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  Subjects -> LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE (Total: 1795 journals)
    - LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE (679 journals)
    - LANGUAGES (249 journals)
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LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE (679 journals)                  1 2 3 4     

Showing 1 - 127 of 127 Journals sorted alphabetically
3L : Language, Linguistics, Literature     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
A Cor das Letras     Open Access  
a/b : Auto/Biography Studies : Journal of The Autobiography Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Abgadiyat     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Abril : Revista do Núcleo de Estudos de Literatura Portuguesa e Africana da UFF     Open Access  
Abusões     Open Access  
Ação Midiática : Estudos em Comunicação, Sociedade e Cultura     Open Access  
ACME : Annali della Facoltà di Studi Umanistici dell'Università degli Studi di Milano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acquisition et interaction en langue étrangère     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Baltico-Slavica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Literaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Neophilologica     Open Access  
Actio Nova : Revista de Teoría de la Literatura y Literatura Comparada     Open Access  
AFRREV IJAH : An International Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aksara     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aksara : International Journal of Indonesian Literature     Open Access  
Alea : Estudos Neolatinos     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aletria : Revista de Estudos de Literatura     Open Access  
Algazarra : Revista do Centro de Pesquisa Comunicação e Cultura : Barroco e Mestiçagem     Open Access  
Alpha (Osorno)     Open Access  
American Book Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Philology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
American Literary Realism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Literature     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Anagramas : Rumbos y Sentidos de la Comunicación     Open Access  
Anales Galdosianos     Full-text available via subscription  
Anàlisi : Quaderns de Comunicació i Cultura     Open Access  
Âncora : Revista Latino-Americana de Jornalismo     Open Access  
andererseits : Yearbook of Transatlantic German Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aniki : Revista Portuguesa da Imagem em Movimento     Open Access  
Annales islamologiques     Open Access  
ANTARES (Letras e Humanidades)     Open Access  
Anuari de Filologia. Llengües i Literatures Modernes     Open Access  
Anuário de Literatura     Open Access  
Anuario Lope de Vega. Texto, literatura, cultura     Open Access  
Appalachian Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Arabia     Open Access  
Arbitrium     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Arcadia - International Journal for Literary Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Arethusa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Argumentation et analyse du discours     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Arizona Quarterly: A Journal of American Literature, Culture, and Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Ars Aeterna     Open Access  
Artelogie     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arthuriana     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Artl@s Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arts et Savoirs     Open Access  
Asia Minor Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atalanta : Revista de las Letras Barrocas     Open Access  
Atalaya     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aturá : Revista Pan-Amazônica de Comunicação     Open Access  
Australian Journal of French Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Literary Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Slavonic and East European Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Azalea: Journal of Korean Literature & Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Babel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bahasa dan Seni : Jurnal Bahasa, Sastra, Seni, dan Pengajarannya     Open Access  
Bahastra     Open Access  
Balkanologie : Revue d'Études Pluridisciplinaires     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Barnboken : Journal of Children's Literature Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Between     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Beyond Words     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biblioteca Escolar em Revista     Open Access  
Biography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Black Camera     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Black Women, Gender & Families     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Boletim de Pesquisa NELIC     Open Access  
Book History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 120)
Bookbird: A Journal of International Children's Literature     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Brasiliana - Journal for Brazilian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journalism Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bronte Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Brookings-Wharton Papers on Financial Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Brumal. Revista de investigación sobre lo Fantástico     Open Access  
Bulletin for Spanish and Portuguese Historical Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bunron : Zeitschrift für literaturwissenschaftliche Japanforschung     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Byron Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Byzantinische Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Byzantion Nea Hellás     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Caderno de Letras     Open Access  
Caderno Seminal     Open Access  
Cadernos de Letras da UFF     Open Access  
Cahiers Balkaniques     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cahiers d'histoire. Revue d'histoire critique     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Cahiers de civilisation espagnole contemporaine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cahiers de littérature orale     Open Access  
Cahiers de Narratologie     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cahiers de recherches médiévales et humanistes     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cahiers du Monde Russe     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cahiers d’études italiennes     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cahiers franco-canadiens de l'Ouest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Callaloo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Carnets : Revue électronique d'études françaises     Open Access  
