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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1353 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (23 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (564 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (384 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (106 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (107 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (564 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 206)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences: Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Innovación en Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access  
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Düzce Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi / Journal of Duzce University Health Sciences Institute     Open Access  
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Eurasian Journal of Health Technology Assessment     Open Access  
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare : Finjehew     Open Access  
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Challenges     Open Access  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastane Öncesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 10)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Notions     Open Access  
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Healthcare Technology Letters     Open Access  
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Public Health     Open Access  
Infodir : Revista de Información científica para la Dirección en Salud     Open Access  
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Archives of Health Sciences     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.862
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1873-9326 - ISSN (Online) 1873-9318
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2348 journals]
  • Ambient air pollution and the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in
           adolescents: a worldwide ecological analysis
    • Authors: Barbara K. Butland; the ISAAC Phase Three Study Group; H. Ross Anderson; Aaron van Donkelaar; Elaine Fuertes; Michael Brauer; Bert Brunekreef; Randall V. Martin
      Pages: 755 - 764
      Abstract: Whether exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in children is unclear. Using data from Phase Three of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in childhood (ISAAC), we investigated associations of rhinoconjunctivitis prevalence in adolescents with model-based estimates of ozone, and satellite-based estimates of fine (diameter < 2.5 μm) particulate matter (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Information on rhinoconjunctivitis (defined as self-reported nose symptoms without a cold or flu accompanied by itchy watery eyes in the past 12 months) was available on 505,400 children aged 13–14 years, in 183 centres in 83 countries. Centre-level prevalence estimates were calculated and linked geographically with estimates of long-term average concentrations of NO2, ozone and PM2.5. Multi-level models were fitted adjusting for population density, climate, sex and gross national income. Information on parental smoking, truck traffic and cooking fuel was available for a restricted set of centres (77 in 36 countries). Between centres within countries, the estimated change in rhinoconjunctivitis prevalence per 100 children was 0.171 (95% confidence interval: − 0.013, 0.354) per 10% increase in PM2.5, 0.096 (− 0.003, 0.195) per 10% increase in NO2 and − 0.186 (− 0.390, 0.018) per 1 ppbV increase in ozone. Between countries, rhinoconjunctivitis prevalence was significantly negatively associated with both ozone and PM2.5. In the restricted dataset, the latter association became less negative following adjustment for parental smoking and open fires for cooking. In conclusion, there were no significant within-country associations of rhinoconjunctivitis prevalence with study pollutants. Negative between-country associations with PM2.5 and ozone require further investigation.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0582-4
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2018)
       
  • Could portable powered respirators help us avoid the exposure to air
           pollution'
    • Authors: Alfonso Aranda; Yolanda Díaz-de-Mera; Irene Jarama
      Pages: 765 - 771
      Abstract: Atmospheric pollution has become a persistent threat to human health. Consequently, the effects of breathing polluted air in large cities are being assessed for given risk groups and different indoor and outdoor activities. This work delves into the study of the possibility to develop individual portable air-purifying respirators to avoid the exposure to atmospheric pollution when carrying out common daily activities at home or outdoors. Samples of known concentrations of the criteria pollutants (except for lead) have been monitored before and after passing through a powered occupational respirator which has been also tested carrying out physical activities mainly under outdoor conditions. The results show that the system is not effective against carbon monoxide but it does provide protection against particulate matter, SO2, NOx, O3, and volatile organic compounds, that is, most of the main pollutants found in outdoor air. Thus, individual powered respirators are technologically viable based on the current occupational devices and by providing them with additional suggested improvements. Being affordable, this kind of systems may become very helpful not only for assistive applications but also for healthy people willing to reduce exposure to air pollution.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0583-3
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2018)
       
