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  Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 832 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (76 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (586 journals)
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AGRICULTURE (586 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 263 Journals sorted alphabetically
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta agriculturae Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Agrobotanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Agronomica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Agronomica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Technologica Agriculturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Agriculture & Botanics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Horticultural Science     Open Access  
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
African Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Agra Europe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agribusiness : an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Agric     Open Access  
Agricultura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultura, Sociedad y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultural Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Agricultural Commodities     Full-text available via subscription  
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Agricultural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 167)
Agricultural History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America     Open Access  
Agriculture and Food Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Agriprobe     Open Access  
Agrivita : Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Agroalimentaria     Open Access  
Agrociencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agrociencia Uruguay     Open Access  
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
Agronomía Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access  
Agronomie Africaine     Full-text available via subscription  
Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agrosearch     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agrotekma : Jurnal Agroteknologi dan Ilmu Pertanian     Open Access  
Agrovigor     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Akademik Ziraat Dergisi     Open Access  
Alinteri Zirai Bilimler Dergisi : Alinteri Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Ambiência     Open Access  
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Botany     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
American Journal of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals Valahia University of Targoviste - Agriculture     Open Access  
Annual Review of Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
APCBEE Procedia     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Applied Financial Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aquacultura Indonesiana     Open Access  
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ARO. The Scientific Journal of Koya University     Open Access  
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Agriculture     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Grain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Australian Journal of Agricultural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Sugarcane     Full-text available via subscription  
Avances en Investigacion Agropecuaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Agronomy Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioagro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biological Agriculture & Horticulture : An International Journal for Sustainable Production Systems     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Biosystems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial     Open Access  
Biotemas     Open Access  
Boletín Semillas Ambientales     Open Access  
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
British Poultry Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Buletin Ilmu Makanan Ternak     Open Access  
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca. Agriculture     Open Access  
Caderno de Ciências Agrárias     Open Access  
Cahiers Agricultures     Open Access  
California Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cambridge Journal of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Ceiba     Open Access  
Central European Forestry Journal     Open Access  
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CERNE     Open Access  
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Change and Adaptation in Socio-Ecological Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemical and Biological Technologies for Agriculture     Open Access  
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia & Natura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciência e Agrotecnologia     Open Access  
Ciencia e investigación agraria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciência e Técnica Vitivinícola     Open Access  
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Agricultura     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
COCOS : The Journal of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coffee Science     Open Access  
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Corpoica Ciencia y Tecnología Agropecuaria     Open Access  
Corps et culture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cuadernos de Desarrollo Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cultivos Tropicales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cultural Geographies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Cultural Studies - Critical Methodologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cultural Studies of Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cultural Trends     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Agricultural Science and Technology     Open Access  
Current Agriculture Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Research in Dairy Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Agricultural Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Developments in Agricultural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diatom Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Die Bodenkultur : Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment     Open Access  
Dossiers Agraris     Open Access  
Ecological Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 151)
Economic Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Economic and Industrial Democracy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Economic Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Encuentro     Open Access  
Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food     Hybrid Journal  
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environment and Development Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Eppo Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ethology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
EU agrarian Law     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Euphytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Eurochoices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Agrophysical Journal     Open Access  
European Journal of Agronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of American Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Health Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
EvoDevo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Extensão Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Farmer’s Weekly     Full-text available via subscription  
Farmlink Africa     Full-text available via subscription  

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
  [SJR: 0.322]   [H-I: 42]   [2 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0001-3765 - ISSN (Online) 1678-2690
   Published by SciELO Homepage  [714 journals]
  • How to live and do science in a changing world

  • Serra Pelada: the first Amazonian Meteorite fall is a Eucrite (basalt)
           from Asteroid 4-Vesta

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Serra Pelada is the newest Brazilian eucrite and the first recovered fall from Amazonia (State of Pará, Brazil, June 29th 2017). In this paper, we report on its petrography, chemistry, mineralogy and its magnetic properties. Study of four thin sections reveals that the meteorite is brecciated, containing basaltic and gabbroic clasts, as well of recrystallized impact melt, embedded into a fine-medium grained matrix. Chemical analyses suggest that Serra Pelada is a monomict basaltic eucritic breccia, and that the meteorite is a normal member of the HED suite. Our results provide additional geological and compositional information on the lithological diversity of its parent body. The mineralogy of Serra Pelada consists basically of low-Ca pyroxene and high-Ca plagioclase with accessory minerals such as quartz, sulphide (troilite), chromite - ulvöspinel and ilmenite. These data are consistent with the meteorite being an eucrite, a basaltic achondrite and a member of the howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) clan of meteorites which most likely are from the crust asteroid 4 Vesta.
  • Tree community variation in a tropical continental island according to
           slope aspect and human interference

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Associating description of unrecorded tropical tree community structure to sampling approaches that can help determine mechanisms behind floristic variation is important to further the comprehension of how plant species coexist at tropical forests. Thus, this study had the goals of (i) evaluating tree community structure on the continental island of Marambaia (23°4’37.09”S; 43°59’2.15”W) and (ii) testing the prediction that there are local scale changes in a tropical tree community structure between slopes facing different geographic orientation and with distinct human interference history. We established 60 (0.6 ha) sampling units in three different slope sites with distinct predominant geographic orientation and human interference. We sampled all woody trees with diameter at breast height (dbh) ≥ 5 cm. We found a total of 1.170 individuals representing 220 species, 120 genera and 50 families. The overall tree community structure and structural descriptors (abundance of individuals, basal area, species richness and diversity) varied extensively between the sites. The evidence presented here supports that local scale topography variations and human interference history can be important factors contributing to the known floristic heterogeneity of the Atlantic Rainforest. Future work on the study area should focus on disentangling effects from distinct causal factors over tree community variation and species occurrence.
  • Microscopic aspects of electrosensory system on the partially euryhaline
           lesser guitarfish

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The electrosensory system on elasmobranchs consists of subcutaneous electroreceptor organs known as ampullae of Lorenzini. The present study investigated the ampullae of Lorenzini morphology of the lesser guitarfish Zapteryx brevirostris, using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The pore number found in the ventral skin surface is much higher than that found in the dorsal portion, characteristic of species that inhabit the euphotic zone. Under light microscopy it was possible to observe that the wall canal consists of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells. The canal features distal expansion, where the ampullae are located with up to six alveoli. The sensory epithelium of ampullae is composed by cubic cells, with oval nucleus, restricted to the interior of the alveoli. With analysis the clusters under scanning electron microscopy, it was possible to observe the structure and the random arrangement of individual ampullae, canals and nerves. The distribution of dorsal and ventral pores and ampullae in Z. brevirostris resembled those of the same family. The number of alveoli per ampullae was similar to that found in euryhaline elasmobranchs species, suggesting that the morphological organization in Z. brevirostris is linked to its possible evolutionary transitory position among batoids.
  • Protocol for chromosome-specific probe construction using PRINS,
           micromanipulation and DOP-PCR techniques

