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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1278 journals)
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    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (509 journals)
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HEALTH AND SAFETY (509 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 174)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription  
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Policy and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Professions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Health Sciences Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Health Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Healthcare Delivery Reform Initiatives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health
  [SJR: 0.706]   [H-I: 19]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1873-9326 - ISSN (Online) 1873-9318
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2341 journals]
  • Irregularly emitting air pollution sources: acute health risk assessment
           using AERMOD and the Monte Carlo approach to emission rate
    • Authors: B.M. Balter; M.V. Faminskaya
      Pages: 401 - 409
      Abstract: Abstract Intermittent irregular sources of air pollution, when used in dispersion modeling, can exaggerate the acute health risk due to improbable coincidence of release with the worst-case meteorological conditions. This problem is alleviated by randomizing the moments of emission and applying the Monte Carlo method to obtain the realistic expected yearly maxima of hourly concentrations/risks. Emissions are modeled as irregular “pulses,” possibly with additional constraints on timing. Such are major emission sources in important industries: oil refineries, gas extraction, cement production, etc. We have tested the approach in ~100 projects for industrial plants in Russia and obtained considerable reductions in estimated acute health risks: up to two orders of magnitude, depending on the level of intermittency of sources. These corrections to unrealistically high worst-case concentration values at nearby populated areas are, in many cases, a key to obtaining reasonable exclusion/protection zones for plants. To our knowledge, such a body of results on intermittent irregular sources is unique, and it can be useful especially for developing countries where the exact timeline of emissions is often unknown. Taking intermittency into account is also known to be an important step toward compliance with 1-h US National Ambient Air Quality Standard. We provide a detailed description of the Monte Carlo algorithm used. We compare Monte Carlo with the usual quantile-based approach to peak values; they agree when quantile is dependent on intermittency. The non-linearity of maximum function gives rise to some counterintuitive phenomena, which call for refinement of risk definition for intermittent irregular sources.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0428-x
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Ecological bias in environmental health studies: the problem of
           aggregation of multiple data sources
    • Authors: Rakefet Shafran-Nathan; Ilan Levy; Noam Levin; David M. Broday
      Pages: 411 - 420
      Abstract: Abstract Ecological bias may result from interactions between variables that are characterized by different spatial and temporal scales. Such an ecological bias, also known as aggregation bias or cross-level-bias, may occur as a result of using coarse environmental information about stressors together with fine (i.e., individual) information on health outcomes. This study examines the assumption that distinct within-area variability of spatial patterns of the risk metrics and confounders may result from artifacts of the aggregation of the underlying data layers, and that this may affect the statistical relationships between them. In particular, we demonstrate the importance of carefully linking information layers with distinct spatial resolutions and show that environmental epidemiology studies are prone to exposure misclassification as a result of statistically linking distinctly averaged spatial data (e.g., exposure metrics, confounders, health indices). Since area-level confounders and exposure metrics, as any other spatial phenomena, have characteristic spatiotemporal scales, it is naively expected that the highest spatial variability of both the SES ranking (confounder) and the NOx concentrations (risk metric) will be obtained when using the finest spatial resolution. However, the highest statistical relationship among the data layers was not obtained at the finest scale. In general, our results suggest that assessments of air quality impacts on health require data at comparable spatial resolutions, since use of data layers of distinct spatial resolutions may alter (mostly weaken) the estimated relationships between environmental stressors and health outcomes.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0436-x
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Main ozone-forming VOCs in the city of Sao Paulo: observations, modelling
           and impacts
    • Authors: Débora Souza Alvim; Luciana Vanni Gatti; Sergio Machado Corrêa; Júlio Barboza Chiquetto; Carlos de Souza Rossatti; Angélica Pretto; Maria Helena dos Santos; Amélia Yamazaki; João Paulo Orlando; Guaciara Macedo Santos
      Pages: 421 - 435
