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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1304 journals)
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HEALTH AND SAFETY (532 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 236)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access  
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access  
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Notions     Open Access  
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Healthy-Mu Journal     Open Access  
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health
  [SJR: 0.706]   [H-I: 19]   [4 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1873-9326 - ISSN (Online) 1873-9318
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Air pollutant exposure field modeling using air quality model-data fusion
           methods and comparison with satellite AOD-derived fields: application over
           North Carolina, USA
    • Authors: Ran Huang; Xinxin Zhai; Cesunica E. Ivey; Mariel D. Friberg; Xuefei Hu; Yang Liu; Qian Di; Joel Schwartz; James A. Mulholland; Armistead G. Russell
      Pages: 11 - 22
      Abstract: In order to generate air-pollutant exposure fields for health studies, a data fusion (DF) approach is developed that combines observations from ambient monitors and simulated data from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. These resulting fields capture the spatiotemporal information provided by the air quality model, as well as the finer temporal scale variations from the pollutant observations and decrease model biases. Here, the approach is applied to develop daily concentration fields for PM2.5 total mass, five major particulate species (OC, EC, SO4 2−, NO3 −, and NH4 +), and three gaseous pollutants (CO, NO x , and NO2) from 2006 to 2008 over North Carolina (USA). Several data withholding methods are then conducted to evaluate the data fusion method, and the results suggest that typical approaches may overestimate the ability of spatiotemporal estimation methods to capture pollutant concentrations in areas with limited or no monitors. The results show improvements in capturing spatial and temporal variability compared with CMAQ results. Evaluation tests for PM2.5 led to an R 2 of 0.95 (no withholding) and 0.82 when using 10% random data withholding. If spatially based data withholding is used, the R 2 is 0.73. Comparisons of DF-developed PM2.5 total mass concentration with the spatiotemporal fields derived from two other methods (both use satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) data) find that, in this case, the data fusion fields have slightly less overall error, with an RMSE of 1.28 compared with 3.06 μg/m3 (two-stage statistical model) and 2.74 (neural network-based hybrid model). Applying the Integrated Mobile Source Indicator (IMSI) method shows that the data fusion fields can be used to estimate mobile source impacts. Overall, the growing availability of chemically detailed air quality model fields and the accuracy of the DF field, suggest that this approach is better able to provide spatiotemporal pollutant fields for gaseous and speciated particulate pollutants for health and planning studies.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0511-y
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2018)
  • Space-time mapping of ground-level PM 2.5 and NO 2 concentrations in
           heavily polluted northern China during winter using the Bayesian maximum
           entropy technique with satellite data
    • Authors: Qutu Jiang; George Christakos
      Pages: 23 - 33
      Abstract: The accurate and informative space-time mapping of air pollutants is a crucial component of many human exposure studies. In the present work, space-time maps of daily distributions of PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations were generated in the severely polluted northern China region using the Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) method. This method can incorporate hard PM2.5 and NO2 data (obtained at ground-level monitoring sites), and various kinds of soft (uncertain) data, including satellite data processed in terms of machine learning techniques, meteorological variables, and geographical predictors. The BME maps of space-time PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations over northern China generated during the winter season (when severe haze episodes occur frequently) were realistic and informative. As regards their numerical accuracy, for the space-time PM2.5 estimates, the tenfold cross-validation R 2 and the RMSE were, respectively, 0.86 and 14.37 μg/m3; for the space-time NO2 estimates, the R 2 and RMSE values were, respectively, 0.85 and 6.93 μg/m3. Lastly, it was shown that the BME method performed better than the mainstream spatiotemporal ordinary kriging technique in terms of the higher R 2 values of both the predicted PM2.5 and NO2 concentration maps.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0514-8
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2018)
  • Air pollution emission inventory and air quality modeling for Can Tho
           City, Mekong Delta, Vietnam
