Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1540 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (724 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (387 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (108 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (130 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (724 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Adversity and Resilience Science : Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AJOB Empirical Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Akademika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 269)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences: Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Apuntes Universitarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Suicide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archivos de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atención Primaria Práctica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biosafety and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biosalud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Birat Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Boletin Médico de Postgrado     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
British Journal of Health Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos de Saúde     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Carta Comunitaria     Open Access  
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
CASUS : Revista de Investigación y Casos en Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
CES Salud Pública     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia & Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia & Trabajo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Innovación en Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciencia y Salud Virtual     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cities & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical and Experimental Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clocks & Sleep     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuaderno de investigaciones: semilleros andina     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cuadernos de la Escuela de Salud Pública     Open Access  
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Design for Health     Hybrid Journal  
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Diversity and Equality in Health and Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Diversity of Research in Health Journal     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drogues, santé et société     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Düzce Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi / Journal of Duzce University Health Sciences Institute     Open Access  
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência : Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
EsSEX : Revista Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios sociales : Revista de alimentación contemporánea y desarrollo regional     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethics & Human Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Eurasian Journal of Health Technology Assessment     Open Access  
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Family & Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 15)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare : Finjehew     Open Access  
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Digital Health     Open Access  
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers of Health Services Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ganesha Journal     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gestão e Desenvolvimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Advances in Health and Medicine     Open Access  
Global Challenges     Open Access  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Global Health Annual Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Health Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Reproductive Health     Open Access  
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Transitions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastane Öncesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
HCU Journal     Open Access  
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Health and Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health and Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.862
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 7  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1873-9326 - ISSN (Online) 1873-9318
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Has air quality improved in Ecuador during the COVID-19 pandemic' A
           parametric analysis
    • Abstract: Abstract Many governments around the world have enforced quarantine policies to control the spread of the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). These policies have had positive and negative effects on the environment. For example, the concentrations of certain harmful pollutants have decreased in some countries. In contrast, the concentrations of other pollutants have increased. This research analyzes the effect of quarantine policies on air quality in Quito, Ecuador. Using a parametric approach, it was found that NO2 and PM2.5 concentrations have decreased significantly since the establishment of lockdown measures. However, O3 concentrations have increased considerably in 2020.
      PubDate: 2020-07-06
       
  • Spatial distribution of magnetic material in urban road dust classified by
           land use and type of road in San Luis Potosí, Mexico
    • Abstract: Abstract Industrial and vehicular emissions of particles cause multiple damages to human health due to concentration, size, and composition. These emissions contain magnetic particles; therefore, low-cost properties allow tracking and monitoring them. This study is aimed at identifying the primary sources of magnetic material in 100 samples of urban road dust from San Luis Potosí, Mexico, analyzing the influence of land use and the type of road on these particles. Magnetic susceptibility (χlf) and isothermal remanent magnetization at 0.7 T (IRM0.7T) were determined, as well as the iron and manganese content using X-ray fluorescence. The distribution of particles was examined by land use and type of road through geostatistical maps and variance analysis. The results showed that the iron and manganese content, χlf, and IRM0.7T were positively correlated, indicating a possible common origin. The primary sources identified were the iron smelter and laminator in the industrial park. Urban land use influenced the content of iron, manganese, and magnetic material in urban road dust. The land uses with the more significant transformation (industrial and mixed) presented the highest values of iron, manganese, χlf, and IRM0.7T. On the other hand, vehicular traffic was indirectly assessed through the type of road, influencing the magnetic signal of urban road dust and finding the highest signals in primary and secondary roads. Then, the magnetic properties allowed the tracking and monitoring of magnetic particles from industrial and vehicle emissions.
      PubDate: 2020-07-04
       
