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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1288 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (18 journals)
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    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (520 journals)
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HEALTH AND SAFETY (520 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 187)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Policy and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health Professions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series
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   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1572-347X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3044 journals]
  • Regulatory processes of the human body during thermal and work strain
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      This chapter focuses on the control processes inherent in the human body when subjected to thermal or exercise stress. The regulatory processes commonly named ‘thermoregulation’ comprise the interaction, and sometimes the competition, of various control systems such as the cardiovascular, metabolic, respiratory, osmoregulatory and thermal control systems. Understanding these processes correctly is essential for the estimation and evaluation of physiological strain in environmental ergonomics. Such systems stabilize body temperature in spite of external or internal loads, generally by means of an information loop with negative feedback. A controller network in the central nervous system activates effector mechanisms (such as metabolic heat production, sweat production and vasomotoric action) to an extent that is proportional to the deviation of the controlled variable from its so-called set-point. In hyper-or hypothermia, body temperature deviates substantially from the setpoint, mainly because of insufficient effector capacity. The set-point may change periodically (e.g. circadian rhythm) or temporarily, due to interference with the regulation of non-thermal variables (e.g. in states of dehydration or starvation, etc.), or due to pathological, non-thermal influences (e.g. during a fever). The processes of acclimatization may also change the set-point.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • The interrelation of thermal and nonthermal reflexes in the control of
           postexercise heat loss responses
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      The role of baroreceptor modulation on the postexercise esophageal temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation (Th vd ) and sweating (Thsw) was investigated. Five subjects, fitted with a water-perfused, upper body suit, performed a total of four experimental trials that were carried out in a random order. Each of the four experimental trials commenced with a 15-min baseline rest period, after which subjects either exercised (Exercise) or remained resting (No-Exercise) in a temperature-controlled chamber (25°C). For the Exercise condition the subjects performed 15 min of upright cycling at 70% of their predetermined VO2max. For the No-Exercise condition the subjects were instructed to rest in a semi-seated, upright position for 15 min. Immediately following both the No-Exercise and Exercise conditions subjects were placed in a semi-seated, upright position within a specially designed pressure chamber sealed at the level of the iliac crest. They were then exposed to either 50 mmHg lower body positive pressure (LBPP) or no lower body positive pressure (No-LBPP). During this time cool water (∼20°C) was circulated through the water-perfused suit until forearm cutaneous vasoconstriction was noted. Mean skin temperature was then progressively increased to 47°C by increasing the temperature of the water circulating through the suit at a rate of 4.2±0.8°C h−1 and cutaneous vasodilation and sweating was noted (∼80 min). To compare thresholds between conditions in which both esophageal and mean skin temperatures were changing, the following equation was used to correct the T es [T es (calculated)] for a designated skin temperature [T sk(designated)]:T es(calculated)=T es+[β/(1-β)][T sk-T sk(designated)], where β is the fractional contribution of the skin to the vasodilation (β=0.2) and sweating response (β=0.1). Th vd and Thsw increased by 0.42 and 0.25°C, respectively, postexercise from the No-Exercise/No-LBPP condition to the Exercise/No-LBPP condition (p
      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Brain activation by thermal stimulation in humans studied with fMRI
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      Sensations evoked by innocuous thermal stimulation can be divided into two categories. One is “temperature sensation” in a narrow sense, which is directed towards an object outside the body. The other is the “thermal comfort/discomfort” of the body that is important for thermoregulation. We recently reported rCBF changes in the amygdala which correlated with thermal comfort during whole body cooling (Kanosue et al., 2000). In the present study we investigated the region of brain that is activated by local thermal stimulation of the hand. Eight healthy subjects were recruited and gave written informed consent to participate in the study. Warm (39°C) or cold (25°C) stimuli was applied to the right or left hand for 30 s by using a water circulating tube that covered the whole hand. Each subject reported the magnitude of the stimulus intensity of temperature sensation using a scale from 1 (very cold) to 9 (very hot). All subjects reported hot or cold sensations and not pain. We examined the correlation between the rating scores and regional activity over the entire brain with a 3 Tesla MR imagers (VP, General Electrics, Milwaukee, US). Activation was observed in the contralateral secondary somatosensory cortex in response to both warm and cold stimulation of the hand. No activation was observed in the amygdala. This suggests that temperature sensation and thermal comfort might be generated by completely different structures of the brain.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Comparison of tympanic membrane temperatures measured by contact and
           noncontact tympanic thermometers during prolonged exercise in the heat
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      We examined the agreement between the tympanic membrane temperature (Tty) measured by a contact tympanic thermometer (Contact-Tty) and the Tty measured by a noncontact tympanic thermometer (Infrared-Tty). In addition, we also evaluated the usefulness of an assessment of core body temperature using a noncontact tympanic thermometer during prolonged exercise in the heat. Seven healthy male subjects cycled for the same four experimental trials at 50% peak oxygen uptake for 90 min in the heat (32°C ambient temperature, 50% relative humidity and 26.6°C wet bulb globe temeprature). The correlation coefficient between both temperatures was strong, 0.89 (p
      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Physiological significance of bright vs. dim light intensities during the
           daytime for thermoregulatory responses, digestive functions and evening
           dressing behavior in the cold
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      The present paper consists of 6 sections; (1) temporal variability of preferred illuminance self-selected by women whilst awake; (2) core body temperature under the influence of bright/dim light during the daytime; (3) the administration of exogenous melatonin during the daytime lowers the thermoregulatory set-point in humans; (4) the effects of exposure to bright or dim light during the daytime on digestive activity in humans; (5) the influence of different light intensities during the daytime on evening dressing behavior in the cold; and (6) concluding remarks. These sections emphasize how deeply human thermoregulatory responses, including behavioral, cold/warm sensory and autonomic responses, are under the control of light intensities during the daytime. The physiological basis for this is that the thermoregulatory set-point is variable under the influence of different light intensities during the daytime, due to probable involvement of the hormone melatonin. The results strongly suggest that we should take the strict control of surrounding illuminance into account when we study the effects of ambient temperature on human thermoregulatory responses. For example, the sensation of cold by a subject may vary even when subjected to identical thermal (cold) stimuli, depending on previous experience of different light intensities. This is because the thermoregulatory set-point may be influenced differently by the surrounding illuminance.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • The effect of illumination and temperature on sleep-wake rhythm
           disturbances in the elderly