Catedral Tomada. Revista de crítica literaria latinoamericana     Open Access  
CELEHIS : Revista del Centro de Letras Hispanoamericanas     Open Access  
Cervantes : Bulletin of the Cervantes Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ceræ: An Australasian Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chasqui. Revista Latinoamericana de Comunicación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Children's Literature Association Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Chloe: Beihefte zum Daphnis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Chrétiens et sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cipango     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cipango - French Journal of Japanese Studies. English Selection     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Circe de clásicos y modernos     Open Access  
CLCWeb : Comparative Literature and Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
CLEaR     Open Access  
Cognitive Studies : Études cognitives     Open Access  
College Literature     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Colonial Academic Alliance Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Colorado Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Comparative Critical Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Comparative Literature     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Comparative Literature Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Comparative Mythology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Comunicação & Sociedade     Open Access  
Comunicação e Sociedade     Open Access  
Configurations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Conradiana     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Contemporary Literature     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Contemporary Pacific     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
COnTEXTES     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CoSMo | Comparative Studies in Modernism     Open Access  
CR : The New Centennial Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Criticism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Criticón     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Cuadernos AISPI     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Ilustración y Romanticismo     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Rusística Española     Open Access  
Cuadernos LIRICO : Revista de la Red Interuniversitaria de Estudios sobre las Literaturas Rioplatenses Contemporáneas en Francia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuban Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Cultura de la República : Revista de Análisis Crítico (CRRAC)     Open Access  
Cultures et conflits     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Narratives     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Current Writing : Text and Reception in Southern Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
De Signos y Sentidos     Open Access  
De Zeventiende Eeuw. Cultuur in de Nederlanden in interdisciplinair perspectief     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature Yearbook     Hybrid Journal  
Diagonal : Zeitschrift der Universität Siegen     Hybrid Journal  
Dialektika : Jurnal Bahasa, Sastra, dan Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra Indonesia     Open Access  
Diálogos Latinoamericanos     Open Access  
Dialogues : An Interdisciplinary Journal of English Language Teaching and Research     Open Access  
Dicenda. Cuadernos de Filología Hispánica     Open Access  
Dickens Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Diegesis : Interdisziplinäres E-Journal für Erzählforschung     Open Access  
DIGILEC : Revista Internacional de Lenguas y Culturas     Open Access  
Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları     Open Access  
Discours     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dix-Neuf     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Doblele : Revista de lengua y literatura     Open Access  
Drammaturgia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dublin James Joyce Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Dutch Crossing : Journal of Low Countries Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
e-Journal of Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
E-rea     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
e-Scripta Romanica     Open Access  
e-Spania     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
e-TEALS     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early American Literature     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Early Modern Culture Online     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Ecotone     Full-text available via subscription  
Ecozon@ : European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
EDGE - A Graduate Journal for German and Scandinavian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Educação & Linguagem     Open Access  
Educación, Lenguaje y Sociedad     Open Access  
EID&A : Revista Eletrônica de Estudos Integrados em Discurso e Argumentação     Open Access  
Eighteenth-Century Fiction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
El Hilo de la Fabula     Open Access  
ELH     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
ELOPE : English Language Overseas Perspectives and Enquiries     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Eltin Journal : Journal of English Language Teaching in Indonesia     Open Access  
Emily Dickinson Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
En Líneas Generales     Open Access  
Encyclopedia     Open Access  
English in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
English in Aotearoa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
English in Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
English in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
English Literature in Transition 1880-1920     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
English Studies in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
English Text Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
English Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
English: Journal of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Englisia Journal     Open Access  
Enthymema     Open Access  
Entrelaces     Open Access  
Entrevous : Littérature organique     Full-text available via subscription  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ESC: English Studies in Canada     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Escritura e Imagen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Eslavística Complutense     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ESQ: A Journal of the American Renaissance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Essays in French Literature and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Estudios de Literatura Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4     