    • Authors: Ho Quoc Bang; Vu Hoang Ngoc Khue; Nguyen Thoai Tam; Kristofer Lasko
      Pages: 35 - 47
      Abstract: Can Tho City has quickly become a modernized and industrialized city undergoing rapid population growth affecting the local environment, especially air quality and human health. In 2015, Can Tho had 1,251,809 inhabitants with a total of 566,593 motorcycles and 15,105 automobiles. There are about 1000 factories in the city. The top polluters are the industries of textile and dyeing, food processing, cement, and steel mill and rice processing. The aims of this research are to (i) conduct a detailed air pollution emission inventory (ii) study the formation of the air pollution plume over the city, and (iii) study different pollution abatement strategies for the city. We employ a combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches to conduct air pollution emission inventory, then, the finite volume model-transport and photochemistry mesoscale model is applied for studying the formation of the pollution plume. The results showed that transportation and industrial activities are the two main emission sources responsible for 80% of total NO x , 90% of total SO2, 75% of CO, 60% of total suspended particles, and 60% of non-methane volatile organic compounds. Modeling results showed that the highest average—1 h—of O3 is 206 μg/m3 which is higher than the Vietnam ambient air quality standard. The pollution plume is developed in the northeastern part of the city. Finally, abatement measures were proposed. This is the first comprehensive study on air pollution emissions and air quality modeling in the Mekong Delta, yielding insight to support government authorities to promulgate plans and actions to reduce emissions, protecting human health and the environment while leading towards sustainable development.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0512-x
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2018)
  • Investigating PM10 episodes using levoglucosan as tracer
    • Authors: Alexandra Monteiro; Sónia Gouveia; Manuel Scotto; Sandra Sorte; Carla Gama; Vorne L. Gianelle; Cristina Colombi; Célia Alves
      Pages: 61 - 68
      Abstract: The present study aims to investigate the role/contribution of residential combustion (using levoglucosan as a tracer of biomass combustion) during PM10 episode days registered over the Porto urban area (Portugal), in order to support air quality plans that need to be developed for this particular region. The levoglucosan and PM10 concentration values, together with the meteorological conditions (namely temperature), measured during an experimental field campaign performed in 2013, were used in this study. To this end, a wavelet-based approach is applied to (a) better quantify the coherence and dependency of these variables and (b) assess the strength of the connection between the two pollutants species (PM and levoglucosan) at different time scales. Results evidenced a high coherence/dependency between PM10 and levoglucosan values for the episodes selected (periods with exceedances of the PM10 limit values), suggesting the contribution of biomass combustion sources. The highest coherence (normalised covariance) is observed for the winter episodes and time periods of 5–10 days, which is related to the duration of the episodes selected. The summertime episode, which exhibits a negligible observed correlation between temperature and levoglucosan, is explained by the influence of forest fires that occurred within this period and region.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0521-9
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2018)
  • Mapping air pollutants at municipality level in Italy and Spain in support
           to health impact evaluations
    • Authors: Stefania Ghigo; on behalf of the MED HISS Study group; Stefano Bande; Luisella Ciancarella; Mihaela Mircea; Antonio Piersanti; Gaia Righini; José María Baldasano; Xavier Basagaña; Ennio Cadum
      Pages: 69 - 82
      Abstract: A growing health concern, due to poor air quality, recently led to an increased number of studies regarding air pollution effects on public health. Consequently, close attention is paid to estimation methods of exposure to atmospheric pollutants. This paper aims to meet a specific requirement of epidemiological researchers, that is providing annual air pollution maps at municipality scale for health impact assessment purposes on national basis. Firstly, data fusion through kriging with external drift is implemented, combining pollution data from two different sources, models and measurements, in order to improve the spatial distribution of surface concentrations at grid level. Then, the assimilated data of air pollution are upscaled, so as to obtain concentrations at municipality level. This methodology was applied to Italy and Spain (in Spain, only the second step was carried out since the modeled concentration already included an assimilation procedure). In both countries, for each municipality, an estimate of the concentration value for atmospheric pollutants of major concern for human health (PM10 and NO2) was provided, offering more relevant information from a surveillance point of view.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0520-x