  • Climate comfort depending on different altitudes and land use in the urban
           areas in Kahramanmaras City
    • Abstract: Abstract Climate comfort based caused by geographical conditions has influenced human activities, living standards, and even settlement forms from the early ages and continuous to so in our time. People have been coming up with various solutions in order to adapt to climatic conditions since the dawn of humanity. Despite the technological advancement that resulted in the manufacturing of climate and thermal control devices and equipment, the periodical change of settlements in certain areas is observed to this day. Kahramanmaras and the surrounding city serve as an example wherein climate comfort changes with time and location. The main objective of this research is to determine hourly climate comfort and the adaptation of people in and around city. Climate data were hourly organized, PET index was established to determine the climate comfort, and these indices were classified according to the psychology diagram equivalent to the temperature. Later, the climate comfort maps obtained spatially were superimposed on the city settlements. It has been determined that throughout the city planning, people moved and developed a different way of life due to the temporal-spatial variation of climate comfort. This movement has gathered pace due to the effect of summer heat waves which is a direct result of urban heat islands and climate change. It is necessary that this situation should be reflected in climate comfort-based planning.
      PubDate: 2020-07-04
       
  • Characteristics and health risk assessments of heavy metals in PM 2.5 in
           Taiyuan and Yuci college town, China
    • Abstract: Abstract To clarify the pollution sources of heavy metals in PM2.5 and the health risks posed by them in heating and non-heating seasons, 42 samples were collected in 2017 and 2018 in Taiyuan and Yuci college town, China. Elemental analysis of the PM2.5 samples through acid-dissolved plasma mass spectrometry was performed to determine the concentrations of 10 elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn). We determined the types of pollution sources by enrichment factor (EF) and principal component analysis (PCA). We performed a health risk assessment based on the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines and the database of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) to assess both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of the heavy metals to adults and children. The results indicate that the EF values of all 10 elements were greater than 1, suggesting anthropogenic sources in both heating and non-heating seasons. PCA revealed that the three main components were soot dust, metal smelting emission, and industrial dust. Regarding the health risks caused by the heavy metals, children were more susceptible to non-carcinogenic risks than adults, and people faced higher non-carcinogenic risks during the heating season. For carcinogenic risk, Cr has the highest risk coefficient (1.68 × 10−4), higher than the US EPA’s threshold (1.00 × 10−6). People were exposed to carcinogenic risk. The study explored specific pollution sources and explained their effect on health to assist with the development of prevention and control measures.
      PubDate: 2020-07-04
       
  • The relationship between black carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
           exposures and mortality in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania
    • Abstract: Abstract Black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are components of fine particulate matter associated with adverse health outcomes. However, limited work has examined the effects of PM constituents on mortality risk. Our multiple regression analysis evaluated the association of estimated neighborhood-level average fine particulate matter (PM2.5), BC, and PAH concentrations for 2013 obtained from local-scale land use regression models with 2007–2011 census tract-level age-adjusted non-accidental, cardiovascular, pulmonary, cancer, and other mortality rates in Allegheny County, PA. Models were further adjusted for census tract-level race, education, and health insurance status. In our adjusted models, estimated pollutant concentrations were not consistently associated with mortality. Only one model’s effect estimate did not include the null value, although the relationship was opposite of our original hypothesis. An interquartile range (0.25 μg/m3) increase in BC concentration was associated with a 5.9% (95% CI − 11.07, − 0.36%) decrease in log-transformed cancer mortality. However, in all mortality categories, education and health insurance covariates had a robust association with outcomes. We did not find a consistent relationship between pollutant exposures and age-adjusted mortality rates in Allegheny County, PA. However, having health insurance and having greater than a high school diploma were associated with lower mortality risk.
      PubDate: 2020-07-04
       
  • The economic burden of mortality and morbidity due to air pollution in
           Tehran, Iran: a systematic review
    • Abstract: Introduction Today, air pollution is creating a huge economic burden on communities by causing deaths and various diseases. The present study aimed to systematically review the economic burden of mortality and morbidity of air pollution and the methods for measuring these costs in Tehran, Iran. Method A literature search of online databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Sciences, Embase, and Ovid) was searched through August 1, 2019, by using the appropriate English keywords. Also, Iran Medex, Barkat, and Magiran databases were searched for Persian articles. Results Four English and two Persian studies were included in this review. All the articles investigated the economic burden of mortality due to air pollution, in which five, one, and one studies used value of statistical life, compensation payment, and human capital approach. The economic burden of mortality due to air pollution was estimated at $ 316 million to $ 2630 million. Also, five studies (83%) investigated the economic burden of morbidity due to air pollution, in which three, two, and one studies used the cost of illness, percentage of mortality costs, and willingness to pay methods, respectively. The economic burden of morbidity due to air pollution was estimated at $ 236 million to $ 546 million. Conclusion By systematically reviewing and emphasizing on different methods of measuring the economic burden of mortality and morbidity caused by air pollution, the results show that air pollution is a serious problem in Tehran. Nevertheless, appropriate methods should be used to measure costs to get robust and reliable results.
      PubDate: 2020-06-29
       
