Subjects -> INSTRUMENTS (Total: 62 journals)
Showing 1 - 16 of 16 Journals sorted alphabetically
Annali dell'Istituto e Museo di storia della scienza di Firenze     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Mechanics Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of Social Informatics Theory and Application     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Visual Media     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Devices and Methods of Measurements     Open Access  
Documenta & Instrumenta - Documenta et Instrumenta     Open Access  
EPJ Techniques and Instrumentation     Open Access  
European Journal of Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Experimental Astronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Flow Measurement and Instrumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Journal on Miniaturization for Air and Space Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Sensors Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 103)
IEEE Sensors Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Imaging & Microscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
InfoTekJar : Jurnal Nasional Informatika dan Teknologi Jaringan     Open Access  
Instrumentation Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Instruments and Experimental Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Instrumentation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
International Journal of Measurement Technologies and Instrumentation Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Metrology and Quality Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 274)
International Journal of Remote Sensing Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
International Journal of Sensor Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83)
Journal of Astronomical Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Instrumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Instrumentation Technology & Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Optical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sensors and Sensor Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Informatika Upgris     Open Access  
Measurement : Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Measurement and Control     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Measurement Instruments for the Social Sciences     Open Access  
Measurement Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Measurement Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Medical Devices & Sensors     Hybrid Journal  
Medical Instrumentation     Open Access  
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Microscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Modern Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 50)
Optoelectronics, Instrumentation and Data Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
PFG : Journal of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Geoinformation Science     Hybrid Journal  
Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 54)
Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Remote Sensing of Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
Remote Sensing Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Review of Scientific Instruments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Sensors and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Standards     Open Access  
Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Труды СПИИРАН     Open Access  
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Review of Scientific Instruments
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.585
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 22  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0034-6748 - ISSN (Online) 1089-7623
Published by AIP Homepage  [27 journals]
  • Quantitative examination of early diabetes by light-emitting diodes
           light-induced pupillary light reflex
    • Authors: Y. J. Yan, Y. C. Tsai, M. L. Ko, N. C. Lee, J. C. Chiou, M. Ou-Yang
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      This study investigated the abnormal pupillary light reflex in patients with early diabetes mellitus (DM) without retinopathy by using a custom-made noninvasive portable pupilometer. The pupilometer recorded and analyzed the pupillary light reflex. Two light intensities, 0.2 cd and 1.2 cd, and four wavelengths of stimulus light—white (400 nm–800 nm), red (640 ± 5 nm), green (534 ± 5 nm), and blue (470 ± 5 nm)—were used to stimulate the pupil for 10 ms. The pupillary response was recorded for 15 s. A total of 40 healthy people and 40 people with DM without retinopathy participated in the experiment at the National Taiwan University Hospital. The mean and standard deviation of DM duration were 4.5 years and 3.9 years. Of the 16 indices, the duration that pupil restores from its minimum size to half of its resting size (DRP), maximum pupil restoration velocity (MRV), and average restoration velocity (ARV) exhibited the most significant differences between the healthy people and those with DM. Compared with healthy participants, DRP was 16.33% higher, and MRV and ARV were 17.45% and 4.58% lower, respectively, in those with DM. This might be attributable to the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) controlling the dilator muscle during the dark-adapted period and relaxing the pupil; the SNS had few degenerated nerve endings in people with DM. The three aforementioned indices might be used to evaluate the severity of autonomic neuropathy in early DM.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-15T02:07:20Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0030042
  • Design and characterization of a resonant microwave cavity as a diagnostic
           for ultracold plasmas
    • Authors: M. A. W. van Ninhuijs, K. A. Daamen, J. Beckers, O. J. Luiten
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      We present the design and commissioning of a resonant microwave cavity as a novel diagnostic for the study of ultracold plasmas. This diagnostic is based on the measurements of the shift in the resonance frequency of the cavity, induced by an ultracold plasma that is created from a laser-cooled gas inside. This method is simultaneously non-destructive, very fast (nanosecond temporal resolution), highly sensitive, and applicable to all ultracold plasmas. To create an ultracold plasma, we implement a compact magneto-optical trap based on a diffraction grating chip inside a 5 GHz resonant microwave cavity. We are able to laser cool and trap (7.25 ± 0.03) × 107 rubidium atoms inside the cavity, which are turned into an ultracold plasma by two-step pulsed (nanosecond or femtosecond) photo-ionization. We present a detailed characterization of the cavity, and we demonstrate how it can be used as a fast and sensitive probe to monitor the evolution of ultracold plasmas non-destructively. The temporal resolution of the diagnostic is determined by measuring the delayed frequency shift following femtosecond photo-ionization. We find a response time of 18 ± 2 ns, which agrees well with the value determined from the cavity quality factor and resonance frequency.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-14T01:57:15Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0037846
  • Design and development of a miniaturized multiaxial test setup for in situ
           x-ray diffraction experiments
    • Authors: Lalith Kumar Bhaskar, Gobind Kumar, Nedunchezhian Srinivasan, Ravi Kumar
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      In this work, a novel stand-alone multi-axial loading test setup was developed to test miniature samples under uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, in-plane biaxial tension, and biaxial compression stress states. Good agreement in stress–strain responses was observed between the uniaxial experiments carried out using the miniature sample geometry in the custom-built setup and the uniaxial standard geometry in a universal testing machine. With regard to biaxial experiments, the full-field strain captured using digital image correlation for the biaxial specimens revealed strain homogeneity in the central gage section of the sample. Furthermore, the in situ capability of the setup was demonstrated by integrating it with a commercial laboratory x-ray diffractometer, and good agreement was found between the calculated stress values from the load sensor and the stress obtained using x-ray diffraction.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-14T01:57:14Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0031805
  • Soft x-ray spectroscopies in liquids and at solid–liquid interface
           at BACH beamline at Elettra
    • Authors: S. Nappini, L. D’Amario, M. Favaro, S. Dal Zilio, F. Salvador, E. Betz-Güttner, A. Fondacaro, I. Píš, L. Romanzin, A. Gambitta, F. Bondino, M. Lazzarino, E. Magnano
