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PATHOLOGY (98 journals)

Showing 1 - 98 of 98 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Neuropathologica Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Anatomic Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Clinical Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
American Journal of Dermatopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
American Journal of Surgical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Cytology and Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Diagnostic Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Annals of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Tropical Pathology     Open Access  
Annual Review of Pathology Mechanisms of Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Assessment and Treatment of Child Psychopathology and Developmental Disabilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Basic and Applied Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BMC Clinical Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Brain Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Brain Tumor Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin de la Société de pathologie exotique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Cytopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)
Cardiovascular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Clinical Neuropathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Comparative Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Cytopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Der Pathologe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dermatopathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Diagnostic Cytopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Diagnostic Histopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Diagnostic Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Egyptian Journal of Pathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Experimental and Molecular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Fetal and Pediatric Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Folia Neuropathologica     Open Access  
Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Head and Neck Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Hepatoma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Histopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Human Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Inflammation and Cell Signaling     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Experimental Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Gynecological Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Ophthalmic Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Surgical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Iranian Journal of Pathology     Open Access  
Journal of Clinical & Experimental Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Clinical Pathology and Forensic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Comorbidity     Open Access  
Journal of Comparative Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Cutaneous Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Depression and Anxiety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Diagnostic Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Hematopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Morphological Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Pathology : Clinical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pathology Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pathology of Nepal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physiology and Pathophysiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modern Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Neuropathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal  
Ocular Oncology and Pathology     Full-text available via subscription  
Open Journal of Bacteriology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Pathogenesis     Open Access  
Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Pathology & Oncology Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Pathology - Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Pathology and Laboratory Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Pathology International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pathology Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pediatric and Developmental Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Revista de Patologia do Tocantins     Open Access  
Revista de Senología y Patología Mamaria     Full-text available via subscription  
Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Seminars in Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Surgical Pathology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Ultrastructural Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Патологія     Open Access  
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.997
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 10  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0740-2570 - ISSN (Online) 1930-1111
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3203 journals]
  • Pathology of the Kidney Allograft
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2020Source: Seminars in Diagnostic PathologyAuthor(s): Christopher Metter, Jose R. Torrealba
       
  • TABLE OF CONTENTS (p/u from previous issue w/updates)
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology, Volume 37, Issue 2Author(s):
       
  • EDITORIAL BOARD (p/u from previous issue)
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology, Volume 37, Issue 2Author(s):
       
  • MASTHEAD (p/u from previous issue)
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology, Volume 37, Issue 2Author(s):
       
  • COVER (PMS 180&K) (p/u from previous issue w/updates)
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology, Volume 37, Issue 2Author(s):
       
  • The evolving concept of aggressive histological variants of differentiated
           thyroid cancer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2020Source: Seminars in Diagnostic PathologyAuthor(s): Juan C. Hernandez-Prera
       
  • IgA Nephropathy: A Brief Review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2020Source: Seminars in Diagnostic PathologyAuthor(s): Jared R. Hassler
       
  • Invasion in thyroid cancer: controversies and best practices
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2020Source: Seminars in Diagnostic PathologyAuthor(s): Michiya Nishino, Jack Jacob
       
  • Pathology and genetics of anaplastic large cell lymphoma
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology, Volume 37, Issue 1Author(s): Vasiliki Leventaki, Siddharth Bhattacharyya, Megan S. Lim
       
  • Epstein - Barr virus positive T and NK-cell lymphoproliferations:
           Morphological features and differential diagnosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology, Volume 37, Issue 1Author(s): Ivonne A. Montes-Mojarro, Wook Youn Kim, Falko Fend, Leticia Quintanilla-Martinez
       
  • A Diagnostician's Field Guide to Crystalline Nephropathies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2020Source: Seminars in Diagnostic PathologyAuthor(s): L. Nicholas Cossey, Zeljko Dvanajscak, Christopher P. LarsenAbstractThe kidney's role in filtration of blood and production of urine occurs via a combination of size and charge filtration at the glomerular basement membrane and resorption and excretion of molecules through a complex tubular system embedded within an ion gradient. This delicate system provides the kidney with a unique propensity for substrate saturation and crystal nucleation within the nephron. While crystalline nephropathies may seem exotic to the uninitiated, they are comprised of easily recognizable morphologies and generally lack complicated classification schemas. Additionally, unlike many intrinsic kidney diseases, crystalline nephropathies are often associated with systemic conditions that, upon further investigation, may elucidate critically important information.This review focuses on practical, diagnostically relevant and high yield information that can be utilized by diagnosticians. Our hope is to equip the reader who reviews renal tissue with a practical toolkit that they feel empowered to use when faced with crystal formation in a kidney biopsy, pre-implantation biopsy, or nephrectomy specimen.Short AbstractThe kidney's role in filtration of blood and production of urine provides a unique propensity for substrate saturation and crystal nucleation within the nephron. While crystalline nephropathies may seem exotic to the uninitiated, they are comprised of easily recognizable morphologies and generally lack complicated classification. Additionally, crystalline nephropathies are often associated with systemic conditions that, upon further investigation, may elucidate critically important information.
       