  • Analysis of PM 10 , Pb, Cd, and Ni atmospheric concentrations during
           domestic heating season in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, from 2010 to
           2019
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper examines atmospheric concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm (PM10) and related particle-phase toxic heavy metals Cd, Ni, and Pb during domestic heating seasons from 2010 to 2019 in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. In total, 242 daily PM10 samples were collected using medium and high volume air samplers. The mean daily PM10 mass concentration for all measurements is 75.16 μg/m3 (with the range of 28.77–149.00 μg/m3). Variation of ambient PM10 was observed throughout the study in different years. Hourly values for PM10 measurements during two heating seasons are also presented. Metal concentrations in PM10 were analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Quantities of atmospheric mass concentrations of studied trace metals were observed in the following order: Pb > Ni > Cd. The mean concentrations of metals varied with Pb showing the highest concentration (ranging from 1.38 to 234.00 ng/m3), Ni ranging from 0.87 to 42.43 ng/m3, and Cd showing the lowest concentration ranging from 0.26 to 10.09 ng/m3. The concentration of Pb and Cd in PM10 was strongly correlated, suggesting a common source or dependence of these metals in PM10 in Sarajevo. Bioaccessibility of metals in the synthetic gastric juice was also estimated. The quantities of average bioaccessible metal fractions in PM10 samples showed the following trend: Cd > Pb > Ni. The health risk assessment shows that the population of Sarajevo is at increased lifetime risk of experiencing cancer because of exposure to these Cd concentrations in PM10. In addition, parallel PM10 sampling on two samplers showed that obtained results are highly comparable.
      PubDate: 2020-06-29
       
  • Spatial heterogeneity of factors influencing transportation CO 2 emissions
           in Chinese cities: based on geographically weighted regression model
    • Abstract: Abstract Based on the 2015 transportation CO2 emissions and economic and social data for the 286 cities in China, exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) method and a geographically weighted regression (GWR) model were used to analyze the spatial distribution characteristics of transportation CO2 emissions and their influencing factors. The results showed that the CO2 emissions from urban transportation in China featured significant spatial agglomeration. The high emission areas were mainly concentrated in Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing, Chengdu, Nanjing, and other regional core cities, while the low emission areas were mainly concentrated in the cities of Gansu, Guizhou, Yunnan, and other underdeveloped provinces. Considering the overall evolution of the factors affecting transportation CO2 emissions, private car ownership, technological innovation, and industrial structure correlated positively with transportation CO2 emissions. Population density, urbanization rate, per capita urban road area, and transportation structure could significantly inhibit transportation CO2 emissions. The impact of per capita GDP, public transportation, and environmental regulation on transportation CO2 emissions was insignificant. From the perspective of spatial heterogeneity, there were significant regional differences in the impact of various factors on CO2 emissions. Private car ownership, technological innovation capacity, and per capita GDP all had a positive impact on transportation CO2 emissions. Urbanization rate, urban road area per capita, and transportation structure all had a negative impact on transportation CO2 emissions. Population density, industrial structure, public transportation, and environmental regulation all had a two-way impact on transportation CO2 emissions in different cities.
      PubDate: 2020-06-26
       