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      Chronic sleep disturbances frequently occur in the elderly. In demented elderly people, nocturnal restlessness puts a strong burden on the caregiver and, consequently, increases the risk of institutionalization by a factor of 10. Treatment with hypnotics, neuroleptics or antidepressants does not restore natural sleep patterns and have more adverse effects when given to elderly subjects. We have therefore initiated a fundamental and applied research program to investigate the mechanisms involved in age-related sleep disturbances in order to be able to develop rational treatment strategies. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of supplementing two naturally occurring inputs to sleep-wake regulating systems. Bright light induces retinal ganglion cells to excite neurons in the biological clock of the brain, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. In the elderly, these neurons may become deactivated and shrink due to a lack of activation, resulting from decreased exposure to bright light, and reduced ocular transmission. Increasing the level of activation of these neurons induces recovery of their function and improves sleep-wake rhythms, which provides proof of the principle of the “use it or lose it” hypothesis. The other input suggested to be of importance is the projection of thermosensitive nerve endings in the skin to warm sensitive neurons in the preoptic area and other sleep-related brain areas.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Seasonal differences in physiological and psychological responses to hot
           and cold environments in the elderly and young males
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      Oral and skin temperatures, blood pressure, heart rate, thermal sensation, and the comfort of seven healthy elderly and seven healthy young males were measured in order to evaluate the difference in thermore gulation with aging in summer and winter by exposure to relatively mild hot and cold environments. The subjects, who wore T-shirts and short pants, and were exposed to three different thermal conditions (20, 28, and 36°C) for 90 min, including sitting at rest for 50 min and a head-up-tilt test for 40 min (supine (0°): 25 min, upright (80°): 15 min). The oral temperature in the cold was significantly lower in the summer than in the winter in both groups. The oral temperature of the elderly subjects significantly declined from that of the young subjects after 30 min in winter, and also before 30 min and after 60 min in summer. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) of the elderly subjects was significantly decreased by the head-up-tilt test in all conditions, but this was not the case in the young subjects. The reduction in SBP in the elderly subjects was significantly greater in the summer than in the winter. The elderly subjects were subjected to higher thermal and cardiovascular stresses by cold in summer and by heat in winter than the young, and their core temperature changed more widely. We found that their thermoregulatory responses were delayed, which was caused by the degradation of the vascular regulation ability with aging.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Evaluation of test protocols for smoke-divers working in the heat
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      Smoke diving is physically very demanding, and regular training is important. However, in small fire brigades realistic training situations may occur only rarely. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate various test protocols with the aim of developing a realistic protocol for use in training situations for smoke-divers. Each subject carried out six exercise trials on six different days. Trials 1–3 consisted of a standard 8-min walking test on a treadmill in a climatic chamber (the treadmill test). In trials 4–6 the subjects performed a job-related performance test in two special climatic chambers built for smoke-diver training (the Pyrosec test). The temperatures in both test series were 50, 100 and 130°C, and the subjects wore full protective clothing and breathing apparatus during the tests. These data suggest that strenuous smoke-diving efforts at 130°C produces greater thermal stress and results in a perception of greater effort than at lower temperatures. The stress is greater during the longer Pyrosec test, and this may have implications for smoke-divers' decision-making ability. These physiological measurements should help to improve our understanding of the factors that are critical for the ability of smoke-divers to behave rationally with regard to their own safety and awareness of their limitations.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • The influence of various methods of fluid ingestion on changes in selected
           physiological reactions during thermal stress in a sauna
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      The purpose of this experiment was to compare the influence of three different methods of fluid ingestion on selected physiological reactions during passive heating in a sauna. The participants were divided into three groups: group I (n=10) consumed a 4% glycerol solution (an average of 1860 ml) before entering the sauna; group II (n=10) consumed a nonrestricted amount of mineral water (an average of 1470 ml) whilst staying in, the sauna; group III (n=10) consumed 750 ml of water before night rest plus 750 ml of water prior to entering the sauna. The control group consisted of all participants (n=30) engaged in a one-time sauna exposure without consuming any fluids before or during the sauna session. Each sauna exposure involved a total time of 49 min: 3×15 min, of thermal heating in the sauna (95°C; relative humidity 26%), with two 2-min breaks for cooling. The lowest increases in rectal temperature and heart rate, as well as the smallest decrease of plasma volume were noted in subjects consuming water during the thermal exposure. The thermal sensations were also less pronounced during the heat exposure in this group. This data indicates that this system of hydration is likely to contribute to a more effective body heat elimination and better cardiac system functioning during the thermal exposition.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Physiological effects of heat stress on ground crew in the Japan Air
           Self-Defense Force
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      Heat stress is a significant problem for aircraft ground crew working in hot climates. This survey investigated the thermal conditions in the working area and thermal strain on the ground crew of the Japan Air Self-Defense Force during the hot season in Okinawa, Japan. The environmental conditions of the apron (outdoors), and the hangar (indoors) were recorded during the working period, and rectal and skin temperatures were monitored in 14 ground crew members. Heart rate, weight loss, thermal and comfort sensation, and subjective fatigue assessment were also measured. The temperature exceeded 35°C and the apron, with the black-globe temperature reaching 45°C. In the apron crew, the mean rectal temperature reached 38°C and the mean skin temperature exceeded 36°C. Their heart rates frequently increased to 150 beats per min and the mean sweat rate was 350 g/m2/h. Less severe physiological responses were observed in the hangar crew compared with the apron crew. Moreover, the post-working scores of the apron crew were higher than those of the hangar crew for both thermal and comfort sensation measures. These results suggest that heat strain experienced by the ground crew is not too severe under ordinary working conditions, though the thermal environment in the workplaces is slightly intense in Okinawa during the summer.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Cockpit thermal conditions and physiological reactions in flight: effects
           of mental workload on thermal regulation of aircrew while flying tasks
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      Thermal conditions in aircraft cockpits may affect aircrew performance, yet few in-flight measurements are available for the Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF). This survey investigated the thermal environment in both the front and rear seats of the cockpit, as well as thermal strain on each of the pilots during flight, with the focus on the differences between the front and rear, using data collected during ten normal sorties by F-4EJ (kai) and T-4 aircraft based at Naha AFB, Okinawa. Environmental and physiological data were recorded in both the front and rear cockpits at 1-min intervals throughout each mission. Cockpit temperatures at shoulder level in the F-4EJ (kai) and T-4 exceeded 40°C during flights in summer, and there were no significant differences between front and rear cockpit thermal conditions in either type of aircraft. However, increases in rectal temperature and heart rates of the front pilots during flight were greater than those of the rear pilots in both types. The total sweat rate of the F-4EJ (kai) pilots was 153±40 and 125±37 g/m2 h in the front and rear, respectively. Further, thermal comfort sensations reported by the front pilots were more uncomfortable than those by the rear pilots in both types of aircraft. Although there were no significant differences between front and rear cockpit thermal conditions and flying experience of each pilot, physiological strain experienced by the front pilots during flight was greater than by the rear pilots. Peripheral skin temperature of the front-seat pilots decreased gradually during flight. Since the mental workload imposed by the flying tasks contracted the peripheral blood vessels of the front-seat pilots, the prevention of heat loss from peripheral portions induced an increase in rectal temperature. It is suggested that thermal regulation is influenced by mental workload when performing flying tasks.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Effects of sportswear on thermoregulatory responses during exercise in a
           hot environment
