Subjects -> INSTRUMENTS (Total: 62 journals)
Showing 1 - 16 of 16 Journals sorted alphabetically
Annali dell'Istituto e Museo di storia della scienza di Firenze     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Mechanics Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of Social Informatics Theory and Application     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Visual Media     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Devices and Methods of Measurements     Open Access  
Documenta & Instrumenta - Documenta et Instrumenta     Open Access  
EPJ Techniques and Instrumentation     Open Access  
European Journal of Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Experimental Astronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Flow Measurement and Instrumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Journal on Miniaturization for Air and Space Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Sensors Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 103)
IEEE Sensors Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Imaging & Microscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
InfoTekJar : Jurnal Nasional Informatika dan Teknologi Jaringan     Open Access  
Instrumentation Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Instruments and Experimental Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Instrumentation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
International Journal of Measurement Technologies and Instrumentation Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Metrology and Quality Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 274)
International Journal of Remote Sensing Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
International Journal of Sensor Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83)
Journal of Astronomical Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Instrumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Instrumentation Technology & Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Optical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sensors and Sensor Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Informatika Upgris     Open Access  
Measurement : Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Measurement and Control     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Measurement Instruments for the Social Sciences     Open Access  
Measurement Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Measurement Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Medical Devices & Sensors     Hybrid Journal  
Medical Instrumentation     Open Access  
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Microscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Modern Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 50)
Optoelectronics, Instrumentation and Data Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
PFG : Journal of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Geoinformation Science     Hybrid Journal  
Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 54)
Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Remote Sensing of Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
Remote Sensing Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Review of Scientific Instruments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Sensors and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Standards     Open Access  
Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Труды СПИИРАН     Open Access  
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Journal Cover
Measurement and Control
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.137
Number of Followers: 36  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0020-2940 - ISSN (Online) 2051-8730
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1097 journals]
  • Two-stage segment linearization as part of the thermocouple measurement

    • Authors: Dragan Živanović, Milan Simić
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      An implementation of a two-stage piece-wise linearization method for reduction of the thermocouple approximation error is presented in the paper. First, the whole thermocouple measurement chain of a transducer is described, and possible error is analysed to define the required level of accuracy for linearization of the transfer characteristics. Evaluation of linearization functions and analysis of approximation errors are performed by the virtual instrumentation software package LabVIEW. The method is appropriate for thermocouples and other sensors where nonlinearity varies a lot over the range of input values. The basic principle of this method is to first transform the abscissa of the transfer function by a linear segment look-up table in such a way that significantly nonlinear parts of the input range are expanded before a standard piece-wise linearization. In this way, applying equal-segment linearization two times has a similar effect to non-equal-segment linearization. For a given examples of the thermocouple transfer functions, the suggested method provides significantly better reduction of the approximation error, than the standard segment linearization, with equal memory consumption for look-up tables. The simple software implementation of this two-stage linearization method allows it to be applied in low calculation power microcontroller measurement transducers, as a replacement of the standard piece-wise linear approximation method.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-01-13T09:15:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020986833
  • Optimization and selection of Galileo triple-frequency carrier linear

    • Authors: Jun Wang, Xurong Dong, Wei Fu, Di Yan, Zengkai Shi
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The triple-frequency linear combination with a low noise, a long wavelength, and a weak ionosphere is beneficial to effectively eliminate or weaken the common errors, advance the reliability of cycle slip detection and repair, and speed up the convergence time of fixed ambiguity. By establishing the Galileo triple-frequency carrier linear combination model, three types of linear combinations are derived: Geometry-free (GF) combinations, minimum noise (MN) combinations, and ionosphere-free (IF) combinations. The geometric relationships of these linear combinations are displayed in the form of image. The results indicate that the angle formed by the IF combinations and the MN combinations is between 75.02° and 86.01°, which also illustrates that it is more difficult to meet the carrier phase combinations with a low noise and a weak ionosphere. Moreover, to guarantee the integer cycle characteristics of ambiguity, the combination coefficient must be an integer. Galileo triple-frequency linear combination is solved utilizing the extremum method. To sum up, the sum of the coefficients of the extra wide lane (EWL) combinations and wide lane (WL) combinations is zero, and the sum of the coefficients of the narrow lane (NL) combinations is one. (0, 1, −1) is the optimal triple-frequency linear combination in Galileo. Three independent linear combinations are selected separately from the EWL, WL, and NL to jointly solve the integer ambiguity. Further, it creates a prerequisite for high-precision and real-time kinematic positioning.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-01-07T07:30:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020983386
  • Task-space regulation of rigid-link electrically-driven robots with
           uncertain kinematics using neural networks

    • Authors: Wenhui Si, Lingyan Zhao, Jianping Wei, Zhiguang Guan
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Extensive research efforts have been made to address the motion control of rigid-link electrically-driven (RLED) robots in literature. However, most existing results were designed in joint space and need to be converted to task space as more and more control tasks are defined in their operational space. In this work, the direct task-space regulation of RLED robots with uncertain kinematics is studied by using neural networks (NN) technique. Radial basis function (RBF) neural networks are used to estimate complicated and calibration heavy robot kinematics and dynamics. The NN weights are updated on-line through two adaptation laws without the necessity of off-line training. Compared with most existing NN-based robot control results, the novelty of the proposed method lies in that asymptotic stability of the overall system can be achieved instead of just uniformly ultimately bounded (UUB) stability. Moreover, the proposed control method can tolerate not only the actuator dynamics uncertainty but also the uncertainty in robot kinematics by adopting an adaptive Jacobian matrix. The asymptotic stability of the overall system is proven rigorously through Lyapunov analysis. Numerical studies have been carried out to verify efficiency of the proposed method.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-01-07T07:29:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020983383
  • Extraction method of composite fault features of gear transmission system
           based on demodulation of NMD and Teager energy operators

    • Authors: Jingyue Wang, Yuefu Liu, Haotian Wang, Jiaqiang E
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In order to effectively identify and extract the composite fault characteristics of the gear transmission system, a composite fault diagnosis method combining nonlinear mode decomposition (NMD) and Teager energy operator demodulation is proposed. Because the envelope demodulation of Hilbert transform has the disadvantages of large amount of calculation and end effect, it uses Teager energy operator to solve the problem of large amount of calculation, and NMD solves the problem that the fault signal features is not easy to extract under the mode aliasing. First, the NMD method is used to decompose the fault simulation signal, and the nonlinear modal component with practical physical significance is obtained. Secondly, the Teager energy operator demodulation is carried out for the nonlinear modal components, and the demodulation results are analyzed to verify the feasibility of the method. Then, the method is applied to the composite fault diagnosis of gear pitting wear in gear transmission system, and the characteristic frequency obtained from the test data is compared with the calculated characteristic frequency. The comparative analysis shows that the method can separate the fault characteristic frequencies of large and small gears. The comparative analysis with EMD and EEMD methods in simulation signal analysis and experimental research shows that this method is superior.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-01-07T07:29:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020983370
  • Augmented system model-based online collaborative determination of
           lead–acid battery states for energy management of vehicles

    • Authors: Yuefei Wang, Fei Huang, Bin Pan, Yang Li, Baijun Liu
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      State of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) of batteries are the indispensable control decision variables for online energy management system (EMS) in modern internal combustion engine vehicles. The real-time and accurate determination of SOC and SOH is essential to the reliability and safety of EMS operation. Obtaining good accuracy for the SOC estimation is difficult without considering SOH because of their coupling relationship. Although several works on the joint estimation of SOC and SOH of lithium–ion batteries are available, these studies cannot be applied to lead–acid batteries because of the differences in physical structure and characteristics. This study handles the problem of modeling the relationship between SOC and SOH of lead–acid battery and their online collaborative estimation. First, the structure and control strategy of a bus-based EMS is discussed, and the improper energy control actions of EMS due to the inaccurate SOC estimation are analyzed. Second, an instantaneous correlation factor β for SOC and SOH is defined as a new state estimating variable, and the simplified linear relationship model between β and open circuit voltage is established through the battery experiments. Third, a discretized augmented system equation of β is deduced according to the relationship model and the Randles circuit model. The least square circuit parameter identification (LSCPI) algorithm is presented to identify the time-varying circuit model parameters, while the adaptive Kalman filter for augmented system (AKFAS) algorithm is employed to estimate β online. A collaborative estimation algorithm is proposed on the basis of the LSCPI and AKFAS to determine SOC and SOH of lead–acid battery in real time, and a demo intelligent battery sensor is developed for its implementation. The results of battery charging and discharging experiments indicate that the proposed method has high accuracy. The estimation accuracy of SOC of this method reaches 3.13%, which is 7% higher than that of the existing method.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-01-06T05:55:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020983376
  • Surge protection of centrifugal compressors using advanced anti-surge
           control system

    • Authors: Arslan Ahmed Amin, Muhammad Taimoor Maqsood, Khalid Mahmood-ul-Hasan
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Centrifugal Compressors (CCs) are widely used equipment to transport the natural gas over long-distance pipelines from the gas processing facility to end consumers. Surge protection is of vital importance for such compressors to avoid costly damage to machine and production loss due to process interruption. In this paper, the dynamic behaviour of CCs has been studied during four critical scenarios: high header pressure, low suction pressure, startup of the new unit, and emergency shutdown of the unit. The dynamic simulation has been carried out using HYSYS software and validated with an industrial scale CC plant. The advanced Anti-Surge Control (ASC) consists of a split PID control in contrast to conventional PID control. The simulation results demonstrate the superior performance of advanced ASC over a conventional one for the severe surge in the event of high header pressure and low suction pressure. The occurrence of surge during start-up and the emergency shutdown was handled with the full open operation of the Anti-Surge Valve (ASV). The proposed algorithm has proved successful in protecting the compressor during fast transients of the operating point towards the surge limit line. The study is significant for the oil and gas plants and other process industry professionals for designing effective ASC systems.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2021-01-06T05:55:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020983372
  • Numerical investigation of the dynamic responses of steel-concrete girder
           bridges subjected to moving vehicular loads

    • Authors: Qingfei Gao, Kun Zhang, Tong Wang, Weikang Peng, Chengqing Liu
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The steel-concrete composite girder bridge is a new type of bridge. The steel girder and concrete slab are connected together by connectors and bear the common force so that the tensile performance of steel and the compressive performance of concrete can be fully utilized. The advantages are obvious. However, research on the dynamic analysis of steel-concrete composite beam bridges is still relatively rare, and the dynamic effects on these bridges from vehicles are becoming increasingly significant. In this paper, a more complex steel-concrete composite simply supported beam bridge model and the entire vehicle model are established, and five steel-concrete connection levels of the bridge model are considered. Using the finite element model, the effects of five factors, namely, bridge natural frequency, vehicle natural frequency, vehicle speed, vehicle lateral position and bridge deck roughness, on the dynamic load allowance (DLA) of the composite girder bridge are studied. The influence of vehicle speed and bridge surface roughness on the DLA has a strong regularity. The change in the DLA of the lateral position of the vehicle is highly symmetrical, and the DLA value at the side beam is larger than that of the center beam. Changes in bridge vibration frequency and vehicle vibration frequency can bring about significant changes in the DLA, and the closer the two frequencies are, the more significant the DLA increases, and the more likely it is to produce resonance.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-12-29T11:59:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020981406
  • Short-term wind speed prediction based on CEEMDAN-SE-improved PIO-GRNN

    • Authors: Jiale Ding, Guochu Chen, Yongmin Huang, Zhiquan Zhu, Kuo Yuan, Haohao Xu
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, a short-term wind speed prediction model, called CEEMDAN-SE-Improved PIO-GRNN, is proposed to optimize the accuracy of the short-term wind speed forecast. This model is established on account of the optimized General Regression Neural Network (GRNN) method optimized by three algorithms, which are Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise (CEEMDAN), Sample Entropy (SE), and Pigeon Inspired Optimization (PIO), separately. Firstly, decomposing the original wind speed sequences into several subsequences with different complexity by CEEMDAN. Then, the complexity of each subsequence is judged by SE and the similar subsequences are combined into a new sequence to reduce the scale of calculation. Afterwards, the GRNN model optimized by improved PIO is used to predict each new sequence. Finally, the predicted results are superposed as the eventual predicted value. Implementing the prediction for the wind speed data of a wind field in north China within 30 days by applying the different prediction models, namely, GRNN, CEEMDAN-GRNN, Improved PIO-GRNN, and CEEMDAN-SE-Improved PIO-GRNN which are proposed in this paper. Comparing the prediction curves of different models with the fitting curve of the actual wind speed shows that the optimal fitting effect and minimum error value are included in CEEMDAN-SE-Improved PIO-GRNN model. Specifically, the values of mean squared error (MSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and weighted mean absolute percentage error (WMAPE) separately decrease by 0.6222, 0.3334, and 8.5766%, which compare with the single prediction model GRNN. Meanwhile, diebold-mariano (DM) test shows that the prediction ability of the two models is significantly different. The above statements indicate the proposed model does great advance in the precision of short-term wind speed prediction.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-12-23T07:54:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020981400
  • Simulation and verification of measurement system for deep-sea pressure
           and its small fluctuation pressure

    • Authors: Huai-Yang Wang, Shan-Shan Hu, Zheng-Shi Liu, Yong Wang
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Combined pressure measuring system (CPMS), which is mainly used for measuring deep-sea larger pressure and its small fluctuation pressure, is studied. First, the working principle of the CPMS is introduced. Second, the mathematical model of the CPMS is established. Third, the influence of the cross-sectional area of the piston, the equivalent mass of the piston, the diving speed, the cross-sectional diameter of the compensator piston, the air content of the liquid medium, and the small fluctuation pressure on the measurement performance of the CPMS is analyzed using the simulation model. Then, the design principle of the system is summarized. Finally, the test platform is built. The results show that the dynamic pressure is not more than 0.025 bar when the pressure change speed is 0.2 bar/s, the pressure is 2.8 × 10−3 bar under 20 bar, thereby verifying the validity and accuracy of the measurement method and providing theoretical basis and reference for the design and optimization of the measurement system.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-12-15T11:06:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020977879
  • Development and verification of individual motor control technology to
           improve the driving performance of independently rotating wheel type
           railway vehicle using hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) Simulator

    • Authors: Yonho Cho
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In order to realize the tram’s low-floor structure, most of the trams that have been recently introduced adopt an independently rotating wheelset. In the case of trains driving in two regions with different gauges, an independently rotating wheelset may be applied to utilize the variable track technology. Since the independent rotation type wheelset has no rotational restraint of the left and right wheels, the difference in rotational speed between the outer and inner wheels occurs naturally during curved driving, and it is applied to railroad vehicles traveling in sharp curve sections because it smoothly drives curved driving. However, the longitudinal creep force and the lateral restoring force are weakened as the left and right rotational constraints disappear. Lack of lateral direction restoring force weakens stability while causing continuous flange contact driving or zigzag phenomenon against disturbance. Under the conditions of driving in a sharp curve, these railway vehicles generate excessive wear, noise, and lateral pressure, as well as deterioration of ride comfort and derailment. In order to overcome these drawbacks, a method has been proposed in which the torque of a motor mounted on each wheel is individually controlled to generate lateral restoring force or to improve driving performance through lateral displacement control using a yaw moment. In this paper, development using HIL (hardware in the loop) simulator was performed to check the performance and stability of the individual motor torque control technology before verifying by applying the individual motor torque control to the actual vehicle. HIL simulator were constructed by combining a real-time dynamic analysis model of a railway vehicle with a drive motor to which real individual motor control was applied. Under the conditions of driving the test track where the actual test vehicle was tested, the analysis of the driving characteristics and the control characteristics of the disturbance was performed to confirm the proposed individual motor torque control performance.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-12-14T09:53:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020977568
  • Actuator fault-based integrated control for vehicle chassis system

    • Authors: Jinwei Sun, Jingyu Cong, Weihua Zhao, Yonghui Zhang
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      An integrated fault tolerant controller is proposed for vehicle chassis system. Based on the coupled characteristics of vertical and lateral system, the fault tolerant controller mainly concentrates on the cooperative control of controllable suspension and lateral system with external disturbances and actuator faults. A nine-DOF coupled model is developed for fault reconstruction and accurate control. Firstly, a fault reconstruction mechanism based on sliding mode is introduced; when the sliding mode achieves, actuator fault signals can be observed exactly through selecting appropriate gain matrix and equivalent output injection term. Secondly, an active suspension controller, a roll moment controller and a stability controller is developed respectively; the integrated control strategy is applied to the system under different driving conditions: when the car is traveling straightly, the main purpose of the integrated strategy is to improve the vertical performance; the lateral controller including roll moment control and stability control will be triggered when there is a steering angle input. Simulations experiments verify the performance enhancement and stability of the proposed controller under three different driving conditions.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-12-14T09:52:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020977574
  • Development of adhesion force evaluation equipment for nano diamond coated
           tool using shear method

    • Authors: Jinghua Li, SoJin Lee, HyunKyu Kweon
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, we have developed a thin film adhesion evaluation system for diamond coating tool, which is mainly used for CFRP processing. CFRP is widely used in aviation and automobile industries. Because of the high surface hardness of the diamond coating tool, it is difficult to evaluate the adhesive strength of the tool, and it is difficult to quantitatively evaluate the existing adhesion force evaluation method and it is costly. This study has developed an evaluation method to measure the adhesive force based on the data of the grinding process using a low-cost polishing pad. When the frictional force and the shearing force are applied to the specimen by the sanding belt, friction is continuously generated between the coating layer and the belt, and peeling occurs at the moment when a specific load is applied. Acceleration, load, and torque values that occur during each experiment are collected through acceleration sensors, load cells, and torque sensors. The data obtained through the experiments are subjected to FFT processing and analysis. As a result, the peeling point and the critical load value at this point are identified and referred to as the adhesion force of the coating layer.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-12-04T10:58:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020977890
  • Dynamic analysis and decoupled control of a heavy-duty walking robot with
           flexible feet based on super twisting algorithm

    • Authors: Huanhuan Ren, Lizhong Zhang, Chengzhi Su
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, the dynamics and control strategies of a biped robot with 6-DOF parallel leg mechanism are studied. Firstly, the multi-body kinematic model and dynamic model of the robot are established. Secondly, the insufficient stiffness of robot’s feet and the coupling effect between the kinematic chains are considered in dynamics modeling, and the rigid-flexible coupling model is established by using ADAMS and finite element method. Finally, aiming at the position deviation and system vibration caused by the flexible foot, a strategy based on the combination of a computed torque controller (CTC) and a second-order sliding-mode super twisting algorithm (STA) is designed. At the same time, the control strategy based on CTC and PID and the control strategy based on CTC and sliding mode control (SMC) are designed to compare with CTC-STA. The results show that CTC-STA has faster regulation ability and stronger robustness than CTC-SMC and CTC-PID.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-11-28T11:30:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020974059
  • On-line measurement method of transmission backlash based on angular
           velocity and double-end angular position information

    • Authors: Ming Li, Ruirui Liang, Yanshun Zhang, Chuang Peng, Dong Mu, Zhen Wan
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Backlash is the inherent characteristic of gear transmission system. It is an important mean to measure and compensate backlash to improve transmission performance. When the driving gear reverses, due to the existence of backlash, the driven gear will still keep its original steering due to inertial motion until the driven gear collision with the driving gear. In this paper, based on the analysis of the tooth gap of the driving gear and the driven gear, an on-line measurement method of the meshing tooth gap combining the angular velocity of the load end with the information of the Angle position of the two axes of the master-slave gear is presented. This method uses the gyroscope at the load end (driven wheel) to monitor the sudden change of angular velocity at the moment of gear reverse impact and re contact, and the signal is used as the judgment basis for the reverse contact moment of the driving gear and driven gear. Then, the angular position data of driving gear and driven gear are fused at the time of reverse rotation and contact impact, and the backlash of the gear is calculated online. Finally, setting up an experimental platform for measuring backlash, and the proposed method is verified. The experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve accurate backlash measurement.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-11-28T11:29:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020973252
  • Coordinated control of active front steering and active disturbance
           rejection sliding mode-based DYC for 4WID-EV

    • Authors: Tao Feng, Yunpeng Wang, Qing Li
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The four-wheel independent driven electric vehicle (4WID-EV) can easily realize the four-wheel independent drive, which is convenient for the development and design of the direct yaw moment control system (DYC). Based on the theory of ADRC and the sliding mode control, a new type of DYC controller coordinated with the AFS controller using PID method is designed for the 4WID-EV in this paper. The coordinated control work area is divided according to the tire lateral force linear area. An improved particle swarm optimization algorithm which introduces linear decreasing inertia weight and annealing strategy is adopted to obtain the coordination work weight. The effectiveness of the DYC controller is verified by the Simulink simulation. It also shows that the performance is further improved after the coordinated control.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-11-26T06:23:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020959111
  • COVID-19 infodemic on Chinese social media: A 4P framework, selective
           review and research directions