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2018)
  • Atmospheric wet deposition of mercury to the Athabasca Oil Sands Region,
           Alberta, Canada
    • Authors: Mary Lynam; J. Timothy Dvonch; James Barres; Kevin Percy
      Pages: 83 - 93
      Abstract: Event-based wet deposition of mercury, Hg, was collected in a study from 2010 to 2012 at the AMS 6 site 30 km from the nearest oil sands industrial facilities in Fort McMurray, AB, Canada. For the entire study period (21 months), volume weighted mean, VWM, concentration was 11.2 ng L−1 while total Hg wet deposition was 2.3 μg m−2. Mercury enrichment factors ranged from 10 to 5419 in rainfall, 45–599 in mixed precipitation and 73–266 in snowfall samples. This suggests that emissions from local anthropogenic sources of mercury were available for scavenging especially in rainfall. During a 3-day period in June 2011, there was a 5 to 24-fold increase in mercury enrichment in rainfall samples compared to previous samples. Meteorological analysis during this period provides evidence that mercury containing emissions in smoke from forest fires were transported by winds and subsequently deposited in rainfall received at the sampling site thereby causing enrichment. The magnitude of mercury wet deposition at the AMS 6 site was one of the lowest observed fluxes compared to measurements made elsewhere in the United States and Canada, most likely limited by the low precipitation depths that occurred at this semi-arid location. The reduced wet deposition suggests that mercury dry deposition may be significant in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, AOSR, and should be addressed in future studies.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0524-6
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2018)
  • Spatial and temporal variations in criteria air pollutants in three
           typical terrain regions in Shaanxi, China, during 2015
    • Authors: Yong Xu; Qi Ying; Jianlin Hu; Yuan Gao; Yang Yang; Dexiang Wang; Hongliang Zhang
      Pages: 95 - 109
      Abstract: Numerous studies have investigated air pollution in severely polluted plains, but the characteristics of pollutants are not well understood in other terrain regions. In this study, air pollution characteristics were analyzed in three typical terrain regions (plateau, plain, and mountain regions) in Shaanxi, based on hourly ambient monitoring of particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and less than 10 μm (PM10), CO, SO2, NO2, and O3 in 2015. PM2.5 and PM10 were the dominant pollutants in three regions, and their annual concentrations exceeded the Grade II standards by 9.4–68.6 and 6.0–73.9%, respectively. PM2.5, PM10, CO, SO2, and NO2 concentrations had similar seasonal trends with highest values in winter and lowest values in summer, whereas O3 concentrations exhibited the opposite trend. Guanzhong Plain had higher PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and SO2 concentrations but lower CO, 1-h peak O3, and 8-h peak O3 (8 h-O3) compared to other regions. PM2.5, PM10, and 8 h-O3 were the three main dominant pollutants. The nonattainment rate was highest in winter and lowest in summer or autumn. Pollution also exhibited synergy, especially in the plateau region and Guanzhong Plain. PM2.5 was significantly correlated with PM10. NO2 and SO2 were positively correlated with PM2.5 and PM10, while 8 h-O3 generally had significant negative correlations with other pollutants, especially in the winter. These results provide a comprehensive understanding of pollution status in the three typical terrain regions in Shaanxi and are helpful for improving air quality.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0523-7
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2018)
  • Landfill fire and airborne aerosols in a large city: lessons learned and
           future needs
    • Authors: Raúl G. E. Morales S.; Richard Toro A.; Luis Morales; Manuel A. Leiva G.
      Pages: 111 - 121
      Abstract: Landfill fires are relatively frequent incidents that can result in severe environmental impacts. On the morning of January 15, 2016, a fire occurred at the Santa Marta landfill (Lf) in the metropolitan area of Santiago (SMA), Chile. The fire triggered public alarm. In the present work, the impact of the landfill fire on the air quality of the SMA and the possible impacts on human health are analyzed. According to the information collected, the fire began after a collapse in the landfill on January 15, 2016. The fire could not be controlled by the Lf operating company, and authorities acted late in responding. The results revealed that at the focal point of the fire, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) reached concentration levels on the order of 1000 μg m−3. Three days after the start of the fire, hourly PM2.5 concentration levels above 200 μg m−3 were recorded, at a distance approximately 20 km northeast of where the fire occurred. The PM2.5 concentration levels recommended for the protection of the health of vulnerable persons were subsequently exceeded. These results suggest that a preventive measure should have been the evacuation of the most pollution-sensitive population. An inappropriate management of the emergency was demonstrated. Legislation should be improved by stipulating which sanitary Lfs should be equipped with firefighting equipment. Territorial planning should be improved by considering geographic and meteorological aspects.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0522-8