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      To investigate if there are quantitative differences in heat stress associated with different types of sportswear, we analyzed the differences in thermoregulatory responses between soccer (SC), baseball (BB), and fencing (FU) uniforms during exercise in a hot environment. Eight male subjects performed three 20-min cycling sessions at light intensity (250 W/m2) wearing FU, SC, or BB uniforms in a room maintained at 28°C (wet-bulb globe temperature, WBGT). Esophageal (T es), mean skin (T sk), and core temperatures at thigh (T ct), heart rate (HR), thermal sensation (TS), and total sweat loss (TSL) were measured during exercise. Increases in T es (ΔT es), T ct, and HR during exercise were significantly (p
      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Environmental temperature during summertime athletic competitions in Japan
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      In this study, we observed the environmental conditions at national athletic competitions between 1997 and 2001 and evaluated the way competitions are held in the summer. The maximal values of wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT), dry-bulb temperature (DBT), wet-bulb temperature (WBT), globe temperature (GT), and temperature on the track surface (Tgru) were 35.0, 42.8, 32.4, 49.4 and 59.0°C, respectively. Maximal values of GT were above 42.0°C during all ten atheletic competitions, and mean values of daily GT were 35.0°C or higher during nine athletic competitions. The maximal effective radiant heat was 21.3°C. The present data exceeded the ACSM standard (extreme risk when WBGT is above 28°C) in almost all athletic competitions investigated. Moreover, the data also exceeded the JASA standard (suspend exercise in principle when WBGT is above 31°C) in more than 60% of athletic competitions investigated. The air temperature in the stadiums was significantly higher than that in nearby meteorological observatories. Therefore, it may be preferable to use WBGT as an index for predicting the occurrence of heat disorders. It is necessary to set event schedules so that competitive activities occur in the cooler times of day to ensure the safety and optimum performance of the athletes.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Assessment of the risks of heat disorders encountered during work in hot
           conditions in German hard coal mines
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      In German coal mines all miners that break off their shifts because they feel sick are recorded, according to legal requirements, whenever a physician attributes the incident to thermal stress. During 16 million shifts performed under climatic stress in coal mines in the Ruhr district in 1995–1999, 442 miners' shifts were cut short due to heat disorders, with no cases of permanent health impairment. In order to evaluate the possible effects of the surface climate on the occurrence of heat disorders, the mean air temperature at the surface, as well as the numbers of shifts in five different classes of climatic stress, were analyzed on a monthly basis. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that disorders due to heat stress cannot be attributed primarily to heat stress alone, but to a combination of several factors. Heat disorders in German coal miners and heat strokes in the South African mining industry display the same seasonal variation. Therefore, the recorded heat disorders may represent early symptoms of more serious health impairments that could develop if causative factors at the workplace persisted or if workers were not allowed to stop working.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Optimum room temperature during rest periods between repetitive exercises
           under heat stress
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      Four healthy male volunteers (22.0±0.8 years) were asked to perform three repeats of 20 min of exercise, at a work rate of 75 W, on a bicycle ergometer for three times in a climatic chamber controlled at a dry-bulb temperature of 35°C, 60% relative humidity, and a wet-bulb globe temperature of 31.5°C. Between the work periods, they were asked to sit stationary for 15 min in an attached air-conditioned room. The experiment was repeated with the temperature of the attached room (T a) ranging from 20 to 30°C. The average increase in esophageal temperature (T es) was largest when T a was 20°C, followed by 22>26>30>24°C. At a T a of 24°C or less, most subjects showed an increase in T es even inside the air-conditioned room and a temporary decrease of T es right after the reentry to the climatic chamber. The lower the T a, the more the skin surface temperature decreased. The inverse elevation and initial drop of T es are likely to be caused by vasoconstriction on the skin surface and by subsequent recanalization between the skin surface and core. Considering that none of the results suggested that the optimum temperature should be 26°C or more, we suggest that the optimum room air temperature for short rests provided for heat-exposed physical workers should be around 22–24°C.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Heat strain is reduced at different rates with hand, foot, forearm or
           lower leg cooling
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      Heat strain in aircrew is exacerbated when personal protective equipment is worn, due to the restriction of sweat evaporation. The most realistic solution to this problem in the military would be to adopt a cooling garment that removed heat from the body surface by direct conduction. Previous work has indicated that heat may be extracted more effectively from the limbs than the torso of the body: the approach traditionally used in conductive cooling garments. This experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that heat extraction rates when a hand or foot was cooled were greater than that for cooling a forearm or lower leg. Twenty male subjects undertook a repeated-measures study in which heat strain was induced by exercising in a hot climate followed by natural cooling (control) or the application of cooling to the hand, foot, forearm or lower leg. Cooling interventions were undertaken by immersing the site in water at 10°C, but avoiding direct contact with the water by using a plastic bag. Cooling rates were determined from changes in mean body temperature calculated from insulated auditory canal and mean skin temperatures. Mean body temperature and heart rate fell at faster rates in all water-cooling conditions compared to the control (p
      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Most effective immersion treatment for exercise-induced hyperthermia
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      It is commonly reported that cooling hyperthermic patients in water above 10°C provides a faster rate of cooling than in icy water, supposedly because of a lower shivering intensity and vasoconstriction. To our knowledge, however, no study on humans has systematically investigated the cooling rate during immersion in a large range of water temperatures. The objective of this study was to define the cooling rate of hyperthermic subjects, as measured by three estimates of deep core temperatures (esophageal, T eso; rectal, T re; and ear canal, T ec), during immersion in cold water ranging from 2 to 20°C. Seven subjects (four males, three females) were exposed to four experimental conditions. At the beginning of each condition, the subjects exercised on a treadmill at 65% VO2max until their T re reached 40°C (∼45 min). Following the exercise, the subjects, dressed in shorts, were immediately immersed in a stirred water bath controlled at 2, 8, 14 or 20°C until their T re returned to 37.5°C. No difference in the cooling rate was observed between the immersions at 8, 14 and 20°C, possibly because of the presence of shivering at 8 and 14°C. The rate of cooling was significantly larger during immersion at 2°C, where no shivering was observed, as compared to the other conditions, being 0.35±0.04, 0.75±0.12 and 0.55±0.07°C min−1 for T re, T es, and T ec, respectively. These rates are on average 2.2 times the rate observed for the other combined conditions. T re was the slowest site to react to the cooling treatment. It was concluded that immersion in water at 2°C provided the greatest rate of cooling and was the most effective treatment to eliminate hyperthermia.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Can fire-fighter instructors perform a simulated rescue after a hot fire
           training exercise'
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      In a previous study, we monitored fire-fighter instructors during hot fire training exercises (HFTE) and found that some subjects reached core temperatures of >39°C and near maximal heart rates (HR). Such physiological strain may compromise an instructor's ability to perform a rescue at the end of a HFTE. Ten fire-fighter instructors undertook two simulated rescues, which involved dragging an 80.6kg dummy a total of 23 m along the flat and down two flights of stairs. Prior to the first rescue (R c), the instructors had not been exposed to heat within the previous 12 h. The second rescue (R hf) was undertaken 10±3 min after they had acted as a safety officer in a HFTE lasting 40±24 min. During the HFTE, rectal temperature (T re), tunic temperature (T t) and heart rate were monitored. During the rescues HR, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate were measured. During the HFTE, the maximum T t was 96±49°C, T re increased to 38.0±0.4°C and maximum HR was 162±16 bpm. All the instructors were able to complete both rescues. The time taken to complete the R c and R hf were similar, averaging 84±23 s. Compared to R c, HR (151±16 vs. 171±16 bpm) and RPE (13.3±2.4 vs. 15.7±2.1) were higher in R hf (p
