Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1540 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (87 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (724 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (387 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (108 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (130 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

HEALTH AND SAFETY (724 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Adversity and Resilience Science : Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AJOB Empirical Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Akademika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
American Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 273)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annales des Sciences de la Santé     Open Access  
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences: Interface And Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Apuntes Universitarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Suicide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archivos de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atención Primaria Práctica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 5)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal  
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biosafety and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biosalud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Birat Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Boletin Médico de Postgrado     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
British Journal of Health Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos de Saúde     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Carta Comunitaria     Open Access  
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
CASUS : Revista de Investigación y Casos en Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
CES Salud Pública     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia & Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia & Trabajo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Innovación en Salud     Open Access  
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciencia y Salud Virtual     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cities & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical and Experimental Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clocks & Sleep     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuaderno de investigaciones: semilleros andina     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cuadernos de la Escuela de Salud Pública     Open Access  
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Design for Health     Hybrid Journal  
Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Diversity and Equality in Health and Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Diversity of Research in Health Journal     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drogues, santé et société     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Düzce Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi / Journal of Duzce University Health Sciences Institute     Open Access  
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência : Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
EsSEX : Revista Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios sociales : Revista de alimentación contemporánea y desarrollo regional     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethics & Human Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Eurasian Journal of Health Technology Assessment     Open Access  
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Expressa Extensão     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Family & Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 15)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare : Finjehew     Open Access  
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Digital Health     Open Access  
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers of Health Services Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ganesha Journal     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gestão e Desenvolvimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Advances in Health and Medicine     Open Access  
Global Challenges     Open Access  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Global Health Annual Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Health Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Reproductive Health     Open Access  
Global Security : Health, Science and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Transitions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastane Öncesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
HCU Journal     Open Access  
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Health and Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health and Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

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Health Services Insights
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1178-6329
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1090 journals]
  • Recurrent Indoor Environmental Pollution and Its Impact on Health and
           Oxidative Stress of the Textile Workers in Bangladesh

    • Authors: Tania Rahman, Ar-Rafi Md. Faisal, Tahura Khanam, Hossain Uddin Shekhar
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 14, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Perennial indoor environmental pollution in the textile industrial area is a potential health hazard for workers engaged in this line of work, resulting in mental aberration to severe health risks. This study was designed to investigate the indoor environmental quality of textile industries and correlate its effect on the occupational health and well-being of the textile workers by measuring plasma oxidative stress status in textile workers and healthy control subjects. Environmental samples were collected from 15 textile industries located in Dhaka division, and 30 volunteer textile workers and 30 volunteer office workers (control) aged 18 to 57 years participated in the study. The concentration of plasma ascorbic acid (P-ASC), plasma malondialdehyde (P-MDA), and plasma conjugated diene (P-CD) was measured in both groups. The noise level (78.0 ± 0.68 dB) and the formaldehyde level (141.80 ± 4.47 µg/m3) were found to be significantly higher in the indoor environmental area compared with those in the control area (70.17 ± 0.25 dB and 108.0 ± 0.76 µg/m3, respectively). Furthermore, the daily average concentration of suspended particulate matters (PMs), that is, PM2.5 (322.2 ± 13.46 µg/m3) and PM10 (411.0 ± 17.57 µg/m3), was also found to be significantly higher in the indoor environmental air compared with that in the control area (78.59 ± 1.66 and 174.0 ± 2.33 µg/m3, respectively). The levels of P-MDA (0.37 ± 0.03 nmol/L) and P-CD (14.74 ± 0.61 nmol/L) were significantly increased, whereas the level of P-ASC level (0.46 ± 0.04 mg/dL) was markedly decreased in the textile workers compared with the healthy control subjects (0.18 ± 0.01 nmol/L of P-MDA, 10.04 ± 0.44 nmol/L of P-CD, and 1.29 ± 0.06 mg/dL of P-ASC). The textile plants were found to have significantly elevated levels of indoor environmental pollutants compared with those in the control area, and the textile workers were significantly exposed to oxidative stresses compared with the control subjects. The use of noise pads and high-efficiency air filters is perhaps highly instrumental to put an end to this prevailing situation. Moreover, to overcome the oxidative stresses among workers, supplementation of antioxidant vitamins (ie, ascorbic acid and/or vitamin E) may be beneficial. In addition, to prevent serious health-related issues, proper precautions should be taken to protect the occupational health of the textile workers.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2020-08-07T12:05:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1178630220938393
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2020)
       
  • Access to Improved Water Sources and Sanitation in Minority Ethnic People
           

    • Authors: Le Thi Thanh Huong, Tran Thi Tuyet-Hanh, Hoang Van Minh, Bui Thi Thu Ha, Nguyen Quynh Anh, Nguyen Thi Huong, Phan Thi Thu Trang, Khuong Quynh Long, Nguyen Thanh Ha, Nguyen Thi Thu Trang, Cao Huu Quang, Luu Thi Kim Oanh, Tran Thi Thu Thuy
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 14, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:Achieving access to clean water and basic sanitation remains as major challenges in Vietnam, especially for vulnerable groups such as minority people, despite all the progress made by the Millennium Development Goal number 7.C.Objectives:The study aimed to describe the access to improved water sources and sanitation of the ethnic minority people in Vietnam based on a national survey and to identify associated factors.Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2019 with a sample size of 1385 ethnic minority households in 12 provinces in Vietnam. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was performed to examine the probability of having access to improved water sources and sanitation and sociodemographic status at a significance level of P 
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T07:17:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1178630220946342
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2020)
       
