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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1288 journals)
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HEALTH AND SAFETY (520 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 188)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Policy and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health Professions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health
  [SJR: 0.706]   [H-I: 19]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1873-9326 - ISSN (Online) 1873-9318
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Accountability assessment of regulatory impacts on ozone and PM 2.5
           concentrations using statistical and deterministic pollutant sensitivities
    • Authors: Lucas RF Henneman; Howard H Chang; Kuo-Jen Liao; David Lavoué; James A Mulholland; Armistead G Russell
      Pages: 695 - 711
      Abstract: Abstract Since the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the USA has seen dramatic decreases in air pollutant emissions from a wide variety of source sectors, which have led to changes in pollutant concentrations: both up and down. Multiple stakeholders, including policy-makers, industry, and public health professionals, seek to quantify the benefits of regulations on air pollution and public health, a major focus of air pollution accountability research. Two methods, one empirical, the other based on a chemical transport model (CTM), are used to calculate the sensitivities of ozone (O3) and particulate matter with diameters less than 2.5 μ m (PM2.5) to electricity-generating unit (EGU) and mobile source emissions. Both methods are applied to determine impacts of controls on daily concentrations (which are important in assessing acute health responses to air pollution), accounting for nonlinear, meteorologically, and emission-dependent responses of pollutant concentrations. The statistical method separates contributions of nearby EGU, regional EGU, and mobile source emissions on ambient city-center concentrations. Counterfactual emissions, an estimate of emissions under a scenario where no new controls were implemented on local EGU sources after 1995, regional EGUs after 1997, and mobile sources after 1993, are combined with these sensitivities to estimate counterfactual concentrations that represent what daily air quality in Atlanta, GA would have been had controls not been implemented and other emissions-reducing actions not been taken. Regulatory programs are linked with reduced peak summertime O3, but have had little effect on annual median concentrations at the city-center monitoring site, and led to increases in pollutant levels under less photochemically-active conditions. The empirical method and the CTM method found similar relationships between ozone concentrations and ozone sensitivity to anthropogenic emissions. Compared to the counterfactual between 2010 and 2013, the number of days on which O3 (PM2.5) concentrations exceeded 60 p p b (12.0 μ g m −3) was reduced from 396 to 200 (1391 to 222). In 2013, average daily ambient O3 and PM2.5 concentrations were reduced by 1.0 p p b (2 %) and 9.9 μ g m −3 (48 %), respectively, and fourth highest maximum daily average 8-h O3 was reduced by 14 p p b. Comparison of model-derived sensitivities to those derived using empirical methods show coherence, but some important differences, such as the O3 concentration where the sensitivity to NOx emissions changes sign.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0463-2
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2017)
  • Characterization of five-year observation data of fine particulate matter
           in the metropolitan area of Lahore
    • Authors: Fatima Khanum; Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry; Prashant Kumar
      Pages: 725 - 736
      Abstract: This study aims to assess the long-term trend of fine particles (PM2.5; ≤2.5 μm) at two urban sites of Lahore during 2007–2011. These sites represent two distinct areas: commercial (Townhall) and residential cum industrial (Township). The highest daily mean concentrations of PM2.5 were noted as 389 and 354 μg m−3 at the Townhall and Township sites, respectively. As expected, the annual seasonal mean of PM2.5 was about 53 and 101% higher during winter compared with the summer and monsoon/post-monsoon seasons, respectively. On contrary to many observations seen in developing cities, the annual mean PM2.5 during the weekends was higher than weekdays at both monitoring sites. For example, these were 100 (142) and 142 μg m−3 (148) during the weekdays (weekends) at the Townhall and Township sites, respectively. The regression analysis showed a significant positive correlation of PM2.5 with SO2, NO2 and CO as opposed to a negative correlation with O3. The bivariate polar plots suggested a much higher influence of localized sources (e.g., road vehicles) at the Townhall site as opposed to industrial sources affecting the concentrations at the Township site. The imageries from the MODIS Aqua/Terra indicated long-range transport of PM2.5 from India to Pakistan during February to October whereas from Pakistan to India during November to January. This study provides important results in the form of multiscale relationship of PM2.5 with its sources and precursors, which are important to assess the effectiveness of pollution control mitigation strategies in Lahore and similar cities elsewhere. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0464-1