      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • The effect of water-perfused suits and vests on body cooling during
           exercise in a hot environment
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      In order to assess different methods of skin surface cooling to reduce exercise-heat stress, this study analyzed the differences in thermoregulatory responses between water-perfused suits (WS) and vests (WV) during exercise in a hot environment. Six male subjects performed three sessions of 20-min cycling at light intensity (250 W/m2) in a room maintained at 28°C (wet-bulb globe temperature, WBGT). The epperiment was performed under seven different conditions, involving three sets of clothing, WS or WV at 14°C (WS14, WV14), 20°C (WS20, WV20) and 26°C (WS26, WV26), and fencing uniforms (FU) only without cooling by water perfusion. In WS conditions, increases in T es (ΔT es), mean skin temperature (T sk), heart response (HR), thermal sensation (TS), and total sweat loss (TSL) were significantly (p
      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Effect of bilateral carotid cooling with an ice pack on thermal responses
           during bicycle exercise
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      We measured rectal, tympanic and skin temperatures, skin blood flow, local sweat rate and heart rate in seven healthy young men (mean age 25±3.7 yrs) during bicycle exercise for 40 min, with and without an ice pack provided after 20min of exercise. The primary objective was to observe whether partial body cooling is positively effective when thermoregulatory responses increase in hot ambient conditions (30°C, rh, 40%) at a given workload (60–70% of individual's aerobic work capacity). After ice cooling, tympanic temperature and local sweat rate were significantly decreased, and thermal sensation was significantly increased in comparison with the control. However, heart rate and skin blood flow were not significantly lower after ice cooling than in the control. There was no significant difference in the final rectal temperature with ice cooling. With ice cooling, the sweating sensitivity of the regression equation between local sweat rate and tympanic temperature showed a significant decrease in comparison with the control (F[1, 16]=62.67,p
      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Upper limit of thermal comfort zone in bedrooms for falling into a deep
           sleep as determined by body movements during sleep
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      The frequency of body movements of 12 young females during sleep was measured from June to October in order to investigate the effects of hot thermal environments on sleep. Room temperature and humidity were also measured at the same time. Room temperatures during sleep ranged from 22°C in October to 31°C in August. Relative humidity was over 60% throughout the whole period of the study. The number of body movements during the first 30 min of sleep differed significantly among the months, with the lowest number being found in October. Beyond 30 min of sleep, body movements did not differ significantly among the months. A significant relationship between body movements in the initial 30 min of sleep and time needed to fall into a deep sleep was observed. To adjust for the variation in the amounts of body movement between subjects, the amount of body movement for each subject was expressed as a ratio to the amount of body movements in October, which was the smallest value for all subjects. All of the body movements for fewer than 5 min needed to fall asleep were less than a ratio of 2 times the amount of body movements in October. A significant relationship between body movement time and room temperature or discomfort index was found using an exponential function. The room temperature and discomfort index, at the ratio of 2, in body movement time were about 28°C and 78, respectively.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • “Something old, something new, something borrowed, someone's blue”: a
           review of the literature and responses associated with cold water
           immersion
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      In this chapter the responses associated with immersion in cold water are reviewed. The first experiments into these responses were reported in 1798 and, like a good deal of the work that followed, concentrated on methods of rewarming. The 273 most recently published papers in the area can be broadly categorized into the following groups: adaptation to cold (9% of papers); non-thermal factors influencing thermoregulation (16%); clinically related (22%); diving response or cold pressor test (5%); mathematical modelling of human thermoregulation/prediction of survival time (6%); performance in the cold (13%); and responses evoked by immersion (29%). Of all of these areas, the prediction of survival time remains amongst the most important, but also the area in which it is most difficult to obtain definitive data. This is due to the fact that death may be due to more than one cause (drowning, cardiac problems or hypothermia), and the rate of cooling on immersion can be influenced by a wide variety of factors. These include: sea state and temperature; intrinsic (fat and muscle) and extrinsic insulation (clothing); fitness, gender, and factors that directly influence the capability of the thermoregulatory system, such as hypoglycaemia, hypoxia, drug intoxication and acclimatization.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • The effects of exhaustive exercise on thermoregulatory fatigue during cold
           exposure
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      Cold exposure facilitates body heat losses that, unless mitigated by vasoconstriction or shivering, thermogenesis, will cause lower body temperatures. Fatigue associated with chronic overexertion altered both vasoconstriction and shivering responses causing core temperature to decrease when exposed to cold. The question we posed is: do the physiological mechanisms elicited to maintain core body temperature “fatigue”, such that shivering and vasoconstriction are blunted during subsequent cold stress' This overview will focus on findings examining whether multiple stressors (fatigue combined with energy deficit and sleep deprivation over 9 weeks or 72 h) or individual stressors, such as acute exercise (1 h), and chronic exertional fatigue (3–7 days), compromise the ability to maintain thermal balance in the cold. Laboratory studies employed experimental design controls to isolate the effect of exercise from other consequences of exertion (initial core temperature, hypoglycemia) in order to study the independent effect of fatigue on thermoregulatory responses to cold. Results suggest that prior physical exercise may predispose a person to greater heat loss and to experience a larger decline in core temperature when subsequently exposed to cold air. The combination of exercise intensity and duration studied in these experiments did not fatigue the shivering response to cold exposure. Cold-induced increments in circulating norepinephrine, a marker of sympathetic nervous stimulation, appear unaffected by acute or chronic exertional fatigue. However, the possibility that fatigue impairs thermoregulatory responses to cold by mechanisms related to blunted peripheral vasoconstriction to sympathetic nervous stimulation merits further study.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Cold-induced vasodilation response and associated thermal loads in older
           men observed during finger cooling
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      The primary objective of this study was to examine age-related changes in cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD) and the associated skin temperature responses in older persons, by using a modified local cold tolerance test. The secondary objective was to confirm whether the modified test condition is acceptable for older people. The test consisted of a 10-min immersion of the left middle finger in cold water at 10°C, and was substituted for a conventional test (30-min immersion in ice water at 0°C). The finger skin temperature responses before, during and after the immersion of six older men (62–70 years) were compared with those of seven younger men (20–29 years). CIVD occurred significantly later in the older group, and the magntude of their response was significantly lower during the immersion. No vasodilatation occurred in two of the older men. The finger skin temperature after immersion did not recover quickly to the pre-immersion level in most of the older men like it did in the young men. The finger skin temperature before the immersion was not significantly different between the two age groups. Therefore, the depressed CIVD reactivity and slow recovery rate of the finger skin temperature after the immersion in the older men were thought to reflect age-related changes in peripheral vascular reactivity to a local cold stimulus. Considering that none of the subjects complained of cold pain during the immersion, our modified local cold tolerance test seems to be a useful and sensitive method for detecting the age-related degradation of local cold tolerance and peripheral vascular reactivity in older workers.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Thermal sensation of old vs young males at 12, 18, and 27°C for 120
           min