  • Measurement of size-fractionated atmospheric particulate matter and
           associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Mumbai, India, and their
           dry deposition fluxes
    • Abstract: Abstract Size-fractionated particulate matter (PM), associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and their dry deposition fluxes were measured in a coastal urban environment of Mumbai, India. PM samples were collected using a variable configuration cascade impactor (VCCI) with 11 size fractionation stages. Dry deposition samples were collected using a round-bottomed PVC tray. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the identification and quantification of PAHs in samples. PM were observed to range between 58 and 130 μg m−3, with a mean dry deposition flux of 1298 mg m−2 day−1. Observed PM concentrations during the sampling period were found to be well above the WHO Air Quality Guidelines. A strong linear correlation was observed between the gravitational settling velocities and estimated dry deposition velocities for PM. Concentrations of PAHs associated with PM were observed to be in the range 101–145 ng m−3 while their dry deposition fluxes varied from 1008 to 1160 ng m−2 month−1. The molecular diagnostic ratios (MDRs) indicated that sources of PAHs in the study area were petrogenic as well as non-traffic. The dry deposition velocities calculated for PAHs were in the order of 10−4 cm s−1 to 10−3 cm s−1 in the entire size range.
      PubDate: 2020-06-23
       
  • Contamination characteristics of heavy metals in particle size fractions
           from street dust from an industrial city, Central China
    • Abstract: Abstract In order to investigate the heavy metal pollution level and distribution characteristics in different particle sizes, and to evaluate the health risk, 42 street dust samples were collected in January 2015 from Huangshi, as an industrial city in Central China. The results analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) showed that the average content of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn, and Fe in the fine particle diameter (< 25 μm) was 1041.12, 361.64, 890.00, 14.43, 3178.52, and 61841.79 mg kg−1, respectively. Meanwhile, the average content of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn, and Fe in the coarse particle diameter (25 < D < 75 μm) was 1628.54, 401.52, 593.16, 9.54, 5316.07, and 76765.37 mg kg−1, respectively. Compared with other cities, the heavy metal pollution of street dust in Huangshi was more serious. The results indicated that heavy metals were more easily enriched in fine grains street dust, except for Cu, Mn, and Fe. The heavy metal elements showed obvious spatial heterogeneity in different regions, and the interference from human sources was greater. Heavy metals in Huangshi street dust are generally at moderate or higher pollution levels (except Fe), of which Cu and Cd are the most seriously polluted. Multivariate statistical analysis shows that the heavy metals in fine-grained street dust mainly come from traffic/industrial mixed sources (74.5%) and industrial sources (25.5%); the heavy-grained street dust heavy metals mainly come from mixed traffic/industrial sources (55.1%) and soil source (44.9%). For non-carcinogenic heavy metals, mainly through the hand-mouth contact pathway into the human body, there are also no non-carcinogenic health risks in both hand-mouth ingestion and dermal contact. For carcinogenic heavy metals, Cd in street dust did not have carcinogenic risk.
      PubDate: 2020-06-19
       
  • Toxicological assessment of chlorine concentration in atmospheric
           particulate matter in Benin City, Nigeria
    • Abstract: Abstract Chlorine gas is widely known as obnoxious gas in the environment. It is well documented that little amount of chlorine gas in the atmosphere can cause pulmonary edema, pneumonitis, emphysema, bronchitis, and irritation of eyes, throat, and nose, just to mention a few. The thrust of this work is to investigate the breathing disease and health hazard emanating from the inhalation of chlorine concentration in particulate matter during job activities. This work was conducted among 120 employers from nine (9) industries. Information of the various ailments were gathered by using questionnaires and spirometry. The spirometry has an opening in which one blows in air to determine the lung volume. The commonest symptoms in the work were cough 47.5%, phlegm expectoration 50.0%, wheeze 5.8%, chest tightness 10.0%, chest pain 5.7%, breathlessness 8.3%, and cough with phlegm 8.3%. The concentration of chlorine in the total suspended particle ranged from 0.005 to 0.189 ppm, while the mean concentration of chlorine in the inhalable particle ranged from 0.112 to 0.270 ppm, and the concentration of chlorine gas in respirable particle ranged from 0.070 to 0.266 ppm. Further study should be conducted to enable establishment of reference level for the state.
      PubDate: 2020-06-14
       