  • Health Literacy Toward Zoonotic Diseases Among Livestock Farmers in
           Vietnam

    • Authors: Khuong Cao Ba, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Oranut Pacheun, Uyen Nguyen Thi To, Saranath Lawpoolsri
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 14, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:Zoonoses are an increasing concern worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. People with close contact with animals are at high risk for contracting and transmitting the zoonotic diseases.Objectives:To determine health literacy of livestock farmers toward biosecurity to prevent zoonotic diseases.Methods:This cross-sectional mixed-methods study was conducted in Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam, where livestock and farming are the main occupation. The questionnaire survey was submitted to 218 farmers who have close contact with livestock. In addition, 8 farmers were invited to an in-depth interview to further explore the health literacy.Results:Half of the participants were men. The average age (standard deviation) of the participants was 49.3(11.5) years. The median years with experience in farming was 15 years. The majority (82.0%) of the participants had moderate health literacy level regarding zoonoses. Improper use of antibiotics was referred by 58.0% of participants, including antibiotic use as feeding supplements (34.0%) and the use of human antibiotics to treat sick animals (24.0%). Many participants were unaware of zoonotic prevention measures and due to this had practices such as not wearing protective equipment (60.0%), an absence of acaricides to prevent vector infestations (52.0%), an absence of disinfection measures (42.0%), low rate of rabies vaccination (54.0%), and do not quarantining sick animals (38.0%). In-depth interviews revealed great concern among farmers about a collective lack of participation from local veterinarians, health workers, and government authorities in zoonoses-prevention efforts. Statistical models showed that farm scale, ethnic groups, and perceived income were associated with the overall health literacy about zoonoses.Conclusion:Comprehensive health education related to zoonotic diseases is recommended to improve overall knowledge, including routes of transmission, symptoms and consequences of diseases, and antibiotic usage. In addition, guidance should be provided to farmers on how to treat sick animals, the appropriate use of antibiotics, and waste management. Local veterinarians and health workers are important contact points and should work closely with the farmers to prevent zoonotic diseases.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2020-07-20T12:30:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1178630220932540
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2020)
       
  • Making a Case for Infection Control at Public Places of Convenience in
           Accra, Ghana

    • Authors: Eric S Donkor, Nana Esi S. Anyen, Amos Akumwena
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 14, Issue , January-December 2020.
      In Ghana, environmental hygiene remains a major problem and infection control measures are hardly practised, particularly outside of the hospital. To provide evidence for infection control measures at public places of convenience in Accra (capital city of Ghana), this study was performed. The aim of the study was to evaluate microbial contamination of door handles at public places of convenience in Accra and assess the public health risk. A total of 183 swab specimens were collected aseptically from door handles of public places of convenience of shops, schools, hospitals, lorry stations, churches, and markets. The samples were cultured on bacteriological media, and the isolated organisms were identified. The most prevalent bacterial agent isolated was Bacillus spp. (55.7%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (20.2%), coagulase-negative staphylococcus spp. (17.1%), Citrobacter freundii (6.0%), Citrobacter koseri (4.4%), and Salmonella Paratyphi A (3.8%). Although in low prevalence, a wide range of enteric bacteria were isolated from door handles, accounting for 12 of the 16 isolated organisms. In conclusion, door handles of places of convenience in Accra harbour several pathogenic microorganisms, especially enteric organisms. This study highlights the need for proper disinfection of door handles of places of convenience in Accra as well as handwashing after visiting such places.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2020-07-14T07:48:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1178630220938414
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2020)
       
  • Improvement in Compliance With Smoke-Free Environment Regulations at
           Hotels and Restaurants in Vietnam After an Administrative Intervention

    • Authors: Kim Bao Giang, Pham Bich Diep, Hoang Van Minh, Nguyen Thi Diem Huong, Nguyen Tuan Lam, Pham Quynh Nga, Momoe Takeuchi, Kidong Park
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 14, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Introduction:Vietnam is among the countries with the highest smoking prevalence among male adults, as well as high prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure at indoor places. In many countries, including Vietnam, exposure to tobacco smoking is greatest in restaurants/bars and hotels. This study aims to analyze the compliance of hotels and restaurants to smoke-free environment regulations before and after an intervention.Methods:Direct observations were done at the receptions, conference rooms, designated smoking areas, restaurants, and lobbies of 140 hotels and the dining rooms, kitchens, and toilets of 160 restaurants before and after an intervention. The intervention was a training course conducted by police officers followed by 3 monthly supervision visits by police officers. Compliance with smoke-free enviornment regulations was observed and assessed to generate a compliance score for each location and overall. Tobit regression was used to examine the relationship between compliance scores and the intervention and other variables such as hotel and restaurant characteristics.Results:Before the intervention, the highest compliance rates were found for “no tobacco advertisement” and “no cigarette selling” regulations (95%-100%) in almost all sites in hotels and restaurants. The lowest compliance rates were found for “having nonsmoking signs.” The rate of compliance with all regulations was only 5% for hotels and 0.06% of restaurants. Improvement after intervention was clearly observed, in the rate of compliance with all regulations by more hotels (15.7%) and overall compliance scores of hotels and restaurants.Conclusions:The intervention with participation of the police officers proved to be effective in improving compliance with smoke-free regulations. It is recommended to continue this intervention in the same areas as well as to expand the intervention to other areas.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2020-07-07T07:38:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1178630220939927
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2020)
       