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      The beamline for advanced dichroism of the Istituto Officina dei Materiali-Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, operating at the Elettra synchrotron in Trieste (Italy), works in the extreme ultraviolet–soft x-ray photon energy range with selectable light polarization, high energy resolution, brilliance, and time resolution. The beamline offers a multi-technique approach for the investigation of the electronic, chemical, structural, magnetic, and dynamical properties of materials. Recently, one of the three end stations has been dedicated to experiments based on electron transfer processes at the solid/liquid interfaces and during photocatalytic or electrochemical reactions. Suitable cells to perform soft x-ray spectroscopy in the presence of liquids and reagent gases at ambient pressure were developed. Here, we present two types of static cells working in transmission or in fluorescence yield and an electrochemical flow cell that allows us to carry out cyclic voltammetry in situ and electrodeposition on a working electrode and to study chemical reactions under operando conditions. Examples of x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements performed under ambient conditions and during electrochemical experiments in liquids are presented.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-13T02:03:13Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0025326
  • A modular testbed for mechanized spreading of powder layers for additive
    • Authors: D. Oropeza, R. Roberts, A. J. Hart
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      Powder bed additive manufacturing (AM) processes, including binder jetting (BJAM) and powder bed fusion (PBF), can manufacture complex three-dimensional components from a variety of materials. A fundamental understanding of the spreading of thin powder layers is essential to develop robust process parameters for powder bed AM and to assess the influence of powder feedstock characteristics on the subsequent process outcomes. Toward meeting these needs, this work presents the design, fabrication, and qualification of a testbed for modular, mechanized, multi-layer powder spreading. The testbed is designed to replicate the operating conditions of commercial AM equipment, yet features full control over motion parameters including the translation and rotation of a roller spreading tool and precision motion of a feed piston and the build platform. The powder spreading mechanism is interchangeable and therefore can be customized, including the capability for dispensing of fine, cohesive powders using a vibrating hopper. Validation of the resolution and accuracy of the machine and its subsystems, as well as the spreading of exemplary layers from a range of powder sizes typical of BJAM and PBF processes, are described. The precision engineered testbed can therefore enable the optimization of powder spreading parameters for AM and correlation to build process parameters in future work, as well as exploration of spreading of specialized powders for AM and other techniques.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-13T02:03:12Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0031191
  • Broadband high-energy resolution hard x-ray spectroscopy using transition
           edge sensors at SPring-8
    • Authors: Shinya Yamada, Yuto Ichinohe, Hideyuki Tatsuno, Ryota Hayakawa, Hirotaka Suda, Takaya Ohashi, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Tomoya Uruga, Oki Sekizawa, Kiyofumi Nitta, Yoshio Takahashi, Takaaki Itai, Hiroki Suga, Makoto Nagasawa, Masato Tanaka, Minako Kurisu, Tadashi Hashimoto, Douglas Bennett, Ed Denison, William Bertrand Doriese, Malcolm Durkin, Joseph Fowler, Galen O’Neil, Kelsey Morgan, Dan Schmidt, Daniel Swetz, Joel Ullom, Leila Vale, Shinji Okada, Takuma Okumura, Toshiyuki Azuma, Toru Tamagawa, Tadaaki Isobe, Satoshi Kohjiro, Hirofumi Noda, Keigo Tanaka, Akimichi Taguchi, Yuki Imai, Kosuke Sato, Tasuku Hayashi, Teruhiko Kashiwabara, Kohei Sakata
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      We have succeeded in operating a transition-edge sensor (TES) spectrometer and evaluating its performance at the SPring-8 synchrotron x-ray light source. The TES spectrometer consists of a 240 pixel National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) TES system, and 220 pixels are operated simultaneously with an energy resolution of 4 eV at 6 keV at a rate of ∼1 c/s pixel−1. The tolerance for high count rates is evaluated in terms of energy resolution and live time fraction, leading to an empirical compromise of ∼2 × 103 c/s (all pixels) with an energy resolution of 5 eV at 6 keV. By utilizing the TES’s wideband spectroscopic capability, simultaneous multi-element analysis is demonstrated for a standard sample. We conducted x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis in fluorescence mode using the TES spectrometer. The excellent energy resolution of the TES enabled us to detect weak fluorescence lines from dilute samples and trace elements that have previously been difficult to resolve due to the nearly overlapping emission lines of other dominant elements. The neighboring lines of As Kα and Pb Lα2 of the standard sample were clearly resolved, and the XANES of Pb Lα2 was obtained. Moreover, the x-ray spectrum from the small amount of Fe in aerosols was distinguished from the spectrum of a blank target, which helps us to understand the targets and the environment. These results are the first important step for the application of high resolution TES-based spectroscopy at hard x-ray synchrotron facilities.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-12T04:58:59Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0020642
  • Combining laser interferometry and plasma spectroscopy for spatially
           resolved high-sensitivity plasma density measurements in discharge
    • Authors: J. M. Garland, G. Tauscher, S. Bohlen, G. J. Boyle, R. D’Arcy, L. Goldberg, K. Põder, L. Schaper, B. Schmidt, J. Osterhoff
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      Precise characterization and tailoring of the spatial and temporal evolution of plasma density within plasma sources are critical for realizing high-quality accelerated beams in plasma wakefield accelerators. The simultaneous use of two independent diagnostics allowed the temporally and spatially resolved detection of plasma density with unprecedented sensitivity and enabled the characterization of the plasma temperature in discharge capillaries for times later than 0.5 µs after the initiation of the discharge, at which point the plasma is at local thermodynamic equilibrium. A common-path two-color laser interferometer for obtaining the average plasma density with a sensitivity of 2 × 1015 cm−2 was developed together with a plasma emission spectrometer for analyzing spectral line broadening profiles with a resolution of 5 × 1015 cm−3. Both diagnostics show good agreement when applying the spectral line broadening analysis methodology of Gigosos and Cardeñoso in the temperature range of 0.5 eV–5.0 eV. For plasma with densities of 0.5–2.5 × 1017 cm−3, temperatures of 1 eV–7 eV were indirectly measured by combining the diagnostic information. Measured longitudinally resolved plasma density profiles exhibit a clear temporal evolution from an initial flat-top to a Gaussian-like shape in the first microseconds as material is ejected out from the capillary. These measurements pave the way for highly detailed parameter tuning in plasma sources for particle accelerators and beam optics.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-11T02:14:17Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0021117
  • X-ray powder diffraction in reflection geometry on multi-beam kJ-type
           laser facilities
    • Authors: A. Denoeud, J.-A. Hernandez, T. Vinci, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. Brygoo, A. Berlioux, F. Lefevre, A. Sollier, L. Videau, A. Ravasio, M. Guarguaglini, L. Duthoit, D. Loison, E. Brambrink
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      An ultrafast x-ray powder diffraction setup for laser-driven dynamic compression has been developed at the LULI2000 laser facility. X-ray diffraction is performed in reflection geometry from a quasi-monochromatic laser-generated plasma x-ray source. In comparison to a transmission geometry setup, this configuration allows us to probe only a small portion of the compressed sample, as well as to shield the detectors against the x-rays generated by the laser–plasma interaction on the front side of the target. Thus, this new platform facilitates probing of spatially and temporarily uniform thermodynamic conditions and enables us to study samples of a large range of atomic numbers, thicknesses, and compression dynamics. As a proof-of-concept, we report direct structural measurements of the bcc–hcp transition both in shock and ramp-compressed polycrystalline iron with diffraction signals recorded between 2θ ∼ 30° and ∼150°. In parallel, the pressure and temperature history of probed samples is measured by rear-side visible diagnostics (velocimetry and pyrometry).