  • Hybrid neural network models for forecasting ozone and particulate matter
           concentrations in the Republic of China
    • Abstract: Abstract Ozone is a toxic gas with massive distinct chemical components from oxygen. Breathing ozone in the air can cause severe effects on human health, especially people who have asthma. It can cause long-lasting damage to the lungs and heart attacks and might lead to death. Forecasting the ozone concentration levels and related pollutant attribute is critical for developing sophisticated environment safety policies. In this paper, we present three artificial neural network (ANN) models to forecast the daily ozone (O3), coarse particulate matter (PM10), and particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in a highly polluted city in the Republic of China. The proposed models are (1) recurrent multilayer perceptron (RMLP), (2) recurrent fuzzy neural network (RFNN), and (3) hybridization of RFNN and grey wolf optimizer (GWO), which are referred to as RMLP-ANN, RFNN, and RFNN-GWO models, respectively. The performance of the proposed models is compared with other conventional models previously reported in the literature. The comparative results showed that the proposed models presented outstanding performance. The RFNN-GWO model revealed superior results in the modeling of O3, PM10, and PM2.5 compared with the RMLP-ANN and RFNN models.
      PubDate: 2020-06-08
       
  • Decoupling the climatic and carbon dioxide emission influence to maize
           crop production in Pakistan
    • Abstract: Abstract Global warming influencing the agricultural production in several ways due to rainfall, temperature and carbon dioxide emission. The objective of this study is to investigate the climatic and carbon dioxide emission influence to maize crop production in Pakistan for the period of 1988–2017. We used an ARDL approach and Granger causality test to check the dynamic linkage between carbon dioxide emission, maize crop production, area under maize crop, water availability, rainfall and temperature with the evidence of long-run and short-run. Analysis results revealed that maize crop production has positive coefficient that demonstrate the long-term association with carbon dioxide emission with p value 0.0395. Similarly, results also showed a long-run association among water availability, rainfall and temperature with carbon dioxide emission with having positive coefficient and p values 0.0000, 0.0014 and 0.0001. Unfortunately, the coefficient of area under maize crop showed a negative linkage with carbon dioxide emission. Possible conservative policies are needed from the Pakistani government to reduce carbon dioxide emission in order to enhance the agricultural production as well as to boost the economic growth.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
       
  • Daytime concentrations of minor and trace elements in atmospheric aerosols
           at four sampling sites of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
    • Abstract: Abstract Tropospheric aerosols (total suspended particulate, TSP) were sampled at four sampling sites of various anthropogenic impact (industrial, commercial, heavy trafficked, and mixed urban influence), located in Dar es Salaam, the commercial capital of Tanzania. Air concentrations of minor and trace elements (Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, S, Si, Sb, and Zn) in TSP were determined by means of wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). From these data, the main ionic composition of particulate matter was inferred by means of a species correlation/ratio-derived approach, based on former studies of the region. Enrichment factors, bivariate correlations, diagnostic ratios, and chemical mass closures were calculated utilizing the concentration data of TSP constituents for each site in order to reveal the emission sources. A couple of diagnostic ratios (Ni/Cd, Zn/Cd, Br/Ni, Ni/Sb) were useful for source identification, e.g., motor vehicle exhaust and non-exhaust emissions. Significant increases in concentrations of As, Br, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were observed, as compared to results for the city before 2010. Moreover, first-time air levels are reported for Cd and Sb, which are important markers of non-exhaust emissions. Air quality indices and calculations with the AIRQ+ model have foreseen increases in the negative health effects of the sensitive groups of the local population at the study areas, especially those with heavy traffic, industrial, and/or mixed urban influence.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
       
