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  Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1278 journals)
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HEALTH AND SAFETY (509 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
16 de Abril     Open Access  
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Informatica Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Afrimedic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
AJOB Primary Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 176)
American Journal of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Medical Writers Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access  
Annals of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research In Health And Social Sciences : Interface And Interaction     Open Access  
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin     Free   (Followers: 6)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Behavioral Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Best Practices in Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bijzijn     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bijzijn XL     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Safety & Standards     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health     Open Access  
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Cadernos de Educação, Saúde e Fisioterapia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Family Physician     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Studies in Fire Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Central Asian Journal of Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Child Abuse Research in South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Child's Nervous System     Hybrid Journal  
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Children     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research     Open Access  
Christian Journal for Global Health     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Cuidado     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Curare     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digital Health     Open Access  
Dramatherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Duazary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Childhood Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East African Journal of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
electronic Journal of Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ElectronicHealthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Emergency Services SA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epidemics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription  
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Face à face     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Fatigue : Biomedicine, Health & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Frontiers in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud     Open Access  
Hastings Center Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
HEADline     Hybrid Journal  
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health and Human Rights     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Health Behavior and Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Information Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Health Professional Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Health Promotion Journal of Australia : Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Prospect     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Health Psychology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Health Renaissance     Open Access  
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Health SA Gesondheid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Science Reports     Open Access  
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Services Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Home Health Care Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospitals & Health Networks     Free   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IMTU Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inmanencia. Revista del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) Eva Perón     Open Access  
Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
Institute for Security Studies Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Circumpolar Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Policy and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Professions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Health Sciences Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Health Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Healthcare Delivery Reform Initiatives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Health SA Gesondheid
  [SJR: 0.194]   [H-I: 4]   [2 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1025-9848 - ISSN (Online) 2071-9736
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3030 journals]
  • Experiences of South African multiparous labouring women using the
           birthing ball to encourage vaginal births

    • Authors: Sindiwe James; Melissa Hudek
      Pages: 36 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 22
      Author(s): Sindiwe James, Melissa Hudek
      The article explores the experiences of South African multiparous labouring women on their use of the birthing ball during the first stage of labour. The authors used a qualitative research approach using unstructured audiotaped interviews as the data collection method and data were collected over a period of one calendar month. The sample for the study were women who were six hours to six weeks post-delivery, had at least one child already, used the birthing ball, were on no medication, and had delivered a live infant. The sample consisted of twelve purposively selected participants, two of whom were used for the pilot study. The data analysis method was Data Analysis Spiral. The authors made use of an independent coder to assist with coding the data and three major themes were identified. The results revealed that the labouring women experienced the birthing ball as a useful labour tool, as shortening the labour process and as empowering them during labour.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T10:12:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2016.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2017)
  • The motivational needs of primary health care nurses to acquire power as
           leaders in a mine clinic setting

    • Authors: Karien Jooste; Mida Hamani
      Pages: 43 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 22
      Author(s): Karien Jooste, Mida Hamani
      Motivation is a process that influences and directs behaviour in order to satisfy a need. It links with goal 3 of the sustainable development goals that focus on ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being at all ages. Motivation of nurses is important in the primary health care environment of, for instance, mine settings; since low levels of motivation among Primary Health Care (PHC) nurses could have a negative effect on the achievement of high standards in health service delivery. The study was conducted within the theoretical framework of McClelland's Acquired Motivation Theory which consists of three basic needs, – the need for achievement, the need for power, and the need for affiliation. One of the research questions posed was “What are the motivational needs of PHC nurses to acquire power in the workplace at mine clinic settings?” A quantitative, explorative, descriptive design was followed. The accessible population in this study was PHC nurses (N = 30) working at 13 mine clinics, that also served as the total sample. A 7 point Likert scale was used in a self-administered structured questionnaire that was developed from a literature review. Ethical considerations were adhered to and respondents gave written informed consent. Data was analysed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The Mann–Whitney test compared the mean ranks and a p-value of p < 0.05 was indicative of a significant difference between male and female groups. Validity and reliability principles were applied during the entire research process. The results indicated that PHC nurses needed acknowledgement, organisational responsibility, strategic planning and promotion, as well as support. Significant differences between gender were not found in relation to the need to acquire power.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T01:33:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2016.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2017)
  • Nurses perceptions about their behavioural counselling for HIV/AIDS, STIs
           and TB in eThekwini Municipality clinics KwAZulu-Natal, South Africa

    • Authors: Margaret N. Mntlangula; Nelisiwe Khuzwayo; Myra Taylor
      Pages: 52 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 22
      Author(s): Margaret N. Mntlangula, Nelisiwe Khuzwayo, Myra Taylor
      Background HIV and AIDS, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and tuberculosis (TB) are common co-infections in South Africa, and constitute major public health problems. Nurses have frequent contact with HIV positive and TB co-infected patients, their counselling behaviour being influenced by knowledge about counselling as well as their beliefs, attitudes and perceptions about barriers to counselling. Purpose The purpose of the survey was to assess the knowledge, attitude and beliefs of nurses about behavioural counselling for HIV and AIDS, STIs and TB (HAST) in three areas of the eThekwini Municipality. Results This was a quantitative descriptive cross sectional study, with stratified sampling being used to select 87 nurses from 24 PHC facilities who completed self-administered questionnaires. The most significant factors associated with the knowledge, attitude and beliefs of nurses about counselling behaviour were their age and level of education. Nurses were well informed about counselling behaviour (mean scores 4.1/5). However, the potential barriers to implementing effective counselling behaviour included their negative perceptions about counselling in HAST. Conclusion There is an urgent need for further studies to explore barriers to counselling behaviour and how these can be addressed by the nurses and their managers.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T01:33:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2016.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2017)
  • Is community-based electrocardiography education feasible in the early
           phase of an undergraduate medical curriculum?

    • Authors: Carol Olivia Larson; Johan Bezuidenhout; Lynette Jean van der Merwe
      Pages: 61 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 22
      Author(s): Carol Olivia Larson, Johan Bezuidenhout, Lynette Jean van der Merwe
      Accreditation authorities expect medical schools to increase their teaching standards and civic engagement, despite limited resources. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of community-based (CB) electrocardiography (ECG) instruction in semesters 4 and/or 5 of the undergraduate MBChB programme at the University of the Free State in Bloemfontein, South Africa. A literature review and 34 structured interviews were employed, using a mixed-methods QUAN (+qual) research design. Regarding the preclinical phase, 18 interviewees strongly supported community-based learning (CBL) and 21 strongly supported task-based (TB) CBL. Responses were more conservative regarding the practicability of TB CBL. Twenty-two interviewees supported preclinical phase ECG-specific CBL. There was more support for implementing CB ECG in the clinical phase than in the preclinical phase. Challenges identified included finances, transport, personnel availability, clinic space, curriculum time constraints, student and driver absenteeism, and ethical aspects. Solutions for the preclinical phase included combining electrocardiography with other CBL tasks. Many interviewees supported preclinical phase TB CBL, although several factors determine its feasibility. Availability of human and other resources and curriculum time significantly impact CB ECG learning. Solutions necessitate additional location-specific research.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T01:33:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2016.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2017)
  • Adherence challenges encountered in an intervention programme to combat
           chronic non-communicable diseases in an urban black community, Cape Town

    • Authors: Nasheetah Solomons; Herculina Salomé Kruger; Thandi Rose Puoane
      Pages: 70 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 22
      Author(s): Nasheetah Solomons, Herculina Salomé Kruger, Thandi Rose Puoane
      Background Chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD) have become the greatest contributor to the mortality rate worldwide. Despite attempts by Governments and various non-governmental organisations to prevent and control the epidemic with various intervention strategies, the number of people suffering from CNCD is increasing at an alarming rate in South Africa and worldwide. Objectives Study's objectives were to explore perceived challenges with implementation of, and adherence to health messages disseminated as part of a CNCD intervention programme; to gain an understanding of participants' expectations of CNCD intervention programmes;, and to explore the acceptability and preference of health message dissemination methods. In addition, participants' awareness of, and willingness to participate in CNCDs intervention programmes in their community was explored. Methods Participants were recruited from the existing urban Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study site in Langa, Cape Town. Focus group discussions were conducted with 47 participants using a question guide. Summative content analysis was used to analyse the data. Results Four themes emerged from the data analysis: practical aspects of implementation and adherence to intervention programmes; participants' expectations of intervention programmes; aspects influencing participants' acceptance of interventions; and their preferences for health message dissemination. The results of this study will be used to inform CNCDs intervention programmes. Conclusions Our findings revealed that although participants found current methods of health message dissemination in CNCDs intervention acceptable, they faced real challenges with implementing and adhering to CNCDs to these messages.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T01:33:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2016.11.006
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2017)
  • Perceptions of student nurses on the writing of reflective journals as a
           means for personal, professional and clinical learning development