      Abstract: Abstract High-ozone concentrations currently represent the main air pollution problem in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. To elucidate the main volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which act as ozone precursors, samples from air quality monitoring stations were evaluated. Thirty-five samples were collected in August–September of 2006 and 43 in July–August of 2008, when the consumption of ethanol was about 50 % of the total fuel used in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area. Samples were collected using electropolished stainless canisters. Chemical analyses were performed on pre-concentrated samples followed by gas chromatograph with flame ionization and mass spectrometry detection. The incremental reactivity scale was used to rank the ozone precursors using the Ozone Isopleth Package for Research (OZIPR) trajectory model coupled with chemical mechanism Statewide Air Pollution Research Center (SAPRC). Sixty-nine species of VOCs were quantified, and the ten main ozone precursors identified in 2008 were as follows: formaldehyde (42.8 %), acetaldehyde (13.9 %), ethene (12.2 %), propene (5.1 %), 1-methylcyclopentene (3.0 %), p-xylene (2.4 %), 1-butene (2.1 %), trans-2-pentene (1.9 %), 2-methyl 2-butene (1.7 %) and trans-2-butene (1.6 %). Volatile organic compound mass distribution showed that in 2008 alkanes represented 46 % of the total VOCs, alkenes 27 %, aromatics 14 %, alkadienes 1 % and aldehydes 12 %.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0429-9
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Influence of urbanization on air quality based on the occurrence of
           particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a tropical
           semiarid area (Fortaleza-CE, Brazil)
    • Authors: Rivelino M. Cavalcante; Camille A. Rocha; Íthala S. De Santiago; Tamiris F. A. Da Silva; Carlos M. Cattony; Marcus V.C. Silva; Icaro B. Silva; Paulo R. L. Thiers
      Pages: 437 - 445
      Abstract: Abstract This study reports the first measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particulate matter in the metropolitan area of Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. We studied the influence of urban topography on the occurrence of PAHs and the depositional flux (F PAHs) and characterized the emission sources and health risks of PAHs. Of the 16 PAHs evaluated, only 10 PAHs with more than 4 aromatic rings were found. The total PAH concentration (ΣPAHs) ranged from 1.73 to 2.83 ng m−3. The F PAHs value ranged from 0.008 to 0.0182 μg m−2 day−1. These fluxes are comparable to the values obtained at sites with developing urbanization or sites that use heating; however, they are smaller than the values obtained at industrial and large metropolis sites. An examination of the influence of urban topography revealed that the building density considerably increased the particulate matter concentration; however, urban vegetation had the opposite effect. Light-duty vehicles were the most important emission source of PAHs in the metropolitan area of Fortaleza. However, industrial activities (e.g., asphalt and steel production), combustion (e.g., coal and wood), and paved roads had a modest contribution. The health risk from PAHs in Fortaleza is higher at sites with a higher traffic flow, and the level of this health risk is similar to the risk level in other developing cities.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0434-z
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Towards an improved air quality index
    • Authors: A. Monteiro; M. Vieira; C. Gama; A. I. Miranda
      Pages: 447 - 455
      Abstract: Abstract Air quality indices (AQI) are commonly used to indicate the level of severity of air pollution to the public. A number of methods were developed in the past by various researchers/environmental agencies for the calculation of AQI, but there is no universally accepted method, appropriate for all situations. An updated review of the major air quality indices developed worldwide is presented in this paper. These methods differentiate mainly in the number of pollutants included, its sampling period and air quality classes and breakpoints. When applying different AQI to a common case study, important differences are found in terms of the classification of the quality of the air. The purposes of this research are to identify weaknesses of the current AQI and to discuss possible changes and updates with Portugal as case study. A survey, with 10 questions about the calculation and use of the AQI and its dissemination to public, was delivered to the five regional environmental agencies in Portugal and, based on results, modifications to the current AQI are proposed. Two main changes—inclusion of PM2.5 and specific urban/industrial AQI—were tested, comparing the current and the proposed AQI along the 2014 year. It is observed that a significant difference exists when specific urban and industrial sites are considered when calculating the AQI. On the other hand, and contrarily to other regional studies, the results show that the inclusion of fine suspended particulate (PM2.5) does not impact the final AQI value.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0435-y
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Chemical composition of aerosol in São Paulo, Brazil: influence of
           the transport of pollutants
    • Authors: G. M. Pereira; N. De Oliveira Alves; S. E. S. Caumo; S. Soares; K. Teinilä; D. Custódio; R. Hillamo; C. Alves; P. C. Vasconcellos
      Pages: 457 - 468
      Abstract: Abstract São Paulo is a Latin American megacity impacted by heavy traffic emissions and also affected by biomass burning and biogenic emissions. To better understand the sources of pollution during a highly polluted period, PM10 samples were collected in an intensive campaign in 2013. The concentrations of particulate matter, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan, mannosan, and galactosan), water-soluble ions, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined to identify the main sources affecting the air quality. The PAHs results were compared to an intensive campaign done in 2012. Backward air masses trajectories were used in other to investigate the influence of remote sources. The average benzo[a]pyrene equivalent index (BaPE) values represented a higher cancer risk in 2013 samples than in 2012; the diagnostic ratios indicated vehicular emissions for both campaigns but fresher particles emission for 2013 campaign. During the 2013 campaign, the samples presented good correlations between OC and EC with monosaccharides, suggesting an influence of biomass burning on the carbonaceous species. Levoglucosan to mannosan ratio indicated the influence of sugarcane burning; the backward air masses trajectories suggested transport of aerosol from the sugarcane production region in 60 % of the sampling days.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0437-9