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Chromosome-specific probes have been widely used in molecular cytogenetics, being obtained with different methods. In this study, a reproducible protocol for construction of chromosome-specific probes is proposed which associates in situ amplification (PRINS), micromanipulation and degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR (DOP-PCR). Human lymphocyte cultures were used to obtain metaphases from male and female individuals. The chromosomes were amplified via PRINS, and subcentromeric fragments of the X chromosome were microdissected using microneedles coupled to a phase contrast microscope. The fragments were amplified by DOP-PCR and labeled with tetramethyl-rhodamine-5-dUTP. The probes were used in fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) procedure to highlight these specific regions in the metaphases. The results show one fluorescent red spot in male and two in female X chromosomes and interphase nuclei.
  • Hematological and biometric traits of tuvira Gymnotus inaequilabiatus
           (Valenciennes, 1839) (Gymnotiformes: Gymnotidae) from the Brazilian

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT This study describes the hematological and biometric characteristics of male and female Gymnotus species from the Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. Fifty adult specimens of Gymnotus inaequilabiatus were weighed, measured, and then euthanized. Blood was collected by puncturing the celiac mesenteric vein to determine the hematocrit, hemoglobin content, number of erythrocytes, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, glucose level, absolute value of leukocytes, and relative value of leukocytes and thrombocytes. Body weight and relative condition factor did not differ (P > 0.05) between the sexes, as well as erythrogram and the blood glucose values. Hematocrit ranged from 18.0% to 54.0%; hemoglobin from 1.1 to 14.7 g dL-1; number of erythrocytes from 0.2 × 106 to 3.8 ×106 µL-1; MCV from 24.2 to 321.7 fL; and MCHC from 4.2 to 44.5 g dL-1. In the differential count were identified thrombocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, immature leukocytes, and PAS-positive granular leukocyte (PAS-GL). Females had a higher percentage of immature leukocytes (P < 0.05) than males. Glucose levels, erythrogram, leukogram, and the morphology of defense cells are comparable to other fish species of the Pantanal. Thrombocytes were the most frequent defense cells, followed by lymphocytes and neutrophils.
  • Reproductive Biology of Varronia curassavica Jacq. (Boraginaceae)

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Varronia curassavica, a subshrubby medicinal species associated with restinga in the Atlantic Forest, has been exploited by local people and the pharmaceutical industry. Indeed, restingas have experienced a continuous process of degradation, and thus, with species and ecosystem both at risk, efforts to support conservation actions are required. The present study aimed to evaluate aspects of V. curassavica reproductive biology. To accomplish this, morphological characterization was performed by monitoring flowering events. The availability of nectar and pollen, as well as the frequency and behavior of floral visitors and dispersers, was also evaluated. This species exhibits both heterostyly and protogyny. Anthesis is diurnal, and flowers last less than a day. The high number of flower and fruit abortions suggests that mechanisms, such as self-incompatibility intra-morphs and easily detached flowers, contribute to reduced fruit production. The high diversity of floral visitors indicate a generalist pollination syndrome. Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera were the main pollinators, and nectar was the main resource sought by these insects. Fruits were dispersed by birds and ants. It can be concluded that the interaction of V. curassavica with several species is a key factor in its own survival and for maintaining the biological diversity of restinga.
  • Evaluation antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of the antimicrobial
           peptide P34 against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The adhesion ability of bacteria to abiotic surfaces has important implications in food industries, because these organisms can survive for long periods through the biofilm formation. They can be transferred from one place to another in the industry causing contamination of the food processing environment. In this study, the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of the antimicrobial peptide P34, characterized as a bacteriocin-like substance (BLS P34) were tested against planktonic and sessile cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis isolated from foods. The BLS P34 showed inhibitory effect against all planktonic cells of E. faecalis. The inhibition of biofilm formation and the eradication of pre-formed biofilm were evaluated with the crystal violet assay and with the reduction of 3-bromide [4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium. The BLS P34 promoted a reduction of percentage of adhered microbial cells on the surface, not being able to perform the complete elimination of biofilm formation. The metabolic activity of S. aureus biofilms decreased considerably between 41-95%. However, E. faecalis cells showed up metabolically stimulated. The BLS P34 has the potential antibiofilm for the species S. aureus. Studies suggest more detailed approaches to a better understanding of the interactions between the antimicrobial and bacterial cells within the biofilm structure.
  • Plant species diversity in a Neotropical wetland: patterns of similarity,
           effects of distance, and altitude

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The Brazilian Pantanal is an extensive wetland with heterogeneous habitats, primarily due to the river-floodplain system and plants with differential adaptations and reproductive strategies. Factors such as altitude, distance among plant formations, and flood pulse must be considered to better understand its diversity. Aiming to assess the influence of biogeographic patterns in this system, we analyzed the floristic composition of six areas along the Paraguay River, including residual relieves, verifying the pattern of similarity, and effects of distance and altitude. We recorded 356 species in 87 families, mostly perennial (75%), and some annuals (15%) and pluriannuals (5%). Herbaceous plants were the most represented (48%), followed by arboreal (23%), shrubby (15%) and epiphytic (14%) habits, only 12% being endemic to Brazil. The studied areas showed low floristic similarity, but higher resemblance of species between neighboring areas, and no relation with altitude. The upper Paraguay River is diverse, with high spatial variability of species, predominantly perennial. The river-floodplain connectivity may be a determinant factor in species richness and occurrence of endemic species.
  • Thiol/disulfide status regulates the activity of thiol-containing kinases
           related to energy homeostasis in rat kidney

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Considering that thiol-containing enzymes like kinases are critical for several metabolic pathways and energy homeostasis, we investigated the effects of cystine dimethyl ester and/or cysteamine administration on kinases crucial for energy metabolism in the kidney of Wistar rats. Animals were injected twice a day with 1.6 µmol/g body weight cystine dimethyl ester and/or 0.26 µmol/g body weight cysteamine from the 16th to the 20th postpartum day and euthanized after 12 hours. Pyruvate kinase, adenylate kinase, creatine kinase activities and thiol/disulfide ratio were determined. Cystine dimethyl ester administration reduced thiol/disulfide ratio and inhibited the kinases activities. Cysteamine administration increased the thiol/disulfide ratio and co-administration with cystine dimethyl ester prevented the inhibition of the enzymes. Regression between the thiol/disulfide ratio, and the kinases activities were significant. These results suggest that redox status may regulate energy metabolism in the rat kidney. If thiol-containing enzymes inhibition and oxidative stress occur in patients with cystinosis, it is possible that lysosomal cystine depletion may not be the only beneficial effect of cysteamine administration, but also its antioxidant and thiol-protector effect.
  • Biodiversity of Coreoidea and Pentatomidae (Heteroptera) from Atlantic
           forest protected areas. Insights into their conservation.