    • Authors: Hazel Thokozani Mahlanze; Maureen Nokuthula Sibiya
      Pages: 79 - 86
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 22
      Author(s): Hazel Thokozani Mahlanze, Maureen Nokuthula Sibiya
      Background Reflective journals are used by the students to voice their views on the daily activities during clinical placement. Reflective journals are aimed at helping the student to observe and record as many facts about daily practice as the student finds relevant. Reflective journal writing can therefore be used as a tool to evaluate that clinical learning is actually taking place and what challenges students are experiencing which may influence their learning. Findings by Harris (2006:460–461) are encouraging that through journaling students will develop ability to identify and analyse their difficulties, make suggestions for solving problems and ask and pursue questions on their own. Some of the participants confirmed improved values clarification, self-valuing and personal growth. Bulman & Schutz (2008: 172) recommends journal writing for recording processes the student observe, copy and internalize in her journey towards professional development. Objectives This study aimed to determine student nurses' perceptions of reflective journal writing as a means for personal, professional development and clinical learning development. Method A quantitative and descriptive survey was conducted in September 2013. Forty participants were recruited from second year student nurses of a University of Technology in uMgungundlovu District of KwaZulu-Natal. Purposive convenience sampling strategy was used. A structured questionnaire was designed by the researcher from literature reviewed. The questionnaire was piloted and modified, then used after permission had been granted by the Ethics Committee of the university concerned. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 17) programme was used for data analysis. Results Results indicated that the participants generally experienced writing of reflective journals to be a valuable tool enhancing personal development, professional growth and clinical learning. A significant number (n = 24/60%) confirmed that they improved in making proactive decisions and taking on the spot corrective actions; 52% (n = 21) of the participants were empowered to examine their attitudes and perspectives to a given situation and 55% (n = 22) participants increased in active involvement and ownership of their learning. Recommendations It is recommended that clinical staff be reminded of their responsibility as role models for student nurses so as to enhance their personal, professional development and clinical development. The writing of reflective journals must be encouraged in nurse education and students given guidance and constructive feedback.

      PubDate: 2017-02-16T21:14:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2016.05.005
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2017)
  • The quality of life of HIV-infected and non-infected women post-caesarean
           section delivery

    • Authors: Preshani Reddy; José Merle Frantz
      Pages: 87 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 22
      Author(s): Preshani Reddy, José Merle Frantz
      There is a dearth of literature on the postnatal quality of life (QoL) of women. This study aimed to determine to QoL of HIV-infected and non-infected women post-caesarean section delivery. This prospective, longitudinal and comparative study was conducted at four public hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal. The participants were followed for six-months post-delivery and the QoL was measured using the SF-36 and the pelvic floor impact questionnaire (PFIQ-7). The results showed that the QoL of women were negatively affected post-operatively with the HIV-infected group scoring lower over the six-months. Understanding postpartum QoL problems is essential in efforts to provide effective comprehensive care.

      PubDate: 2017-02-16T21:14:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2016.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2017)
  • Supply chain solutions to improve the distribution of antiretroviral drugs
           (ARVs) to clinics in rural areas: A case study of the QwaQwa district

    • Authors: Mamolise Mokheseng; Gideon S. Horn; Aileen G. Klopper
      Pages: 93 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 22
      Author(s): Mamolise Mokheseng, Gideon S. Horn, Aileen G. Klopper
      This article serves as a case study based on research that was performed in the QwaQwa district in the Free State Province where the distribution of ARVs to the regional Manapo hospital, as well as between the hospital and its peripheral clinics, was interrupted and inconsistent due to problems in the supply chain. An unreliable and interrupted ARV supply chain creates the risk of virus reactivation and eventual patient mortality. The objectives of the study were to explore the problems experienced with the ARV distribution practices at the Manapo hospital, and to recommend ways in which the distribution of ARVs can be improved so that patients can receive an uninterrupted supply. The nature of the topic researched dictated the use of mainly the quantitative research method. The main problems identified include: Wrong and no uniform practice of ordering stock by the hospital and the clinics; lack of reliable, structured transportation from the depot to the hospital; as well as poor inventory management and poor overall communication. Recommendations to address the problems include: Implementing a supply chain planning and design process; improving inventory management and warehousing practices; implementing more effective and reliable distribution and transportation processes; as well as improving supply chain coordination and overall communication.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T05:15:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2016.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2017)
  • A creative analysis of the role of practice development facilitators in a
           critical care environment

    • Authors: Tanya Heyns; Yvonne Botma; Gisela Van Rensburg
      Pages: 105 - 111
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 22
      Author(s): Tanya Heyns, Yvonne Botma, Gisela Van Rensburg
      Practice development focuses on methods to address the quality of care and advance healthcare practices. The role of practice development facilitators to address challenges of delivering evidence-based person-centred care in the critical care environment was determined by using a nominal group technique. Eleven participants from public and private healthcare services reached consensus on seven clusters: theory-practice application, facilitation of learning, increasing collaboration, effective communication, facilitation of change, time management and role modelling. The clusters were visually represented as a hot air balloon. Competence as facilitators is of vital importance to ensure knowledge translation with the aim to improve quality.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T05:15:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2016.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2017)
  • Ocular allergy

    • Authors: Khathutshelo Percy Mashige
      Pages: 112 - 122
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 22
      Author(s): Khathutshelo Percy Mashige
      Aim To systematically review relevant literature investigating the classification and nomenclature, epidemiology and pathophysiological mechanisms, as well as diagnosis and treatment of ocular allergy. Method The Medline, PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases were used to search for evidence-based literature on ocular allergy. Main outcome measures Classification and nomenclature, epidemiology and pathophysiological mechanisms, diagnosis and management of ocular allergy. Results The search retrieved 5200 number of studies of which 6 met the criteria. Conclusions While numerous studies regarding pharmacological and immunological research have identified new treatment options, there is a dearth of clinical studies to discover the biomarkers and immune therapeutic management to control sensitisation and effector phases of this condition. Given the complexity of this condition due to the multifactorial nature of the possible aetiologies, rigorous well-designed scientific studies are needed to determine the exact classification, prevalence and underlying immune pathological processes of ocular allergy.

      PubDate: 2017-03-02T22:44:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2016.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2017)
  • Change in patient nutritional knowledge following coronary artery bypass
           graft surgery

    • Authors: L. van Rooy; Yoga Coopoo
      Pages: 123 - 129
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 22
      Author(s): L. van Rooy, Yoga Coopoo
      Introduction In order to reduce coronary artery disease (CAD) risk, moderate physical activity should be combined with other lifestyle modifications, such as proper nutrition, to have a dramatic impact. This necessitates educational and preventative measures, which should begin in childhood and continue throughout life. Aim The aim of this study was to measure the change in nutrition knowledge of coronary artery bypass graft patients by implementation of a lifestyle intervention programme. Methods The Hawkes and Nowak Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire (1998) was administered to 18 coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients to assess the change in nutrition knowledge. Results Significant improvements were noted in the nutrition knowledge score (18.9 ± 3.4–23.2 ± 4.5; p = 0.000). Although all components measured exhibited improvements in knowledge, cholesterol reduction knowledge (5.3 ± 1.8–7.2 ± 1.8; p = 0.0066), low fat food knowledge (3.8 ± 2.3–5.1 ± 2.7; p = 0.011) and high fibre food knowledge (4.1 ± 1.4–4.7 ± 1.1; p = 0.022) exhibited the highest and most significant improvements. Conclusion Notably, these significant improvements in nutrition knowledge points toward effective education being delivered during the intervention. Cardiac rehabilitation has proved to be effective in changing lifestyle habits in a holistic way and this study further shows an improvement in nutritional knowledge based on sound educational principles.

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T13:38:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2017.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2017)
  • The perceptions of professional nurses on student mentorship in clinical
           areas: A study in Polokwane municipality hospitals, Limpopo province

    • Authors: Chokwe M. Setati; Zerish Z. Nkosi
      Pages: 130 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 22
      Author(s): Chokwe M. Setati, Zerish Z. Nkosi
      The purpose of the study was to explore the perceptions of professional nurses on student mentorship in clinical areas. A qualitative hermeneutic phenomenological research was conducted to determine the meaning of mentoring as perceived by professional nurses and to identify the successes and challenges encountered by professional nurses with regard to student mentorship during clinical practice. Data was collected using in-depth individual interviews to collect data from sixteen operational managers who were managing all unit activities, including student mentoring. Each interview lasted for ±45 min. A hermeneutic data analysis (hermeneutic circle) was used to analyse data. Four (4) themes and fourteen (14) sub-themes emerged from data collected from operational managers. The findings revealed that mentoring was perceived as a valuable tool to apply in the preparation of student nurses for future professional role. In the process of mentoring, the caring attitude is important. Factors that facilitated the mentoring process were good communication, time and available resources.