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-11T02:13:38Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0020261
  • A novel algorithm for implementing time-frequency transform with low
    • Authors: Yijiao Zhang, Shulin Tian, Huiqing Pan, Duyu Qiu, Lianping Guo
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      In this paper, a novel algorithm called two-dimensional sliding fast Fourier transform (2D SFFT) algorithm is proposed. This algorithm organizes one-dimensional data in two dimensions and calculates the spectrum of current data by using the existing spectrum and new collected data. The algorithm formula and accurate simulation results show the following: first, the computation required by the proposed 2D SFFT algorithm is lower than that required by the traditional sliding discrete Fourier transform algorithm when the sliding rate is larger than or equal to 4/M, where M is the sequence length. Moreover, the computation required by the proposed 2D SFFT algorithm is lower than that required by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm when the sliding rate is less than or equal to 6.25%. Finally, the error between the spectrum calculated by the 2D SFFT and FFT algorithms is less than 10−10. The 2D SFFT algorithm is used to increase the power of the ultra-short pulse, which is initially invisible in the frequency-domain window of the mixed-domain oscilloscope. Therefore, the 100% probability of intercept of the mixed-domain oscilloscope is lower.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-11T02:12:58Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0018793
  • High precision measurement method for dynamic transient signal based on
           compressed sensing and spline polynomial interpolation
    • Authors: Fujing Xu, Changying Chen, Linghua Hu
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      During the measurement of dynamic transient signals, a high sampling frequency brings great challenges to the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and testing system. To address these issues, a high precision measurement method for dynamic transient signals is first proposed in this paper. The characteristics of dynamic transient signals are analyzed first. On the basis of this, a random sampling method combining compressed sensing (CS) with spline polynomial interpolation (SPI) is put forward. The fusion of the two algorithms can effectively reduce the quantity of sampling and observation points to reduce the requirement of the ADC and testing system for transient signal measurement and to improve the observation efficiency of the existing uniform sampling. Finally, a Machete hammer test platform for dynamic transient signals is established. A series of simulation and experimental results validate that the error of data reconstruction using the random sampling method combining CS with SPI is not greater than 5.1%.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-11T02:11:57Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0022866
  • Annealing studies combined with low temperature emission Mössbauer
           spectroscopy of short-lived parent isotopes: Determination of local
           Debye–Waller factors
    • Authors: H. P. Gunnlaugsson, H. Masenda, T. E. Mølholt, K. Bharuth-Ram, S. Ólafsson, K. Johnston, J. Schell, H. P. Gislason, P. B. Krastev, R. Mantovan, D. Naidoo, B. Qi, I. Unzueta
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      An extension of the online implantation chamber used for emission Mössbauer Spectroscopy (eMS) at ISOLDE/CERN that allows for quick removal of samples for offline low temperature studies is briefly described. We demonstrate how online eMS data obtained during implantation at temperatures between 300 K and 650 K of short-lived parent isotopes combined with rapid cooling and offline eMS measurements during the decay of the parent isotope can give detailed information on the binding properties of the Mössbauer probe in the lattice. This approach has been applied to study the properties of Sn impurities in ZnO following implantation of 119In (T½ = 2.4 min). Sn in the 4+ and 2+ charge states is observed. Above T> 600 K, Sn2+ is observed and is ascribed to Sn on regular Zn sites, while Sn2+ detected at T < 600 K is due to Sn in local amorphous regions. A new annealing stage is reported at T ≈ 550 K, characterized by changes in the Sn4+ emission profile, and is attributed to the annihilation of close Frenkel pairs.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-08T01:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0020951
  • Improved design for a highly efficient pulsed-valve supersonic source with
           extended operating frequency range
    • Authors: A. Ronny Barnea, Edvardas Narevicius, Julia Narevicius, Michael Vinetsky, Uzi Even
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      We present a new design for a pulsed supersonic-beam source, inspired by the Even-Lavie valve, which is about four times more energy efficient than its predecessor and can run at more than double the repetition rate without experiencing resonances. Its characteristics make it a better candidate as a source for cryogenic-related experiments as well as spectroscopy with rapidly pulsed lasers. The new design is also simpler to build and is more robust, making it accessible to a larger portion of the scientific community.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-08T01:48:44Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0030197
  • Spatial-frequency encoded imaging of multangular and multispectral images
    • Authors: Weiwei Cai, Xiaolei Wang, Tao Yu
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      Modern imaging techniques increasingly require signals to be collected from multiple viewpoints and spectral bands to realize multi-dimensional and multi-species detections. For this purpose, multiple cameras are commonly required. Each camera collects signals from one viewpoint or one spectral band, resulting in a considerable experimental cost. Based on frequency modulation, this work proposes an encoded-imaging technique that can record multangular and multispectral images in one acquisition. The signals recorded from different viewpoints and spectral bands are superimposed in the spatial domain, while being separate in the frequency domain. This allows us to extract individual images based on their respective frequency components. In this work, a proof-of-concept experiment was conducted. The high correlation coefficient between the superimposition of the extracted images and a normal superimposed image demonstrates the effectiveness of this technique. In addition, an improved mathematical formulation was proposed to describe the higher spatial-frequency components, which were considered merely to be residual lines in previous studies. The proposed encoded-imaging technique may have potential for multangular and multispectral imaging, which is especially useful for tomographic reconstructions.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-08T01:48:43Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0025112
  • Improvement in the spatial resolution of heavy ion beam probe measurements
           through application of ion optics
    • Authors: T. P. Crowley, D. R. Demers, P. J. Fimognari