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2017)
  • Analysis of CO 2 monitoring data demonstrates poor ventilation rates in
           Albanian schools during the cold season
    • Authors: Otto Hänninen; Nuno Canha; Alexandra V. Kulinkina; Ilir Dume; Agron Deliu; Elida Mataj; Arben Lusati; Michal Krzyzanowski; Andrey I. Egorov
      Pages: 773 - 782
      Abstract: Abstract Poor ventilation in schools is associated with accumulation of indoor-generated pollutants, which is associated with “stuffy” air, elevated risk of infectious diseases and impaired learning outcomes. This survey in Albania was conducted as part of WHO’s efforts to facilitate assessments of indoor air quality and other environmental factors in schools in the European Region. The survey was conducted in 36 classrooms in 12 middle schools (eight urban and four rural) from December 2011 through March 2012. In each school, carbon dioxide (CO2) was continuously measured in three classrooms during one school week. Ventilation rates during classes were estimated using the build-up and steady-state mass balance equations utilizing CO2 concentration data, classroom occupancy and classroom volume. All 12 schools had gravimetric ventilation systems. Heating systems were absent or not operational in most schools. Average classroom temperatures during lessons varied from 9.1 to 14.4 °C (median 11.7 °C) with lower temperature associated with poorer ventilation. Weekly average CO2 levels during classes ranged from 1286 to 5546 ppm (median 2776 ppm) while average ventilation rates ranged from 0.8 to 3.6 (median 1.8) litres per second per person. Classrooms with indoor combustion heaters had higher indoor temperature, lower CO2 levels and higher levels of carbon monoxide (CO). WHO guidelines on 1- and 8-h CO exposure levels were exceeded in one classroom. Classroom CO2 levels were substantially above and ventilation rates below existing national and international guidelines. Detrimental impacts of poor ventilation on health and learning outcomes are likely to be substantial in Albanian schools during the cold season. Indoor temperature in most classrooms was below the commonly recommended levels.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0469-9
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2017)
  • Air pollution emission inventory and air quality modeling for Can Tho
           City, Mekong Delta, Vietnam
    • Authors: Ho Quoc Bang; Vu Hoang Ngoc Khue; Nguyen Thoai Tam; Kristofer Lasko
      Abstract: Abstract Can Tho City has quickly become a modernized and industrialized city undergoing rapid population growth affecting the local environment, especially air quality and human health. In 2015, Can Tho had 1,251,809 inhabitants with a total of 566,593 motorcycles and 15,105 automobiles. There are about 1000 factories in the city. The top polluters are the industries of textile and dyeing, food processing, cement, and steel mill and rice processing. The aims of this research are to (i) conduct a detailed air pollution emission inventory (ii) study the formation of the air pollution plume over the city, and (iii) study different pollution abatement strategies for the city. We employ a combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches to conduct air pollution emission inventory, then, the finite volume model-transport and photochemistry mesoscale model is applied for studying the formation of the pollution plume. The results showed that transportation and industrial activities are the two main emission sources responsible for 80% of total NO x , 90% of total SO2, 75% of CO, 60% of total suspended particles, and 60% of non-methane volatile organic compounds. Modeling results showed that the highest average—1 h—of O3 is 206 μg/m3 which is higher than the Vietnam ambient air quality standard. The pollution plume is developed in the northeastern part of the city. Finally, abatement measures were proposed. This is the first comprehensive study on air pollution emissions and air quality modeling in the Mekong Delta, yielding insight to support government authorities to promulgate plans and actions to reduce emissions, protecting human health and the environment while leading towards sustainable development.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0512-x
  • Space-time mapping of ground-level PM 2.5 and NO 2 concentrations in
           heavily polluted northern China during winter using the Bayesian maximum
