3, with mean concentrations of 10.8 ppm and 0.228 mg m−3, respectively. Overall mean concentrations of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) are 90.5, 54.8, 239.9, 47.7, and 189.3 μg m−3, respectively. Indoor air pollutants in the car parks show an obvious seasonal variation and are higher in winter than in summer. The total estimated cancer risks of occupational exposure for car park staff and casual exposure for parking users are 3.73 × 10−4 and 5.60 × 10−6, indicating definite and possible risks, respectively. The hazard quotient of target VOCs is 4.33, implying a definite risk for people using underground car parks. Indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios for MTBE and BTEX are significantly higher than one, reflecting strong emission sources in underground car parks. The BTEX to MTBE ratios in the car parks are almost the same as those in tunnel air, indicating that indoor aromatic hydrocarbons were mainly from engine emissions and gasoline evaporation. With increasing urbanization in China, more attention should be paid to the exposure of staff and users to hazardous air pollutants in underground car parks.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0450-z
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
  • Variability of tropospheric columnar NO 2 and SO 2 over eastern
           Indo-Gangetic Plain and impact of meteorology
    • Authors: Debreka Ghosh; Shyam Lal; Ujjaini Sarkar
      Pages: 565 - 574
      Abstract: Long-term analyses of monthly mean tropospheric NO2 and SO2 were performed over a period of January 2005 to December 2014, around few industrial areas (power plant clusters) in the Indo-Gangetic Plains. Alongside, similar studies have been conducted over some background mountain and rural sites, forest areas and small urban locations without large industries—all located in and around the Indo-Gangetic Plains. In these locations, the trend analyses of columnar NO2 and SO2 using satellite-based measurements from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) were performed to study their spatial, seasonal and long-term behaviour. Distribution of NO2 shows a large variation with major hot spots and average monthly values ranging between 0.03 and 0.35 Dobson Unit (DU), whereas the same for SO2 illustrates the range of average monthly values in between 0.13 to 1.00 DU. All the columnar values have been further correlated to meteorological parameters like cloud fraction, rainfall, outgoing longwave radiation flux and planetary boundary layer height. Analysis of the results indicates the influence of meteorology on the columnar concentration of these gases. Anomalous behaviour of SO2 during 2008 and 2011 were observed due to the long-range transport of volcanic SO2 over India from Dalaffilla and Nabro volcanoes, respectively. SO2/NO2 ratio was also observed to elicit the contribution of stationary (power plants and industries) source origins over mobile (automobile) sources towards the columnar burdens of these gases.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0451-y
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
  • Green wall technology for the phytoremediation of indoor air: a system for
           the reduction of high CO 2 concentrations
    • Authors: FR Torpy; M Zavattaro; PJ Irga
      Pages: 575 - 585
      Abstract: Along with the growing requirement to reduce building carbon emissions, a need has arisen to find energy efficient means of improving the quality of indoor air. Indoor plants have been shown to be capable of reducing most air pollutants; however, practical numbers of potted plants will not have the capacity to control many forms of air pollution, especially CO2. Green walls are space-efficient means of increasing the density of indoor plants. We assessed an active green wall for its potential to reduce CO2 in chambers and a test room. Chlorophytum comosum and Epipremnum aureum were both effective cultivars for CO2 removal at light densities greater than 50 μmol m−2 s−1. Substrate ventilation increased the rate of CO2 draw down from chambers, possibly due to increased leaf gas exchange rates. Green walls were then tested in a 15.65-m3 sealed simulation room, allowing the calculation of clean air delivery rate (CADR) and air changes per hour (ACH) equivalents based on CO2 draw down. Rates of CO2 draw down were modest under typical brightly lit indoor conditions (50 μmol m−2 s−1); however, when light intensity was increased to relatively bright levels, similar to indoor conditions next to a window or with the addition of supplementary lighting (250 μmol m−2 s−1), a 1-m2 green wall was capable of significant quantifiable reductions of high CO2 concentrations within a sealed room environment. Extrapolating these findings indicates that a 5-m2 green wall containing C. comosum could balance the respiratory emissions of a full-time occupant.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0452-x
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
  • Contamination scale of atmospheric deposition for assessing air quality in