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Estimation of risk factor of elements and PAHs in size-differentiated
           particles in the National Capital Region of India
    • Authors: Naba Hazarika; Arun Srivastava
      Pages: 469 - 482
      Abstract: Abstract Size-differentiated particulate matters (viz. fine and coarse) were analyzed for quantification of elements and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques for the samples collected through Dekati PM10 impactor and Sioutas five-stage cascade impactor from five different sites of the National Capital Region, India for the year 2014–2015. The dominant sources of elements were crustal origin and diverse man-made activities revealed by principal component analysis, while for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, it was attributed to be emitted from vehicular fuels, combustion processes (such as coal, wood, and biomass burning) and petrogenic sources indicated by molecular diagnostic ratios. Chronic health risk assessment was also observed for the species: elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The observed hazard quotient of an individual species was less than unity, but the hazard index of the species was found to be greater than unity.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0438-8
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Size-segregated aerosol chemical composition from an agro-industrial
           region of São Paulo state, Brazil
    • Authors: Cátia Gonçalves; Bernardino R. Figueiredo; Célia A. Alves; Arnaldo A. Cardoso; Ana M. Vicente
      Pages: 483 - 496
      Abstract: Abstract The main objective of this research included a detailed inorganic and organic characterisation of atmospheric aerosols, to understand the changes in their composition as a result of the implementation of the Sugar and Ethanol Industry Green Protocol, in the southeastern region of Brazil. A set of 10 samples segregated into PM2.5, PM2.5–10 and PM>10 fractions were collected in May and July of 2014, covering the beginning of the sugarcane harvest period. The analytical methods included gravimetric determination, water-soluble ions by ion chromatography, major elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, carbonaceous content by a thermal-optical system and organic speciation by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. A substantially higher mean concentration (57 ± 36 μg m−3) was obtained for PM2.5 in comparison with PM2.5–10 (15 ± 6.2 μg m−3) and PM>10 (8.5 ± 13 μg m−3). The carbonaceous content represented, on average, approximately 18 and 21 % of the particulate matter of the PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 fractions, respectively. On average, water-soluble ions accounted for 12 and 7.7 % of the PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 mass, respectively. With the implementation of the Green Protocol, a decrease of biomass burning ion tracers would be expected, however, this trend was not observed. With regard to major elements, aerosols from both fractions were dominated by K, Ca, Na and Al. Concentrations of the major elements were lower than those observed in earlier studies. Organic compounds were present at higher levels in the fine than in the coarse fraction. n-Alkanes, n-alkanoic acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons related to biomass combustion showed lower concentrations than previously reported.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0441-0
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Screening of the EMEP source receptor relationships: application to five
           European countries
    • Authors: A. Clappier; H. Fagerli; P. Thunis
      Pages: 497 - 507
      Abstract: Abstract In this work, a methodology based on the calculation of potencies and potentials is used to screen modeled emission reduction scenarios performed with the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme/Meteorological Synthesizing Centre-West (EMEP/MSC-W) air quality model. Specific indicators are proposed to look at the results in terms of model processes (potencies) as well as in terms of their impacts on policy (potentials). A specific template to screen the results is also developed and applied. The EMEP/MSC-W model results obtained for 5 EU countries for 5 precursors and 2 levels of emission reductions (15 and 40 %) are analyzed with the following purposes: (i) build confidence in the processes implemented in the model, (ii) identify potential for national abatement versus trans-boundary transport, (iii) assess the relative importance of various precursor emissions, and (iv) estimate the importance of non-linearity with respect to the level of emission reduction chosen and among the precursor emissions. The proposed methodology proves to be very useful for comparing the responses across countries and precursors in a uniform way. The results confirm our knowledge in terms of processes implemented in the EMEP/MSC-W model. The validity of the linear assumption made during the derivation of the EMEP-based source receptor relationships is generally valid although minor non-linearities with respect to NH3 (all countries) and NOx (in Italy) are observed. Because no true reference can be used to assess the quality of the model results in scenario mode, it is important to consider this screening as a benchmark to which other models or updated versions of the EMEP/MSC-W model can be compared to in the future.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0443-y
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Emissions management and health exposure: should all power stations be
           treated equal?