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Although the majority of threatened species are likely to be tropical insects, knowledge of the diversity, ecological role and impact of insect biodiversity loss on ecosystem processes is very limited. Specimens belonging to four families of Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, Coreidae, Alydidae and Rhopalidae, were collected from a protected area in the Paraná Forest, the largest ecoregion of the Atlantic Forest, in Argentina. The assemblages were characterized and the biodiversity estimated, and they were compared with the assemblages found in five other protected areas in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. In our study area, Pentatomidae had the greatest richness and diversity; Coreidae was the second most diverse family, with highest sampling deficit, highest percentage of singletons, and lowest inventory completeness; and Rhopalidae was the best sampled family with asymptotic rarefaction curves. We explored the application of the Species Conservation Importance index, following four criteria, to evaluate the relative importance of the pentatomid species studied and its usefulness for assigning conservation values to areas. We found similar Site Conservation Values among the six areas and noted that the use of criteria was limited by the lack of information, being crucial to increase the knowledge of most of the species.
  • Bird diversity along a gradient of fragmented habitats of the Cerrado

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Understanding the factors that affect biodiversity is of central interest to ecology, and essential to species conservation and ecosystems management. We sampled bird communities in 17 forest fragments in the Cerrado biome, the Central-West region of Brazil. We aimed to know the communities structure pattern and the influence of geographical distance and environmental variables on them, along a gradient of fragmented habitats at both local and landscape scales. Eight structural variables of the fragments served as an environmental distance measurement at the local scale while five metrics served as an environmental distance measurement at the landscape scale. Species presence-absence data were used to calculate the dissimilarity index. Beta diversity was calculated using three indices (βsim, βnes and βsor), representing the spatial species turnover, nestedness and total beta diversity, respectively. Spatial species turnover was the predominant pattern in the structure of the communities. Variations in beta diversity were explained only by the environmental variables of the landscape with spatial configuration being more important than the composition. This fact indicates that, in Cerrado of Goiás avian communities structure, deterministic ecological processes associated to differences in species responses to landscape fragmentation are more important than stochastic processes driven by species dispersal.
  • Yungahelea, a new genus of predaceous midge from northwestern Argentina
           (Culicomorpha: Ceratopogonidae)

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT A new monotypic genus and species of predaceous midge from the southernmost area of the Argentinean Yungas, Yungahelea australis Spinelli and Ronderos, is described and illustrated from male and female adults. It belongs to a group containing the Ceratopogonini genera Parabezzia Malloch, Diaphanobezzia Ingram and Macfie, Spinellihelea Borkent, Grogan and Picado, Leptohelea Wirth and Blanton, and Fittkauhelea Wirth and Blanton. Phylogenetic interpretation indicates that Yungahelea is the sister group of Spinellihelea or the clade composed by Parabezzia and Diaphanobezzia.
  • Two new species and updated checklist of Oxyethira Eaton, 1873
           (Trichoptera, Hydroptilidae) from Brazil

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Two new species of Oxyethira Eaton, 1873 are described: Oxyethira cascadanta sp. n. and Oxyethira quadrilobata sp. n. Description and illustrations of the new species are provided based on specimens collected in Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra, Minas Gerais State, Southeast Brazil. Both species are assigned to the subgenus Loxotrichia but differ from other species mainly in morphology of the subgenital plate, subgenital processes and inferior appendages. Additionally, we provide an updated checklist of the Oxyethira species from Brazil.
  • Invertebrate herbivory on floating-leaf macrophytes at the northeast of
           Argentina: should the damage be taken into account in estimations of plant

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT: We assessed the damage produced by invertebrate herbivores per leaf lamina and per m2 of populations floating-leaf macrophytes of Neotropical wetlands in the growth and decay periods, and assessed if the damage produced by the herbivores should be taken into account in the estimations of plant biomass of these macrophytes or not. The biomass removed per lamina and per m2 was higher during the growth period than in decay period in Nymphoides indica and Hydrocleys nymphoides, while Nymphaea prolifera had low values of herbivory in growth period. During decay period this plant is only present as vegetative propagules. According to the values of biomass removed per m2 of N. indica, underestimation up to 17.69% should be produced in cases that herbivory do not should be taking account to evaluate these plant parameters on this macrophyte. Therefore, for the study of biomass and productivity in the study area, we suggest the use of corrected lamina biomass after estimating the biomass removed by herbivores on N. indica. The values of damage in N. indica emphasize the importance of this macrophyte as a food resource for invertebrate herbivores in the trophic networks of the Neotropical wetlands.
  • Morphological Characterization of Diaphragm in Common Squirrel Monkey
           (Saimiri sciureus)

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The wall of the diaphragm can be affected by congenital or acquired alterations which allow the passage of viscera between the abdominal and chest cavities, allowing the formation of a diaphragmatic hernia. We characterized morphology and performed biometrics of the diaphragm in the common squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureus. After fixation, muscle fragments were collected and processed for optical microscopy. In this species the diaphragm muscle is attached to the lung by phrenopericardial ligament. It is also connected to the liver via the coronary and falciform ligaments. The muscle is composed of three segments in total: 1) sternal; 2) costal, and 3) a segment consisting of right and left diaphragmatic pillars. The anatomical structures analyzed were similar to those reported for other mammals. Histological analysis revealed stable, organized muscle fibers with alternation of light and dark streaks, indicating transverse striation.
  • The predator Coenosia Attenuata Stein (Diptera, Muscidae) on
           cultivated plants from Brazil

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Coenosia attenuata Stein (1903) is a predatory fly that is commonly found in greenhouses and open fields preying on whiteflies, leafminers, psocopterans and other insects. The species is widespread in the Old World and its distribution has expanded in recent times to Neotropical countries including Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador and Peru. We report here for the first time the presence of C. attenuata in Brazil, occurring in different sites in the State of Ceará (Northeastern Brazil). Expansion of the distribution range of this muscid to the eastern parts of South America opens up the possibility of applying the beneficial predator as a biological control agent for protected crops of the region.
  • Antiedematogenic activity of the indole derivative N-salicyloyltryptamine
           in animal models

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The N-salicyloyltryptamine (NST) is an indole derivative compound analogue to the alkaloid N-benzoyltryptamine. In the present study, the antiedematogenic activity of NST was investigated in animal models. Firstly, the acute toxicity for NST was assessed according to the OECD Guideline no. 423. The potential NST-induced antiedematogenic activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, as well as by dextran-, compound 48/80-, histamine-, serotonin-, capsaicine-, and prostaglandin E2-induced paw edema in mice. The effect of NST on compound 48/80-induced ex vivo mast cell degranulation on mice mesenteric bed was investigated. No death or alteration of behavioral parameters was observed after administration of NST (2000 mg/kg, i.p.) during the observation time of 14 days. The NST (100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited the carrageenan-induced edema from the 1st to the 5th hour (**p<0.01; ***p<0.001). The edematogenic activity induced by dextran, compound 48/80, histamine, serotonin, capsaicin, and prostaglandin E2 was inhibited by NST (100 mg/kg, i.p.) throughout the observation period (**p<0.01; ***p<0.001). The pretreatment with NST (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg, i.p) attenuates the compound 48/80-induced mast cell degranulation (**p<0.01; ***p<0.001). Thus, the inhibition of both mast cell degranulation and release of endogenous mediators are probably involved in the NST-induced antiedematogenic effect.
  • UV induced surface modification on improving the cytocompatibility of
           metallocene polyethylene

