Subjects -> LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE (Total: 2248 journals)
    - LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE (940 journals)
    - LANGUAGES (312 journals)
    - LITERARY AND POLITICAL REVIEWS (201 journals)
    - LITERATURE (GENERAL) (171 journals)
    - NOVELS (12 journals)
    - PHILOLOGY AND LINGUISTICS (593 journals)
    - POETRY (19 journals)

LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE (940 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 1 - 127 of 127 Journals sorted alphabetically
19 : Interdisciplinary Studies in the Long Nineteenth Century     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
3L : Language, Linguistics, Literature     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
A Cor das Letras     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
a/b : Auto/Biography Studies : Journal of The Autobiography Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
AALITRA Review     Open Access  
AbeÁfrica : Revista da Associação Brasileira de Estudos Africanos     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Abgadiyat     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Abril : Revista do Núcleo de Estudos de Literatura Portuguesa e Africana da UFF     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abusões     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ação Midiática : Estudos em Comunicação, Sociedade e Cultura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACME : Annali della Facoltà di Studi Umanistici dell'Università degli Studi di Milano     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acquisition et interaction en langue étrangère     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Baltico-Slavica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Humana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Literaria     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Neophilologica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Orientalia Vilnensia     Open Access  
Acta Universitatis Lodziensis : Folia Litteraria Rossica     Open Access  
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae     Open Access  
Actio Nova : Revista de Teoría de la Literatura y Literatura Comparada     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ad Americam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Afluente : Revista de Letras e Linguística     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AFRREV IJAH : An International Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Akademos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Akra Kültür Sanat ve Edebiyat Dergisi / Akra Journal of Culture Art and Literature     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aksara     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aksara : International Journal of Indonesian Literature     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alea : Estudos Neolatinos     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ALED : Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios del Discurso     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aletria : Revista de Estudos de Literatura     Open Access  
Algazarra : Revista do Centro de Pesquisa Comunicação e Cultura : Barroco e Mestiçagem     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alpha (Osorno)     Open Access  
Altralang Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Amasya Üniversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
América sin Nombre     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Book Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Philology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Literary Realism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
American Literature     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Anagramas : Rumbos y Sentidos de la Comunicación     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anales Galdosianos     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anàlisi : Quaderns de Comunicació i Cultura     Open Access  
ANAPHORA : Journal of Language, Literary and Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Âncora : Revista Latino-Americana de Jornalismo     Open Access  
andererseits : Yearbook of Transatlantic German Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aniki : Revista Portuguesa da Imagem em Movimento     Open Access  
Annales islamologiques     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ANTARES (Letras e Humanidades)     Open Access  
Anuari de Filologia. Llengües i Literatures Modernes     Open Access  
Anuario     Open Access  
Anuário de Literatura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario Lope de Vega. Texto, literatura, cultura     Open Access  
Ao Pé da Letra     Open Access  
Appalachian Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Arabia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arbitrium     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
arcadia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archivum     Open Access  
Arethusa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Argumentation et analyse du discours     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arizona Quarterly: A Journal of American Literature, Culture, and Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
ArReDia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ars Aeterna     Open Access  
Artelogie     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arthuriana     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Artl@s Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arts et Savoirs     Open Access  
Asia Minor Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asia Pacific Translation and Intercultural Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Asiatic : IIUM Journal of English Language and Literature     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atalanta : Revista de las Letras Barrocas     Open Access  
Atalaya     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ateneo Korean Studies Conference Proceedings     Open Access  
Atlantis : Journal of the Spanish Association for Anglo-American Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aturá : Revista Pan-Amazônica de Comunicação     Open Access  
Australian Journal of French Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Literary Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Slavonic and East European Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Azalea: Journal of Korean Literature & Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Babel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Bahasa dan Seni : Jurnal Bahasa, Sastra, Seni, dan Pengajarannya     Open Access  
Bahastra     Open Access  
Balkanologie : Revue d'Études Pluridisciplinaires     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Barnboken : Journal of Children's Literature Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Barnelitterært forskningstidsskrift     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BASINDO : Jurnal Kajian Bahasa, Sastra Indonesia, dan Pembelajarannya     Open Access  
Belas Infiéis     Open Access  
Bergen Language and Linguistics Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Beyond Words     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biblioteca Escolar em Revista     Open Access  
Bibliotheca Dantesca : Journal of Dante Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bingöl Üniversitesi Yaşayan Diller Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Biography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Black Camera     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Black Women, Gender & Families     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Boletim de Pesquisa NELIC     Open Access  
Boletín Galego de Literatura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Book History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 168)
Bookbird: A Journal of International Children's Literature     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Brasil/Brazil     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brazilian Journalism Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bridging Cultures     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British (Jurnal Bahasa dan Sastra Inggris)     Open Access  
Bronte Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Brookings-Wharton Papers on Financial Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Brumal. Revista de investigación sobre lo Fantástico     Open Access  
Bulletin De L' Association Thaïlandaise Des Professeurs de Français     Open Access  
Bulletin for Spanish and Portuguese Historical Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bunron : Zeitschrift für literaturwissenschaftliche Japanforschung     Open Access  
Byron Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Byzantinische Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Byzantion Nea Hellás     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Caderno de Letras     Open Access  
Caderno de Squibs : Temas em estudos formais da linguagem     Open Access  
Caderno Seminal     Open Access  
Cadernos de Letras da UFF     Open Access  
Cadernos de Tradução     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos do IL     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cahiers Balkaniques     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cahiers d'histoire. Revue d'histoire critique     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Cahiers de civilisation espagnole contemporaine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cahiers de littérature orale     Open Access  
Cahiers de Narratologie     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cahiers de recherches médiévales et humanistes     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Cahiers du Monde Russe     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cahiers d’Études Germaniques     Open Access  
Cahiers d’études italiennes     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cahiers d’Études sur la Représentation     Open Access  
Cahiers franco-canadiens de l'Ouest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
caleidoscópio: linguagem e tradução     Open Access  
Callaloo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of European and Russian Studies     Open Access  
Carnets : Revue électronique d'études françaises     Open Access  
Carte Italiane     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catedral Tomada. Revista de crítica literaria latinoamericana     Open Access  
CAUCE : Revista Internacional de Filología, Comunicación y sus Didácticas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CELEHIS : Revista del Centro de Letras Hispanoamericanas     Open Access  
Cervantes : Bulletin of the Cervantes Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ceræ: An Australasian Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chasqui. Revista Latinoamericana de Comunicación     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Children's Literature Association Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Chinese Semiotic Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Chinese Studies Journal     Open Access  
Chrétiens et sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencies. Cartafueyos Asturianos de Ciencia y Teunoloxía     Open Access  
Cipango     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cipango - French Journal of Japanese Studies. English Selection     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Circe de clásicos y modernos     Open Access  
Claraboia     Open Access  
CLCWeb : Comparative Literature and Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
CLEaR     Open Access  
Cognitive Studies : Études cognitives     Open Access  
College Literature     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Colonial Academic Alliance Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Colorado Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Communication and Culture Online / Komunikacija i kultura     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Comparative Critical Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Comparative Cultural Studies : European and Latin American Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Comparative Literature     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Comparative Literature Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Comparative Mythology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Comunicação & Sociedade     Open Access  
Comunicação e Sociedade     Open Access  
Comunicación y Género     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Con Texte     Open Access  
Conexión     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Configurations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Conradiana     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Consonanze     Open Access  
Contemporary Literature     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Contemporary Pacific     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
COnTEXTES     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coolabah     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corpus Pragmatics : International Journal of Corpus Linguistics and Pragmatics     Hybrid Journal  
CoSMo | Comparative Studies in Modernism     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CR : The New Centennial Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Cracow Indological Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Criando     Open Access  
Criticism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Criticón     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Cuadernos AISPI     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Ilustración y Romanticismo     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Rusística Española     Open Access  
Cuadernos LIRICO : Revista de la Red Interuniversitaria de Estudios sobre las Literaturas Rioplatenses Contemporáneas en Francia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuban Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Cultura de la República : Revista de Análisis Crítico (CRRAC)     Open Access  
Cultures et conflits     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Current Narratives     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Current Writing : Text and Reception in Southern Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Das Questões     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
De Signos y Sentidos     Open Access  
De Zeventiende Eeuw. Cultuur in de Nederlanden in interdisciplinair perspectief     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Debate Terminológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 5     

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Bergen Language and Linguistics Studies
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1892-2449
Published by U of Bergen Homepage  [8 journals]
  • Introduction

    • Authors: Jon Askeland, Marco Gargiulo, Synnøve Ones Rosales
      Pages: 6 - 6
      PubDate: 2019-11-06
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.2914
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Les âges de George Sand