    • Authors: Jia Luo, Rui Xue, Jinglu Hu
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      During the outbreak of the COVID-19 (2019 coronavirus disease), misinformation related to the virus spread rapidly online and have led to serious difficulties in controlling the disease. The term infodemic is coined to outline the bad effect from the extensive dissemination of misinformation during the outbreak. With regards to this phenomenon, the World Health Organization emphasized the need to fight against infodemic and asked all countries not only to make efforts in slowing down the spread of the COVID-19 but also in countering the risk caused by infodemic. Due to its negative impact, this paper analyzes infodemic on Chinese social media at the initial stage of the COVID-19 outbreak and presents a 4P framework standing for the four features of Chinese infodemic: Prevention Attention, Problem Orientation, Patterns Interaction and Points Globalization. Furthermore, a selective review of existing datasets in the neural networks domain is synthesized based on the 4P framework. Finally, research directions, including recommendations, about constructing a large-scale dataset for Chinese infodemic automatic detection are proposed.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-11-26T06:22:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020967035
  • Heat transfer enhancement of wall with a near wall cylinder in a channel
           at low and middle Reynolds number ranges

    • Authors: Hui Xu, Yixi Cai, Guannan Xi
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      This paper investigated the flow performance around a near-wall cylinder and its effect on heat transfer enhancement in the laminar and early transitional flow region. The numerical model is resolved by finite volume method through FORTRAN code. The results show that the flow field becomes a transitional flow state when Re = 100 due to the insertion of a cylinder. In the transitional flow sate, the heat transfer enhancement is regional, mainly concentrating in the region of –2 ≤x/D≤ 10, and the region increases with the increase of Re; There are three or four peaks in the distribution of instantaneous local Nusselt number. The first peak is caused by the acceleration of the fluid between the cylinder and the bottom wall. The other peaks are caused by the interaction between the cylinder wake and the bottom wall boundary layer. The vortical structure induced by the periodic instability of the fluid in the transitional flow is the main factor for explaining the local heat transfer enhancement of the cylinder downstream wall. Re has a direct impact on the vortical structure in the flow field. The greater Re, the greater the heat transfer enhancement of the cylinder downstream wall. Under the same blocking ratio of D/H, the greater Re, the smaller the optimal clearance ratio of C/D. The guidelines are suggested for the design on heat dissipation of electronic equipment.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-11-23T09:20:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020962127
  • Camouflage is NOT easy: Uncovering adversarial fraudsters in large online
           app review platform

    • Authors: Jianyu Wang, Chunming Wu
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Given users and products that he/she reviews, can we recognize fake reviews just using the text information, or determine whether a reviewer is a fraud or not' Automatically detecting fake reviews and reviewers is an urgent problem and lots of work attempts for discovering linguistics, behaviors and graph patterns. However, in reality, there are new kinds of fraudsters who can change their behaviors to camouflage as genuine reviewers to avoid detection systems. With the fraudsters become distributed, dynamic, and adversarial, anti-spam tasks face a new challenge. In this paper, we tackle the challenge of adversarial fraudsters in online app review platform and propose a system called DDF (Detect, Defense, and Forecast) to uncover camouflage accounts. Firstly, we select a small set of seed with high-precision based on text and behavior features; Secondly, we build our graph-based detection model for uncovering hidden (distant) users who serve structurally similar to the seed by utilizing Graph Convolutional Network (GCN) algorithm. Thirdly, we evaluate DDF using real-world data set from Tencent APP Store and analyze the potential fraudsters detected by DDF. It is worth mentioning that precision can achieve 0.95+. Finally, we validate the efficiency and scalability of DDF and show that it can be well transferred to other anti-spam tasks.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-11-21T11:39:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020970213
  • Measurement of the DC current based on magnetic fluids with an orthogonal
           magnetic field

    • Authors: Jian-Ying Zhang, Chuan-Qiang Che, Qiong Wang, Da-Peng Xu, Shuai Yuan
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Measurement of DC current is critically important in a wide range of applications, such as in photovoltaic power generation and DC power transmission. In this paper, the DC current measuring method based on magnetic fluids with orthogonal magnetic fields is studied. Firstly, the induced voltage of measurement coil, which contains a series of harmonics and the amplitude of its fundamental component is 2.5 times larger than that of other components, is derived and analyzed. Then, influence factors of the induced voltage are systematically studied. As a result, with a DC component injection into the exciting current, the frequency of the induced voltage becomes a half of that without a DC component, and when the DC component reaches to or exceeds the amplitude of the AC component, the induced voltage nearly has no distortion. Finally, the input-output characteristic of the measurement method is examined, and the accuracy, measuring range, and sensitivity are discussed, indicating that the linearity of the foundamental component root mean square (RMS) value curve is better than the one of the voltage amplitude curve under the same DC current range, and the sensitivities of induced voltage amplitude and the fundamental component RMS value are 5.948 and 3.717 mΩ, respectively.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-11-11T10:54:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020964532
  • Event-triggered guaranteed cost control of time-varying delayed fuzzy
           systems with limited communication

    • Authors: Yinlin Li, Lihao Jia, Yidao Ji, Rui Li
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Modern network applications place higher demands on its controller, especially for those with time-varying delays and limited communication capacity. For such cases, the fuzzy system has already become an advanced and powerful tool to deal with the control problem in consideration of a guaranteed cost performance. In this paper, we introduce the event-triggered mechanism with quantization effect to the controller, which proves to be more effective in terms of the information transmission. We adopt the classical Lyapunov approach to find the sufficient conditions for the controller and we illustrate the effectiveness of the controller with a numerical simulation.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-11-09T06:27:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020970221
  • Piecewise fast multi-power reaching law: Basis for sliding mode control

    • Authors: Guang-Yu Yang, Si-Yi Chen
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      A piecewise fast multi-power reaching law (PFMPRL) is proposed aiming at the problems of chattering and slow convergence in the reaching phase of sliding mode control (SMC). In this paper, the fast power reaching law and the double power reaching law are combined, and a nonlinear function is introduced to design the exponential term in PFMPRL. The proposed method ensures the characteristic of fast convergence of the system at all the phases of tendency. The characteristic of fixed-time convergence has also been satisfied. The study proves that the system state can converge to steady-state error bounds within a finite time in the presence of system uncertainty and bounded external disturbance. Compared with the existed methods, the proposed method has shorter convergence time and smaller steady-state error bound. To suppress the influence of model uncertainty and disturbance in system control, a non-linear disturbance observer (NDO) is introduced, and combined with the reaching law-based non-singular terminal sliding mode control (NTSMC), is applied to the cart inverted pendulum system. Simulation results and numerical analysis verify the effectiveness and superiority of this approach.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-11-09T06:24:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020964246
  • Measuring impurity content in pipelines by positron annihilation

    • Authors: Yahan Yu, Min Zhao, Jun Xu, Min Yao, Ruipeng Guo, Weiyi Yu, Chang Liu
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      γ photon pairs produced by positron annihilation can penetrate metals well; thus, they can be used for nondestructive detection of the inner state of metal pipelines. An experimental device is designed to simulate the working state of lube oil pipelines and inject nuclide into it. A symmetrical structure and a ratio algorithm are proposed considering the effects of various factors. Two sensors with good consistency are used to record the number of γ photon events in liquids with and without impurities. The ratio of the recorded events of reference and impurity sensors is taken as the test result of impurity content. The advantage of the method proposed in this paper is that it can eliminate the environmental error and inconsistency of the sensors by using ratio calculation and improve the measurement accuracy. Experimental results show that the proposed detection scheme and algorithm can well detect impurity content, including metal, in various pipelines. The detection accuracy of matched sensors can exceed 2%. Detected impurities are not limited to metal particles. Thus, the proposed method can be applied to in situ and online detection of impurities in oil piping systems equipped with engines.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-11-06T10:16:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020968594
  • Control system for installation and position keeping of interconnected
           flexible floating bridge

    • Authors: Dong-Hun Lee, Young-Bok Kim
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      We propose an approach for floating bridge installation and operation. A floating bridge aims to carry heavy vehicles, trucks, and people over a body of water. However, bridge installation and operation are mainly performed by humans regardless of adverse conditions, such as active combat or disaster occurrence. For installing and operating floating bridges under such conditions, we devised a solution based on control system design and automatic installation. The floating bridge system is controlled and positioned by a power propulsion system that is attached to floating units of the bridge. An optimal control system based on state estimator, which is designed using a robust control framework, is applied to install and operate the bridge. A simulation analysis and experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed method on a bridge system model comprising five floating units.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-11-04T09:09:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020968555
  • Pioneer dataset and recognition of Handwritten Pashto characters using
           Convolution Neural Networks

    • Authors: Sulaiman Khan, Abdul Hafeez, Hazrat Ali, Shah Nazir, Anwar Hussain
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents an efficient OCR system for the recognition of offline Pashto isolated characters. The lack of an appropriate dataset makes it challenging to match against a reference and perform recognition. This research work addresses this problem by developing a medium-size database that comprises 4488 samples of handwritten Pashto character; that can be further used for experimental purposes. In the proposed OCR system the recognition task is performed using convolution neural network. The performance analysis of the proposed OCR system is validated by comparing its results with artificial neural network and support vector machine based on zoning feature extraction technique. The results of the proposed experiments shows an accuracy of 56% for the support vector machine, 78% for artificial neural network, and 80.7% for the proposed OCR system. The high recognition rate shows that the OCR system based on convolution neural network performs best among the used techniques.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-11-02T12:41:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020964826
  • Simulation analysis and experimental study on high frequency friction
           noise of vehicle V-ribbed belts

    • Authors: Yaochen Shi, Tianxiang Zhao, Kai Ning, Wusheng Tang
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In order to improve the service life of the V-ribbed belt and the ride comfort of the vehicle, the friction noise of V-ribbed belt was studied by simulation and experiment. A theoretical model of V-ribbed belts vibration is established, and the conditions for unstable vibration are derived. Based on the theory of mode coupling, the causes of high frequency friction noise of V-ribbed belts are analyzed, and it is considered that the coupling between the vibration of the V-ribbed belts and the natural frequency of the belts’ cross section causes the self-excited vibration of the belt, resulting in high frequency friction noise. Firstly, ANSYS Workbench is used to identify the belts’ cross sections with 3, 4, and 6 wedges, and the natural frequencies of the belts’ cross sections are obtained. Then on the belt drive friction tester, the influences of tension and relative sliding speed on the frequency of high frequency friction noise is studied using a single factor test method, and the frequency response curve of high frequency friction noise is also analyzed. The results of the experiment and simulation show that the transverse vibration of the V-ribbed belts is closely related to the phase and amplitude of the high frequency friction noise, and the changes in tension and relative sliding speed do not affect the frequency of the high frequency friction noise. The frequency of high frequency friction noise has a good consistency with the natural frequency of belts’ cross section, which shows that mode coupling causes the strong self-excited vibration of the V-ribbed belts and the high frequency friction noise. It provides a method and theoretical basis for the control of friction noise.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-10-30T12:32:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020967031
  • Effect of IDT position parameters on SAW yarn tension sensor sensitivity

    • Authors: Bingbing Lei, Wenke Lu, Zhibao Mian, Wenxing Bao
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, the effect of the interdigital transducer (IDT) position parameters on the surface acoustic wave (SAW) yarn tension sensor sensitivity is investigated. The stress–strain characteristic of substrate was studied by the combination of finite element simulation and regression analysis method. According to this characteristic, the function relationship between the SAW yarn tension sensor sensitivity and the IDT position parameters was built using the regression analysis method. The monotonicity of the regression function was also given. On this basis, a novel sensitivity optimal scheme was proposed and solved by the quadratic programming method. Its solution demonstrates that the optimum sensitivity can be obtained when the IDT is 8.9 mm to the left side of the substrate and the IDT is 0.3 mm to the top edge of the substrate within a domain of the IDT position parameters. The SAW yarn tension sensor with corresponding IDT position parameters was fabricated to validate the correctness of the sensitivity optimal scheme. The measured results indicate that the SAW yarn tension sensor sensitivity can reach 813.69 Hz/g, which confirms that the novel scheme is effective.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-10-22T07:16:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020965620
  • Laplace ℓ1 robust Student’s T-filter for attitude estimation
           of satellites

    • Authors: Xu Zhang, Xu Zhang, He Wang, Pengyu Guo, Bing Xiao
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      A Laplace ℓ1 robust student’s T-filter is presented for satellites to estimate their attitude state despite severe measurement noise and modeling error. Although the student’s T-filter (STF) has the capability of handling measurement noise, it cannot address the unknown modeling error. It is further sensitive to the degree of freedom (DOF). Hence, the measurement covariance is updated by using the maximum correntropy criterion to accommodate the covariance of unknown modeling error in robust filtering design. Moreover, the Laplace distribution is derived to reduce the influence of the DOF parameter by forming a surrogate function of an optimization problem. Then, the majorization minimization approach is formulated to solve such an optimization problem and present the proposed filtering algorithm in the STF framework. Numerical simulation of applying the proposed attitude estimation scheme is performed by comparing it with the third/fifth-order cubature Kalman filters.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-10-22T07:16:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020964234
  • Simulation and experimental research based on carrier gas flow rate on the
           influence of four-channel coaxial nozzle flow field

    • Authors: Shi Rui Guo, Qian Qian Yin, Lu Jun Cui, Xiao Lei Li, Ying Hao Cui, Bo Zheng, Yan Long Cao, Wen Han Zeng
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      This paper investigates the influence of carrier gas flow on the external flow field of coaxial powder feeding nozzle. FLUENT software was adopted to establish gas-solid two-phase flow. The simulation of powder stream field under different carrier gas flow was also carried out. Results show that the larger the flow of carrier gas is, the higher the gas flow field velocity at the nozzle outlet is. At the same time, the concentration at the convergence point is lower, and the convergent point is maintained at 0.015 m. Under the condition of 4 L/min, the powder flow convergence is good. When it exceeds 4 L/min, powder spot diameter increases. The experiment of powder aggregation and laser cladding forming were completed, which shows that the forming effect is the best one under the condition of 4 L/min. It is consistent with the simulation analysis results and has a high reference to the optimization of the process parameters of coaxial nozzle.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-10-22T07:15:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020964232
  • Noise source identification of three pulleys and one belt drive system
           based on sound array technology

    • Authors: Shi Yaochen, Zhao Tianxiang, Chen Guoping, Li Zhanguo, Tang Wusheng
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      This paper analyzed the noise distribution of three pulleys and one belt system theoretically and experimentally. Aiming at the influence of the tensioner on the transmission noise of the synchronous belt, on the premise of theoretical analysis of the influence of the tensioner on the transmission noise of the synchronous belt, the noise test of the synchronous belt transmission system with and without the tensioner was carried out under the same experimental conditions. Based on the principle of acoustic array measurement, a three-pulley and one belt noise test device was designed. The noise pressure distribution nephogram and amplitude–frequency characteristic curve were obtained by noise tests at different speeds. Through the comparison of the results of two groups of tests, the influence rule of the tensioner on the transmission noise of the synchronous belt was obtained. The results show that the tensioner can effectively avoid the resonance of the synchronous belt, and the noise amplitude of the three-pulley and one belt drive system is 3 dB higher after the tensioner is installed. It provides a basis for vibration and noise reduction of the engine timing transmission system.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-10-21T06:32:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020944974
  • Multi-layer collaborative optimization method for solving fuzzy
           multi-objective integrated process planning and scheduling

    • Authors: Xiaoyu Wen, Xiaonan Lian, Kanghong Wang, Hao Li, Guofu Luo
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Research on integrated process planning and scheduling (IPPS) is of great significance to the improvement of the overall quality of machinery manufacturing system. In the actual manufacturing process, the manufacturing system is often accompanied by some unpredictable uncertain disturbance factors, for instance uncertain processing time of jobs and changes of due date, etc. These uncertain disturbance events will ultimately affect production efficiency and customer satisfaction. Consequently, this paper considers the multi-objective IPPS problem with uncertain processing time and uncertain due date. A multi-layer collaborative optimization (MLCO) method is designed for the fuzzy multi-objective IPPS (FMOIPPS) problem, including three layers. For the process planning layer, the basic genetic algorithm is used to provide various near optimal process plans for the process selection system. For the process selection layer, a multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) is designed to optimize the process selection population. A sharing function method is introduced to maintain population diversity. An individual comprehensive evaluation method is introduced to evaluate non-dominated solutions. The crowded distance, fast non-dominated sorting and elite strategy based on NSGAII is adopted in the proposed MOGA. The external archive method is employed to preserve the non-dominated solutions generated during population evolution. For the scheduling layer, a MOGA with a boundary search strategy is proposed. The boundary search strategy is designed to improve the search ability of boundary solutions. Three optimization objectives are minimizing the spread of fuzzy makespan, minimizing fuzzy makespan and maximizing average customer satisfaction simultaneously. The target of scheduling layer is to make scheduling arrangements for the process information obtained by process selection layer. Through mutual cooperation among each layer, guide the overall optimization process, and finally get satisfactory solutions. Different problem examples of various scales are employed to verify feasibility and effectiveness of the MLCO method. The experimental results indicate that the MLCO method can effectively address FMOIPPS problem.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-10-21T06:32:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020959117
  • Anisotropic neighborhood searching for point cloud with sharp feature

    • Authors: Xiaocui Yuan, Baoling Liu, Yongli Ma
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The k-nearest neighborhoods (kNN) of feature points of complex surface model are usually isotropic, which may lead to sharp feature blurring during data processing, such as noise removal and surface reconstruction. To address this issue, a new method was proposed to search the anisotropic neighborhood for point cloud with sharp feature. Constructing KD tree and calculating kNN for point cloud data, the principal component analysis method was employed to detect feature points and estimate normal vectors of points. Moreover, improved bilateral normal filter was used to refine the normal vector of feature point to obtain more accurate normal vector. The isotropic kNN of feature point were segmented by mapping the kNN into Gaussian sphere to form different data-clusters, with the hierarchical clustering method used to separate the data in Gaussian sphere into different clusters. The optimal anisotropic neighborhoods of feature point corresponded to the cluster data with the maximum point number. To validate the effectiveness of our method, the anisotropic neighbors are applied to point data processing, such as normal estimation and point cloud denoising. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm in the work is more time-consuming, but provides a more accurate result for point cloud processing by comparing with other kNN searching methods. The anisotropic neighborhood searched by our method can be used to normal estimation, denoising, surface fitting and reconstruction et al. for point cloud with sharp feature, and our method can provide more accurate result comparing with isotropic neighborhood.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-10-21T06:32:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020964245
  • Path planning for automated guided vehicle systems with time constraints
           using timed Petri nets

    • Authors: Zhou He, Yuying Dong, Gongchang Ren, Chan Gu, Zhiwu Li
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Automated guided vehicles (AGVs) are extensively used in many applications such as intelligent transportation, logistics, and industrial factories. In this paper, we address the path planning problem for an AGV system (i.e. a team of identical AGVs) with logic and time constraints using Petri nets. We propose a method to model an AGV system and its static environment by timed Petri nets. Combining the structural characteristics of Petri nets and integer linear programming technique, a path planning method is developed to ensure that all task regions are visited by AGVs in time and forbidden regions are always avoided. Finally, simulation studies are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed path planning methodology.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-10-21T06:31:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020964840
  • A novel flexible two-step method for eye-to-hand calibration for robot
           assembly system

    • Authors: Haihua Cui, Ruichao Sun, Zhou Fang, Huacheng Lou, Wei Tian, Wenhe Liao
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In the visual robot system, the calibration of the hand-eye system is very important, which has a great influence on the positioning accuracy of the robot. Traditional methods are either complicated or require advanced external equipment. This paper proposes a new flexible method for hand-eye calibration, which is simple and flexible. Firstly, the robot carries the target to perform two transformation motions to solve the rotation relationship, and then the robot tool coordinate system performs several rotation motions to solve the transformation relationship. The paper provides empirical insights about how the robot hand-eye system is calibrated by controlling the robot to perform the specified motion without expensive and complicated 3D measurement equipment. The experiment and analysis indicate that the developed hand-eye calibration has high precision in 6-DOF industrial robot assembly application.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-10-21T06:31:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020964842
  • An improved hybrid indoor positioning system based on surface tessellation
           artificial neural network