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      A technique for more accurately modeling and improving the spatial resolution of heavy ion beam probe measurements is described. We use a set of particle trajectories to numerically determine the focusing properties of a complicated three-dimensional magnetic field and characterize these properties with a transfer matrix. We then modify the transfer matrix approach of traditional ion optics to include a parameter that describes the ionization location of the detected ions. The ion optics model calculated using this technique enables a more accurate description of the particle trajectories than previously feasible. The model also allows one to easily determine an initial beam focus that could be used during experimental operation to optimize the spatial resolution of measurements. The technique has been applied to the design of a heavy ion beam probe diagnostic for the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator, and improvements in the modeled spatial resolution by a factor of about 2 over previous estimates are possible. The improved spatial resolution will enable measurements of plasma fluctuations with smaller wavelengths than would otherwise be possible.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-08T01:47:06Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0027217
  • Resonant-type piezoelectric inertial drive mechanism with asymmetric
           inertial masses
    • Authors: Chengliang Pan, Chao Shi, Anhui Feng, Mingang Hu, Shuangbao Shu, Haojie Xia
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      Resonant-type piezoelectric impact motors can improve the output capability effectively. A new construction of asymmetric inertial masses is proposed to synthesize approximate saw-tooth wave resonant vibration with matched anti-phase and in-phase modes. A prototype is designed, manufactured, and tested. With 40 Vp–p, 400 Hz exciting voltage for the anti-phase mode and 16 Vp–p, 800 Hz exciting voltage for the in-phase mode, the prototype provides a maximum no-load velocity of 17.2 mm/s and a maximum output power of 0.72 mW with 100 mN load. The velocity and output power of the prototype in the proposed resonant state are near three orders of magnitude higher than those in the traditional quasi-static state.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-08T01:47:06Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0030775
  • Response of CR-39 nuclear track detectors to protons with non-normal
    • Authors: R. Przybocki, M. Gatu Johnson, G. Sutcliffe, B. Lahmann, F. H. Seguin, J. Frenje, P. Adrian, T. M. Johnson, J. Pearcy, N. V. Kabadi, A. Birkel, R. D. Petrasso
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      This paper presents data from experiments with protons at non-normal incidence to CR-39 nuclear track detectors, analyzing the properties of detection efficiency, proton track diameter, track contrast, and track eccentricity. Understanding the CR-39 response to protons incident at an angle is important for designing charged particle detectors for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) applications. This study considers protons with incident energies less than 3 MeV. In this regime, an incident angle of 10° has no effect on CR-39 detection efficiency, and>85% detection efficiency is preserved up through 25° in the range of 1.0 MeV–2.1 MeV. For ICF applications, incident angles above 30° are deemed impractical for detector design due to significant drops in proton detection at all energies. We observe significant reductions in detection efficiency compared to theoretical predictions, particularly at low energies where proton tracks are etched away. The proton track diameter measured by the scan system is observed to decrease with higher incident angles. The track diameters are analyzed with two fitting models, and it is shown that the diameter–energy relation can be fit with the existing models at angles up to 30°. The optical contrast of the tracks tends to increase with the angle, meaning that the tracks are fainter, and a larger increase is observed for higher energies. Eccentricity, a measure of how elongated proton tracks are, increases with the incident angle and drops after the critical angle. The lowest energy tracks remain nearly circular even at higher angles.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-08T01:47:03Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0029230
  • Near-infrared-ray computed tomography with an 808 nm laser beam and
           high spatial resolutions
    • Authors: Eiichi Sato, Yasuyuki Oda, Sohei Yoshida, Kunihiro Yoshioka, Hodaka Moriyama, Manabu Watanabe
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      To increase the penetrating photons and to improve the spatial resolution in near-infrared-ray computed tomography (NIR-CT), we used an 808 nm laser module. The NIR photons are produced from the laser module, and an object is exposed to the laser beam. The laser power is controlled by the applied voltage, and the photodiode detects photons penetrating through the object. To reduce scattering photons from the object, a 1.0-mm-diameter graphite pinhole is set behind the object. The spatial resolutions were improved using a 1.0-mm-diameter 5.0-mm-length graphite collimator and were ∼1 × 1 mm2. The NIR-CT was accomplished by repeating the object-reciprocating translations and rotations of the object using the turntable, and the ray-sampling-translation and rotation steps were 0.1 mm and 0.5°, respectively. The scanning time was 19.6 min at a total rotation angle of 180°. Triple-sensitivity CT was accomplished using amplifiers, and a graphite rod in the chicken fillet was visible when increasing amplification factor.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-08T01:11:41Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0018976
  • Design and analysis of magnetostrictive sensors for wireless temperature
    • Authors: Manjunath C. Rajagopal, Sanjiv Sinha
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      Magnetostrictive transducers are commonly used as actuators and sonar transducers, and in remote non-destructive evaluation. Their use in wireless thermometry is relatively unexplored. Since magnetostriction-based sensors are passive, they could potentially enable long-term near-field thermometry. While the temperature sensitivity of resonance frequency in magnetostrictive transducers has been reported in previous studies, the origin of the temperature sensitivity has, however, not been elucidated. Here, we identify material properties that determine temperature sensitivity and identify ways to improve sensitivity as well as the detection technique. Using a combination of analytical and computational methods, we systematically identify the material properties that directly influence the temperature coefficient of resonance frequency (TCF). We first experimentally measure the shift in resonance frequency due to temperature changes in a Metglas strip to be 0.03% K−1. Using insights from theory, we then experimentally demonstrate a fivefold improvement to the TCF by using Terfenol in place of Metglas as the magnetostrictive sensor material. We further demonstrate an alternate temperature sensing technique that does not require measuring the resonance frequency, consequently reducing instrument complexity. This work provides a general framework to analyze magnetostrictive materials and the sensing scheme for near-field wireless thermometry.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-07T02:47:41Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0035296
  • 100 MHz large bandwidth preamplifier and record-breaking 50 kHz scanning