      PubDate: 2017-03-12T18:12:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2017.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2017)
  • Exploring resilience in nurses caring for older persons

    • Authors: Petronella Benadé; Emmerentia du Plessis; Magdalena Petronella Koen
      Pages: 138 - 149
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 22
      Author(s): Petronella Benadé, Emmerentia du Plessis, Magdalena Petronella Koen
      Background A shortage of nurses caring for older persons is experienced due to adverse working conditions. Resilience might empower nurses to persevere while caring for older persons. Research regarding the resilience of nurses caring for older persons is scarce. Objectives The objectives were to explore and describe the strengths and coping abilities of nurses caring for older persons and to formulate recommendations to strengthen their resilience. Methodology An explorative, descriptive qualitative research design was used. An all-inclusive sample of nurses caring for older persons in an urban setting in the North West Province, South Africa, participated in the study. During phase one, demographic information was obtained, and narratives were written (n = 43). Four focus group interviews were conducted in phase two (n = 17) and recommendations were formulated in phase three. Content analysis was used. Principal results Participants experienced adverse working circumstances while caring for older persons and they needed resilience to balance the emotional nature of the work, work ethics, staff shortages, physical demands of the work and the dependency of the older persons. These nurses used personal, professional, contextual and spiritual strengths to handle adverse working conditions. Conclusions By applying their personal, professional, contextual and spiritual strengths, nurses could further enhance these strengths and possibly their resilience. The participants' identified strengths were used to formulate recommendations to strengthen resilience of nurses caring for older persons.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T05:55:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2017.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2017)
  • Cost-savings accruable to removing value added tax from antiretrovirals in
           the South African private health sector

    • Authors: Varsha Bangalee; Fatima Suleman
      Pages: 150 - 156
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 22
      Author(s): Varsha Bangalee, Fatima Suleman
      Background Despite the important and essential role that medicines play in any society, all medicines, including those identified as essential, are uniformly subjected to 14% value added tax (VAT), regardless of their therapeutic value in the private healthcare sector of South Africa. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the potential cost-saving attained from the removal of VAT from the private sector pricing of essential medicines, using antiretroviral treatment as an example. Methods An empirical analysis was undertaken to illustrate the potential cost-saving achieved by removing VAT from the Single Exit Price and the dispensing fee of essential medicines. This outcome was demonstrated by applying the methodology to an adult fixed dose combination 1st line antiretroviral regimen as well as to a group of 3rd line antiretroviral medicines. Results The potential saving for the lowest priced generic and originator 1st line antiviral regimen accrued to ZAR 693.84 and ZAR 1085.04 over a year respectively. Regarding the 3rd line antiretroviral drugs, results yielded an annual saving of ZAR 1678.68 (darunavir), ZAR 5741.04 (maraviroc) and ZAR 159.48 (rilpivirine). Conclusions Lobbying for the removal of VAT from the supply chain of medicines should be intensified. Policy development to monitor and recover lost government revenue through the removal of taxes should be explored.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T05:55:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2016.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2017)
  • Movement as a critical concept in model generation to attain wholeness

    • Authors: Charlene Downing; Marie Poggenpoel; Chris Myburgh
      Pages: 157 - 165
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 22
      Author(s): Charlene Downing, Marie Poggenpoel, Chris Myburgh
      Movement is an integral aspect of daily living. Movement allows the human being to express, find meaning and reflect a part or the whole of the unfolding of the stories of their lives. The essence of the dialogue is the movement towards caring and healing between the professional nurse and the individual. The purpose of this research is to develop, describe, evaluate and provide guidelines for the operationalisation of a model as a framework of reference for nursing to facilitate the individual faced with mental health challenges as an integral part of wholeness. A model was generated to facilitate the engagement of self through movement, which contributes to and manifests in a mindful way of living to promote mental health as an integral part of wholeness. The findings of the study are applicable to the world of nursing practice, nursing education and research.

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T13:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2017.01.010
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2017)
  • Experiences of registered nurses caring for patients with an open abdomen
           in an intensive care unit in Gauteng

    • Authors: Mpho Grace Chipu; Irene Kearns; Wanda Elzabe Nel
      Pages: 166 - 173
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 22
      Author(s): Mpho Grace Chipu, Irene Kearns, Wanda Elzabe Nel
      The researcher observed that nurses prefer not to nurse patients with an open abdomen as they fear that the abdominal contents will protrude. The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the experiences of registered nurses taking care of patients with an open abdomen in intensive care in an academic hospital in Gauteng, and to provide recommendations for registered nurses when taking care of patients with an open abdomen. The research design used was a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design. Focus group interviews were conducted with each group comprising six participants. The research question was: What are the experiences of registered nurses caring for patients with an open abdomen in an intensive care unit? What recommendations can be made to assist registered nurses in taking care of patients with an open abdomen in an intensive care unit? The data was analysed using Tesch's method. Three themes emerged: Difficulty in nursing care, complications such as fistula and infections, and poor hospital administration. Recommendations for assisting registered nurses in taking care of patients with an open abdomen were then made based on the findings of the four focus group interviews. Ethical principles and measures of trustworthiness were adhered to throughout the research study.

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T13:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2017.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2017)
  • Factors influencing recruitment and retention of professional nurses,
           doctors and allied health professionals in rural hospitals in KwaZulu

    • Authors: J. Lyn Haskins; Sifiso A. Phakathi; Merridy Grant; Christiane M. Horwood
      Pages: 174 - 183
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 22
      Author(s): J. Lyn Haskins, Sifiso A. Phakathi, Merridy Grant, Christiane M. Horwood
      Introduction In South Africa fewer health professionals (HPs) work in rural areas compared to urban areas, despite rural communities having greater health needs. This study explores factors influencing recruitment and retention of three categories of HPs in KwaZulu-Natal and has implications about how to retain them in rural areas. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive survey was conducted in 8 hospitals, 5 rural and 3 urban, in one district in KZN in 2011. Data were collected on single day in each hospital and all HPs on duty were requested to participate. We compared responses from rural and urban based HP as well as professional nurses (PNs), doctors, and allied HPs. Results 417 questionnaires were completed: 150 from HPs in rural and 267 from HPs in urban hospitals. Perceptions of living/working in rural areas is negative and the quality of health care provided in rural areas is perceived as poor by all categories of HP. Rural-based HPs were more likely to report living apart from spouse/partner (72.1% vs 37.0%, p < 0.001) and children (76.7% vs 36.9%, p < 0.001), and living in hospital accommodation (50.8% vs 28.9%; p < 0.001). Conclusions Decisions made by HP about where to work are complex, multifactorial and should be tailored to each category of health professional.

      PubDate: 2017-04-03T18:10:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2016.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2017)
  • Editorial comments on 2016 volume of HSAG

    • Authors: Marie Poggenpoel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid
      Author(s): Marie Poggenpoel

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T13:38:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2016.12.001
  • Young families become mindful of their possibilities through the
           appreciation of their family life

    • Authors: Marie Poggenpoel; Frieda E. Jacobs; Chris P.H. Myburgh; Annie M. Temane
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 22
      Author(s): Marie Poggenpoel, Frieda E. Jacobs, Chris P.H. Myburgh, Annie M. Temane
      Young families, as viewed through a multi-generational lens, provide the environment in which children can be nurtured and socialised. The purpose of the research is to explore and describe how the parents and grandparents of young families appreciate their family life. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual multiple case study design was used to conduct the study. Purposive sampling methods were applied to select families according to the sampling criteria, each family representing an individual case study. Appreciative inquiry interviews were conducted with the young parents and available grandparents, during which the participants were asked four open-ended questions. Data collection was enriched by means of reflective letters to participants, collages created by the young parents, and the researcher's field notes and journal inscriptions. The data collected from each individual case study was analysed and then synthesised by means of a cross-case analysis. A cross-case validation report was compiled. The themes and categories that emerged from the data were discussed. The research study concluded that when young families embarked on a journey of discovering their strengths and potential in the larger family system, they creatively envision and discovered the possibilities to transform their destiny in a purposeful and constructive way.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T23:46:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2016.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2016)
  • Best practice during intrapartum care: A concept analysis

    • Authors: Mary M. Chabeli; Jackie M.L. Malesela; Anna G.W. Nolte
      Pages: 9 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 22
      Author(s): Mary M. Chabeli, Jackie M.L. Malesela, Anna G.W. Nolte
      Rationale Best practice is an abstract word open to different interpretations. The definition of best practice depends on the context. Purpose The purpose is to explore the meaning of the concept of best practice within the context of intrapartum care. Method The concept of best practice was analysed using Wilson's method of concept analysis. Dictionaries, a thesaurus, and an internet search were employed. References of journals were used to identify extra sources. Data saturation was reached at 117 definitions and uses of the concept of best practice. The definitions and uses of the concept of best practice listed in column one were read repeatedly. Common and similar patterns of words were highlighted. Grouping of common attributes and connotations occurred in column two and further deductive analysis and synthesis occurred in column three where derived essential attributes of the concept of best practice were categorised. Results Three broad categories emerged, namely (1) Values as antecedents of best practice; (2) A three-phased interactive integrative cyclic process of best practice; (phase one: awareness; phase two: need analysis and interactive process; phase three: consolidation); and (3) Desired outcomes of best practice, with resultant theoretical definition of the concept best practice during intra-partum care. Theoretical validity was attained through 117 sources used. Recommendation The results of the concept analysis of best practice should be used to develop a model to facilitate best practice during intra-partum care.