    • Authors: Imran Ullah Khan, Tariq Ali, Zahid Farid, Edgar Scavino, Mohd Amiruddin Abd Rahman, Mohammed Hamdi, Gang Qiao
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In indoor environments, accurate location or positioning becomes an essential requirement, driven by the need for autonomous moving devices, or to identify the position of people in large spaces. Single technology schemes which use WiFi and Bluetooth are affected by fading effects as well as by signal noise, providing inaccuracies in location estimation. Hybrid locating or positioning schemes have been used in indoor situations and scenarios in order to improve the location accuracy. Hence, this paper proposes a hybrid scheme (technique) to implement fingerprint-based indoor positioning or localization, which uses the Received Signal Strength (RSS) information from available Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) access points as well as Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) technologies. Our approach consists of performing a virtual tessellation of the indoor surface, with a set of square tiles encompassing the whole area. The model uses an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach for position estimate, in which related RSS is associated to a 1 m × 1 m tile. The ANN was trained to match the RSS signal strength to the corresponding tile. Experimental results indicate that the average distance error, based on tile identification accuracy, is 0.625 m from tile-to-tile, showing a remarkable improvement compared to previous approaches.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-10-20T09:21:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020964242
  • Effects of unmodelled dynamic factors on an under-actuated quadrotor: A
           review of hybrid observer design methods

    • Authors: Ghulam E Mustafa Abro, Vijanth Sagayan Asirvadam, Saiful Azrin Bin Mohd Zulkifli, Abdul Sattar, Dileep Kumar, Ali Anwer
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Unmodelled dynamic factors are either the left-over or the estimated factors such as lower or upper bound values while modelling any mechatronic system. Hence, with the inclusion of under-actuation in a system such as fewer number of actuators as compared to degrees of freedom, this will lead the system to high instability. These factors are changing instantly during multiple flights of quadrotor that is, the values of these factors in path following may vary from the values in hovering mode. Hence, it is one of the strenuous tasks to tackle these unmodelled dynamic factors for the multiple flight modes of an underactuated quadrotor craft. One of the better ways for tracking control of a quadrotor aerial vehicle with unmodelled dynamics is to observe and estimate the instant change in parameters. Thus, this paper exhibits an extensive review of several hybrid observer design methods being fused with some novel control strategies. In addition to this, the survey paper also summarises the limitations of the current state of the art approaches. This paper demonstrates an unexplored field of study where researchers must need to evaluate the performance of hybrid observer design methods.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-10-17T12:00:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020964236
  • Optimal measurement area determination algorithm of articulated arm
           measuring machine based on improved FOA

    • Authors: Li Li, Hongtao Yang, Lei Jiang, Jiahui Gu, Yu Zhang
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The determination of the optimal measurement area of the articulated arm measuring machine belongs to the multi-dimensional function optimization problem under complex constraints. To realize high-precision measurement of low-precision articulated arm measuring machine, we analyze the working principle and error source of the measuring machine, and establish the optimization target model of the optimal measurement area in this paper. We propose a method for determining the optimal measurement area of an articulated arm measuring machine based on improved FOA. The basic FOA algorithm is improved, the historical optimal individual and population centroid information are added in the population iteration update process, and the fruit fly individuals in each iteration are directly used as the taste concentration judgment value, which increases cooperation and information sharing among fruit fly individuals, and improves the global optimization ability and stability of the algorithm. In the designated area of the measuring machine, we have carried out comparative experiments on the optimization results of improved FOA and basic FOA, ACO, PSO, AL-SC-FOA, LGMS-FOA, IPGS-FFO. Experimental results show that the improved FOA, ACO, PSO, and IPGS-FFO algorithms do not fall into local optimum, and the optimal measurement area determined by them is consistent with the optimization results of other algorithms, and is superior to other algorithms in convergence speed and stability, so it is more suitable for determining the optimal measurement area of articulated arm measuring machine.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-10-17T12:00:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020964241
  • Mixed controller (IRC+NSC) involved in the harmonic vibration response
           cantilever beam model

    • Authors: Hany Samih Bauomy, Ashraf Taha EL-Sayed
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      This manuscript aims for improving the vibrational behaviors of a cantilever beam model through an intermediate lumped mass via offering a new control methodology to suppress for such high oscillations of the system. The equation of the considered cantilever beam structure is gained applying Euler–Lagrange technique. Accordingly, the considered model is modified by mixing Integral Resonant Control (IRC) along with the Nonlinear Saturation Controller (NSC) as anew controller to the considered system. Due to the recommended control technique, the modified system model is studied and analyzed by the perturbation technique. Time histories figures of the measured system plus the new controller are involved to display the response before and after control. The frequency response figures of the modified model before and after new controller near simultaneous condition [math] are gained. Each frequency-response curves have stable and unstable regions are determined numerically. Numerical results show the vibrations of the system are eliminated when adding combined IRC and NSC controllers. Finally, numerical outcomes are performed that illustrated an excellent agreement with the analytical ones. Comparison between this paper and recent papers of the cantilever beam are done.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-10-17T12:00:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020964243
  • Lane line recognition based on improved 2D-gamma function and variable
           threshold Canny algorithm under complex environment

    • Authors: Houzhong Zhang, Jiasheng Liang, Haobin Jiang, Yingfeng Cai, Xing Xu
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The visual guidance of AGV (automated guided vehicle) has gradually become one of the most important perception methods. Aiming at the problem that it is difficult to extract lane line accurately when AGV is running in complex working environment (such as uneven illumination, overexposure, lane line is not obvious, etc.), a scheme of lane line recognition under complex environment is proposed. Firstly, the variable scale image correction is carried out for the uneven illumination area in ROI (region of interest), and the threshold of Canny algorithm is adjusted adaptively according to the luminance of ROI region by Fuzzy-Canny algorithm; Secondly, the edge points matching the lane width feature are extracted by the way of aerial view. Finally, the curve fitting method based on RANSAC (Random Sample Consensus) is used to fit a curve with the lowest error rate and then get the lane center curve. The experimental results show that the processing algorithm used in this paper is feasible and effective, has strong robustness and fast computing performance, and can meet the requirements of intelligent AGV in various complex environments.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-10-15T07:40:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020952477
  • Improved artificial immune algorithm for the flexible job shop problem
           with transportation time

    • Authors: Xiao-long Chen, Jun-qing Li, Yu-yan Han, Hong-yan Sang
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The flexible job shop problem (FJSP), as one branch of the job shop scheduling, has been studied during recent years. However, several realistic constraints including the transportation time between machines and energy consumptions are generally ignored. To fill this gap, this study investigated a FJSP considering energy consumption and transportation time constraints. A sequence-based mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model based on the problem is established, and the weighted sum of maximum completion time and energy consumption is optimized. Then, we present a combinational meta-heuristic algorithm based on a simulated annealing (SA) algorithm and an artificial immune algorithm (AIA) for this problem. In the proposed algorithm, the AIA with an information entropy strategy is utilized for global optimization. In addition, the SA algorithm is embedded to enhance the local search abilities. Eventually, the Taguchi method is used to evaluate various parameters. Computational comparison with the other meta-heuristic algorithms shows that the improved artificial immune algorithm (IAIA) is more efficient for solving FJSP with different problem scales.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-10-15T07:39:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020962130
  • Research on path planning of robot based on adaptive ACS fused with SHAA
           neural network

    • Authors: Chen Haiyang, Niu Longhui, Ji Yebiao
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, we proposed an adaptive ACS algorithm by introducing an adaptive pheromone volatility coefficient and the algorithm diversity dynamically varying in different iterations of the algorithm. It incorporates a shunting hierarchical hybrid neural network application algorithm (Shunting HHNN Application Algorithm, SHAA) to overcome the drawbacks of global optimization capabilities of ant colony system (ACS) in solving robot path and easily being trapped into the local optimal solution. Considering the influence of the activation value size on the selection of the grid in the SHAA neural network algorithm, the distance factor and the activation value are combined to improve the heuristic function. This will not only ensure the convergence speed, but also avoid the premature stagnation and being trapped into a local optimal path. Simulation results show that the algorithm discussed in this paper outperforms better in both the global optimization ability and the robustness.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-10-13T07:17:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020959751
  • An anti-sway positioning control method via load generalized position
           tracking with disturbance observer

    • Authors: Dan Niu, Yuxuan Zhu, Xisong Chen, Qi Li, Xiaojun Wang, Yanlan Yang, Simin Wang
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The bridge crane system is widely used in the industrial production for transporting large loads. Its anti-sway positioning control is quite crucial for enhancing handling efficiency and safety, but it is also difficult due to underactuated dynamics and various disturbances. In this paper, an anti-sway positioning control algorithm for unmanned crane is proposed based on the load generalized position tracking control algorithm (GPTC), which combines with a disturbance observer to effectively reject the lumped disturbances. The test results show that the proposed method can effectively achieve anti-sway and positioning with prominent disturbance suppression improvements.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-10-13T07:16:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020962133
  • Research on design method of double-loop electric servo loading system
           with high-frequency band based on H∞ control strategy

    • Authors: Yang Shui, Jianli Wei, Jie Yan
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In the hardware-in-the-loop simulation, the goal of electric loading is to realize the accurate tracking of the torque signal and test the performance of the aircraft actuator system. For some high dynamic aircraft, it is necessary to reduce the influence of the surplus torque to increase the system frequency band. This paper introduces a new electric loading system which adopts a double-loop servo motor as the torque loading mechanism. It applies two loops to track the position of the rudder and the aerodynamic load spectrum respectively. For the purpose of reducing the disturbance between two loops of the scheme, a two-DOF H∞ robust controller is designed, which improves the robustness of the system effectively. The simulation results show that the new system increases the upper limit of 25 Hz frequency band of the traditional single-loop system with PID control to the maximum of 40 Hz. The double-loop system thereby meets the technical requirements of the hardware-in-the-loop simulation experiment for high dynamic aircrafts.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-10-13T07:16:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020962137
  • Free space traveling–standing wave attenuation method for microwave
           sensing of grain moisture content

    • Authors: Chenxiao Li, Xiaoting Yu, Zezhao Chen, Qian Song, Yanlei Xu
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Moisture content is an important index to assess the grain quality and food processing conditions. A measurement system based on the traveling–standing microwave attenuation method is designed for a fast and nondestructive grain moisture content determination. The proposed system consists of a microwave cavity oscillator, microwave transmitting and receiving horn antennas, microwave detector, slide rail, sample container, weight sensor, temperature sensor, and controller. The traveling–standing wave caused by free space microwave multiple reflection is discussed. The moisture content calibration functions eliminated the interference of bulk density and temperature are proposed based on the attenuation of the maximum field strength of the transmission traveling–standing wave. The moisture content of rice, which ranges from 10.75% to 27.62%, is obtained with a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 0.586% and a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.988, whereas the moisture content of corn, which ranges from 7.72% to 24.46%, is obtained with a SEP of 0.340% and R2 of 0.991. The main results might provide technical support for the development of accurate and intelligent grain quality detection equipment.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-10-13T07:15:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020962138
  • Optimal design of high-performance aerostatic equipment based on finite
           difference method with flux error feedback

    • Authors: Tao Lai, Xiaoqiang Peng, Junfeng Liu
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      This paper proposes an aerostatic lubrication model with the use of finite difference method, and the solution of the model is designed with the combination of flux error feedback and grid parameter optimization. The model and solution are validated by the performance test on the slider with the diameter of orifice at 50 and 200 μm. Finally, the proposed model is applied to the optimal design of the aerostatic turntable, and the type, parameter and configuration of the restriction are determined by the optimal results. To guarantee the accuracy of key parts, the ultra-precision turning technology is applied to manufacture of turntable, and the runout of the end face meets the design requirements through the verification. The proposed model and solution are significant to the analysis and design of high-performance aerostatic equipments.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-10-10T07:25:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294018824124
  • Output feedback disturbance rejection control for building structure
           systems subject seismic excitations

    • Authors: Qixun Lan, Xiaoguo Zhang, Yajie Li, Jingjing Mu, Weiping Zhu, Huafeng Xu
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, the output feedback disturbance rejection control (OFDRC) problem is considered for buildings structures subject seismic excitations. First, based on a mild assumption and a linear transformation, the addressed problem of building structure system is translated into the output feedback disturbance rejection control problem large-scale system with disturbances. Then, by utilizing generalized-proportional-integral observer (GPIO) technique and output feedback domination approach, an output feedback decentralized disturbance rejection control law is derived via a systematic design manner. The multi-overlapping output feedback disturbance rejection controller is obtained according to the inverse transformation of a linear transformation. Strict theory analysis demonstrates that the states of the structure system will be stabilized to a small bounded region. Finally, an 8-story structure system is employed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed OFDRC exhibits better seismic loads attenuation ability and strong robustness against model uncertainties.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-10-07T06:11:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020959743
  • Stable bounded value analysis of disturbance in stochastic linear power

    • Authors: Jie Xu, Zhanbei Tong, Wengen Gao
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Stochastic disturbances play a profound problem in the power system, which have an important impact on the stability of the power system. The paper proposes the stability analysis of stochastic disturbance bounded value of linear power system, and presents that the stability of power system has bounded value under stochastic disturbance and additional disturbance, and gives the analysis process in combination with stochastic differentiation. The equation theory proposes a numerical solution based on mean stability to calculate the boundedness of infinite systems under the influence of stochastic disturbance and additional disturbance. The results show that the system has bounded value stability under the disturbance.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-10-05T06:13:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020959105
  • An improved imperialist competitive algorithm for hybrid flowshop
           rescheduling in steelmaking-refining-continuous casting process

    • Authors: Kunkun Peng, Xudong Deng, Chunjiang Zhang, Quan-Ke Pan, Liang Ren, Xinfu Pang
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Steelmaking-refining-Continuous Casting (SCC) is a key process in iron and steel production. SCC scheduling is to determine an optimal schedule for the SCC process, which is a worldwide and important problem. High-quality SCC scheduling methods will help to allocate production resources effectively and increase the productivity. However, dynamic events (e.g. machine breakdown) may happen in the realistic SCC process, which will make the SCC schedule inexecutable or not optimal. In this case, SCC rescheduling is essential in order to obtain a new optimal schedule suitable for the current production environments. The SCC rescheduling can be modeled as hybrid flowshop rescheduling. In this paper, an Improved Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (IICA) is proposed to address the SCC rescheduling. In the proposed IICA, an empire initialization is first devised for constructing an initial population with diversity and certain quality. Moreover, multiswap-based local search and imperialist competition are designed to improve the exploitation ability of the IICA, while revolution and restart strategy are devised to enhance the exploration ability of the IICA. Comparison experiments with three kinds of ICA have shown the efficiency of the IICA.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-10-03T07:26:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020960187
  • Disturbance rejection control for a wastewater treatment process by a
           learning approach

    • Authors: Wei Wei, Nan Chen, Zaiwen Liu, Min Zuo
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Nonlinearities, uncertainties and external disturbances commonly exist in a wastewater treatment process (WWTP). Those issues present great challenges to the control of the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in a WWTP. In this paper, an active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) is utilized to estimate the total disturbance and drive the DO concentration to track the set-value. Simultaneously, an iterative learning strategy is employed to adjust the parameters of an extended state observer (ESO) to improve the accuracy of the estimation and reduce the dependence on experience in determining parameters. By combining the advantages of the ADRC and the iterative learning strategy, an iterative learning based active disturbance rejection control (ILADRC) is constructed, and the close-loop stability is analyzed. The benchmark simulation model No.1 (BSM1) is utilized to confirm the ILADRC. Numerical results show that the ILADRC is more effective in the DO concentration control.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-09-30T07:57:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020952490
  • Researched on the bias stability of the HRG affected by the temperature
           and the standing wave azimuth

    • Authors: Wanliang Zhao, Hao Yang, Lijun Song, Xiangyu Yu, Fucheng Liu, Yan Su
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The force-to-rebalanced control mode is the main operating mechanism of the HRG, and the standing wave azimuth of the resonator points to the 0° direction. But the bias of the HRG is very sensitive to the change of external physical field environment and it is urgent to improve the bias stability. The relationship between the bias of the HRG and the standing wave azimuth is periodic. When the standing wave azimuth and the damping axis are aligned, the bias error of the HRG will be greatly reduced, and the bias stability of the HRG affected by the temperature can also be improved by changing the azimuth of standing wave. In this paper, the control algorithm and the hardware circuit of the HRG are designed to control the HRG at any standing wave azimuths. The control of the HRG in different standing wave azimuths is realized, and the system temperature experiment is carried out. The experimental results show that the bias of the HRG are significantly different at different standing wave azimuths, and the bias stability of the HRG affected by the temperature can be improved 3 times by changing the standing wave azimuth.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-09-30T07:56:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020952465
  • Smooth reference modulation based protection of fault current limiting
           DC/DC converters

    • Authors: Hooman Noroozi, Iman Sadeghkhani
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Low voltage DC microgrids have been gaining great attention for the integration of renewable energy source and energy storage units, and electronic loads. DC microgrids are commonly controlled using the hierarchical control strategy (HCS) to provide flexible operation in both grid-connected and islanded modes. The HCS relies on proportional-integral (PI) controllers and employs the droop control strategy. To improve the fault ride-through of HCS based extra low voltage DC microgrids, this paper proposes a simple, accurate, and cost-effective current limiting strategy. The proposed control system based scheme modulates the current reference of the primary control level of HCS during an overcurrent condition using the smooth set point automatic adjustment with correction enabled technique. It properly protects the semiconductor switches of interface voltage-sourced DC-DC converters by accurate limiting their inductor currents. The main advantage of the proposed scheme is that it is implemented in the available PI controller based primary control level of the HCS. Also, it does not require the converter and load data. Several case studies performed in MATLAB/Simulink environment are presented to demonstrate the superior ability of this scheme for limiting fault current in different scenarios compared to conventional current limiters.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-09-22T05:41:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020952454
  • Enhanced character embedding for Chinese named entity recognition

    • Authors: Bingjing Jia, Zhongli Wu, Bin Wu, Yutong Liu, Pengpeng Zhou
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Traditional named entity recognition methods mainly explore the application of hand-crafted features. Currently, with the popularity of deep learning, neural networks have been introduced to capture deep features for named entity recognition. However, most existing methods only aim at modern corpus. Named entity recognition in ancient literature is challenging because names in it have evolved over time. In this paper, we attempt to recognise entities by exploring the characteristics of characters and strokes. The enhanced character embedding model, named ECEM, is proposed on the basis of bidirectional encoder representations from transformers and strokes. First, ECEM can generate the semantic vectors dynamically according to the context of the words. Second, the proposed algorithm introduces morphological-level information of Chinese words. Finally, the enhanced character embedding is fed into the bidirectional long short term memory-conditional random field model for training. To explore the effect of our proposed algorithm, experiments are carried out on both ancient literature and modern corpus. The results indicate that our algorithm is very effective and powerful, compared with traditional ones.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-09-21T08:48:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020952456
  • Vibration transmission characteristic analysis of the metro turnout area
           by constant-Q nonstationary Gabor transform

    • Authors: Sang Tao, Zhao Caiyou, Wang Yuhang, Gao Xin, Wang Liuchong
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The problem of vibration in turnout zones caused by passing trains has become increasingly serious due to the complexity of the structure and force of metro turnouts. However, there are only a few studies focusing on the vibration transmission characteristics in turnout zones. In this paper, three typical turnouts in a city were studied to test the vibration responses of track slabs and a tunnel wall in the switch zone and the crossing zone when a train was passing a turnout. First, the short-time Fourier transform, wavelet transform, and constant-Q nonstationary Gabor transform (CQ-NSGT) were applied to the typical time-domain signal of tunnel wall respectively. The comparison results showed that CQ-NSGT delivered a higher time resolution and a higher frequency resolution. Based on this, the CQ-NSGT was used to analyze the vibration signal of the track slabs and specifically study the vertical vibration characteristics of the track slabs in the turnout zone toward the tunnel at the time when a train was passing. The result showed the vibration signal transmitted to the tunnel wall from the track slabs in both the switch and crossing zones will experience high-frequency vibration attenuation. It was noted that different train types have no effects on the vibration signal transmission rule, but an increase in the train speed will increase the vibration energy and expand the frequency band when the signal was transmitted to the tunnel wall.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-09-17T09:49:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020952466
  • A novel active disturbance rejection control with hyperbolic tangent
           function for path following of underactuated marine surface ships

    • Authors: Ronghui Li, Baozhu Jia, Shaoyong Fan, Xinxiang Pan
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents a TADRC method via active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) with hyperbolic tangent function for path following of underactuated surface ships with input constraint, heading rate constraint, parameters uncertainties, as well as environment disturbances. The line of sight (LOS) guidance scheme that computes the desired heading angle on basis of cross tracking error and a look ahead distance, converts path following into heading control, and also renders good helmsman behavior. Moreover, hyperbolic tangent function is introduced to modify the linear extended state observer (LESO) to design a nonlinear observer (TESO) for promoting the estimation performance of the heading, heading rate and total disturbances including parameters uncertainties and environmental disturbances. Then, the linear error feedback control is modified by a nonlinear sliding mode control scheme with hyperbolic tangent function to handle the heading rate constraint and to obtain the better control action. Furthermore, the feedback control law is embedded in a standard Quadratic Programming (QP) cost function to handle the input constraints including rudder saturation and rudder rate limit. Finally, the comparison simulation demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method for the underactuated ship’s path following.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-09-17T09:49:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020952484
  • A scientometric analysis and critical review of gas turbine aero-engines
           control: From Whittle engine to more-electric propulsion