    • Authors: Fredrik Westerlund
      Pages: 8 - 8
      Abstract: The article discusses ageing and old age in three of George Sand’s texts: Indiana (1832), La Mare au diable (1846) and the first part of the novel Consuelo (1842). I use the first two parts of Pat Thane’s subdivision of age into a corporal, a cultural and a chronological component. In Sand’s fiction, the ageing female body withers, while the male body is worn. There are various reasons behind the decline. If the characters age of worries and trouble, the process can be reversed, and the persons can regain youth – at least partly – when the troubles go away. In a cultural perspective, the living conditions vary substantially between classes, specifically if the characters need to work for their living or not. Among peasants and workers, the tolerance for the age gap between spouses is narrower than in the bourgeoisie. The former risk to encounter poverty and need if the husband grows old sooner than the wife, while an elderly man of the bourgeoisie can marry a young woman in order to preserve her social status. In both classes, characters considered as old, while wise and experienced, do not longer interest anyone. Death is their future, and they ridicule themselves if they initiate long-term projects. Another stereotype, the old fool, appears as well, but in the case of Madame Carjaval, it is a role she plays to protect her niece. Many of the attitudes towards old people still exist today. The main difference vis-à-vis George Sand’s time is that, due to the development of longevity, old age arrives to people later now than in the 19th century.
      PubDate: 2019-11-08
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1441
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • L'autocitation dans la théorie scandinave de la polyphonie
           linguistique (ScaPoLine)

    • Authors: Christian Manga
      Pages: 8 - 8
      Abstract: The present work focuses on the discursive phenomenon of self-quotation, that we define with Rosier (2008, 118) as « the staging of one's own speech or opinion in the service of a specific argument on the mode of recall (I told you that) or performative mode (I tell you that).» Our aim is to study the particular functioning of self-quotation within the Scandinavian theory of linguistic polyphony (ScaPoLine). Depending on whether the self-quotation is in the mode of an earlier saying or a present one, we will postulate a typology of speakers: homogeneous speaker (self-quotation in the present) and heterogeneous speaker (self-quotation in the past).
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1428
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Voyance, chronotopie et intertextualité dans Dora Bruder de Patrick
           Modiano

    • Authors: Helge Vidar Holm
      Pages: 8 - 8
      Abstract: In Dora Bruder, Patrick Modiano gives the following comment on his own novelistic writing: “Like many writers before me, I believe in coincidence, and, sometimes, in the novelist’s gift for clairvoyance - the word ‘gift’ not being the right one, for it implies a kind of superiority. Clairvoyance is simply part of the profession: the essential leaps of imagination, the need to fix one’s mind on detail - to the point of obsession, in fact - so as not to lose the thread and give in to one’s natural laziness. All this tension, this cerebral exercise, may well lead in the long run to ‘flashes of intuition concerning events past and future’, as defined by Larousse dictionary under ’clairvoyance’.” (Dora Bruder (Paris 1997), English edition: The Search Warrant, Harvill Secker, London 2014, p. 47-48). By analyzing some selected passages from this novel, I study some relations between M. Bakhtin’s theory of the chronotope and the effects of the novelist Modiano’s “gift for clairvoyance” as presented in the quotation above. I also comment on some representations of intertextuality and intratextuality in Dora Bruder.
      PubDate: 2019-11-06
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1358
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Migración, espacio y exclusión en 2020 de Javier Moreno

    • Authors: Carolina Leon Vegas
      Pages: 9 - 9
      Abstract: A number of novels about the financial crisis and its consequences have been written in Spain in recent years. In most, migrants are represented in a secondary role, often as short allusions or as mere ornaments. This article aims to highlight one novel, 2020 by Javier Moreno, that breaks that pattern since it features migrant characters in key roles. The article further aims to analyse the relationship between space and the representation of the migrant in the context of a society in crisis. The notions of non-place by Marc Augé and heterotopia by Michel Foucault will serve as the theoretical framework that will allow for an exploration of phenomena such as the inversion of non-places into places, the connection of crisis and deviation, the role of certain spaces as both shelters and containers of the unwanted, the role of gaze in the construction of an exclusion, and the circular movement of powerless characters in time and space throughout the novel.
      PubDate: 2019-12-05
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1456
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Saïd et Genet. La représentation des Palestiniens et la question de
           l’orientalisme chez Jean Genet

    • Authors: Karl Ågerup
      Pages: 9 - 9
      Abstract: During the last two decades of his life, Jean Genet (1910-86) stopped writing novels and plays. Instead he wrote non-fictional stories and essays, many of with depicted Palestinian soldiers and refugees living in Jordan and Lebanon. In this article, Genet’s representation of Palestinians is discussed in the perspective of Edward Said’s orientalism theory. At first sight, the fact that Genet is a Westerner writing in French about a foreign people whose language he does not speak might suggest that he moulds Palestinian reality in order to fit Western thought and Western aesthetics, thereby producing orientalist discourse. However, rather than exploiting the East to strengthen Western identity, Genet uses Eastern reality to undermine Western thought. It is concluded that Genet does not meet Said’s criteria of orientalism since the Palestinians are situated at the centre of his world and occupy a privileged position that surpasses the interests of Western politics, culture, and identity.
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1397
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Familia, género y espacio transnacional en Dime algo sobre Cuba, de
           Jesús Díaz

    • Authors: Fredrik Olsson
      Pages: 10 - 10
      Abstract: Family and intimate relationships across borders is a central topic in migration literature. This article investigates the representation of the transnational family in Dime algo sobre Cuba (1998), by the Cuban writer and filmmaker Jesús Díaz. Written from exile in Spain, the novel is set in Cuba’s “Special Period” of post-Cold War economic crisis and emigration of balseros (‘rafters’). The highly original plot of a twofold perilous voyage between Havana and Miami incorporates elements from both exile literature and undocumented migration narratives, but it also goes beyond the established patterns of these genres. Drawing on transnational family studies and feminist theory, this paper examines how the characters experience the migration process with focus on the internal dynamics of the subjects that comprise the family, their relations to multiple places, as well as the narrative modes of representing these relations. It shows the internal dynamics of the protagonist’s family as a split narrative of dis- and reintegration across political and national borders. It also discusses the lived experience of the double orientation of the migrant subject, facing a lost home(land) as well as a new place which s/he still does not inhabit. The analysis suggests that the process of the reorientation of the migrant subject is articulated as a gendered and sexualised narrative of the intimate relations of the protagonist, intertwined with the narrative of the homeland. However, the ambivalent ending of the novel with its references to cultural hybridity points to an opening where the future of Cuban exile and diaspora lies in the ability to forgive and establish cultural contact across borders.
      PubDate: 2019-12-02
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Collective Motherliness in Italy. Reception and Reformulation of Ellen
           Key’s feminist ideas in Sibilla Aleramo and Ada Negri (1905-1921)

    • Authors: Ulla Åkerström
      Pages: 10 - 10
      Abstract: This paper aims to explore how the Swedish writer Ellen Key’s ideas on collective motherliness and on the relationship between man and woman were received and reformulated in the articles, poetry and prose of Sibilla Aleramo and Ada Negri before and after the First World War. The ideas in Aleramo’s autobiographical novel Una donna (1906) were close to Key’s theories, but her autobiographical novel Il passaggio (1919) was quite different. Ada Negri’s idealistic view of motherhood, as expressed in her collection of poetry Maternità (1904), corresponded to parts of Key’s conception of motherhood, while Negri’s dream of single motherhood and the realisation of that ideal is emphasized in her autobiographical novel Stella mattutina (1921).
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1389
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • The irrational and the shift of human boundaries in contemporary novels by
           Castillon, Martinez and NDiaye

    • Authors: Sophie Guignard
      Pages: 10 - 10
      Abstract: The infiltration of magical, marvellous and fantastic features in novels which have a realist anchoring is a remarkable trend in contemporary literature by women writers in French. In order to reveal the issues conveyed by such an imagery built on various literary traditions, I examine the representations of the irrational in recent novels by three authors: Eux (2014) and Les Pêchers (2015) by Claire Castillon, Du Domaine des murmures (2011) and La Terre qui penche (2015) by Carole Martinez and Ladivine (2013) by Marie NDiaye. I use the term “irrational” as a comprehensive notion referring to the fantastic and supernatural elements in the novels, including altered perceptions, paranormal and strange occurences, metamorphosis, staging of an alter ego, monstrosity and animality in human beings, life-after-death issues, emphasised relations to nature, and other phenomena and states that can not be explained by logic. Formulations of the irrational theme exploit a literary patrimony, related in particular to the traditions of medieval marvellous literature, the fairy tales, fantastic literature, surrealism and fantastic realism. I find that the irrational articulates a shift in human spatiotemporality towards vegetal states, animality or monstrosity, and initiates an altered approach to the world. A displaced sense of reality stemming from irrational phenomena and perceptions leads to a dislocation of human consciousness which is performed through the narrative voices. The framework for the analysis consists of a feminist and posthumanist conceptualisation which involves the notions of ‘performativity’ and ‘traces’ developed by Butler and Derrida.
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1403
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Trayectorias hacia la libertad individual: el uso de la ironía en la
           novela El héroe discreto de Mario Vargas Llosa.