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      Research in the field of aging has provided data that suggests that there are physiological changes that occur as one's biological age increases. The present investigation examined the age-related alteration and differential response between old (OLD) and young (YNG) individuals with respect to subjective thermal sensation (TS). Participants were all regularly active and of average percent body fat relative to their age. Subjects were exposed to three different temperature trials (12, 18, and 27°C) on three separate occasions (separated by 48 h) for 120 min, wearing only a bathing suit or shorts. Subjects were instructed to insert a rectal probe to monitor rectal temperature and were instrumented with four thermocouples to monitor skin temperature. Each subject rested for 30 min in a thermoneutral environment outside the environmental chamber, during which time baseline measures were taken. Following the completion of the baseline period, the subjects were wheeled into the environmental chamber. Each trial lasted 120 min or until rectal temperature was less than or equal to 35°C, at which point the subject was immediately removed from the environmental chamber. TS was assessed using both the Gagge and Modified Gagge TS scale. At the completion of each trial the subject was removed from the chamber and allowed to exercise on a cycle ergometer. Both the Gagge and Modified Gagge scale demonstrated main effects for time and trial. Neither scale exhibited significant differences between the groups or interactions relative to the experimental groups. These data suggest that when exposed to a thermal stressor OLD and YNG subjects do not demonstrate a differential response in TS during acute cold exposure.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Individual variation in thermal responses of clothed women and men during
           repeated short-term cold-water immersions
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      Sudden immersion in cold water, resulting in a rapid and intense skin temperature drop, initiates physiological stress reactions collectively known as the ‘cold shock’ response. The aim of the present study was to investigate individual variations in body core and skin temperature responses induced by repeated short-term immersions of clothed subjects in cold water. Four medically screened healthy women aged 25–30 years and four men aged 23–28 years volunteered for the study. Each subject was immersed three times in cold water (4°C) wearing a water-permeable winter combat clothing ensemble weighing about 5.6 kg and which prior to immersion, had a thermal insulation of about 1.7 clo. The immersions took place at the same time of day, at intervals of at least a week. The subjects were continuously monitored by an ECG as a safety precaution. Rectal (T re) and skin temperatures at 13 sites were also monitored continuously and registered every minute, and mean skin temperature (T sk) was calculated as a weighted mean. The intra-individual pre-immersion T re ranged, on different days, from 0.10 to 0.69°C in women and from 0.20 to 0.75°C in men; the T sk ranged from 0.5 to 2.5°C and from 0.2 to 1.2°C, respectively. No significant individual differences in T re changes were observed between immersions, which resulted in an average (±SD) T re drop of only 0.04±0.11°C in women and men. Pre-immersion T re had no effect on T sk responses. The average individual pre-immersion T sk varied between 27.8 and 32.1°C in women, and between 32.8 and 34.1°C in men, whilst the average drop in T sk was 15.3±1.8°C and 17.5±0.9°C, respectively. The drop in intra-individual T sk ranged, on different days, from 1.3 to 3.0°C in women and from 0.3 to 1.8°C in men. The body temperature responses of each immersed individual (clothed) were reproducible in short-term repeated cold-water immersions, regardless of the pre-immersion T re or T sk. No effects of adaptation were found in body temperature responses.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • The effect of cold immersion on hands with different types of hand
           protection
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      The likelihood of surviving accidental immersion in cold water increases if the victim is able to swim and rescue him/herself into a life raft. It is emphasized that even short-term exposure of the unprotected forearm or hand to cold water produces a severe fall in tissue temperature and, consequently, a reduction in manual dexterity. It is therefore of crucial importance that hands and fingers are protected against the cold water to maintain a functional level and prevent the loss of manual dexterity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the manual performance and protection of the hands using two different gloves and cuffs during whole body exposure to cold water. Both short- and long-term responses were investigated. Six healthy men aged between 21 and 41 years old participated in the project. Each subject participated in two series of experiments either wearing neoprene gloves and neoprene cuffs or air-filled gloves and latex cuffs. The protocol in both series consisted of a 5-min exposure to 5 m s−1 wind at a temperature of −20°C without gloves to simulate a parachute jump, then the subjects were immediately exposed to 0°C water for 2 h. After 2 min in the water they put on the gloves, and then every 15 min the hands were exposed to cold water. Finger, hand and rectal temperatures as well as manual performance were measured during the test. The study demonstrated a correlation between the wrist size and a feeling of discomfort when wearing latex cuffs. The study also demonstrated that wearing an air-filled glove gives better thermal protection of the hands than neoprene gloves during long-term whole body immersion in cold water. However, wearing the air-filled glove reduces manual dexterity and impairs the ability to perform tasks such as climbing a rope, boarding a life raft or operating a distress flare. It is, therefore, recommended to use an inner glove to perform such tasks before the air-filled glove is put on for long-term protection against the cold.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Effects of bathroom temperature on thermal responses during whole-body
           bathing, half-body bathing and showering
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      This study examined the effect of bathroom thermal conditions on physiological and subjective responses before, during and after three kinds of bathing. Bathing methods were as follows: whole-body bath (W-bath), half-body bath (H-bath) and showering. The air temperature of the dressing room and bathroom was kept at 10, 17.5 and 25°C. Eight healthy males bathed for 10 min under nine conditions on separate days. Water temperature of the bathtub and shower was kept at 40 or 41°C, respectively. Rectal temperature (T re), skin temperature (T sk), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), body weight loss and blood characteristics (hematcrit: Hct) were measured. Thermal sensation (TS) and thermal comfort (TC) were also recorded. During bathing, BP decreased rapidly during W-bath and H-bath, and HR during a W-bath was significantly higher than during a H-bath or showering. The double products (systolic blood pressure × heart rate) due to W-bath during bathing were also greater than for a H-bath and showering. There was no distinct difference in Ht among the nine conditions. However, significant differences in body weight loss were observed among the bathing methods: W-bath > H-bath > showering. The changes in T re after a H-bath at 25°C were similar to those of W-bath at 17.5 and 10°C. The large differences in T re were due to the room temperature for the H-bath. TS and TC after bathing significantly differed with the three kinds bathing at 17.5 and 10°C. Especially with showering, TS and TC were significantly cooler and more uncomfortable than W-bath and H-bath. These results suggest that the physiological strains of a H-bath and showering were less than a W-bath. However, it is particularly important with a H-bath and showering to maintain an acceptable temperature in the dressing room and bathroom, in order to bathe comfortably and keep the body warm.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Effects of bath water and bathroom temperatures on human thermoregulatory
           function and thermal perception during half-body bathing in winter
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      We clarified the effects of hot water and bathroom temperatures on human thermoregulatory function and thermal perception during half-body bathing in the winter season. Subjects were eight healthy male volunteers aged 27.4±6.0 yr. Subjects were requested to stand quietly for 1 min in either a 14 or 25°C bathroom, and then to bathe for 20 min in a bathtub filled up to the epigastrium with water at either 39 or 42°C. The following physiological parameters were measured continuously: tympanic temperature as core temperature, skin temperature at the chest, skin blood flow at the forearm and sweat rate on the back of the hand. At the same time we measured thermal sensation and comfort votes as physiological responses before, whilst, and after bathing several times. At the same bathroom temperature, bathing in the 42°C water elevated tympanic and skin temperatures, skin blood flow and sweat rate more than bathing at 39°C. Similarly, under the same water temperature, bathing in the 25°C bathroom increased those parameters more than in the 14°C bathroom. Subjects felt warm and comfortable during bathing in the 39°C water in the 25°C bathroom because of the reduced cold stress because of the bathroom temperature. They felt warm with a neutral sensation during bathing in the 42°C water in the 14°C bathroom because of the reduction in heat stress from the not water temperature. We suggest that during half-body bathing at a low water temperature but high bathroom temperature is better physiologically and psychologically, and that during half-body bathing at a hot water temperature, a low bathroom temperature is better psychologically.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Effect of temperature on muscular strain in simulated packing work