           entropy technique with satellite data
    • Authors: Qutu Jiang; George Christakos
      Abstract: Abstract The accurate and informative space-time mapping of air pollutants is a crucial component of many human exposure studies. In the present work, space-time maps of daily distributions of PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations were generated in the severely polluted northern China region using the Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) method. This method can incorporate hard PM2.5 and NO2 data (obtained at ground-level monitoring sites), and various kinds of soft (uncertain) data, including satellite data processed in terms of machine learning techniques, meteorological variables, and geographical predictors. The BME maps of space-time PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations over northern China generated during the winter season (when severe haze episodes occur frequently) were realistic and informative. As regards their numerical accuracy, for the space-time PM2.5 estimates, the tenfold cross-validation R 2 and the RMSE were, respectively, 0.86 and 14.37 μg/m3; for the space-time NO2 estimates, the R 2 and RMSE values were, respectively, 0.85 and 6.93 μg/m3. Lastly, it was shown that the BME method performed better than the mainstream spatiotemporal ordinary kriging technique in terms of the higher R 2 values of both the predicted PM2.5 and NO2 concentration maps.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0514-8
  • Respiratory deposition and health risk of inhalation of particle-bound
           heavy metals in the carbon black feeding area of a tire manufacturer
    • Authors: Chia-Hsiang Lai; Chia-Hua Lin; Chang-Chun Liao
      Abstract: Abstract The health effects of metal-containing carbon black (CB) particles obtained from the CB feeding area of a tire manufacturing plant were investigated. Atmospheric samples were collected over 24 h for 20 working days in 2016 using the 12 impaction stages of micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor, and metal-containing particles were analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. The concentration of total particulate matter in the CB feeding area was 944.8 ± 456.4 μg/m3, and the most abundant elements in the samples include Zn (8622.0 ± 5679.0 ng/m3), Al (3113.3 ± 2017.1 ng/m3), and Fe (1519.1 ± 875.0 ng/m3). Carcinogenic metals (Cd, Co, Cr, and Ni) with the mass median diameter were incorporated in submicron particles. The mean total deposition flux in the head airway (HA) region was approximately 16–30 times higher than that in the tracheobronchial (TB) region and alveolar region (AR). The most abundant deposition flux of heavy metals in the AR and TB region was distributed in particles of less than 3.2 μm. The cancer risk presented by carcinogenic metals (Cd, Co, Cr, and Ni) in total particles to CB feeding workers ranged from 5.52 × 10−4 to 5.65 × 10−2, which is substantially higher than the acceptable cancer risk range 10−6–10−4. In particular, the cancer risk presented by these four metals in ultrafine particles (UFPs) exceeded the 10−6 benchmark level. These results demonstrate the high health risk presented by particle-bound heavy metals to workers in a CB feeding area via inhalation exposure.
      PubDate: 2017-09-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0515-7
  • Large-scale weather patterns favorable for volcanic smog occurrences on
           O’ahu, Hawai’i
    • Authors: Kristine Tofte; Pao-Shin Chu; Gary M. Barnes
      Abstract: Abstract Kīlauea Volcano, located on the Island of Hawai’i, released approximately 3700 t of sulfur dioxide (SO2) per day from April 2009 through 2014. Within the atmosphere, SO2 is oxidized and converted to sulfuric-acid aerosols, and this volcanic smog is commonly referred to as vog. This study focuses on large-scale weather patterns that bring vog to O’ahu. The Hawai’i State Department of Health PM2.5 measurements were used to identify elevated vog conditions, and a total of 101 vog days were found. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ERA-Interim reanalysis data were used to determine weather patterns. These 101 vog days were the result of 57 distinct vog events lasting from 3 h up to 4 days. The 57 events were further categorized into three large-scale weather patterns: pre-cold fronts (37 cases), upper-level disturbances (17 cases), and Kona lows (3 cases). The pre-cold front events had variable duration lasting up to 4 days, and the largest vog concentrations occurred during long-duration pre-cold front events. Trade winds did not transport vog to O’ahu. As part of this effort, ERA-Interim data were downscaled to a resolution of 10 km and then 3.3 km using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The downscaled reanalysis data were used as input by the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model. The HYSPLIT model allowed for a visual representation of how vog is advected by large-scale wind patterns.