           Albania evaluated from most toxic heavy metal and moss biomonitoring
    • Authors: Shaniko Allajbeu; Flora Qarri; Elda Marku; Lirim Bekteshi; Vjollca Ibro; Marina V. Frontasyeva; Trajce Stafilov; Pranvera Lazo
      Pages: 587 - 599
      Abstract: Pollution characterization on atmospheric deposition is assessed through the concentration level of most toxic trace metals (Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and metalloids (As) in moss samples to evaluate air quality of Albania. Moss biomonitoring method (Hypnum cupressiforme and Pseudoschleropodium purum collected from 44 sampling sites), followed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP/AES) and epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA), is used in this study for trace metal analysis. Screening ecological risk of trace metals is performed to atmospheric deposition referred to the methodology given by different authors and by using moss species as bioindicator. Model used for risk assessment was based on contamination factors (CF), pollution loads index (PLI), and the potential ecological index (RI). The CF and PLI values were both indicated a moderate to high pollution scale to the whole territory under investigation. RI values indicate the presence of a high ecological risk and the risk of human exposure to trace metals, particularly in the areas with the highest element concentrations. Box-Cox transformation was applied to the concentration matrix data before Pearson’s linear correlation and factor analysis (FA). The most significant factors affecting the association of the elements and their probable sources of origin were extracted from FA. Three dominant factors were extracted that represent the association of Cr, Ni, and Co with mineral particle dust, industrial local emission sources, and the use of pesticides and herbicides in agriculture particularly in the south part of the country.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0453-9
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
  • Spatiotemporal pattern of air quality index and its associated factors in
           31 Chinese provincial capital cities
    • Authors: L.J. Xu; J. X. Zhou; Y. Guo; T.M. Wu; T.T. Chen; Q.J. Zhong; D. Yuan; P.Y. Chen; C.Q. Ou
      Pages: 601 - 609
      Abstract: Understanding the spatiotemporal characteristics of ambient air quality and identifying the associated factors are helpful to develop integrated interventions to prevent and control air pollution. Based on daily data of air quality index (AQI) in 31 Chinese provincial capital cities in 2014, this study aimed to investigate the spatiotemporal variations of ambient air pollution and the influencing factors. The spatial and temporal patterns of AQI were presented using GIS map and heat map, respectively. We constructed a hierarchical linear model to quantify the effects of meteorological and socioeconomic factors on AQI. In 2014, the air quality nonattainment (AQI >100) rate was 34.6% on average (1.9 to 74.4%). Air pollution levels were highest in winters and lowest in summers. We found substantial spatial variations of AQI, with the highest values in the middle-east area of the North China Plain. The city-level AQI was positively associated with vehicle population, industrial dust emission, and GDP per capital, which cumulatively explained 67.5% of spatial variations of AQI. The city-level AQI also increased with city’s annual atmospheric pressure but decreased with annual mean temperature. Daily AQI within a city decreased with daily temperature, sunshine duration, wind speed, precipitation, and relative humidity. The national analyses indicate that the ambient air quality in China exhibits significant geographical and seasonal variations which were mainly driven by socioeconomic and meteorological factors. The findings would help to understand the underlying reasons for spatial health disparities and would provide important information to guide targeted policy response to ambient air pollution.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0454-8
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
  • Estimation of on-road NO 2 concentrations, NO 2 /NO X ratios, and related
           roadway gradients from near-road monitoring data
    • Authors: Jennifer Richmond-Bryant; R. Chris Owen; Stephen Graham; Michelle Snyder; Stephen McDow; Michelle Oakes; Sue Kimbrough
      Pages: 611 - 625