    • Authors: Seyed Jalal Mohammadi, Seyed Alireza Miran Fashandi, Soheil Jafari, Theoklis Nikolaidis
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The gas turbine aero-engine control systems over the past eight decades have been thoroughly investigated. This review purposes are to present a comprehensive reference for aero-engine control design and development based on a systematic scientometric analysis and to categorize different methods, algorithms, and approaches taken into account to improve the performance and operability of aircraft engines from the first days to present to enable this challenging technology to be adopted by aero-engine manufacturers. Initially, the benefits of the control systems are restated in terms of improved engine efficiency, reduced carbon dioxide emissions, and improved fuel economy. This is followed by a historical coverage of the proposed concepts dating back to 1936. A comprehensive scientometric analysis is then presented to introduce the main milestones in aero-engines control. Possible control strategies and concepts are classified into four distinct phases, including Single input- single output control algorithms, MIN-MAX or Cascade control algorithms, advanced control algorithms, More-electric and electronic control algorithms and critically reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of milestones are discussed to cover all practical aspects of the review to enable the researchers to identify the current challenges in aircraft engine control systems.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-09-17T09:47:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020956675
  • A medical network clustering method with weighted graph structure

    • Authors: Hong Wu, Zijian Fu, Yizhou Wang
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Today, most of the databases used for drug information mining are derived from the collection of many treatments under a single disease, and some special drug compatibility rules can be found from them. However, researchers’ exploration of medical data is not limited to this. The comparative analysis of drugs for different diseases has become a new research point. In this paper, the drug is used as a node, the relationship is the edge connecting the two nodes, the co-occurrence frequency of the drug is used as the weight of the edge to establish a network graph. We use the clustering algorithm of the weighted network graph center diffusion method combining the network topology and the edge weights to divide the network graph into communities. Then we proposed the Structural Clustering Algorithm on Weighted Networks (SCW), it helps to study the prescription of medical prescriptions and provides more scientific recommendations for auxiliary prescriptions. In the experiment, SCW is compared with the classic community discovery algorithm CPM, the network function modular analysis algorithm MCODE and the hierarchical network graph structure analysis algorithm BGLL. We analyze the results according to NMI, ARI and F-Measure. Finally, a case study of real data was conducted to ensure the correctness and effectiveness of the algorithm, and to obtain the potential drug combination in the medical prescription.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-09-12T11:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020952469
  • Boom motion trajectory generation approach for load sway rejection in
           rotary cranes considering double-pendulum effect

    • Authors: Huimin Ouyang, Xiang Xu, Guangming Zhang
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In the control research on the rotary crane systems with double-pendulum effect, a motion trajectory with both simple structure and excellent robust performance is proposed to achieve the positioning of the boom and the suppression of the load sway. The presented trajectory consists of an anti-swing component and a boom positioning component, where the first part is used to achieve the sway angle elimination without affecting boom positioning; the second one is used to move the boom to the desired location precisely. The Lyapunov technique, LaSalle’s invariance theorem, and Barbalat’s lemma are used to prove the excellent performance of the method. Eventually, the effectiveness of the proposed method was verified through a large amount of simulation data analysis.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-09-09T08:47:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020944964
  • Modeling and adaptive robust wavelet control for a liquid container system
           under slosh and uncertainty

    • Authors: Mohammad Abdulrahman Al-Mashhadani
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Liquid sloshing in moving or stationary containers and flexible uncertainty caused by the slosh are considered to be the most probable causing unexpected coupling effects on the dynamics of many systems such as aerospace, ground vehicles, and high speed industries arms.The coupling of dynamic liquid slosh in a container system with the uncertainty caused by the sensors or dampers is rare documented and this coupling can be considered as a highly nonlinear system.In this paper, an investigation is presented to demonstrate a new approach for enabling the reduction of the liquid slosh and uncertainty by implementing adaptive robust wavelet control technique.Starting by creating the mathematical dynamic model for the nonlinear slosh coupled by uncertainty, adaptive robust control based wavelet transform is applied for calculating optimal motion that minimize residual slosh and uncertainty.Subsequently the adaptive robust control based wavelet network approximation and the appropriate parameter algorithms for the container system with slosh and uncertainty are derived to achieve the feedback linearization, adaptive control, and H∞ tracking performance.The simulation results show that the effects of slosh errors and external uncertainty can be successfully attenuated within a desired attenuation level.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-09-04T09:03:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020952487
  • A review of different designs and control models of remotely operated
           underwater vehicle

    • Authors: Ying He, Dao Bo Wang, Zain Anwar Ali
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      This article reviews remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROUV) and its different types focusing on the control systems. This study offers a brief introduction of unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) together with ROUV. Underwater robots are designed to work as an alternative to humans because of a difficult and hazardous underwater environment. The applications and demand of marine robots are increasing with the passage of time. There are several research articles and publications available on these topics but, a complete review of old and recent research about this technology is still hard to find. This article also assesses some recently published research papers on underwater systems. It presents the comparison of different control systems and designs of underwater vehicles. There have been major developments in marine technology depending on the needs, applications and cost of different missions. Scientists design many remotely operated vehicles based on the educational or industrial purposes. This article is presented in order to help and assist the future researchers as a massive review of the field of remotely operated underwater vehicles and their possible future developments are presented.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-09-02T07:13:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020952483
  • Study on the length of pipe inlet section of pulp fluid based on CFD

    • Authors: Song Gao, Xinwu Du, Shengjie Jin, Qiaohong Liu, Hao Ma
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In the paper industry, to determine the installation positions of concentration sensor and flow sensor of pulp pipe transportation system, the length of pipe inlet section of pulp fluid must be determined. In order to solve the problem that it is difficult to determine the length of pipe inlet section of pulp fluid, the paper presents a method to determine the length of pipe inlet section of pulp fluid, and the relationship between the length of inlet section and pulp fluid parameters is studied by this method. Firstly, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) method is applied to obtain flow velocity and solid phase concentration distribution data of pulp fluid at different axial positions in the pipe. Then, Pearson correlation coefficient method is applied to analyze these data. Finally, the length of pipe inlet section of pulp fluid is determined according to the obtained correlation coefficient, and the relationship between the length of pipe inlet section of pulp fluid and initial average flow velocity and solid phase concentration is obtained. The conclusion shows that the method can well obtain the length of pipe inlet section of pulp fluid, which provide some theoretical basis for the design of pulp pipe transportation system.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-09-02T07:11:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020952471
  • Calculation model for the earth potential of HVDC ground electrode based
           on image recognition of surface-layer soil moisture

    • Authors: He Peiyu, Li Peng, Peng Qingjun, Cao Min, Yi Hu, Li Bo
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Changes in soil electrical parameters can affect the distribution of earth potential in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) ground electrodes when climatic conditions changes. This paper proposes a model to describe the relationship between surface-layer soil moisture and surface-layer soil resistivity under short-term climatic influence, by using image recognition technology. Based on the relatively stable resistivity of lower soil layers, a soil model more reflective of the actual operating conditions is established for soils near the ground electrode, and a finite element method is adopted to calculate the earth-surface potential (ESP). The experimental results indicate the following: (1) Compared with other measurement methods, image recognition of surface soil resistivity is a low-cost, real-time, online, and accurate method; and (2) changes in surface-layer soil moisture affect both ESP and step voltage. These effects are large in the case of high resistivity for the soil layer where the ground electrode is buried. This large fluctuation in step voltage particularly results in a potential safety hazards during ground electrode operation. Therefore, in order to ensure personal safety and obtain more accurate electrical parameters, it is necessary to consider the effect of natural climate on the soil surface resistivity. Finally, the value of the step voltage can be observed using image recognition, this also provides a new method for the safety monitoring of the DC ground electrode.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-09-02T07:05:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020952457
  • Empirical analysis on human dynamics of sharing-bicycles’ user

    • Authors: Kui Yu
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      With the development of mobile communication and global positioning system navigation and positioning technology, analysis of user behavior on mobile Internet has become a hot topic in research area. Sign in sharing-bicycles’ app, find bicycle location, and selected has become a part of mobile Internet user’s daily life. Based on the data analysis of the spatial and temporal characteristics, find out sharing-bicycle’s user behavior obeys power-law distribution. In the time interval, user behavior of sharing-bicycle has strong intermittency and weak memory; the exponent of probability that K edge nodes is three by fitting the distance of sharing-bicycle’s data curve. It is verified that mobile Internet is long to scale-free networks. We conclude seven characteristics of user’s behavior of sharing-bicycle in mobile Internet application from experimental results. The analysis of sharing-bicycle’s behavior has become a complement and extension in human dynamics research field.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-09-01T07:13:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020936780
  • Multi-objective optimization of drilling parameters for orthopaedic

    • Authors: Parvesh Antil, Sundeep Kumar Antil, Chander Prakash, Grzegorz Królczyk, Catalin Pruncu
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Titanium (Ti) and its alloys have gained immense popularity as biomaterials in recent years. Their excellent specific strength makes them outstanding materials for orthopaedic applications. However, in the orthopaedic application, precise micro-drilling (i.e. implants inserts) is required, which is very challenging for these materials. To overcome this issue, the present research proposes an experimental study corroborated with a multi-objective optimization by simulating the drilling under electric discharge machining of Ti-6Al-4V. Taguchi’s methodology–based L9 orthogonal array was used for the experimental study. Voltage, current, pulse on and pulse off were used as the input parameters for the experimental investigation. In order to achieve suitable precise drilling, the material removal rate and surface finish were used as response parameters. Here, by optimizing parameters of the precise drilling, it is possible to obtain high material removal rate and better surface finish simultaneously. The Grey relational analysis was adopted to analyse the output quality characteristics. The optimized results generated through the Grey relational analysis are highly accurate with respect to the experimental outcomes.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-09-01T07:12:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020947126
  • Tracking control via sliding mode for heavy-haul trains with input

    • Authors: Jing He, Xingxing Yang, Changfan Zhang, Jianhua Liu, Qian Zhang, Xueyuan Chen
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      To address the tracking control problem of heavy-haul trains (HHTs) with input saturation during operation, an anti-saturation sliding mode (SMES) control method based on dynamic auxiliary compensator (DAC) is presented. Firstly, an HHT model with nonlinear coupling and uncertain disturbances is built. Secondly, a new type of DAC is introduced to overcome the difficulty of traditional dynamic auxiliary compensator (TDAC) with a large upper bound on the compensation signal. Finally, an anti-saturation SMES control algorithm is designed to reduce the influence of input saturation on the tracking accuracy of each carriage. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the algorithm in terms of tracking accuracy, anti-interference, and anti-saturation.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-09-01T07:12:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020952459
  • Rigid-body attitude control guaranteeing finite-time convergence

    • Authors: Shenhao Li, Taotao Zhang
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      This study proposes an effective solution to the problem of attitude control for a rigid body satisfying angular velocity constraint as well as providing fault-tolerant capability. More specifically, a finite-time sliding surface containing attitude quaternion and angular velocity is first defined. Then, a novel tan-type prescribed performance control (PPC) with simple structure is presented to confine the sliding surface within a predefined performance boundary. Not only the attitude quaternion and angular velocity are indirectly constrained, but also it is thoroughly proved that the rotation velocity constraint is met even when severe actuators faults occur. The closed-loop attitude system is confirmed to be finite-time stable in the sense of Lyapunov stability. Numerical simulations clearly illustrate the effectiveness and usefulness of the suggested finite-time PPC despite actuator faults and environmental disturbances.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-09-01T07:11:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020952479
  • Artificial Intelligence based rule base fire engine testing model for
           congestion handling in opportunistic networks

    • Authors: Ahthasham Sajid, Nighat Usman, Imranullah Khan, Saeeda Usman, Aamir Mirza Mehmood, Muhammad Sheraz Arshad Malik, Javed Masood Rana
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Opportunistic network is emerging as a research domain nowadays with the introduction of Internet of things phenomena. In recent years, storage level congestion issue due to handheld devices is considered as a key challenge to be handled in the opportunistic networks. The prime objective of conducting this research is to develop artificial intelligence rule-based fire engine model to be tested using artificial intelligence latest classification algorithms further implemented using ONE simulator tool over MaxProp protocol. The achieved results show 98% accuracy in terms of classification using k-fold validation technique over six algorithms. The achieved results have been compared with MaxProp protocol over evaluation parameters such as delivery ratio, throughput, routing load, and overhead; whereas delivery ratio increase about 20% for node level and 5% for buffer level and throughput tends to increase 500 and 150 kbps for network and buffer levels, respectively.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-08-26T06:13:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020944965
  • Experiment and application of ceramsite concrete used to maintain roadway
           in coal mine

    • Authors: Ying Chen, Qianjia Hui, Hongwei Zhang, Zhijie Zhu, Cunwen Wang, Jian Zhao
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents a scientific basis and reference for the application of ceramsite concrete in underground coal mines. Taking fly-ash ceramsite as raw material, a variety of mix proportions of C20 ceramsite concrete were proposed by changing the sand rate of concrete. The results showed that: (1) fly-ash ceramsite has different water absorption performance with different particle sizes. The water absorption stopped after soaked for 48 h. So, the ceramsite should be soaked for more than 48 h to prevent the cement from hydrating insufficient which affects the mechanical properties of the concrete. (2) Seven mix proportions of C20 ceramsite concrete were designed by changing the ceramsite proportion. The ceramsite proportion of 43% was determined as optimal scheme whose 28-day strength was 29.60 MPa and elastic modulus was 12.45 GPa. (3) The optimal scheme was applied and verified in the field. The early strength of ceramsite concrete promotes quickly, 3-day strength was 16.8 MPa, and the 28-day strength was 29.9 MPa. Compared with ordinary pebble concrete, ceramsite concrete can provide faster, higher strength support to the roadway. Meanwhile, ceramsite concrete have properties of lightweight, and its application will bring economic and social benefits.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-08-26T06:13:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020947134
  • Modeling and simulation on speed prediction of bypass pipeline inspection
           gauge in medium of water and crude oil

    • Authors: Zengmeng Zhang, Yong Yang, Jiaoyi Hou, Yongjun Gong
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Bypass pipeline inspection gauges have the advantages of low cost and bringing no consumption in transportation efficiency and have been widely used in pipe cleaning, inspecting, and maintaining operations. The moving speed of bypass pipeline inspection gauges will seriously affect the results of the operations, so there are strict requirements on the moving speed of bypass pipeline inspection gauges. Because the moving speed of pipeline inspection gauge is difficult to measure or control in real time, it is important to predict it. This paper studies the influencing factors and their impact methods of pipeline inspection gauges’ motion. Through the combination of computational fluid dynamics simulation and friction mathematical model, the relationship between the value of the bypass hole diameter and the pipeline inspection gauges’ moving speed was studied. Under the selected research conditions, when the diameter of the bypass hole is increased from 0.1 to 0.5 m, the moving speed of pipeline inspection gauge in water and crude oil is, respectively, decreased from 2.779 to 0.589 m/s and from 2.777 to 0.373 m/s, and the relationship between them can be approximately described by a function. Based on this principle, the moving speed of pipeline inspection gauge can be predicted mathematically. The experiments also indicate that the density and dynamic viscosity of the transport medium and the deformation amount of the bypass pipeline inspection gauge sealing disk will affect the movement state of pipeline inspection gauge in the pipeline. This research has guiding significance for the design of the pipeline inspection gauges’ structure size, which is beneficial to the pipeline robot to better meet the needs of cleaning, inspecting, and maintaining operations, and has reference value for related researches.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-08-26T06:13:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020947123
  • Trajectory planning and tracking control for autonomous parallel parking
           of a non-holonomic vehicle

    • Authors: Jiaxu Zhang, Zhengtang Shi, Xiong Yang, Jian Zhao
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      This paper proposes autonomous parallel parking for a front-wheel steering vehicle, with highlights on a trajectory planning method and on a trajectory tracking control method. The trajectory planning problem is decoupled into the path planning problem and the longitudinal velocity planning problem to reduce the difficulty of the trajectory planning problem. First, a collision-free path by combining circle arcs with straight line is created to park the vehicle in one or more maneuvers on the premise of meeting the kinematic constraint of vehicle, and then the path is transformed into a continuous-curvature path using B-spline curve. Second, the longitudinal velocity is created using B-spline curve on the premise of meeting the performance constraints of driving and braking system. To execute the generated trajectory, a non-time reference path tracking sliding mode control strategy is deduced by Lyapunov stability theory, and a longitudinal velocity tracking proportional–integral control strategy is proposed based on smooth handoff method. Finally, the parking performance is verified based on model-in-the-loop simulation system.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-08-25T01:29:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020944961
  • Visual servo optimization stabilization of nonholonomic mobile robots
           based on control Lyapunov functions

    • Authors: Yegui Lin, Kexin Xing
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      This study considers the visual stabilization problem of nonholonomic mobile robots and proposes a novel optimization stabilization method for visual servo control of nonholonomic mobile robots with monocular cameras fixed onboard. The main idea of the method is to utilize control Lyapunov functions of discrete-time nonlinear systems to design a family of explicit stabilization control laws of the visual servo error system. The parameters of the control laws can indirectly reflect the performance of the visual servo controllers. Then taking account of visibility constraints and actuator limitations, a set of optimal parameters of the control laws is calculated by offline solving a constrained finite horizon optimal control problem. Moreover, the stabilization results on the optimal visual servo controller are established based on the properties of control Lyapunov functions. Finally, some simulation experiments are used to illustrate and evaluate the performance of the visual servo control scheme proposed here.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-08-24T06:33:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020944960
  • Multi-objective parametric optimization for high surface quality and
           process efficiency in micro-grinding

    • Authors: Jun Wang, Qiang Ye, Man Zhao, Xusheng Shi, Tingwei Fei
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, for the selection of maximum material removal rate and minimum surface roughness [math] in micro-grinding of aluminum alloy through multi-response optimization, two optimization approaches are proposed based on statistical analysis and genetic algorithm. The statistical analysis–based approach applies response surface methodology according to the analysis of variance to propose a mathematical model for [math]. In addition, the individual desirability of material removal rate, [math], and the global desirability function are calculated, and the inverse analysis is conducted to locate input setting giving maximum desirability function. The genetic algorithm–based approach uses the improved multi-objective particle swarm optimization with the experimental data trained by support vector machine. To demonstrate that the material microstructure is a significant parameter for material removal rate and [math], the models with and without Taylor factor consideration are developed and compared. The optimized results achieved from both response surface methodology and improved multi-objective particle swarm optimization demonstrate that the consideration of Taylor factor can significantly improve the optimization process to achieve the maximum material removal rate and minimum [math].
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-08-21T12:00:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020944953
  • Masking of temporal activity for video quality control, measurement and

    • Authors: Ali Akbar Siddique, M Tahir Qadr, Zia Mohy-Ud-Din
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Every video stream possesses temporal redundancy based on the amount of motion presenting in it. An ample amount of motion in a video sequence may cause distorting artifacts, and in order to avoid them, there is a possibility to mask the motion or temporal activity that is not noticeable to a human eye in real time. The artifacts such as blockiness and blurriness are instigated in the video sequence as soon as it is subjected to the process of compression, and they tend to become more and more intense with the increase in temporal activity. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed to mask the temporal activity using temporal masking coefficient (q) that is unnoticeable by a human eye to bring down the distortion levels. It is possible to adjust the quality of the video sequence by varying the q parameter and thus controlling its overall quality index. Frames are extracted from the video sequence, and displacement or motion vectors are also calculated from the consecutive frames using a bi-directional block matching algorithm. These motion vectors are used to estimate the quantity of motion present between consecutive frames of the same scene. Video sequences used for this purpose are basically H.264 format. Temporal masking is performed on a video sequence with and without the implementation of motion vector. Structural similarity index and peak signal-to-noise ratio are the quality measurement tools used to assess the performance of the proposed algorithm. A bit rate of 1.2% was saved by implementing proposed algorithm at q = 1 in contrast to the standard H.264/Advanced Video Coding.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-08-21T12:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020944949
  • Decentralized active disturbance rejection control design for the gas

    • Authors: Gengjin Shi, Zhenlong Wu, Ting He, Donghai Li, Yanjun Ding, Shangming Liu
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      As a clean energy engine, the gas turbine is widely used for the generation of the power plant and the propulsion of the warship. Its control is becoming more and more challenging for the reason that internal coupling exists and the load command changes frequently and extensively. However, advanced controllers are difficult to implement on the distributed control system and conventional proportional–integral–derivative controllers are unable to handle with aforementioned challenges. To solve this problem, this article designs a decentralized active disturbance rejection control for the power and exhaust temperature of the gas turbine. Simulation results illustrate that the decentralized active disturbance rejection control is able to obtain satisfactory tracking and disturbance rejection performance with strong robustness. Eventually, a numerical simulation is carried out which shows advantages of active disturbance rejection control in the control of power and exhaust temperature when the gas turbine is under variable working condition. This successful application of decentralized active disturbance rejection control to the gas turbine indicates its promising prospect of field tests in future power industry with increasing demand on integrating more renewable energy into the grid.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-08-20T02:38:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020947130
  • Cloud curriculum resource management platform based on Hadoop