      PubDate: 2016-11-21T10:31:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2016.07.006
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2016)
  • The conceptualization of family care during critical illness in
           KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    • Authors: J. de Beer; P. Brysiewicz
      Pages: 20 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 22
      Author(s): J. de Beer, P. Brysiewicz
      Introduction In recent years there has been a movement to promote patients as partners in their care; however this may not always be possible as in the case of critically ill patients, who are often sedated and mechanically ventilated. This results in family members being involved in the care of the patient. To date, this type of care has been represented by three dominant theoretical conceptualizations and frameworks one of which is family centered care; however there is a lack of consensus on the definition of family centered care. Hence the objective of this study was to explore the meaning of family care within a South African context. Methodology This study adopted a qualitative approach and a grounded theory research design by Strauss and Corbin (1990). Participants from two hospitals: one private and one public were selected to participate in the study. There was a total of 31 participants (family members, intensive care nurses and doctors) who volunteered to participate in the study. Data collection included in-depth individual interviews. Open, axial and selective coding was conducted to analyse data. Nvivo data analysis software was used to assist with the data analysis. Findings The findings of this study revealed that family care is conceptualized as togetherness, partnership, respect and dignity. Conclusion During a critical illness, patients' families fulfil an additional essential role for patients who may be unconscious or unable to communicate or make decisions. FMs not only provide vital support to their loved one, but also become the “voice” of the patient.

      PubDate: 2016-12-12T00:34:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2016.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2016)
  • Strengths of families to limit relapse in mentally ill family members

    • Authors: Tlhalefi T. Tlhowe; Emmerentia du Plessis; Magdalene P. Koen
      Pages: 28 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 22
      Author(s): Tlhalefi T. Tlhowe, Emmerentia du Plessis, Magdalene P. Koen
      Background Relapse prevention in mental health care is important. Utilising the strengths of families can be a valuable approach in relapse prevention. Studies on family strengths have been conducted but little has been done on the strengths of family members to help limit relapse in mental health care users. The purpose of this research was to explore and describe the strengths of family members in assisting mental health care users to limit relapses. Methods A phenomenological design was followed. Purposive sampling was used and 15 family members of mental health care users who have not relapsed in the previous two years participated. Individual unstructured interviews were conducted. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Four main themes were identified, namely accepting the condition of the mental health care users, having faith, involving the mentally ill family members in daily activities and being aware of what aggravates the mentally ill family members. Conclusions Family members go through a process of acceptance and receive educational information and assistance from health professionals. In this process families discover and apply their strengths to limit relapses of mentally ill family members. It is important that family members caring for mentally ill family members are involved in their treatment from the onset, and that they are guided through a process of acceptance.

      PubDate: 2016-12-19T07:50:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2016.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2016)
  • Knowledge and psychosocial wellbeing of nurses caring for people living
           with HIV/AIDS (PLWH)

    • Authors: Lufuno Makhado; Mashudu Davhana-Maselesele
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 21
      Author(s): Lufuno Makhado, Mashudu Davhana-Maselesele
      The challenges of caring for people living with HIV (PLWH) in a low-resource setting has had a negative impact on the nursing profession, resulting in a shortage of skilled nurses. In response to this shortage and perceived negative impact, we conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study to describe the level of knowledge and psychosocial wellbeing of nurses caring for PLWH at a regional hospital in Limpopo Province, South Africa. A total of 233 nurses, the majority being female, participated and were stratified into professional nurses (n = 108), enrolled nurses (n = 58) and enrolled nursing auxiliaries (n = 66). Data were collected using HIV/AIDS knowledge questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory; AIDS Impact Scale and Beck's Depression Inventory. The total knowledge score obtained by all the participants ranged from 2 to 16, with an average of 12.93 (SD = 1.92) on HIV/AIDS knowledge. Depersonalization (D) (83.7%) and emotional exhaustion (EE) (53.2%) were reported among participating nurses caring for PLWH. Burnout was higher among professional nurses as compared to both enrolled nurses and enrolled nursing auxiliaries. There was a moderate negative significant correlation between HIV knowledge with the nurses' emotional exhaustion (r = −0.592), depression (r = −0.584) and stigma and discrimination (r = −0.637). A moderate to high level of burnout was evident among all levels of nurses. These findings lead to the recommendations for support of nurses caring for PLWH that include structured nursing educational support, organisational support with respect to employee wellness programmes that address depression and work burnout, as well as social support. The provision of these support mechanisms has the potential of creating a positive practice environment for nurses in the Vhembe District of the Limpopo Province in particular, and South Africa in general, and in improved care for PLWH.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T16:53:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2015.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2016)
  • The GAMMA® nursing measure: Its calibration for construct validity
           with Rasch analyses

    • Authors: Hendrik J. Loubser; Daleen Casteleijn; Judith C. Bruce
      Pages: 11 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 21
      Author(s): Hendrik J. Loubser, Daleen Casteleijn, Judith C. Bruce
      Background The GAMMA nursing measure was developed to routinely score a person's ability to independently perform activities of daily living. The nursing utility of the scale has been established as being satisfactory and it has been recommended that its use be extended to home-based care where restorative nursing is required for rehabilitation and elderly care. Purpose To subject the GAMMA nursing measure to the Rasch Measurement Model and to report if the measure can function as an interval scale to provide metric measurements of patients' ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living. Method A quantitative design was followed whereby GAMMA raw scores were collected from persons (n = 428) living in seven retirement villages and patients (n = 334) receiving home-based care after an acute or sub-acute nursing episode. In most of the retirement villages only cross-sectional data were collected; however, in the home-based care patients both admission and discharge data were collected. The data were prepared for Rasch analyses and imported into WINSTEP® Software version (2010). Persons with extreme scores were eliminated, resulting in a final sample of 570 persons. The calibration and analyses of the final reports are illustrated with figures and graphs. Results The Rasch analyses revealed that the GAMMA functions optimally as an interval scale with a four-category structure across all eight items, rather than a seven-category structure as originally intended. Overall, the GAMMA satisfies the Rasch Model with a good to excellent fit. Conclusion The use of a validated measure of patients' ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living has the potential to provide evidence of patient improvement, nursing performance and effectiveness of nursing service delivery.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T16:53:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2015.05.005
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2016)
  • Keep pushing! Limiting interruptions to CPR; bag-valve mask versus
           i-gel® airway ventilation

    • Authors: Craig Vincent-Lambert; Andrew Makkink; Fredrick Kloppers
      Pages: 21 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 21
      Author(s): Craig Vincent-Lambert, Andrew Makkink, Fredrick Kloppers
      Background Recent recommendations made by ILCOR have de-emphasised the role of advanced airway management such as “endotracheal intubation” (ETI) during cardiac arrest in favour of maximising the number of chest compressions performed by rescuers. Maximising time available for compressions is achieved by minimising hands-off time (HOT). This has led to first responders and paramedics performing single rescuer CPR using a bag-valve-mask (BVM) device as opposed to the historical practice of intubating and ventilating via an endotracheal tube. Bag-valve-mask ventilations, especially during single rescuer CPR, are however associated with complications potentially resulting in increased ventilation times. More time spent on ventilations in the single rescuer scenario naturally leads to an increase in HOT and less time being available for compressions. It is postulated that the use of an appropriate supraglottic airway device (SAD) may decrease the time spent on the ventilation component of CPR and result in a decrease in HOT. Objectives This pilot study evaluated how interruptions to chest compressions or hands-off time (HOT) are affected by the placement of an i-gel® airway vs. simple BVM ventilation during single rescuer CPR. Method 16 participants performed two, ten-minute single rescuer CPR simulations, firstly using the BVM and later the i-gel® airway for ventilation. Data pertaining to ventilations and HOT in each scenario was statistically analysed and compared. Results The i-gel® airway demonstrated a superior ease of ventilation compared to BVM alone and resulted in a reduction of time spent on ventilations overall. The i-gel® however took a mean of 29 s, ± 10 s, to secure which contributes considerably to HOT. Conclusion The use of the i-gel® airway resulted in a considerable decrease in the amount of time spent on ventilations and in more compressions being performed. The overall reduction in HOT was, however, offset by the time it took to secure the device. Further investigation into the use and securing of the i-gel® airway in single rescuer CPR is recommended.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T16:53:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2015.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2016)
  • Clinical judgement within the South African clinical nursing environment:
           A concept analysis