    • Authors: Vigdis Ahnfelt
      Pages: 10 - 10
      Abstract: The present study examines the spiritual development of the main characters in the novel The Discreet Hero (2013) by Mario Vargas Llosa, and the aim is to show how irony provides the reader with reflections upon the meaning of individual freedom. The hypothesis suggests that the characters, representing different social and cultural groups of today’s Peruvian society, try to free themselves from surrounding threats and thereby obtain what Isaiah Berlin (1971) terms negative or positive freedom. The analysis focuses on narrative irony, which operates on three levels of the text: firstly, what it linguistically hides by telling something different, secondly, the discrepancy that emerges between narration and what lies underneath and thirdly, the dialectic ideas that impregnate the text and transmit the ambiguity of the work (Tittler 1984). Ethical irony, according to which the characters of narrative are incoherent figures that pursue coherence (Handwerk 1985), is also included. The study shows that irony problematizes in what ways the characters perceive individual freedom. All of them experience negative freedom, which emerges when authorities fail in their support and protection of the citizens despite political and economic freedom. In order to obtain positive freedom, individual ethical and social responsibility, knowledge of self and cultural refinement are essential. Through irony, it becomes clear that positive freedom depends on a democratic society and individual values.
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1576
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • La Guerra civil española como tema en la novela gráfica actual

    • Authors: José María Izquierdo
      Pages: 11 - 11
      Abstract: The Spanish civil war and its postwar period remain two of the most important historical references of present-day Spain. Along with themes of strictly political nature addressing that period of time and with the negative aspects of the transition to democracy, themes of memory and postmemory (Hirsch 1992 / Liikanen 2015) appear. Both are closely related to – although not only to – the silencing of the victims of the mentioned historical periods. By this, I am referring to the ones defeated and to the next of kin of the disappeared.   Despite the famous affair of the so-called “gentleman’s agreement”, the “amnesia”, the “forgetfulness” or the “silence” of the democratic transition, a variety of narrative works have emerged in recent history; literary works that in various manners have the Civil War and Franco’s posterior dictatorship as topics or common threads in their narrations[1]. The consolidation of a new literary subgenre of hybrid characteristics combining the mode of narration found in novels and the specificities of the comic strip is a novelty in the context of Spanish literature. Although already canonized in the 1970’s in the United States (Eisner, 1978), the subgenre emerged in Spain during the end of the 1990’s. With the turn of the century, a new vision of the Spanish cartoon arrived: it was no longer fundamentally limited to the sphere of children, of satire, or of short comic strips in newspapers. With an expanded format, it began addressing the adult public. In the selection of graphic novels that I am presenting, there are various narrative strategies and aesthetics elaborated from accounts from the Civil War, and its prolongation in the Second World War, by authors who were not protagonists in the real-life events themselves and whom I include within the wide concept of postmemory. The prevailing ideas in all the texts are as follows: the necessary recuperation of the memory of the Civil War, the presentation of the present as a result of the past and the importance of knowing the points of view of the defeated in order to update the cultural identities of the territorial sphere of the Spanish state
      [1] I have already presented one such work during the «Romanist XV» « Escribir de Oídas: Final literature of the memory of the Spanish Civil War and its postwar period” (2012).
      PubDate: 2019-12-03
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1443
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Ekphrasis et figura dans le texte michonien

    • Authors: Sonia Lagerwall
      Pages: 11 - 11
      Abstract: Pierre Michon’s postmodern writing oscillates between the sacred and the simulacrum, the sensible and the intelligible. It prompts the reader’s immersion into the text in order to make literature a force that acts. The present article examines this textual specificity in the light of ekphrasis and figura. It argues that Michon revives the rhetorical tradition (ekphrasis) and the Christian tradition (figura) to guide the posture of the reader and establish an aesthetics of performativity, mobilizing an old paradigm (enargeia) where vision is a highly valued sense. The article offers a succinct reading of Abbés (2002).
      PubDate: 2019-12-02
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1482
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Los trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda, historia setentrional de Miguel de
           Cervantes: Estado de la cuestión y su actualidad para hispanistas
           nórdicos

    • Authors: Randi Lise Davenport
      Pages: 11 - 11
      Abstract: Miguel de Cervantes’ posthumous novel, Los trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda, historia setentrional, published in 1617, has in the past decades received renewed attention from Cervantes scholars. This article gives an overview of the main perspectives of current research at the 400th anniversary of the novel that the author himself considered his literary testament. It concludes offering some brief reflections on its particular relevance for Nordic hispanists.
      PubDate: 2019-11-21
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1406
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Voix, silences et colonialisme

    • Authors: Jorunn Gjerden
      Pages: 11 - 11
      Abstract: Asking whether silence necessarily equals oppression, and (giving) voice necessarily assures agency, Jorunn Svensen Gjerden’s paper examines voices and silences related to colonial power structures in three francophone literary texts belonging to different historical periods and geographies. In her seminal essay “Can the subaltern speak'”, Gayatri Spivak shows that the pitfalls of colonial and/or gendered epistemic violence are difficult to avoid when speaking on behalf of others. In a similar vein, Édouard Glissant paradoxically suggests that dilemmas of invisibilisation may best be resolved by way of other forms of silence, arguing that the right to psycho-cultural opacity ensures the integrity of individuals through the formation of non-assimilative relationships. Against this backdrop, Gjerden analyses La Vénus Hottentote, ou Haine aux Françaises, a Parisian vaudeville from 1814, which thematises the Khoisan woman Sara Baartman’s performances as the ‘Hottentot Venus’ in Paris the same year. The play constitutes an extreme case of colonial silencing and stereotypical othering that comes across as purely instrumental and therapeutic for its French audience at a moment of national humiliation and division. However, when read alongside J.M.G. Le Clézio’s Le Chercheur d’or (1985) and Kamel Daoud’s Meursault, contre-enquête (2014), two postcolonial novels that in different ways focus on the role of silence for allowing every voice to be heard in a globalised world, the silencing of the vaudeville lends itself to new interpretations. Arguing that the claimed silence of postcolonial theory and literature may thus offer insights into hidden subversive dynamics of silence in colonial literary texts such as the Hottentot Venus vaudeville, Gjerden calls attention to the play’s latent surprising modernity with regard to issues of identity and multiculturalism.
      PubDate: 2019-11-11
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1462
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Collective motherliness in Spain: Reception and Reformulation of Ellen
           Key’s ideas (1907–1936)

    • Authors: Elena Lindholm
      Pages: 11 - 11
      Abstract: During the early 1900s, Ellen Key's ideas about pedagogy, feminism and child rearing were influential around Europe. The same was true of Spain, although Key herself never visited the country. This article examines how Key's concept of collective motherliness was received and reformulated by Spanish intellectuals from two different generations: the first during the first two decades of the 20th century (1907-1920) and the second during the third and fourth decades (1920-1936). The focus is on works by two authors, each representing their generation of interpreters of Ellen Key: Carmen de Burgos (1867–1932) and Federica Montseny (1905–1994). The interpretation of these authors' texts in the light of Ellen Key's ideas of collective motherliness shows the reception and reformulation of these ideas in Spain changed between the two generations. The first focused more on collective values, such as women's education and patriarchal oppression in society, while the second generation focused more on individual aspects, such as free love and personal development.
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1388
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • L'intraduisible et l'implicite. Frontières ou zones de
           contact en traduction '

    • Authors: Sebastien Doubinsky, Merete Birkelund
      Pages: 11 - 11
      Abstract: The untranslatable and the implicit often represent the two limits of translation - the untranslatable by what can be expressed in only one language, and the implicit by what is not expressed in one language. Phenomena in a constant margin, phenomena in a liminary position (see Jacques Derrida), they overlap several territories, ranging from cultural to linguistic. Between the "nothing is translatable" and the "everything is translatable" delimited by Susan Apter, and the possible or impossible equivalences of Eugene Nida, these two notions are always troublesome, or at least, in motion. Indeed, the definitions themselves are sometimes blurred. What is untranslatable' Does "intraductible" mean inexplicable, unpredictable or incomprehensible' And how can we determine the implicit, since it is, above all, an absence, a meaning that lies beyond or below the text' However, despite this apparent absence, the transfer of the unsaid can be translated, but often by other linguistic means than those used in the source language. Since languages (in this context French and Danish) are not isomorphic, translation remains intimately linked to this reality. The task of the translator is to know how to transmit the combination of the implicit and the explicit, but also to try to explain what at first sight seems untranslatable in order to respect the (implicit) intention of the discourse of the language source.
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1414
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Montée aux médias sur fond de scandale : Le cas de Soumission de
           Michel Houellebecq

    • Authors: Ugo Ruiz
      Pages: 11 - 11
      Abstract: The article questions the dynamics of the contemporary literary scandal through the controversy caused by the novel Submission (2015) by the French writer Michel Houellebecq. This novel seeks to provoke the reader by staging a scenario that plays on the fears of Islam. The study focuses on a TV interview with Houellebecq at the Journal de France 2, on January 6, 2015, the day before the publication of the novel. The analyse shows that the journalist aims to bring out the writer’s personal point of view, which is likely to enhance the desirable polemic, whereas the writer remains evasive asserting the autonomy of literature. From this performance on the media scene, one can observe the constructed character of literary polemics of today, where the transgression becomes the pretext to attract public attention. This new logic of literary polemics seriously questions the possibility of real scandals to arise in literature.  
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1427
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • La littérature à l'épreuve du réel : les jeux de Pascal Quignard
           avec les Lettres