           rate quantum point contact mode probe microscopy imaging with atomic
    • Authors: Quan Feng Li, Yang Wang, Fang Wang, Yubin Hou, Qingyou Lu
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      The high-bandwidth preamplifier is a vital component designed to increase the scanning speed of a high-speed scanning tunneling microscope (STM). However, the bandwidth is limited not only by the characteristic GΩ feedback resistor RF but also by the characteristic unity-gain-stable operational amplifier (UGS-OPA) in the STM preamplifier. Here, we report that paralleling a resistor with the tunneling junction (PRTJ) can break both limitations. Then, the UGS-OPA can be replaced by a higher rate, higher antinoise ability, decompensated OPA. By doing so, a bandwidth of more than 100 MHz was achieved in the STM preamplifier with decompensated OPA657, and a higher bandwidth is possible. High-clarity atomic resolution STM images were obtained under about 10 MHz bandwidth and quantum point contact microscopy mode with a record-breaking line rate of 50 k lines/s and a record-breaking frame rate of 250 frames/s. Both the PRTJ method and the decompensated OPA will pave the way for higher scanning speeds and play a key role in the design of high-performance STMs.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-07T02:47:37Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0024802
  • Publisher’s Note: “Robust diffraction-limited
           near-infrared-to-near-ultraviolet wide-field imaging from stratospheric
           balloon-borne Platforms—Super-pressure Balloon-borne Imaging Telescope
           performance” [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 91, 034501 (2020)]
    • Authors: L. Javier Romualdez, Steven J. Benton, Anthony M. Brown, Paul Clark, Christopher J. Damaren, Tim Eifler, Aurelien A. Fraisse, Mathew N. Galloway, Ajay Gill, John W. Hartley, Bradley Holder, Eric M. Huff, Mathilde Jauzac, William C. Jones, David Lagattuta, Jason S. -Y. Leung, Lun Li, Thuy Vy T. Luu, Richard J. Massey, Jacqueline McCleary, James Mullaney, Johanna M. Nagy, C. Barth Netterfield, Susan Redmond, Jason D. Rhodes, Jurgen Schmoll, Mohamed M. Shaaban, Ellen Sirks, Sut-Ieng Tam
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.

      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-06T05:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0040187
  • Temperature stabilization of a K110 variable energy cyclotron magnet
    • Authors: Satoshi Kurashima, Takahiro Yuyama, Susumu Okumura
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      For a large-scale cyclotron using normal conducting magnet coils, 10 h or more are required to obtain a highly stable magnetic field because heat transfer from the coils changes the temperature of the magnets gradually. To suppress the heat transfer and stabilize the magnet temperature in the TIARA K110 cyclotron, water-cooled copper plates were inserted between the main coil and the magnetic yoke. The heat generated by the main coil depends on its circulating current, which depends on the accelerated ion beam. To stabilize the magnet temperature, a technique was developed to control the temperature of the cooling water of the copper plates depending on the main coil current. Consequently, the temperature of the magnet was stabilized successfully to 24 ± 0.3 °C for various ion beams, and the magnetic field was maintained at ΔB/B = 1 × 10−5 after a few hours from initiating cyclotron operation.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-06T04:03:22Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0032559
  • Systematic analysis of a compact setup to measure the photoemitted
           electron beam transverse momentum and emittance
    • Authors: Lei Yu, Weishi Wan, Wen-Xin Tang, Jun Feng
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      A compact setup with a planar-cathode and grid-anode plus free field drift distance configuration (momentatron) has provided a new way to measure the transverse momentum and, hence, the emittance of the electron beam from a photocathode. This method has been used for analysis of the transverse momentum and emittance of the photoemitted electron beam from the photocathode in a stepwise manner during the fabrication process. The errors caused by the lensing effect from opening holes of the grid anode and misalignments caused by tilting and curving have been systematically analyzed. An analytical method has been developed, and a full three-dimensional electrostatic field particle tracing simulation has been performed to validate this measurement technique. The results show that a momentatron can provide an accurate measurement of transverse momentum and emittance of the photoemitted electrons. The reasonable experimental errors that may be encountered will only have a modest (few %) effect on the emittance measurement.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-06T02:56:20Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0013122
  • A novel experimental apparatus for single polycrystalline diamond compact
           cutter tests
    • Authors: Xianwei Dai, Zhongwei Huang, Huaizhong Shi, Chao Xiong, Zhen Cheng
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits are increasingly favored in the drilling field due to their high efficiency in rock breaking together with their longevity. To investigate the rock failure mechanism and further improve the performance of PDC bits, innovative experimental equipment is proposed in this paper. With its assistance, we can study the characteristics of rock-breaking using a PDC cutter under different conditions, e.g., high pressure and high temperature (HPHT), confining pressure, and jet impingement. The setup can be grouped into three parts: a rock cutting system, high-pressure jet generation system, and controlling system. A series of experiments was conducted to demonstrate the reliability of the setup. The results demonstrate the improvement in performance of PDC bits in the exploration of HPHT formations.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-06T02:04:29Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0033425
  • Systematic calibration method based on acceleration and angular rate
           measurements for fiber-optic gyro SINS
    • Authors: Pingping Wang, Baofeng Lu, Pengxiang Yang, Feng Chen
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      A simple systematic calibration method based on acceleration and angular rate measurements is introduced for the fiber-optic gyro strapdown inertial navigation system in this paper. Meanwhile, a unified mathematical framework and an iterative calculation method are designed for the systematic calibration method. Using this method, one can estimate the fiber-optic gyro inertial measurement unit (FOG IMU) parameters both at a manufacturer’s facility and in the field. In order to get all FOG IMU parameters, a procedure adopted based on this approach consists of two stages: First, FOG IMU raw data (accelerometer and gyro readouts) are accumulated in 19 specified FOG IMU positions. Second, the accumulated data are processed by special software to estimate all FOG IMU parameters. In addition, observability analysis of the method in 19 specified FOG IMU positions is done without the limitation of FOG IMU’s initial orientation, and this analysis provides theoretical support for the application in a complex terrain. Moreover, the influence of gravity disturbance is analyzed for the first time. The analysis and experiment results show that the systematic calibration method provided by this work can meet the requirement of FOG IMU calibration.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-05T05:49:49Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0023674