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Demand for medical implants is rising day by day as the world becomes the place for more diseased and older people. Accordingly, in this research, metallocene polyethylene (mPE), a commonly used polymer was treated with UV rays for improving its biocompatibility. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images confirmed the formation of crests and troughs, which depicts the improvement of surface roughness of mPE substrates caused by UV etching. Accordingly, the contact angle measurements revealed that the wettability of mPE-2.5 J/cm2 (68.09º) and mPE-5 J/cm2 (57.93º) samples were found to be increased compared to untreated mPE (86.84º) indicating better hydrophilicity. Further, the UV treated surface exhibited enhanced blood compatibility as determined in APTT (untreated mPE- 55.3 ± 2.5 s, mPE-2.5 J/cm2 - 76.7 ± 4.1 s and mPE-5 J/cm2 - 112.3 ± 2 s) and PT (untreated mPE - 24.7 ± 1.5 s, mPE- 2.5 J/cm2 - 34.3 ± 1.1 s and mPE-5 J/cm2 - 43 ± 2 s) assay. Moreover, the treated mPE-2.5 J/cm2 (4.88%) and mPE-5 J/cm2 (1.79%) showed decreased hemolytic percentage compared to untreated mPE (15.40%) indicating better safety to red blood cells. Interestingly, the changes in physicochemical properties of mPE are directly proportional to the dosage of the UV rays. UV modified mPE surfaces were found to be more compatible as identified through MTT assay, photomicrograph and SEM images of the seeded 3T3 cell population. Hence UV-modified surface of mPE may be successfully exploited for medical implants.
  • Quantification of anti-nutritional factors and their correlations with
           protein and oil in soybeans

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Soybeans contain about 30% carbohydrate, mainly consisting of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and oligosaccharides. NSP are not hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract of monogastric animals. These NSP negatively affect the development of these animals, especially the soluble fraction. This work aimed to establish a method to quantify NSP in soybeans, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and to estimate correlations between NSP, oligosaccharides, protein and oil. Sucrose, raffinose + stachyose, soluble and insoluble NSP contents were determined by HPLC. Oil and protein contents were determined by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The soluble PNAs content showed no significant correlation with protein, oil, sucrose and raffinose + stachyose contents, but oligosaccharides showed a negative correlation with protein content. These findings open up the possibility of developing cultivars with low soluble NSP content, aiming to develop feed for monogastric animals.
  • The effect of Agaricus brasiliensis extract supplementation on
           honey bee colonies

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT This study was done to discover any beneficial effect of a medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis extract on the honey bee. Firstly, a laboratory experiment was conducted on 640 bees reared in 32 single-use plastic rearing cups. A. brasiliensis extract proved safe in all doses tested (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day) irrespective of feeding mode (sugar syrup or candy). Secondly, a three-year field experiment was conducted on 26 colonies treated with a single dose of A. brasiliensis extract (100 mg/kg/day) added to syrup. Each year the colonies were treated once in autumn and twice in spring. The treatments significantly increased colony strength parameters: brood rearing improvement and adult population growth were noticed more often than the increase in honey production and pollen reserves. These positive effects were mainly observed in April. In conclusion, A. brasiliensis extract is safe for the bees and helps maintaining strong colonies, especially in spring.
  • Occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in wild animals in State of
           Paraná, Brazil

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal parasites in fecal samples from wild birds and mammals from the State of Paraná. In total, 220 stool samples were sent to Parasitic Diseases Laboratory of the Federal University of Paraná during 13 months (Jan/2013-Jan/2014). A total of 52.7% (116/220) of the animals were positive for cysts, oocysts, eggs and/or trophozoites. In birds, the positivity rate was 37.9% (25/66) and mammals was 59.1% (91/154). Strongyloidea superfamily eggs were observed in 37.3% (82/220) of the samples, Eimeria spp. in 10% (22/220), and Trichuris spp. in 4.5% (10/220). The most frequent mammal species were llamas (Lama glama), and dromedaries (Camelus bactrianus) with infection rate of 70.1% (54/77) and 60.8% (14/23), respectively. In other hand, cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and ring necks (Psittacula krameri), were the most researched birds, with infection rate of 20% (40/50) and 100% (6/6), respectively. A high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was observed in most of wildlife animals. Further investigations should be conducted focusing on parasite control strategies and the conservation measurements for harmonizing the human-animal interaction on the long-term, reducing associated health risks.
  • Toxicity and motor changes in Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L.)
           exposed to fipronil and imidacloprid

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT This study evaluated the in vitro toxicity and motor activity changes in African-derived adult honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) exposed to lethal or sublethal doses of the insecticides fipronil and imidacloprid. Mortality of bees was assessed to determine the ingestion and contact lethal dose for 24 h using probit analysis. Motor activities in bees exposed to lethal (LD50) and sublethal doses (1/500th of the lethal dose) of both insecticides were evaluated in a behavioral observation box at 1 and 4 h. Ingestion and contact lethal doses of fipronil were 0.2316 ' 0.0626 and 0.0080 ' 0.0021 μg/bee, respectively. Ingestion and contact lethal doses of imidacloprid were 0.1079 ' 0.0375 and 0.0308 ' 0.0218 μg/bee, respectively. Motor function of bees exposed to lethal doses of fipronil and imidacloprid was impaired; exposure to sublethal doses of fipronil but not imidacloprid impaired motor function. The insecticides evaluated in this study were highly toxic to African-derived A. mellifera and caused impaired motor function in these pollinators.
  • Changes in adipose cells of Longissimus dorsi muscle in Iberian pigs
           raised under extensive conditions

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Twenty-four Iberian castrated male pigs were used to characterize and evaluate the effect of the duration of “Montanera” in the adipocytes size and its relation with the backfat thickness and intramuscular fat. The animals were fed under extensive conditions during 30, 60 and 90 days in the “Dehesa” before slaughtered. Carcass weight, percentage of intramuscular fat, thickness of backfat and its three layers and adipocytes size of the intramuscular fat were obtained. The group which expended 90 days on fattening obtained the highest adipocytes, with an area higher by a 50% than those that only expended 30 days. The differences in diameter and perimeter adipocyte were not as marked as area. A significant positive correlation between the diameter, area and perimeter of adipocyte with the backfat thickness were found. The fat cells in Iberian pig hypertrophy during the “montanera stage”, being this increase significant from month to month in this period of fattening. Also, this adipocyte increase is correlated with the animal weight. The correlation between adipocyte size and inner layer of backfat shows that the inner layer obtained in live pig by ultrasound techniques could be a good marker of fat infiltration in pigs fattening in “montanera” system.
  • Thinning regimes and initial spacing for Eucalyptus plantations
           in Brazil

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT This study focuses on the effects of different thinning regimes on clonal Eucalyptus plantations growth. Four different trials, planted in 1999 and located in Bahia and Espírito Santo States, were used. Aside from thinning, initial planting density, and post thinning fertilization application were also evaluated. Before canopy closure, and therefore before excessive competition between trees took place, it was found that stands planted under low densities (667 trees per hectare) presented a lower mortality proportion when compared to stand planted under higher densities (1111 trees per hectare). However, diameter growth prior to thinning operations was not statistically different between these two densities, presenting an overall mean of 4.9 cm/year. After canopy closure and the application of the thinning treatments, it was found that thinning regimes beginning early in the life of the stand and leaving a low number of residual trees presented the highest diameter and height growth. Unthinned treatments and thinning regimes late in the life of the stand (after 5.5 years), leaving a large number of residual trees presented the highest values of basal area production. The choice of the best thinning regime for Eucalyptus clonal material will vary according to the plantation objective.
  • Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) peel flour: effects on hepatoprotection
           and dyslipidemia induced by a hypercholesterolemic diet