      Abstract: This paper describes a new regression modeling approach to estimate on-road nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOX) concentrations and near-road spatial gradients using data from a near-road monitoring network. Field data were collected in Las Vegas, NV, at three monitors sited 20, 100, and 300 m from Interstate-15 between December 2008 and January 2010. Measurements of NO2 and NOX were integrated over 1-h intervals and matched with meteorological data. Several mathematical transformations were tested for regressing pollutant concentrations against distance from the roadway. A logit-ln model was found to have the best fit (R 2 = 94.7 %) and also provided a physically realistic profile. The mathematical model used data from the near-road monitors to estimate on-road concentrations and the near-road gradient over which mobile source pollutants have concentrations elevated above background levels. Average and maximum on-road NO2 concentration estimates were 33 and 105 ppb, respectively. Concentration gradients were steeper in the morning and late afternoon compared with overnight when stable conditions preclude mixing. Estimated on-road concentrations were also highest in the late afternoon. Median estimated on-road and gradient NO2 concentrations were lower during summer compared with winter, with a steeper gradient during the summer, when convective mixing occurs during a longer portion of the day. On-road concentration estimates were higher for winds perpendicular to the road compared with parallel winds and for atmospheric stability with neutral-to-unstable atmospheric conditions. The concentration gradient with increasing distance from the road was estimated to be sharper for neutral-to-unstable conditions when compared with stable conditions and for parallel wind conditions compared with perpendicular winds. A regression of the NO2/NOX ratios yielded on-road ratios ranging from 0.25 to 0.35, substantially higher than the anticipated tailpipe emissions ratios. The results from the ratios also showed that the diurnal cycle of the background NO2/NOX ratios were a driving factor in the on-road and downwind NO2/NOX ratios.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0455-7
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
  • A benchmarking tool to screen and compare bottom-up and top-down
           atmospheric emission inventories
    • Authors: M. Guevara; S. Lopez-Aparicio; C. Cuvelier; L. Tarrason; A. Clappier; P. Thunis
      Pages: 627 - 642
      Abstract: This paper describes the Δ-Emis tool for emission inventories, recently developed in the framework of Forum for Air Quality Modelling in Europe (FAIRMODE). The Δ-Emis tool consists of a set of indicators and diagrams that support the comparison of bottom-up and top-down emission inventories. Four different comparison methods are proposed: (1) pollutant emission comparisons across sectors (bar plot), (2) quantification of the differences between inventories allocated in terms of activity data and emission factors (diamond diagram), (3) emission per capita comparisons (per-capita diagram) and (4) comparison of pollutant ratios (pollutant ratio diagram). The methodology has been tested for an urban emission inventory in Barcelona, and results show the capability of the system to flag inconsistencies in the existing inventories. The strengths and limitations of the tool are presented. The proposed methodology may be useful for regional and urban inventory developers as an initial evaluation of the consistency of their inventories.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0456-6
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
  • Modelling indoor air quality: validation and sensitivity
    • Authors: S. Silva; A. Monteiro; M. A. Russo; J. Valente; C. Alves; T. Nunes; C. Pio; A. I. Miranda
      Pages: 643 - 652
      Abstract: The main objective of this work is to extend the knowledge of indoor air quality by using a numerical tool to calculate the concentrations of pollutants in the indoor air of a classroom. The application of a numerical model allowed to quantitatively assess the impact of several proposed improvement measures, through the simulation of scenarios. The numerical model CONTAM was used to characterise the indoor air quality in a classroom of an elementary school, in terms of concentrations of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and particulate matter. The results of the CONTAM simulations were compared to measurements performed during monitoring campaigns (SINPHONIE project). The simulated and measured carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentrations inside the classroom are in good agreement. Furthermore, for particulate matter, simulated values show a significant difference from measured values, which are higher overall. With the goal of maximising the indoor air quality of the classroom, several alternative scenarios were simulated. The door and windows of the classroom were opened or closed at different times for each scenario. The scenario promoting the best indoor air quality (i.e. with the lowest concentrations of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide) is the one in which the door is only open to allow students to get in and out of the room, and the window is kept half-open during the entire day.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0458-4
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
  • Particulate matter in urban areas of south-central Chile exceeds air
           quality standards
    • Authors: Carolina Molina; Richard Toro A; Raúl G.E Morales S; Carlos Manzano; Manuel A. Leiva-Guzmán
      Pages: 653 - 667