  • Spatially differentiating the effects of long-term air pollution on
           specific causes of death from cardiovascular and respiratory mortality in
           Hong Kong: a territory-wide register-based study
    • Abstract: Abstract Previous studies have evaluated the effects of air pollution on various causes of death. However, there are few studies directly differentiating the regional effects of air pollution on specific causes of death from cardiovascular and respiratory mortality. It is important to target specific diseases and air pollutants for environmental management, in order to develop a sustainable environment. Therefore, a territory-wide register-based study was developed with cause-specific mortality data in Hong Kong between 2007 and 2014 (n = 257,090). Five groups of decedents were directly compared with the two control groups (cardiovascular and respiratory deaths), separately, based on binomial logistic regressions. Three air pollutants (NO2, PM2.5, black carbon (BC)) were selected to evaluate how spatial distribution of long-term air pollution exposure can induce the difference in mortality risks from two control groups. Based on the results, different air pollutants can contribute to different impact on mortality risk. PM2.5 and BC contributed to higher effects on mortality associated with mental and behavioral disorders than those linked to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. BC can contribute to a higher mortality risk for mortality associated with diseases of the nervous and digestive systems than with respiratory diseases. There was also a stronger influence of neighborhood PM2.5 on mortality associated with diseases of the genitourinary system than with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, and a stronger impact of neighborhood NO2 and BC on cancer-related mortality than on respiratory mortality. In conclusion, several air pollutants have greater impact on cause-specific mortality than cardiovascular and respiratory mortality. Therefore, it is necessary to have a comprehensive and systematic investigation to evaluate how different types of air pollutants influence various types of cause-specific mortality. In addition, specific health protocols, enhancement of urban design and improvement of environmental hygiene should be conducted for specific types of air pollution and deprived populations, rather than targeting solely the people with cardiorespiratory diseases.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
       
  • Co-variance nexus between COVID-19 mortality, humidity, and air quality
           index in Wuhan, China: New insights from partial and multiple wavelet
           coherence
    • Abstract: Abstract The worldwide outbreak of COVID-19 disease has caused immense damage to our health and economic and social life. This research article helps to determine the impact of climate on the lethality of this disease. Air quality index and average humidity are selected from the family of climate variables, to determine its impact on the daily new cases of COVID-19-related deaths in Wuhan, China. We have used wavelet analysis (wavelet transform coherence (WTC), partial (PWC), and multiple wavelet coherence (MWC), due to its advantages over traditional time series methods, to study the co-movement nexus between our selected data series. Findings suggest a notable coherence between air quality index, humidity, and mortality in Wuhan during a recent outbreak. Humidity is negatively related to the COVID-19-related deaths, and bad air quality leads to an increase in this mortality. These findings are important for policymakers to save precious human lives by better understanding the interaction of the environment with the COVID-19 disease.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
       
  • Traffic characteristics and pollutant emission from road transport in
           urban area
    • Abstract: Abstract In this work, the traffic characteristics and emissions of air pollutants were predicted for two vehicle classifications (passenger cars and trucks) at the national highway in Kyoto City, Japan. Traffic characteristic information (traffic volume, travel speed, and degree of congestion) was estimated based on the digitised data collected by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport, and Tourism (MLIT) of Japan. A vehicle emission model, known as the computer program to calculate emissions from road transport (COPERT), was utilised to compute the emission factors (EFs) and total emissions of air pollutants in terms of exhaust particulate matter (PMExh), benzene (C6H6), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxide (NOx). Input variables, such as fuel data, activity data, driving conditions, and meteorological conditions, are needed. The findings revealed that the pollutant emissions reached the higher values over the slower travel speed phase. Road no. 1 with the most congested road segment has intensified vehicle numbers, and the slowest traffic flow movement exposed a greater magnitude of pollutant emissions. C6H6 and CO emissions are obviously more emitted from the passenger cars whereas the trucks are responsible for the greater emission of NOx and PMExh. The EFs of pollutants were compared with the Japanese Emission Standards through JE05 and JC08 chassis dynamometer test cycles. The estimated EFs showed inconsistency with the EFs derived from the test cycles. These results may be deployed as the input in air quality dispersion modelling in urban areas for designing the air pollution abatement strategy.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
       