    • Authors: Ilze Pretorius; Stuart Piketh; Roelof Burger
      Pages: 509 - 520
      Abstract: Abstract At the centre of all air quality regulation stands the right of humans to an environment that is not harmful to health and well-being. In many developing countries, including South Africa, coal-fired power station emissions are managed both from an ambient air quality and minimum emissions standpoint. Ambient air quality standards and minimum emissions standards (MES) are often in conflict with one another, as power stations in which vicinity ambient air quality standards are met still have to comply with a blanket set of MES. In developing countries this often leads to the unnecessary incurrence of already constrained financial resources. This study proposes an alternative emissions management strategy where potential human health exposure is used as a decision-making basis on which power station emissions control is founded. The potential human health exposure of population groups to primary particulate matter with a diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10), secondary sulphurous and nitrous particulate matter (PM), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions are calculated and compared for 13 power stations in the highveld of South Africa. It was found that the potential human health exposure to individual power stations differ substantially. It is suggested that it makes more sense both from both a human health and fiscal perspective that emissions from coal-fired power stations be managed on an individual power station basis, especially in developing countries.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0444-x
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Evaluating impacts of two-wheeler emissions on roadside air quality in the
           vicinity of a busy traffic intersection in Douala, Cameroon
    • Authors: Cyrille Mezoue Adiang; David Monkam; Andre Lenouo; Ebenezer Njeugna; Sharad Gokhale
      Pages: 521 - 532
      Abstract: Abstract Air quality is deteriorated due to heavy traffic in the urban centers of Cameroon in Central Africa. The Douala city has witnessed unprecedented growth of vehicles, particularly motorbikes (two-wheelers), which are the primary cause of roadside pollutants. However, the menace of pollution, due to the use of old cars over 12 years, continues. The main objective of this study has been to evaluate the impacts of two-wheelers and old cars on the pollutants originated at the Ndokoti intersection in Douala using a combine field and air quality modeling and assess the effect on urban population. The study uses a semi-empirical model to compute vehicular emission rate, the Gaussian plume model for pollutants dispersion, and the Robust Uniform World Model for assessing impacts of pollutant levels on urban population. The results show that during traffic jam, the concentrations of CO and NO2 increase with the age of cars and found to be higher with the increase in number of two-wheelers. Using models, scenarios such as a car plying together with 2, 4, 6, and 8 two-wheelers have been developed to determine the influence of the two-wheelers on the pollutant concentration. The estimated pollutant concentrations match well with the measured concentrations. The average roadside CO concentration increases from 60 (scenario 1) to 180 mg m−3 (scenario 5), indicating the prominent impact of two-wheelers on air quality. The comparison of the roadside concentrations in Douala and the guidelines of the WHO show that a large exceedance of up to about 300%, depending on the scenario.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0445-9
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Contamination of building roof dust in India
    • Authors: K. S. Patel; M. Rajak; N. K. Jaiswal; G. Agnihotri; B. Blazhev; L. Matini; E. Yubero; B. Chen; W. Corns
      Pages: 287 - 295
      Abstract: Abstract The ambient air quality in Raipur city, Chhattisgarh state, India is poor during the winter season due to the lowest wind speed and temperature inversion. The whole buildings in the city are covered by the black fugitive dust. In this work, characterization and sources of contaminants, i.e. carbons, Al, As, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, F−, Cl−, SO4 2−, NO3 −, NH4 +, Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+, in the building roof dust of Raipur area, central India are described. Significant concentration of black carbon (BC), SO4 2−, Ca2+, Al, Fe and Mn in the dusts was observed, ranging from 8.7 to 21.9, 0.5 to 2.1, 1.8 to 2.9, 2.1 to 4.8, 6.2 to 13.4 and 0.34 to 0.95 % with mean value (p = 0.05) of 14.1 ± 2.6, 1.2 ± 0.3, 2.3 ± 0.2, 3.3 ± 0.4, 9.4 ± 1.2 and 0.64 ± 0.11 %, respectively. The concentration of toxic metals, i.e. As, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, ranged from 13.8 to 47.3, 57 to 187, 36 to 89, 31 to 177, 208 to 472, 0.11 to 0.53 and 93 to 366 mg kg−1 with mean value (p = 0.05) of 21.5 ± 6.0, 111 ± 22, 59 ± 9, 102 ± 23, 306 ± 48, 0.28 ± 0.08 and 176 ± 48 mg kg−1, respectively. The cluster and factor analysis models were used to apportion sources of elements linked to several anthropogenic activities in the study area. The concentration variations, pollution indices and toxicities of the contaminants are described.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0446-8