    • Authors: Xavier Martin
      Pages: 11 - 11
      Abstract: The novel Les Larmes, by French writer Pascal Quignard, takes place in the ninth century, two twin brothers make totally different choices of life. Hartnid is always on the go. His twin, Nithard, is a pure scholar. His life is devoted to language. It is precisely his involment in language that allows him to write something that was never written before. He writes the Serments de Strasbourg (English: Oaths of Strasbourg, Latin: Sacramenta Argentariae) in 842, first written marks of a language that will become the French language. This novel offers a unique opportunity to sketch a thought on the ability of literature to speak about our relationship to reality.   The first part of the article questions the gesture of the novelist who acts on himself and on reality when writing, he really tries to change the world. The second part of the article studies the notion of realism and shows how Quignard finds a place in the history of literature that, today, stays away from realism, but, maybe, in order to better track down reality. Finally, in order to grasp the specificity of the Works of Quignard, my interest in the aesthetic of Les Larmes is threefold: its complex structure, the fascination for origin that it shows and, the question of identity and splitting with the twin brothers Hartnid and Nithard. The article concludes on the ability of artists to anticipate in their creations and, in advance, to tell about events that will occur in the future. 
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1431
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • De l’utilité des théories linguistiques et littéraires lors d’un
           procès d’écrivain : L’exemple du procès intenté à la romancière
           française Christine Angot

    • Authors: Nathalie Hauksson-Tresch
      Pages: 11 - 11
      Abstract: Christine Angot claims the right to feed her novelistic universe mainly with facts from her real life. This radicalism earned her a conviction in court, on May 27, 2013, for violation of private life in the novel Les petits. She was convicted for turning a real recognizable person of her entourage, into an unflattering novel character. The Parisian Court found that Les petits, could not be described as a "novel", despite the assertions of the author and her publisher, and despite the fact that it is presented to the public with the qualification “novel” in the paratext. This position seems extreme in so far as the magistrates choose to ignore the notion of genre, a notion still fundamental today. One can, as a matter of fact, argue that the genre should be considered constitutive of the meaning, and accept that the interpretation depends on the genre, that it is genre-bound. To that extent, to simply discard the notion of genre seems unacceptable. To counter the reasoning of the Court, Angot develops a certain number of arguments that will be addressed using the theories of Genette, Searle and Cohn. We will come to the conclusion that by taking into account literary and linguistic theories, and therefore the manner in which an eventual breach in privacy occurred, the Court could have made a fairer and more readily accepted decision, or at least one more in accordance with the rule of proportionality expected in every democracy.  
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1445
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Insegnare italiano attraverso la storia. L’approccio CLIL e il peso di
           conoscenze pregresse e curriculum di studio nella definizione del rapporto
           tra contenuto e lingua

    • Authors: Moreno Bonda
      Pages: 11 - 11
      Abstract: This article considers problematic aspects of the CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) approach to the teaching of historical subjects in a foreign language. Specifically, the teaching of history of the Mediterranean region in a monolingual class of learners of Italian as foreign language is examined as a case study. The main lexical areas developed during four years of bachelor studies in Italian philology are compared with the main lexical competences actually required in the Lithuanian job market for translators specialized in Italian language. The incongruences between the competences required by employers and those developed at university constitute the base for a discussion about the validity of several CLIL precepts. Firstly, the CLIL principle that the content (the subject) should always determine the teacher’s lexical choices, and generally, the teaching language, is challenged. As an example, the teaching of history in Italian would impose the use of passato remoto tense, which in the job market seems to be almost unnecessary. Secondly, the author challenges the idea that the list of topics should be determined independently from other factors such as the type of audience. On the contrary, a preliminary evaluation of student’s prior knowledge permits to define topics capable of stimulating certain cognitive and communicative abilities coherently with the requirements of the job market. In the conclusions, the author claims the whole four-years study curriculum should be considered in order to define the aims of a CLIL course. Secondly, in a monolingual class, a survey of student’s prior knowledge is fundamental to determine the series of topics presented in a CLIL module. Finally, it does not seem necessarily true, that the subjects discussed must determine the register and lexical choices of the teacher.    
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1455
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • La fonction communicative d’énoncés déclaratifs utilisés dans
           l’interrogation totale ‒ une étude contrastive français/norvégien

    • Authors: Marianne Hobæk Haff
      Pages: 11 - 11
      Abstract: This paper discusses the communicative function of declarative sentences used as polar questions in French and Norwegian: (1a) - Inger Holter jobbet i en bar' (1b) -  Inger Holter bossait dans un bar ' These two sentences are similar concerning the subject-verb order, the ascending intonation curve, and the choice of lexical morphemes. In both languages, they are declarative sentences used to ask questions. More precisely, we are dealing with polar questions marked by intonation only. The way sentences such as (1a) and (1b) are used in actual texts shows that they do not have the same communicative function. The Norwegian speaker expects his assumption to be confirmed by the listener, maybe with a hope of getting more information. The French example, on the other hand, admits two different interpretations, and it is the context of the utterance that decides. It can be a request for information, in which the speaker has no preconceived idea of what the answer will be. Alternatively, the interpretation can be the same as in Norwegian if a modal particle or adverb is added, as in Inger Holter bossait dans un bar, n’est-ce pas'   
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1471
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • La notion de transfert appliquée au français comme langue
           étrangère

    • Authors: Hans Petter Helland
      Pages: 12 - 12
      Abstract: Our main objective in this paper is to show how linguistic properties can be transferred from one system to another. Consequences of transfer are evaluated, both positive and negative, for the acquisition of possessives in French L2 or L3 by Norwegian learners. We take as a starting point a comparative description of the possessive systems in French and Norwegian and examine interlanguage grammars of adult learners of French both in a Norwegian university setting and in an immersion context. On the basis of results from production-comprehension tests we can predict and explain interlanguage errors in the students' L2-grammar (negative transfer) using comparative grammatical constraints (reflexive-irreflexive contrasts, binding constraints, explicit marking of the possessor, orientation towards the possessor or the possessum, etc.). We can also predict cases where the learners make fewer errors or no errors at all (positive transfer). In this way we are able to measure the importance of transfer, both negative and positive, for the acquisition of French as foreign language by Norwegian adult learners.
      PubDate: 2019-11-18
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1469
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Ante la indiferencia: Representaciones visuales que reafirman cómo la
           decepción utópica se vuelve distópica

    • Authors: Hólmfríður Garðarsdóttir
      Pages: 12 - 12
      Abstract: Faced with indifference: Visual representations that endorse utopian expectations turning dystopic. Every year, in an attempt to reach the United States, hundreds of thousands of undocumented migrants from Central America cross Mexico atop freight trains that are referred to by names such as “The Beast” or “The Train of Death.”  Driven by extreme economic conditions, civil unrest and violence in their home countries, and, in some cases, the desire to reunite with relatives already living in the United States, adult individuals, families, and even unaccompanied children and adolescents embark on this perilous journey. In doing so, they risk falling victim to abuse, extortion, sexual assault, and other forms of violence at the hands of brutal gangs, organized crime, and corrupt officials. Many lose their lives.  This study examines various aspects of the passage of undocumented Central American migrants through Mexico, viewing the situation from the perspective of human rights violations and social exclusion. It addresses the specifics and realities of the migrants’ dangerous journey north, and reviews the main factors that lead these people, who are mostly from El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras, to leave their home countries in search of better conditions and a chance to live what they regard as the American Dream. The experiences of Central American migrants have been the subject of several documentary films which provide both a narrative and visual representation of the journey north through Mexico. This study will analyze a series of documentaries as well as the feature films Sin nombre (2009) y La jaula de oro (2013) and consider whether the films accurately illustrate the harsh realities that undocumented migrants face while attempting to reach the United States and the extent to which they provide insight into their lives and experiences.
      PubDate: 2019-11-14
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1449
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • The adaptation of three Manchette néo-polars to
           Machette-Tardi’s graphic novels

    • Authors: Maarit Mutta, Andrea Hynynen
      Pages: 12 - 12
      Abstract: Cultural adaptations have existed for a long time (Hutcheon & O’Flynn 2013). This article discusses adaptation from one narrative genre, the textual néo-polar crime novel, to another, multimodal comics. It explores three of Jean-Patrick Manchette’s néo-polars that have been adapted by Jacques Tardi to three graphic novels: Ô dingos, ô châteaux! (Folle à tuer), Le petit bleu de la côte Ouest and La position du tireur couché. The analysis suggests that Tardi remains attached to the fidelity paradigm while he also exploits characteristic features of comics, and his own personal style. While Tardi seemingly wishes to be respectful to his former friend Manchette’s novels, he creates adaptations that can be read without prior knowledge of the adapted works and which function as independent graphic novels in a recognizable Tardian style.
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1412
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Moravia l’africano delle Storie della preistoria

    • Authors: Ewa Nicewicz-Staszowska
      Pages: 12 - 12
      Abstract: In 1976 Alberto Moravia, then sixty-nine years old, won the Andersen Prize for the Mustafà, la volpe del Sahara, his first children’s tale. Then followed the stories about others humanized animals, first published in the “Corriere della Sera” and in the various editions of selected stories, and later collected in the volume Stories of Prehistory (1982), which brought Moravia the Viareggio Prize in 1983. Apart from the deep affection that Moravia felt for animals and nature in general, that form of narrative has its roots in the numerous African journeys he undertook since 1962. For Moravia, the Black Continent, “the most beautiful thing that exists in the world”, was an artistic discovery and an “antidote to the highly refined, sophisticated and mechanical civilization”. Africa, a place “still amid prehistory and history”, was for him – as in some respects it was for Pasolini – the depository of primordial values in the process of disappearing, due to the imminent industrialization. In the Stories of Prehistory Moravia speaks of those universal values, always opposed to the vices, and views them through curiosity that is usually inaccessible to adults. His children’s tales – always funny, sometimes hilariously merciless – occupies a separate position within the oeuvre of the Roman writer and gained him many fans. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of those aspects of Moravia’s work which have not been reflected yet and are still very relevant today.
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1415
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Étendue du vocabulaire et compréhension écrite – le français à
           l'université en Suède