Journal Cover
3L : Language, Linguistics, Literature
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.251
Number of Followers: 23  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0128-5157
Published by Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Homepage  [11 journals]
  • Patterns and Causes of Deviations in English Verbal Inflectional Suffixes
           among Thai ELF Learners

    • Authors: Napasri Timyam
      Abstract: This study investigates the use of three verbal inflectional suffixes, i.e., the present tense -s, the past tense -ed, and the progressive -ing, among Thai ELF learners. It examines how they deviate from ENL norms and the causes of deviations are analysed. Data were taken from the academic writing of 116 English-major students at a university in Bangkok. The results showed that Thai ELF learners who have advanced and upper-intermediate level English knowledge and skills have acquired the ability to use these three suffixes, but they sometimes deviate from ENL norms. They tend to omit the -s ending when there is a long distance between the main subject and main verb, when there is a heavy subject containing a head and pre-/post-modifiers, and when the subject appears as a structurally complex category. They often omit the -ed ending when there are several past tense verbs in a sentence. They extend the use of the progressive aspect to talk about a general truth or habit which is typically expressed by the present simple tense in ENL. Results suggest that linguistic and functional causes are responsible for these deviations. Thai ELF learners use the zero forms of present and past tense verbs as a result of both syntactic complexity and the pragmatic motives of the efficiency of communication as well as the exploitation of redundancy. They use progressive verbs with general truths or habits due to the attractive form and meaning of this aspect and also the pragmatic motive of added prominence.   Keywords: Thai ELF learners; deviations; the present tense -s; the past tense -ed; the progressive -ing  
      PubDate: 2018-03-28
      DOI: 10.17576/3L-2018-2401-01
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Incorporating Research-based Teaching Techniques in E-learning to Teach
           English Articles

    • Authors: Edward Gillian, Robert Lew
      Abstract: This article presents evidence about research-based teaching techniques that aided making the e-learning tool designed for this research more effective than traditional teaching methods when teaching English articles (e.g. ‘a’, ‘an’, and ‘the’). The techniques employed were: Master’s binary schema, explicit instruction, chunking, and direct feedback.  Master’s binary schema (Master 1988, 2003) is an easy-to-grasp and detailed method of teaching English articles. Explicit instruction is the provision of clear and simple instruction of specific target structures (Troia & Graham 2002); in this study, the focus is on English articles. Chunking is the splitting of longer instructions into smaller segments for easier processing (Coufal 2002). Direct feedback for written texts is when responses are placed above, below, or near the inappropriate target structure to guide students towards appropriate use of structures (Bitchener & Knoch 2010). The main study results strongly indicated that the e-learning tool was more effective than the traditional teaching techniques employed in this study. For the overall results by stage and group, the e-learning group achieved significantly better results than the control group.  The main study results provide valuable quantitative evidence about the research based teaching techniques incorporated into the e-learning tool for English article usage teaching and for the effectiveness of e-learning in the English grammatical structure teaching. Keywords: English articles; e-learning; CALL; language pedagogy; English language; Game-Based Learning
      PubDate: 2018-03-28
      DOI: 10.17576/3L-2018-2401-02
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Eliza Haywood’s Empathy: Creating a Narrative Discourse of Her Own

    • Authors: Lyudmyla Lutsenko
      Abstract: Based on Suzanne Keen’s theory of narrative empathy, this article shows a variety of narrative techniques employed by the famous eighteenth century English woman writer, Eliza Haywood, in the amatory novel of intrigue “Idalia, Or, The Unfortunate Mistress” (1723) to evoke the reader’s empathy. They include character identification, an excessive conflict paradigm, narrative voice, focalization as well as the narrator’s intrusion, known in narratology as metallepsis. The narrative analysis leads to the conclusion that from the addressee-orientated perspective the author creates an ambassadorial emphatic discourse that enables her to communicate thoughts to other members of the women’s community with a view to involving them in the experience of the main character who is vulnerable to sexual desire and betrayal. By doing so, Haywood pursues the goals of not only exercising women readers in “fellow- feeling” but acquiring knowledge about themselves through empathizing, and influencing attitudes to a woman’s limited role in society as well. Keywords: Eliza Haywood; narrative empathy; character identification; narrative situation; ambassadorial narrative strategy
      PubDate: 2018-03-28
      DOI: 10.17576/3L-2018-2401-03
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Influence of Language Learning Anxiety on L2 Speaking and Writing of
           Filipino Engineering Students