  • Review of Public Financing for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Sectors in
           Vietnam

    • Authors: Vu Quynh Mai, Hoang Thi Ngoc Anh, Hoang Thao Anh, Hoang Van Minh
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 14, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:Vietnam declared its national roadmap towards Sustainable Development Goals number 6 by 2030. However, specific supporting programmes and financial means to proceed with the roadmap have not been passed on. Evidence on the financing for water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) being allocated or spent has not been well documented in Vietnam. This study aimed to obtain an overview and assessed the public funding across the WASH sector of Vietnam in 3 fiscal years 2016, 2017, and 2018.Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted for information about the public financing for WASH at both national and sub-national levels. An activity-based costing approach was applied to determine WASH-related public expenditure. Fourteen focus group discussions with key stakeholders were used to identify the WASH activities and to access financial reports of these relevant institutions. TrackFin methodology was used to assemble the public financing for WASH in Vietnam.Results:The public expenditure of WASH declined by about 30.7% over the 3 fiscal years, from US $2016 million in 2016 to US $1397 million in 2018. Meanwhile, this expenditure allocated to the poor or mountainous areas increased by 3 folds. The highest proportion of WASH public funding was invested in sanitation through large network systems (59.07% of the total public expenditure), whereas the lowest was in hygiene promotion and handwashing facilities. The domestic budget was still the main source of public financing for WASH services, with 2 largest shares coming from government revenues (47.24%) and repayable loans (20.49%).Conclusion:The main source of financing for WASH was from the government, yet its public expenditure has been decreased. A refined roadmap with specific steps for a sustainable WASH financing system in Vietnam, particularly to leverage government and private sector resources, is required to ensure no one is left behind.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2020-07-06T04:51:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1178630220938396
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2020)
       
  • Hygienic Practices and Structural Conditions of the Food Processing
           Premises Were the Main Drivers of Microbiological Quality of Edible Ice
           Products in Binh Phuoc Province, Vietnam 2019

    • Authors: Tran Thi Tuyet Hanh, Mac Huy Hanh
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 14, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:Ice is used in large quantities as refreshment in alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, especially in summer time. Contamination of edible ice products with pathogens is a public health concern in various countries, including Vietnam. This study aimed to assess the food safety conditions, the quality of edible ice products and related factors at manufacturing premises in Binh Phuoc Province, Vietnam in 2019.Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2019 using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Food safety assessment was carried out in all 45 ice producing premises in the province and 79 ice samples were collected and analyzed microbiologically. In-depth interviews were conducted with 2 food safety management staff, 4 owners of premises, and 4 workers.Results:Only 22.4% (18/79) and 37.8% (30/79) of the premises met requirement for food safety conditions and microbiological food safety requirements, respectively. Half of the ice samples, 51.9% (41/79), were contaminated, 49.4% (39/79) with Escherichia coli and 12.7% (10/79) with total coliforms. Streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa were not detected. The major risks were material, odds ratio (OR) = 4.2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.002-17.6), structural challenges in the facilities, OR = 4.3 (95% CI: 1.13-16.7), broken floors or difficulty in cleaning, OR = 5.4 (95% CI: 1.26-22.9), and poor staff hygiene practices, OR = 19.5 (95% CI: 4.2-91.1). Workers lacked knowledge and appropriate practices to prevent microbial contamination of ice products.Conclusions:The food safety conditions and the quality of ice cubes at manufacturing premises in Binh Phuoc Province were not acceptable. Hygiene deficiencies in ice producing and handling processes, inadequate knowledge of staff, inadequate food safety management practices, and hygiene conditions of the premises were important factors in producing contaminated ice products. We recommend more staff training and crediting the staff when performing adequate practices, paying attention to broken floors or difficulty in cleaning, structural deficiency, and ensuring regular monitoring of premises. This study adds a special interest to ensure food safety conditions at ice producing premises to prevent microbial contamination of the products.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2020-06-29T09:30:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1178630220929722
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2020)
       
  • Vietnam Climate Change and Health Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment,
           2018