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Influence of dust storms on atmospheric particulate pollution and acid
           rain in northern China
    • Authors: Ruxing Wang; Jifeng Li; Jingpu Wang; Hong Cheng; Xueyong Zou; Chunlai Zhang; Xiaoxu Wu; Liqiang Kang; Bo Liu; Huiru Li
      Pages: 297 - 306
      Abstract: Abstract Northern China is the area with the highest incidence of dust storms in the world, which are the main sources of its soil dust emissions. In addition, the region consumes huge amounts of fossil fuels and has serious atmospheric particulate pollution. Existing observation results show that a single dust storm has significant influence on atmospheric particulate pollutant concentrations and precipitation acidity. Proving the influence of dust storms on atmospheric particulate pollution, acid rain, and the acid rain ratio and determining whether there is a causal relationship among them on a longer time scale will help us recognize the impact of dust storms on the atmospheric environment. This paper proves that dust storms are the direct cause of the variations in the number of acid rain days and acid rain ratio, as well as the changes in atmospheric particulate pollution, in spring by using the Granger Causality Test and correlation analysis methods based on 1993 to 2007 data, including the number of days of dust storms, atmospheric particulate pollution, and acid rain. Atmospheric particulate pollution is the direct cause of variations in the number of acid rain days and the acid rain ratio in spring; for the other seasons, additional data combined with atmospheric particulate pollution are needed to explain the causes of the acid rain day and ratio changes.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0421-4
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Underestimation of respirable crystalline silica (RCS) compliance status
           among the granite crusher operators in Malaysian quarries
    • Authors: Suhaily Amran; Mohd Talib Latif; Md Firoz Khan; Eric Goh; Abdul Mutalib Leman; Shoffian Amin Jaafar
      Pages: 371 - 379
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study is to determine exposure levels as well as compliance status on respirable dust and respirable crystalline silica (RCS)-quartz exposure among crusher operators at Malaysian quarries. The exposure level at each crushing process was compared. Monitoring was performed among 70 crusher operators at nine quarries. Eight hours long-term personal samples were collected according to the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Manual Analytical Method (NMAM) 0600 for respirable dust and NMAM 7500 for respirable crystalline silica (RCS-quartz). A questionnaire on silica dust monitoring and control was also sent to all granite quarries in Malaysia. The results indicated that the mean percentage of RCS-quartz in silica dust was 23.7 %. The mean value for crusher operators’ exposure was 0.426 mg m−3 for respirable dust and 0.091 mg m−3 for RCS-quartz. Around 30.5 % of crusher operators were exposed to RCS-quartz levels above the permissible exposure limit (PEL) based on Malaysian’s Occupational Safety and Health Regulations 2000. Operators in charge of combined secondary and tertiary crusher plants were exposed to 0.116 mg m−3 of RCS-quartz, which was higher compared to those operating individual plants. Results on posted questionnaire indicate that Malaysian quarries are more preferred to perform respirable dust monitoring (37 %) instead of specific RCS-quartz monitoring (22.6 %). Low exposure to respirable dust may conceal the need to justify comprehensive crystalline silica dust monitoring and lead to underestimation of RCS-quartz exposure. A high percentage of non-compliance exposure on personal RCS-quartz exposure should establish the need for quarry management to focus on better implementation of dust control systems.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0439-7
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Inhalation exposure of children to indoor PM 10 and associated metals
           during river-dust episodes
    • Authors: Yi-Chen Chiang; Hao-Jan Yang; Szu-Chieh Chen; Chiung-Wen Hu; Ching-Tsan Tsai; Dian-Jheng Lai; Chung-Yih Kuo
      Pages: 381 - 388