  • A practical approach to the pathology of renal intratubular casts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: Seminars in Diagnostic PathologyAuthor(s): Zeljko Dvanajscak, L. Nicholas Cossey, Christopher P. LarsenAbstractThe identification and proper characterization of pathologic renal intratubular casts can be an arduous task, especially since they often admixed with non-pathologic casts, obfuscating debris and inflammation. The list of pathologic intratubular casts is long, and they can be easily missed or misdiagnosed without a thorough understanding of their pathophysiology and morphologic variety. Correct characterization of tubular casts is important since each cast type has a unique pathogenic mechanism, with specific treatment and prognostic implications.This review discusses the clinicopathologic characteristics of the six most common pathologic casts: light chain, hemoglobin, myoglobin, red cell, neutrophilic and bile casts. We also discuss hyaline and uromodulin casts, the commonly encountered "benign" cast types that share certain histologic features with pathologic casts. We limit the discussion to proteinaceous and cellular intratubular casts, with crystalline casts discussed in a separate review within the same journal issue.While not exhaustive, this review covers pathogenesis, clinical and prognostic significance, and a practical discussion of the histomorphologic spectrum of each cast type, along with commonly encountered pitfalls.
       
  • A New Paradigm for Renal Thrombotic Microangiopathy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2020Source: Seminars in Diagnostic PathologyAuthor(s): Alexander J. Gallan, Anthony ChangAbstractThrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is characterized by thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, results from acute and/or chronic endothelial cell injury, and often manifests with kidney dysfunction. TMA can be observed in a wide spectrum of clinical scenarios, which includes but is not limited to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, hemolytic uremic syndrome, severe (malignant) hypertension, preeclampsia/eclampsia, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, scleroderma renal crisis, drug toxicities, or metabolic disorders. These different conditions are impossible to distinguish based solely on the pathologic findings, necessitating correlation with clinical and laboratory data. For both treating physicians and pathologists, the absence of specific pathologic features for a particular etiology or association with TMA remains a great source of frustration and confusion that currently accompanies this complex topic. In this review, we introduce a new paradigm for TMA that coalesces around the important contribution of the complement system, which has potential implications for therapeutic management, disease recurrence in the kidney allograft, and genetic risks to family members.
       
  • EDITORIAL BOARD (p/u from previous issue)
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology, Volume 37, Issue 1Author(s):
       
  • MASTHEAD (p/u from previous issue)
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology, Volume 37, Issue 1Author(s):
       
  • COVER (PMS 180&K) (p/u from previous issue w/updates)
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology, Volume 37, Issue 1Author(s):
       
  • TABLE OF CONTENTS (p/u from previous issue w/updates)
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology, Volume 37, Issue 1Author(s):
       
  • Membranous nephropathy: A ten-year journey of discoveries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2020Source: Seminars in Diagnostic PathologyAuthor(s): Qi Cai, Allen R. HendricksAbstractMembranous nephropathy (MN) is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. Over the last decade important research discoveries have revealed that most “idiopathic” cases are caused by autoantibodies to podocyte antigens including phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) and thrombospondin type 1 domain containing 7A (THSD7A). In this review, we will discuss the histopathology of primary MN, recent revelations regarding pathogenesis, and ancillary tests.
       
  • Updates in lymph node and skin pathology of adult T-cell
           leukemia/lymphoma, biomarkers, and beyond
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2019Source: Seminars in Diagnostic PathologyAuthor(s): Brian D. Adkins, Juan C. Ramos, Meghan Bliss-Moreau, Alejandro A. GruAbstractAdult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a mature T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder associated with the human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) infection. ATLL predominantly affects individuals within HTLV-1 endemic areas such as Japan, areas of Africa, South America, and the Caribbean. HTLV-1 preferentially infects CD4+ T-cells, and several genetic hits must occur before ATLL develops. ATLL is classically divided into four clinical variants based on manifestations of disease: acute, chronic, lymphomatous, and smouldering. As of 2019, a new subtype has been described: lymphoma type of ATL, extranodal primary cutaneous. In this review, emphasis will be taken to describe the common clinicopathologic manifestations of the disease, advances in biomarker discovery, mutational landscape and targeted therapeutic approaches to treat this highly aggressive and frequently lethal type of T-cell lymphoma.
       