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Dyslipidemias are associated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, obesity, diabetes, hypertension and hepatic steatosis, being the cause of morbidity and mortality. This study investigated the effects of lychee peel flour (PF) on serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c), triacylglycerols (TAG) and various parameters related to obesity, in rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet. Therefore, 20 male rats were used. In the first 21 days, the animals were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet, except for control group. In the following 21 days, their diets were modified, and they received a standard diet (Control); hypercholesterolemic (Hyper); hypercholesterolemic + 5% PF (PF5) and hypercholesterolemic + 10% PF (PF10). The results revealed that PF intake attenuated weight gain, reduced body mass index, glucose and the levels of TAG, TC, LDL-c, hepatic enzymes and leptin, besides the percentage of hepatic lipids, liver lipid peroxidation and frequency of severe steatosis. Histological studies of the aorta did not show the formation of the atheromatous plaque. These results reinforce its potential to reduce the risk of diseases associated with obesity.
  • Yellow sweet potato flour: use in sweet bread processing to increase
           β-carotene content and improve quality

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Yellow sweet potato is mostly produced by small farmers, and may be a source of energy and carotenoids in the human diet, but it is a highly perishable crop. To increase its industrial application, yellow sweet potato flour has been produced for use in bakery products. This study aimed to evaluate the technological quality and the carotenoids content in sweet breads produced with the replacement of wheat flour by 0, 3, 6, and 9% yellow sweet potato flour. Breads were characterized by technological parameters and β-carotene levels during nine days of storage. Tukey’s test (p<0.05) was used for comparison between means. The increase in yellow sweet potato flour concentrations in bread led to a decrease of specific volume and firmness, and an increase in water activity, moisture, orange coloring, and carotenoids. During storage, the most significant changes were observed after the fifth day, with a decrease in intensity of the orange color. The β-carotene content was 0.1656 to 0.4715 µg/g in breads with yellow sweet potato flour. This work showed a novel use of yellow sweet potato in breads, which brings benefits to consumers’ health and for the agricultural business.
  • Estimating Stand Height and Tree Density in Pinus taeda plantations using
           in-situ data, airborne LiDAR and k-Nearest Neighbor Imputation

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Accurate forest inventory is of great economic importance to optimize the entire supply chain management in pulp and paper companies. The aim of this study was to estimate stand dominate and mean heights (HD and HM) and tree density (TD) of Pinus taeda plantations located in South Brazil using in-situ measurements, airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data and the non- k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) imputation. Forest inventory attributes and LiDAR derived metrics were calculated at 53 regular sample plots and we used imputation models to retrieve the forest attributes at plot and landscape-levels. The best LiDAR-derived metrics to predict HD, HM and TD were H99TH, HSD, SKE and HMIN. The Imputation model using the selected metrics was more effective for retrieving height than tree density. The model coefficients of determination (adj.R2) and a root mean squared difference (RMSD) for HD, HM and TD were 0.90, 0.94, 0.38m and 6.99, 5.70, 12.92%, respectively. Our results show that LiDAR and k-NN imputation can be used to predict stand heights with high accuracy in Pinus taeda. However, furthers studies need to be realized to improve the accuracy prediction of TD and to evaluate and compare the cost of acquisition and processing of LiDAR data against the conventional inventory procedures.
  • Population dynamics of Aphis gossypii Glover and in sole and intercropping
           systems of cotton and cowpea

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Population dynamics of aphids have been studied in sole and intercropping systems. These studies have required the use of more precise analytical tools in order to better understand patterns in quantitative data. Mathematical models are among the most important tools to explain the dynamics of insect populations. This study investigated the population dynamics of aphids Aphis gossypii and Aphis craccivora over time, using mathematical models composed of a set of differential equations as a helpful analytical tool to understand the population dynamics of aphids in arrangements of cotton and cowpea. The treatments were sole cotton, sole cowpea, and three arrangements of cotton intercropped with cowpea (t1, t2 and t3). The plants were infested with two aphid species and were evaluated at 7, 14, 28, 35, 42, and 49 days after the infestations. Mathematical models were used to fit the population dynamics of two aphid species. There were good fits for aphid dynamics by mathematical model over time. The highest population peak of both species A. gossypii and A. craccivora was found in the sole crops, and the lowest population peak was found in crop system t2. These results are important for integrated management programs of aphids in cotton and cowpea.
  • Harvesting Season and Botanical Origin Interferes in Production and
           Nutritional Composition of Bee Pollen

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT We aimed to evaluate the frequency of bee pollen production, its botanical origin and chemical composition when collected in different seasons. Our results indicate that higher proteins (22.80 ± 3.09%) and flavonoids (2789.87 ± 1396.00 μg 100g-1) levels were obtained in the winter season, which also showed greater pollen production (134.50 ± 35.70 grams) and predominance of the Myrtaceae family. As for spring we found high concentrations of lipids (4.62 ± 2.26%) and low ash content (2.22 ± 0.39%). Regarding the amino acid composition and vitamin C content, we found no differences between the averages throughout the seasons. Our results highlight the importance of understanding not only the botanical origin and the chemical composition of bee pollen, but also the harvesting frequency of this product by bees, so that it becomes possible to supplement the colonies in times of natural food resources shortage.
  • Ash content, carbon and C/N ratio in paricá in function of NPK

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Fertilization in areas of forest plantations is needed to supplement plants´ nutritional needs until harvest. An experiment was performed to check the influence of fertilization on levels of ash, carbon and C/N relation in Schizolobium amazonicum. Soil liming was performed and fertilization occurred after 15 days of incubation. S. amazonicum seedlings were produced and submitted to fertilization with N, P and K: N = 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1; P2O5 = 0, 50, 100 and 200 kg ha-1; K2O = 0, 50, 100 and 200 kg ha-1. The plants were measured after 180 days. The seedlings of 20 treatments with the highest increase in height and diameter were transplanted to the field. Soil was fertilized and limestone was spread; seedlings were distributed into randomized blocks, with six replications. After 12 months, the plants were removed to determine ash, organic carbon, C/N relation contents. The ashes were submitted to digestion to determine nutrient concentrations. Fertilization influenced the levels of ash and organic carbon and C/N relation in S. amazonicum. Results indicate that the species has a potential for energy production.
  • Relationships of rice yield and quality based on genotype by trait (GT)

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted to examine the influencing characters on rice by using 64 rice genotypes, including four local landraces, four released cultivars and 56 mutant lines (M5) derived from these genotypes, with application of the genotype by trait (GT) biplot methodology. The first two principal components (PC1 and PC2) accounted for 46.6% of total variation in 64 genotypes. The polygon view of GT biplot suggested seven sections for 64 genotypes. The vertex G38 had good amounts of grain yield, panicle length, hundred grain weight, internodes length, plant height and fertility percentage. Generally based on vector view it was demonstrated that the selection of high grain yield would be performed via thousand grain weight, panicle weight and number of filled grain per panicle. These traits should be considered simultaneously as effective selection criteria evolving high yielding rice genotypes because of their large contribution to grain yield. The genotypes G2, G4 and G7 could be considered for the developing of desirable progenies in the selection strategy of rice improvement programs. This study revealed GT biplot can graphically display the interrelationships among traits. In conclusion, it is recommended the use of GGE biplot to identify superior genotypes for simultaneous improvement of several traits.
  • Effectiveness of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Isolates from the Land Uses
           of Amazon Region in Symbiosis with Cowpea