    • Authors: Jonathan Veran Macayan, Edward Jay Mansarate Quinto, Julius C. Otsuka, Allyzsa Bernadette S. Cueto
      Abstract: Feelings of anxiety, apprehension, and nervousness remain a prevailing phenomenon in learning a second or a foreign language. This explanatory sequential research examined the influence of language learning anxiety on students’ second language (henceforth L2) writing and speaking performance. A total of 162 students in an engineering University in Manila, the Philippines participated in the initial quantitative phase, in which they accomplished a self-developed scale adapted from Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope’s (1986) Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) to fit the context of the present investigation. Speaking and writing scores from an institutional English language test were also used as measures for the outcome variables. The analyses of variance yielded significant results for both anxiety on speaking [F(2,162)=43.35; p=0.00; hp2 =0.35] and anxiety on writing [F(2,162)=10.73; p=0.00; hp2=0.12]. The findings on the influence of language learning anxiety on speaking corroborate previous studies that found high levels of anxiety to have debilitative impact on L2 speaking. Interestingly, however, the influence of anxiety on writing reflects the less frequent facilitative impact of anxiety on language abilities found in a very small number of studies in the literature. Therefore, in the consequent, qualitative phase, the researchers conducted semi-structured interviews among nine, purposefully selected respondents and focused on the factors explaining the dissimilar influence of anxiety on L2 speaking and writing. Results exposed the double-edged nature of anxiety within the study’s context. On one hand, social comparison-instigated anxiety debilitated speaking task performance. On the other, grade anxiety facilitated constant correction, which aided the engineering students in writing task performance. Besides implication for research, the pedagogical implications of the results in relation to teaching engineering students as learners of English are provided.  Keywords: language learning anxiety; facilitative anxiety; debilitative anxiety; engineering students as learners of English; explanatory sequential
      PubDate: 2018-03-28
      DOI: 10.17576/3L-2018-2401-04
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • English Orthographic Depth among Malay Learners at a Primary School

    • Authors: Khairunnadiah Mohd Samuddin, Pramela Krish
      Abstract: This study concerns the spelling difficulties in English as a second language among young Malay learners. The objectives of this study are to identify and categorise the spelling errors produced by these learners and to investigate the linguistic factors for the error productions. This study employs Wardhaugh’s Contrastive Analysis as the main approach and Orthographic Depth Hypothesis as the foundation of the research. The Contrastive Analysis approach indicates that the linguistic differences between L1 and L2 may cause difficulties in L2 learning. The theoretical basis of this study claims that the degree to which an orthography deviates from easy one-to-one letter-sound plays a major role in L2 learner’s spelling performance. This study adapts a spelling assessment from El-Dakhs and Mitchell that tests students’ phonological, orthographic and morphological awareness and knowledge. The sample of this study consists of 46 eleven-year-old Malay students from a selected school in Selangor. The data for the study was gathered from the subjects’ responses in the assessment and interviews with selected students based on their test scores. The findings showed that the learners’ spelling performance was poorer in the orthographic tasks and better in the morphological and phonological tasks, suggesting the salience of orthography in the early stage of L2 learning. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that educators employ orthographic, phonic-based and form-meaning approaches in their teaching to enhance their students’ spelling proficiency so as to assist their students in their literacy development.  Keywords: English language; Malay language; morphology; orthography; phonology; spelling; young Malay learners 
      PubDate: 2018-03-28
      DOI: 10.17576/3L-2018-2401-05
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Alerters in Malay and English Speech Act of Request: A Contrastive
           Pragmatics Analysis

    • Authors: Marlyna Maros, Nurul Syafawani Halim
      Abstract: This study focuses on the speech act of requests, specifically on the alerters. An ‘alerter’ refers to the discourse feature used in initiating a conversation or the getting attention of the hearer. Request as a speech act is much investigated for its Head Acts and Supportive Moves, however, alerter as one of its initial discourse features has not been much looked into. In the context of contrastive pragmatics study on the Malay language in Malaysia, the study of alerters in request has yet to be explored. Hence, the aim of this study is as follows: 1 - to classify the Malay categories of alerters by Malaysian Malay speakers, and 2 – to compare them with alerters in the English language. The participants consist of 400 native speakers’ of Malays from a central city and a rural area, aged between 12 to 56 years old, and varied in social backgrounds. The data was collected via Discourse Completion Task within a span of 3 months, and also coded and analysed using the framework of Cross Cultural Speech Act Realization Project (CCSARP) by Blum-Kulka & Olshtain (1984). The findings revealed 10 categories of alerters by Malay speakers. The findings also indicated similarities and differences in the categories of Malay alerters and English alerters which could be the result of intercultural fusion in the sociopragmatis of doing requests within English, and the languages in Malaysia with the Malay language. Keywords: Alerters; English Requests; Malay Requests; Sociopragmatics competence; contrastive pragmatics 
      PubDate: 2018-03-28
      DOI: 10.17576/3L-2018-2401-06
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Examining the Oral Communication Strategies Used by a Group of Nepalese
           Adult Learners in an ESL Context