  • Long-term trends in ambient particulate matter, chemical composition, and
           associated health risk and mortality burden in Hong Kong (1995–2016)
    • Authors: Zhiheng Liao; Jiaren Sun; Jian Liu; Shu Guo; Shaojia Fan
      Pages: 773 - 783
      Abstract: Hong Kong is one of the special administrative regions in China and a densely populated city with poor air quality. The impact of high pollutant concentrations, especially ambient particulate matter (PM), on human health is of major concern. This study reported the temporal trends of PM masses and chemical components and assessed the PM pollution-related health risk and mortality burden in Hong Kong over a 22-year period (1995–2016). The results showed that the ambient PM increased before 2005 and then decreased gradually with overall downward trends of − 0.61 μg m−3 year−1 for inhalable PM (PM10) and − 1.30 μg m−3 year−1 for fine PM (PM2.5). No statistically significant changes were observed for secondary inorganic components (SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+), while significant decreasing trends were found for total carbon (TC) and other water-soluble irons (Na+, Cl−, and K+). The long-term variabilities of the trace elements differed greatly with species. A health risk assessment revealed that the annual inhalational carcinogenic risk from As, Cd, Ni, Cr, and Pb was always lower than the accepted criterion of 10−6, whereas the total noncarcinogenic risk from As, Cd, Ni, Cr, and Mn frequently exceeded the safe level of 1. Further, a health burden assessment indicated that the annual mean number of premature mortalities attributable to PM2.5 exposure was 2918 (95% CI: 1288, 4279) cases during the period of 2001–2016. Both health risk and mortality burden presented constant reductions in recent years, confirming the health benefits of air pollution control measures and the importance of further mitigation efforts.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0591-3
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2018)
       
  • Volatile chemical emissions from fragranced baby products
    • Authors: Neda Nematollahi; Augustine Doronila; Patrick J. Mornane; Alex Duan; Spas D. Kolev; Anne Steinemann
      Pages: 785 - 790
      Abstract: Fragranced consumer products have been associated with adverse effects on human health. Babies are exposed to a variety of fragranced consumer products, which can emit numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), some considered potentially hazardous. However, fragranced baby products are exempt from disclosure of all ingredients. Consequently, parents and the public have little information on product emissions. This study investigates VOCs emitted from a range of fragranced baby products, including baby hair shampoos, body washes, lotions, creams, ointments, oils, hair sprays, and fragrance. The products were analysed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) headspace analysis. Of the 42 baby products tested, 21 products made claims of green, organic, or all-natural. Results of the analysis found 684 VOCs emitted collectively from the 42 products, representing 228 different VOCs. Of these 684 VOCs, 207 are classified as potentially hazardous under federal regulations, representing 43 different VOCs. The most common VOCs emitted were limonene, acetaldehyde, ethanol, alpha-pinene, linalool, beta-myrcene, acetone, and beta-pinene. A comparison between ingredients emitted and ingredients listed reveals that only 5% of the 684 VOCs, including 12% of 207 potentially hazardous VOCs, were listed on the product label, safety data sheet, or website. More than 95% of both green and regular products emitted one or more potentially hazardous VOCs. Further, emissions of the most prevalent VOCs from green, organic, or all-natural products were not significantly different from regular products. Results from this study can help improve public awareness about emissions from baby products, with the aim to reduce pollutant exposure and potential adverse effects on babies.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0593-1
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2018)
       