      PubDate: 2017-09-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0502-z
  • Using spatio-temporal land use regression models to address spatial
           variation in air pollution concentrations in time series studies
    • Authors: Konstantina Dimakopoulou; Alexandros Gryparis; Klea Katsouyanni
      Abstract: Abstract Time series studies are used to assess the effects of short-term exposures to PM10 and NO2 on mortality using an integrated pollutant series taken to characterize exposure over a large area. We propose using spatio-temporal land use regression (LUR) models by smaller geographical sectors within an area of interest to account for spatial variability in these studies. Based on model-estimated time series, we conducted a case-crossover analysis for each sub-sector within two larger areas of interest (Athens and Thessaloniki, Greece) separately to investigate heterogeneity and provide combined results if appropriate. As sensitivity analysis, we compared the case-crossover method to classical time series analysis and also to using fixed site measurements only. For PM10 exposures in Athens, we found consistent adverse effects which were larger when using spatio-temporal LUR modeled concentrations (total mortality RR 2.55 and 95% CI − 0.30 to 5.39) compared to measurements (RR 0.36 and 95% CI − 0.21 to 0.93). For NO2, we found a similar magnitude in the effects, when using measurements from fixed sites (RR 0.81 and 95% CI 0.39 to 1.22) and modeled levels (RR 0.71 and 95% CI 0.14 to 1.28). Analysis by geographical sector did not add information over a unified analysis for the whole area. The effect estimates using classical Poisson regression time series yielded consistently smaller size effects compared to the case-crossover method. Our analysis demonstrates the potential of using spatio-temporal models in time series analysis for short-term air pollution effects to account for spatial variability in addition to the temporal.
      PubDate: 2017-09-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0500-1
  • Reproducibly emitting reference materials for volatile and semi-volatile
           organic compounds—using finite element modeling for emission predictions
    • Authors: Birte Mull; Tilman Sauerwald; Caroline Schultealbert; Wolfgang Horn; Doris Brödner; Matthias Richter
      Abstract: Abstract Recent research into emissions of (semi-)volatile organic compounds [(S)VOC] from solid materials has focused on the development of suitable reference materials for quality assurance/quality control of emission test chamber measurements, which fulfill requirements such as homogenous and reproducible (S)VOC release. The approach of this study was to find a method for preparation of a material with predictable (S)VOC emission rates. A VOC (styrene) and an SVOC (2,6-diisopropylnaphthalene, DIPN), loaded into either vacuum grease or a 1:1 mixture of paraffin/squalane, have been tested. For the prediction of the emission rates, a model using the finite element method (FEM) was created to simulate the (S)VOC emission profiles. Theoretical and experimental results obtained in a Micro-Chamber/Thermal Extractor (μ-CTE™) and in 24 L emission test chamber measurements were in good agreement. Further properties were investigated concerning the material applicability, such as shelf life and inter-laboratory comparability. The maximum relative standard deviation in the inter-laboratory study was found to be 20%.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0508-6
  • Particulate matter intake fractions for vehicular emissions at elementary
    • Authors: Weeberb J. Requia; Matthew D. Adams; Altaf Arain; Mark Ferguson
      Abstract: Air pollution around schools has been considered a crucial concern worldwide, as children are at school for a large part of the day. A growing body of evidence finds that schools are located in areas with high levels of air pollutants with significant contributions from motor vehicles. Determining children exposure to air pollutants at schools is crucial for disease prevention and control. In this paper, we evaluated PM2.5 intake fractions for vehicular emissions at elementary schools in Hamilton, Canada. Specifically, we estimated the mass inhalation of PM2.5 (that comes from traffic) by children considering two environments: outdoor (during drop-off period) and indoor (during class period). We evaluated PM2.5 intake fractions (iF) for vehicular emissions in 32,298 students from 86 elementary schools in Hamilton. Indoor exposure presented the highest iF. On average, each student inhales 0.53 × 10−6 ppm daily during the drop-off time (outdoor exposure) and 13.06 ppm daily during class hours (indoor exposure). Considering time spent in classes, this estimate indicates that approximately 13 g of PM2.5 emitted from motor vehicles is inhaled for every million grams of PM2.5 emitted. Our sensitivity analysis showed that traffic emissions were the variable that affects the iF most during outdoor and indoor exposure. Our findings can help in future investigations to advance environmental health effects research, especially on children’s health and human health risk assessment. Our results are important for future public policies related to transportation, environmental health, and urban planning, including air pollution and location of schools. Graphical abstract ᅟ