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2018)
  • Organic acids contribute to rainwater acidity at a rural site in eastern
    • Authors: Yuwen Niu; Xinling Li; Jingjiao Pu; Zhen Huang
      Abstract: We collected 43 valid rainwater samples at Lin’an, a rural site in eastern China, between March 2014 and February 2015. We measured the concentrations of seven low molecular weight water-soluble organic acids using ion chromatography with the elution gradient method. We detected formic, acetic, oxalic, succinic, glutaric, malonic, and methanesulfonic acid in at least 70% of all samples, reflecting the ubiquity of these acids in the precipitation of Lin’an. The total concentration of these organic acids in individual samples was between 2.63 and 114.77 μeq L−1 (mean 16.64 μeq L−1). Formic, acetic, and oxalic acid were the most abundant organic acids in the rainwater samples, with volume-weighted mean concentrations of 9.58, 3.89, and 2.01 μeq L−1, respectively; these three acids accounted for 93% of the total mean organic acid concentration. The average contribution of organic acids to precipitation total free acidity was 13.71% in Lin’an, which was lower than has been recorded in other rural and mountainous areas of southwestern China, but much higher than has been recorded in some urban and semi-urban areas. The mean ratio of formic to acetic acid in rainwater was 2.40, and the mean ratio of malonic and succinic acid in rainwater was 0.62. These ratios indicated that, in Lin’an, formic and acetic acid mainly originated from primary biogenic sources, but malonic and glutaric acid mainly originated from motor vehicle emissions. With the exception of oxalic acid, the volume-weighted mean concentrations of other organic acids and total organic acids in the growing season (summer and spring) were higher than those in non-growing season (autumn and winter), suggesting that vegetation around the Lin’an sampling site was an important source of atmospheric organic acids. As the volume-weighted mean concentration of oxalic acid was higher during the non-growing season, this may indicate that aerosolized oxalic acid was less well diluted due to less rainfall during the drier non-growing season.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0553-9
  • Correction to: Estimation and dispersion modeling of landing and take-off
           (LTO) cycle emissions from Atatürk International Airport
    • Authors: S. Levent Kuzu
      Abstract: The original publication’s Fig. 6 caption was incorrectly written as “Fig. 6 Distribution of annual NOx concentrations (a). Distribution of annual NOx concentrations (b). Distribution of 8-h CO concentrations (c)”.
      PubDate: 2018-01-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0552-x
  • Indoor air quality index for preoccupancy assessment
    • Authors: Dalia Wagdi; Khaled Tarabieh; Mohamed Nagib Abou Zeid
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to document the potential impacts on indoor air quality associated with different types of building materials (wall and floor finishes) through the development of an Indoor Air Quality index. The study first identifies pollutant sources and their corresponding health impacts due to short-term and long-term exposures. The study also quantifies levels of certain pollutants within a steady-state controlled environment, comparing the results of this study with previous studies conducted in different regions. It also proposes an IAQ index as an assessment tool which can be utilized preoccupancy. The field studies were conducted in residential buildings during January and February in Cairo to monitor volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde (HCHO), ammonia (NH3), radon gas, and particulate matter (PM). The indoor air was monitored in nine locations: four during the construction process and five following completion of construction. For this investigation, three rooms under construction within a Cairene building site were utilized to test the finishing materials. Chemical analysis and direct reading devices were used for air sampling and monitoring. The results revealed that the concentration of some pollutants decreased within the first year of construction, while others remained above target limits. The results of this study offer recommendations for engineers regarding the selection of appropriate materials through the implementation of source control strategies and an IAQ index which can be used as an assessment tool to ensure that the Indoor Air Quality meets recommended standards. Based on the conclusions and limitations of this study, recommendations for future work are documented such as the screening of materials and monitoring of Indoor Air Quality.