    • Authors: Anna C. van Graan; Martha J.S. Williams; Magdalena P. Koen
      Pages: 33 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 21
      Author(s): Anna C. van Graan, Martha J.S. Williams, Magdalena P. Koen
      Reform in the South African healthcare and educational system were characterized by the ideals that the country needs to produce independent, critical thinkers. Nurses need to cope with diversity in a more creative way, defining their role in a complex, uncertain, rapidly changing health care environment. Quality clinical judgement is therefore imperative as an identified characteristic of newly qualified professional nurses. The objective of this study was to explore and describe clinical judgement through various data sources and review of literature to clarify the meaning and promote a common understanding through formulating the characteristics and developing a connotative (theoretical) definition of the concept. An explorative, descriptive qualitative design was used to discover the complexity and meaning of the phenomenon. Multiple data sources and search strategies were used, for the time frame 1982–2013. A concept analysis was used to arrive at a theoretical definition of the concept of ‘clinical judgement’ as a complex cognitive skill to evaluate patient needs, adaption of current treatment protocols as well as new treatment strategies, prevention of adverse side effects through being proactive rather than reactive within the clinical nursing environment. The findings emphasized clinical judgement as skill within the clinical nursing environment, thereby improving autonomous and accountable nursing care. These findings will assist nurse leaders and clinical nurse educators in developing a teaching-learning strategy to promote clinical judgement in undergraduate nursing students, thereby contributing to the quality of nursing care.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T16:53:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2015.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2016)
  • Seven year overview (2007–2013) of ethical transgressions by registered
           healthcare professionals in South Africa

    • Authors: Nico Nortjé; Willem Hoffmann
      Pages: 46 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 21
      Author(s): Nico Nortjé, Willem Hoffmann
      A move has taken place internationally in the delivery and “consumption” of health care where if clients and patients (health care consumers) hold the opinion that the health care professionals/providers' behaviour has had a negative effect, impact or outcome on them, they may lodge a complaint with the relevant health professional regulatory body. Ethical transgressions of health care providers can generally be clustered into the following three categories: a) Competence and conduct with clients (e.g. abandonment, sexual intimacies, dishonesty, disclosure of information); b) Business practices (e.g. billing, reports, documentation); and c) Professional practice (e.g. referral upon termination, obtaining appropriate potential employment opportunities, nonprofessional relationships). The primary objective of this study was to analyse the ethical transgressions of registered members of the twelve professional boards in the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) in the period 2007 to 2013. A mixed methods approach was followed in this study which specifically focused on a historical research approach. The results indicate that the boards with the highest number of transgressions per the registered practitioners were firstly the Medical and Dental practitioners, closely followed by the Optometry and Dispensing Opticians Board. The predominantly complaint made against members of both these boards was for fraudulent conduct (collectively totalling to 85% of all fraudulent cases during the period) and included actions such as charging for non-rendered services, issuing false statements and submitting fraudulent medical aid claims. Cognisance needs to be taken that the South African public will increasingly demand better services and that since they are being better informed via the media of their rights and have access to a broader database of knowledge (rightly or wrongly so the internet) practitioners' opinions will not necessarily be accepted outright and that they (the public) will challenge it accordingly. This raises the concern that practitioners need to take on the responsibility to communicate with their patients/clients in order to educate them and keep them informed.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T16:53:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2015.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2016)
  • Nurses' experiences of inpatients suicide in a general hospital

    • Authors: Mirriam Matandela; Mokgadi C. Matlakala
      Pages: 54 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 21
      Author(s): Mirriam Matandela, Mokgadi C. Matlakala
      When suicide occurs, it is regarded as an adverse event. Often, little attention is given to the nurses who cared for the patients prior to the adverse event. Instead the affected nurses are expected to write statements and incident reports about the adverse event. The aim was to explore the experiences of nurses who cared for patients who successfully committed suicide whilst admitted at a specific general hospital in Gauteng Province, South Africa. A qualitative exploratory research was conducted. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of six nurses and content analysis was done. Nurses experienced feelings of shock; blame and condemnation; inadequacy and feared reprisal. This study suggests a basis for development of support strategies to assist the nurses to deal with their emotions following experience of adverse events.

      PubDate: 2016-12-19T07:50:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2015.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2016)
  • Has the increase in the availability of generic drugs lowered the price of
           cardiovascular drugs in South Africa?

    • Authors: Varsha Bangalee; Fatima Suleman
      Pages: 60 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 21
      Author(s): Varsha Bangalee, Fatima Suleman
      Background This research focuses on pharmaceutical competition in South Africa where concurrent pricing legislation is being implemented without monitoring the consequences on generic drug competition and usage. Objective To examine the relationship between originator drug prices and the number of generic brands within the cardiovascular class of drugs and to compare South African prices with international reference prices. Method Data on private sector drug prices was sourced from the South African Medicine Price Registry. The relationship between the median proportional price and the number of brands in the therapeutic class was analysed using correlation analysis. International reference prices were obtained from the Management Sciences for Health International Drug Price Indicator Guide (2012 edition). Results A weak correlation between originator and generic drug prices and the number of available brands was observed, the exception being diuretic drugs. The median prices per strength of the originator generic were still higher than the most expensive generic version manufactured by any other company, the exception being telmisartan. Comparison of price ratios between the originator drug, lowest priced generic and international reference price values revealed that the originator drug prices had a median price ratio of 20.99 (interquartile range 7.31–53.46) and the lowest priced generics had a median price ratio of 4.28 (interquartile range 2.10–8.47). Conclusion Increased generic competition is not a predictor of lower drug prices. The study also concludes that the current South African pharmaceutical policies have not yet achieved the lowest prices for drugs when compared internationally.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T16:53:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2015.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2016)
  • The experiences of clients and healthcare providers regarding the
           provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV
           and AIDS in an informal settlement in Tshwane

    • Authors: M.L.S. Mataboge; S. Beukes; A.G.W. Nolte
      Pages: 67 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 21
      Author(s): M.L.S. Mataboge, S. Beukes, A.G.W. Nolte
      Globally challenges regarding healthcare provision are sometimes related to a failure to estimate client numbers in peri-urban areas due to rapid population growth. About one-sixth of the world's population live in informal settlements which are mostly characterised by poor healthcare service provision. Poor access to primary healthcare may expose residents of informal settlement more to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) than their rural and urban counterparts due to a lack of access to information on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of both the reproductive health services' clients and the healthcare providers with regard to the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in a primary healthcare setting in Tshwane. A qualitative, exploratory and contextual design using a phenomenological approach to enquire about the participants' experiences was implemented. Purposive sampling resulted in the selection of 23 clients who used the reproductive healthcare services and ten healthcare providers who were interviewed during individual and focus group interviews respectively. Tesch's method for qualitative data analysis was used. Ethical principles guided the study, and certain strategies were followed to ensure trustworthiness. The findings revealed that females who lived in informal settlements were aware of the inability of the PHC setting to provide adequate reproductive healthcare to meet their needs. The HCPs acknowledged that healthcare provision was negatively affected by policies. It was found that the community members could be taught how to coach teenagers and support each other in order to bridge staff shortages and increase health outcomes including HIV/AIDS prevention.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T16:53:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2015.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2016)
  • “Just live with it”: Having to live with breast cancer related

