Anais da Academia Brasileira de CiÃªncias
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0001-3765 - ISSN (Online) 1678-2690
Published by SciELO [720 journals]
- Sugarcane and cancer, scientometrics, and phytoplankton dynamics of a
beach in the Amazon
- Multivariate optimization of a method for antimony determination by
hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry in hair samples of
patients undergoing chemotherapy against Leishmaniasis
Abstract: ABSTRACT A method was developed for determination of total antimony in hair samples from patients undergoing chemotherapy against Leishmaniasis based on the administration of pentavalent antimonial drugs. The method is based on microwave assisted digestion of the samples in a pressurized system, reduction of Sb5+ to Sb3+ with KI solution (10% w/v) in ascorbic acid (2%, w/v) and its subsequent determination by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). The proportions of each component (HCl, HNO3 and water) used in the digestion were studied applying a constrained mixtures design. The optimal proportions found were 50% water, 25% HNO3 and 25% HCl. Variables involved in the generation of antimony hydride were optimized using a Doehlert design revealing that good sensitivity is found when using 2.0% w/v NaBH4 and 4.4 mol L-1 HCl. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the method allows the determination of antimony in hair samples with detection and quantification limits of 1.4 and 4.6 ng g-1, respectively, and precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.8% (n = 10 to 10.0 mg L-1). The developed method was applied in the analysis of hair samples from patients who take medication against Leishmaniasis.
- Floral scent of brazilian Passiflora: five species analised by
Abstract: ABSTRACT This study describes for the first time the chemical composition and olfactive description of floral scent from Brazilian Passiflora (Passiflora edulis Sim, Passiflora alata Curtis, Passiflora cincinnata Mast., Passiflora coccinea Aubl. and Passiflora quadrangularis L.). Five species were grown in greenhouse at the Agronomic Institute (IAC), São Paulo, Brazil. Volatile compounds were collected using dynamic headspace. Analyses of scent composition were performed by gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer. Identification of chemical constituents was conducted through of retention index followed by comparative analysis of mass spectra with specialized databases. The olfactive descriptions of floral scent from each species was evaluated for a professional perfumer. High interspecific diversity was found between chemical compositions of floral scent within Passiflora and different bouquets were observed amount the studied species. Mayor constituents were linalool (P. alata), geraniol (P. quadrangularis), 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (P. edulis), benzaldehyde (P. cincinnata) and 2-methyl-3-pentanone (P. coccinea).
- Phenolic compounds and anticancer activity of commercial sugarcane
cultivated in Brazil
Abstract: ABSTRACT The cultivation of sugarcane hybrids (X Saccharum officinarum L.) is an important revenue source for the Brazilian economy. Herein it is reported the evaluation of the cytotoxic activity of mid-polarity sugarcane extracts against human cancer cell lines, as well as the isolation of steroids sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol, phenolic acids p-hydroxybenzoic, p-hydroxycinnamic, vanillic and ferulic acid, terpenoids α-tocopherol and β-carotene and a novel substance in sugarcane, the flavonoid aglycone tricin (5,7,4-trihydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyflavone). The presence of large amounts of phenolic acids and the flavonoid tricin may explain the cytostatic activity observed for the mid-polarity crude extract and filtrates.
- Sawdust Derivative for Environmental Application: Chemistry,
Functionalization and Removal of textile dye from aqueous solution
Abstract: ABSTRACT The adsorption of Violet Remazol 5R (VR 5) on wood sawdust modified with succinic anhydride (SSA) as a function of contact time, pH, and initial dye concentrations was investigated using a batch technique under ambient conditions. The SSA obtained was confirmed by IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and 13C NMR, and degrees of substitution (DS) were calculated. A study on the effect of the pH on the adsorption of VR 5 showed that the optimum pH was 2.0. The interactions were assayed with respect to the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models, and were found to follow closely the pseudo-second-order. The isotherm was adjusted to the Langmuir, the Freundlich and the Temkin sorption models. SSA is a promising material for the removal of dye textile from aqueous solutions, and under conditions studied the removal percentage achieved was 51.7%.