      Abstract: Abstract Three exposure groups (high exposure, low exposure, and control), using six elementary schools in Yulin County, were selected to study the impacts of aeolian river-dust on school children’s exposure to PM10 and associated metals. One classroom and about five school-aged children’s houses for each school were chosen to collect indoor PM10 during the river-dust episodes (RDEs) and non-river-dust episodes (NRDEs). The results indicated that the river-dust episodes had significant impacts on the school-aged children’s exposure to concentrations of PM10 and metals, especially in the high exposure group. For the Ni and Mn metals, the 8-h school exposure concentrations during RDEs were both higher than the standards suggested by the California Environmental Protection Agency. Three interventions for protecting school children from being affected by the river dust during RDEs are suggested in this study. Among the three interventions, children who have a day off of school during RDEs can result in the greatest decrease in the exposure levels of PM10 and associated metals.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0426-z
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Dynamic interaction of trace gases (VOCs, ozone, and NO x ) in the rural
           atmosphere of sub-tropical India
    • Abstract: Abstract The atmospheric chemistry and health implications of pollutants are important scientific concerns in the rural atmosphere. The current study investigates the estimation of seasonal and diurnal variability of VOCs, ozone, and NOx in the rural area located in a tropical region of India during the year 2013–2014. Results showed that most of the targeted VOCs were higher in winter followed by summer and autumn. The diurnal variability of aromatic hydrocarbons showed similar pattern with different amplitudes as maxima and minima during morning (07:00–10:00 h) or evening (16:00–19:00 h) and daytime (10:00–16:00 h), respectively. The sum of aromatic VOCs are found to be in the range from 27.3 to 87.9 μg/m3. In addition to this, O3 and NOx were observed as 45.04 ± 15.19 μg/m3 and 12.41 ± 3.49 μg/m3, respectively, during the observation period. The estimated VOC/NOx ratios (ranged from 3.4 to 3.7) indicated that the selected rural area was VOC limited in terms of ozone sensitivity. The sources of the VOCs have been explained by characteristic ratios, correlation, and principal component analysis. Further, ozone-forming potential (OFP) of the targeted aromatic VOCs has been evaluated using maximum incremental reactivity which suggested toluene (benzene) contributed the largest (lowest) in the ozone formation. Exposure assessment in terms of lifetime cancer and non-cancer risks lies within the acceptable range of USEPA guidelines.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18
       
  • Chemical composition of fine particles (PM 2.5 ): water-soluble organic
           fraction and trace metals
    • Abstract: Abstract The chemical composition of the atmosphere changes rapidly due to the amount of air pollutants released every day. The aim of this research was to make an exploratory study on the chemical composition (metals and water-soluble organic fraction) of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in a region with tropical climate. Multiple sites, with and without the influence of the construction works for the World Cup and Olympic Games, were selected in Rio de Janeiro State, RJ, Brazil. PM2.5 samples were collected every 6 days from January to December 2011. This is the first PM2.5 data generated by RJ’s monitoring network. The PM2.5 annual average concentrations in Rio de Janeiro ranged from 9 to 32 μg m−3. Metals originated from industrial (Cu, Cd, Pb) and traffic (Cr, Mn, Ni, V, and Zn) emissions, as well as those from natural emissions (Na, K, Ca, Ti, Al, Mg, Fe), were quantified. The concentrations of the metals analyzed ranged from 0.4 to 13,000 ng m−3. The highest concentrations found were related to metals present in the crust, such as Al (1.6 to 6.7 μg m−3). In the places where there was the presence of railroad minerals, Ca and Mg appeared in higher concentrations than in the other sites. Fe and PM2.5 annual and daily average were higher in areas under construction for urban mobility improvements or the Olympic arenas. Even though, the results for Ni, Pb, and Cu were 50% below WHO guidelines. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 4.9 μg m−3. The highest concentrations (2.4 to 4.9 μg m−3) were observed in urban areas with intense light vehicle fleet traffic as well as in areas of large industrial influence near highways with intense circulation of heavy vehicles. This is due to the fact that WSOC is mainly formed by the emissions from combustion processes. Studies are needed in order to assess to which extent the WSOC can increase the bioavailability of these and other metals.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13
       