  • Exposure measurement error in air pollution studies: the impact of shared,
           
    • Abstract: Abstract Spatiotemporal air pollution models are increasingly being used to estimate health effects in epidemiological studies. Although such exposure prediction models typically result in improved spatial and temporal resolution of air pollution predictions, they remain subject to shared measurement error, a type of measurement error common in spatiotemporal exposure models which occurs when measurement error is not independent of exposures. A fundamental challenge of exposure measurement error in air pollution assessment is the strong correlation and sometimes identical (shared) error of exposure estimates across geographic space and time. When exposure estimates with shared measurement error are used to estimate health risk in epidemiological analyses, complex errors are potentially introduced, resulting in biased epidemiological conclusions. We demonstrate the influence of using a three-stage spatiotemporal exposure prediction model and introduce formal methods of shared, multiplicative measurement error (SMME) correction of epidemiological health risk estimates. Using our three-stage ensemble learning-based nitrogen oxides (NOx) exposure prediction model, we quantified SMME. We conducted an epidemiological analysis of wheeze risk in relation to NOx exposure among school-aged children. To demonstrate the incremental influence of exposure modeling stage, we iteratively estimated the health risk using assigned exposure predictions from each stage of the NOx model. We then determined the impact of SMME on the variance of health risk estimates under various scenarios. Depending on the stage of the spatiotemporal exposure model used, we found that wheeze odds ratio ranged from 1.16 to 1.28 for an interquartile range increase in NOx. With each additional stage of exposure modeling, the health effect estimate moved further away from the null (OR = 1). When corrected for observed SMME, the health effects confidence intervals slightly lengthened, but our epidemiological conclusions were not altered. When the variance estimate was corrected for the potential “worst case scenario” of SMME, the standard error further increased, having a meaningful influence on epidemiological conclusions. Our framework can be expanded and used to understand the implications of using exposure predictions subject to shared measurement error in future health investigations.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
       
  • Valuation of air pollution externalities: comparative assessment of
           economic damage and emission reduction under COVID-19 lockdown
    • Abstract: Abstract Air pollution (AP) is one of the major causes of health risks as it leads to widespread morbidity and mortality each year. Its environmental impacts include acid rains, reduced visibility, but more importantly and significantly, it affects human health. The price tag of not managing AP is seen in the rise of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular disease, and respiratory ailments like asthma and chronic bronchitis. But as the world battles the corona pandemic, COVID-19 lockdown has abruptly halted human activity, leading to a significant reduction in AP levels. The effect of this reduction is captured by reduced cases of morbidity and mortality associated with air pollution. The current study aims to monetarily quantify the decline in health impacts due to reduced AP levels under lockdown scenario, as against business as usual, for four cities—Delhi, London, Paris, and Wuhan. The exposure assessment with respect to pollutants like particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), NO2, and SO2 are evaluated. Value of statistical life (VSL), cost of illness (CoI), and per capita income (PCI) for disability-adjusted life years (DALY) are used to monetize the health impacts for the year 2019 and 2020, considering the respective period of COVID-19 lockdown of four cities. The preventive benefits related to reduced AP due to lockdown is evaluated in comparison to economic damage sustained by these four cities. This helps in understanding the magnitude of actual damage and brings out a more holistic picture of the damages related to lockdown.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
       
  • Potential influential economic indicators and environmental quality:
           insights from the MERCOSUR economies
    • Abstract: Abstract This research investigates the dynamic effects of stock markets, economic globalization, and financial development on environmental quality. We used the annual panel data of Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR economies) covering the period 1990 to 2016. Through updated econometric methodologies, first, we substantiated cross-sectional dependency, stationary level, and panel cointegration among scrutinized variables, which is purely done for reliable findings. After that, we deployed the Generalized Method of Moment (GMM) approach to get vigorous elasticities of all the specified regressors. Elasticities of GDP and its square corroborate that the environmental Kuznets curve exists between income level and carbon emission. Empirical verdicts postulate that the development of stock markets and energy ingestion accelerate to air pollution by assisting carbon dioxide emissions while economic globalization and financial sectors are playing a pivotal role in augmenting the environmental quality of the MERCOSUR economies. Economic globalization and financial development have a significant negative influence on CO2 emission. The Pooled Mean Group (PMG) estimator robust our findings and provide the speed of adjustment (54.5022%). Moreover, Dumitrescu-Hurlin Panel Causality (DHPC) test depicts that economic globalization, financial sectors, energy use, and real income significantly cause carbon emissions in the case of MERCOSUR economies. In the end, the authors have proposed some policy implications to legislators and policymakers.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
       
 
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