      Abstract: This study analyzed air quality in terms of the concentrations of sub-10 μm (PM10) and sub-2.5 μm particulate matter (PM2.5) recorded at 23 automated public monitoring stations located in 16 cities in south-central Chile (Rancagua, Rengo, San Fernando, Curicó, Talca, Maule, Chillán and Chillán Viejo, Gran Concepción, Coronel, Los Ángeles, Temuco and Padre Las Casas, Valdivia, Osorno, Puerto Montt, Coyhaique, and Punta Arenas). In each city, the spatial and temporal distributions of the PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were recorded at daily, monthly, and yearly intervals. Air quality was evaluated by comparing the annual average concentrations and the maximum daily concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 with the World Health Organization (WHO) and national standards. The results showed that the limits established in the WHO guidelines and the national standards were systematically exceeded at all the study sites. The highest concentrations of both PM10 and PM2.5 were observed during the fall and winter months (April to September), i.e., the cold period of the year, whereas the lowest concentrations were recorded in the spring and summer months (October to March), i.e., the warm period of the year. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the data collected in the warm and cold periods showed that all stations in this study exhibited statistically significant differences between these two periods. During cold periods, burning firewood for heating produces emissions that are a main source of PM. Furthermore, firewood is primarily burned at night when the lowest temperatures occur and when the atmospheric conditions are generally unfavorable for dispersion; thus, pollution accumulates the above cities. The levels of PM2.5, the most important type of pollution, exceeded the limit established by the WHO on at least one third of the days of the year (>120 days) in the cities of Rancagua, Rengo, Curicó, Talca, Chillan, Los Angeles, Temuco, Valdivia, Osorno, Puerto Montt, and Coyhaique. Therefore in the cities in southern Chile, the population is exposed to particulate matter concentrations that can have negative health impacts. To improve the air quality conditions in the studied cities, research on heaters and combustion techniques should be promoted, home energy efficiency should be increased to reduce firewood consumption, the firewood certification process should be improved at the national level with a better auditing processes, and the introduction of alternative fuels should be considered for greater energy efficiency at competitive costs.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0459-y
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
  • Ecological bias in environmental health studies: the problem of
           aggregation of multiple data sources
    • Authors: Rakefet Shafran-Nathan; Ilan Levy; Noam Levin; David M. Broday
      Pages: 411 - 420
      Abstract: Ecological bias may result from interactions between variables that are characterized by different spatial and temporal scales. Such an ecological bias, also known as aggregation bias or cross-level-bias, may occur as a result of using coarse environmental information about stressors together with fine (i.e., individual) information on health outcomes. This study examines the assumption that distinct within-area variability of spatial patterns of the risk metrics and confounders may result from artifacts of the aggregation of the underlying data layers, and that this may affect the statistical relationships between them. In particular, we demonstrate the importance of carefully linking information layers with distinct spatial resolutions and show that environmental epidemiology studies are prone to exposure misclassification as a result of statistically linking distinctly averaged spatial data (e.g., exposure metrics, confounders, health indices). Since area-level confounders and exposure metrics, as any other spatial phenomena, have characteristic spatiotemporal scales, it is naively expected that the highest spatial variability of both the SES ranking (confounder) and the NOx concentrations (risk metric) will be obtained when using the finest spatial resolution. However, the highest statistical relationship among the data layers was not obtained at the finest scale. In general, our results suggest that assessments of air quality impacts on health require data at comparable spatial resolutions, since use of data layers of distinct spatial resolutions may alter (mostly weaken) the estimated relationships between environmental stressors and health outcomes.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0436-x
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2017)
  • Influence of urbanization on air quality based on the occurrence of
           particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a tropical
           semiarid area (Fortaleza-CE, Brazil)
    • Authors: Rivelino M. Cavalcante; Camille A. Rocha; Íthala S. De Santiago; Tamiris F. A. Da Silva; Carlos M. Cattony; Marcus V.C. Silva; Icaro B. Silva; Paulo R. L. Thiers
      Pages: 437 - 445