      PubDate: 2017-09-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0510-z
  • Distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in atmospheric
           particles during district heating period (DHP) and non-district heating
           period (N-DHP) in Shandong province, China
    • Authors: Guiqin Zhang; Ning Wang; Xiang Cheng; Youmin Sun; Huaizhong Yan; Chunzhu Chen
      Abstract: Abstract Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), phthalic acid esters (PAEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were systemically investigated in total solid particles (TSPs) sampled at seven sites in Shandong province, China. The congener profile and space distribution were compared during district heating period (DHP) in winter and non-district heating period (N-DHP) in spring. The air pollution at in-land sites was worse than that at seashore sites due to the different ventilation conditions and pollutant sources. The concentrations of PAHs associated to the distribution of TSP, severer in DHP, since coal burning was the major source for both pollutants, according to the analysis of these results and diagnostic ratios. FLT, PYR, and BBF were top PAH congeners by specific mass concentrations. On the profile, OCPs, PCBs, and PAEs were more related to the ambient temperature due to the evaporation and revealed higher abundancy in N-DHP than in DHP. Based on the diagnostic ratio analysis, the source of pollution was more likely local than remote.
      PubDate: 2017-09-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0509-5
  • Multivariate statistical analyses of air pollutants and meteorology in
           Chicago during summers 2010-2012
    • Authors: Katrina Binaku; Martina Schmeling
      Abstract: Abstract Aerosol, trace gas, and meteorological data were collected in Chicago, Illinois during 2010–2012 summer air studies. Ozone, nitrogen oxides, acetate, formate, chloride, nitrate, sulfate, and oxalate concentrations as well as temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and humidity data were explored by both principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA). Multivariate statistical techniques were applied to uncover existing relationships between meteorology and air pollutant concentrations and also reduce data dimensions. In PCA, principal components (PCs) revealed a relationship of ozone and nitrate concentrations with respect to temperature and humidity, coupled with transport of species from the south in relation to the sampling site (PC1). PC2 was a measure of secondary aerosols but also suggested acetate and formate presence was a result of primary emissions or transport. Both PC3 and PC4 contained residual information with the former representing days of lower pollution and the latter representing northerly wind transport of chloride, nitrate, and ozone to the sampling site. In CCA, three canonical functions were statistically significant. The first indicated high temperature and low wind speed had a strong linear relationship ozone, oxalate, and nitrogen oxide concentrations whereas the second function showed a strong influence of wind direction on acetate, formate, and chloride concentrations. Residuals of temperature, wind speed, trace gases, and oxalate also were in the second function. The only new information in the third function was humidity. Overall, PCA and CCA bring forth multivariable relationships, not represented in descriptive statistics, useful in understanding pollution variability.
      PubDate: 2017-09-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0507-7
  • Effects of transport patterns on chemical composition of sequential rain
           samples: trajectory clustering and principal component analysis approach
    • Authors: Ismail Anil; Omar Alagha; Ferhat Karaca
      Abstract: Abstract The chemical composition and long-range transportation (LRT) of rain events were assessed in this study. For this purpose, a fully automated wet-only sequential sampler was used to differentiate between washout and rainout processes. The chemical composition of elements (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) and ions (F−, Cl−, NO3 −, SO4 −2, and NH4 +) were quantified in 172 rainwater samples. Cluster analysis (CA) statistical approach was used to classify the back trajectories of the rain events. The CA revealed a seven-cluster solution which provided better explanations for the effects of possible source regions on the receptor site. Consequently, principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on the normalized cluster-based mean concentrations of the chemical species in order to statistically identify the similarities among the clusters. In conclusion, there were four main sources which strongly affected the chemical composition of precipitation in the study area namely: (i) anthropogenic pollutants from Southwestern and Eastern Europe, (ii) Saharan dust intrusion from Northern Africa, (iii) resuspension of crustal material from nearby regions, and (iv) marine aerosols from Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The proposed methodology combining trajectory cluster analysis, chemical analysis, and principal component analysis was satisfactory to identify the source regions of the trajectories carrying the observed pollutants to the study area.