  • Do elevated blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids modify effects of
           particulate air pollutants on fibrinogen'
    • Authors: Daniel Croft; Robert Block; Scott J. Cameron; Kristin Evans; Charles J. Lowenstein; Frederick Ling; Wojciech Zareba; Philip K. Hopke; Mark J. Utell; Sally W. Thurston; Kelly Thevenet-Morrison; David Q. Rich
      Pages: 791 - 799
      Abstract: Previously, we found short-term increases in ambient particulate matter (PM) air pollutant concentrations were associated with increased serum fibrinogen levels in patients with cardiac disease. We now studied whether high blood levels of omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids blunted this fibrinogen response to increased PM concentrations in these same patients. Plasma fibrinogen and ω-3 fatty acid levels (% of total identified fatty acids) were measured in blood samples collected from 135 patients treated at the University of Rochester Medical Center for myocardial infarction or stable ischemic heart disease requiring cardiac catheterization. Using ambient measurements of ultrafine, accumulation mode, and fine particles (PM2.5), Delta-C, and black carbon (BC), we regressed serum fibrinogen levels against pollutant concentrations over the previous 1–96 h, using interaction terms to estimate these associations separately for those with HIGH (> 5.12%) and LOWMED serum levels of ω-3 fatty acid (≤ 5.12%). Each 5.6 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration in the previous hour was associated with a 3.1% increase in fibrinogen (95% CI = 1.5%, 4.7%) in those subjects with LOWMED total ω-3 fatty acid levels, but only a 0.9% increase (95% CI = − 1.5%, 3.2%) in patients with HIGH total ω-3 fatty acid levels. This same pattern was observed with fish oil-derived docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids but not alpha-linolenic (from plant oil or seeds). A similar finding was observed with BC in the prior 24 h, but not other PM. Thus, increased blood levels of fish-based ω-3 fatty acids attenuated increases in fibrinogen associated with short-term increases in ambient PM.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0586-0
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2018)
       
  • Spatio-temporal variations of sulfur dioxide concentrations in industrial
           and urban area via a new statistical approach
    • Authors: A. A. Landim; E. C. Teixeira; D. Agudelo-Castañeda; I. Schneider; Luis F. O. Silva; F. Wiegand; Prashant Kumar
      Pages: 801 - 813
      Abstract: Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is considered the most widespread pollutant that threatens environmental and human health. The purpose of this study is to propose a new method for evaluating the spatial variation of SO2 levels in the Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre (MAPA). This method included use of Chi-square test to better identify the origin of SO2 sources. Additionally, results of the different methods applied allowed to analyze the temporal SO2 levels and their association with meteorological parameters. SO2 at five sampling sites (Esteio, Canoas, Charqueadas, Triunfo, and Gravataí) were measured during 2010–2015; using fluorescence SO2 automated analyzers. Results showed that Charqueadas had the highest average concentration (~ 15 μg m−3), followed by Triunfo (13 μg m−3), Esteio (6 μg m−3), Canoas (3 μg m−3), and Gravataí (2 μg m−3). Chi-square test applied to SO2, and wind direction quadrants showed significant contribution of local emission sources. Seasonal variation revealed higher SO2 levels on cold days for most of the studied sites, except for Esteio site. Day-wise variations revealed higher SO2 concentration on weekdays than weekends for Esteio and Canoas sites, indicating traffic influence especially during the rush-hours. Annual averages analysis identified an increasing trend in SO2 concentrations, implying that applied emission control systems and technological improvement of engines and fuels were not sufficient and thus points out a need for better subsidies mechanisms to pollutant control and effective emission reduction strategies that decision makers, including environmental agencies, must make priority by considering the local realities.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0584-2
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2018)
       
  • Kinetic behavior of non-volatile PAHs associated with urban aerosol
    • Authors: Dimitra Karali; Spyridon Rapsomanikis; Achilleas Christoforidis
      Pages: 825 - 833
      Abstract: Aerosol collected on quartz filters in an urban environment was exposed to light and dark conditions in two reactors, for 4 days and at a continuous low flow of ambient air. The decomposition of non-volatile PAHs was examined, assuming pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. The half-lives of the originally detected PAH compounds were established for the prevailing experimental conditions. The ambient air passing through the boxes, devoid of new aerosol, constantly supplied the reactors with exogenic oxidants. The half-lives of the PAHs studied in the present experiments in the photo reactor, exhibited approximately a 10% decrease in their lifetime when compared with those obtained from the dark reactor. Oxidants formed by light activation on the collected aerosol, or photo dissociation, is the probable explanation. The half-life values for all the studied PAHs, agreed with literature values only in the cases that the substrate of these laboratory experiments was silica or diesel exhaust particles.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0590-4
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2018)
       