    • Authors: Mårten Ramnäs
      Pages: 12 - 12
      Abstract: This paper investigates the amount of French vocabulary needed to read (with reasonable comprehension) three authentic novels used in a first semester course of French at a Swedish university. The analysis applies the concept of lexical coverage and uses the frequency lists of Lonsdale & Le Bras (2009). The counting unit is the lemma. This study also examines the common French word list used in all Swedish universities offering French degrees. The results show that 7 000 to 9 000 lemmas will provide the 98 % coverage needed for reasonable comprehension. This is at least twice the 4 000 lemmas contained in the university list. The results therefore point to the necessity of including a vocabulary component also in higher-level French courses.
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1430
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • La (dé)nomination du « peuple français » par Emmanuel Macron et Marine
           Le Pen Débat de l’entre-deux-tours du 3 mai 2017 : une étude lexicale
           et sémantique

    • Authors: Françoise Sullet-Nylander, Malin Roitman
      Pages: 12 - 12
      Abstract: In the proposed article, the authors investigate how the candidates to the French presidential elections, Emmanuel Macron and Marine Le Pen, named their fellow citizens, what types of denominations the two candidates used when referring to the French people during the TV-debate which took place in May 2017. The authors have carried out several discourse analytic studies on the final debate of the French presidential elections (Sullet-Nylander & Roitman 2010a, 2010b, 2011 and 2016). This new study deals with the concepts of denomination and/or nomination within a discourse analytic framework based on theoretical models and definitions by Kleiber (2001) and Siblot (2001). The identification of “les paradigmes désignationnels” (Charaudeau & Maingueneau 2002: 415) enables the collection of relevant semantic and lexical information related to this specific genre and discourse type. The analyses are quantitative and qualitative as well as comparative (between the two candidates). The following research questions are addressed: How do both candidates refer to French people during their exchanges' Do the differences in the frequency of a particular denomination depend on the political orientation of the candidates' What electoral strategies can be linked to these (de)nominations'    The results show several differences between the two candidates, one of which the most salient being Marine Le Pen’s use of the lexeme “compatriotes” while Macron prefers “concitoyens”.  
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1432
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Une ville vue par des étudiants en mobilité. Etude discursive de
           l’appropriation cognitive d’un nouvel espace urbain

    • Authors: Marge Käsper, Anu Treikelder
      Pages: 12 - 12
      Abstract: The article explores how foreign students discover and experience the space of their hosting city, as reflected by their discourse about the common landmarks and places of the urban space. Our study concerns a specific social group that is in-between a local inhabitant and a tourist staying only a short time in a city – students in the situation of mobility. To study in what ways these students talk about the city, how they position themselves in respect of its space, adopting different viewpoints, we analyze, by a series of interviews conducted with them, how their discourse reveals the process of the appropriation of the hosting space. We examine first how the cognitive appropriation process of a city space is reflected in students’ discourse in general, in what elements it appears and also how it is constructed and developed during the interview. We focus then on the answers to the question concerning a postcard representing Tartu where the discourse of students reveals the best the in-between status of the foreign students, standing between an exterior observer and an “expert” of the city. The most explicit fluctuation between the viewpoints is reflected in personal pronouns use, the more implicit ways are observed in the ways of describing the places, and in the argumentations about the discussed postcard. Furthermore, we also point out the impact of the interview as a disposal for interviewed persons to think about these spatial relations for themselves and for their perception of space in general. 
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1442
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Associations évoquées par le changement climatique chez des citoyens
           français et norvégiens

    • Authors: Kjersti Fløttum, Øyvind Gjerstad, Endre Tvinnereim
      Pages: 12 - 12
      Abstract: Communication related to climate change as well as to its consequences constitutes a major challenge; all the more so since climate is a non-observable phenomenon, in stark contrast to the weather. In this perspective, language plays a crucial role in the conceptualisation and the framing of climate change discourse. In this paper, French and Norwegian data stemming from representative surveys in the two countries are compared. The participants are asked to answer an open-ended question concerning their conceptions of the expression “climate change”. The French data are collected from a survey undertaken in 2016 by ELIPSS at the Sciences Po (Institut d'études politiques de Paris). The Norwegian data are generated from a survey undertaken in 2013 by the Norwegian Citizen Panel/DIGSSCORE, at the University of Bergen. The answers are first analysed through a semi-automated structural topic modeling (STM) and then assessed through an in-depth manual evaluation. Further linguistic and enunciative analyses are undertaken of a selection of the respondents’ answer provided by the surveys. Given the difference in the energy mix of the two countries, different associations are expected to appear from the French and the Norwegian participants. At the same time, with the common global dimension of climate change, it seems reasonable to expect some similar associations concerning the reality of the changes, the consequences and the measures of adaptation or mitigation proposed or undertaken by the two countries. These issues are discussed within the theoretical frame of enunciation, including perspectives related to concession in a polyphonic perspective and to deontic modality.  
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1444
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Rousseau et Diderot, deux postures de légitimation face à
           l'espace public

    • Authors: Anne Elisabeth Sejten
      Pages: 12 - 12
      Abstract: The quarrel between Rousseau and Diderot – these inseparable friends only to become enemies – constitutes a legendary topos of philosophical breaks-ups over-shadowed by wicked slander. If Rousseau’s famous Letter to d’Alembert in 1758 traces his growing disagreement with the inner circle of encyclopaedists, further confrontations seem lost in mean accusations that discredit both sides. However, when digging a little deeper in the texts on both sides, it is not only possible to reconstruct different views about philosopher’s morality, but also to relate to the complex nature that characterised the public sphere in eighteenth century France. The purpose of this paper is exactly to examine the respective positions of Rousseau and Diderot as distorted voices in a society, in which the public sphere was actually more private than public. The first part of the study draws on the German philosopher Jürgen Habermas’ seminal work on the transformation that affected the public sphere along European bourgeois countries in quite different ways during the eighteenth century. French salon culture and its essentially private spaces urged Rousseau and Diderot to invent original writing strategies in order to justify themselves. The second and major part of the paper, accordingly aims at analysing their literary choices, Rousseau in reinventing the autobiographical approach, Diderot by writing on the Roman stoic philosopher Seneca. Both philosophers are extremely aware of the need to protect their philosophical legacy and, in doing so, each is eventually playing the role of the contra-model of the other when facing the question of moral and intellectual integrity.  
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1472
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Lingua e spazio urbano a Roma nel racconto di Ettore Scola. Il caso di Una
           giornata particolare (1977)

    • Authors: Marco Gargiulo, Antonio Catolfi
      Pages: 12 - 12
      Abstract: This article aims to focus on two main aspects of Rome urban space vision and representation through Ettore Scola’s filmography: on the one hand, we try to decode the interconnections between languages and cinematic architectural space and, on the other hand, we intend to disclose how Scola meant to create a connection between his personal cinematic narrative and the tangled urban space in the city of Rome. Our investigation is mainly focused on the so called “urban village” Palazzo Federici, a town within the city, which is the A Special Day and The Story of a Poor Young Man’s main location. Palazzo Federici is an architectural complex of 400 dwellings designed by architect Mario De Renzi and built between 1931 and 1937; it is an ideal place to describe a hive shape building, with a squared structure inspired to a small fortified town, with a central courtyard and an empty fountain, that can represent the different faces of the suffocating fascist regime. The interrelation between the social and the architectural structures and between the mental and urban space anatomies are evident in these two films. Palazzo Federici is a protagonist in the story narrated during the visit of Hitler in Rome, the 6th May 1938, the Special Day when Antonietta (Sophia Loren) and Gabriele (Marcello Mastroianni) meet, and it leads the characters as a dark set for the Story of a Poor Young Man where it describes the drama of human solitude and desperation in a labyrinthine urban environment in Rome.  
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1561
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • La atenuación mediante la partícula discursiva ¿eh' en el lenguaje
           adolescente de Madrid

    • Authors: Annette Myre Jørgensen
      Pages: 13 - 13
      Abstract: The discourse particle eh has a high frequency in the Madrid teenage talk. The different functions this short particle displays in the interaction, as for instance: calling upon the hearer’s attention, demanding approval or asking for a repetition of what is said, or hedging is worth some attention. One of the many functions attributed to this particle is the hedging one, especially when there are utterances containing speech acts conveying orders, critics and recriminations, which could imply a face threat. This paper will therefore describe the hedging function of the final interrogative ¿eh' in the oral speech among Madrid teenagers. Hedging is a pragmatic strategy by which the speaker minimizes the effects of the utterance. It can have impact on different elements in the communicative process: the message, the speaker, the hearer and the relation between both. Although teenagers are not known for their tendency to soften the content and effect of their sayings, there are several utterances among the Madrid teenagers that present a certain hedging through the particle ¿eh' in a final position. The examples used in this study are extracted from the Corpus Oral de Lenguaje Aolescente, COLA-corpus (http://www.colam.org/), which contains spontaneous, informal teenage (13 to 19 years) talk from Madrid. There are more than 5000 concordances with ¿eh' displaying a wide array of functions in different positions in the utterance. The cases that have ¿eh' in a final position and a hedging function have been selected for the analysis of this paper.
      PubDate: 2019-12-12
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1435
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Cartas privadas y actitudes lingüísticas en España y América durante
           los siglos XVIII y XIX. Algunos problemas en el modo de acceso al objeto
           de estudio