  • T-cell lymphoproliferative processes in the spleen
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2019Source: Seminars in Diagnostic PathologyAuthor(s): Nadine S. Aguilera, Aaron AuerbachAbstractT-cell lymphoproliferative processes in the spleen are rare and it is important to study normal T cell subsets in the spleen to understand the splenic milieu in which they arise. True malignant T-cell processes including hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma and T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia occur in the spleen, but other atypical reactive T-cell proliferations and those of uncertain significance also have been described. Proper distinction of florid T cell responses from malignant T-cell neoplasms has important therapeutic implications for the patient.
       
  • Update on peripheral T-cell lymphomas with T-helper phenotype:  Are there
           too many subtypes'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 December 2019Source: Seminars in Diagnostic PathologyAuthor(s): Miguel A Piris, Socorro M Rodriguez-Pinilla, Carlos Santonja, Isabel Betancor, Ruth Alonso-Alonso, Alejandro A Gru, Marta RodriguezAbstractFollicular helper T (TFH) cells are the providers of T-cell help to B-cells in the development of germinal centers and for the generation of most class-switched antibodies. The markers most commonly associated with TFH activity are IL21, IL4, CD40L, BCL6, SAP, CXCR5/CXCL13, and ICOS. T-cell lymphoma genomic studies have shown that different T-cell lymphoma types express signatures typical for TFH cells, this including angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), a related condition termed peripheral T-cell lymphoma with TFH phenotype and primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder.Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma is a well-established entity, a clinically aggressive disease with a survival of 30% OS after 5 years. Molecular and clinical studies have confirmed this as a well-established clinicopathological entity with relatively specific gene mutations, including mutations found in hematopoietic precursor cells and others.Peripheral T-cell lymphoma with TFH phenotype is an associated disorder with histology of PTCL but a TFH phenotype, as defined by the expression of 2–3 immunohistochemical markers. Molecular studies on this entity are showing a partial overlap with AITL.Primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium lymphoproliferative disorder is an entirely different process that takes place in the skin, showing frank cytologic atypia, monoclonal TCR rearrangement and TFH phenotype in the context of a clinically benign lesion.Here we review the main clinical, molecular and diagnostic features of these three lymphoproliferative processes.
       
  • What is new in mature T-cell leukemias'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 December 2019Source: Seminars in Diagnostic PathologyAuthor(s): Nathanael G. Bailey, Kojo S.J. Elenitoba-JohnsonAbstractMature T-cell and NK-cell leukemias represent a clinically heterogeneous group of diseases, ranging from indolent expansions of large granular lymphocytes, to aggressive diseases that are associated with a fulminant clinical course. Recent advances in genomic methodologies have massively increased the understanding of the pathogenesis of this group of diseases. While the entities are genetically heterogeneous, JAK-STAT pathway activation appears to be important across these disorders. The identification of constitutively activated pathways and the emergence of novel targeted pharmaceutical agents raise the expectation that more effective therapies will be identified for these disorders in the coming years.
       
  • Gastrointestinal T- and NK-cell Lymphomas and Indolent Lymphoproliferative
           Disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2019Source: Seminars in Diagnostic PathologyAuthor(s): Craig R. Soderquist, Govind BhagatAbstractPrimary gastrointestinal (GI) T- and NK-cell lymphomas constitute a heterogeneous group of uncommon and aggressive neoplasms, which have unique clinical and pathologic features. The intestines are the most frequent sites of disease, but almost any GI organ may be involved. Enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma (formerly EATL type 1) and monomorphic epitheliotropic intestinal T-cell lymphoma (formerly EATL type 2) represent the two most common entities. However, other types of peripheral T-cell lymphomas can also occur in the GI tract or involve it secondarily. Moreover, indolent T- and NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) of the GI tract have also recently been recognized. In this review, we will describe the salient clinical, histopathologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular characteristics of primary GI T/NK-cell lymphomas and LPDs in view of recent developments and briefly discuss the differential diagnostic considerations.
       