    • Authors: Johanna E. Maree; Dalene Beckmann
      Pages: 77 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 21
      Author(s): Johanna E. Maree, Dalene Beckmann
      An exploratory qualitative research approach was selected for this study aiming to explore how people living with breast cancer related lymphedema experience this complication. Unstructured interviews were conducted with nine purposively selected participants. Living with breast cancer related lymphedema was not easy. Participants were not informed of the possibility of developing lymphedema and felt let down by the medical professionals they consulted. They had to face the physical, psychological and practical consequences without the continuous support of a knowledgeable therapist. Managing the lymphedema was a challenge as they could not afford the necessary treatment and the self-care items. In addition, treatment failure resulted in them feeling exploited and using various treatment options. Nurses should maintain a high level of suspicion of breast cancer related lymphedema, assess patients for lymphedema and refer them to a therapist specifically trained in the management of this debilitating condition. Hierdie studie ondersoek die belewenis van mense met borskanker verwante limfedeem. ‘n Kwalitatiewe eksploratiewe navorsingsontwerp is gekies en ongestruktureerde onderhoude is met nege doelgerig gekose persone gevoer. Limfedeem kompliseer die lewe en die proefpersone het die nie maklik gevind om daarmee saam te leef nie. Hulle is nie ingelig oor die moonlikhied om limfedeem te ontwikkel nie en was van mening dat hulle deur die medici wat hulle behandel het in die steek gelaat is. Die proefpersone moes die fisiese, psigologiese en praktiese gevolge van limfedeem sonder die bystand van ‘n kundige terapeut te bowe kom. Die hantering van die limfedeem was ‘n uitdaging aangesien hulle nie die behandeling en self-sorg artikels kon bekostig nie. Die slegte resultate van behandeling het tot gevolg gehad dat die proefpersone uitgebuit gevoel het en ook verskillende behandelingsopsies gevolg het. Verpleegkundiges moet ‘n hoë vlak van bewustheid ten opsigte van limfedeem handhaaf, pasiënte hiervoor beraam en na ‘n terapeut wat in limfedeem spesialieer verwys.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T16:53:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2015.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2016)
  • Barriers and facilitators associated with HIV testing uptake in South
           African health facilities offering HIV Counselling and Testing

    • Authors: Neo Mohlabane; Bomkazi Tutshana; Karl Peltzer; Aziza Mwisongo
      Pages: 86 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 21
      Author(s): Neo Mohlabane, Bomkazi Tutshana, Karl Peltzer, Aziza Mwisongo
      Background The scale-up of HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) in South Africa to 4500 public health facilities and the service's provision in mobile and non-medical sites was aimed at increasing HCT uptake. However, some people still have never had an HIV test. Objective An HCT survey was carried out to ascertain barriers and facilitators for HIV testing in South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 67 HCT-offering health facilities in 8 South African provinces was undertaken. Individuals (n = 489) who had not tested for HIV on the day of the site visit were interviewed on awareness of HCT services, HIV testing history and barriers to HIV testing. Frequencies were run to describe the sample characteristics, barriers and facilitators to HIV testing. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the association between never tested for HIV with socio-demographics, awareness of HCT services and type of HCT facilities. Results In all 18.1% participants never had an HIV test. Major barriers to HCT uptake comprise being scared of finding out one's HIV test result or what people may say, shyness or embarrassment, avoidance of divulging personal information to health workers and fear of death. In multivariate analysis the age group 55 years and older, and not being recommended to have an HIV test were associated with never had an HIV test. Potential facilitators for HIV testing include community or household HIV testing, providing incentives for those who test for HIV, mandatory HIV testing and disclosure of HIV status by those who test HIV positive. Conclusion The benefits of HCT which include the reduction of HIV transmission, the availability of HIV care and treatment needs to be emphasized to enhance HCT uptake. Health workers also need to recommend HCT to all individuals attending health facilities offering this service.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T16:53:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2015.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2016)
  • Referral criteria for school-based hearing screening in South Africa:
           Considerations for resource-limited contexts

    • Authors: Faheema Mahomed-Asmail; De Wet Swanepoel; Robert H. Eikelboom
      Pages: 96 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 21
      Author(s): Faheema Mahomed-Asmail, De Wet Swanepoel, Robert H. Eikelboom
      Background School-based hearing screening is likely to be the first opportunity to identify childhood hearing loss in South Africa. Criteria for school-based hearing screening requires balancing the targeted degree of hearing loss while ensuring that referral rates are sufficiently low for a cost-effective and sustainable programme. The study aim was to investigate the effect of screening intensity (loudness) levels on the referral rate and to establish the effect of an immediate rescreen in reducing the referral rate. Methods A within-subject study was conducted in two phases. Phase 1: compared the referral rate in a counterbalanced sequence at screening levels of 20 dB HL, 25 dB HL and 30 dB HL across 1, 2 and 4 kHz for 135 children. Phase 2: determined the effect of an immediate rescreen on referral rate for 337 children screened at 25 dB HL. If a further referral was obtained on rescreen, diagnostic audiometry was subsequently conducted. Results Referral rate was reduced to 6.7% from 17% when using 25 dB HL as opposed to 20 dB HL as screening intensity. Referral rate was reduced to 4.4% when employing 30 dB HL as screening intensity. An immediate rescreen reduced the overall referral rate by more than one-third. Diagnostic audiometry confirmed that almost half (47%) of the referred children had a hearing loss. Conclusion A screening intensity of 25 dB HL and immediate rescreen reduces the referral rate significantly and will limit the burden of the screening programme on health care resources.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T16:53:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2015.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2016)
  • Paramedics' experiences of financial medicine practices in the
           pre-hospital environment. A pilot study

    • Authors: Craig Vincent-Lambert; Richard-Kyle Jackson
      Pages: 103 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 21
      Author(s): Craig Vincent-Lambert, Richard-Kyle Jackson
      Background The term “financial medicine” refers to the delivery of health-related services where the generation of financial gain or “profit” takes precedence over the provision of care that is reflective of evidence-based best practice. The practicing of financial medicine includes over-servicing and overbilling, both of which have led to a sharp rise in the cost of health care and medical insurance in South Africa. For this reason, the practicing of financial medicine has been widely condemned both internationally and locally by the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) and allied Professional bodies. Objectives This qualitative pilot study explored and described the experiences of South African Paramedics with regard to the practicing of financial medicine in the local pre-hospital emergency care environment. Method A sample of South African Paramedics were interviewed either face-to-face or telephonically. The interviews were audio recorded and transcripts produced. Content analysis was conducted to explore, document and describe the participants' experiences with regard to financial medicine practices in the local pre-hospital environment. Results It emerged that all of the participants had experienced a number of financial medicine practices and associated unethical conduct. Examples included Over-servicing, Selective Patient Treatment, Fraudulent Billing Practices, Eliciting of kickbacks, incentives or benefits and Deliberate Time Wasting. Conclusion The results of this study are concerning as the actions of service providers described by the participants constitute gross violations of the ethical and professional guidelines for health care professionals. The authors recommend additional studies be conducted to further explore these findings and to establish the reasons for, and ways of, limiting financial medicine practices in the South African emergency care environment.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T16:53:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2015.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2016)
  • Experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder

    • Authors: N. Ntshingila; M. Poggenpoel; C.P.H. Myburgh; A. Temane
      Pages: 110 - 119
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 21
      Author(s): N. Ntshingila, M. Poggenpoel, C.P.H. Myburgh, A. Temane
      There is limited understanding of the experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder. It was therefore decided to discover how women living with this disorder would tell their life story. For the researcher, who worked in a psychotherapy ward where most women were living with borderline personality disorder, the care of these women was of vital importance, as they were less understood by mental health care providers. The research aimed to explore and describe the experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual study design was used. Data was collected through in-depth phenomenological interviews that focused on the central question, “Tell me your life story”. Eight participants living with borderline personality disorder were interviewed. Tesch's method for data analysis was used (Creswell, 2009:186), along with an independent coder. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical principles were applied throughout the research. From the findings obtained by means of the interviews of women living with borderline personality disorder, it was evident that there were childhood experiences of living in an unsafe space, related to unhealthy family dynamics, boundary violations and educational challenges. They experienced chronic feelings of emptiness in their relationships with the self. They also presented with a pattern of unstable interpersonal relationships and compromised mental health, which was apparent through the early onset of mental problems, emotional upheaval, looking for emotional escape and having different trigger factors. Lastly, all these women yearned for facilitated mental health.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T16:53:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2016.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2016)
  • Systematic review as a research method in post-graduate nursing education