    • Authors: Tran Thi Tuyet Hanh, Le Thi Thanh Huong, Nguyen Thi Lien Huong, Tran Nu Quy Linh, Nguyen Huu Quyen, Nguyen Thi Trang Nhung, Kristie Ebi, Nguyen Dinh Cuong, Ha Van Nhu, Tran Mai Kien, Simon Hales, Do Manh Cuong, Nguyen Thi Thi Tho, Luu Quoc Toan, Nguyen Ngoc Bich, Hoang Van Minh
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 14, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:The Global Climate Risk Index 2020 ranked Vietnam as the sixth country in the world most affected by climate variability and extreme weather events over the period 1999-2018. Sea level rise and extreme weather events are projected to be more severe in coming decades, which, without additional action, will increase the number of people at risk of climate-sensitive diseases, challenging the health system. This article summaries the results of a health vulnerability and adaptation (V&A) assessment conducted in Vietnam as evidences for development of the National Climate Change Health Adaptation Plan to 2030.Methods:The assessment followed the first 4 steps outlined in the World Health Organization’s Guidelines in conducting “Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessments.” A framework and list of indicators were developed for semi-quantitative assessment for the period 2013 to 2017. Three sets of indicators were selected to assess the level of (1) exposure to climate change and extreme weather events, (2) health sensitivity, and (3) adaptation capacity. The indicators were rated and analyzed using a scoring system from 1 to 5.Results:The results showed that climate-sensitive diseases were common, including dengue fever, diarrheal, influenza, etc, with large burdens of disease that are projected to increase. From 2013 to 2017, the level of “exposure” to climate change–related hazards of the health sector was “high” to “very high,” with an average score from 3.5 to 4.4 (out of 5.0). For “health sensitivity,” the scores decreased from 3.8 in 2013 to 3.5 in 2017, making the overall rating as “high.” For “adaptive capacity,” the scores were from 4.0 to 4.1, which meant adaptive capacity was “very low.” The overall V&A rating in 2013 was “very high risk” (score 4.1) and “high risk” with scores of 3.8 in 2014 and 3.7 in 2015 to 2017.Conclusions:Adaptation actions of the health sector are urgently needed to reduce the vulnerability to climate change in coming decades. Eight adaptation solutions, among recommendations of V&A assessment, were adopted in the National Health Climate Change Adaptation Plan.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2020-06-22T09:16:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1178630220924658
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2020)
       
  • Common Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Associated Factors Among Under-5
           Children in Rural Dembiya, Northwest Ethiopia: A Community-Based
           Cross-Sectional Study

    • Authors: Zemichael Gizaw, Ayenew Addisu, Destaye Guadie
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 14, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms such as abdominal discomfort, abdominal cramp, nausea, vomiting, gas in the GI tract, changes in bowel habits (e.g. diarrhea), or heartburn are common in the community. However, these symptoms may be misinterpreted and their impact and significance misunderstood, especially in the rural communities. This study was, therefore, conducted to assess common GI symptoms among children in rural Dembiya, northwest Ethiopia.Methods:A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2017 among 225 randomly selected under-5 children. We primarily used mothers’ report to assess GI symptoms. Health professionals also diagnosed for some symptoms. Direct stool examination technique was used to identify parasitic infections. Bacteriological analysis of drinking water was done to determine the quality of drinking water. Food safety, environmental sanitation, and hygiene condition of children were assessed using observation checklists. Multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with GI symptoms on the basis of adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and P 
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2020-06-17T04:41:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1178630220927361
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2020)
       
  • Long-Lasting Insecticidal Net Utilization and Associated Factors Among
           Pregnant Women in Asgede Tsimbla District, Northern Ethiopia, 2017

    • Authors: Teklit Angesom, Hailay Gebreyesus, Brhane Gebremariam
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 14, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:Malaria among pregnant women contributes to maternal anemia, low birth weight, spontaneous abortion, and infant deaths. In response to this serious health problem, regular use of the long-lasting insecticidal net is the most cost-effective method of preventing malaria. However, in most developing countries, including Ethiopia, long-lasting insecticidal net utilization by pregnant women is uncertain.Objectives:This study was conducted to measure the utilization of insecticidal net and to identify the associated factors with its utilization among pregnant women in Asgede Tsimbla district in 2017.Methods:A community-based cross-sectional study was employed and data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Systematic random sampling method was used to select 550 pregnant women. Data were entered into a computer using Epi Info (version 7) and exported to Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 21) for further analysis. Variables with P-value less than 0.05 were used to declare statistical significance between the dependent and the independent variables in multivariable logistic regression.Results:Among 550 pregnant women surveyed, 347 (63.1%) of the pregnant women slept under a long-lasting insecticidal net the night before the survey. Urban residence (OR [95% CI] = 1.9 [1.22-3.01]), family size of 3-5 and >5 (2.8 [1.53-5.22] and 2.4 [1.20-5.03], respectively), and history of malaria during their current pregnancy (3.0 [1.95-4.86]) were found to be the factors associated with pregnant women’s long-lasting insecticidal net utilization.Conclusion:Utilization of long-lasting insecticidal net was low, and place of residence, exposure status to malaria during their current pregnancy, and family size were the factors associated with long-lasting insecticidal net utilization.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2020-05-29T03:56:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1178630220919393
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2020)
       
  • Chromium, Cadmium, Lead, and Arsenic Concentrations in Water, Vegetables,
           and Seafood Consumed in a Coastal Area in Northern Vietnam