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      Muscular strain in packing work was studied under three conditions: the subjects, wearing the usual three-layer clothing of the food processing industry, performed the work at 19,4 or 4†C whilst wearing an electrically heated vest which provided 100–150W additional heat. Work simulation consisted of four 30 min working periods with 5 min resting periods in between. The task was to pick up a group of four sausages every 4 s, separate the sausages by cutting them with a fixed blade, and place the sausages into a box. Skin and rectal temperatures were measured continuously and stored at 1 min intervals. thermal sensations were recorded at 15 min intervals. Muscular strain of selected muscles in the lower and upper arm and shoulder area was quantified by EMG-measurements. Mean skin temperatures at the end of the experiment were 33.3,29.7 and 32.3°C (average of both men and women, n=16) at 19,4 and 4°C with the vest, respectively. In comparison to working at 4°C, working at 19°C generally lowered the level of muscular strain. The most conspicuous effect was seen in the upper arm in the triceps muscle, where a warm environment decreased muscular strain by 33% in women and 65% in men. The heated vest decreased muscular strain only in women. The effect was seen in finger extensors, biceps, deltoideus and trapezius muscles. The results suggest that muscular strain during packing work can be decreased by warming. However, if torso heating is used, the heating power must be easily and individually adjusted to avoid uncomfortable hot sensations and sweating. Moreover, the bulkiness of the vest should be minimized.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Comparison of contact cooling while touching cold surfaces with an
           artificial and human fingers
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      An artificial finger (AF) was developed to determine the contact cooling rate induced by different cold surfaces. The purpose of this study was to compare the contact cooling rates of the artificial and human finger when touching cold surfaces. Aluminum, steel, nylon and wood blocks (95×95×95 mm) were used as contact materials. The temperatures of the materials were −40, −30, −20, −15, −10 and −4°C. The sensor of the artificial finger, simulating a finger pad, was designed and developed to measure the heat exchange of the contact interface when touching a cold surface. In the human experiments, 30 volunteers, 15 male and 15 female subjects, participated in the study. The contact temperature of the index finger was measured with a thermocouple (T-type, diameter 0.2 mm). Individual physical hand and finger characteristics were measured. For human measurements, the metal surfaces were tested only at temperatures of −15°C or higher. Cooling curves measured by the artificial finger followed a similar pattern to those measured by the human fingers when touching metal surfaces. When touching wood or nylon, the cooling curve of the artificial finger was significantly slower than that of the human fingers. Sex and hand/finger size partly explained the great variation in skin cooling rates between individuals. In conclusion, the present type of artificial finger could be used to assess contact cooling rates of cold materials with a very high thermal penetration coefficients (over 7200 J m−2 s−1/2 K−1) and at a surface temperature of below −4°C.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Use of an artificial finger to measure contact temperature on various
           extremely cold metallic surfaces
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      Manual work is often required under various cold conditions, which reduce finger temperature and carry a risk of finger cold injury while touching very cold metallic surfaces. This paper describes the development of an electrically heated, artificial finger that can simulate the cooling behaviour of the human finger. To obtain complementary data on safety criterion for extreme conditions, it was utilized to measure contact temperature when extremely cold metals were touched. The measurements were carried out in two climatic chambers at various temperatures (−40, −30, −20 and −10°C) on different cold metallic surfaces (aluminium and steel). Experimental results confirmed that the instrument is capable of simulating the cooling behaviour of human fingers touching the cold metals. The results with the artificial finger indicate that a cold injury may take place if a human finger touches cold aluminium at
      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Manual performance in urban circumpolar subjects exposed to cold in the
           winter and summer
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      Manual performance, finger temperature and blood flow during cold exposure were examined in 15 young men during January—March (n=7) and August–September (n=8) in northern Finland (65°N 25°E). The subjects were exposed in random order for three 24-h periods, one at a warm (22°C) temperature in bright light and then to cold (10°C) temperatures in both bright and dim light. During the exposure manual performance was tested by O'Connor and Purdue Pegboard finger dexterity tests, as well as by magazine loading trials. The tests were performed four times during the 24-h exposure. Finger skin temperature (T f) and blood flow (Q f) were measured in association with the performance tests. Depending on the test, manual dexterity decreased 9–24% during cold exposure compared with that at 22°C. There were no marked differences in manual performance between the two seasons, except for the magazine loading trial, where performance was more impaired in winter. During the tests T f was on average 25–28°C in the warm and decreased to 16–17°C in the cold environment, being significantly lower in winter (p
      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • An occupational health study on workers exposed to a cold environment in a
           cold storage warehouse
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      This study was undertaken to clarify the effects of exposure to cold environments on workers operating a forklift inside and outside a cold storage warehouse. A time-motion study was done for each worker from the start to the end of the work shift. Health conditions were checked by subjective symptoms, circulatory functions before work and at the end of the work shift, and by continuously monitoring blood pressure during the work, shift. Moreover, seasonal changes in the effects of work were examined. The mean total frequency of entering the warehouse was 52 times a day. The mean total time spent inside the warehouse was 3 h and 42 min. The maximum length of a stay was 60 min and 35 s. Many subjective symptoms were reported. Amongst them, nasal discharge and hand coldness and/or pain were reported by more than 60% of the subjects. There were large changes in blood pressure during work shifts. The longer the total time spent inside the warehouse, the greater the change in blood pressure. The plasma noradrenalin concentration was significantly higher at the end of the work shift. It increased significantly as the total time spent inside the warehouse increased. The changes in blood pressure in the warehouse increased with increasing plasma noradrenalin concentrations. The sublingual temperature significantly decreased at the end of the work shift. The effects of the work were greater in winter than in summer. This study shows that work management is one of the most important aspects in occupational health for workers in a cold storage facility.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • To be or not to be comfortable: basis and prediction
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      This chapter presents how human thermal influences are at the origin of thermal sensation, and (dis) comfort. It is generally admitted that a negative or positive heat balance will induce a cold or warm sensation, respectively, and the ISO standard stipulates that these sensations will be associated with thermal discomfort. In addition to the need for clarifying the way discomfort is defined and assessed, this chapter insists on the fact that comfort or discomfort are not simple notions, it states that some lacks of information still exist and it emphasizes the major roles played by the various body areas and their interactions. Global discomfort may be found for conditions under which no clear sensations are perceived. This chapter supports the idea that an adequate computer model is appropriate to determine the risks of discomfort based on the hypothesis that thermal comfort results from the integration of all the thermal inputs related to local thermal deviations from an optimal body cartography. Some examples, derived from human experimental results, illustrate the validity of this model when all environmental and local effects are considered, especially local thermal insulation due to clothing distribution.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Thermal comfort sensations of tourists in a subtropical region