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi provide several ecosystem services, including increase in plant growth and nutrition. The occurrence, richness, and structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi communities are influenced by human activities, which may affect the functional benefits of these components of the soil biota. In this study, 13 arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolates originating from soils with different land uses in the Alto Solimões-Amazon region were evaluated regarding their effect on growth, nutrition, and cowpea yield in controlled conditions using two soils. Comparisons with reference isolates and a mixture of isolates were also performed. Fungal isolates exhibited a wide variability associated with colonization, sporulation, production of aboveground biomass, nitrogen and phosphorus uptake, and grain yield, indicating high functional diversity within and among fungal species. A generalized effect of isolates in promoting phosphorus uptake, increase in biomass, and cowpea yield was observed in both soils. The isolates of Glomus were the most efficient and are promising isolates for practical inoculation programs. No relationship was found between the origin of fungal isolate (i.e. land use) and their symbiotic performance in cowpea.
  • The behavior of Aphis gossypii and Aphis craccivora (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
           and of their predator Cycloneda sanguinea (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in
           cotton-cowpea intercropping systems

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The intercropping is an important cultural practice commonly used in pest management. It is based on the principle that increased plant diversity in the agro-ecosystem can lead to reductions of pest populations in the crop. The current study aimed to assess the impact the colored fiber cotton-cowpea intercropped systems on Aphis gossypii and Aphis craccivora and on their predator Cycloneda sanguinea and the losses and the dispersion behavior of these aphids and their predator in these cropping systems. The experiment had a randomized block experimental design with two bioassays and four treatments. The number of apterous and alate aphids (A. gossypii) per cotton plant was 1.46 and 1.73 or 1.97 and 2.19 times highest in the solid cotton system than that found in the cotton-cowpea intercropped systems (S1) and (S2), respectively. On the other hand, the cotton-cowpea intercropped systems (S1 and S2) reduced, respectively, in 43% and 31% the number of apterousA. gossypiiper cotton plant compared to the control. Implementing cotton-cowpea intercropped system in the S1 scheme reduced A. gossypii infestation, favored the multiplication of C. sanguinea, and allowed obtaining heavier open bolls.
  • Somatic embryogenesis in Carica papaya as affected by auxins and explants,
           and morphoanatomical-related aspects

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate somatic embryogenesis in juvenile explants of the THB papaya cultivar. Apical shoots and cotyledonary leaves were inoculated in an induction medium composed of different concentrations of 2,4-D (6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 µM) or 4-CPA (19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 µM). The embryogenic calluses were transferred to a maturation medium for 30 days. Histological analysis were done during the induction and scanning electron microscopy after maturing. For both types of auxin, embryogenesis was achieved at higher frequencies with cotyledonary leaves incubated in induction medium than with apical shoots; except for callogenesis. The early-stage embryos (e.g., globular or heart-shape) predominated. Among the auxins, best results were observed in cotyledonary leaves induced with 4-CPA (25 µM). Histological analyses of the cotyledonary leaf-derived calluses confirmed that the somatic embryos (SEs) formed from parenchyma cells, predominantly differentiated via indirect and multicellular origin and infrequently via synchronized embryogenesis. The secondary embryogenesis was observed during induction and maturation phases in papaya THB cultivar. The combination of ABA (0.5 µM) and AC (15 g L-1) in maturation medium resulted in the highest somatic embryogenesis induction frequency (70 SEs callus-1) and the lowest percentage of early germination (4%).
  • Evaluation of growth performance and gastro-intestinal parameters on the
           response of weaned piglets to dietary organic acids

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Two experiments (E) were carried out to evaluate the effects of fumaric acid and an acidifier blend [composed by calcium formate, calcium lactate and medium-chain fatty acids (capric and caprylic)] in piglet diets containing colistin (40 ppm) or halquinol (120 ppm) on performance, diarrhea incidence (E1), organs relative weight, pH values, intestinal morphometry and microbiota (E2). In E1, 192 and E2, 24 piglets weaned at 21-day-old were randomly assigned to blocks with 2x2 factorial arrangement of treatments [absence or presence of fumaric acid x absence or presence of acidifier blend], six replicates of eight (E1) and one piglet per pen (E2). For E1, the treatments were control (CD): no acidifier product + 40 ppm of colistin, FA: fumaric acid in absence of acidifier blend, AB: acidifier blend in absence of fumaric acid and, AF+AB: presence of fumaric acid and acidifier blend. For E2, the pre-starter I diet were used and the same treatments as E1 evaluated. No treatment effects (P>0.05) were observed on performance, diarrhea incidence (E1), gut pH values and duodenum morphometry of piglets (E2). However, the addition of AB increased (P<0.05) large intestine relative weight and, FA addition decreased (P<0.05) pancreas relative weight, jejunum villi height and, total coliform and E. coli counts in cecum. The inclusion of FA and AB in diets containing colistin or halquinol did not improve performance, although FA exerted an inhibitory effect on cecum microbiota.
  • Timing and placement of cattle manure and/or gliricidia affects cotton and
           sunflower nutrient accumulation and biomass productivity

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Organic fertilizers are a viable alternative to increase oilseed productivity in family agriculture systems. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of timing and placement of cattle manure and/or gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp) prunings on cotton (Gossipium hirsutum L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) nutrient accumulation and biomass productivity. Experiments were carried out in 2010 and 2011 in Taperoá, Paraíba, Brazil. The organic fertilization treatments were: GI - gliricidia incorporated before planting; GS - gliricidia applied on surface 45 days after planting (DAP); MI + GI - manure and gliricidia incorporated before planting; MI + GS - manure incorporated before planting and gliricídia applied on the surface 45 DAP; MI - manure incorporated before planting; and T - with no organic fertilization. In 2010, treatment MI + GS increased N, P, and K accumulation in cotton (12 and 7 kg ha-1) as well as in sunflower (20 and 29 kg ha-1). In 2011, GI and GS treatments resulted in higher N, P, K accumulations in both crops. The highest cotton productivity in 2010 was obtained with MI + GS treatment (198 kg ha-1) and in 2011 with GS treatment (594 kg ha-1). For sunflower, MI + GS treatment yielded the highest productivity in 2010 (466 kg ha-1) and GI treatment in 2011 (3542 kg ha-1). GI and MI + GS treatments increased total biomass productivity for cotton and sunflower. The treatment that combined both cattle manure incorporated into the soil before planting and gliricidia applied on the surface 45 days after planting was the most viable management strategy.
  • Heartwood and sapwood in eucalyptus trees: non-conventional approach to
           wood quality

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT This study evaluated the quality of heartwood and sapwood from mature trees of three species of Eucalyptus, by means of the qualification of their proportion, determination of basic and apparent density using non-destructive attenuation of gamma radiation technique and calculation of the density uniformity index. Six trees of each species (Eucalyptus grandis - 18 years old, Eucalyptus tereticornis - 35 years old and Corymbia citriodora - 28 years old) were used in the experimental program. The heartwood and sapwood were delimited by macroscopic analysis and the calculation of areas and percentage of heartwood and sapwood were performed using digital image. The uniformity index was calculated following methodology which numerically quantifies the dispersion of punctual density values of the wood around the mean density along the radius. The percentage of the heartwood was higher than the sapwood in all species studied. The density results showed no statistical difference between heartwood and sapwood. Differently from the density results, in all species studied there was statistical differences between uniformity indexes for heartwood and sapwood regions, making justifiable the inclusion of the density uniformity index as a quality parameter for Eucalyptus wood.
  • Neutral detergent fibre in piglet diets: digestibility, performance, and
           deposition of body nutrients