      PubDate: 2017-08-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0504-x
  • Global population exposed to fine particulate pollution by population
           increase and pollution expansion
    • Authors: Lijian Han; Weiqi Zhou; Weifeng Li; Yuguo Qian
      Abstract: Abstract Ambient fine particulate (PM2.5) pollution threatens public health. Previous studies have primarily focused on PM2.5 estimation, with the quantitative analysis of public exposure and the reason for increased risk receiving limited attention. Quantitative information is essential for environmental risk estimation. Thus, we collected PM2.5 data and population records to illustrate the spatiotemporal patterns of PM2.5 pollution and to quantify public vulnerability and the cause of increased exposure at global, regional, and country scales from 2000 to 2010, following the air quality standards of the World Health Organization. We found that 11.0 × 106 km2 (8%) of the global terrestrial area was exposed to PM2.5 pollution (> 35 μg/m3) in 2010, an addition of 4.3 × 106 km2 since 2000. Furthermore, by 2010, 1.94 billion (30%) people worldwide were exposed to PM2.5 pollution, including 966 and 778 million in Eastern and Southern Asia, respectively, comprising 962 million in China and 543 million in India. After 2000, the vulnerability of 698 million people to PM2.5 pollution increased, including 356 and 280 million in Southern and Eastern Asia, respectively, accounting for 279 million in China and 253 million in India. Moreover, 25% of the global vulnerability increase was from local population growth, and 75% was due to pollution expansion. Specifically, 26 and 16% of the increase in public vulnerability in Southern and Eastern Asia (22 and 16% in India and China), respectively, were from local population growth. We suggest that countries in which migration has contributed to an increase in public vulnerability should balance pollutant emission reduction and migration control to reduce vulnerability. In addition, cooperation between the government and public could help mitigate global pollution as well as environmental and human health risks.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0506-8
  • Indoor air quality in urban and rural kindergartens: short-term studies in
           Silesia, Poland
    • Authors: Ewa Błaszczyk; Wioletta Rogula-Kozłowska; Krzysztof Klejnowski; Piotr Kubiesa; Izabela Fulara; Danuta Mielżyńska-Švach
      Abstract: Abstract More than 80% of people living in urban areas who monitor air pollution are exposed to air quality levels that exceed limits defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Although all regions of the world are affected, populations in low-income cities are the most impacted. According to average annual levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5, ambient particles with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less) presented in the urban air quality database issued by WHO in 2016, as many as 33 Polish cities are among the 50 most polluted cities in the European Union (EU), with Silesian cities topping the list. The aim of this study was to characterize the indoor air quality in Silesian kindergartens based on the concentrations of gaseous compounds (SO2, NO2), PM2.5, and the sum of 15 PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including PM2.5-bound benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), as well as the mutagenic activity of PM2.5 organic extracts in Salmonella assay (strains: TA98, YG1024). The assessment of the indoor air quality was performed taking into consideration the pollution of the atmospheric air (outdoor). I/O ratios (indoor/outdoor concentration) for each investigated parameter were also calculated. Twenty-four-hour samples of PM2.5, SO2, and NO2 were collected during spring in two sites in southern Poland (Silesia), representing urban and rural areas. Indoor samples were taken in naturally ventilated kindergartens. At the same time, in the vicinity of the kindergarten buildings, the collection of outdoor samples of PM2.5, SO2, and NO2 was carried out. The content of BaP and the sum of 15 studied PAHs was determined in each 24-h sample of PM2.5 (indoor and outdoor). In the urban site, statistically lower concentrations of SO2 and NO2 were detected indoors compared to outdoors, whereas in the rural site, such a relationship was observed only for NO2. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations of PM2.5, PM2.5-bound BaP, and Σ15 PAHs in kindergartens (indoor) versus atmospheric (outdoor) air in the two studied areas were identified. Mutagenic effect of indoor PM2.5 samples was twice as low as in outdoor samples. The I/O ratios indicated that all studied air pollutants in the urban kindergarten originated from the ambient air. In the rural site concentrations of SO2, PM2.5 and BaP in the kindergarten were influenced by internal sources (gas and coal stoves).