- Chemical composition and acaricidal activity of the essential oils from
Vitex agnus-castus L. (Verbenaceae) and selected monoterpenes
Abstract: ABSTRACT Tetranychus urticae is considered one of the main plagues in the world. Its occurrence in Pernambuco was registered for the first time in 1985 and it has caused considerable damage to the farmers, attacking different cultures of agricultural interest. The essential oils from different parts of Vitex agnus-castus harvested in the Atlantic forest in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, were obtained by hydrodistillation and the acaricidal potential was evaluated against Tetranychus urticae using two methods under laboratory conditions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 47 components accounting for 98.8 ± 0.0%, 93.0 ± 0.1% and 97.4 ± 1.0% of the essential oils from the leaves, fruit and inflorescence, respectively. The compounds 1,8-cineole and β-(E)-farnesene were the major components of the oils from the leaves (17.6 ± 0.3% and 13.6 ± 0.2%, respectively) and fruit (17.5 ± 0.1% and 15.4 ± 0.0%, respectively). β-(E)-farnesene (13.5 ± 0.1%) and β-caryophyllene (11.7 ± 0.1%) were the major components of the oils from the flowers. Acaricidal action varied depending on the part of the plant and method employed. Through fumigation, the oil from the leaves (CL50= 0.61 μL L-1 of air) was approximately six fold more toxic than the oil from the fruit. However, through residual contact, the oil from the fruit (CL50 = 137.11 μLmL-1) was 1.1 fold more toxic than the oil from the leaves. The relationship between the chemical composition of the oils and acaricidal activity is also presented.
- Validation of a liquid chromatography ultraviolet method for determination
of herbicide diuron and its metabolites in soil samples
Abstract: ABSTRACT Diuron is one of the most widely herbicide used worldwide, which can undergo degradation producing three primary metabolites: 3,4-dichlorophenylurea, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-methylurea, and 3,4-dichloroaniline. Since the persistence of diuron and its by-products in ecosystems involves risk of toxicity to environment and human health, a reliable quantitative method for simultaneous monitoring of these compounds is required. Hence, a simple method without preconcentration step was validated for quantitation of diuron and its main metabolites by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Separation was achieved in less than 11 minutes using a C18 column, mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and water (45:55 v/v) at 0.86 mL min-1 and detection at 254 nm. The validated method using solid-liquid extraction followed by an isocratic chromatographic elution proved to be specific, precise and linear (R2 ˃ 0.99), presenting more than 90% of recovery. The method was successfully applied to quantify diuron and their by-products in soil samples collected in a sugarcane cultivation area, focusing on the environmental control.
- Mineral composition, nutritional properties, total phenolics and
flavonoids compounds of the atemoya fruit (Annona squamosa L. x Annona
cherimola Mill.) and evaluation using multivariate analysis techniques
Abstract: ABSTRACT The atemoya is a hybrid fruit obtained by crossing of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) with sweet sop (Annona squamosa L.). The information about chemical composition of atemoya is scarce. The mineral composition was evaluated employing Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES) and the centesimal composition and the physico-chemical parameters were assessed employing procedures described in the AOAC methods. The total phenolic compounds (TPC) and total flavonoids (TF) were determined using spectroanalytical methods. Considering the Reference Daily Intake (RDI), the concentrations of K, Cu and Vitamin C found in atemoya were the highest, representing about 32, 23 and 37% of the RDI, respectively. The total carbohydrates were 32 g 100g-1 and the soluble solids was equivalent to (32.50 ± 0.03) °Brix. The result for TPC was 540.47 ± 2.32 mgGAE 100 g-1 and the TF was 11.56 ± 1.36 mgQE 100 g-1. The exploratory evaluation of 42 atemoya samples was performed through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which discriminated green and ripe fruits according to their mineral composition. The elements that contributed most for the variability between green and ripe fruits were: Ba, Ca, Cu, K, Mg and P.
- The 2009 earthquake, magnitude mb 4.8, in the Pantanal
Wetlands, west-central Brazil
Abstract: ABSTRACT The main goal of this paper is to characterize the Coxim earthquake occurred in June 15th, 2009 in the Pantanal Basin and to discuss the relationship between its faulting mechanism with the Transbrasiliano Lineament. The earthquake had maximum intensity MM V causing damage in farm houses and was felt in several cities located around, including Campo Grande and Goiânia. The event had an mb 4.8 magnitude and depth was 6 km, i.e., it occurred in the upper crust, within the basement and 5 km below the Cenozoic sedimentary cover. The mechanism, a thrust fault mechanism with lateral motion, was obtained by P-wave first-motion polarities and confirmed by regional waveform modelling. The two nodal planes have orientations (strike/dip) of 300°/55° and 180°/55° and the orientation of the P-axis is approximately NE-SW. The results are similar to the Pantanal earthquake of 1964 with mb 5.4 and NE-SW compressional axis. Both events show that Pantanal Basin is a seismically active area, under compressional stress. The focal mechanism of the 1964 and 2009 events have no nodal plane that could be directly associated with the main SW-NE trending Transbrasiliano system indicating that a direct link of the Transbrasiliano with the seismicity in the Pantanal Basin is improbable.