      PubDate: 2018-01-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0551-y
  • Investigation into pedestrian exposure to traffic PM around grade
           separations: a case study in Xi’an, China
    • Authors: Zhaowen Qiu; Xiaoqin Xu; Wenyue Liu; Xiaoxia Li
      Abstract: To investigate the influence of grade separations on the concentration dynamics of particulate matter (PM) and pedestrian PM exposure rate, PM mass concentrations (PMCs) at and around a typical grade separation were measured. Using a statistical fitting method, the horizontal variation and frequency distributions for PMCs at the entrance and exit of a grade separation were investigated. The pedestrian exposure around the grade separation was quantified in terms of respiratory deposition dose (RDD) rates. The results of the case study showed that the average mass concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 at the exit of the underpass were found to be about 19, 9, and 4% higher than those at the entrance, and the concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 in the underpass were higher compared with those on the overpass. The average mass concentrations of PM10 (136 μg m−3), PM2.5 (67 μg m−3), and PM1 (44 μg m−3) in the underpass exceeded those on the overpass by about 14, 8, and 7%, respectively. Further analysis of the underpass revealed that all three types of PMCs decayed exponentially with increasing distance from the exit. However, for the entrance, as the distance from the entrance increased, PMCs began to drop slightly, and then rose to the maximum near the ramp. Based on the frequency histograms and corresponding fitted curves at the entrance and exit of the underpass, the rate of violation of ambient PM concentrations was assessed. The total respiratory deposition dose (RDD) rates of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 around the grade separation were roughly 3.4, 2.8, and 2.5 times higher than those of the background, respectively. The findings of this study are a step toward understanding more environmentally friendly grade-separation design strategies.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0548-6
  • Temporal patterns and trends of particulate matter over Portugal: a
           long-term analysis of background concentrations
    • Authors: Carla Gama; Alexandra Monteiro; Casimiro Pio; Ana Isabel Miranda; José María Baldasano; Oxana Tchepel
      Abstract: Air quality management regarding PM concentrations in the atmosphere is a complex problem to tackle. In this paper, we aim to characterize the temporal patterns and trends of aerosol background levels over Portugal. Hourly data from the national air quality monitoring network, gathered from 2007 to 2016, is analyzed using statistical methods. Data from 20 monitoring stations was processed to prepare datasets with different time scales, and results were grouped by their type of surrounding area (urban, suburban, or rural). Urban and suburban background sites are characterized by strong seasonal patterns, with higher monthly mean concentrations in winter than in summer. In contrast, rural background PM10 concentrations are highest during August and September. This study suggests that urban background concentrations are significantly influenced by anthropogenic non-combustion sources, which contribute to the coarser aerosol fraction (PMc). PMc is about 3 μg m−3 higher during weekdays than during Sundays, at urban sites. However, there is no clear relationship between the value of the PM2.5/PMc ratio and the type of monitoring station. During the 10-year period of study, a decrease of 1.83, 3.58, and 4.89%/year was registered in PM10 concentrations at Portuguese rural, urban, and suburban areas, respectively. Despite the higher decrease at suburban monitoring stations, those sites present the highest 10-year mean PM10 concentrations. This work provides an import insight on temporal variations of PM10, PM2.5, and PMc concentrations over Portugal and summarizes trends through the last decade, contributing to the discussion on sources and processes influencing those concentrations.
      PubDate: 2018-01-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0546-8
  • Fragranced consumer products: sources of emissions, exposures, and health
           effects in the UK
    • Authors: Anne Steinemann
      Abstract: Common in society, fragranced consumer products such as cleaning supplies and air fresheners are a primary source of volatile emissions that contribute to pollutants indoors and to personal exposure. Further, fragranced products have been associated with adverse health effects. This study investigates the sources of emissions, human exposures, and health and societal impacts from fragranced consumer products in the United Kingdom (UK). It examines the prevalence and types of fragranced product use, associated health effects, exposure situations, awareness of product emissions, and preferences for fragrance-free policies and indoor environments. Using a nationally representative population sample (n = 1100), data were collected in June 2016 using an online survey of adults in the UK, comprising England, Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland. Across the UK population, 27.8% report health problems, such as migraine headaches (8.4%) and asthma attacks (6.8%), when exposed to fragranced products. Yet 99.3% of the population are exposed to fragranced products at least once a week. When given a choice, more people would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities and professionals, hotels, and airplanes were fragrance-free rather than fragranced. Although fragranced products, even ones called green and organic, can emit potentially hazardous yet undisclosed pollutants, 75.0% of the population were not aware of this, and more than half would stop using their product if they knew it emitted such pollutants. This study provides important evidence that the UK population is regularly exposed to fragranced products, that these exposures are associated with adverse and often serious health effects, and that the public is largely unaware of their potential exposures. While more research is needed, reducing exposure to fragranced products, such as through fragrance-free policies, can provide an immediate step to reduce health risks and improve air quality.