      Abstract: This study reports the first measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particulate matter in the metropolitan area of Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. We studied the influence of urban topography on the occurrence of PAHs and the depositional flux (F PAHs) and characterized the emission sources and health risks of PAHs. Of the 16 PAHs evaluated, only 10 PAHs with more than 4 aromatic rings were found. The total PAH concentration (ΣPAHs) ranged from 1.73 to 2.83 ng m−3. The F PAHs value ranged from 0.008 to 0.0182 μg m−2 day−1. These fluxes are comparable to the values obtained at sites with developing urbanization or sites that use heating; however, they are smaller than the values obtained at industrial and large metropolis sites. An examination of the influence of urban topography revealed that the building density considerably increased the particulate matter concentration; however, urban vegetation had the opposite effect. Light-duty vehicles were the most important emission source of PAHs in the metropolitan area of Fortaleza. However, industrial activities (e.g., asphalt and steel production), combustion (e.g., coal and wood), and paved roads had a modest contribution. The health risk from PAHs in Fortaleza is higher at sites with a higher traffic flow, and the level of this health risk is similar to the risk level in other developing cities.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0434-z
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2017)
  • Towards an improved air quality index
    • Authors: A. Monteiro; M. Vieira; C. Gama; A. I. Miranda
      Pages: 447 - 455
      Abstract: Air quality indices (AQI) are commonly used to indicate the level of severity of air pollution to the public. A number of methods were developed in the past by various researchers/environmental agencies for the calculation of AQI, but there is no universally accepted method, appropriate for all situations. An updated review of the major air quality indices developed worldwide is presented in this paper. These methods differentiate mainly in the number of pollutants included, its sampling period and air quality classes and breakpoints. When applying different AQI to a common case study, important differences are found in terms of the classification of the quality of the air. The purposes of this research are to identify weaknesses of the current AQI and to discuss possible changes and updates with Portugal as case study. A survey, with 10 questions about the calculation and use of the AQI and its dissemination to public, was delivered to the five regional environmental agencies in Portugal and, based on results, modifications to the current AQI are proposed. Two main changes—inclusion of PM2.5 and specific urban/industrial AQI—were tested, comparing the current and the proposed AQI along the 2014 year. It is observed that a significant difference exists when specific urban and industrial sites are considered when calculating the AQI. On the other hand, and contrarily to other regional studies, the results show that the inclusion of fine suspended particulate (PM2.5) does not impact the final AQI value.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0435-y
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2017)
  • Chemical composition of aerosol in São Paulo, Brazil: influence of
           the transport of pollutants
    • Authors: G. M. Pereira; N. De Oliveira Alves; S. E. S. Caumo; S. Soares; K. Teinilä; D. Custódio; R. Hillamo; C. Alves; P. C. Vasconcellos
      Pages: 457 - 468
      Abstract: São Paulo is a Latin American megacity impacted by heavy traffic emissions and also affected by biomass burning and biogenic emissions. To better understand the sources of pollution during a highly polluted period, PM10 samples were collected in an intensive campaign in 2013. The concentrations of particulate matter, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan, mannosan, and galactosan), water-soluble ions, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined to identify the main sources affecting the air quality. The PAHs results were compared to an intensive campaign done in 2012. Backward air masses trajectories were used in other to investigate the influence of remote sources. The average benzo[a]pyrene equivalent index (BaPE) values represented a higher cancer risk in 2013 samples than in 2012; the diagnostic ratios indicated vehicular emissions for both campaigns but fresher particles emission for 2013 campaign. During the 2013 campaign, the samples presented good correlations between OC and EC with monosaccharides, suggesting an influence of biomass burning on the carbonaceous species. Levoglucosan to mannosan ratio indicated the influence of sugarcane burning; the backward air masses trajectories suggested transport of aerosol from the sugarcane production region in 60 % of the sampling days.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0437-9
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2017)
  • Screening of the EMEP source receptor relationships: application to five
           European countries
    • Authors: A. Clappier; H. Fagerli; P. Thunis
      Pages: 497 - 507