    • Authors: Brendalyn Agtarap Manzano
      Abstract: This paper sought to examine the oral communication strategies (CSs) used by a group of Nepalese adult learners in an oral task in an ESL context. There has been a long history of CS studies in L2 acquisition research; however, there are no studies yet reporting the CSs employed by Nepalese learners in an ESL context. Hence, six Nepalese learners with intermediate language proficiency were engaged in a picture storytelling task. Their narrations were recorded and transcribed, and their responses during the interview were elicited. Four significant results were revealed. Firstly, the Nepalese learners experienced a considerable amount of communication difficulties as manifested by various gap markers. To overcome these problems, the learners simultaneously used a variety of non-verbal CSs alongside verbal CSs. Secondly, linguistic errors were abound in their narrations but were ignored due to their communication goal. Hence, there are areas of communication (e.g., vocabulary and sentence structure) where the learners were having trouble, and these concerns should require instructional attention. Thirdly, the majority of the verbal CSs were avoidance strategies while most of the non-verbal CSs were achievement strategies. Lastly, examining the CSs used by the learners paved the way to culture-based strategies that were employed during storytelling. These CSs provided new inputs to the existing CS frameworks used by English language learners. Implications for language teaching and learning as well as future research are discussed. Keywords: oral communication; communication strategies; gap markers; Nepalese adult learners in an ESL context; culture-based strategies
      PubDate: 2018-03-28
      DOI: 10.17576/3L-2018-2401-07
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • The Effect of Type of Paragraph on Native and Non-native English
           Speakers' Use of Grammatical Cohesive Devices in Writing and
           Raters' Evaluation

    • Authors: Mahboobeh Saadat, Sahar Zahed Alavi
      Abstract: The present study examined the use of grammatical cohesive features in two types of paragraphs (chronologyvs. cause-effect) written by EFL learners and native speakers. In addition, the study investigated if the use of grammatical cohesive devices affected raters' evaluation of the paragraphs written by the EFL learners. To investigate the non-native speakers’ performances, 60 paragraphs) 30 cause-effect and 30 chronology paragraphs) written by 30 intermediate Iranian EFL learners were examined. Furthermore, to investigate those of native speakers, 20 paragraphs (10 cause-effect and 10 chronology paragraphs) were randomly selected from among the sample paragraphs presented in books teaching paragraph writing written by English native speakers. To analyze the data, Halliday and Hasan's (1976) taxonomy of cohesive devices was used, and MANOVA was conducted. To investigate raters’ judgments, four raters were asked to rate the paragraphs written by six randomly selected learners. The results showed that EFL learners more frequently used reference, conjunction, ellipsis and substitution, respectively in their chronology and cause-effect paragraphs. However, in their paragraphs of chronology, native speakers more frequently used reference, conjunction, ellipsis and substitution, respectively whereas in their paragraphs of cause-effect, they frequently used reference, conjunction, substitution, and ellipsis, respectively. A comparison of the performance of native speakers and non-native speakers revealed that native speakers used more reference in their paragraphs than non-natives did. As for raters’ judgments, the findings indicated that cohesion in the paragraphs was generally ignored by some raters. Keywords: Paragraphs of chronology and cause-effect; Grammatical cohesive devices; Native and non-native speakers; Raters
      PubDate: 2018-03-28
      DOI: 10.17576/3L-2018-2401-08
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Tasks in Explicit L2 Pronunciation Instruction: FonF vs. FonFS in
           Improving Phonemic Accuracy and Comprehensibility

    • Authors: Farhad Tabandeh, Ahmad Moinzadeh, Hossein Barati
      Abstract: The effects of focusing second/foreign language (L2) learners’ attentions on phonological forms while communicating in meaningful discourse has recently attracted attention in L2 pronunciation research. One such treatment is focus-on-form (FonF) instruction wherein L2 learners practice and notice pronunciation features in communicative tasks rather than in decontextualized exercises and drills (i.e., focus-on-forms [FonFS]). Given this, the current study investigated the differential effects of FonF and FonFS instructions on improving Iranian English as a foreign language (EFL) learners’ pronunciation of the most problematic English consonants. After identifying the problematic English consonants (i.e., /θ/, /ð/, /w/, /ŋ/) via remedial and expert judgment approaches, 45 pre-intermediate learners embarked on an 8-hour course. The experimental group received FonF, the comparison group received FonFS, and the control group had a free conversation class minus any feedback on the target consonants. Learners’ pronunciations were measured in terms of phonemic accuracy and comprehensibility in controlled and spontaneous tasks. The results of immediate and delayed post-test for phonemic accuracy revealed that whereas both FonF and FonFS were equally effective in controlled tasks, only FonF instruction proved effective up to the delayed post-test in spontaneous tasks; no such improvements, however, were observed for the control group. Results also showed that improvements in phonemic accuracy led to overall comprehensibility enhancements in EFL learners’ speech. The article concludes with some pedagogical implications of the findings.     Keywords: Comprehensibility; FonF; FonFS; L2 pronunciation; phonemic accuracy 
      PubDate: 2018-03-28
      DOI: 10.17576/3L-2018-2401-09
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • E.X.P.E.R.T. Role Play Technique for Workplace Readiness