    • Authors: Manuel Rivas Zancarrón
      Pages: 13 - 13
      Abstract: Together with an oral manifestation put into practice by tradition since birth, necessity drove ordinary people to develop the ability to speak with an absence of the self, the you and the communicative situation. Initially, it was the emigration to America, promoted by the miseries of a decadent homeland, which contributed to the development of a textual genre of urgency, without literary retensions, which in later years became a sign of good education on the part of those using it. With this work, we review the methodological pitfalls that are hidden when accessing this type of object. We analyse the difficulties that might be found by researchers when facing these documents from a philological point of view and from the sociolinguistic view of the attitudes of the speakers—both implicit and explicit. The concept of “discursive tradition” will act as a methodological moderator and will allow the construction of a bridge between diachronic Sociolinguistics and Language History in the recovery of oral remains from the speech of the 18th and 19th centuries in Spain and America.
      PubDate: 2019-12-04
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1361
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Dos estructuras simbólicas del mito de la Quintrala: la bruja y la
           femme fatale

    • Authors: Jasmin Belmar Shagulian
      Pages: 13 - 13
      Abstract:   Catalina de los Ríos y Lisperguer, best known as Quintrala, is a historical figure of the Chilean Colonial period. Within Chilean culture, she became a myth that developed into a literary character variously portraited as a witch, a murderer, and a parricide. To this day, these remain the portraits that have been reproduced in the literary narrative about the character. In this work I will analyse the symbolic structures of the witch and the femme fatale, which are essential and reiterative in the construction of the narrative discourse about this literary character. For this purpose, I have chosen the figurative structuralism that views a literary text as a sermo mythicus, that is to say, as a myth in which symbolic structures are a part of the mythical discourse advocated by this theory; this kind of discourse is likewise a fundamental and inherent component of the myth of Quintrala that has not been studied as such. This work aims to examine these symbolic structures embedded in the myth of La Quintrala by analysing and comparing Gustavo Frías’ latest novels, Tres nombres para Catalina: Catrala (2001) and Tres nombres para Catalina: la doña de Campofrío (2003), the work of Magdalena Petit, La Quintrala (2009), that of Mercedes Valdivieso, Maldita yo entre las mujeres (1991), as well as the historical essay Los Lisperguer y la Quintrala by Benjamín Vicuña Mackenna ([1877] 1944) in order to establish the existence through time of a rewriting and a transfiguration of the symbolic structures in these literary works.
      PubDate: 2019-12-02
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1433
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • No me banco la gente así. Un estudio comparativo del uso de palabras
           coloquiales y malsonantes en conversaciones informales en tres comunidades
           de habla hispanohablantes

    • Authors: Eli-Marie D. Drange
      Pages: 13 - 13
      Abstract: The present article aims at describing and comparing the use of slang words and swearwords in teenage talk from three different Spanish speaking communities. The analysis builds on spontaneous teenage conversations from the corpus of teenage language Corpus Oral de Lenguaje Adolescente (COLA). This corpus contains informal conversations from Madrid, Buenos Aires and Santiago de Chile; and for this study one conversation from each city has been selected. The aim of the analysis is twofold, in the first place to describe and compare the slang words and swearwords registered in the three conversations, and secondly to study the pragmatic functions of these words. The analysis of the slang words shows that there is variation in the informal words and expressions used in the three communities, and that these expressions seem to be mostly regional. Regarding the swearwords used, there are similarities in the three communities. There are also similarities in the pragmatic functions of the slang words and swearwords in context. The conclusions that can be drawn from the analysis, is that the Spanish speaking communities have a common system regarding how the slang words are used, but each community uses their creativity in developing words and expressions. For swearwords, the system and the words used are more similar, which might indicate that the communities share the cultural aspects that are reflected in the swearwords.
      PubDate: 2019-11-15
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1502
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • La polyphonie discursive : un modèle ancré sur la ScaPoLine et
           le dialogisme

    • Authors: Francis Badiang Oloko
      Pages: 13 - 13
      Abstract: The present work is intended as a contribution to the development of a discourse polyphony approach. Polyphony in language studies can take different meanings depending on the various approaches as Nølke, Fløttum, and Norén (2004) report. There has been a proliferation of perspectives and approaches to multivoicedness since the early works of Ducrot (1984). Ducrot himself was largely inspired by Genette's theses as well as by Bally's works. The link between him and Bakhtin's legacy is not as direct as it seems with literature (Nølke 2017). It is quite the opposite with dialogism theory (Bres 1999). The latter appears to draw more directly from Bakhtin (Dendale and Coltier 2006). Some of the approaches to multivoicedness are described as linguistic due to their focus on language features solely. Others on the other hand transcend the limits of language and integrate contextual information. Gjerstad (2011) is the first attempt to develop a model of polyphony whose focus is beyond mere linguistic features. His discourse polyphony approach takes into account intentionality and the interactive nature of speech. This was achieved  through the combination of the ScaPoLine approach with dialogism and the Geneva Model. The present contribution bridges from Gjerstad’s (2011). However, it limits the scope to the blending of the ScaPoLine and dialogism. After answering the question about the relevance of a discourse polyphony approach, this article offers a description of its scope, and the consequences of the incorporation of contextual elements into the polyphonic configuration taken up from the ScaPoLine. The result is tested on two concrete examples. If the conclusions to these examples approve the need for a discourse polyphony approach, its implementation requires some flexibility to match the dynamic nature of discourse also. Similarly, the relevance of context must be looked at with great caution.
      PubDate: 2019-11-14
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1362
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • PANTERA: a parallel corpus to study translation between Portuguese and
           Norwegian

    • Authors: Diana M S M P Santos
      Pages: 13 - 13
      Abstract: This paper presents an on-going project, PANTERA, which deals with the Portuguese-Norwegian language pair. The PANTERA project aims a) to identify all translations ever published between the two languages Portuguese and Norwegian, and b) to make a sample of each available and searchable for the study of translation between the two languages in the PANTERA parallel corpus. After describing the methodology and processing used to create the corpus, I discuss briefly its contents from a translation studies perspective, and proceed to give examples of its actual use in the context of linguistic and cultural studies, ending with its possibilities as a teaching aid. The particular subjects discussed are the concept of respect in the two languages, the semantic field of body parts, and the identification of possessive datives and null objects in Portuguese. The translations into Norwegian are used to demonstrate complex syntactic phenomena based on contrastive patterns.
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1372
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Le système pronominal du français louisianais

    • Authors: Francine Girard Lomheim
      Pages: 13 - 13
      Abstract: This paper discusses the pronominal system of Louisiana French, a variety of French spoken mainly in the south-western part of Louisiana State. The analysis of data (Girard Lomheim, 2016) shows that although Louisiana French clitics share certain features with clitics from other informal varieties of French and dialects of French, they cannot be analysed along quite the same lines. They have reached a more advanced stage of grammaticalization. They are moving away from the status of syntactic argument towards the status of agreement marker. The fact that they are subject to strong phonetic erosion and have been gradually replaced by weak pronouns shows that they are coming closer to the ultimate stadium of their grammaticalization cycle (van Gelderen, 2011), the null stadium. The progressive reduction of the clitic paradigm is accompanied by the emergence of a new class of weak pronouns, which leads us to claim that the pronominal system of this vernacular is organized in three classes of pronouns: strong pronouns and two classes of deficient pronouns: weak pronouns and clitics in the terms of Cardinaletti et Starke (1994 and 1999). We claim that the difference between strong and weak pronouns should be addressed in terms of syntax and morphology whereas the difference between weak pronouns and clitics should be accounted for in terms of morphosyntax and phonology.  
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1437
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • À la frontière entre simultanéité et contraste – traduction de
           marqueurs de simultanéité, de contraste et de concession

    • Authors: Maria Svensson
      Pages: 13 - 13
      Abstract: This article examines the hypothesis that the use of these French markers alors que and tandis que is more generalized in an adversative and concessive context than the use of the Swedish markers medan et samtidigt som, similar to the French markers concerning their syntactic function and semantic value of simultaneity. The aim of the study is to identify different tendencies in the translation of the French markers alors que and tandis que and the Swedish markers medan and samtidigt som, which can all be considered to be ambiguous and have a double function. Their temporal signification of simultaneity has developed in an adversative or a concessive use. Our hypothesis is however that these markers are at different stages in the procedure of grammaticalisation, and that the French markers can more easily occur in a purely adversative or concessive context. This study, based on the occurrences of these markers in two bidirectional corpora including texts of specialist literature, ParaFraSe-HumSam (Svensson 2010), and novels, Corpus Parallèle Suédois-Français : version 2010 (Andersson 2007 ; Hellqvist 2015), shows a tendency to make explicit the adversative or concessive relation when translating the French markers tandis que and alors que, especially in the case of alors que. A difference in the use of verb tense in the clauses linked by the French and the Swedish conjunctions can also be confirmed; the French conjunctions sometimes link clauses in different verb tenses, which is rare in the case of the Swedish conjunctions medan et samtidigt som. This difference could indicate different levels of grammaticalisation of these conjunctions.
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1440
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Que faire de (la mort de) Pompée ' Analyse poétique et politique
           d’une tragédie double