      Abstract: In this work, a methodology based on the calculation of potencies and potentials is used to screen modeled emission reduction scenarios performed with the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme/Meteorological Synthesizing Centre-West (EMEP/MSC-W) air quality model. Specific indicators are proposed to look at the results in terms of model processes (potencies) as well as in terms of their impacts on policy (potentials). A specific template to screen the results is also developed and applied. The EMEP/MSC-W model results obtained for 5 EU countries for 5 precursors and 2 levels of emission reductions (15 and 40 %) are analyzed with the following purposes: (i) build confidence in the processes implemented in the model, (ii) identify potential for national abatement versus trans-boundary transport, (iii) assess the relative importance of various precursor emissions, and (iv) estimate the importance of non-linearity with respect to the level of emission reduction chosen and among the precursor emissions. The proposed methodology proves to be very useful for comparing the responses across countries and precursors in a uniform way. The results confirm our knowledge in terms of processes implemented in the EMEP/MSC-W model. The validity of the linear assumption made during the derivation of the EMEP-based source receptor relationships is generally valid although minor non-linearities with respect to NH3 (all countries) and NOx (in Italy) are observed. Because no true reference can be used to assess the quality of the model results in scenario mode, it is important to consider this screening as a benchmark to which other models or updated versions of the EMEP/MSC-W model can be compared to in the future.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0443-y
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2017)
  • Trends and patterns of air quality in Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary
           Islands) in the period 2011–2015
    • Authors: Jose M. Baldasano; Jordi Massagué
      Abstract: Air quality trends and patterns in the coastal city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) for the period 2011–2015 were analyzed. The orographic and meteorological characteristics, the proximity to the African continent, and the influence of the Azores anticyclone in combination with the anthropogenic (oil refinery, road/maritime traffic) and natural emissions create specific dispersion conditions. SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, and O3 pollutants were assessed. The refinery was the primary source of SO2; EU hourly and daily average limit values were exceeded during 2011 and alert thresholds were reached in 2011 and 2012. WHO daily mean guideline was occasionally exceeded. Annual averages in the three stations that registered the highest concentrations in 2011 and 2012 were between 9.3 and 20.4 μg/m3. The spatial analysis of SO2 concentrations with respect to prevailing winds corroborates a clear influence of the refinery to the SO2 levels. In 2014 and 2015, the refinery did not operate and the concentrations fell abruptly to background levels of 2.5–7.1 μg/m3 far below from WHO AQG. NO2 EU limit values, as well as WHO AQG for the period 2011–2015, were not exceeded. The progressive dieselization of the vehicle fleet caused an increment on NO2 annual mean concentrations (from 2011 to 2015) measured at two stations close to busy roads 25 to 31 μg/m3 (+21%) and 27 to 35 μg/m3 (+29%). NO x daily and weekly cycles (working days and weekends) were characterized. An anti-correlation was found between NO x and O3, showing that O3 is titrated by locally emitted NO. Higher O3 concentrations were reported because less NO x emitted during the weekends showing a clear weekend effect. Saharan dust intrusions have a significant impact on PM levels. After subtracting natural sources contribution, none of the stations reached the EU maximum 35 yearly exceedances of daily means despite seldom exceedances at some stations. None of the stations exceeded the annual mean EU limit values; however, many stations exceeded the annual mean WHO AQG. Observed PM10 annual average concentrations in all the stations fluctuated between 10.1 and 35.3 μg/m3, where background concentrations were 6.5–24.4 μg/m3 and natural contributions: 4.2–9.1 μg/m3. No PM10 temporal trends were identified during the period except for an effect of washout due to the rain: concentrations were lower in 2013 and 2014 (the most rainy years of the period). None of the stations reached the PM2.5 annual mean EU 2015 limit value. However, almost all the stations registered daily mean WHO AQG exceedances. During 2015, PM2.5 concentrations were higher than the previous years (2015, 8.8–12.3 μg/m3; 2011–2014, 3.7–9.6 μg/m3). O3 complied with EU target values; stricter WHO AQG were sometimes exceeded in all the stations for the whole time period.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0484-x
  • How does a 10-fold pulse increase of aircraft-related NO x impact the
           global burdens of O 3 and secondary organic aerosol (SOA)?