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT A total 120 piglets with an average live weight of 7.00 kg, weaned at 21 days, were used to evaluate the effect of neutral detergent fibre levels on the digestibility of nutrients and energy from the diets, productive performance, and the composition and rate of deposition of nutrients and energy in the bodies of piglets in the nursery phase. The animals were distributed according to a randomized-block design into five treatments, which consisted of neutral detergent fibre levels, with six replicates and four animals per plot. A quadratic effect was detected for the digestibility coefficients of nutrients and energy, feed intake and weight gain. The increase in fibre level promoted a linear increase in fat content in the carcass, blood, and body, whereas the energy in the carcass, organs, and body showed an inverse response. The results showed a quadratic effect on the nutrient deposition rate in the carcass, organs and body. In conclusion, the best digestibility of nutrients and energy from the diet is obtained with 10-11.5% neutral detergent fibre, as higher weight gain and greater protein deposition in the body are achieved at neutral detergent fibre levels of 10.6% and 10.3%, respectively.
  • Fatty acid composition from the marine red algae Pterocladiella capillacea
           (S. G. Gmelin) Santelices & Hommersand 1997 and Osmundaria obtusiloba (C.
           Agardh) R. E. Norris 1991 and its antioxidant activity

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT This study evaluated the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of fatty acids from the marine red algae Pterocladiella capillacea (S. G. Gmelin) Santelices & Hommersand 1997 and Osmundaria obtusiloba (C. Agardh) R. E. Norris 1991. The gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified nine fatty acids in the two species. The major fatty acids of P. capillacea and O. obtusiloba were palmitic acid, oleic acid, arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. The DPPH radical scavenging capacity of fatty acids was moderate ranging from 25.90% to 29.97%. Fatty acids from P. capillacea (31.18%) had a moderate ferrous ions chelating activity (FIC), while in O. obtusiloba (17.17%), was weak. The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of fatty acids from P. capillacea and O. obtusiloba was low. As for β-carotene bleaching (BCB), P. capillacea and O. obtusiloba showed a good activity. This is the first report of the antioxidant activities of fatty acids from the marine red algae P. capillacea and O. obtusiloba.
  • Statistical tools application on dextranase production from Pochonia
           chlamydosporia (VC4) and its application on dextran removal from sugarcane

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to optimize the dextranase production by fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (VC4) and evaluate its activity in dextran reduction in sugarcane juice. The effects, over the P. chlamydosporia dextranase production, of different components from the culture medium were analyzed by Plackett-Burman design and central composite design. The response surface was utilized to determine the levels that, among the variables that influence dextranase production, provide higher production of these enzymes. The enzymatic effect on the removal of dextran present in sugarcane juice was also evaluated. It was observed that only NaNO3 and pH showed significant effect (p<0.05) over dextranase production and was determined that the levels which provided higher enzyme production were, respectively, 5 g/L and 5.5. The dextranases produced by fungus P. chlamydosporia reduced by 75% the dextran content of the sugarcane juice once treated for 12 hours, when compared to the control treatment.
  • Apparent digestibility of conventional and alternative feedstuffs by
           hybrid tambacu juveniles

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC’s) of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and gross energy (GE) of conventional feedstuffs (cottonseed meal-CSM, soybean meal-SBM, wheat bran-WHB, corn-COR) and regional alternative feedstuffs (common bean residue meal-CBR, mesquite meal-MES, pasta by-product meal-PBM) were determined for hybrid juvenile tambacu Colossoma macropomum × Piaractus mesopotamicus. The apparent DM and GE digestibility of feedstuffs decreased (p<0.05) as fiber content of the ingredients increased. No differences (p>0.05) were found among ADC’s of PBM and COR. The lowest CP ADC among energy sources was observed in MES; the lowest CP ADC among plant protein sources was observed in CBR. Information about the ADC’s of conventional and alternative feedstuffs for tambacu is essential to formulate low-cost diets and can contribute to regional development.
  • Modification of the Alere GIARDIA Ag TEST immunochromatography KIT
           methodology for its use in frozen fecal sediment of dogs and cats

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Giardia duodenalis is a worldwide intestinal parasite and is one of the most frequent protozoa species infecting dogs and cats. This study aimed to modify the methodology of Alere GIARDIA Ag TEST KIT for its use in frozen fecal sediments with different storage times in a freezer (-20°C), thus expanding the range of use of this methodology. One hundred fecal sediments from dogs (n=50) and cats (n=50) previously examined by optical microscopy for Giardia cysts were selected for this study. The agreement between the modified immunochromatography and microscopy results was calculated by Kappa coefficient. To evaluate the performance of the modified immunochromatography assay on samples with different storage time, the fecal sediments were divided into three groups according to the time of storage in a freezer: (a) ≤ 1 year (n=37); (b) > 1 year and ≤ 3 years (n=39); (c) > 10 years (max. 13 years) (n=24). The results obtained by the modified immunochromatography assay demonstrates a higher sensitivity of this technique when compared with microscopy, regardless of the frozen storage time. These results allow for the use of this methodology in a greater scope of analysis, especially in frozen fecal sediment triage in sample collections, enabling epidemiological and comparative analysis along different decades.
  • The Effect of Ferrous Nano-oxide Particles on Physiological Traits and
           Nutritional Compounds of Soybean ( Glycine max L.) Seed

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Soybean (Glycine max L.) seed contains amounts of protein, lipid, carbohydrate and mineral elements, which protein and lipid have been known as a main part for soybean’s trade value. In this study, in order to investigate the effect of ferrous nano-oxide particles on nutritional compounds of soybean seed, an experiment with 5 treatments and 3 replications was conducted as a randomized complete block design. Treatments were 5 concentrations of ferrous nano-oxide particles including 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 g L-1 which were sprayed 3 times at 4 and 8 leaves stage and pod initiation. Lipid and protein contents, fatty acids profile, some of mineral elements such as Fe, Mg, Ca and P, chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll content were determined. Results showed that solution containing ferrous nano-oxide particles had significant effect on nutritional compounds of soybean seed (P<0.01) compared to control. The highest content of lipid and protein (25.4 and %33.8, respectively) observed by applying 0.75 g L-1 of ferrous nano-oxide and the lowest content was also in control. Changes in the trends of fatty acids profile (palmitic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids), some of mineral elements (Fe, Mg, Ca and P) and chlorophyll contents were similar to lipid and protein levels which by increasing in concentration of ferrous nano-oxide from 0 to 0.75 g L-1 all measured parameters also increased, but reduction in all parameters was observed in concentration from 0.75 to 1 g L-1. In conclusion, application of 0.75 to 1 g L-1 ferrous nano-oxide had the best effect on the nutrient composition of soybean seed.
  • Cryopreservation of banana’s cv Grand Naine in vitro