      PubDate: 2018-01-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0550-z
  • Ambient PM 10 impacts brought by the extreme flooding event of March
           24–26, 2015, in Copiapó, Chile
    • Authors: Héctor Jorquera; Ana María Villalobos; Francisco Barraza
      Abstract: On March 24–26, 2015, the Chilean city of Copiapó (27° 22′ S, 70° 20′ W), located in the hyperarid Atacama Desert, suffered an intense flooding brought by an extreme, unique rainfall event with a 35-year record of daily precipitation. A receptor model (positive matrix factorization, version 5) analysis, applied to ambient PM10 chemical speciation from three short-term sampling campaigns, resolved four sources: crustal/road dust, sea salt, secondary sulfates, and emissions from Paipote copper smelter located 8 km east of Copiapó. Wind trajectories computed with US NOAA’s Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model (HYSPLIT) supported the above source identification and explained variability in source contributions. It was found that crustal/road dust increased 50 μg/m3, in April 8–10, 2015, as compared with values in November 2014 and October–November 2015, respectively. This was the dominant PM10 source after the flooding and before debris were cleaned up, being on order of magnitude higher that the other source contributions. The Paipote copper smelter contributed with primary PM10 emissions and secondary sulfates; this combined contribution averaged 11.8 μg/m3. Sea salt contributions contributed an average of 3.3 μg/m3. In normal conditions, crustal/road dust averaged 2.9 μg/m3, but the other resolved sources also contributed with crustal elements as their emissions are transported by winds to Copiapó. The positive matrix factorization solution included an unresolved concentration of 7.4 μg/m3. The small number of samples and the lack of measurements of nitrate, ammonia, and organic and elemental carbon may explain this result. Hence, sources such as secondary nitrates and combustion sources plus fugitive dust from sources surrounding Copiapó might be included in that unresolved concentration.
      PubDate: 2018-01-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0549-5
  • Potential local and regional impacts of particulate matter emitted from
           one of the world’s largest open-pit coal mines
    • Authors: Roberto E. Rojano; Carlos A. Manzano; Richard Toro; Raul G. E. Morales; Gloria Restrepo; Manuel A. Leiva
      Abstract: This study was designed to evaluate the atmospheric total suspended particle (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10) concentrations and temporal variability in one of the world’s largest open-pit coal mines (El Cerrejon) located in northeast Colombia, during 2012–2016. The results showed overall average TSP and PM10 concentrations of 86 μg m−3 (CI95% 84–88 μg m−3) and 34 μg m−3 (CI95% 33–35 μg m−3), respectively, with the highest concentrations between March and August each year. A time trend analysis of the results revealed that PM10 concentrations in particular have significantly increased between 6.2 and 7.7% per year (CI95% 1.2–12.8% year−1) in several of the monitoring stations. Meteorological parameters were also evaluated. It was observed that NE winds with speeds above 2 m s−1 were significantly correlated with an increase in the concentration of PM10 for selected downwind sites, which suggested that coal mining operations are an important source of atmospheric PM in the area. Regional long-range atmospheric transport scenarios showed potential effects on neighboring municipalities and countries within 72-h transportation events. These highlighted the need to develop new strategies to control the emissions of PM from the local mining industry to comply with local and international guidelines and regulations, particularly when industrial expansion is planned for the near future and relatively large population centers are in the area, of which a high proportion belong to indigenous populations.
      PubDate: 2018-01-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0542-4
  • Evaluation of glyphosate drift and anthropogenic atmospheric trace
           elements contamination by means of lichen transplants in a southern
           Italian agricultural district
    • Authors: Lucio Lucadamo; Anna Corapi; Luana Gallo
      Abstract: Ecophysiological biomarkers and atmospheric contamination due to glyphosate and trace elements were monitored in a southern Italian agricultural district by means of transplanted thalli of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. Glyphosate exhibited a significant geographical pattern (east side > west side) and a drift source area equal to 32% of the monitoring sites. Moreover, based on the surface area of the study area and a wind quantitative relationship (WQR) with glyphosate thalli concentrations, our data support the idea that pesticide drift extends over an area of several square kilometers. Of the eight elements preliminarily classified as enriched, four were considered prevalently of geogenic origin (Al, Ti, Ni, Co) and four of anthropogenic origin (Cu, Mn, Sn, Sb), although only Sb and Cu passed rigorous statistical testing supporting a real difference from pre-exposure levels. The contribution of local sources was evaluated based on the relative increase of Cu, Mn, Sb, and Sn versus Ti. Cu and Mn were associated mainly with a biomass power plant (BPP), with Cu showing extremely high levels of contamination involving 20% of the monitoring sites. Sb and Sn were associated with spatial variation of the traffic rate. The mycobiont and photobiont showed an evident zonation of the levels of their physiological parameters, with oxidative stress being significantly associated with both the biomass power plant and Cu/Ti. Our results suggest that croplands are potentially exposed to various hazards: over-exposure to pesticides due to drift processes, diffuse low traffic levels promoting Sb enrichment, and acute Cu pollution affected by BPP emissions.