  • On the use of multicopters for sampling and analysis of volatile organic
           compounds in the air by adsorption/thermal desorption GC-MS
    • Authors: Jingjing Chen; Austin Scircle; Oscar Black; James V. Cizdziel; Nicola Watson; David Wevill; Ying Zhou
      Pages: 835 - 842
      Abstract: We describe a new approach for the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at precise locations in the air using active sampling on sorbent tubes outfitted to an inexpensive multicopter and analysis by thermal desorption (TD) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The aerial sampling method permits for the simultaneous collection of multiple air samples on separate TD tubes concurrently, increasing sample throughput compared to single canister sampling. Furthermore, the method is relatively inexpensive when compared to similar approaches, with overall costs below about $2000 (U.S. dollars). To demonstrate applicability, we measured VOCs at several heights near anthropogenic sources in the mid-south USA, including a municipal landfill, petroleum refinery, and a coal-fired power plant (CFPP), and within the canopy of a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forest. Concentrations of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) were higher (p < 0.05) downwind of the refinery and CFPP compared to upwind. We observed both a unique mixture of VOCs at each site and higher concentrations of abundant VOCs downwind compared to upwind of the point sources and within versus above the forest canopy. Overall, this feasibility study demonstrates that highly maneuverable multicopters can be used to probe VOC concentrations aloft and thus have great potential to be utilized in unique sampling situations and for vertical profiling.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0588-y
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2018)
       
  • Particulate nitrosamines in the atmosphere at Seoul and their major
           sources
    • Authors: Na Rae Choi; Yun Gyong Ahn; Hyung Bae Lim; Ji Yi Lee; Chang Hoon Jung; Yong Pyo Kim
      Pages: 855 - 865
      Abstract: Five nitrosamines (nitroso-methyl-ethylamine (NMEA), nitroso-pyrrolidine (NPYR), nitrosodi-ethylamine (NDEA), nitroso-piperidine (NPIP), and nitrosodi-butylamine (NDBA)) in the atmospheric particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to a nominal 10 μm (PM10) at Seoul were identified and quantified by using a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in chemical ionization (CI) mode. The average ambient concentrations of the sum of the five nitrosamines showed a distinctive seasonal pattern, higher in winter (2.79 ± 1.41 ng/m3) than in summer (0.92 ± 0.29 ng/m3). Diurnal pattern showed slightly higher in night time (1.67 ± 1.47 ng/m3) than day time (1.57 ± 1.04 ng/m3) but it was not statistically significant. Possible contributors of nitrosamines were discussed based on various statistical analyses. Since BaP/BeP ratio and nitrosamines’ concentrations showed negative correlation, indicating aged aerosols containing more nitrosamines, it was suggested that nitrosamines might be produced by the atmospheric reactions. However, the correlations of nitrosamines with PAHs, CO, and SO2 were also good which were emitted from the primary emission sources, suggesting the particulate nitrosamines observed at Seoul could be also emitted from the primary emission sources. Primary emission sources were also identified by using the principal component analysis (PCA). It was concluded that NDBA could be mainly emitted from plastic and rubber combustions, release of landfill and tobacco smoke, and NPYR and NDEA might be emitted from the vehicular emission and cooking. The other nitrosamines, NMEA and NPIP, which were not included in both factors and showed relatively higher negative correlation with BaP/BeP ratios than other nitrosamines, could be produced from the atmospheric reactions.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0594-0
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2018)
       
  • Statistical approach for characterization of photocopying indoor pollution
    • Authors: Jelena S. Kiurski; Snezana M. Aksentijević; Sanja D. Mandarić
      Pages: 867 - 881
      Abstract: Monitoring the concentration of nitrogen dioxide and total volatile organic compounds, as well as the particle number of various sizes, was carried out in indoor air of three photocopying shops in Novi Sad, Serbia. Air samples were collected and analyzed in situ during 8-h working time, in five working days. The concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and total volatile organic compounds were correlated to a particle number by using multiple linear regression analysis. Results indicated that a quantitative direct correlation exists between the investigated variables in first and third photocopying shop, with a medium strength. Furthermore, the interdependence of pollutants was statistically significant, which is confirmed by the experimentally obtained values of parameter F higher than the theoretical F value. A positive correlation between the investigated variables was also confirmed by the obtained t values. Obtained results confirmed the correlations of nitrogen dioxide, total volatile organic compounds, and the particulate matter based on the fact that they are all primarily emitted during photocopy processing. Investigated variables are presented with regression models for each photocopying shop, which further served for drawing a ternary graph. The results may be useful to understand the actual levels of pollutant emissions and their interaction, as well as a better understanding of the mechanism of their formation.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0595-z
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2018)
       