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between changes in thermal environment and thermal comfort sensations in tourists who came to subtropical Okinawa from the mainland of Japan. A series of surveys of the thermal comfort sensations of tourists were carried out four times in 1 year in the Okinawa airport and the answers were analyzed in comparison with meteorological data that were observed at the Okinawa meteorological observatory. Thermal, comfort and humidity sensations in Okinawa and at tourist's home were the main questions in the interview. The relationship between these three sensations was not clear in the female subjects, while some relationships were found in the male subjects. One significant conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that when the thermal sensation in Okinawa is higher by two levels than the subjects home thermal sensation then the comfort sensation of all the subjects is highest.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Perceived problems and discomfort at low air humidity among office workers
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      Dry air in office workplaces has been the target for discomfort complaints and a number of symptoms in the skin and the mucous membranes, such as eye irritation. To investigate the effects of dry ambient air, 39 office workers, working in the same building on two floors (23 on one floor and 16 on the other), were asked to participate in a study (single-blind design). The air temperature was 20–22°C during the whole 12-week test period. The relative humidity (RH) was changed from about 43%, which was the regulated normal RH of the particular office building (NORMAL), to about 15% (DRY) and was then changed back to NORMAL. Each humidity level was maintained for 4 weeks. Comfort and symptoms of the skin, eyes, mouth and throat were evaluated by a questionnaire at each RH level, and before and after each shift of air humidity. A few symptoms were already reported under NORMAL RH. 54% of the subjects reported that the air was ‘too dry’ in DRY conditions compared to 5% in NORMAL conditions. DRY resulted in more frequent perceived dryness of the mouth and throat (31% vs. 10%) and facial skin (44% vs. 15%), and more frequent symptoms of the eyes (36% vs. 8%), lips (38% vs. 10%) and running nose (46% vs. 8%) than did NORMAL. Some workers also reported sensations of heat/red skin in their faces more often in DRY conditions. Low relative air humidity resulted in more discomfort and more frequent symptoms in facial skin and the mucous membranes. This indicates that humidification of dry air most probably would reduce the number and frequency of air-related symptoms.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Study on the improvement of environmental humidity in houses for the
           elderly: Part 1—Actual conditions of daily behavior and thermal
           environment
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      The purpose of this study was to understand the indoor thermal environment, especially with regard to humidity, in 12 homes for elderly in the Niigata prefecture, Japan. The study was made over the four seasons, with temperature and humidity measurements and reports. This chapter describes the structural condition of the houses, the health condition and daily behavior of the residents, various air conditioning situations, and the thermal environment of the houses through all the seasons. The following results were obtained: (1) the large difference in the residents' living styles was apparent in the operation and control of the cooling and heating equipment; (2) differences in globe temperatures were small at daybreak through all seasons and large at night time in the autumn and winter; (3) the inside and outside, and vertical temperature differences were smallest in the summer, and largest in the winter; (4) the indoor thermal environment is influenced by the operating conditions of heating equipment and the room layout, in addition to the effects of thermal insulation and air tightness of the house; (5) most residents vote the neutral or the satisfactory evaluation.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Study on the improvement of environmental humidity in houses for the
           elderly: Part 2—Examination of the humidity environment
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      The purpose of this study is to determine the humidity of the environment in elderly people's homes in the Niigata prefecture and also the effects of enjoying humidification. Investigations were carried out in 12 homes for the elderly in Niigata and Nagaoka cities through every season, in order to understand how the humidity of their environment varied through the seasons. The measurement terms within each season were for a period of about one week for each individual house and the measurements were performed in the living room and outside the house. Some of the results are as follows. (1) The humidity indoors is low in the winter and the average humidity is 5.1 g/kg; differences between indoor and outdoor humidity varied with time of day. In summer and winter, the difference was greater during the daytime and nighttime than that at daybreak, probably due to influences of cooling or heating equipment. (2) The skin surface hydration of residents was lower in winter in comparison with the other seasons. The humidity sensation perceived by the residents tended toward ‘humid’ rather than ‘dry’ with the increase skin surface hydration and humidity. (3) The effect of a humidifier depends on the air tightness and heat insulation properties of the room and the control system of the equipment.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Effect of humidity sensation on hormonal responses in saliva and urine
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      The purpose of this study is to clarify the psychological and physiological effects, especially the endocrinological effects, of the humidity sensation on human skin by analyzing salivary and urinary hormones under two different humidity conditions. Twelve healthy female subjects, aged 21–22 years old, were exposed for 90 min to two different humidity conditions: a variable condition of 30–70% RH at 34°C and a constant condition of 30% RH at 34°C. The body weight loss, R-R interval of heart rate variability (HRV), salivary cortisol concentration, secretory immunoglobulin A in saliva (S-IgA), and urinary catecholamine fraction were measured and subjective evaluation of thermal, dampness and comfort sensations were made. According to the sweating response, the subjects were divided into two groups. Group A subjects sweated a lot in the increasing humidity condition, while group B subjects showed a higher sweat rate under the constant humidity condition. As a result of analyzing data separately for each group, it was shown that both S-IgA in saliva and the index of sympathetic nervous activity obtained from HRV changed in relation to the sweating rate of the subjects rather than to the degree of the discomfort felt by the subject. No significant difference in the amount of adrenaline, noradrenaline or dopamine was obtained through urine analysis.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Psychophysiological approach to thermal discomfort in non-uniform
           environments
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      This research aims to create a better understanding of the origin of human thermal discomfort under heterogeneous but steady environments for subjects under near physiological and sensory thermoneutrality. The measurement of skin temperatures allows a psychophysiological study aimed at linking the body's thermal state (local and total) to its thermal feelings (perceptive and affective judgements). An experiment was conducted involving 57 healthy males, aged between 20 and 40 years old, wearing indoor winter clothes (0.85 clo: manikin measures), during a dynamic simulated car driving task at the Renault® Research Department. Three climatic conditions were chosen based on predicted mean votes of −1 (slightly cold), 0 (neither cold nor warm), or +1 (slightly warm), verified by manikin assessments. The car interior was regulated by an external air-conditioning system. Results confirm the significant effect of air temperature in the cab upon the mean skin temperature, which is a determinant but not sufficient factor for comfort prediction. Our results confirm that it is necessary to establish relationships between local skin temperatures and risk of global discomfort. When mean T sk is averaged for a group and is in agreement with the comfort conditions (minimal observed unpleasantness), global comfort may or may not be obtained, depending on the subject. Finally, our experimental conditions revealed a quantitative relationship between the number of local body parts that felt thermally unpleasant and the percentage of dissatisfied people: as long as no more than one body part (as defined in this experiment) felt thermally unpleasant then the thermal condition should be associated with less than 20% of people being dissatisfied.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Effective radiant temperature including solar radiation