    • Authors: Yu Zhao, Hongxin Liu
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The rapid development of online education, knowledge sharing, big data, and artificial intelligence technology has brought innovation to education. With the popularization of online education, the variety of teaching resources and the amount of curriculum resources have exploded, and traditional curriculum platforms have been unable to meet the growing demand. The paper builds a cloud computing platform based on Hadoop, which is used for big data analysis and application curriculum resource management. It elaborates on the architecture, functional design, resource storage, and implementation and test of the cloud resource platform. The cloud platform applies to and serves the field of education, which improves resource utilization and sharing, and it can provide better services for teachers, students, and staff.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-08-17T07:16:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020948088
  • A cross product calibration method for micro-electro mechanical system
           gyroscope in unmanned aerial vehicle attitude determination system

    • Authors: Yongjun Wang, Zhi Li, Xiang Li
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents a novel calibration method for micro-electro mechanical system gyroscope in attitude measurement system of small rotor unmanned aerial vehicles. This method is based on an observation vector and its cross product, which is especially valuable for the in-field calibration without the aid of external equipment. By analysing the error model of the tri-axial gyroscope, the principle of calibration is proposed. Compared with other algorithms, numerical simulations are performed to evaluate the effectiveness of integral form of the cross product calibration method. Experiment on the hex-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle platform shows that the proposed method has great advantages in low-cost integrated navigation system.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-08-12T07:53:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020944946
  • Dynamic flexible job shop scheduling method based on improved gene
           expression programming

    • Authors: Chunjiang Zhang, Yin Zhou, Kunkun Peng, Xinyu Li, Kunlei Lian, Suyan Zhang
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Dynamic scheduling is one of the most important key technologies in production and flexible job shop is widespread. Therefore, this paper considers a dynamic flexible job shop scheduling problem considering setup time and random job arrival. To solve this problem, a dynamic scheduling framework based on the improved gene expression programming algorithm is proposed to construct scheduling rules. In this framework, the variable neighborhood search using four efficient neighborhood structures is combined with gene expression programming algorithm. And, an adaptive method adjusting recombination rate and transposition rate in the evolutionary progress is proposed. The test results on 24 groups of instances with different scales show that the improved gene expression programming performs better than the standard gene expression programming, genetic programming, and scheduling rules.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-08-12T07:53:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020946352
  • A homogeneous extended state estimator-based super-twisting sliding mode
           compensator for matched and unmatched uncertainties

    • Authors: Ankur Goel, Saleh Mobayen, Afef Fekih
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In this research work, an output tracking problem of a kind of nonlinear motion control systems influenced by exogenous uncertainties using second-order super-twisting sliding mode control is studied. It is shown that when second-order super-twisting sliding mode control is implemented with finite-time convergent homogeneous extended state observer, the second-order sliding mode is achieved on the selected sliding manifold with efficient disturbance attenuation from the output. The presented control structure is tested on the air-gap control of an electromagnetic levitation suspension system using MATLAB platform. The observations prove the efficacy of the proposed algorithm providing excellent robust control efficiency along with precise attenuation of various disturbances.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-08-08T10:01:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020922273
  • Nonlinear differential and integral sliding mode control for wave
           compensation system of ship-borne manipulator

    • Authors: Zhiqiang Xu, Zhiyong Wang, Zhixin Shen, Yougang Sun
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Ship-borne manipulator system is extremely unstable under the complex marine environment, which seriously threatens the safety of operating equipment and operators. In this paper, the dynamics and robust control of wave compensation system for ship-borne manipulator are studied. First, based on the oil circuit variable amplitude control of ship-borne manipulator, the coupling dynamic model of valve-controlled cylinder parallel accumulator is established. Then, since traditional sliding mode needs high-order derivative of feedback angle, it is difficult to implement traditional sliding mode in real hardware system. To solve these problems, a nonlinear differential and integral sliding mode control strategy is proposed. The integral term is introduced to reduce the influence of unmodeled disturbance and parameter perturbation. The stability analysis proves that the system state can track the desired target signal, and the tracking error e(t) tends to zero. In addition, in order to weaken the phenomenon of system chattering, this paper introduces a nonlinear differential control to increase the damping coefficient of the system. The simulation and experimental results show that the control law has good dynamic performance, high control accuracy, and strong anti-disturbance ability without chattering phenomenon. It is of great significance to improve the efficiency and safety of ship-borne manipulator operation, and this paper also provides useful reference for wave compensation system of other marine equipment.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T07:08:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020944956
  • Multi-objective numerical simulation of geometrical characteristics of
           laser cladding of cobalt-based alloy based on response surface methodology

    • Authors: Lu-jun Cui, Meng Zhang, Shi-Rui Guo, Yan-Long Cao, Wen-Han Zeng, Xiao-lei Li, Bo Zheng
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The objectives of this study are to optimize the key process parameters of laser cladding remanufacturing parts, improve the sealing quality of the hemispherical valve and prolong and improve its service life and reliability. A high-power fiber-coupled semiconductor laser was used to fabricate a single Co-based alloy cladding layer on the pump valve material ZG45 plate. The key process parameters of laser power, scanning speed and powder feeding rate in the process of laser remanufacturing are taken as optimization variables, and the coating width, coating height, coating depth, aspect ratio and dilution rate are taken as response indexes. Based on the response surface analysis method, the central compound experiment is designed using Design-Expert software. The variance analysis of the experimental results is performed, and the regression prediction model of the process parameters relative to the corresponding index is established. Through analysis of the established perturbation diagram and three-dimensional response surface, it is concluded that the main influence factors of melting width and penetration depth are laser power and positive effect, and the main influence factors of melting height are scanning speed and negative effect. The average error of each regression prediction model is lower than 10%. The above research work has important guiding significance for optimizing the process parameters and improving the cladding quality of cobalt-based alloy on ZG45.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T06:43:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020944955
  • Adaptive iterative working state prediction based on the double unscented
           transformation and dynamic functioning for unmanned aerial vehicle
           lithium-ion batteries

    • Authors: Haotian Shi, Shunli Wang, Carlos Fernandez, Chunmei Yu, Xiaoxia Li, Chuanyun Zou
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In lithium-ion batteries, the accuracy of estimation of the state of charge is a core parameter which will determine the power control accuracy and management reliability of the energy storage systems. When using unscented Kalman filtering to estimate the charge of lithium-ion batteries, if the pulse current change rate is too high, the tracking effects of algorithms will not be optimal, with high estimation errors. In this study, the unscented Kalman filtering algorithm is improved to solve the above problems and boost the Kalman gain with dynamic function modules, so as to improve system stability. The closed-circuit voltage of the system is predicted with two non-linear transformations, so as to improve the accuracy of the system. Meanwhile, an adaptive algorithm is developed to predict and correct the system noises and observation noises, thus enhancing the robustness of the system. Experiments show that the maximum estimation error of the second-order Circuit Model is controlled to less than 0.20V. Under various simulation conditions and interference factors, the estimation error of the unscented Kalman filtering is as high as 2%, but that of the improved Kalman filtering algorithm are kept well under 1.00%, with the errors reduced by 0.80%, therefore laying a sound foundation for the follow-up research on the battery management system.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-07-08T08:38:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020923057
  • Sparse Fourier transform and amplitude–frequency characteristics
           analysis of vortex street signal

    • Authors: Jie Chen, Yun Cao, Chengyi Wang, Bin Li
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Vortex flowmeter is a commonly used flow measurement device. It is almost not affected by the density and viscosity of the fluid, so the vortex flowmeter can be used for the detection of various medium, such as gas, liquid and steam. When dealing with vortex street signal, we usually use fast Fourier transform to calculate the signal frequency, but this traditional vortex street signal processing method is not only inefficient, but also difficult to filter out noise signals in the same frequency band as the vortex signal. The sparse Fourier transform utilizes the sparsity of the signal to efficiently calculate the signal spectrum, and the computational complexity is lower than that of the fast Fourier transform algorithm. In this paper, the amplitude and frequency of the vortex signal is analyzed by sparse Fourier transform and the noise signal is removed based on the amplitude–frequency characteristics of the vortex signal. Finally, by comparing with the other methods, we found that the time complexity of our algorithm is one-tenth of others’ methods. This means that our approach is 10 times faster than others.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-06-12T11:10:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020919870
  • 3D target localization based on multi–unmanned aerial vehicle

    • Authors: Cheng Xu, Chanjuan Yin, Daqing Huang, Wei Han, Dongzhen Wang
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Ground target three-dimensional positions measured from optical remote-sensing images taken by an unmanned aerial vehicle play an important role in related military and civil applications. The weakness of this system lies in its localization accuracy being unstable and its efficiency being low when using a single unmanned aerial vehicle. In this paper, a novel multi–unmanned aerial vehicle cooperative target localization measurement method is proposed to overcome these issues. In the target localization measurement stage, three or more unmanned aerial vehicles simultaneously observe the same ground target and acquire multiple remote-sensing images. According to the principle of perspective projection, the target point, its image point, and the camera’s optic center are collinear, and nonlinear observation equations are established. These equations are then converted to linear equations using a Taylor expansion. Robust weighted least-squares estimation is used to solve the equations with the objective function of minimizing the weighted square sum of re-projection errors from target points to multiple pairs of images, which can make the best use of the effective information and avoid interference from the observation data. An automatic calculation strategy using a weight matrix is designed, and the weight matrix and target-position coordinate value are updated in each iteration until the iteration stopping condition is satisfied. Compared with the stereo-image-pair cross-target localization method, the multi–unmanned aerial vehicle cooperative target localization method can use more observation information, which results in higher rendezvous accuracy and improved performance. Finally, the effectiveness and robustness of this method is verified by numerical simulation and flight testing. The results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the precision of the target’s localization and demonstrates great potential for providing more accurate target localization in engineering applications.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-06-11T05:38:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020922268
  • Modeling and optimization of machining parameters in milling of
           INCONEL-800 super alloy considering energy, productivity, and quality
           using nanoparticle suspended lubrication

    • Authors: Te-Ching Hsiao, Ngoc-Chien Vu, Ming-Chang Tsai, Xuan-Phuong Dang, Shyh-Chour Huang
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Inconel-800 super alloy is a newly difficult-to-cut material. To improve the cutting conditions for this metal, sustainable methods in which minimum quantity lubrication enhanced with suspended nanoparticle were employed. This work also aims to model the relationship between process parameters (cutting speed, feed per tooth, depth of cut, and corner radius of cutting tool) and machining responses (surface roughness, specific cutting energy, cutting power, and material removal rate) using orthogonal array design of experiment and response surface methodology. Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm was used to solve the multi-objective optimization problems in terms of energy, productivity, and quality of the machining process. The results indicate that the application of the response surface methodology model in combination with non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm is appropriate for this study due to the goodness of fit of response surface methodology and the global optimum solution of genetic algorithm. Because multi-objective optimization gives multiple solutions, Pareto plot and data mining are employed to support the selection of process parameters that can save time and cost and increase energy efficiency, meanwhile, simultaneously improve productivity and surface quality. The research results show that the specific cutting energy and energy consumption can be reduced up to 20.2% and 6.4%, respectively.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-06-09T10:47:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020925842
  • A novel distributed event-triggered control for reactive power sharing
           based on hierarchical structure in islanded microgrid

    • Authors: Yingwen Long, Yanxiang Zhu, Wei Zhang
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Due to line impedance mismatches, nonlinear loads and other reasons, the traditional droop control algorithms have great limitations on the control of reactive power sharing. Distributed control algorithms based on hierarchical structure have become an effective approach for reactive power sharing compared with traditional centralized control methods. In this paper, an event-triggered control algorithm based on stability analysis of Lyapunov method is put forward in order to satisfy the demand of low-bandwidth communication for distributed generator in islanded microgrid. Subsequently, a distributed hierarchical control scheme adopting proposed event-triggered strategy is designed to achieve proportional reactive power sharing in an islanded microgrid. Finally, the feasibility and validity of the proposed algorithm are further verified in MATLAB/Simulink environment.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-06-07T11:09:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020924754
  • Model-free active input–output feedback linearization of a single-link
           flexible joint manipulator: An improved active disturbance rejection
           control approach

    • Authors: Wameedh Riyadh Abdul-Adheem, Ibraheem Kasim Ibraheem, Amjad J Humaidi, Ahmad Taher Azar
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Traditional input–output feedback linearization requires full knowledge of system dynamics and assumes no disturbance at the input channel and no system’s uncertainties. In this paper, a model-free active input–output feedback linearization technique based on an improved active disturbance rejection control paradigm is proposed to design feedback linearization control law for a generalized nonlinear system with a known relative degree. The linearization control law is composed of a scaled generalized disturbance estimated by an improved nonlinear extended state observer with saturation-like behavior and the nominal control signal produced by an improved nonlinear state error feedback. The proposed active input–output feedback linearization cancels in real-time fashion the generalized disturbances which represent all the unwanted dynamics, exogenous disturbances, and system uncertainties and transforms the system into a chain of integrators up to the relative degree of the system, which is the only information required about the nonlinear system. Stability analysis has been conducted based on the Lyapunov functions and revealed the convergence of the improved nonlinear extended state observer and the asymptotic stability of the closed-loop system. Verification of the outcomes has been achieved by applying the proposed active input–output feedback linearization technique on the single-link flexible joint manipulator. The simulations results validated the effectiveness of the proposed active input–output feedback linearization tool based on improved active disturbance rejection control as compared to the conventional active disturbance rejection control–based active input–output feedback linearization and the traditional input–output feedback linearization techniques.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-06-01T09:38:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020917171
  • Point cloud clustering and outlier detection based on spatial neighbor
           connected region labeling

    • Authors: Xiaocui Yuan, Huawei Chen, Baoling Liu
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Clustering analysis is one of the most important techniques in point cloud processing, such as registration, segmentation, and outlier detection. However, most of the existing clustering algorithms exhibit a low computational efficiency with the high demand for computational resources, especially for large data processing. Sometimes, clusters and outliers are inseparable, especially for those point clouds with outliers. Most of the cluster-based algorithms can well identify cluster outliers but sparse outliers. We develop a novel clustering method, called spatial neighborhood connected region labeling. The method defines spatial connectivity criterion, finds points connections based on the connectivity criterion among the k-nearest neighborhood region and classifies connected points to the same cluster. Our method can accurately and quickly classify datasets using only one parameter k. Comparing with K-means, hierarchical clustering and density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise methods, our method provides better accuracy using less computational time for data clustering. For applications in the outlier detection of the point cloud, our method can identify not only cluster outliers, but also sparse outliers. More accurate detection results are achieved compared to the state-of-art outlier detection methods, such as local outlier factor and density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T09:34:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020919869
  • Improved gravity model under policy control in regional logistics

    • Authors: Hongchun Wang, Mengyao Li
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Regional logistics has become an important direction of logistics development. The rationality of regional logistics network layout will affect the regional development. And the measurement and calculation of node gravity is an important aspect affecting the layout of logistics network. Nowadays, the traditional gravity model cannot measure the condition of a network properly. This paper focuses on the nodal gravity measurement in the logistics network and constructs an improved gravity model considering the role of policy. Quantifying the policy factors makes the measurement more realistic. We test our model on a famous regional logistics network in China. Result shows that cities are greatly influenced by policies, which change the node gravity obviously and even change the gravity level of logistics. This paper shows that the traditional gravity model ignores the impact of policy quantification on logistics gravity, and the improved gravity model that proposed in this paper has more practical significance.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T09:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020919849
  • Efficient neural learning control of nonlinear dynamics with applications

    • Authors: Ruixin Liu, Xiaogang Huang, Chunning Liu, Fucheng Liu
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The control of nonlinear dynamics is gaining increasing attention since many practical systems are with such kind of characteristics. To deal with the system uncertainty, in this paper, the efficient learning control using neural network is proposed for the nonlinear strict-feedback system. The whole scheme is with the back-stepping design, while the novel learning is proposed for the neural network weights update. To deal with the approximation error, the robust item is added. The stability of the closed-loop dynamics is analysed and the effectiveness of the design is verified through flight simulation.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T09:29:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020919904
  • Multi-objective optimization of hard milling process of AISI H13 in terms
           of productivity, quality, and cutting energy under nanofluid minimum
           quantity lubrication condition

    • Authors: Ngoc-Chien Vu, Xuan-Phuong Dang, Shyh-Chour Huang
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents the multi-objective optimization of the hard milling process of AISI H13 steel under minimum quality lubricant with graphite nanoparticle. The cutting speed, feed per tooth, depth of cut, and hardness of workpiece were taken as the process parameters, while surface roughness, cutting energy, cutting temperature, and material removal rate were considered as technological responses. Response surface or Kriging approximate models were applied to generate the mathematical regression models showing the relationship between machining inputs and outputs obtained by physical experiments. Then, multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm in conjunction with the Pareto approach and engineering data mining was adopted to figure out the feasible solutions. The research results show that cutting energy can be reduced up to around 14% compared to the worst case. Based on the Pareto plot, the appropriate selection of machining parameters can help the machine tool operator to increase machining productivity and energy efficiency.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T09:28:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020919457
  • Leader–follower formation source seeking control of multiple ships using
           sliding mode active disturbance rejection observer

    • Authors: Zhicheng Yuan, Benchao Wu, Jiayi He, Xingchen Fu, Hua Chen
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, the control of multiple ships for unknown scalar field source seeking problem with unknown external disturbances is considered. The sliding mode active disturbance rejection observers are designed first to converge to fixed multiple of the unknown external disturbances in finite time, respectively, and a least square method is adopted to estimate the gradient of the unknown scalar field at the position of the leading ship. Second, the surge, sway and angle velocity of the leading ship can converge to the virtual kinematic controllers through the input control of the dynamic controllers using force and torque in finite time. Third, the virtual controllers and dynamic controllers of the following ships are developed to urge the following ships to accomplish the source seeking problem from the perspective of dynamics. Finally, theoretical proofs and simulations are provided to prove the effectiveness of the strategy proposed.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T09:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020919925
  • Path planning of multiple UAVs using MMACO and DE algorithm in dynamic

    • Authors: Zain Anwar Ali, Han Zhangang, Di Zhengru
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Cooperative path planning of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles is a complex task. The collision avoidance and coordination between multiple unmanned aerial vehicles is a global optimal issue. This research addresses the path planning of multi-colonies with multiple unmanned aerial vehicles in dynamic environment. To observe the model of whole scenario, we combine maximum–minimum ant colony optimization and differential evolution to make metaheuristic optimization algorithm. Our designed algorithm, controls the deficiencies of present classical ant colony optimization and maximum–minimum ant colony optimization, has the contradiction among the excessive information and global optimization. Moreover, in our proposed algorithm, maximum–minimum ant colony optimization is used to lemmatize the pheromone and only best ant of each colony is able to construct the path. However, the path escape by maximum–minimum ant colony optimization and it treated as the object for differential evolution constraints. Now, it is ensuring to find the best global colony, which provides optimal solution for the entire colony. Furthermore, the proposed approach has an ability to increase the robustness while preserving the global convergence speed. Finally, the simulation experiment results are performed under the rough dynamic environment containing some high peaks and mountains.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T09:20:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020915727
  • An error-based active disturbance rejection control with memory structure

    • Authors: Sen Chen, Zhixiang Chen, Zhiliang Zhao
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The paper studies the control problem for nonlinear uncertain systems with the situation that only the current reference signal is available. By constructing a memory structure to save the previous reference signals, a novel error-based active disturbance rejection control with an approximation for the second-order derivative of reference signal is proposed. The transient performance of the proposed method is rigorously studied, which implies the high consistence of the closed-loop system. More importantly, to attain the satisfactory tracking performance, the necessary condition for nominal control input gain is quantitatively investigated. Furthermore, the superiority of the proposed method is illuminated by contrastively evaluating the sizes of the total disturbance and its derivative. The proposed method can alleviate the burden of the estimation and compensation for total disturbance. Finally, the experiment for a manipulator platform shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T05:42:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020915219
  • Angular velocity fusion of the microelectromechanical system inertial
           measurement unit array based on extended Kalman filter with correlated
           system noises