  • A quantitative assessment of the air pollution purification effect of a
           super strong cold-air outbreak in January 2016 in China
    • Authors: Yuling Hu; Shigong Wang; Guicai Ning; Ying Zhang; Jiaxin Wang; Ziwei Shang
      Abstract: Although numerous studies have been conducted around the world to investigate the meteorological causes of and disasters due to cold-air outbreaks, the effects of these events on air pollution have received little attention. This study quantitatively investigated the purification of air pollution by a super strong cold-air outbreak along with cold front movement from the north to the south of the Chinese mainland in January 2016 using routinely observed meteorological data, air pollution monitoring data, and NCEP/NCAR and ERA-Interim reanalysis data. Some of the main results are as follows: (1) There were strong decreases in the concentrations of the five studied air pollutants in most parts of the Chinese mainland during the cold frontal passage. Spatially, the regions with the largest decreases in air pollutant concentrations were consistent with those with negative anomalous centers of 24-h surface air temperature (SAT) changes and positive anomalous centers of 24-h sea level pressure (SLP) changes. These findings provide a new reference for air quality forecasts in the Chinese mainland. (2) During the cold frontal passage, near-ground wind speed increased extensively due to downward momentum transportation and isallobaric wind, the atmospheric stratification became unstable, the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) height was significantly uplifted, and the mean maximum mixing depth (MMD) greatly increased. These changes generated a wide-range improvement in air quality for a large area of the Chinese mainland. (3) Wind speed was identified as the most important meteorological parameter affecting the diffusion of pollutants in the absence of precipitation and snow. Variations of air pollutant concentrations (y) with wind speed (x) were fitted with a negative exponential function of y = a × e−bx. (4) The clearance ratios (CRs) of the five air pollutants by the cold front differed during the cold-air outbreak. Of these, the CR of PM2.5 was the highest, reaching 85%. Overall, the cold-air outbreak greatly contributed to improving air quality in most parts of the Chinese mainland. This shows that cold front activity is one of the most important meteorological factors to be considered to improve air quality forecasts.
      PubDate: 2018-08-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0592-2
       
  • Application of the DPSIR framework to air quality approaches
    • Authors: Helder Relvas; Ana Isabel Miranda
      Abstract: Current air quality legislation in Europe will lead to substantial air quality improvements, but without further emission control efforts, the most critical hotspots will persist, with important impacts on the environment and human health. Integrated assessment models (IAM) can be applied to local and regional scale to support the assessment of mitigation opportunities and decision-making process. The mitigation measures need to be sustainable, and subsequently, social, economic, and environmental factors need to be balanced. This paper proposes the use of the well-known DPSIR framework, which is composed by Driving forces, Pressures, State, Impacts, and Responses. The urban area of Porto (Northern Portugal) is the selected case study, and DPSIR radar charts are used to easily compare different IAM approaches and help researchers and policy-makers to achieve the objective of air quality improvement. Results indicate that the MAPLIA system based on scenario approach and the RIAT+ system based on optimization approach provide more detailed and comprehensive information, namely concerning health (Impacts), then the previously designed Porto’s air quality plans.
      PubDate: 2018-08-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0609-x
       