    • Authors: Nguyen Thi Minh Ngoc, Nguyen Van Chuyen, Nguyen Thi Thu Thao, Nguyen Quang Duc, Nguyen Thi Thu Trang, Nguyen Thi Thanh Binh, Hoang Cao Sa, Nguyen Bao Tran, Nguyen Van Ba, Nguyen Van Khai, Ho Anh Son, Pham Van Han, Elizabeth V Wattenberg, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Pham Van Thuc
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 14, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:Heavy metal contamination and related risks for the environment and human health are matters of increasing concern.Methods:The levels of 4 heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Pb, and As) were evaluated in 2 water types (surface and well), 4 types of seafood (tiger shrimp, stuffed snail, snake-head fish, and catfish), and 27 types of vegetables (12 leafy vegetables, 4 pea plants, 4 tuber vegetables, and 7 herbs) that are commonly consumed in northern coastal communes located in Vietnam. Atomic absorption spectrometry was employed for quantification.Results:The mean concentrations of heavy metals detected in water, seafood, and vegetable samples exceeded the national permitted standards and World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation values by at least 2-fold, 2.5-fold, and 5-fold for surface water, vegetables, and well water, respectively. The concentrations of all 4 heavy metals detected in seafood samples were higher than the standards. The levels of heavy metals decreased with increasing distance between the sample collection point and the pollution source.Conclusions:This is the first report of heavy metal contamination of common sources of food and water in the northern coastal area of Vietnam. Significantly, the concentrations of heavy metals detected in study samples exceeded the regulatory limits. These results underscore the importance of continued monitoring and the development of intervention measures to ensure that the quality of food and water meets established standards and protects the health of the local population.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2020-05-13T07:01:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1178630220921410
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2020)
       
  • Connecting Air Quality with Emotional Well-Being and Neighborhood
           Infrastructure in a US City

    • Authors: Raj M. Lal, Kirti Das, Yingling Fan, Karoline K. Barkjohn, Nisha Botchwey, Anu Ramaswami, Armistead G. Russell
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 14, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Cities in the United States have announced initiatives to become more sustainable, healthy, resilient, livable, and environmentally friendly. However, indicators for measuring all outcomes related to these targets and the synergies between them have not been well defined or studied. One such relationship is the linkage between air quality with emotional well-being (EWB) and neighborhood infrastructure. Here, regulatory monitoring, low-cost sensors (LCSs), and air quality modeling were combined to assess exposures to PM2.5 and traffic-related NOx in 6 Minneapolis, MN, neighborhoods of varying infrastructure parameters (median household income, urban vs suburban, and access to light rail). Residents of the study neighborhoods concurrently took real-time EWB assessments using a smart phone application, Daynamica, to gauge happiness, tiredness, stress, sadness, and pain. Both LCS PM2.5 observations and mobile-source-simulated NOx were calibrated using regulatory observations in Minneapolis. No statistically significant (α = 0.05) PM2.5 differences were found between urban poor and urban middle-income neighborhoods, but average mobile-source NOx was statistically significantly (α = 0.05) higher in the 4 urban neighborhoods than in the 2 suburban neighborhoods. Close proximity to light rail had no observable impact on average observed PM2.5 or simulated mobile-source NOx. Home-based exposure assessments found that PM2.5 was negatively correlated with positive emotions such as happiness and to net affect (the sum of positive and negative emotion scores) and positively correlated (ie, a higher PM2.5 concentration led to higher scores) for negative emotions such as tiredness, stress, sadness, and pain. Simulated mobile-source NOx, assessed from both home-based exposures and in situ exposures, had a near-zero relationship with all EWB indicators. This was attributed to low NOx levels throughout the study neighborhoods and at locations were the EWB-assessed activities took place, both owing to low on-road mobile-source NOx impacts. Although none of the air quality and EWB responses were determined to be statistically significant (α = 0.05), due in part to the relatively small sample size, the results are suggestive of linkages between air quality and a variety of EWB outcomes.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2020-05-04T05:26:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1178630220915488
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2020)
       
  • Cockroaches and Food-borne Pathogens

    • Authors: Eric S Donkor
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 14, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Food-borne disease is a widespread and escalating public health problem globally. About a quarter of the microorganisms isolated from cockroaches are food-borne pathogens including Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi, Rotavirus, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Cryptosporidium parvum. Thus, cockroaches could be an important reservoir and mechanical vector of food-borne pathogens. Generally, the role of cockroaches in human infections is poorly understood and has been an issue of debate for several years. This article aims to elucidate the possible role of cockroaches in food-borne infections by reviewing the relevant research publications.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2020-04-30T05:29:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1178630220913365
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2020)
       
  • Human Health Risk Assessment of Trace Metals in the Commonly Consumed Fish
           Species in Nakuru Town, Kenya

    • Authors: Felly Esilaba, Wilkister Nyaora Moturi, Millicent Mokua, Terewe Mwanyika
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 14, Issue , January-December 2020.
      The present study was conducted to determine daily intake of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) and to assess noncarcinogenic human health risk caused by these trace metals in the commonly consumed fish species (Oreochromis niloticus, Rastrineobola argentea, Lates niloticus, and Protopterus aethiopicus) in Nakuru town, Kenya. Trace metal determination in the composite samples of the commonly consumed fish species was done using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Cd, Cu, and Pb content in the muscle tissues of the commonly consumed fish species ranged from 0.11 ± 0.045 to 1.11 ± 0.931 mg kg−1 for Cd, 0.48 ± 0.013 to 3.00 ± 0.009 mg kg−1 for Cu, and 3.42 ± 0.045 to 12.78 ± 0.108 mg kg−1 for Pb. Cu concentrations were within Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) recommended limits for this trace metal in fish. In contrast, Cd and Pb had values above their respective permissible limits in fish. The assessment of human exposure to trace metals indicated that exposure doses of Cd and Cu were safe for fish consumers. Conversely, target hazard quotient (THQ) values of Pb suggested possible health risks for consumers of the commonly consumed fish species in Nakuru town, Kenya.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2020-04-30T05:27:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1178630220917128
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2020)
       