  • First characterization of chemical environments using energy dispersive
           inelastic x-ray scattering induced by an x-ray tube
    • Authors: Roberto Daniel Pérez, Juan José Leani, José Ignacio Robledo, Héctor Jorge Sánchez
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      Energy Dispersive Inelastic X-ray Scattering (EDIXS) is a reliable technique for the discrimination and characterization of local chemical environments. By means of this methodology, the speciation of samples has been attained in a variety of samples and experimental conditions, such as total reflection, grazing incidence, and confocal setups. Until now, due to the requirement of a monochromatic and intense exciting beam, this tool had been applied using exclusively synchrotron radiation sources. We present, for the first time, results of test measurements using EDIXS for chemical characterization implemented in a conventional x-ray tube based laboratory. The results show good discrimination between different iron compounds under study, suggesting the real possibility of rutinary chemical state characterizations of samples by means of EDIXS using a conventional x-ray tube.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-05T04:39:25Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0026061
  • An experimental setup for dip-coating of thin films for organic solar
           cells under microgravity conditions
    • Authors: Leif K. E. Ericsson, Ishita Jalan, Alf Vaerneus, Thomas Tomtlund, Maria Ångerman, Jan van Stam
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      We report the design and testing of a custom-built experimental setup for dip-coating from volatile solutions under microgravity conditions onboard an aircraft. Function and safety considerations for the equipment are described. The equipment proved to work well, both concerning the safety and the preparation of thin films. No leakage of the solvents, nor the solvent vapors, was detected, not even in a situation with a fluctuating gravitational field due to bad weather conditions. We have shown that the equipment can be used to prepare thin films of polymer blends, relevant for organic solar cells, from solution in a feasible procedure under microgravity conditions. The prepared films are similar to the corresponding films prepared under 1 g conditions, but with differences that can be related to the absence of a gravitational field during drying of the applied liquid coating. We report on some introductory results from the characterization of the thin films that show differences in film morphology and structure sizes.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-05T04:39:25Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0018223
  • Tri-directional piezoelectric energy harvester based on U-shaped
           beam-pendulum structure
    • Authors: Shuting Mo, Yan Liu, Siyao Shang, Hai Wang, Keyuan Yang
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      This Note proposed a multi-direction piezoelectric energy harvester with a wide bandwidth and low working frequency, which is distinguished by the multiple working modes of the U-shaped beam and the high capacity of the pendulum in collecting arbitrary vibrations. The structural features are evaluated by finite element simulation and verified by experiments. At least three voltage peaks are generated in the frequency range of 0 Hz–25 Hz, and favorable harvesting consistency in different directions is achieved. The designed structure is adaptable in collecting energy from arbitrary vibration in ambient environments.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-05T04:13:39Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0029787
  • First result of photoabsorption spectroscopic studies beamline (PASS,
           BL-07) installed on Indus-1 synchrotron source
    • Authors: R. K. Sharma, Jaspreet Singh, Uday Sule, Pradeep R, J. Jagannath
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      The photoabsorption spectroscopic studies (PASS) beamline (PASS-BL07), installed at a bending magnet 450 MeV, 100 mA Indus-1 synchrotron source (India), is capable of performing photoabsorption studies in the vacuum ultraviolet to soft x-ray range of thin films and solid samples. The beamline covers an energy range of 55 eV–840 eV by an in-house developed SX-700 type plane grating monochromator. This energy range will cover the absorption spectra of low Z-elements like C, N, and O as well as the L and M threshold of 3d elements such as Ti, V, S, etc. The beamline will be significantly used for studying organic semiconductors, graphene, etc. In this article, the design details of the beamline and some of the recent scientific results have been presented.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-05T04:13:38Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0020222
  • Adjusting single-axis acoustic levitators in real time using rainbow
           schlieren deflectometry
    • Authors: Victor Contreras, Asier Marzo
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      Acoustic levitation uses focused high-intensity airborne ultrasound to hold particles in mid-air. It is becoming an important tool for experiments in spectrometry, lab-on-a-droplet, and display technologies. Nowadays, arrays of multiple small transducers can be used to build acoustic levitators; however, their performance depends on the optimal alignment. This work describes a simple method capable of visualizing a 2D projection of the acoustic field in real time using rainbow schlieren deflectometry. Good agreement was found between the images obtained with this technique and simulations of the acoustic pressure. It was also found that the maximum amplitudes of the field were obtained with the levitator aligned so that the power consumption was minimum, showing another simple and affordable way to adjust the levitators. As a result of the alignment optimization, it was possible for the first time to levitate steel and mercury in a levitator constructed with off-the-shelf components. The schlieren technique was applied to the TinyLev acoustic levitation system, but it can be applied to visualize the acoustic potential produced by different types of levitation systems.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-05T04:13:34Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0013347
  • Signal processing method based on connection fitting of echo peak point
           with a large slope for ultrasonic gas flow meter
    • Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      Ultrasonic gas flow meters are especially suitable for measurement in pipelines with large diameters. However, on the one hand, it is difficult to find a stable feature point to calculate the duration of propagation of the ultrasonic signal, through which we can obtain the real-time flow rate of the gas, and on the other hand, the computation incurred by signal processing methods to this end is burdensome and affects the real-time performance of the flow meter. To solve these problems, this study examines the characteristics of the stability of the echo signal and patterns of variation in the echo contour at different flow rates of gas. We found that peak points of the middle part of the rising segment of the echo signal were relatively stable, and the slope of the envelope of this part was always relatively large but constant, which indicates that peak points in this part were approximately distributed along a straight line. This finding is used to develop a signal processing method based on the connection fitting of the echo peak point with a large slope. This method is easy to implement, incurs a small amount of calculation, and has strong anti-interference ability. Moreover, it can guide research on signal processing methods and the stability of the echo signal. The proposed method was implemented on a dual-core hardware system, and the results of calibration show that it can attain 1.0-level accuracy over a measurable range of 30 m3/h–1100 m3/h.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-05T04:13:33Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0021801
  • Breakthrough instruments and products: Near infrared spectral sensing:
           Advances in portable instrumentation and implementations
    • Authors: John Gilmore
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      The breakthrough MEMS-Fabry–Perot interferometry spectral analyzer (C15712) offers engineers and scientists a compact, inexpensive and versatile module to expand the range of applications in near infrared spectroscopy.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-05T04:13:32Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0038003
  • Electrostatic frequency reduction: A negative stiffness mechanism for
           measuring dissipation in a mechanical oscillator at low frequency
    • Authors: A. Erwin, K. J. Stone, D. Shelton, I. Hahn, W. Huie, L. A. N. de Paula, N. C. Schmerr, H. J. Paik, T. C. P. Chui
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      Broadband seismometers and gravitational wave detectors make use of mechanical resonators with a high quality factor to reduce Brownian noise. At low frequency, Brownian noise is ultimately dominated by internal friction in the suspension, which has a 1/f noise compared with the white noise arising from viscous dissipation. Internal friction is typically modeled as a frequency-dependent loss and can be challenging to measure reliably through experiment. In this work, we present the physics and experimental implementation of electrostatic frequency reduction (EFR) in a mechanical oscillator—a method to measure dissipation as a function of frequency. By applying a high voltage to two parallel capacitor plates, with the center plate being a suspended mass, an electrostatic force is created that acts as a negative stiffness mechanism to reduce the system’s resonance frequency. Through EFR, the loss angle can be measured as a function of frequency by measuring amplitude decay response curves for a range of applied voltages. We present experimental measurements of the loss angle for three metal helical extension springs in the nominal frequency range 0.7–2.9 Hz at 0.2 Hz intervals, demonstrating the possibility for fine adjustment of the resonance frequency for loss angle measurements. A quality factor proportional to the resonance frequency squared was measured, an indication that internal friction and other non-viscous dissipation elements, such as electrostatic damping, were the prominent loss mechanisms in our experiments. Finally, we consider the implications of Brownian noise arising from internal friction on a low 1/f noise seismometer.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-04T11:03:00Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0019351
  • A field-programmable-gate-array based high time resolution arbitrary
           timing generator with a time folding method utilizing multiple
    • Authors: Lin Wang, Yu Tong, Xi Qin, Wen-Zhe Zhang, Xing Rong, Jiangfeng Du
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      A carry-chain based high time resolution arbitrary timing generator, which is fully implemented using field-programmable-gate-array resources, is reported in this paper. The arbitrary timing generator channel operates with two alternative carry-chains to achieve non-dead-time timing sequence generation, and a 45.3 ps time resolution with a 383 ps minimum pulse width can be obtained. The time resolution is further improved to 11.3 ps by employing four parallel carry-chains in a single arbitrary timing generator channel to realize “time folding.” The timing generator has a high time stability, and the time uncertainty is below 12 ps within a wide time range of 1 ns–108 ns. The arbitrary timing generator can be used to generate continuous spike timing sequences with a picosecond time resolution.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-04T11:02:55Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0024594
  • Bremsstrahlung cannon design for shock ignition relevant regime
    • Authors: P. Koester, F. Baffigi, G. Cristoforetti, L. Labate, L. A. Gizzi, S. Baton, M. Koenig, A. Colaïtis, D. Batani, A. Casner, D. Raffestin, A. Tentori, J. Trela, C. Rousseaux, G. Boutoux, S. Brygoo, L. Jacquet, C. Reverdin, E. Le Bel, L. Le-Deroff, W. Theobald, K. Shigemori
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      We report on the optimization of a BremsStrahlung Cannon (BSC) design for the investigation of laser-driven fast electron populations in a shock ignition relevant experimental campaign at the Laser Megajoule-PETawatt Aquitaine Laser facility. In this regime with laser intensities of 1015 W/cm2–1016 W/cm2, fast electrons with energies ≤100 keV are expected to be generated through Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) and Two Plasmon Decay (TPD) instabilities. The main purpose of the BSC in our experiment is to identify the contribution to x-ray emission from bremsstrahlung of fast electrons originating from SRS and TPD, with expected temperatures of 40 keV and 95 keV, respectively. Data analysis and reconstruction of the distributions of x-ray photons incident on the BSC are described.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-04T11:02:53Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0022030
  • Using solenoid as multipurpose tool for measuring beam parameters
    • Authors: Igor Pinayev, Yichao Jing, Dmitry Kayran, Vladimir N. Litvinenko, Jun Ma, Kentaro Mihara, Irina Petrushina, Kai Shih, Gang Wang, Yuan Hui Wu
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      Solenoids are frequently used for focusing low-energy beams. In this paper, we show how they can serve as multipurpose diagnostics tools to measure various beam parameters, including energy, emittance, the second moments of the transverse distribution, and the beam position and angle with respect to the solenoid’s axis. The energy measurement is based on rotation of the plane of the transverse motion, as opposed to generating dispersion with a dipole. Measurement of the beam trajectory with respect to the solenoid axis is done by analyzing the beam orbit downstream of the solenoid while varying its current. The second moments are calculated by analyzing the beam image on a profile monitor while accounting for the beam rotation caused by the solenoid. We describe in detail the corresponding procedures and the experimental results of these measurements.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-04T11:02:52Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0015618
  • A hybrid interferometric system for velocity measurements in shock-wave
    • Authors: A. V. Pavlenko, S. S. Mokrushin, A. A. Tyaktev, N. B. Anikin