    • Authors: Nima Afshar-Mohajer; Barron Henderson
      Abstract: Aircraft emissions are an important and growing global source of nitrogen oxides (NO x ). At cruising altitude, the atmosphere is particularly NO x -sensitive and aircraft emissions contribute to ozone (O3) production and oxidation of volatile organic pollutants that ultimately produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Rapid growth of the global fleet of aircraft and the number of flights require a careful investigation on the atmospheric impact of potential increases in total aircraft-emitted NO x . In this study, we simulated atmospheric composition before, during and after two 10× pulses of total aircraft NO x emissions, one in winter and one in summer of 2007. Results showed that the initial NO x enhancement (up to 3.25% averaged over the globe) was removed after the first 2 months and the change in O3 burden increases for 5 months (up to 3.1 and 2.7% averaged over the globe, respectively, for winter and summer perturbations). The NO x and O3 enhancements follow previously observed temporal patterns, but SOA showed strong season-specific results. During the summer, the NO x pulse decreased total secondary organic gases (SOGs) and SOA burdens, suggesting an inverse relationship with enhanced oxidation. During the winter, the NO x pulse increased the SOG and SOA burdens with SOA lagging SOG. The SOG enhancement has a spatio-temporal pattern similar to NO x . The highest changes in SOA and SOG burdens of different regions during the summer and winter pulse increases were below 1.6%. However, O3 pollution with burden increases as high as 8% in the winter months and 6% in the summer months of the northern hemisphere may even represent an air quality concern.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0483-y
  • Combustion-related organic species in temporally resolved urban airborne
           particulate matter
    • Authors: Mary M. Lynam; J. Timothy Dvonch; John M. Turlington; David Olson; Matthew S. Landis
      Abstract: Accurate characterization of the chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) is essential for improved understanding of source attribution and resultant health impacts. To explore this, we conducted ambient monitoring of a suite of 15 combustion-related organic species in temporally resolved PM2.5 samples during an ongoing animal exposure study in a near source environment in Detroit, MI. All of the 15 species detected were above the method detection limit in 8 h samples. This study focused on two molecular classes: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hopanes measured in samples. Of the 12 PAHs studied, benzo[b]fluoranthene (169 pg m−3), benzo[g,h,i]perylene (124 pg m−3), and benzo[e]pyrene (118 pg m−3) exhibited the three highest mean concentrations while 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane (189 pg m−3) and 17α(H),21β(H)-30-norhopane (145 pg m−3) had the highest mean concentrations of the three hopanes analyzed in samples. Ratios of individual compound concentrations to total compound concentrations (∑15 compounds) showed the greatest daily variation for 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane (11–28%) and 17α(H),21β(H)-30-norhopane (8–20%). Diagnostic PAH concentration ratios ([IP]/[IP + BP] (range 0.30–0.45), [BaP]/[BaP + BeP] (range 0.26–0.44), [BaP]/[BP] (range 0.41–0.82), [Bb]/[Bk] (range 2.07–2.66)) in samples reflected impacts from a mixture of combustion sources consistent with greater prevalence of petroleum combustion source emissions (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, and crude oil) compared to coal or wood combustion emissions impacts at this urban site. Results from this study demonstrate that short-duration sampling for organic speciation provides temporally relevant exposure information.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0482-z
  • Respiratory health effects associated with indoor particulate matter (PM
           2.5 ) in children residing near a landfill site in Durban, South Africa
    • Authors: Phiwayinkosi R Gumede; Michael J Savage
      Abstract: Landfill sites are known for their potential for generating particulate matter (PM) which can pose respiratory health problems for people residing in the adjacent communities. As PM2.5 have health impacts on children residing close to landfill sites, it is important to understand the extent to which they are affected. In this investigation, PM2.5 measurements in an indoor environment were conducted to assess its concentration levels and its association with the lung function patterns in children aged between 6 and 12 years residing within a 2-km radius from the Bisasar Road landfill site, the largest formal landfill site in Africa. The study was conducted between November 2013 and January 2014 in the Clare Estate community in Durban, South Africa. Spirometry was conducted in children (n = 23) to obtain respiratory data. The mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) was 82%, mean forced vital capacity (FVC) was 75%, and mean FEV1/FVC was 115%. Furthermore, the study involved indoor PM2.5 measurements from households (n = 23). The 24-h indoor PM2.5 sampling was conducted using a real-time particulate monitor (HAZ-Dust EPAM-5000, Plaistow, USA) in each household. The mean PM2.5 concentration of 76.5 μg m−3 and the range of 202 μg m−3 were observed. A regression model was computed to determine the association between PM2.5 and lung function patterns. A strong statistically significant relationship (p < 0.002) between indoor PM2.5 concentration levels and FVC was observed. The results suggest that residing near the landfill site is associated with an increased likelihood of respiratory effects among children.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0475-y
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