- Circulation and suspended sediment dynamics in a tropical estuary under
different morphological setting
Abstract: ABSTRACT Estuarine processes are directly related to the interaction of its forcing conditions with the local morphology. In this study we assess the implications of the opening of a new inlet on the hydrodynamics and suspended sediment concentration (SSC). A set of physical parameters have been measured in the Itanhém river estuary, a small, shallow and mangrove fringed tropical estuary in Northeastern Brazil. Field surveys have been conducted in August 2007 and January 2008, separated by an important morphological change. Our observations show that even shortening the lower estuary channel in 2 km, the inlet opening did not imply in changes in the estuarine circulation. However, SSC increased after the inlet opening. General estuarine circulation showed synodical modulation of tidal asymmetry and residual suspended sediment transport. The estuary showed flood dominance at spring tide and ebb dominance at neap tide. Although not directly changing the estuarine hydrodynamics, the morphological change resulted in an important increase in SSC. This increase might be related to a facilitated import of inner shelf sediment through a shorter channel, having important implications for the estuarine sedimentation processes.
- Relationships of †Codoichthys carnavalii Santos, 1994 (Teleostei,
Clupeomorpha, †Ellimmichthyiformes) from the Late Aptian of São
Luís-Grajaú Basin, NE Brazil
Abstract: ABSTRACT †Codoichthys carnavalii is a clupeomorph fish only found in calcareous concretions of Codó Formation, State of Maranhão. It is known based on three specimens housed in the paleontological collection of the Museu de Ciências da Terra of Departamento Nacional da Produção Mineral, Rio de Janeiro. It was omitted in most of recent cladistic analyses about clupeomorphs. We revisited its anatomy furnishing new data and additional restorations. Furthermore we explored the relationships of †Codoichthys with the computer program TNT based on a matrix with 30 taxa and 60 unordered and unweight characters. Elops was used to root the tree. The strict consensus was obtained from three shortest trees (L=181; CI=0.387; RI=0.632). The monophyly of †Ellimmichthyiformes is supported by a sigmoid cleithrum and an uniquely derived predorsal scute series. Most of subgroups showed low support indices. †Sorbinichthyidae and †Horseshoeichthys appear in the most basal position, and not closely related to †Armigatus or †Diplomystus. A †Diplomystus clade is more advanced than †Armigatus and sister-group of remaining †ellimmichthyiforms. Within †Paraclupeidae, †Codoichthys is sister-group of remaining †paraclupeids (including †thorectichthyines and †paraclupeines). Within †Paraclupeinae, †Triplomystini includes a †Triplomystus clade, a sister group of †Rhombichthys plus †Tycheroichthys, and †Paraclupeini with †S. itapagipensis and all other †ellimmichthyiform taxa.
- On the presence of the subnarial foramen in Prestosuchus chiniquensis
(Pseudosuchia: Loricata) with remarks on its phylogenetic distribution
Abstract: ABSTRACT Many authors have discussed the subnarial foramen in Archosauriformes. Here presence among Archosauriformes, shape, and position of this structure is reported and its phylogenetic importance is investigated. Based on distribution and the phylogenetic tree, it probably arose independently in Erythrosuchus, Herrerasaurus, and Paracrocodylomorpha. In Paracrocodylomorpha the subnarial foramen is oval-shaped, placed in the middle height of the main body of the maxilla, and does not reach the height of ascending process. In basal loricatans from South America (Prestosuchus chiniquensis and Saurosuchus galilei) the subnarial foramen is 'drop-like' shaped, the subnarial foramen is located above the middle height of the main body of the maxilla, reaching the height of ascending process, a condition also present in Herrerasaurus ischigualastensis. These results suggest that this structure might be phylogenetically important and further investigation with a large set of valid taxa is necessary to properly evaluate its importance among Archosauria.