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      This paper presents a hybrid interferometric system designed to measure the surface velocity of tested specimens in shock-wave experiments. The system integrates the All-Fiber Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (AFVISAR) and the Photonic Doppler Velocimeter (PDV) interferometric channels using a single probing system to measure the velocity of one surface point of specimens under study. This design allows the same optical signal containing the Doppler frequency shift to be processed by the AFVISAR and PDV independent interferometric devices. The interferometric system has been tested in dynamic experiments and provides the velocity measurement accuracy of at least 1.5 m/s with a nanosecond time resolution.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-04T11:02:50Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0029815
  • A perpendicular field electromagnet with a 250 mm access bore
    • Authors: A. P. Petrović, B. H. M. Smit, K. L. Fong, B. Satywali, X. Y. Tee, C. Panagopoulos
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      We present a laboratory electromagnet capable of generating magnetic fields up to ±0.48 T, specifically designed as a perpendicular flux source for thin film samples in an ambient environment. The magnet features a 250 mm diameter clear access bore above the sample plane, thus offering compatibility with a wide variety of experimental apparatus. Despite its generous size, the magnet thermally dissipates less than 1 kW at maximum field. A shaped ferromagnetic core is used to amplify and homogenize the field B, leading to an estimated uniformity of ±1.5 mT (≲0.3%) in [math] within a 28 mm2 zone at maximum field. The sample stage is thermally regulated and isolated from the magnet, enabling temperature control with ±5 mK precision even at elevated magnetic fields.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-04T11:02:49Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0027913
  • Study on dark-field imaging with a laboratory x-ray source: Random stress
           variation analysis based on x-ray grating interferometry
    • Authors: Seho Lee, Ohsung Oh, Youngju Kim, Daeseung Kim, Junhyeok Won, Seung Wook Lee
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      The dark-field image (DFI) in a grating interferometer involves the small-angle scattering properties of a material. The microstructure of the material can be characterized by an analysis of the auto-correlation length and the DFI. The feasibility of a DFI in a laboratory x-ray source with grating interferometry has been reported, but a follow-up study is needed. In this study, the random stress distribution was measured in the laboratory environment as an applied study. SiO2 mono-spheres as a cohesive powder with a 0.5 µm particle size were used as the sample. The microstructural changes according to the stresses on the particles were observed by acquiring a DFI along the auto-correlation length. In x-rays, a random two-phase media model was first used to analyze the characteristics of cohesive powder. This study showed that the microstructure of materials and x-ray images could be analyzed in a laboratory environment.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-04T11:02:49Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0011619
  • Compact, portable, laser induced fluorescence diagnostic for laboratory
           plasma sources
    • Authors: M. C. Paul, T. E. Steinberger, E. A. M. Lister, N. Ivan Arnold, D. Artis, S. Chakraborty Thakur, T. Hall, S. LeBlanc, E. E. Scime, E. Thomas, G. R. Tynan
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      As diagnostic groups are increasingly called upon to participate in experimental campaigns at remote facilities, there is a need to develop portable versions of plasma diagnostic systems. One such diagnostic is laser induced fluorescence (LIF). Here, we describe a portable LIF apparatus that eliminates the need for an optical table, beam splitters, and an optical chopper. All of the light exiting the laser system is coupled through optical fibers to the experiment and housekeeping diagnostics. The collected light is coupled through an optical fiber as well. A key feature is modulation of the tapered amplifier current instead of physical modulation of the laser output. Using this portable LIF system, measurements of ion temperature, ion flow, and relative metastable ion density are reported for two different remote experiments.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-04T11:02:48Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0031217
  • Use of hexapole magnet and spin flipper combined with time-of-flight
           analysis to characterize state-selected paramagnetic atomic/molecular
    • Authors: Mitsunori Kurahashi
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      In the past, the Stern–Gerlach experiment has been used as a standard method for analyzing the population of magnetic substates contained in spin-polarized and/or state-selected atomic/molecular beams. However, this experiment is quite demanding due to its low signal intensity and difficulty in beam alignment. The present study shows that the use of a hexapole magnet and a spin flipper, together with the time-of-flight analysis, allows us to conduct an almost equivalent analysis while greatly improving the signal intensity. Applications to the analysis of spin-polarized triplet excited helium and state-selected O2([math]) beams are presented.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-04T11:02:47Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0031903
  • High-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering at the high energy density
           scientific instrument at the Free-Electron Laser
    • Authors: L. Wollenweber, T. R. Preston, A. Descamps, V. Cerantola, A. Comley, J. H. Eggert, L. B. Fletcher, G. Geloni, D. O. Gericke, S. H. Glenzer, S. Göde, J. Hastings, O. S. Humphries, A. Jenei, O. Karnbach, Z. Konopkova, R. Loetzsch, B. Marx-Glowna, E. E. McBride, D. McGonegle, G. Monaco, B. K. Ofori-Okai, C. A. J. Palmer, C. Plückthun, R. Redmer, C. Strohm, I. Thorpe, T. Tschentscher, I. Uschmann, J. S. Wark, T. G. White, K. Appel, G. Gregori, U. Zastrau
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 92, Issue 1, January 2021.
      We introduce a setup to measure high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering at the High Energy Density scientific instrument at the European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL). The setup uses the Si (533) reflection in a channel-cut monochromator and three spherical diced analyzer crystals in near-backscattering geometry to reach a high spectral resolution. An energy resolution of 44 meV is demonstrated for the experimental setup, close to the theoretically achievable minimum resolution. The analyzer crystals and detector are mounted on a curved-rail system, allowing quick and reliable changes in scattering angle without breaking vacuum. The entire setup is designed for operation at 10 Hz, the same repetition rate as the high-power lasers available at the instrument and the fundamental repetition rate of the European XFEL. Among other measurements, it is envisioned that this setup will allow studies of the dynamics of highly transient laser generated states of matter.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-04T05:47:23Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0022886
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