      PubDate: 2017-08-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0505-9
  • A novel approach for characterizing neighborhood-level trends in
           particulate matter using concentration and size fraction distributions: a
           case study in Charleston, SC
    • Authors: John Pearce; Adwoa Commodore; Brian Neelon; Raymond Boaz; Matthew Bozigar; Sacoby Wilson; Erik Svendsen
      Abstract: Abstract In this study, we aim to illustrate how novel technologies and methodologies can be used to enhance neighborhood level studies of ambient particulate matter (PM). This is achieved by characterizing temporal and spatial features of PM levels and by assessing patterns in particle size composition using simultaneous measures across multiple size fraction ranges in Charleston, SC, USA. The study is conducted in three stages: (1) we monitor real-time PM concentrations for the following: PM ≤ 15 μm, PM ≤ 10 μm, PM ≤ 4 μm, PM ≤ 2.5 μm, and PM ≤ 1 μm at five locations during February–July, 2016; (2) we apply a generalized additive model (GAM) to assess temporal and spatial trends in PM2.5 after controlling for meteorology, instrument, and temporal confounders; and (3) we employ a self-organizing map (SOM) to identify hourly profiles that characterize the types of size fraction distribution compositions measured at our sites. Monitoring results found that average PM2.5 levels during our ‘snapshot’ monitoring were 6–8 μg/m3 at our sites, with 95th percentiles ranging from 9 to 13 μg/m3. GAM results identified that temporal peaks for PM2.5 occurred during the early morning hours (6–8 am) across all sites and that the marginal means for four of our inland sites were significantly different (higher) than a waterfront site. SOM results identified six hourly profiles, ranging from hours when all size fractions were relatively low, to hours dominated by single size fractions (e.g., PM1), and to hours when multiple size fractions were relatively high (e.g., PM15–10 and PM10-PM2.5). Frequency and duration distributions show variability in the occurrence and persistence of each hourly type. Collectively, our findings reveal the complexity of PM behavior across a relatively small geographic region and illustrate the potential usefulness of using size fraction composition to better understand air quality. However, it is important to note that this study only presents a snapshot of air quality and that longer monitoring periods are recommended for more definitive characterizations.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0503-y
  • Oxidative potential of PM10 and PM2.5 collected at high air pollution site
           related to chemical composition: Krakow case study
    • Authors: Katarzyna Styszko; Lucyna Samek; Katarzyna Szramowiat; Anna Korzeniewska; Klaudia Kubisty; Roksana Rakoczy-Lelek; Magdalena Kistler; Anne Kasper Giebl
      Abstract: Abstract Measurements of the oxidative potential (OP) of airborne particulate matter may be applied for the assessment of the health-based exposure by integrating various biologically relevant properties of particles. This study aimed at the determination of oxidative activity of two size fractions of particulate using the ascorbic acid (AA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) assay. Samples of PM were collected in Krakow, one of the most polluted cities in Poland, in the city centre. Samples were collected during wintertime, when heating sources used in residential areas have significant influence on the concentrations of particulate matter in the air. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations varied from 8.9 to 92.5 μg m−3. Samples were chemically analysed for elemental carbon, organic carbon, ions and metals. PM2.5 was found as a more oxidative active fraction, where OPAA and OPGSH depletions were up to 81.7 and 132.0 μg m−3, respectively. The average values of OPAA of PM10 and PM2.5 were similar and equalled 40.8 and 37.2 μg m−3, respectively. The average value of OPGSH of PM2.5 equalled 56.7 μg m−3 and was 3.5 times higher than OPGSH of PM10. The loss of AA amount in PM10 and PM2.5 and the depletion of GSH in PM2.5 were best described by the pseudo second-order kinetics model. The kinetics of the GSH depletion reaction in PM10 was best described by the pseudo first-order kinetics model. The strong correlations between carbonaceous and metallic constituents of PM and oxidative potential suggest their relevance in participation in oxidative activity of particulate matter.