    • Authors: Li Xing, Xiaowei Tu, Weixing Qian, Yang Jin, Pei Qi
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The paper proposes an angular velocity fusion method of the microelectromechanical system inertial measurement unit array based on the extended Kalman filter with correlated system noises. In the proposed method, an adaptive model of the angular velocity is built according to the motion characteristics of the vehicles and it is regarded as the state equation to estimate the angular velocity. The signal model of gyroscopes and accelerometers in the microelectromechanical system inertial measurement unit array is used as the measurement equation to fuse and estimate the angular velocity. Due to the correlation of the state and measurement noises in the presented fusion model, the traditional extended Kalman filter equations are optimized, so as to accurately and reliably estimate the angular velocity. By simulating angular rates in different motion modes, such as constant and change-in-time angular rates, it is verified that the proposed method can reliably estimate angular rates, even when the angular rate has been out of the microelectromechanical system gyroscope measurement range. And results show that, compared with the traditional angular rate fusion method of microelectromechanical system inertial measurement unit array, it can estimate angular rates more accurately. Moreover, in the kinematic vehicle experiments, the performance advantage of the proposed method is also verified and the angular rate estimation accuracy can be increased by about 1.5 times compared to the traditional method.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T05:41:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020917702
  • Automatic detection of petiole border in plant leaves

    • Authors: Abdullah Elen, Emre Avuçlu
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Plants are our source of oxygen and nutrients on earth. Therefore, conservation of biodiversity is vital for the survival of other species. With the developing technology, plant species can be examined more closely. Image processing, which is a subject of computer science, has an important role in this field. In this study, an image processing–based method has been developed to automatically separate the petiole region of the plant leaves. To determine the boundary line of the petiole region, the cumulative pixel distributions of the input images in binary format according to the X- and Y-axis are analyzed. Accordingly, optimum thresholds and petiole boundary points are determined. The proposed method was tested on 795 leaf images from 90 different plant species that grow both as trees and shrubs in the Czech Republic. According to the results obtained in experimental studies, it is thought that the proposed method will make an important contribution especially in studies such as automatic classification of plants and leaves and determination of plant species in botanical science.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T05:39:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020917701
  • Fatigue life estimation of fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle engine by
           grey forecasting

    • Authors: Noor Muhammad, Zhigeng Fang, Yingsai Cao
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      To avoid infrared or thermal signatures of the fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle, the engine is encapsulated in a special cowling that limits the ventilation and causes thermal stress. The stressed condition heats up the engine and accelerates the degradation process compromising life and causing early failure. Fatigue life estimation can help to predict and prevent sudden failure and improve safety and reliability. The study presents a grey forecasting methodology for estimating the fatigue life of fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle engines operating under a stressed environment. Grey forecasting models are used for fatigue life estimation of the unmanned aerial vehicle engine using degradation data of output power for reliable flight hours (50 h). The result of grey forecasting models reveals that under normal operation, engine power drops to a threshold value of 9.4 kW (below this engine does not remain flight worthy) after 100 h. The forecasted life is in close agreement with the specification of the engine under normal operating conditions. This validates the accuracy of forecasting models. Furthermore, the forecast models are applied to estimate the fatigue life using degradation data in a stressed environment, which comes out to be 70 h. The study proposes application of grey forecasting to predict mechanical degradation and early failures by considering single or multiple parameters undergoing degradation and having limited data samples. Forecasting results are compared with other prediction tools like autoregressive–moving-average and found more accurate which shows the significance of grey forecasting models in a limited data sample environment. The results are also compared with exponential regression and found in close agreement but more robust.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T05:37:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020915215
  • Controlling of the melting through porous medium and magnetic field

    • Authors: Taza Gul, Raja S Gul, Waqas Noman, Fawad Hussain, Iraj S Amiri
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The melting procedure with a direct contact of phase change material is taken into account to consider the porous medium in the presence of a uniform and transverse magnetic field. A permeable rotating disk is taken as a heater in the melting progression of solid phase change material. The three-dimensional melting layer takes place due to the accruing of the temperature difference among the porous disk and solid material. Movement is subject to the effect of pressure loading (counting the weight of solid), direct relation with solid and rotation due to centrifugal force. The removal of melting is controlled due to the joint exertions of the porous media, wall permeability and resistive force generated due to the applied magnetic field. The motion of the melting layer is assumed unsteady and governed the nonlinear similarity equations. Furthermore, magnetic field, porosity, external load and wall suction enhance melting and heat transfer rates at the thin melts film thickness. The melting rate, momentum and thermal boundary layers are estimated under the impact of Stefan number, magnetic field, porosity parameter and unsteadiness parameter. The Eckert number enhances the thermal boundary layer, and consequently the larger amount of melting received. The governing PDEs is highly nonlinear; thus for the solution we use analytical method of HAM and BVPh 2.0 package. The important outputs of the thickness of the thin layer during melting process in the presence and absence of wall suction are mainly focused.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T05:34:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020919918
  • Experimental validation of fractional order internal model controller
           design on buck and boost converter

    • Authors: Shivam Jain, Yogesh V Hote, Padmalaya Dehuri, Deeksha Mittal, Vishwanatha Siddhartha
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, fractional order internal model control technique is formulated for non-ideal dc–dc buck and boost converter. The fractional order internal model control approach integrates the concept of Commande Robuste d’Ordre Non Entier principle for tuning a fractional order filter with internal model control scheme. The final controller can be expressed as a series combination of proportional integral derivative controller and a fractional order low pass filter. To assess the robustness of the proposed fractional order internal model control scheme, both the servo response and regulatory response of the dc–dc converters are investigated in the presence of disturbances. The efficacy of fractional order internal model control technique is demonstrated via comparison with 2 degrees of freedom internal model control scheme. Furthermore, an experimental validation of fractional order internal model control is conducted on laboratory setup, and a dSPACE 1104 microcontroller is used for hardware implementation. The simulation results and the hardware validation are a testimony to the effectiveness of fractional order internal model control technique.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T05:33:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020922264
  • Reliability prediction of further transit service based on support vector

    • Authors: Xiaoning Gu, Chao Chen, Yunong Yang, Xingzhi Miao, Baozhen Yao
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The requirement for transit reliability grows with the increase of pace of life since unstable bus arrivals can raise the anxiety of waiting passengers. This paper proposes a reliability assessment method to evaluate the reliability of each bus stop on the route and the reliability of bus routes. In reliability prediction, the prediction target is locked by rolling horizon to reduce the interference of other information. In addition, a prediction method of the reliability of further transit service using the accurate online support vector machine is proposed. This prediction can provide more accurate and stable data for the arrival of buses and reduce unnecessary waiting of passengers. Finally, the reliability prediction method proposed is tested with the real data of a bus route in Dalian, China. The results show that the accurate online support vector machine with reasonable parameters can predict the reliability of transit service accurately.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T05:28:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294019858101
  • CORRIGENDUM: Experimental investigations on the performance and noise
           characteristics of a forward-curved fan with the stepped tongue

    • Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T01:04:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020927588
  • N-version programming approach with implicit safety guarantee for complex
           dynamic system stabilization applications

    • Authors: Nadir Subasi, Ufuk Guner, Ilker Ustoglu
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Safety-critical systems are widely used in many sectors to prevent fatal accidents and prevent loss of life, damage of property, or deterioration of the environment. Implementation of software safety standards as part of the development of safety-critical software is generally considered an essential element of any safety program. Therefore, it has become more critical to produce highly reliable software to meet the safety requirements established by functional safety standards, such as IEC 61508, ISO 26262, and EN 50128. IEC 61508 supports well-known safety mechanisms such as design diversity like N-version (multi-version) programming. N-version (multi-version) programming is a method where multiple functionally equivalent programs are independently developed from the same software specifications. N-version (multi-version) programming is particularly an effective approach to increase the quality of software in a safety-critical system. In this paper, one of the well-known and widely used algorithms in the field of N-version (multi-version) programming, the majority voting algorithm, has been modified with an online stability checker where the decisions of the voter are judged against the stability of the underlying system. The plant where all the theoretical results are implemented is a tilt-rotor system with the proposed N-version (multi-version) programming–based controller. The experimental results show that the modified majority voter-based N-version (multi-version) programming controller provides more reliable control of the plant.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-01-13T10:08:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294019887473
  • Point-to-point motion control for flexible crane systems working in the
           deep sea

    • Authors: Yue Wang, Ning Sun, Yiming Wu, Xinwei Chen, Yongchun Fang
      First page: 1041
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      At present, marine resources, especially the deep-sea resources, are becoming more and more important in resource exploitation globally, and hence, widely used deep-sea cranes are playing essential roles. For such systems, the bridge frames and trolleys are set up above the water, while payloads are transported under the water. In this underwater situation, there exist hydrodynamic forces such as complicated disturbances to the crane systems, making the payload vibration and rope flexibility more obvious. For the sake of improving working efficiency, considering the constraints of all the state variables, an anti-vibration trajectory is designed for the trolley motion, which can not only ensure trolley positioning but also suppress the flexible payload’s vibrations. Then, the state variables are constrained within preset safety ranges. Finally, numerical simulation results prove the satisfactory performance of the designed method.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T05:17:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020913890
  • Using a dynamically selective support vector data description model to
           discover novelties in the control system of electric arc furnace

    • Authors: Jiong Zhang, Yue Wang, Qian Li, Biao Wang
      First page: 1049
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      As increasing data-driven control strategies are applied in electric arc furnace systems, the problem of novelty detection has drawn more attentions than before. The presence of outliers should be the main obstacle in practical applications for these advanced control techniques. To this end, this paper proposes a dynamically selective support vector data description model to discover novelties in electric arc furnace. In this model, support vector data description plays the role of base detector. Artificial outliers are generated with two objectives, one is to assist the dynamic selection, and the other is to optimize two parameters of support vector data description. Then clustering technique is used to determine the validation set for each test point. Finally, a probabilistic method is used to compute the competence of base detectors. In contrast to other novelty ensembles that have parallel structures, our ensemble model has a dynamic selection mechanism that could facilitate the mining of the potential of base detectors. Three synthetic and three real-world datasets are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed detection model. Experimental results have approved our method by comparing it with several competitors.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-07-11T05:29:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020932338
  • Comparative analysis of imaging and novel markerless approach for
           measurement of postural parameters in dental seating tasks

    • Authors: Vibha Bhatia, Jagjit Singh Randhawa, Ashish Jain, Vishakha Grover
      First page: 1059
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Postural inaccuracies in persistent dental tasks indicated an upsurge in the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in dentists. This makes it imperative to restrain awkward postural movements while working. Biased results in self-reporting surveys; discomfort, expense, and time consumption involved in using wearable sensors; and expert’s opinion are required in observational methods. Hence, it is important to use significantly reliable, cheap technology as a substitute to overcome the shortcomings of the mentioned techniques. In this study, the markerless Kinect V2–based system was developed and compared with the conventional imaging technique for real-time postural assessment of dental seating tasks. The study assessed the angle parameters related to the dentist’s bodily movement of upper arm, lower arm, wrist, neck, and trunk. Ten dentists from the local dental institution volunteered for the study. Dentists were monitored with both techniques while performing real-time dental procedures. The agreement between the techniques was assessed using Bland–Altman plot at 95% bias, Pearson’s (r1) and concordance (r2) correlation coefficients, mean difference, and percentage error. For conclusive agreement analysis, contingency coefficient, proportion agreement index, Cohen’s kappa, and Mann–Whitney U at 95% confidence interval (CI) were evaluated. Data acquired from both techniques possessed strong correlations (r1 and r2>0.90). Good agreement in Rapid Upper Limb Assessment data using Cohen’s kappa (0.67) at standard Landis and Koch’s scale was also observed. Postural analysis of slow-motion tasks like dentistry using the Kinect V2 system proved to be unobtrusive and efficient. This may be used by dentists to have periodic postural check. In future, Kinect V2–based feedback system may be used to develop an assistive technology using predictive algorithms, which may help in reducing the probability of occurrence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in dentists.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-07-07T08:51:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020932340
  • Facial recognition system using LBPH face recognizer for anti-theft and
           surveillance application based on drone technology

    • Authors: Li Wang, Ali Akbar Siddique
      First page: 1070
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Providing security to the citizens is one of the most important and complex task for the governments around the world which they have to deal with. Street crimes and theft are the biggest threats for the citizens and their belonging. In order to provide security, there is an urgent need of a system that is capable of identifying the criminal in the crowded area. This paper proposes a facial recognition system using Local Binary Patterns Histogram Face recognizer mounted on drone technology. The facial recognition capability is a key feature for a drone to have in order to find or identify the person within the crowd. With the inception of drone technology in the proposed system, we can use it as a surveillance drone as well through which it can cover more area as compared to the stationary system. As soon as the system identifies the desired person, it tags him and transmits the image along with the co-ordinates of the location to the concerned authorities using mounted global positioning system. Proposed system is capable of identifying the person with the accuracy of approximately 89.1%.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-06-26T11:10:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020932344
  • Partial discharge feature extraction based on synchrosqueezed windowed
           Fourier transform and multi-scale dispersion entropy

    • Authors: Wang Wenbo, Sun Lin, Wang Bin, Yu Min
      First page: 1078
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The recognition of partial discharge mode is an important indicator of the insulation condition in transformers, based on which maintenance can be arranged. Discharge feature extraction is the key to recognize discharge mode. To solve the problem of poor stability and low recognition rate of partial discharge mode, this paper proposes a feature extraction method based on synchrosqueezed windowed Fourier transform and multi-scale dispersion entropy. First, the four partial discharge signals collected under laboratory conditions are decomposed by synchrosqueezed windowed Fourier transform, then a number of band-limited intrinsic mode type functions are obtained, and the original feature quantities of partial discharge signals are obtained by calculating the multi-scale dispersion entropies of each intrinsic mode type function. Based on that, original feature quantity is optimized by using the maximum relevance and minimum redundancy criteria. Finally, the classification is implemented by the support vector machine. Experimental results show that in the case of noise interference, the proposed synchrosqueezed windowed Fourier transform–multi-scale dispersion entropy method can still accurately describe the feature of different discharge signals and has a higher recognition rate than both the empirical mode decomposition–multi-scale dispersion entropy method and the direct multi-scale dispersion entropy method.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-06-29T09:20:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020932346
  • A new automatic machine learning based hyperparameter optimization for
           workpiece quality prediction

    • Authors: Long Wen, Xingchen Ye, Liang Gao
      First page: 1088
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Workpiece quality prediction is very important in modern manufacturing industry. However, traditional machine learning methods are very sensitive to their hyperparameters, making the tuning of the machine learning methods essential to improve the prediction performance. Hyperparameter optimization (HPO) approaches are applied attempting to tune hyperparameters, such as grid search and random search. However, the hyperparameters space for workpiece quality prediction model is high dimension and it consists with continuous, combinational and conditional types of hyperparameters, which is difficult to be tuned. In this article, a new automatic machine learning based HPO, named adaptive Tree Pazen Estimator (ATPE), is proposed for workpiece quality prediction in high dimension. In the proposed method, it can iteratively search the best combination of hyperparameters in the automatic way. During the warm-up process for ATPE, it can adaptively adjust the hyperparameter interval to guide the search. The proposed ATPE is tested on sparse stack autoencoder based MNIST and XGBoost based WorkpieceQuality dataset, and the results show that ATPE provides the state-of-the-art performances in high-dimensional space and can search the hyperparameters in reasonable range by comparing with Tree Pazen Estimator, annealing, and random search, showing its potential in the field of workpiece quality prediction.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-07-22T06:25:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020932347
  • Sliding mode learning control for uncertain mechanical system: A dynamic
           output feedback approach

    • Authors: Zhiguo Liu, Yang Guo, Yuan Sun, Xiaoxiang Hu
      First page: 1099
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, a dynamic output feedback based sliding mode learning control is proposed for uncertain mechanical system. After giving the model of uncertain mechanical system, the uncertainty and disturbance of it are discussed and they are assumed to be mismatched. The velocity of the uncertain mechanical system is assumed to be unmeasurable, and then a dynamic output feedback control strategy is utilized here. A dynamic output feedback-based sliding surface is constructed. The parameters of the designed surface are solved by Lyapunov function approach. Then a sliding mode learning controller is proposed for uncertain mechanical system to overcome the chattering of traditional sliding mode control. Finally, a numerical simulation is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed controller.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-06-29T09:19:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020932368
  • Study on the influence of one-way street optimization design on traffic
           operation system

    • Authors: Jun Zhang, Xinxin Zhang, Yanni Yang, Bing Zhou
      First page: 1107
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Modifying the existing two-way street into a one-way street can alleviate the traffic congestion in a megacity and has the characteristics of economy saving, convenience, and quickness. However, at present, the setting of one-way street in China is mostly determined by human experience and lack of scientific basis. In this context, a one-way street network planning model is established in this paper. According to this model, the optimal method of adding a one-way street on the existing traffic network is found, solved by genetic algorithm. The abstract things are quantified, and some feasible, specific, efficient implementation steps to design a one-way street network are provided for the traffic control department. In addition, taking the traffic in the core area of Tongzhou New City as an example, this paper uses the one-way street planning model to construct the actual street network model and the one-way street network model in the core area of the Tongzhou New City and compares their simulation results. The results show that using the one-way street planning model to modify part of the two-way street into a one-way street in the core area of the Tongzhou New City can indeed improve the traffic operation of the area.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-07-08T08:37:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020932366
  • Efficient coverage greedy packet stateless routing in wireless sensor

    • Authors: M Sivaram, R Rohini, S Rajanarayanan, Andino Maseleno, Amin Salih Mohammed, Banar Fareed Ibrahim, Pallavi M Goel
      First page: 1116
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Wireless sensor network is a collection of sensor nodes designed with different routing capabilities to operate on real-world applications. In extreme environments, real-time applications of wireless sensor network ensure exchange of data, a difficult one between the sensor nodes, when less resources are consumed. Therefore, researchers are developing a routing protocol including optimal routing procedures to increase the longevity of the networks. In this paper, an improved route extension architecture is developed in wireless sensor network environment. This Improved Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing is proposed to offer an improved transmission coverage and reduced power consumption capability. It deploys a periodic broadcast of hello message (or control messages) including the positional information between the sensor nodes. The experimental result concludes that the Improved Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing method achieves improved routing capabilities than the traditional hybrid protocols like LEACH and Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-07-15T12:19:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020932359
  • Numerical investigation and characteristic analysis of the swirl meter
           with different swirlers

    • Authors: Desheng Chen, Zhe Lin, Qi Liu, Yanping Wang, Fei Wu, Dongyang Wu
      First page: 1122
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The swirl meter is one of the gas flow meters used in the industry. Its advantages are as follows: a strong signal level, easy maintenance, and stable performance. Hence, it has become widely accepted for natural gas metering. In this study, the numerical computation of the three-dimensional unsteady flow in a swirl meter was conducted using the renormalization group k–ε turbulence model and SIMPLE algorithm. The internal flow fields were analyzed in detail, wherein the velocity and pressure distributions were discussed under six flow rates (6, 15, 25, 40, 70, and 100 m3/h) and three swirl cone angles (11°, 20°, and 30°). The obtained results are reported and discussed as follows: the stable performance of the swirl meter was due to its capacity to maintain its internal characteristics over a large flow range. Also, it was detected that though the pressure decrease was gradual on the wall, an opposite tendency was shown at the center. On the other hand, the swirler structure was crucial to the metering capacity of the swirl meter, and the swirler cone angle influenced the pressure and velocity.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-07-11T05:29:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020932357
  • Torque control of bolt tightening process through adaptive-gain
           second-order sliding mode

    • Authors: Zhimin Wu, Guigang Zhang, Wenjuan Du, Jian Wang, Fengyang Han, Dianwei Qian
      First page: 1131
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Bolts constitute a very important subset of mechanical fasteners. In order to tighten bolts, a degree of bolt preload scatter is to be expected. Since the torque control of tightening bolts is the most popular means of controlling the preload, an appropriate tightening torque becomes pivotal. This paper investigates the torque control problem of bolt tightening process. This process is not as simple as it looks because the inherently nonlinear process contains many uncertainties. To conquer the adverse effects of the uncertainties, this paper designs an adaptive-gain second-order sliding mode controller. Theoretically, such design can guarantee that the bolt tightening process has the closed-loop stability in the sense of Lyapunov. From the aspect of practice, the control method is carried out by a platform. Some comparisons illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the designed controller.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-07-02T09:08:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020932354
  • Mode Inference using enhanced Segmentation and Pre-processing on raw
           Global Positioning System data

    • Authors: Asif Nawaz, Huang Zhiqiu, Wang Senzhang, Yasir Hussain, Amara Naseer, Muhammad Izhar, Zaheer Khan
      First page: 1144
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Many applications use the Global Positioning System data that provide rich context information for multiple purposes. Easier availability and access of Global Positioning System data can facilitate various mobile applications, and one of such applications is to infer the mobility of a user. Most existing works for inferring users’ transportation modes need the combination of Global Positioning System data and other types of data such as accelerometer and Global System for Mobile Communications. However, the dependency of the applications to use data sources other than the Global Positioning System makes the use of application difficult if peer data source is not available. In this paper, we introduce a new generic framework for the inference of transportation mode by only using the Global Positioning System data. Our contribution is threefold. First, we propose a new method for Global Positioning System trajectory data preprocessing using grid probability distribution function. Second, we introduce an algorithm for the change point–based trajectory segmentation, to more effectively identify the single-mode segments from Global Positioning System trajectories. Third, we introduce new statistical-based topographic features that are more discriminative for transportation mode detection. Through extensive evaluation on the large trajectory data GeoLife, our approach shows significant performance improvement in terms of accuracy over state-of-the-art baseline models.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T09:21:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020918324
  • Configuration of smart phase-swapping switches in low-voltage distribution
           systems based on sequenced participation indices