    • Authors: Rozmel Abdul Latiff, Zarina Othman, Khaidzir Ismail
      Abstract: Role plays and the instructional methods which take place in traditional classroom context do not hinder learners from actively and meaningfully engaging the role of an expert naturally and realistically. The majority of the employers indicated that most fresh graduates are not ready to enter the job market as they lack the command of the English language, as well as communication skills and other workplace related skills. This paper presents how “E.X.P.E.R.T” role play technique is used in an academic English course classroom to address the concerns of workplace readiness among the fresh graduates.  The researchers employed an in depth qualitative study through written reflections to capture the experiences, and insights of undergraduates at one of the Malaysian public universities. A total of nineteen   learners from the Faculty of Health Sciences took part in this study. The findings indicate that E.X.P.E.R.T. technique promotes a more dynamic and up-to- date learning approach in equipping learners with the essential employability skills. It also highlights the teacher’s pedagogical role in employing the “E.X.P.E.R.T” role play technique.  Keywords: Employability; “E.X.P.E.R.T”; role play technique; engaging; workforce
      PubDate: 2018-03-28
      DOI: 10.17576/3L-2018-2401-10
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Workplace Writing in L2 Experiences Among Millennial Workforce: Learning
           to Write in English

    • Authors: Nurul Kamalia Yusuf, Melor Md Yunus, Mohamed Amin Embi
      Abstract: The challenges confronted by the Millennial workforce across the transition from higher education to workplaces are well acknowledged globally. Institutions of higher learning (IHLs) have a responsibility to prepare graduates to become a functional workforce. Among the real-world skills to be taught is workplace writing, which is fundamental in work organizations. This paper aims to explore learning to write in English for the workplace as experienced by millennial workforces. A descriptive phenomenological research design was employed in order to gain an in-depth understanding of the Millennial workforce’s lived experiences in workplace writing. Seven of them were selected based on a set of criteria. A two-tiered method of interviews was employed to establish the context, relay specific details of the participants’ experience and contemplate the meaning of their experiences. In addition, self-portrait descriptions were used to triangulate the data. The findings revealed that the millennials experienced both learning for and about workplace writing in both settings: IHLs and workplaces. They further revealed the practicality of English writing and business writing courses they had taken at IHLs. They have also experienced learning at their workplace through participating in trainings, social interaction, first-hand experiences and intrinsic motivation. These findings can be used as an instructional guideline for ESL workplace writing courses in IHLs. The appropriate instructions and contents could be convenient not only to improve teaching and learning but also promote a more meaningful learning to the graduating students which in turn, creates a powerful workforce who is able to command by today’s workplace standards.  Keywords: workplace writing English; millennials; phenomenology; learning about work; learning at work
      PubDate: 2018-03-28
      DOI: 10.17576/3L-2018-2401-11
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • New Norms of Gender and Emergence of Identity Crisis in Margaret
           Atwood’s The Handmaid's Tale

    • Authors: Sayyed Rahim Moosavinia, Tayyebeh Behvand Yousefi
      Abstract: Using Butler's theory of gender performativity and her analysis of the psychic form of power, this paper attempts to show how the modification of gender by power in Margaret Atwood's The Handmaid's Tale has resulted in an identity crisis in the female protagonist, Offred. One significant aspect of the totalitarian regime of Gilead is its gender hierarchy that is further consolidated through sex discourse. Sex in Gilead turns into a privilege granted only to men of high social status. Men are presented as normal sexual beings, whereas women are entirely excluded from this discourse. Femininity in Gilead translates into invisibility, modesty and silence. Women are regarded as being sexually neutral and are reduced to means of reproduction. Offred, who has lost her voice and agency in this society, attempts to create her own narrative through which she can exercise her resistance. However, the lack of consistency and her inability to adjust herself to the new values and norms result in an identity crisis, which is represented through her sense of melancholia and the obvious inconsistencies in her values. Keywords: Gender Study; Power; Subjection; Performativity; Discourse
      PubDate: 2018-03-28
      DOI: 10.17576/3L-2018-2401-12
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 1 (2018)
       
 
 
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