  • BTEX near real-time monitoring in two primary schools in La Rochelle,
           France
    • Authors: Irene Lara-lbeas; Claire Trocquet; Rouba Nasreddine; Christina Andrikopoulou; Vincent Person; Béatrice Cormerais; Stéphanette Englaro; Stéphane Le Calvé
      Abstract: The present field campaign was conducted in two French primary schools for 5 weeks, where the experimental conditions were modified every week. During the first week, the classrooms were empty and not occupied, whereas the furniture was added the second week. For the three last weeks, the classrooms were normally occupied by students and various scenarios of ventilation were applied. BTEX concentrations were monitored by using novel portable pre-industrial prototypes with low gas and energy consumption, which worked continuously and operated in near real time with a time resolution of 10 min. The BTEX concentrations were compared to CO2 measurements since the latter is commonly considered as a confinement indicator. In both schools, BTEX were not detected during the absence of students indicating that neither building materials nor furniture emit such compounds. Once the schools occupied by students, BTEX have been detected from time to time, and their concentrations ranged as follows: 0–12 ppb (benzene); 0–29 ppb (toluene), 0–4 ppb (ethylbenzene), 0–11 ppb (m/p-xylenes), and 0–10 ppb (o-xylene) excluding huge values due to paint emissions in one of the schools. Toluene was found to be strongly correlated to high levels of CO2, showing that it was emitted by internal students activities scheduled at the end of mornings. On the contrary, benzene peak was not correlated to high values of CO2, suggesting that it comes from external sources.
      PubDate: 2018-08-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0611-3
       
  • Volatile chemical emissions from essential oils
    • Authors: Neda Nematollahi; Spas D. Kolev; Anne Steinemann
      Abstract: Essential oils, widely used in society, emit numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Some of these VOCs are considered as potentially hazardous under federal regulations. However, essential oils are exempt from disclosure of their ingredients on their label. Thus, the public may lack information on emissions and potential hazards from essential oils. This study examined VOCs emitted from a range of commercial essential oils, including tea tree oils, lavender oils, eucalyptus oils, and other individual oils and mixtures of oils. Using headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), the study analyzed 24 commercial essential oils, including 12 with claims of being “natural” or related terms, such as organic, 100% pure, or plant-based. Results identified 595 VOCs emitted from the 24 essential oils, representing 188 different VOCs. The most common VOCs emitted were alpha-pinene, limonene, acetone, linalool, alpha-phellandrene, beta-myrcene, and camphene. Among the 589 VOCs identified, 124 VOCs, representing 33 different VOCs, are classified as potentially hazardous. All natural and regular essential oils emitted one or more potentially hazardous VOCs, such as acetaldehyde, acetone, and ethanol. Toluene was also found in 50% of essential oils. Moreover, for the prevalent VOCs classified as potentially hazardous, no significant difference was found between regular and natural essential oils. This study provides insights and information about emissions of commercial essential oils that can be useful for public awareness and risk reduction.
      PubDate: 2018-08-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0606-0
       
  • Public support for wood smoke mitigation policies in south-central Chile
    • Authors: Àlex Boso; Alvaro Q. Hofflinger; Christian Oltra; Boris Alvarez; Jaime Garrido
      Abstract: This study analyzes the role of the affect heuristic, risk perceptions, and air quality and sociodemographic factors in the support for policies to control urban air pollution. The sample includes 489 participants residing in Temuco and Padre Las Casas, suburban areas located in southern Chile, affected by the smoke that wood-burning stoves and cookers produce. In line with previous studies, the results show that the rejection of pollution mitigation policies is associated with a positive affect to heat homes with wood. Awareness and risk perception also seem to be relevant factors, but the effect of the latter on the support for policies ceases to be significant when it is controlled by key sociodemographic variables such as household income. The study findings contribute to the theories of processing information about risk, when suggesting that emotions and awareness play an important role in the support for policies to control air pollution and that, also, structural factors like household income cannot be avoided. Finally, the implications for urban energy transition processes are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-08-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0612-2
       