    • Authors: Gudrun Kristinsdottir-Urfalino
      Pages: 13 - 13
      Abstract: This article proposes a double analysis, poetic and political, of the tragedy La mort de Pompée (The Death of Pompey, 1644) by Pierre Corneille. It shows the bold construction of Corneille who crosses two intrigues: an Egyptian one (what to do with the arrival of Pompey') and a Roman one (what to do with the death of Pompey'). The French poet lends to Caesar, faced with the head of Pompey, a double reaction, worked by the tension between the joy of the defeat of his adversary and the magnanimity that he must manifest to hope to restore civil peace. By inventing a confrontation, absent from the historical sources, between Caesar and Cornelia, he introduces the question of the conditions of the end of the civil war. It thus appears that the poetics of the play unfolds a political thought. Corneille highlights the threat that imperial conquest outside Rome poses for civil peace.
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.2574
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • La elección de las formas de tratamiento en las páginas de tiendas
           online: Un recorrido por el mundo hispano

    • Authors: Ilpo Kempas
      Pages: 14 - 14
      Abstract: The article deals with the choice of Spanish forms of address on online web stores. It focuses on the choice between informal (tú/vos) and formal address (usted), studied empirically using a corpus created with Google searches.  In the context of an online web store, the aim is to build enough confidence in the potential buyer so that they end up buying the product offered even when the seller is not physically present and the customer does not have an opportunity to examine the product. Moreover, payment is done online, which often involves certain risks.  Both tuteo/voseo and ustedeo include elements aimed at building confidence in the potential customer, though from different perspectives. When the customer is addressed with tú/vos, the aim is to build confidence including a nuance of familiarity in the sales discourse. By contrast, ustedeo includes nuances of politeness and formality, and conveys the hidden message that since the online web store addresses the customer in a correct and respectful manner, the same good practices also extend to purchase situations.  The article presents results and conclusions related to the following research questions:  the general features of the use of forms of address on online web stores; the forms of address on the online web stores in the 21 Spanish-speaking countries of the world; the forms of address in Spanish texts on US online web stores, and pages on which the potential customer is addressed with usted.
      PubDate: 2019-11-18
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1339
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • De apelativos y calificadores en español

    • Authors: Cristina Illamola, Emma Martinell Gifre
      Pages: 14 - 14
      Abstract: In this article, we will deal with forms whose function within the discourse is basically to qualify (in general, they are essentially attributes) and whose proliferation responds to a need that goes far beyond linguistic issues, since a group of social factors must be taken into consideration. Thus, we will examine pieces that can be defined as qualifying adjectives (cateto/cateta, cenizo/ceniza), as derived nouns (bocazas), as nouns bearing a metaphorical value (cobaya, tesoro), as nominalized adjectives (rubiales. frescales), as well as those that respond to an appealing function (tronco, enano) or others that come from cultural traditions (adán, ídolo, judas). After, we present our starting hypotheses: 1) the ending -a, as a carrier of reference to 'woman', is diluted in the heterogeneity of considered forms; 2) the role of the article (el/la, un/una) is decisive in the presence of these forms; 3) newly formed forms coexist with old forms; and, above all, 4) in the use of these appreciative forms there does not seem to be awareness of a woman/man reference emanating from the end in -a or -o, or any other. To corroborate them, we have selected around forty voices and examined their use and prevalence in the online versions of CORDE, CREA, CORPES XXI, various editions of Diccionario de la lengua (RAE) and Diccionario inverso de la lengua española. Finally, the analysis leads us to affirm that, in the use of these nominal forms, the endings in -e, -i /-is or -o to apply to a female referent are not rejected, nor, on the contrary: many forms ending in -a do not know a transformation into –o to apply to a male referent. Moreover, the language avoids any possible ambiguity with the application of the article, derivation by suffixes or by an attributive structure.
      PubDate: 2019-11-18
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1448
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • La politique de neutralité dans L’Histoire terrible mais inachevée de
           Norodom Sihanouk

    • Authors: Irma Jóhanna Erlingsdottir
      Pages: 14 - 14
      Abstract: The play The Terrible but Unfinished Story of Norodom Sihanouk, King of Cambodia by Hélène Cixous, and directed by Ariane Mnouchkine at the Théâtre du Soleil in 1987, deals with the systemic failure of a political culture – transcending spatial and temporal parameters – and its genocidal consequences in national and international contexts, as well as individual and collective resistance. The article aims to study the political and geopolitical narrative as well as Cixous’ interpretation of history, with references to the civil war in Cambodia, the Cold War and the Vietnam War. Our approach to the play, which marks the beginning of the collaboration between the director Ariane Mnouchkine and Hélène Cixous, is that of an exploration and contextualization of its political and historical content to show how, in the words of Cixous, it « pollinates » its literary representation. We will analyze the interaction between discourses on traditionalism and modernization, imperialism and resistance, territoriality and exile. This also includes a study of the meaning of space as a « place of memory », since pay particular attention will be paid to the action of the play and the struggles of power, constantly changing places – whether these are interior or transnational – through Phnom Penh, Beijing, Washington, Paris and Moscow.
      PubDate: 2019-11-15
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1451
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • La fanfiction et le FLE : une manière d’enrichir l’enseignement de la
           littérature à l’Université '

    • Authors: Mattias Aronsson
      Pages: 14 - 14
      Abstract: The article presents a project where the concept of fanfiction is introduced in a Francophone literature course taught at Dalarna University (Sweden). The project presented in this study is based on the idea of online communities as an informal learning environment. The corpus consists of material gathered during four semesters, when the fanfiction project was introduced as a course assignment to undergraduate students of contemporary Francophone literature. The results indicate that the use of fanfiction in the University’s formalized learning environment creates some challenges. For instance, the fundamental online principle of anonymity and the use of English as the lingua franca of web-based communities cannot be easily transferred to an academic course where French is the target language – and where the students’ achievements must be assessed and graded by the teacher at the end of the term. Nonetheless, the overall conclusion of the project is positive. In order to write a fanfiction story based on an existing literary work, the students had to appropriate the original oeuvre; in the sense of incorporating it and making it their own. The work process was partly based on the principle of interaction. Thus, a collaborative learning environment was created, where students constructed knowledge and negotiated meaning together – a type of learning very much rooted in the sociocultural tradition.  
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1438
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • La production du schwa par des apprenants suédophones de FLE

    • Authors: Monika Stridfeldt
      Pages: 14 - 14
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the pronunciation of French schwa by Swedish learners of French as a foreign language. The study investigates how the learners deal with schwa deletion (mute e), which is a very frequent phonological process in spoken French, and also how the learners pronounce the schwa when it is not deleted. Thirty learners participated in the first part of the study. Their task was to read and repeat isolated terms from two lists of words and to read a short text. The second part of the study consists of dialogues between ten learners. The results show that many learners have difficulties in pronouncing French schwa correctly. In fact, they often pronounce it as [e] or [ɛ] (e.g. revanche pronounced [ʁevɑ̃ʃ] instead of [ʁəvɑ̃ʃ]). This problem often persists for very advanced learners, even though learners who have spent at least six months in a French-speaking country generally have better results than those who have spent less time in the target culture. However, there is a wide variation among learners and also from one word to another. As to schwa deletion, the results show that the learners delete very few schwas. They make more schwa deletions in conversation than when they read a text, but compared to native French speakers (Lyche 2016), the learners make considerably fewer schwa deletions. Moreover, the learners make very few incorrect schwa deletions, unlike what has been observed among Dutch learners (Nouveau et Detey 2007).  
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1450
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • I germanismi nello spazio linguistico della penisola italica: superstrato
           prodotto dalla migrazione; ambito di analisi diacronica, diatopica, e
           stilistica; strumento per la didattica.