      PubDate: 2017-08-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0499-3
  • Building-specific factors affecting indoor radon concentration variations
           in different regions in Bulgaria
    • Authors: Kremena Ivanova; Zdenka Stojanovska; Martina Tsenova; Bistra Kunovska
      Abstract: Abstract The study was conducted to assess the spatiality of the building factors’ effect on air quality through evaluation of indoor radon concentration in areas with different geology and geographical position. For that matter, a survey of indoor radon concentration was carried out in 174 kindergartens of three Bulgarian cities. The time-integrated measurements were performed in 777 ground floor rooms using alpha tract detectors, exposed for 3 months in cold period of 2014. The results of indoor radon concentrations vary from 20 to 1117 Bq/m3. The differences in the mean radon concentrations measured in the different cities were related to geology. The effect of building-specific factors: elevator, basement, mechanical ventilation, type of windows, number of floors, building renovation, building materials, type of room, type of heating, construction period, and availability of foundation on radon concentration variations was examined applying univariate and multivariate analysis. Univariate analysis showed that the effects of building-specific factors on radon variation are different in different cities. The influence of building factors on radon concentration variations was more dominant in inland cities in comparison to the city situated on the sea coast. The multivariate analysis, which was applied to evaluate the impact of building factors simultaneously, confirmed this influence too.
      PubDate: 2017-08-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0501-0
  • Regulation of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) in the Pacific Rim:
           perspectives from the APRU Global Health Program
    • Authors: Chang-Fu Wu; Alistair Woodward; Ya-Ru Li; Haidong Kan; Rajasekhar Balasubramanian; Mohd Talib Latif; Mazrura Sahani; Tsun-Jen Cheng; Chia-Pin Chio; Nutta Taneepanichskul; Ho Kim; Chang-Chuan Chan; Seung-Muk Yi; Mellissa Withers; Jonathan Samet
      Abstract: Abstract While the development of evidence-based air quality standards for airborne particulate matter (PM) for Europe and North America is well-documented, the standard-setting processes in other regions are less well characterized. Many Pacific Rim economies suffer from severe and worsening air pollution. Particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) is associated with acute and chronic health effects and is a widely used air quality indicator. This paper reports on PM regulation in selected Pacific Rim economies, focusing on PM2.5, and provides recommendations on air quality regulation to economies without current standards Through workshops held by the Association of Pacific Rim Universities (APRU) Global Health Program, experts in air pollution from eight universities in eight Pacific Rim economies characterized current PM2.5 standards and monitoring in their economies, and then collaboratively created recommendations. A great diversity of air pollution exposures exists in the Pacific Rim. While some economies experience low levels of exposure, others have PM levels that are among the highest in the world. The health effects of air pollution are a concern everywhere, but few economies carry out in-depth, local impact assessments and comprehensive air quality monitoring to provide evidence for guidelines and standards. The development of regulations and policies addressing PM2.5 pollution is urgently needed in many Pacific Rim economies. The international literature provides a robust guide to local risks and should be used, in combination with country-specific population-directed air monitoring, to guide decisions on policies addressing this important global health problem.
      PubDate: 2017-08-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0492-x
  • Microbial population structure in near-ground aerosols during fog-haze
           days in northern China
    • Authors: Yunping Han; Mengzhu Zhang; Lin Li; Junxin Liu
      Abstract: Abstract Studies on microbial populations in near-ground aerosols during fog–haze days could help enhance our knowledge concerning the relationship between fog–haze and human health. In this study, microbial populations in aerosols near-ground during a fog–haze event in Beijing were analyzed using clone library methods. Results showed that the bacterial diversity in aerosols during fog–haze days was lower than that after fog–haze days. Proteobacteria alone and Proteobacteria with Firmicutes were respectively detected in 1.5 and 20 m aerosols during fog–haze days. In addition to Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes alone and Acidobacteria with Verrucomicrobia were respectively found in aerosols at 20 and 1.5 m after fog–haze days. The fungal species observed during fog–haze days were completely different from those detected after fog–haze days. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were respectively detected during and after fog–haze days. The distribution of microbial diversity in aerosols exhibited meteorological and site-associated variations. The same potential pathogenic microorganisms were detected at different heights during fog–haze days. This study on the characteristics of microbial population in aerosols could provide a comprehensive understanding of the factors causing the harmful effects of particles on humans during fog–haze days.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0498-4
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