  • Arsenic contamination assessment 40 years after an industrial disaster:
           measurements and deposition modeling
    • Authors: Cristina Mangia; Marco Cervino; Emilio Antonio Luca Gianicolo
      Abstract: On 26 September 1976 in Manfredonia (Italy), a mixture containing arsenic (As) compounds was released into the atmosphere due to an accident in a petrochemical plant. The aim of this work is reconstructing the extent of As contamination within the framework of an epidemiological study including both workers of the plant and residents in Manfredonia. Emission consisted of two fractions. One was a liquid solution mixed together with a solid material that hits the area of the plant and mainly affected the workers. The second fraction consisted of a cloud that was dispersed and transported by the wind beyond the plant area. Contamination within the plant has been accounted for using deposition data collected after the accident. Contamination outside the plant has been determined using a dispersion model. A comparison between predictions and measurements confirms that maximum contamination occurred 1.7 km away from the plant, but the area affected by the fallout was larger than it was supposed to be in the days following the accident. Providing a gradient in the contamination, predicted deposition maps are a relevant tool in the population exposure assessment, even if some uncertainty remains regarding establishing possible exposure routes via the food chain.
      PubDate: 2018-08-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0610-4
       
  • Aqueous chemistry of airborne hexavalent chromium during sampling
    • Authors: M. Amouei Torkmahalleh; M. Karibayev; D. Konakbayeva; M. M. Fyrillas; A. M. Rule
      Abstract: Cr(III) is an essential micronutrient for the proper function of human being, while Cr(VI) is a carcinogenic chemical, which has been one of the hazardous air pollutants defined by US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) in 2004. Accurate measurements of atmospheric hexavalent chromium concentration are required to evaluate its toxicity. In the present study, a simulation tool using MATLAB program was developed to evaluate soluble and insoluble chromium species formed during the Cr(VI) field sampling (500 ml, 0.12 M HCO3− buffer, pH = 9, 24 h, cellulose filter) which will assist us to better quantify the hexavalent chromium concentration. In this study, Cr(VI) was found to be dominant in soluble form as CrO42− and in precipitated form as (NH4)2CrO4, CaCrO3, BaCrO4, and PbCrO4 at pH = 9 cellulose filter. Secondly, reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) was higher than the oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI). Basic pH solutions retard the conversion of Cr(VI) in the presence of Fe(II) and As(III) and facilitate the precipitation of Cr(III). The presence of the NaHCO3 as buffer on the cellulose filters and also in the filter extraction solution may add to the precipitation of Cr(VI) as NaCrO4. This study provides new insights to improve cellulose sampling filters, and the filter extraction solutions to either prevent Cr(VI) precipitation during the wet analysis of Cr(VI) or improve the Cr(VI) analysis methods to quantify total Cr(VI) (soluble and insoluble Cr(VI)).
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0607-z
       
  • Carbon monoxide elimination for health and safety: new powerful
           silica-based adsorbents applied in continuous breakthrough experiments at
           elevated laboratory scale
    • Authors: Karl Blender; Helena Horn; Bernd Niemeyer; Stephan Lassen
      Abstract: The adsorption of carbon monoxide (CO) is difficult and the degree of elimination requested is very high, due to the high toxicological risk of CO. Nevertheless, only a few studies deal with this topic. The presented investigations are based on powerful functionalized silica adsorbents which deliver very fast separation kinetics in combination with high binding capacities. Even at very low CO concentrations of 0.9 and 85 ppmv, respectively, high adsorption rates for all investigated adsorbents were detected. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness and selectivity of the new adsorbents, breakthrough experiments at elevated laboratory scale (gas flow rate of 300 mL min−1) were executed with a high CO feed gas concentration of 10,000 ppmv. The experimental results prove that 20 g of the new functionalized silica adsorbent HSU 001-075.2 made sure that the “Eight Hours EC Occupational Exposure Limit Value” of 100 ppmv CO in the air was not exceeded for at least 200 s. In that context, a realistic fire scenario with respect to the CO burden of first responders was focused. The protective efficiency of the new adsorbents was exemplary calculated for the new functionalized adsorbent HSU 031-295.1. According to that, an amount of approximately 0.35 kg is able to decrease a CO concentration of 1000 ppmv in the breathing air of one person under high physical strain (assumed air demand 95 L min−1) to a maximum concentration of 83 ppmv for a protection time of 10 min. In case of a collective fire protection shelter occupied by 10 persons under low physical strain (air demand 30 L min−1), an amount of 3.1 kg is sufficient for their protection against CO intoxication over an assumed time interval of 60 min. These results verify the suitability of the upscaled arrangement of the new developed process for worker’s safety installations as well as for protective equipment of emergency services.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0605-1
       