  • Modeling of air pollutants using least square support vector regression,
           multivariate adaptive regression spline, and M5 model tree models
    • Abstract: Abstract This study investigates the applicability of three different soft computing methods, least square support vector regression (LSSVR), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), and M5 Model Tree (M5-Tree), in forecasting SO2 concentration. These models were applied to monthly data obtained from Janakpuri, Nizamuddin, and Shahzadabad, located in Delhi, India. The models were compared with each other using the cross validation method with respect to root mean square error, mean absolute error, and correlation coefficient. According to the comparison, LSSVR provided better accuracy than the other models, while the MARS model was found to be the second best model in forecasting monthly SO2 concentration. Results indicated that the applied models gave better forecasting accuracy in Janakpuri station than the other stations. The results were also compared with previous studies and satisfactory results were obtained from three methods in modeling SO2 concentrations.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13
       
  • Atmospheric dispersion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from open
           burning of agricultural residues in Chiang Rai, Thailand
    • Abstract: Abstract California Puff Mesoscale Dispersion Model (CALPUFF) was applied to simulate concentrations and the spatial distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from open burning of maize residues in Chiang Rai, Thailand. The model was simulated during the burning season between January 1 and April 30, 2014. The 95th percentile values of 24-h average concentration of total PAHs at 117 specified ground level receptors were calculated. The spatial distribution of predicted concentration is also illustrated. The modeled results indicated that the open burning of maize residues contributed to high PAH concentration in particularly at the receptors located near the burned areas. The cancer risk of carcinogenic PAHs was evaluated using the calculation of benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (BaPeq). The results show that the calculated BaPeq values on daily basis ranged from 0.1 to 18.6 ng m−3. These concentrations exceeded the Chinese’s standard of 2.5 ng m−3 at 26 among 117 receptors. It was estimated that about 20% of the population living in Chiang Rai was exposed to PAHs at this level. This finding suggests that the open burning of maize residues could significantly contribute to high cancer risk to local population. It is expected that the outcome of this study can support the setting up an appropriate mitigation strategy for reducing their emissions and health impacts on population in the affected areas.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13
       
  • Redox characteristics of size-segregated PM from different public
           transport microenvironments in Hong Kong
    • Authors: Nirmal Kumar Gali; Sabrina Yanan Jiang; Fenhuan Yang; Li Sun; Zhi Ning
      Abstract: Abstract Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) has been associated with various adverse health effects, including severe pulmonary and cardiovascular effects. PM consists of different chemical components that vary with microenvironments in urban areas and pose challenges to assess personal exposure. In Hong Kong, more than 70% of the population commutes through roadway and railway public transport. This study aims to determine the oxidative potential and role of aerosol carbon and water-soluble metals in fine (d p < 2.5 μm) and coarse PM (2.5 <d p <10 μm) in public transport systems including underground (UG) subway, above-ground (AG) train, and buses (BUS). Metals such as Fe, Cr, Mo, Pb, Ni, and V from UG, AG, and BUS routes exhibited much lower solubility compared with ambient PM. The cell toxicity of PM in these transport microenvironments was also analyzed in vitro and compared with urban ambient environments. Strong positive associations were observed for reactive oxygen species (ROS) with water-soluble metals (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, V, Mo; R > 0.70) and organic and elemental carbon (OCEC) (R > 0.85) for UG and AG routes. In addition, PM from UG and AG routes generated 3–4-fold (in PM2.5) and 40–50-fold (in coarse PM) less ROS compared to urban sites, suggesting PM in these public transport microenvironments may not be intrinsically redox active than in urban ambient, and water solubility of metals seems to have played an important role in it.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0473-0
       
 
 
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