    • Authors: Lixia Cao, Guoliang Feng, Xingong Cheng, Luhao Wang
      First page: 1159
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The smart phase-swapping switches are used to rapidly change the phases of single-phase loads online in low-voltage distribution systems. They can reduce the three-phase imbalance indices. However, the effectiveness of phase-swapping operations is determined by not only the control strategy but also by the quantity and locations of smart phase-swapping switches. In this paper, a configuration method is proposed to determine the preferable quantity and locations of smart phase-swapping switches with considerations of economic benefits and operational requirements. Based on historical load information, the active and reactive powers of the loads are used to formulate the current imbalance index. The configuration problem is modeled as a multiobjective optimization that minimizes the current imbalance indices of all nodes and phase-swapping operations. The problem is solved by the particle swarm optimization algorithm to obtain the phase-swapping participation index of each single-phase load. The loads with high phase-swapping participation indices are preferably equipped with smart phase-swapping switches. The simulation results verify that the proposed method is effective and easy to be implemented in practical applications.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T09:22:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020920899
  • Payload swing control of a tower crane using a neural network–based
           input shaper

    • Authors: SM Fasih, Z Mohamed, AR Husain, L Ramli, AM Abdullahi, W Anjum
      First page: 1171
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      This paper proposes an input shaping technique for efficient payload swing control of a tower crane with cable length variations. Artificial neural network is utilized to design a zero vibration derivative shaper that can be updated according to different cable lengths as the natural frequency and damping ratio of the system changes. Unlike the conventional input shapers that are designed based on a fixed frequency, the proposed technique can predict and update the optimal shaper parameters according to the new cable length and natural frequency. Performance of the proposed technique is evaluated by conducting experiments on a laboratory tower crane with cable length variations and under simultaneous tangential and radial crane motions. The shaper is shown to be robust and provides low payload oscillation with up to 40% variations in the natural frequency. With a 40% decrease in the natural frequency, the superiority of the artificial neural network–zero vibration derivative shaper is confirmed by achieving at least a 50% reduction in the overall and residual payload oscillations when compared to the robust zero vibration derivative and extra insensitive shapers designed based on the average operating frequency. It is envisaged that the proposed shaper can be further utilized for control of tower cranes with more parameter uncertainties.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T09:24:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020920895
  • Numerical simulation on residual stresses of stainless steel SS-304 thin
           welded pipe

    • Authors: Hitesh Arora, Rupinder Singh, Gurinder Singh Brar
      First page: 1183
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The major concern in the high tech industries like oil and petroleum industries, automobiles, aeronautical, and nuclear power plants is the control of the defects like distortion in the welded joints and residual stresses occur due to arc welding on the circumferential joints of the thin pipes. Three-dimensional non-linear thermal and thermomechanical numerical simulations are conducted for the tungsten inert gas welding process of SS-304 stainless steel pipes. In this article, numerical analysis of the distribution of the temperature and the welding residual stress fields induced after the welding is done. Study on the effect of the welding heat input by varying the welding parameters (like welding current and welding speed) based on finite element simulations is conduit to examine the results on the residual stresses which is also called as the ‘locked-in’ stresses. The precision of the finite element model is validated for the welding residual stresses. The intention of this study is to provide the information to verify the validity of ongoing process circumferential manufacturing technology for thin-walled pipes, so to avoid the failure of these kinds of structures which are in service because of these intrinsic stresses.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-30T12:09:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020917173
  • Research on variable mass control of series manipulator based on linear
           active disturbance rejection control

    • Authors: Jianzhong Huang, Yuwan Cen
      First page: 1194
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The series manipulator of the demolition robot has different working postures and large self-weight so that the bearing mass of the joint hydraulic cylinder is a variable value, and the change of mass affects the dynamic characteristics of the valve-controlled hydraulic cylinder system. In this paper, an equivalent mass estimation method of the big-arm joint hydraulic cylinder is given, and the natural frequency range of the big-arm hydraulic cylinder-load system is calculated. In order to suppress the influence of the change of the natural frequency and external disturbance of the hydraulic cylinder on the system, the linear active disturbance rejection control is adopted in the closed-loop position control. The simulation results show that the change of load mass of the joint hydraulic cannot be ignored when designing the joint position controller of multi-joint hydraulic manipulator. And the simulation tests prove that the linear active disturbance rejection control strategy keeps good dynamic characteristic and steady-state accuracy for the change of natural frequency and external disturbance of hydraulic cylinder and has good tracking performance for periodic sinusoidal signal. Linear active disturbance rejection control is robust in the variable mass control of the manipulator and meets the requirements of the joint position control of the heavy-duty hydraulic manipulator.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-30T12:10:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020922260
  • On disturbance rejection control for inertial stabilization of
           long-distance laser positioning with movable platform

    • Authors: Jiuqiang Deng, Wenchao Xue, Xi Zhou, Yao Mao
      First page: 1203
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      This paper focuses on the disturbance rejection control problem for inertial stabilization of long-distance laser positioning with the movable platform. Due to various disturbances of the movable platform, the positioning system has significant disturbances that affect the positioning accuracy. Moreover, the nonminimum-phase property of the inertial stabilization system leads to great challenges for designing traditional disturbance-observer-based as well as rejection control methods. In this paper, a dual-compensator disturbance-observer-based control algorithm is proposed to ensure a much stronger rejection of disturbances than those of conventional methods. In particular, it is proven that the two compensators in the proposed method effectively estimate disturbances in different frequency regions. Furthermore, the analytical tuning laws for the proposed dual-compensator disturbance-observer-based control method are presented. The experimental setup including the laser positioning platform demonstrated the validity of the proposed method, which effectively rejected various disturbances.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-07-08T08:37:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020935492
  • Selection of portable hard disk drive based upon weighted aggregated sum
           product assessment method: A case of Indian market

    • Authors: Raman Kumar, Abhishek Bhattacherjee, Angad Deep Singh, Sunpreet Singh, Catalin I Pruncu
      First page: 1218
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The multicriteria decision-making methodology is utilized to assess different portable hard disk drive alternatives, according to the purchaser/retailer/wholesaler liking with respect to various attributes. The hard disk drive comes under various types and has a number of attributes connected with it such as storage capacity, size, data transfer speed and physical dimensions. The modern market caters to a wide variety of customer needs. Therefore, it becomes the need of the hour to present a simple technique to select the best alternative for purchaser/retailer/wholesaler to satisfy their combined needs. Among the multicriteria decision-making methods, the more simple and widely used technique weighted aggregated sum product assessment is utilized in this work. The data of different hard disk drives were collected that were available in the Indian market and 24 different models of five brands were considered in decision-making. The equal weights method and objective weights method, that is standard deviation method, are utilized to allocate weights of significance to the criteria. The ranks obtained with simple additive weighting, weighted product method and weighted aggregated sum product assessment are presented, and final ranks are considered with weighted aggregated sum product assessment method because it is an amalgamation of the simple additive weighting and weighted product method. The result reveals that Western Digital comes out to be the first choice as a brand because the top three models belong to them with both equal and objective weights. While utilizing these techniques, a consumer can purchase the best hard disk drive and it is also very advantageous for merchants and sellers to aid users in procuring their gadgets while manufacture of hard disk drive can produce their product with unique technological features aimed at particular users. Furthermore, the subjective weights can be considered to select the best alternative.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-06-09T10:54:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020925841
  • An improved teaching learning–based optimization algorithm for
           congestion management with the integration of solar photovoltaic system

    • Authors: S T Suganthi, D Devaraj
      First page: 1231
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In restructured power systems, transmission congestion is an imperative issue. Establishment of solar photovoltaic system at appropriate areas is likely to relieve congestion in transmission lines in the restructured power systems. Congestion management technique by utilizing solar photovoltaic sources, using an improved teaching learning–based optimization, is investigated in this article. Bus sensitivity factors which have the direct influence on the congested lines are utilized to locate the solar photovoltaic sources at appropriate areas. Congestion management is figured as an optimization problem with a goal of limiting the congestion management price utilizing the improved teaching learning–based optimization approach, which espouses the self-driven learning principle. IEEE-30 bus test system is simulated and tested in MATLAB environment so as to demonstrate the viability of the suggested methodology than different methodologies.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-06-07T11:09:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020914930
  • Simulation analysis of communication performance of PROFIBUS in single and
           multiple master mode

    • Authors: Geng Liang, Xin An
      First page: 1238
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      With the application of digital information technology and communication technology, industrial intelligence and integration also began to develop rapidly, and the importance of the research on bus communication in industrial control communication also increased. As the first international bus standard, PROFIBUS has been widely used in the field of industrial control; in recent years, it was mainly used to connect devices to the control layer and convert data through token transmission. Based on the understanding of the transmission mechanism of PROFIBUS fieldbus protocol, this article carries out a simulation study on its communication performance. Through analysis of the data link layer, changing the target token cycle time (high and low priority) and random setting each site message number, as well as the number of master station and slave station, how the main token latency and packet loss rate and efficiency of bus affect the change of performance parameters was observed. For multiple communication systems, the relationship between the address value on the main token ring and transport performance is found by experiments on the site address value on the main token ring and the target token cycle time value. Finally, the scheduling algorithm is applied to the communication scheduling of PROFIBUS fieldbus. The results confirm that the scheduling algorithm has better transmission efficiency than the traditional MAC media access protocol under the condition that the load rate does not exceed 100%, which makes up for the shortcomings of the original PROFIBUS bus system and makes the communication performance better.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-06-11T05:36:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020927420
  • Prediction and optimization of sharing bikes queuing model in grid of
           Geohash coding

    • Authors: Kui Yu, Changyue Qu
      First page: 1250
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Dockless bike-sharing systems provide parking anywhere feature and environment-friendly approach for commuter. It is booming all over the world. Different from dockless bike-sharing systems, for example, previous studies focus on rental mode and docking stations planning. Yet, due to the fact that human mobility patterns of temporal and geographic lead to bike imbalance problem, we modeled human mobility patterns, predicted bike usage, and optimized management of the bike-sharing service. First, we proposed adaptive Geohash-grid clustering to classify bike flow patterns. For simplicity and rapid modeling, we defined three queuing models: over-demand, self-balance, and over-supply. Second, we improved adaptive Geohash-grid clustering-support vector machine algorithm to recognize self-balance pattern. Third, based on the result of adaptive Geohash-grid clustering-support vector machine, we proposed Markov state prediction model and Poisson mixture model expectation-maximization algorithm. Based on data set from Mobike and OFO, we conduct experiments to evaluate models. Results show that our models offer better prediction and optimization performance.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-06-07T11:11:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294019877521
  • Deep Petri nets of unsupervised and supervised learning

    • Authors: Yi-Nan Lin, Tsang-Yen Hsieh, Cheng-Ying Yang, Victor RL Shen, Tony Tong-Ying Juang, Wen-Hao Chen
      First page: 1267
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Artificial intelligence is one of the hottest research topics in computer science. In general, when it comes to the needs to perform deep learning, the most intuitive and unique implementation method is to use neural network. But there are two shortcomings in neural network. First, it is not easy to be understood. When encountering the needs for implementation, it often requires a lot of relevant research efforts to implement the neural network. Second, the structure is complex. When constructing a perfect learning structure, in order to achieve the fully defined connection between nodes, the overall structure becomes complicated. It is hard for developers to track the parameter changes inside. Therefore, the goal of this article is to provide a more streamlined method so as to perform deep learning. A modified high-level fuzzy Petri net, called deep Petri net, is used to perform deep learning, in an attempt to propose a simple and easy structure and to track parameter changes, with faster speed than the deep neural network. The experimental results have shown that the deep Petri net performs better than the deep neural network.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-06-09T10:44:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020923375
  • Global malmquist index for measuring the economic productivity changes

    • Authors: Esmaeil Mombini, Mohsen Rostamy-Malkhalifeh, Mansor Saraj, Mohsen Zahraei, Reza Tayebi Khorami
      First page: 1278
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Data envelopment analysis is a nonparametric method for measuring of the performance of decision-making units—which do not need to have or compute a firm’s production function, which is often difficult to calculate. For any manager, the progress or setback of the thing they manage is important because it makes planning and adoption of future policies for the organization or decision-making unit more rational and scientific. Different methods have been used to calculate the improvements and regressions using Malmquist Index. In this article, we evaluate the units under review in terms of economic efficiency, and the units in terms of spending, production, revenue and profit over several periods, and the rate of improvement or regression of each of these units. Considering the minimal use of resources and consuming less money, generating more revenue, and maximizing profits, the improvement or retreat of the recipient’s decision unit in terms of cost, revenue, and profit was examined by presenting a method based on solving linear programming models using the productivity index is Malmquist and Malmquist Global. Finally, by designing and solving a numerical example, we emphasize and test the applicability of the material presented in this article.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-06-09T10:52:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020923096
  • Hybrid blockchain–based privacy-preserving electronic medical records
           sharing scheme across medical information control system

    • Authors: Yu Cao, Yi Sun, Jiangsong Min
      First page: 1286
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      With the development of big data and medical information control system, electronic medical records sharing across organizations for better medical treatment and advancement has attracted much attention both from academic and industrial areas. However, the source of big data, personal privacy concern, inherent trust issues across organizations and complicated regulation hinder the great progress of healthcare intelligence. Blockchain, as a novel technique, has been used widely to resolve the privacy and security issues in electronic medical records sharing process. In this paper, we propose a hybrid blockchain–based electronic medical records sharing scheme to address the privacy and trust issues across the medical information control systems, rendering the electronic medical records sharing process secure, effective, relatively transparent, immutable, traceable and auditable. Considering the above confidential issues, we use different sharing methods for different parts of medical big data. We share privacy-sensitive couples on the consortium blockchain, while sharing the non-sensitive parts on the public blockchain. In this way, authorized medical information control systems within the consortium can access the data on it for precise medical diagnosis. Institutions such as universities and research institutes can get access to the non-sensitive parts of medical big data for scientific research on symptoms to evolve medical technologies. A working prototype is implemented to demonstrate how the hybrid blockchain facilitates the pharmaceutical operations in a healthcare information control ecosystem. A blockchain benchmark tool Hyperledger Caliper is used to evaluate the performance of hybrid blockchain–based electronic medical records sharing scheme on throughput and average latency which proves to be practicable and excellent.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-06-12T11:07:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020926636
  • Trajectory planning of quadrotor using sliding mode control with extended
           state observer

    • Authors: Jun Xiao
      First page: 1300
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents the trajectory planning of an under-actuated quadcopter unmanned aerial vehicle. To control the complete structure of the rotorcraft, the main model is divided into two sub-models, namely inner model and external model. The inner model is for the attitude control model controlled by the sliding mode controller and the outer model is altitude control model governed by the extended state observer. The quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle is a type of multivariable, multi-degree-of-freedom and nonlinear in nature. Planning the trajectory of the unmanned aerial vehicle and stabilizing its flight are complex tasks because of its ability to maneuver quickly. Due to these stated issues, the tuning of this type of dynamic system is a difficult task. This paper deals with these issues by designing the aforementioned dual controller scheme. In addition, the effectiveness of the proposed controller is apparent in simulations performed in MATLAB, Simulink 2016. The designed controller shows better results and robustness than traditional controllers do.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-06-11T05:37:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020927419
  • Composite observer-based integral sliding mode dynamical tracking control
           for nonlinear systems subject to actuator faults and mismatched

    • Authors: Bei Liu, Yang Yi, Hong Shen, Chengbo Niu
      First page: 1309
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      This brief proposes a novel composite observer-based integral sliding mode tracking control algorithm for a class of nonlinear systems affected by both actuator faults and mismatched disturbances. First, different types of observers, including the extended state observer, the fault diagnosis observer, and the disturbance observer, are integrated to estimate the unknown system state, actuator faults, and mismatched disturbances timely. Then, in accordance with the estimation information, the integral sliding surface and the integral sliding mode controller are proposed, which can tolerate the actuator faults and reject the mismatched disturbances. Meanwhile, the state trajectories can be driven into the specified sliding surface in a finite time. Furthermore, not only the stability, but the favorable dynamical tracking and the output constraints of closed-loop augmented systems can be guaranteed. Finally, the validities of the proposed algorithm are embodied by the simulation results of typical A4D systems.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-06-12T11:10:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020923077
  • Characterization test on nonlinear vibration of the fibre-reinforced
           composite thin plate

    • Authors: Hui Li, Ziheng Wang, Yongle Chang, Zhonghao Xu, Chao Mou
      First page: 1318
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In this research, the characterization test on nonlinear vibration of a fibre-reinforced composite thin plate is studied. First, in order to improve the efficiency and precision of the test, a laser scanning vibration system is designed and developed. Then, test methods and procedures of the harmonic distortion and nonlinear time-varying damping of such thin plates are proposed from the time-domain perspective. Corresponding test methods and procedures of nonlinear vibration properties such as the hard/soft stiffness and amplitude-dependent damping are also presented from the frequency-domain perspective. Finally, the TC500 carbon fibre/resin composite plate is selected as an example for the research to carry out a case study. Potential nonlinear vibration phenomena of such plates are characterized by the proposed test methods. It has been proved that the related test system and techniques adopted in this paper can provide an important reference for the establishment of the nonlinear vibration test methodology of fibre-reinforced composite structures.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-07-08T08:38:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294019842608
  • Robust adaptive control for continuous wheel slip rate tracking of vehicle
           with state observer

    • Authors: Jiaxu Zhang, Zhengtang Shi, Xiong Yang, Jian Zhao
      First page: 1331
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      This article proposes a novel robust adaptive wheel slip rate tracking control method with state observer. First, a modified tracking differentiator is proposed based on a combination of tangent sigmoid function with terminal attraction factor and linear function to improve convergence speed and avoid chattering phenomenon, and then, the modified tracking differentiator is used as state observer to smooth and estimate the states of the system. Second, a robust adaptive wheel slip rate tracking control law with fuzzy uncertainty observer and modified adaptive laws is derived based on Lyapunov-based method. The fuzzy uncertainty observer is used for estimating and compensating the additive uncertainty, and the modified adaptive laws are used for estimating the unknown optimal weight vector of the fuzzy uncertainty observer and the multiplicative uncertainty. Finally, the performance of the robust adaptive wheel slip rate tracking control method is verified based on the model-in-the-loop simulation system.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-06-12T11:05:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020928155
  • Neuro-fuzzy control of sit-to-stand motion using head position tracking

    • Authors: Samina Rafique, M Najam-ul-Islam, M Shafique, A Mahmood
      First page: 1342
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Based on the clinical evidence that head position measured by the multisensory system contributes to motion control, this study suggests a biomechanical human-central nervous system modeling and control framework for sit-to-stand motion synthesis. Motivated by the evidence for a task-oriented encoding of motion by the central nervous system, we propose a framework to synthesize and control sit-to-stand motion using only head position trajectory in the high-level-task-control environment. First, we design a generalized analytical framework comprising a human biomechanical model and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system to emulate central nervous system. We introduce task-space training algorithm for adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system training. The adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system controller is optimized in the number of membership functions and training cycles to avoid over-fitting. Next, we develop custom human models based on anthropometric data of real subjects. Using the weighting coefficient method, we estimate body segment parameter. The subject-specific body segment parameter values are used (1) to scale human model for real subjects and (2) in task-space training to train custom adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system controllers. To validate our modeling and control scheme, we perform extensive motion capture experiments of sit-to-stand transfer by real subjects. We compare the synthesized and experimental motions using kinematic analyses. Our analytical modeling-control scheme proves to be scalable to real subjects’ body segment parameter and the task-space training algorithm provides a means to customize adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system efficiently. The customized adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system gives 68%–98% improvement over general adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system. This study has a broader scope in the fields of rehabilitation, humanoid robotics, and virtual characters’ motion planning based on high-level-task-control scheme.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-07-15T12:20:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020938079
  • Data-driven sensitivity analysis of contact resistance to assembly errors
           for proton-exchange membrane fuel cells