  • Assessing particulate matter emissions from future electric mobility and
           potential risk for human health in Canadian metropolitan area
    • Authors: Weeberb J. Requia; Altaf Arain; Petros Koutrakis; Ron Dalumpines
      Abstract: The environmental benefits from electric cars (ECs) depend on several aspects, including source of electric energy generation, type of EC, and associated air pollutant emissions. For example, EC fleet (full ECs, no hybrid ECs) do not emit gaseous pollutants, but still emit a certain amount of particulate matter. Full ECs emit particulate matter through their non-exhaust sources, which includes wear and tear of tires and brakes. Often, non-exhaust particulate emissions are neglected by decision makers and environmental agencies. This may impact the development of effective environmental and public health policies. In this paper, we assess particulate matter emissions (PM10 and PM2.5) considering two EC adoption scenarios within a major metropolitan area in Canada-Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA). In addition, we estimate potential human health risk for each scenario. Our results show that non-exhaust particle emissions (brake and tire) consist of mostly PM10. We estimate that for Scenarios 1 (10% of EC penetration) and 2 (100% of EC penetration), the respective emission reductions (exhaust + brake + tire) will be 37 and 94% for PM2.5, and 4 and 85% for PM10. Furthermore, compared to baseline, 10 and 100% EC adoption scenarios will reduce PM-related annual deaths by 37 and 87%, respectively. However, even considering the aggressive 100% EC adoption scenario, we will still have considerable PM10 and PM2.5 non-tailpipe emissions, i.e., ~ 743 and 189 kg day−1, respectively. If 100% EC adoption scenario is realized, each individual in the GTHA will inhale about 0.80 × 10−3 ppm day−1 (where 1 ppm indicates that 1 g inhaled per each ton emitted). Our results underline the importance of non-tailpipe emissions. Therefore, we suggest that environmental agencies must develop policies to account for and limit non-exhaust PM emissions, and the automotive industry must focus on reducing non-exhaust emissions from ECs.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0608-y
       
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PM 1 particle
           fractions in an urban area
    • Authors: Ivana Jakovljević; Gordana Pehnec; Vladimira Vađić; Mirjana Čačković; Vesna Tomašić; Jagoda Doko Jelinić
      Abstract: Inhalation of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) bound to particulate matter can have adverse effects on human health. Particle size plays an important role in assessing health risks. The aim of this study was to compare concentrations of PAHs in different particle fractions. Measurements of PAHs were carried out in Zagreb, the capital of Croatia (~ 790,000 inhabitants). The measuring station was located in the northern, residential part of Zagreb, close to a street with modest traffic density. Twenty-four-hour samples of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 particle fraction were collected on quartz filters using a low-volume sampler from about 50 m3 of air. Three fractions were collected from January to December 2013. The analysis was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorescence detector and time-programmed changes in excitation and emission. Comparison of PAH content in PM10 and PM2.5 particle fractions revealed that more than 80% of PAHs measured in winter were bound to the smaller particle fraction (PM2.5), except for Chry, IP and DahA. In summer, more than 60% of measured PAHs were bound to PM2.5 particles, except for DahA, while in spring, more than 50% of measured PAHs were bound to PM2.5 particles, except for Flu, BaP and BbF. Furthermore, comparing PAH content in PM1 and PM2.5 fractions, we found that most PAHs were bound to particle fraction PM1, and the percentage of PAHs in PM1 was the highest in winter (more than 90%). Factor analysis showed that most of the PAHs bound to PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 probably had identical sources in winter, spring and summer (house heating and traffic), and the only significant difference in origin was found in autumn for PAHs bound to PM2.5 and PM1 fractions.
      PubDate: 2018-07-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0603-3
       
 
 
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