    • Authors: Giovanni Fort
      Pages: 14 - 14
      Abstract: Germanic peoples appear strongly on the stage of history during late antiquity. With the advent of so-called “Barbarian Invasions” (or “folk migrations”, if the perspective is that of the invaders), raids by Germanic tribes gradually turn into migrations of ethnic groups settling in the areas they strike. With the fall of the Empire and the creation of Barbarian Kingdoms, this phenomenon leads to lasting effects on local languacultures. In the Italian peninsula, Goths, Langobards, and Franks, impacted the evolution of vulgar Latin, leaving visible traces in the Italian language. The Germanic element of Italian vocabulary is represented by a multitude of toponyms and anthroponyms; it characterises specific lexical areas, and is observable in basic vocabulary and derivational morphology. These elements (systematically collected within the LEI project) are an extremely interesting object of study, on several levels. In a diachronic perspective: analysing their presence at different stages, and as an instrument for dating. In a diatopic perspective: as a criterion of dialectological analysis, also frequently linked to geosynonyms and so-called “parole bandiera”. (Besides also being a differentiating criterion between romance languages). In a sociolinguistic and stylistic perspective: considering the value of a Latin or a Germanic equivalent, in context. It is moreover ultimately relevant to consider an approach involving Germanic elements in Italian as an effective pedagogical tool. They can prove extremely useful, not only in educating about the history of the languaculture of the Italian peninsula, but also in teaching basic language-competence, and in the expansion of vocabulary, exploiting intercomprehension in learners with a Germanic mother tongue in general, and a Scandinavian one in particular (and vice versa).  
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1454
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Mémoire transculturelle et discours multimodaux sur la migration -une
           analyse exploratoire de l’exemple de la «Jungle» de Calais

    • Authors: Anje Müller Gjesdal
      Pages: 14 - 14
      Abstract: Recent trends in patterns of mobility, and specifically the spatial exclusion of exiles into detention centers and camps, point to an urgent need to re-examine different forms of narratives on migration and exile, and to the representation of transcultural memory in these settings. The article presents a qualitative and exploratory analysis of the visual and linguistic representation of the orthodox church in the Calais “Jungle”. The findings suggest that the representation of the church contributes to the construction of a collective memory, and that recurrent linguistic and visual formulae, or topoï, such as shared traditions and respect for the sacred, contribute to the commemorative function of the texts and images that represent the church. In addition, the analyses indicate that the commemorative function of the church contributes to the development of innovative modes of contestation and solidarity with the exiles.     
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1485
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Stratégies de désignation dans le discours politique catholique et
           protestant pendant les guerres de religion : le tournant décisif de la
           conversion d’Henri IV (1593)

    • Authors: Sophie Yvert-Hamon
      Pages: 15 - 15
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the strategies of designation in the political discourse of Huguenots on the one hand, and Ultra-Catholics on the other hand, during the period preceding and following the conversion of Henry IV (1593). Using Discourse Analysis as a theoretical and methodological framework, this study focuses on how the different actors (parties, the King) are presented in these discourses. The corpus is composed of two texts, both published in 1593. The first one is by the Duke of Mayenne, leader of the Catholic League, and aims to reunify all Catholics within the kingdom in order to annihilate Protestantism. It is written before the conversion of Henry IV to Catholicism and expresses the frustration of Ultra-Catholics at having a protestant king. The second text is by Philippe Duplessis-Mornay on behalf of the Huguenots’ political assemblies. It is a letter addressed to King Henry IV just after his conversion to Catholicism in 1593. This letter expresses the frustration of Huguenots as their protector converted to Catholicism. Analyzing the use of referential expressions according to the constructivist conception of the reference developed by Apothéloz and Reichler-Béguelin (1995), this study considers the referents as discourse-objects and the talking subject as acting on these objects. The study is qualitative and examines the different functions (argumentative, social, polyphonic) of the categorizations and recategorizations in order to underscore the discursive strategies of the authors. This paper argues that there are similarities in the way the different actors are presented in the two texts but that the perspective is essentially religious in the text by the Catholic League whereas the perspective is more political in the text by the Huguenots.  
      PubDate: 2019-11-08
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1464
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Le rapport entre changement et acquisition illustré au moyen du
           système du futur

    • Authors: Jan Lindschouw, Stephanie Kim Löbl
      Pages: 15 - 15
      Abstract: The future tense system in French has undergone important reorganisations during the period from Middle to Modern French. During this period the synthetic future (parlera ‘will talk’) has changed from a system in which it expressed two semantic values to a system in which it expresses one single value. At the same time, the analytic future (va parler ‘is going to talk’) has undergone the opposite evolution having thus expanded its domain of use and covers nowadays a part of the domain formerly belonging to the synthetic future.  At the same time, it is interesting to observe a parallel between the change of the grammatical forms of the future tenses and their acquisition by learners of FLE. Indeed, the learners seem to master the future tense form in progression (i.e. the analytic future) earlier than the future tense form in the process of reduction (i.e. the synthetic future). Furthermore, they tend to use the analytic future as their default form. In this contribution, three major factors are proposed as an explanation of this order of acquisition: 1. The frequency of the future tense forms in the oral and written input that the students receive in and outside the classroom; 2. The transfer from the students’ native language (Danish) which only possesses an analytical future form (will + infinitive); 3. The relation between the form and the function of the two future tenses. Finally, it is discussed to which extent the linguistic forms in the process of reduction should be taught.  
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1439
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Discours médiés par ordinateur et stratégies
           d’adresse

    • Authors: Eva Havu
      Pages: 16 - 16
      Abstract: Generally, interviewers and interviewees address each other by the “traditional” deferential pronoun vous in French oral and written media, whereas in specialized magazines and television programs, tu often seems to be the usual address pronoun (cf. Williams & van Compernolle 2009; Coveney 2010).  However, Internet forums discussing the use of forms of address (consulted in 2015), point out the prevalence of very traditional opinions, contrasting with the above-mentioned observation. In general, less attention has been paid to nominal forms of address. This paper examines the use of pronominal and nominal forms of address in blogs on politics and in forums discussing current political events, that is in two types of Computer-Mediated Communication where the writers lack information about their interlocutor (age, social status, profession…). It shows to what extent their choice is dependent on the type of medium and on the context as well as on the relation between the interlocutors (conflictual, neutral…) and how nominal forms of address accentuate certain aspects of interpersonal relations. It also points out that the generalization of tu in special contexts does not reflect a drastic change in the use of forms of address in general.  
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1404
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Um turista bem moderno: a expressão amazônica de Mário de Andrade na
           literatura e na fotografia

    • Authors: Marcia Caetano Langfeldt
      Pages: 16 - 16
      Abstract: Mário de Andrade (1893-1945) was a Brazilian poet, novelist, literary critic, ethnographer, musicologist, art critic as well as a competent photographer and a dedicated researcher of Brazilian folklore. In 1927, he travelled to the Amazon together with three female friends. During this trip, he published a series of articles in a national newspaper, wrote two diaries, collected notes and finished his most important book, Macunaima, considered the reference of Brazilian Modernism. In addition to that, he took more than 500 photos of the journey, most of them in a very modern perspective. This paper investigates to what extent these various representations of the Amazon contribute to Mario de Andrade’s aesthetic project, as a Brazilian intellectual from the first quarter of the twentieth century,
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1413
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • L’évolution du suffixe –issime : un inventaire et une fréquence des
           formes attestées dans Frantext

    • Authors: Anders Nils Bengtsson
      Pages: 17 - 17
      Abstract: The synthetic superlative -ÍSSIMUS in Latin survived in Italian, whereas it was borrowed in the Romance languages on the Iberian Peninsula and in French during the Renaissance. This suffix has been very frequent in these languages with the exception of French. In this language it has been accepted merely when used in titles. Condemned by grammarians, the suffix has thus been quite rare in French literature. The present study shows however that in the database Frantext, which comprises mostly literary texts, nearly 1,400 occurrences of words with the suffix -issime are found, rarissime and richissime being the most frequent (apart from titles). But with the emergence of new media, it seems that the suffix has become much more frequent in French. These adjectives are found mainly in areas like politics, sports, travels, adult movies and in comments by web visitors as shown in this study.
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1447
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Reescribiendo Casa de muñecas como respuesta crítica a la desigualdad de
           las mujeres durante el franquismo

    • Authors: Iris Muñiz
      Pages: 18 - 18
      Abstract: A Doll’s House [Et Dukkehjem, 1879] is Henrik Ibsen’s best known and most widely performed play. In Spain, it was Ibsen’s first translated play, in 1892, and it has been translated, published, staged and rewritten multiple times since then. The objective of this article is to do a preliminary analysis of the reception of three stage rewritings by Ana Diosdado (1938-2015) and Lucía Miranda (1982- ) that have as a common element their Francoist references that were used to make the plot more relatable for the Spanish audience. Therefore this article studies how the reception and interpretation of A Doll’s House in contemporary Spain has been influenced by the self-perception of the backwardness of the country in relation to women’s emancipation during Francoism, which made the situation of women in that period comparable to that of Nora in 1870s Norway.
      PubDate: 2019-12-02
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v1i1.1487
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Estudio dialectológico perceptual de las Antillas hispánicas

    • Authors: Roxana Sobrino Triana
      Pages: 20 - 20
      Abstract: In this paper I analyzed the Spanish - speaking Caribbean´s dialectal perceptions (Cubans, Puerto Ricans and Dominicans), in order to know the mental delimitation of the linguistic area to which their varieties are circumscribed, the elements through which they distinguish it and the way in which they perceived themselves linguistically in the Spanish-speaking context in general. The analysis has been based on the postulates of Perceptual Dialectology. From the methodological point of view, a questionnaire was applied in the capitals of the three countries in which four questions addressed the linguistic perceptions. The sample was formed from a fixed quota sampling, for a total of 198 informants surveyed in the three countries, of which the variables sex, age and level of education were controlled. Some of the most important concluding ideas of the study are that the Antillean perceive their varieties of Spanish as inserted in a common dialectal space, although with variable limits. In a triangle of relationships, Puerto Ricans and Cubans perceive their respective varieties of Spanish as much closer and more like each other than to the Spanish in the Dominican Republic. Dominicans, on the other hand, show a weaker awareness of the link between the three varieties. As for the differentiating perceptions, is evident a perceptual distance from other variants (such as the Spanish, Colombian, Mexican and Argentine), based on arguments that show the prestige granted to these modalities of language.
      PubDate: 2019-12-10
      DOI: 10.15845/bells.v10i1.1370
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2019)
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 3.215.182.81
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-