    • Authors: Wilma ten Ham-Baloyi; Portia Jordan
      Pages: 120 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 21
      Author(s): Wilma ten Ham-Baloyi, Portia Jordan
      In South Africa, there appears to be poor understanding about using a systematic review as an acceptable research method in post-graduate nursing education. The lack of understanding may result in research supervisors being unable to guide post-graduate students, such as masters and doctoral students, in using the systematic review methodology in the completion of an academic qualification. Furthermore, they might not be able to assist post-graduate students in completing their studies, or conducting studies, in particular systematic reviews, which are of high quality. Valuable opportunities can thus be missed that might add to the body of knowledge to inform and improve research, education, and clinical practice. This article may set the field for an informed debate on systematic reviews as a useful and acceptable research method to be used by post-graduate nursing students in South Africa. We conclude that a systematic review could be a useful and acceptable method for research in post-graduate nursing education. However, the method's benefits and disadvantages should be considered before a post-graduate student embarks on such a journey.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T16:53:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2015.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2016)
  • Knowledge, opinions and practices of healthcare workers related to infant
           feeding in the context of HIV

    • Authors: Liska Janse van Rensburg; Riette Nel; Corinna M. Walsh
      Pages: 129 - 136
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 21
      Author(s): Liska Janse van Rensburg, Riette Nel, Corinna M. Walsh
      Background The importance of healthcare workers' guidance for women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) regarding infant feeding practices cannot be overemphasised. Objective To determine the knowledge, opinions and practices of healthcare workers in maternity wards in a regional hospital in Bloemfontein, Free State Province, South Africa, regarding infant feeding in the context of HIV. Methods For this descriptive cross-sectional study, all the healthcare workers in the maternity wards of Pelonomi Regional Hospital who voluntarily gave their consent during the scheduled meetings (n = 64), were enrolled and handed over the self-administered questionnaires. Results Only 14% of the respondents considered themselves to be experts in HIV and infant feeding. Approximately 97% felt that breastfeeding was an excellent feeding choice provided proper guidelines were followed. However, 10% indicated that formula feeding is the safest feeding option. 45% stated that heat-treated breast milk is a good infant feeding option; however, 29% considered it a good infant feeding option but it requires too much work. Only 6% could comprehensively explain the term “exclusive breastfeeding” as per World Health Organisation (WHO) definition. Confusion existed regarding the period for which an infant could be breastfed according to the newest WHO guidelines, with only 26% providing the correct answer. Twenty per cent reported that no risk exists for HIV transmission via breastfeeding if all the necessary guidelines are followed. Conclusion Healthcare workers' knowledge did not conform favourably with the current WHO guidelines. These healthcare workers were actively involved in the care of patients in the maternity wards where HIV-infected mothers regularly seek counselling on infant feeding matters.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T16:53:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2015.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2016)
  • “Consider our plight”: A cry for help from nyaope users

    • Authors: Kebogile Mokwena
      Pages: 137 - 142
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 21
      Author(s): Kebogile Mokwena
      Nyaope is a relatively new drug which until recently was not classified as illegal. It is widely used by many young and poor people in predominantly Black townships and users can be easily identified as they usually assemble in open spaces such as parks and taxi ranks and have formed a community through which they support one another in the habit. In addition to this, users often display poor personal hygiene and often resort to stealing and selling stolen goods in order to sustain their habit. There is a paucity of literature on nyaope and its use and impact, and the present study is a qualitative exploration of the experiences of nyaope users in three provinces, namely Gauteng, Mpumalanga and North West. The findings highlight the strong addictive nature of the drug, the ease of access, and the unfavourable social environment which promotes initial use and difficulty in quitting. Nyaope users typically express a desire to find and utilise help in order to overcome their current circumstances.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T16:53:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2015.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2016)
  • Mothers' perceptions of their premature infant's communication: A
           description of two cases

    • Authors: Michelle Pascoe; Divya Bissessur; Pat Mayers
      Pages: 143 - 154
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 21
      Author(s): Michelle Pascoe, Divya Bissessur, Pat Mayers
      Background Survival rates of premature infants have increased due to advances in medicine. Premature infants however, remain at risk for developmental delays including communication difficulties. The bonding and attachment experiences of premature infants and their parents are often challenged, further placing these infants at risk for communication difficulties. This study firstly aimed to explore mothers' perceptions of their premature infants' communication. The second aim was to explore the mothers' perceptions of their own role in the communication development of their infants. Methods A descriptive, longitudinal study was conducted with two mother–infant dyads. Three visits took place in the first year of life. Subjective maternal reports were obtained through semi-structured interviews. Results Differences in the two mothers' perceptions were noted. The mothers described helping their infants to communicate through physical contact and talking. Risk and protective factors for early communication development are discussed in relation to the findings. Conclusion The findings support the need for a healthy mother–infant relationship in the first few months of life. Health professionals should support premature infants and their families after discharge in order to help them interact with their infants and encourage attachment and bonding.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T16:53:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2015.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2016)
  • Relation of socio-economic status to the independent application of
           self-care in older persons of South Africa

    • Authors: Tinda Rabie; Hester C. Klopper; Martha J. Watson
      Pages: 155 - 161
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 21
      Author(s): Tinda Rabie, Hester C. Klopper, Martha J. Watson
      Background Many older persons in South Africa (SA) are affected by a poor socio-economic status, leading to an increase in the use of the public healthcare sector. However, the public healthcare sector is burdened by high volumes of patients and long waiting periods. As a result, professional nurses in primary healthcare (PHC) facilities are not able to spend enough time on proper physical examinations and assessment of needs, including health education and support to older persons to help them apply independent self-care. Aim To determine if the socio-economic status of older persons affects their ability to apply self-care independently without support from professional nurses in the PHC facility. Design Quantitative, descriptive research design. Methods Older persons (N = 198; n = 192 respondents) were asked to complete the Appraisal of Self-care Agency (ASA-A) and Exercise of Self-care Agency (ESCA) questionnaires. Seven self-care deficits were identified through deductive logic after analysis of the two questionnaires. These seven self-care deficits were compared to the socio economic status of the same sample. Results Seven self-care deficits were identified after analysis of the ASA-A and ESCA questionnaires. One self-care deficit was found to have a relationship with the socio-economic status of the older persons. Conclusions Low literacy levels of older persons with a low socio-economic status affect their ability to apply self-care independently without the support from a professional nurse in the PHC facility. Data analysis of the ASA-A and ESCA revealed that these older persons suffer from a “lack of knowledge and ability to acquire knowledge with regard to self-care” which had a relationship with the socio-economic status of older persons with specific reference to low literacy levels and poverty. Implications for practice More attention should be given to older persons with a low socio-economic status as their ability to apply self-care independently without the support from a professional nurse is limited. This would lead to less frequent visits to PHC facilities by older persons for minor ailments, decrease healthcare costs, relieve overcrowding in PHC facilities and prevent possible unintentional self-neglect.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T16:53:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2015.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2016)
  • Perception and attitude of healthcare workers towards the use of a female
           condom in Gaborone, Botswana

    • Authors: B. Mashanda-Tafaune; L.V. Monareng
      Pages: 162 - 170
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 21
      Author(s): B. Mashanda-Tafaune, L.V. Monareng
      Background Although the female condom (FC) is viewed as an effective female controlled barrier contraceptive device that can be used by women to prevent them from contracting the Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted or unintended pregnancy, the perception and attitude of healthcare workers (HCW) plays a key role in its effective use and distribution amongst women. Objectives To identify and examine factors that influences the perception and attitude of HCWs towards the use and distribution FCs. Method A quantitative, explorative and descriptive design was used to conduct the study based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a conceptual framework. A pre-tested questionnaire was utilised in June 2013 to collect data from a convenience sample of 164 HCWs with a 100% return rate. Data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 13.0 and Statistical Analysis Systems (SAS) version 9.2. Results The results showed that 64.0% (n = 105) of the respondents perceived unavailability of FCs as contributing to lack of adequate use. Only 31.7% (n = 52) [95% CI: 24.7–39.4] of them reported to be using the FC. There was an association with increasing use of a FC with age (Fischer's exact = 0.05), marital status [Fischer's exact = 0.037] and training [χ2 = 53.3; p < 0.05]. The results revealed that lack of knowledge and training on the use of a FC might prevent its effective use and distribution. Conclusion The results showed evidence that the FC was a safe method of contraception and protection against STIs and that it empowers women to make decisions related to sexuality. However, awareness campaigns, increased availability of FCs and training of HCWs are essential to enhance positive perception and attitudinal change to reduce sexual risks related infections and poor quality of life for women.