    • Authors: Youlong Lv, Qinghui Ji, Yu Liu, Jie Zhang
      First page: 1354
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The proton-exchange membrane fuel cell is a promising power source for automobile industry because of its zero pollution. However, its stack structure always faces increased contact resistance caused by assembly errors, leading to substantial energy loss during the working period. To enhance its output performance, the influence of assembly errors on contact resistance is studied for proton-exchange membrane fuel cell. The mechanical simulation model of fuel cell assembly process is established to provide contact resistance distribution with different assembly errors. An improved global sensitivity analysis method is proposed to evaluate the influence coefficient of each assembly error term on contact resistance based on a series of randomized simulation data. The case study of a single-layer fuel cell demonstrates the proposed method achieves higher efficiency than traditional sensitivity analysis methods, and finds out key assembly errors in regard to reducing contact resistance.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-06-15T11:32:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020926604
  • Fuzzy adaptive nonlinear stochastic control for vehicle suspension with
           electromagnetic actuator

    • Authors: Feng Cao, Yongming Li
      First page: 1364
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      This work solves the stability problem of a vehicle suspension with stochastic disturbance by designing an adaptive controller. The model of a quarter vehicle subjected to noise excitation is considered. The stochastic perturbance is realized by the roughness of the road and the vehicle moving with constant velocity. In the control design procedure, fuzzy logic systems are used to approximate unknown nonlinear functions. Meanwhile, the mean value theorem is employed to ensure the existence of the affine virtual control variables and control input. The backstepping technique is applied to construct the ideal controller. On the basis of Lyapunov stability theory, the proposed control method proves that the displacement and speed of the vehicle is reduced to a level ascertained by a true “desired” conceptual suspension reference model. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by simulation of electromagnetic actuator servo system.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-07-02T09:09:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020915233
  • Reduction of aerodynamic noise of single-inlet centrifugal fan with
           inclined volute tongue

    • Authors: Wenyue Hao, Jiajun Wang, Ximing He, Zuchao Zhu, Zhengdao Wang, Hui Yang, Wei Zhang, Yikun Wei
      First page: 1376
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The effect of inclined volute tongue on the aerodynamic noise and performance of a centrifugal fan was investigated by experimental test in this article. The present work highlights that the effect of both the clearance and the radius of the volute tongue has an influence on the performance and noise. The experimental tests of various models aim to obtain the aerodynamic noise and performance characteristics of several fan models. First, the experimental results of centrifugal fan performance are tested by the standard test equipment of aerodynamic performance. The experimental results of centrifugal fan aerodynamic noise are measured by the standard test equipment of experimental noise. Our experimental results mainly show that the generation of aerodynamic noise is significantly correlated with the clearance and radius of the volute tongue. Certain geometries of the volute tongue could reduce the noise of the centrifugal fan without decreasing the performance. It is experimentally demonstrated that the high A-weighted sound pressure levels mainly concentrate on a range of from 700 to 7000 Hz frequency by observing the each 1/3 octave band frequency for four fan models. The comparison of aerodynamic noise results also demonstrates that the inclined volute tongue may not only produce a deceasing of about 1.58 dB compared to that of the baseline model. We further obtain that the properly inclined volute tongue not only has positive performance features compared with the baseline model but also effectively controls the broadband frequency noise of single-inlet centrifugal fan.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-06-27T10:21:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020932360
  • Finite-time interval observer design for discrete-time switched systems: A
           linear programming approach

    • Authors: Fei Sun, Jun Huang, Xiang Ma, Xiao Wen
      First page: 1388
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      This paper deals with the finite-time interval observer design method for discrete-time switched systems subjected to disturbances. The disturbances of the system are unknown but bounded. The framework of the finite-time interval observer is established and the sufficient conditions are derived by the multiple linear copositive Lyapunov function. Furthermore, the conditions which are expressed by the forms of linear programming are numerically tractable by standard computing software. One example is simulated to illustrate the validity of the designed observer.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-06-26T11:11:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020923074
  • Extended state observer–based sliding mode learning control for
           mechanical system

    • Authors: Bing He, Gang Liu, Hailong Chen, Xiaoxiang Hu
      First page: 1395
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      A novel sliding mode learning controller is proposed for uncertain mechanical system in this paper. The model of uncertain mechanical system is listed first, and then extended state observer is designed for the estimation of the uncertainty. Then, an extended state observer–based sliding surface is constructed. The sliding surface parameters are solved by Lyapunov function approach. Then, a sliding mode learning controller is proposed for uncertain mechanical system to overcome the inherent chattering. Finally, a numerical simulation is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed sliding mode learning controller.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-06-26T11:11:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020927424
  • A hybrid data-driven fault detection strategy with application to
           navigation sensors

    • Authors: Huahui Yang, Chen Meng, Cheng Wang
      First page: 1404
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The integrated navigation system highly relies on the accuracy of measurements of sensors that are susceptible to unknown disturbances. In order to improve the reliability and safety of the navigation system, there is an increasing need for the fault detection of the sensors. In the present study, a hybrid data-driven fault detection strategy is proposed, which is based on residual sequence analysis. Currently, the one-class support vector machine is one of the most popular fault detection methods for navigation systems with many successful cases. Therefore, the one-class support vector machine is combined with time-series similarity measure and modified principal components analysis approaches. The similarity measurement of multi-sequence residuals between a real-time sample and normal condition samples is computed to construct learning features for one-class support vector machine. Similarly, the modified principal components analysis scheme is applied to project residuals onto subspaces and obtain learning features. Moreover, the one-class support vector machine model is applied for abnormal detection if unexpected sensor faults exhibit in measurements and residuals. Finally, experiments are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed strategy for abrupt faults and soft faults on navigation sensors. Experimental results show that the hybrid data-driven fault detection strategy can effectively detect these faults with short time delay and high accuracy.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-06-26T11:15:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020920891
  • Human gender revelation based on facial features and shape and structure
           of finger nails

    • Authors: Sayantani Ghosh, Sanjit Kumar Setua
      First page: 1416
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The research on face recognition has become an integral part in the field of many engineering areas. The variation in the appearance of an human image makes proper face recognition a difficult task. However, face identification is an extremely important aspect of human identification system especially in gender identification system. Thus, this paper has aimed to detect the gender of human beings based on different frontal facial features. In this case we have considered facial images with different emotions like neutral, happy, sad, angry and surprised, respectively. To perform gender identification, frontal facial features are detected and extracted based on Region of Interest principle. Then, Fast Fourier Transform and Discrete Cosine Transform algorithmic logics have been incorporated to transform the input data from spatial domain to frequency domain, and on the resultant data further operations are performed to accomplish the task of gender identification. This has made the proffered algorithm different and unique from the existing algorithms. In addition, an alternate approach has also been proposed for gender identification and revelation based on the shape and structure of human finger nails. The latter method has primarily emphasized on the structural organization of finger nails in both male and female. The propounded algorithm has also succeeded in determining the gender of human being based on the shape and structure of human finger nails.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-08-07T05:45:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020941873
  • Shuffle block SRGAN for face image super-resolution reconstruction

    • Authors: Ziwei Zhang, Yangjing Shi, Xiaoshi Zhou, Hongfei Kan, Juan Wen
      First page: 1429
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      When low-resolution face images are used for face recognition, the model accuracy is substantially decreased. How to recover high-resolution face features from low-resolution images precisely and efficiently is an essential subtask in face recognition. In this study, we introduce shuffle block SRGAN, a new image super-resolution network inspired by the SRGAN structure. By replacing the residual blocks with shuffle blocks, we can achieve efficient super-resolution reconstruction. Furthermore, by considering the generated image quality in the loss function, we can obtain more realistic super-resolution images. We train and test SB-SRGAN in three public face image datasets and use transfer learning strategy during the training process. The experimental results show that shuffle block SRGAN can achieve desirable image super-resolution performance with respect to visual effect as well as the peak signal-to-noise ratio and structure similarity index method metrics, compared with the performance attained by the other chosen deep-leaning models.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-08-01T08:39:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020944969
  • Research on performance seeking control based on Beetle Antennae Search

    • Authors: Qiangang Zheng, Dewei Xiang, Juan Fang, Yong Wang, Haibo Zhang, Zhongzhi Hu
      First page: 1440
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      A novel performance seeking control) method based on Beetle Antennae Search algorithm is proposed to improve the real-time performance of performance seeking control. The Beetle Antennae Search imitates the function of antennae of beetle. The Beetle Antennae Search has better real-time performance because of the objective function only calculated twice in Beetle Antennae Search at each iteration. Moreover, the Beetle Antennae Search has global search ability. The performance seeking control simulations based on Beetle Antennae Search, Genetic Algorithm and particle swarm optimization are carried out. The simulations show that the Beetle Antennae Search has much better real-time performance than the conventional probability-based algorithms Genetic Algorithm and particle swarm optimization. The simulations also show that these three probability-based algorithms can get better engine performance, such as more thrust, less specific fuel consumption and less turbine inlet temperature.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-08-03T08:46:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020944939
  • Attitude heading reference algorithm based on transformed cubature Kalman

    • Authors: Yong-jun Yu, Xiang Zhang, M Sadiq Ali Khan
      First page: 1446
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Stable and accurate attitude estimation is the key to the autonomous control of unmanned aerial vehicle. The Attitude Heading Reference System using micro-electro-mechanical system inertial measurement unit and magnetic sensor as measurement sensors is an indispensable system for attitude estimation of the unmanned aerial vehicle. Aiming at the problem of low precision of the Attitude Heading Reference System caused by the nonlinear attitude model of the micro unmanned aerial vehicle, an attitude heading reference algorithm based on cubature Kalman filter is proposed. Aiming at the nonlocal sampling problem of cubature Kalman filter, the transformed cubature Kalman filter using orthogonal transformation of the sampling point is presented. Meanwhile, an adaptive estimation algorithm of motion acceleration using Kalman filter is proposed, which realizes the online estimation of motion acceleration. The car-based tests show that the algorithm proposed in this paper can accurately estimate the carrier’s motion attitude and motion acceleration without global positioning system. The accuracy of acceleration reaches 0.2 m/s2, and the accuracy of attitude reaches 1°.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-08-17T07:16:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020944941
  • Design and implementation of a 22 kW full-bridge push–pull series
           partial power converter for stationary battery energy storage system with
           battery charger

    • Authors: Hüseyin Köse, Mehmet Timur Aydemir
      First page: 1454
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      A wide variety of AC/DC power converter topologies have been developed in order to improve the system efficiency, input power factor and system redundancy for stationary battery energy storage systems. Due to the nature of high-power batteries, there is a big voltage difference between battery terminals from the end of discharge to the high charge value. To prevent unregulated battery voltages from harming the system loads, several techniques are used in the industry. A well-known old technique named as diode dropper is simple but suffers from low efficiency. Using a DC-DC converter is more advantageous, although it increases the cost. In this paper, the use of partial power processing converters which attract interest these days has been proposed as an alternative. The proposed full bridge/push-pull series connected partial power converter has a slight modification compared to the classical one presented in the literature. A system with 22 kW power rating was designed and tested. In order to compare the results, a two-switch buck-boost converter was also designed and tested for the same conditions. The results show that the proposed converter is superior to both the two-switch buck-boost converter and other topologies in terms of efficiency and response speed. Efficiencies of 97%–99% have been attained with the proposed converter.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T11:41:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020944944
  • Design of modified 2-degree-of-freedom
           proportional–integral–derivative controller for unstable processes

    • Authors: Ziwei Li, Zheng Xu, Ridong Zhang, Hongbo Zou, Furong Gao
      First page: 1465
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Concerning first-order unstable processes with time delays that are typical in chemical processes, a modified 2-degree-of-freedom proportional–integral–derivative control method is put forward. The system presents a two-loop structure: inner loop and outer loop. The inner loop is in a classical feedback control structure with a proportional controller intended for implementing stable control of the unstable process; the outer loop is in a 2-degree-of-freedom structure with feedforward control of set points, where the system’s tracking response of set points is separated from its disturbance response. To be specific, the system has a feedforward controller that is designed based on the controlled object models and mainly used for regulating the system’s set point tracking characteristics; besides, it has a feedback controller that is designed on the ground of direct synthesis of disturbance suppression characteristics to improve the system’s disturbance rejection. To verify the effectiveness, the system is put into a theoretical analysis and simulated comparison with other methods. Simulation results show that the system has good set point tracking characteristics and disturbance suppression characteristics.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-07-31T06:02:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020944954
  • Fuzzy cerebellar model articulation controller-based adaptive tracking
           control for load-carrying exoskeleton

    • Authors: Han Wu, Lin Lang, Honglei An, Qing Wei, Hongxu Ma
      First page: 1472
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Load-carrying exoskeletons need to cope with load variations, outside disturbances, and other uncertainties. This paper proposes an adaptive trajectory tracking control scheme for the load-carrying exoskeleton. The method is mainly composed of a computed torque controller and a fuzzy cerebellar model articulation controller. The fuzzy cerebellar model articulation controller is used to approximate model inaccuracies and load variations, and the computed torque controller deals with tracking errors. Simulations of an exoskeleton in squatting movements with model parameter changes and load variations are carried out, respectively. The results show a precise tracking response and high uncertainties toleration of the proposed method.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T07:07:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020944962
  • Designing of a double-cylinder viscometer for high-pressure liquids

    • Authors: Shuo Liu, Chenguang Xu, Tongqi Liu, Yong Cai
      First page: 1482
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In this work, a double-cylinder viscometer is designed to measure dynamic viscosity over a pressure range from atmospheric pressure up to 150 MPa and a temperature range of 278.15–333.15 K. A high-pressure closed cavity is designed innovatively and the magnetic coupling is adopted to transfer the torque to reduce the friction; the inner cylinder with ruby bearing is designed to reduce the friction torque, thus the accuracy of the viscosity measurement is improved. The experiment of measuring the standard viscosity liquid (N10 and N35) under normal pressure and measuring the viscosity of methylbenzene under the pressure of 0.1–150 MPa were carried out, and considering all the experimental data, the uncertainty of the viscosity measurements is approximately ±3%.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T07:07:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020944958
  • Enhanced Q-learning for real-time hybrid electric vehicle energy
           management with deterministic rule

    • Authors: Yang Li, Jili Tao, Liang Xie, Ridong Zhang, Longhua Ma, Zhijun Qiao
      First page: 1493
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Power allocation plays an important and challenging role in fuel cell and supercapacitor hybrid electric vehicle because it influences the fuel economy significantly. We present a novel Q-learning strategy with deterministic rule for real-time hybrid electric vehicle energy management between the fuel cell and the supercapacitor. The Q-learning controller (agent) observes the state of charge of the supercapacitor, provides the energy split coefficient satisfying the power demand, and obtains the corresponding rewards of these actions. By processing the accumulated experience, the agent learns an optimal energy control policy by iterative learning and maintains the best Q-table with minimal fuel consumption. To enhance the adaptability to different driving cycles, the deterministic rule is utilized as a complement to the control policy so that the hybrid electric vehicle can achieve better real-time power allocation. Simulation experiments have been carried out using MATLAB and Advanced Vehicle Simulator, and the results prove that the proposed method minimizes the fuel consumption while ensuring less and current fluctuations of the fuel cell.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T06:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020944952
  • Synchronization of mutual time-varying delay-coupled temporal Boolean

    • Authors: Qiang Wei, Cheng-jun Xie
      First page: 1504
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents mutual time-varying delay-coupled temporal Boolean network model and investigates synchronization issue for mutual time-varying delay-coupled temporal Boolean networks. The necessary and sufficient conditions for the synchronization are given, and the check criterion of the upper bound is presented. An example is given to illustrate the correctness of the theoretical analysis.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-08-12T07:53:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020944951
  • Model-free-adaptive-based data-driven method for three-axis Gimbal control

    • Authors: Wei Wang, Javed Masood Rana
      First page: 1512
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      This study uses a three-axis Gimbal model to inertially stabilize a platform that can be used to feed smooth images from a camera. In this article, three-axis Gimbal performance analysis is presented. An inertial measurement unit responds to movement and a three-phase brushless DC motor with 14 poles and 12 coils is used to rule out vibrations and movement from the surroundings. The controller combines sliding-mode control and model-free-adaptive control to design a novel control method based on data, which can decrease the computational time and difficulty of a nonlinear system. Simulations on MATLAB prove the efficiency of the given method. The simulation results validate that the designed controller has improved position control than the traditional proportional integral derivative, model-free-adaptive control, and model-free-learning-adaptive control.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-08-03T08:46:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020944970
  • An improved memetic algorithm for the flexible job shop scheduling problem
           with transportation times

    • Authors: Guohui Zhang, Jinghe Sun, Xixi Lu, Haijun Zhang
      First page: 1518
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      In the practical production, the transportation of jobs is existed between different machines. These transportation operations directly affect the production cycle and the production efficiency. In this study, an improved memetic algorithm is proposed to solve the flexible job shop scheduling problem with transportation times, and the optimization objective is minimizing the makespan. In the improved memetic algorithm, an effective simulated annealing algorithm is adopted in the local search process, which combines the elite library and mutation operation. All the feasible solutions are divided into general solutions and local optimal solutions according to the elite library. The general solutions are executed by the simulated annealing algorithm to improve the quality, and the local optimal solutions are executed by the mutation operation to increase the diversity of the solution set. Comparison experiments with the improved genetic algorithm show that the improved memetic algorithm has better search performance and stability.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-08-18T05:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020948094
  • Research on dyeing workshop scheduling methods for knitted fabric
           production based on a multi-objective hybrid genetic algorithm

    • Authors: Yaqin Zhou, Junliang Wang, Peng Zhang, Pan Wang, Yingtao Lu, Jie Zhang
      First page: 1529
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      As the most important core process in the dyeing and finishing workshop of knitting companies, the dyeing process has the characteristics of multi-variety, small-batch, parallel machine processing of multiple types, and high cost in equipment cleaning, which render the dyeing scheduling problem a bottleneck in the production management of a dyeing and finishing workshop. In this paper, the dyeing process scheduling problem in dyeing and finishing workshops is described and abstracted, and an optimized mathematical model of dyeing scheduling is constructed with the goal of minimizing the delay cost and switching cost. Constraints such as multiple types of equipment, equipment capacity, weights of orders and equipment cleaning time are considered. For the sub-problem of equipment scheduling in the dyeing scheduling problem, a heuristic rule that considers equipment utilization and order delay is proposed. For the sub-problem of order sorting of the equipment in the dyeing scheduling problem, a hybrid genetic algorithm with a variable neighbourhood search strategy has been designed to optimize sorting. The algorithm proposed in this paper has been demonstrated via case simulation to be effective in solving the scheduling problem in dyeing and finishing workshops.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-07-31T06:04:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020944947
  • Backstepping controller for laser ray tracking of a target mobile robot

    • Authors: Yun Ling, Jian Wu, ZhanQiang Lyu, Pengwen Xiong
      First page: 1540
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      Tracking control, which is applied to the target mobile robots in the process of rushing toward the trainees, is one of the critical technologies in the advancement of anti-terrorist training. Considering the disadvantages of various types of traditional tracking methods, this paper proposes a novel laser ray tracking mechanism and a backstepping controller for the target mobile robot that is used in shooting ranges. The mechanism and principle of the laser ray tracking is illustrated in detail. Based on the unique structure, the light intensity distributions are measured to further locate the laser spots on the cut-ray boards. Then, the relationship between the positions of the laser spots on the cut-ray boards and the pose of the target mobile robot is demonstrated. According to the features of the tracking situation, a backstepping controller is designed to achieve the laser ray tracking. After that, the inverse kinematics of the wheeled skid-steering mobile robot is analyzed to map the linear and angular velocities of the robot to the velocities of its left wheels and right wheels. The conventional proportional–integral–derivative controller is applied in the experiments to compare with the proposed backstepping controller. The experimental results show that the proposed controller is more robust, and converges faster for the laser ray tracking.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T05:30:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020909141
  • An energy-optimized game algorithm for wireless sensor networks

    • Authors: Mei-Qi Wang, En-Li Chen, Shuang Hou, Peng-Fei Liu, Wan-Jie Hang
      First page: 1548
      Abstract: Measurement and Control, Ahead of Print.
      The ongoing development of wireless sensor networks has been greatly restricted because of scarce spectrum resources, limited battery power, and ineffective topologic structures. Thus, how to construct a suitable topological structure and allocate the appropriate node channels has become an urgent problem. In this study, we built a game model that took into account the influence of channel allocation and topology structure on network performance. The game model considered the nodes in wireless sensor networks to be players and took transmitting power, node channels, and node rest energy into account to establish the income function. Then, the model certified that it has Nash equilibrium. Next, we propose an energy-optimized game algorithm joint topology and channel for wireless sensor network (CETGA) in accordance with the game model. The CETGA algorithm improved each node’s income by changing the transmitting power and node channel gradually, assuming that the network retained connectivity. Then, we demonstrated that the algorithm could converge to a Pareto optimal. Finally, we used MATLAB software to verify the simulation. The results show that the topology created by CETGA is with low interference and long lifetime. In addition, the nodes’ average residual energy is more balanced and the network robustness and real time are improved.
      Citation: Measurement and Control
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T06:41:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0020294020932345
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