  • Multiple Interventions for Improving Food Safety Practices in 2 Small Beef
           Abattoirs of Honduras and Associated Impacts on Risk-Mitigation Management
           

    • Authors: Diego Casas, Alexandra Calle, Mariely Bueso, Nelson Huerta-Leidenz, Markus F Miller, Mindy M Brashears
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 14, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Mitigation of risk for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella contamination was evaluated after a multiple-intervention approach (comprising food safety education and training, implementation of customized food safety practices and programs, and environmental monitoring programs with audits and corrective actions) in 2 small Honduran beef abattoirs. Previously, neither abattoir had food safety programs in place nor were they subjected to strict food safety regulatory surveillance. Abattoirs A and B were sampled on 4 nonconsecutive months each. Swab samples of abattoir A (n = 160, 40 samples per sampling date) and abattoir B (n = 78, 16-22 samples per sampling date) were taken from direct and indirect food contact surfaces, screened by BAX real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and confirmed using immunomagnetic separation, selective media, and latex agglutination. In abattoir A, Salmonella presence was negligible, whereas presumptive STECs were present in 10%, 12.5%, 0%, and 5% of the environmental samples respective to each sampling month, indicating a reduction of STEC (P = .06) by the third and fourth sampling months. Conversely, presumptive STEC presence was negligible in abattoir B, whereas Salmonella presence for each sampling month was of 5.6%, 6.3%, 27.3%, and 0.0%, respectively. Upon the increased pathogen presence detected on the third sampling month, additional actions were taken to reinforce the implementation of food safety practices and programs, which resulted in a Salmonella reduction to 0% by the fourth sampling month (P = .013). The satisfactory results strongly suggest that a multiple-intervention approach is crucial to improve food safety in this type of premises.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2020-04-23T08:48:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1178630220914596
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2020)
       
  • Determinants of Sanitation and Hygiene Status Among Food Establishments in
           Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Aderajew Mekonnen Girmay, Sirak Robele Gari, Bezatu Mengistie Alemu, Martin R Evans, Azage Gebreyohannes Gebremariam
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 14, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Introduction:Despite advancements in food science and technology, foodborne disease remains one of the major public health problems. Poor sanitation and hygiene conditions of food establishments are the major causes for the occurrence of foodborne disease. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate core determinants of sanitation and hygiene status among food establishments.Methods:Institution-based cross-sectional study design was conducted in Addis Ababa city. A stratified random sampling technique was deployed to select 413 study participants. Data were collected through interview and using observational checklist. Sample size was determined by using a single population proportion formula. To analyze the data, binary logistic regression and multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted. In all analysis, P-value less than .05 were considered statistically significant.Results:The study revealed that 57.4% of the food establishments were under poor sanitation status. In the multivariable analysis, presence of trained managers on hygiene and sanitation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.10 with 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.41-15.45), presence of renewed licenses (AOR = 3.07 with 95% CI: 1.18-7.99), absence of bureaucratic function to obtain permission to renew the food establishment buildings (AOR = 2.43 with 95% CI: 1.25-4.70), and presence of at least 10-m distance between toilet and kitchen (AOR = 9.19, at 95% CI: 5.63-15.02) were associated significantly with sanitation and hygiene status.Conclusions:Above average of the food establishments were found to be in poor sanitation and hygiene state. Many core determinant factors that influence sanitation and hygienic status of food establishments were identified. The researchers suggest that formal training on sanitation and hygiene for managers of food establishments should be provided to reduce the occurrence of foodborne diseases. Moreover, strong food and water safety policy and strategy should be promulgated to improve sanitation and hygiene status of food establishments.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2020-04-20T09:55:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1178630220915689
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2020)
       
  • Leveraging Existing Cohorts to Study Health Effects of Air Pollution on
           Cardiometabolic Disorders: India Global Environmental and Occupational
           Health Hub