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The preservation of banana genetic material is usually performed through seedlings. However, most banana cultivars do not produce seed and are propagated vegetatively. Therefore, cryopreservation is a feasible technique that allows the preservation of banana genotypes indefinitely. For the success of cryopreservation protocols, the selection of cryoprotectants and pre-freezing techniques are important factor. Therefore, the objective of this study was to verify the effects of different cryoprotectants with and without 1% phloroglucinol and pre-cooling periods on the development of a protocol for cryopreservation of in vitro rhizomes ofMusa accuminata(AAA) cv Grand Naine banana. The addition of 1% phloroglucinol to the cryoprotective solutions, such as PVS2 enhanced recovery of cryopreserved banana rhizomes. In addition, pre-cooling of explants in ice for 3 hours in PVS2 + 1% of phloroglucinol allowed efficient cryopreservation of banana rhizomes, followed by successful recovery and regeneration of in vitro shoots of banana cv Grand Naine.
  • Optimization of RT-PCR reactions in studies with genes of lignin
           biosynthetic route in Saccharum spontaneum

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Saccharum spontaneum has been used for the development of energy cane a crop aimed to be used for the production of second-generation ethanol, or lignocellulosic ethanol. Lignin is a main challenge in the conversion of cell wall sugars into ethanol. In our studies to isolate the genes the lignin biosynthesis in S. spontaneum we have had great difficulty in RT-PCR reactions. Thus, we evaluated the effectiveness of different additives in the amplification of these genes. While COMT and CCoAOMT genes did not need any additives for other genes there was no amplification (HCT, F5H, 4CL and CCR) or the yield was very low (CAD and C4H). The application of supplementary cDNA was enough to overcome the non-specificity and low yield for C4H and C3H, while the addition of 0.04% BSA + 2% formamide was effective to amplify 4CL, CCR, F5H and CCR. HCT was amplified only by addition of 0.04% BSA + 2% formamide + 0.1 M trehalose and amplification of PAL was possible with addition of 2% of DMSO. Besides optimization of expression assays, the results show that additives can act independently or synergistically.
  • Shoot and root interference of morning glory on the initial growth of

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Among weeds, morning glories comprise a very important group of climbing plants that infest sugarcane crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shoot and root interference of Merremia cissoides on the initial growth of sugarcane cultivar RB 966928. The experiment consisted of five treatment groups: (i) sugarcane monocropping, (ii) morning glory monocropping, (iii) sugarcane intertwined with morning glory but inseparate boxes, (iv) sugarcane intertwined with morning glory in attached boxes and (v) sugarcane with morning glory in attached boxes with morning glory prevented from intertwining with the sugarcane. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with four replicates. Merremia cissoides adversely affected the initial growth of the RB 966928 sugarcane starting at 90 days after transplanting (DAT). This effect increased with the time of intercropping, reaching at 180 DAT with a reduction of 57.3% in height,15.5% in stalk diameter, 90.4% in leaf areas, 86.6 and 75.2% in stalk and leaf dry mass, respectively. These reductions primarily due to the weed intertwining with the sugarcane plants because the weed had a physical choking and shading effect. This negative effect of morning glory on the sugarcane plants increased when they shared the substrate (i.e., when they competed for space and water), which also adversely affected weed growth, reducing 50.2% leaf areas and 42.1% shoot dry mass. The leaf area and the stalk and leaf dry mass of sugarcane are the characteristics more sensitive to the weed interference. Thus, both the shoot and root of M. cissoides interferes negatively in the growth of sugarcane, with the effect proportional to the period of coexistence, highlighting the detrimental effect on the stem (greater economic interest), and may also compromise the mechanical harvesting of the crop.
  • Replacing soybean oil with increasing levels of soybean acid oil in diets
           of coturnix quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix) and the effects on egg

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The effects of increasing levels of soybean acid oil in diets of quails on the quality of eggs were evaluated over a period of 56 days. A completely randomized design with five treatment levels of soybean acid oil (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8%) as a replacer for soybean oil and eight replicates of two quails each were used. A total of 240 fresh eggs were used for quality analysis, and 400 eggs were stored at 23ºC over a period of 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days for analysis of shelf-life. Polynomial regression and ANOVA with repeated measurements and Tukey´s tests were used. Soybean acid oil linearly increased the intensity of red (a* = -5.26 + 0.14 x, R2 = 0.89, P = 0.01) and yellow (b* = 42.32 + 0.44 x, R2 = 0.88 P = 0.01). All other variables of egg quality were not affected by the treatments, with the exception of sensory attributes, such as odor and aftertaste, which were more pronounced with soybean acid oil. In conclusion, soybean acid oil affects the intensity of yellow and red color of the yolk. Trained assessors detected differences in odor and aftertaste of eggs when soybean acid oil was included in the quail diet.
  • Potassium adsorption in soil cultivated with sugarcane

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Vinasse is a byproduct of the process of distillation of sugarcane juice for the manufacture of sugar and alcohol. Because it is rich in nutrients, mainly potassium (K), is used as fertilizer and applied via fertigation, without concerning for the fate of this compound in the soil. Thus, the objective of the study was to evaluate the interactions of the potassium ion (K+), applied via vinasse in a soil representative of the sugarcane zone of the State of Pernambuco using adsorption isotherms. The methodology was based on physical, chemical and soil mineralogical characterization, as well as equilibrium batch tests, where the experimental curves were fitted by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The results allowed to infer that the Freundlich model showed better fit of the curve in both forms: linear and non-linear (direct fit); the non-linear model was selected due to the values ​​of coefficient of determination (R²). The interaction between potassium and soil occurred mainly with organic matter and the presence of soil kaolinite, because they showed negative ions on the external surface, thereby promoting potassium adsorption. Soil potassium adsorption capacity was higher for the first layer (0-20 cm) and decreased along the depth profile.
  • Plant growth, nutrients and potentially toxic elements in leaves of yerba
           mate clones in response to phosphorus in acid soils

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Native to subtropical region of South America, yerba mate is responsive to P under some conditions, but the degree of influence of genetic and soil on the growth and composition of the leaf is unknown. The aim of study was to evaluate plant growth, nutrients and potentially toxic elements in leaves of yerba mate clones in response to P application in acid soils. In greenhouse condition, two yerba mate clone seedlings were grown (210 days) in pots, each clone in a completely randomized design in factorial scheme (with and without P; four acid soils). The elemental composition of leaves and the growth of plants were determined. Phosphorus promoted plant growth, but this was not accompanied by increased P in leaf tissue in all conditions tested. The P effect on the elemental composition varied: decrease/null (N, K, Mg, Mn, Cu, Ni, B, Mo, Al, Cd); increase/null (C/N, C, Ca, Fe, V); increase/decrease/null (Zn, Ba, Pb) and; null (Cr). The soils affect the elemental composition of the leaves, especially Mn, with accumulation greater than 1000 mg kg-1. The Ba, Pb, Al and Zn in the leaves varied among clones. Yerba mate response to P was affected by edaphic and plant factors.
  • Wall function treatment for bubbly boundary layers at low void fractions

    • Abstract: The present work investigates the role of different treatments of the lower boundary condition on the numerical prediction of bubbly flows. Two different wall function formulations are tested against experimental data obtained for bubbly boundary layers: (i) a new analytical solution derived through asymptotic techniques and (ii) the previous formulation of Troshko and Hassan (IJHMT, 44, 871-875, 2001a). A modified k-e model is used to close the averaged Navier-Stokes equations together with the hypothesis that turbulence can be modelled by a linear superposition of bubble and shear induced eddy viscosities. The work shows, in particular, how four corrections must the implemented in the standard single-phase k-e model to account for the effects of bubbles. The numerical implementation of the near wall functions is made through a finite elements code.
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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