      PubDate: 2016-12-19T07:50:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2015.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2016)
  • Knowledge and attitudes about HIV infection and prevention of mother to
           child transmission of HIV in an urban, low income community in Durban,
           South Africa: Perspectives of residents and health care volunteers

    • Authors: Firoza Haffejee; Katie A. Ports; Maghboeba Mosavel
      Pages: 171 - 178
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 21
      Author(s): Firoza Haffejee, Katie A. Ports, Maghboeba Mosavel
      Background HIV prevalence is high among South African women of reproductive age and transmission of HIV from mothers to children is a concern. This study ascertained the level of knowledge about HIV infection and prevention, particularly prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) amongst South African women from a low income community. It also established the challenges in delivering HIV education from the perspectives of health care volunteers. Method Female residents (n = 67) from Kenneth Gardens, a low income community in Durban, South Africa were interviewed. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 health care volunteers who were either health care workers or residents who provided some form of social support in the community. Results The majority of respondents indicated that a mother could transmit HIV to her child but were unable to specify how. Many women had general HIV/AIDS knowledge but were unable to identify essential prevention behaviours and were not very receptive to more information on HIV/AIDS. They were supportive of routine testing procedures and child bearing amongst HIV positive women. Health care volunteers indicated a need for a community clinic in the area. They also had limited knowledge of PMTCT and indicated that there was a need for more education on HIV, particularly to encourage the youth and men to use preventative measures. Conclusion Innovative ways to impart knowledge particularly of PMTCT and updated standards of practice are essential. It is important that the community understands how transmission occurs so that prevention can follow.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T16:53:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2016.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2016)
  • The prevalence of risky sexual behaviours amongst undergraduate students
           in Jigjiga University, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Azwihangwisi Helen Mavhandu-Mudzusi; Teka tesfay Asgedom
      Pages: 179 - 186
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 21
      Author(s): Azwihangwisi Helen Mavhandu-Mudzusi, Teka tesfay Asgedom
      Young adults including university students are at high risk of acquiring HIV due to their risky sexual practices. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of risky sexual behaviours amongst regular undergraduate students in Jigjiga University. The researcher used a quantitative, univariate cross-sectional descriptive study. Two hundred and thirty six (236) students were selected using a simple random sampling technique. Data were collected using a standardised structured questionnaire. The study revealed that 70.53% of respondents were sexually experienced. Majority (54.8%) of the sexually experienced respondents were sexually active within 3 months of the study. Up to 30.14% of sexually experienced respondents have had sex with a person other than their current partner in the past 12 months. Only 59.6% of the sexually experienced respondents used condom in their most recent sexual engagement. The findings of this study showed that university students are involved in sexual behaviours that may increase their risk of contracting HIV infection. Based on the above results, researchers recommended the designing of interventions which are contextually relevant to Jigjiga University to mitigate risky sexual practices amongst university students.

      PubDate: 2016-12-19T07:50:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2015.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2016)
  • A HIV stigma reduction intervention for people living with HIV and their

    • Authors: Johanna Beatrix Pretorius; Minrie Greeff; Fazel Ebrihiam Freeks; Annamarie Kruger
      Pages: 187 - 195
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 21
      Author(s): Johanna Beatrix Pretorius, Minrie Greeff, Fazel Ebrihiam Freeks, Annamarie Kruger
      Background The diagnosis of HIV is life-changing that requires people not only to deal with the disease but also to cope with the stigma attached to HIV. People living with HIV (PLWH) as well as their close family members (CFM) are stigmatised; however, CFM also stigmatise PLWH. This interaction affects the relationship between PLWH and their CFM. Aim To explore and describe the experiences of PLWH and CFM during and after a community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention in both an urban and rural setting in the North-West. Method A qualitative description approach through in-depth interviews was used in both settings. Purposive sampling was used for the PLWH and snowball sampling for the CFM. Data was analysed using open coding. Results Both urban and rural groups gained a richer understanding of HIV stigma and how to cope with it. The relationships were enriched by PLWH feeling more supported and CFM realising how they stigmatised PLWH and that they should be more supportive. Leadership was activated in PLWH and CFM through the stigma reduction project that they participated in. Conclusion No significant differences were found between rural and urban communities, thus the intervention can be implemented with similar results in both settings. The intervention showed positive outcomes for both PLWH and CFM. Bringing PLWH and CFM together during an intervention in an equalised relationship proved to be useful as PLWH felt more supported and CFM showed much more compassion towards PLWH after the intervention.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T16:53:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2015.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2016)
  • HIV stigma experiences and stigmatisation before and after an intervention

    • Authors: H. Christa Chidrawi; Minrie Greeff; Q. Michael Temane; Colleen M. Doak
      Pages: 196 - 205
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 21
      Author(s): H. Christa Chidrawi, Minrie Greeff, Q. Michael Temane, Colleen M. Doak
      This study focuses on one aspect of a more extensive SANPAD-funded HIV stigma reduction research project. The study addresses not only the continuous burden of HIV stigma, but more specifically on the low rate of participation in healthcare opportunities and HIV stigma reduction interventions by people living with HIV (PLWH) This study tested both change-over-time in HIV stigma experiences of PLWH and change-over-time in the HIV stigmatisation behaviour of people living close to them (PLC) in an urban and rural setting in the North-West in South Africa. These aspects were measured before and after the comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention. A quantitative single system research design, with a pre-test and four repetitive post-tests, and purposive voluntary and snowball sampling were used. Findings did not indicate significant differences between urban and rural settings, but demonstrated some significance in change-over-time in the HIV stigma experiences of PLWH as well as the HIV stigmatisation behaviour of PLC after the intervention. Recommendations include the continuation of this intervention, following the same guidelines that were implemented during the study.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T16:53:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2015.11.006
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2016)
  • Selection criteria for a radiography programme in South Africa: Predictors
           for academic success in the first year of study

    • Authors: Carol Anne Kridiotis; Johan Bezuidenhout; Jacques Raubenheimer
      Pages: 206 - 213
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 21
      Author(s): Carol Anne Kridiotis, Johan Bezuidenhout, Jacques Raubenheimer
      Background Selection criteria used to admit students to a radiography programme at the Central University of Technology (CUT) included academic criteria, as well as the General Scholastic Aptitude Test (GSAT) and Self-directed Search (SDS) Questionnaire. Aims and objectives The aim of the study was to identify which selection criteria were predictors of academic success in the first year of study. As a four year Bachelor's degree in Radiography (480 credits) was to replace the three year National Diploma (NDip) in Radiography (360 credits), selection criteria would come under review. Design and method Data from 130 students were gathered in a retrospective quantitative study. Data were edited, categorised and summarised. A statistical analysis was undertaken to identify which selection criteria predicted academic success in the first year of study. Results Statistics showed that the matriculation Admission Points Score (National Senior Certificate/NCS APS) and core matriculation subject results in Mathematics, Physical Sciences and English were adequate predictors for first-year academic success, and the subjects Life Sciences for the NSC and Biology for the Senior Certificate (SC), showed strong predictive values for first-year academic success. According to the statistical analysis, the GSAT and SDS Questionnaire did not contribute any significant information which could predict academic success. Conclusion Matriculation marks and NSC APS were adequate predictors for academic success, with a focus on Life Sciences or Biology marks as the strongest predictor. The usefulness of the GSAT and SDS Questionnaire could be questioned, and a recommendation was made to replace these tests with alternative student selection methods.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T16:53:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2016.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2016)
  • The bloody truth: Investigating nurse phlebotomy competencies at a private
           laboratory in Johannesburg, South Africa

    • Authors: Lizelle Crous; S.J. Armstrong
      Pages: 339 - 347
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 21
      Author(s): Lizelle Crous, S.J. Armstrong
      Background With the introduction of the phlebotomist technician-certification programme in South Africa, nurses' phlebotomy competence, an acquired skill during basic training, was questioned. Various studies indicate that the majority of errors occur during the collection phase, causing negative outcomes for the patient. Objective Despite in-service training, samples were rejected and linked to the nurse phlebotomist's sample collection technique. The purpose of this study was to establish if nurses' phlebotomy techniques could be improved through a workplace-training programme in the attempt to improve the quality of the test results. Method The methodology used was a quantitative, experimental, pilot intervention study, based on a one group pre-test - post-test design. Data was collected by means of peer video recordings of the nurses (n = 20) based at outpatient departments of the laboratory. Independent evaluators evaluated the recordings against criterion-based observational checklists. Results Compliance to standards on the venepuncture procedure was identified during the pre-test, with an average score of 61.9%. The training programme, developed to address all deviations from the standards, proved to be effective as the post-test compliance score was 85%. Conclusion The reason for improving nurses' phlebotomy skills is to ensure accurate results that will assist clinicians caring for their patients. The results suggest that knowledge and skills were acquired, however further investigations are needed for guidance in the standardisation of training programmes and at what intervals should these training programmes be presented.

      PubDate: 2016-09-13T11:04:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hsag.2016.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2016)
  • Aims &amp; Scope

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Health SA Gesondheid, Volume 21

      PubDate: 2016-12-19T07:50:04Z
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