    • Authors: Gagandeep K Walia, Siddhartha Mandal, Suganthi Jaganathan, Lindsay M Jaacks, Nancy L Sieber, Preet K Dhillon, Bhargav Krishna, Melina S Magsumbol, Kishore K Madhipatla, Dimple Kondal, Richard A Cash, K Srinath Reddy, Joel Schwartz, D Prabhakaran
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 14, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Air pollution is a growing public health concern in developing countries and poses a huge epidemiological burden. Despite the growing awareness of ill effects of air pollution, the evidence linking air pollution and health effects is sparse. This requires environmental exposure scientist and public health researchers to work more cohesively to generate evidence on health impacts of air pollution in developing countries for policy advocacy. In the Global Environmental and Occupational Health (GEOHealth) Program, we aim to build exposure assessment model to estimate ambient air pollution exposure at a very fine resolution which can be linked with health outcomes leveraging well-phenotyped cohorts which have information on geolocation of households of study participants. We aim to address how air pollution interacts with meteorological and weather parameters and other aspects of the urban environment, occupational classification, and socioeconomic status, to affect cardiometabolic risk factors and disease outcomes. This will help us generate evidence for cardiovascular health impacts of ambient air pollution in India needed for necessary policy advocacy. The other exploratory aims are to explore mediatory role of the epigenetic mechanisms (DNA methylation) and vitamin D exposure in determining the association between air pollution exposure and cardiovascular health outcomes. Other components of the GEOHealth program include building capacity and strengthening the skills of public health researchers in India through variety of training programs and international collaborations. This will help generate research capacity to address environmental and occupational health research questions in India. The expertise that we bring together in GEOHealth hub are public health, clinical epidemiology, environmental exposure science, statistical modeling, and policy advocacy.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2020-04-20T09:51:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1178630220915688
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2020)
       
  • Examining the Relationship Between Low Birth Weight Occurrence and Passive
           Measures of Environmental Arsenic by Census Tract in Escambia and Santa
           Rosa Counties, Florida

    • Authors: Maya Scott-Richardson, Marilyn O’Hara Ruiz, Rebecca L Smith
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 14, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Arsenic is a public health concern because of its widespread distribution and high toxicity, even when doses are small. Low birth weight (LBW) occurrence, birth weights less than 2500 g, may be associated with prenatal exposure of arsenic from environmental factors and consuming contaminated drinking water and food. The objective of this study was to examine whether mothers living in areas of Escambia and Santa Rosa counties with varying levels of background arsenic in surface soil and water were associated with the occurrence of LBW. Inverse distance weight in ArcGIS was used to interpolate arsenic concentrations from environmental samples and estimate arsenic concentrations by census tracts in the two counties. After excluding multiple births and displaced geocoding addresses, birth data were obtained for the years of 2005 (n = 5845), 2010 (n = 5569), and 2015 (n = 5770) from the Bureau of Vital Statistics at the Florida Department of Health to assess temporal differences. Generalized linear models were used to analyze and compare the association between child and maternal demographic information, socioeconomic characteristics, and the environmental estimates of arsenic with LBW. No significant association was found between environmental arsenic concentration and LBW, suggesting that environmental contamination of the pregnant mother’s census tract may not be a useful proxy in assessing risk for LBW.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2020-04-17T06:44:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1178630220913053
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2020)
       
  • Exploring Well Water Testing Behaviour Through the Health Belief Model

    • Authors: Abraham Munene, Jocelyn Lockyer, Sylvia Checkley, David C. Hall
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 14, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Health problems can arise from consuming contaminated well water. Well water testing can help prevent negative health outcomes associated with consuming contaminated water. The aim of this study was to understand the factors influencing well owner decisions to conduct water testing through the theoretical lens of the Health Belief Model. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 well owners and used framework analysis to sort and analyse the data. The results demonstrated that well owners’ perceived susceptibility to well water contamination was low, while the perceived severity of contamination, benefits of testing, and self-efficacy towards testing were high. Cues to action to promote testing focused on increasing well owner education and awareness through well stewardship programmes and reminders to test. Participants faced some barriers to water testing. Increasing education and awareness about well water contamination and water testing, while reducing logistical barriers to testing, may improve compliance with water testing.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2020-03-11T11:46:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1178630220910143
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2020)
       
  • Evidence of Households’ Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH)
           Performance Improvement Following a WASH Education Program in Rural
           Dembiya, Northwest Ethiopia

    • Authors: Zemichael Gizaw, Ayenew Addisu
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 14, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Background:Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) promotion is a viable solution to prevent enteric infections. It focuses on hygiene education, where a number of theoretical models have emerged which attempt to guide behavior change interventions. This study was, therefore, conducted to evaluate the effectiveness WASH education program on households’ WASH performance in rural Dembiya, northwest Ethiopia.Method:An uncontrolled before-and-after intervention study was conducted. Baseline and endline surveys were done among 225 and 302 randomly selected households with under-5 children, respectively, using a structured questionnaire and observational checklists. Percent point change was used to see the effect of the intervention. Pearson χ2 and Fisher exact tests were used to test for statistically significant percentage point changes on the basis of P 
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2020-01-31T11:29:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1178630220903100
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2020)
       
  • Volatile Organic Compound Emissions From Heated Synthetic Hair: A Pilot
           Study

    • Authors: Donna Auguste, Shelly L Miller
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 14, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted from a variety of household and personal care products. Many VOCs are known to be potentially toxic or carcinogenic. Synthetic hair is used in hair-styling practices, including practices in African American communities that involve singeing or heating the synthetic hair. The research questions that we sought to answer were as follows: Are VOCs emitted from singed or heated synthetic hair' If so, what are the VOC species and relative masses identified in singed or heated synthetic hair' We tested samples from 2 sources of singed and heated synthetic hair in a microchamber; one source was flame-retardant synthetic hair and the other source was non-flame-retardant synthetic hair. Our findings confirmed that VOCs are emitted from singed or heated synthetic hair for both types of sources. For flame-retardant synthetic hair, we identified and measured mass for species that included acetone, acetonitrile, 2-butanone, benzene, chloromethane, chloroethane, and 1,2-dichloroethane. For non-flame-retardant synthetic hair, we identified and measured mass for species that included acetone, acetonitrile, chloromethane, trichlorofluoromethane, and 2-propanol.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2020-01-29T10:59:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1178630219890876
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2020)
       