      PubDate: 2018-01-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0547-7
  • Health effect of mixtures of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and fine
           particulates in 85 US counties
    • Authors: Jia Coco Liu; Roger D. Peng
      Abstract: Despite substantial improvements in ambient air quality in the past decades, ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) remain as concerns. As these pollutants exist as mixtures in ambient environments, some combinations of these pollutants may be more harmful to human health than other combinations. Identifying harmful pollutant mixtures can help develop multi-pollutant control strategies to better protect health. Current methods exhibit limitations in identifying harmful mixtures. We aim to identify harmful compositions of three-pollutant mixtures in 85 US counties during 1999–2010. We developed a new method called PANCAKE to quantify O3-NO2-PM2.5 mixtures. O3-NO2-PM2.5 mixtures are categorized into 27 composition types based on combinations of different O3, NO2, and PM2.5 levels. We identified harmful compositions by estimating the effect of each composition of O3-NO2-PM2.5 mixture compared to the reference composition on cardiovascular admissions among Medicare patients. We found that a mixture with relatively low levels of some pollutants combined with relatively high levels of other pollutants can be equally or more harmful than a mixture with high levels of all pollutants. Eight out of the 27 composition types, often with NO2 levels > 17.3 ppb and PM2.5 levels > 8.8 μg/m3 combined with any levels of O3, were associated with significantly increased cardiovascular admission rates compared to the reference composition. These harmful compositions overall occurred in about 40–50% of days in winter, metropolitan areas, or the East North Central region. Mixture composition plays an important role in determining health risks and may be worth considering when developing air pollution control strategies.
      PubDate: 2018-01-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0544-2
  • Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health : the 10-year anniversary
    • Authors: J. M. Samet; Y. S. Chung
      PubDate: 2017-12-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0541-5
  • Fragranced consumer products: effects on asthmatics
    • Authors: Anne Steinemann
      Abstract: Fragranced consumer products, such as cleaning supplies, air fresheners, and personal care products, can emit a range of air pollutants and trigger adverse health effects. This study investigates the prevalence and types of effects of fragranced products on asthmatics in the American population. Using a nationally representative sample (n = 1137), data were collected with an on-line survey of adults in the USA, of which 26.8% responded as being medically diagnosed with asthma or an asthma-like condition. Results indicate that 64.3% of asthmatics report one or more types of adverse health effects from fragranced products, including respiratory problems (43.3%), migraine headaches (28.2%), and asthma attacks (27.9%). Overall, asthmatics were more likely to experience adverse health effects from fragranced products than non-asthmatics (prevalence odds ratio [POR] 5.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.34–7.64). In particular, 41.0% of asthmatics report health problems from air fresheners or deodorizers, 28.9% from scented laundry products coming from a dryer vent, 42.3% from being in a room cleaned with scented products, and 46.2% from being near someone wearing a fragranced product. Of these effects, 62.8% would be considered disabling under the definition of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Yet 99.3% of asthmatics are exposed to fragranced products at least once a week. Also, 36.7% cannot use a public restroom if it has an air freshener or deodorizer, and 39.7% would enter a business but then leave as quickly as possible due to air fresheners or some fragranced product. Further, 35.4% of asthmatics have lost workdays or a job, in the past year, due to fragranced product exposure in the workplace. More than twice as many asthmatics would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities and health care professionals, hotels, and airplanes were fragrance-free rather than fragranced. Results from this study point to relatively simple and cost-effective ways to reduce exposure to air pollutants and health risks for asthmatics by reducing their exposure to fragranced products.
      PubDate: 2017-12-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0536-2
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