  • Non-neoplastic neurological and ophtalmological disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2019Source: Seminars in Diagnostic PathologyAuthor(s): Sandro Casavilca Zambrano, Jorge O Alarcon, Susana Boluda
       
  • Cutaneous manifestations of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 July 2019Source: Seminars in Diagnostic PathologyAuthor(s): Sandro Casavilca-ZambranoAbstractAdult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is an aggressive peripheral T-cell lymphoma caused by the human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1). The skin is affected in approximately half of ATLL patients, and it may be the first manifestation of the disease. The skin lesions of ATLL are polymorphous, and depending on the type of skin eruption, it is possible to predict the prognosis of the disease. Besides specific skin lesions, other non-specific lesions and increased risk of cutaneous and systemic infections are observed. In this article, we describe the different skin lesions of ATLL patients (specific, non-specific, and infectious lesions), the different histopathological patterns, and the association of clinicopathological characteristics with prognosis. Recognition of ATLL skin lesions is essential for the correct management and the search for the virus, even in non-endemic regions, where global migration may bring HTLV-1 infected individuals.
       
  • NEOPLASTIC HEMATOLOGICAL DISEASES ASSOCIATED WITH HTLV-1 INFECTION
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2019Source: Seminars in Diagnostic PathologyAuthor(s): Carlos Barrionuevo-Cornejo, Daniela Dueñas-HanccoABSTRACAdult cell lymphoma / leukemia (ATLL) is a type of lymphoma consisting of T-cells that are related to infection with the human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1). Four clinical forms have been described (leukemic, lymphomatous, chronic, smoldering) and the phenotype corresponds to regulatory CD4 + T cells. The histological characteristics are variable, with neoplastic cells showing a size ranging from small to large and atypical nuclei with irregular contours. A series of genetic and molecular alterations have been described, which partially explain the lymphomagenesis of the neoplasm, some of which are also factors related to the clinical course and overall survival. ATLL is a neoplasm with a poor prognosis, but in recent years new targeted therapies have been designed, with encouraging responses. This neoplasm should continue to be studied to improve treatment and evolution.
       
  • Introduction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 May 2019Source: Seminars in Diagnostic PathologyAuthor(s): Kristien Verdonck
       
  • Infective Dermatitis: a purely cutaneous manifestation of HTLV-1 infection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2019Source: Seminars in Diagnostic PathologyAuthor(s): Francisco G. BravoAbstractInfectious dermatitis is a cutaneous manifestation of HTLV-1 infection. Although initially described in children in Jamaica, it is well documented that the disease can also present in adults. The clinical picture is of an oozing dermatitis affecting the scalp, face, retroauricular areas, the neck, and intertrigious areas, such as the axilla and groin.Histologically it has two patterns: a superficial perivascular dermatitis or a lichenoid dermatitis. The epidermal hyperplasia may mimic psoriasis. An important differential diagnosis is with mycosis fungoides, with epidermotropism, alignment of lymphocytes along the epidermal junction, lymphocytes in halo and wiry bundles of collagen in the papillary dermis. An important difference is the lack of marked lymphocytic atypia. The infiltrate is composed of a predominance of CD8-positive lymphocytes, analogous to what is seen in tropical spastic paraparesis.Infectious dermatitis patients may be confused with many common dermatological conditions, such a atopic dermatitis and contact dermatitis. Its diagnosis represent a challenge both to clinicians and dermatopathologists working in endemic areas.
       
  • Molecular Biology of Human T Cell Leukemia Virus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 April 2019Source: Seminars in Diagnostic PathologyAuthor(s): Lee RatnerAbstractHuman T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a horizontally transmitted virus infection of CD4+ lymphocytes which causes adult T cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATLL) and HTLV-associated myelopathy (HAM). The viral genome encodes two oncoproteins, transactivator protein (Tax) and helix basic zipper protein (HBZ), which are considered tumor initiator and maintenance factors, respectively. Tax is the primary inducer of clonal infected T cell expansion, and genetic instability. The immune response to Tax results in the selection of cells with little or no Tax expression, which have undergone genetic and epigenetic alterations that promote T cell activation, proliferation, and resistance to apoptosis. This selection of malignant cells occurs over several decades in 5% of infected individuals. Novel insights into the molecular details of each of these events has led to targeted therapies for ATLL.
       
 
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