  • Insecticide Resistance Profile of Anopheles gambiae Mosquitoes: A Study of
           a Residential and Industrial Breeding Sites in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria

    • Authors: Chimaobi J Ononamadu, John T Datit, Abdullahi A Imam
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 14, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Monitoring and understanding the trend and dynamics of insecticide resistance is very key to devising efficient control strategies. This study was carried out to characterize the mosquito population, its insecticide resistance profile, and the physicochemical properties of their breeding sites in Sharada and Wailari of Kano State, Nigeria. Six breeding sites from the 2 study areas were sampled and their physicochemical parameters determined. Mosquito larvae were sampled from the sites and reared to adult. The emergent adults were morphologically and molecularly identified to species level. The World Health Organization (WHO) susceptibility assay was carried out on the adult mosquitoes using different classes of insecticides in WHO discriminating concentrations. kdr-mutation was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method using the permethrin (pyrethroid) resistant and susceptible adult mosquitoes. Most of the determined physicochemical parameters were significantly higher in the industrial area, Sharada. Morphologically, the mosquitoes from the 2 sites were identified as Anopheles gambiae and 100% of the randomly sampled population were found to be Anopheles coluzzii by PCR-based molecular technique. The WHO susceptible assay revealed a graded level of resistance to bendiocarb, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and permethrin with mortalities of 78.36%, 75.74%; 43.44%, 56.96%; and 37.50%, 37.50% in both Sharada and Wailari, respectively. Pre-exposure to piperonyl butoxide (PBO) resulted in a significant but minor recovery of susceptibility to permethrin. The kdr mutation frequency was higher in Sharada (45.71%) relative to Wailari (31.43%). Higher kdr mutation frequency was also observed in the resistant population (48.56%) relative to the susceptible (28.54%). The kdr mutation frequency was weakly associated with the resistance status (odds ratio [OR]: 5.9, χ2:3.58, P = .058) and the breeding sites (OR: 3.46, χ2:2.90, P = .088). In conclusion, the study revealed a highly pyrethroid-resistant A coluzzii population with low PBO recovery rate. Furthermore, the data suggested the involvement of kdr mutation, detoxification enzyme, and possibly abiotic factors of the breeding sites.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2020-01-01T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1178630219897272
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2020)
       
  • Comparison Between Larval Survey Index and Positive Ovitrap Index in the
           Evaluation of Populations of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762)
           North of Paraná, Brazil

    • Authors: Kauani Larissa Campana Nascimento, João Fernando Marques da Silva, João Antonio Cyrino Zequi, José Lopes
      Abstract: Environmental Health Insights, Volume 14, Issue , January-December 2020.
      Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) is one of the world’s most widely distributed mosquitoes and is the vector of the dengue virus, one of the most important reemerging diseases. Besides dengue, A. aegypti can also transmit urban yellow fever, chikungunya, and Zika virus, making it of great medical importance. Thus, it is of extreme importance to find reliable methods to evaluate the presence of A. aegypti in urban areas. In Brazil, rapid index surveys of Aedes aegypti by means of larval survey (LIRAa) is the official method to estimate the Breteau (BI) and property infestation (PII) indexes, which indicates how many infested containers with larvae of A. aegypti were found by the total number of properties surveyed and the proportion of houses infested, respectively. As the LIRAa requires access to private residences and trained personal to find breeding sites and do not reveal the mosquito’s presence when in low density, it has not demonstrated efficacy in determining the presence of A. aegypti. To evaluate an alternative method, the LIRAa method was compared with an oviposition trap, made with hay infusion and a hardboard pallet, to evaluate the BI and the PII. The 2 methods were carried out simultaneously through 4 surveys, sampling 60 homes per survey. To evaluate the best configuration of ovitraps for surveillance of A. aegypti, the ovitraps were installed in intradomicile and peridomicile areas, with 1 to 5 traps per residence and with 1 to 3 pallets per trap, and these different configurations were compared using the positive ovitrap index (POI) and egg density index (EDI). The ovitraps showed greater sensitivity for detecting the presence of A. aegypti, with a BI of 72.5% and PII of 54.2%, whereas the LIRAa revealed only 2.1% for the BI and 1.3% for the PII. Therefore, the use of sentinel traps can provide information in a more rapid and precise manner. As there were no differences in the ovitraps distributions patterns, the ovitraps can be installed in the peridomicile area, with 2 traps per surveillance point and 1 pallet per trap, making their installation easier and more cost-efficient, facilitating the work of health agents in future surveillances complementing LIRAa’s actions for efficient monitoring.
      Citation: Environmental Health Insights
      PubDate: 2020-01-01T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1178630219886570
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2020)
       
 
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