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      An evaluation method for thermal sensations of the human body in an outdoor thermal environment was developed. Effective radiant temperature was proposed as the mean radiant temperature in an outdoor environment. The operative temperature and standard new effective temperature, SET*, in outdoor environments could be calculated using the effective radiant temperature. In order to examine the operative temperature and SET* based on the effective radiant temperature, experiments using subjects were carried out in an outdoor environment at Sapporo city. The SET* calculated from experimental data correlated well with the thermal sensation votes of the subjects. It was shown that a SET* based on the effective radiant temperature can evaluate the thermal sensation of the human body in an outdoor environment.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Gender differences and non-thermal factors in thermal comfort of office
           occupants in a hot-arid climate
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      The effects of environmental and individual factors on thermal sensations in 22 air-conditioned office building were examined in a large thermal comfort field study in the hot-arid climate of Kalgoorlie-Boulder in Western Australia. Sample sizes were 640 office occupants in winter and 589 in summer. Females wore approximately 0.1 clo less than males, with a mean clothing insulation of 0.66 clo in winter and 0.43 in summer. Kalgoorlie-Boulder females were more inclined than males to feel warm and to be thermally dissatisfied under the same conditions in winter. Positive relationships between both job satisfaction (in winter), perceived degree of control over the indoor conditions (in winter and summer), and work area comfort, were found in females. Comparisons with a similar study in a hot-humid location, in Townsville, northern Queensland, Australia, indicated that Townsville respondents were more adapted to their outdoor climatic conditions than Kalgoorlie-Boulder respondents, perhaps due to limited home air-conditioning.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Thermal comfort in outdoor and semi-outdoor environments
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      Thermal comfort research to date has been focused on indoor applications, but in recent years attention has turned to the comfort requirements of people using outdoor and semi-outdoor spaces. Two different approaches have been discerned in the literature. The first simply transfers the assumptions and models usually associated with indoor thermal environmental engineering to the outdoor context, while the second approach accepts that various contextual features of semi-outdoor and outdoor spaces may affect subjective thermal perceptual processes as much, if not more so, than the conventional heat-balance variables found in indoor thermal comfort models. This chapter reports examples of recent work using both of these approaches.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Development of air-conditioning systems for the elderly
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      In this study, a questionnaire and interview survey were carried out with respect to facilities for the elderly from the perspective of air-conditioner manufacturers, in order to determine whether or not it would be possible to improve thermal environments in such facilities through the development of a new air-conditioning apparatus for those facilities. Consequently. we found that there were many kinds of problems, such as indoor temperature differences, drafts, dryness of air and odors. Based on the results of the survey, an air-conditioning system which ‘utilizes the underfloor space’ for the air conditioner apparatus was developed. The results of measurements of room temperatures indicated that, by using this system, room temperature distributions were smaller in comparison to cases where traditional air-conditioning apparatus were used.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Evaluation of vehicle climate
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      Thermal conditions in vehicles are often complex due to the interaction of the cabin construction, heating/cooling systems and ambient climate. Solar radiation, hot and cold surfaces, air jets and seat insulation comprise factors that create local variations in heat exchange over the body surface. A relevant and valid expression of dry heat exchange between the human body and vehicle environment is the equivalent temperature (t eq). The t eq combines, the effects of convection, radiation and conduction at the measured location in one number. Depending on the type of measuring instrument, various t eq can be defined. Only t eq-values measured with principally similar types of instrument can be directly compared. The most accurate, representative and reliable instrument is a thermal manikin. Local t eq-values for different segments of the human body can be determined and present a picture of the homogeneity of the vehicle climate. International standards are under development for describing the evaluation techniques.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Effects of spectral properties of glass on the thermal comfort of car
           occupants
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      The effect of different sources of radiation on the transmissive and reflective performance of glass was investigated to enable the accurate evaluation of solar radiation through a glass window. The performance of these two properties is quite different with different radiation sources, such as solar radiation from the sun or infrared solar lamps, because of the spectral properties of both the glass and radiation sources. We also discuss how differences in the transmissive and reflective performance of the glass affect the thermal comfort of car occupants. A numerical simulation method, based on comprehensive combined analysis of a thermoregulation model of the human body, radiation models, including thermal radiation and solar radiation, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is conducted for this purpose. In addition, the numerical simulation method was combined with a numerical thermal manikin model, including the algorithm for the control system of the thermal manikin, and tested for its effectiveness for the evaluation of thermal comfort. It was shown that the numerical model performed equally well and therefore could be used as a substitute for the thermal manikin for the assessment of equivalent temperature in the experiments discussed in ISO/NP-14505.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • Evaluation of summertime thermal comfort in automobiles
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      In the summertime drivers frequently, feel severe discomfort just after entering an automobile that has been parked in the sunshine. Thermal conditions in automobiles are influenced mainly by ambient temperature, passenger seat temperature, and radiation from inner panels. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of these thermal factors on the thermal acceptance, of drivers. The thermal environment in automobiles was reproduced in a climatic chamber. Radiation from inner panels in an automobile was reproduced using a radiation panel, which circulates water internally, and passenger seat temperature was also controlled by the same method. The thermal conditions of the climatic chamber were altered by the combination of ambient temperature, passenger seat temperature, and the radiation panel. Seven healthy male students were exposed to 22 or 23 conditions. They evaluated their thermal acceptance of these conditions during the exposure. The results of multiple regression analysis show that ambient temperature was the only factor that influenced thermal acceptance throughout the exposure. The contribution of passenger seat temperature was small just after the exposure began, and got higher over time. The radiation panel made little contribution to thermal acceptance. In conclusion, it is suggested that thermal discomfort just after entering an automobile that has been parked in the sunshine is induced exclusively by the severe ambient temperature.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
  • The effects of simulated solar radiation to the head and trunk on the
           thermal comfort of seated subjects
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series, Volume 3

      The aim of the laboratory experiment presented in this chapter was to determine the relative effects of simulated solar radiation to the head and trunk on the thermal comfort of seated persons. It was also to determine how thermal discomfort caused by radiation exposure to both head and trunk simultaneously can be predicted from a knowledge of the levels of the individual radiation components to head and trunk separately. Ten healthy male participants were exposed to simulated solar radiation levels of 200, 400 and 600 W m−2 to the head only, 400 W m−2 to the trunk only and 400 W m−2 to the head and trunk together in an order determined by two 5×5 Latin squares. The participants wore light, clothes (0.72 clo) and physiological (skin temperatures) and subjective responses were recorded in a standard protocol involving 30 min of exposure to simulated solar radiation. The results show that there is a linear relationship between radiation level to the head and thermal sensation. An increase in 200 W m−2 corresponds to an increase of 0.7 in thermal sensation scale value. Subjects were significantly (p
      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:32:09Z
       
 
 
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