- Structure and temporal variation of the phytoplankton of a macrotidal
beach from the Amazon coastal zone
Abstract: ABSTRACT The present study aimed to analyze the structure and the temporal variation of the phytoplankton of Ajuruteua beach (Bragança, Pará) and to investigate the influence of environmental variables on the dynamics of this community to provide a basis about the trophic state of this environment. Biological, hydrological and hydrodynamic samplings were performed during a nyctemeral cycle in the months of November/08, March/09, June/09 and September/09. We identified 110 taxa, which were distributed among the diatoms (87.3%), dinoflagellates (11.8%) and cyanobacteria (0.9%), with the predominance of neritic species, followed by the tychoplankton species. Chlorophyll-a concentrations were the highest during the rainy period (24.5 mg m-3), whereas total phytoplankton density was higher in the dry period (1,255 x 103 cell L-1). However, phytoflagellates density was significantly higher during the rainy period. Cluster Analysis revealed the formation of four groups, which were influenced by the monthly differences in the environmental variables. The Principal Component Analysis indicated salinity and chlorophyll-a as the main variables that explained the components. Spearman correlation analysis supported the influence of these variables on the local phytoplankton community. Overall, the results obtained suggest that rainfall and strong local hydrodynamics play an important role in the dynamic of the phytoplankton of Ajuruteua beach, by influencing both environmental and biological variables.
- Morphometry and mixing regime of a tropical lake: Lake Nova (Southeastern
Abstract: ABSTRACT Lake Nova (15.5 km2) is the second largest lake in the Lower Doce River Valley (Southeastern Brazil). A better understanding of ecosystem structure and functioning requires knowledge about lake morphometry, given that lake basin form influences water column stratification. The present study aims to contribute to the understanding of relationship between morphometry and mixing patterns of deep tropical lakes in Brazil. Water column profiles of temperature and dissolved oxygen were taken on four sampling sites along the lake major axis during 2011, 2012 and 2013. The bathymetric survey was carried out in July 2011, along 131.7 km of hydrographic tracks yield 51,692 depth points. Morphometric features of lake size and form factors describe the relative deep subrectangular elongated basin with maximum length of 15.7 km, shoreline development index 5.0, volume of 0.23 km3, volume development of 1.3, and maximum, mean and relative depths of 33.9 m, 14.7 m and 0.7 %, respectively. The deep basin induces a monomictic pattern, with thermal stratification during the wet/warm season associated with anoxic bottom waters (1/3 of lake volume), and mixing during dry and cool season. Based on in situ measurements of tributary river discharges, theoretical retention time (RT) has been estimated in 13.4 years. The morphometry of Lake Nova promote long water RT and the warm monomictic mixing pattern, which is in accordance to the deep tropical lakes in Brazil.
- Behavior and identification of ephemeral sand dunes at the backshore zone
using video images
Abstract: ABSTRACT The backshore zone is transitional environment strongly affected by ocean, air and sand movements. On dissipative beaches, the formation of ephemeral dunes over the backshore zone plays significant contribution in the beach morphodynamics and sediment budget. The aim of this work is to describe a novel method to identify ephemeral dunes in the backshore region and to discuss their morphodynamic behavior. The beach morphology is identified using Argus video imagery, which reveals the behavior of morphologies at Cassino Beach, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Daily images from 2005 to 2007, topographic profiles, meteorological data, and sedimentological parameters were used to determine the frequency and pervasiveness of these features on the backshore. Results indicated that coastline orientation relative to the dominant NE and E winds and the dissipative morphological beach state favored aeolian sand transport towards the backshore. Prevailing NE winds increase sand transportation to the backshore, resulting in the formation of barchans, transverse, and barchanoid-linguiod dunes. Precipitation inhibits aeolian transport and ephemeral dune formation and maintains the existing morphologies during strong SE and SW winds, provided the storm surge is not too high.
- Tidal and sub-tidal sea level variability at the northern shelf of the
Brazilian Northeast Region
Abstract: ABSTRACT A characterization of the sea level variability at tidal and sub-tidal frequencies at the northern shore of the Brazilian Northeast shelf for the period 2009-2011 is presented. The sea level data used was obtained from the Permanent Geodetic Tide Network from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for the Fortaleza gauge station. Local wind data was also used to assess its effects on the low-frequency sea level variability. The variability of the sea level was investigated by classical harmonic analysis and by morphology assessment over the tidal signal. The low frequencies were obtained by low-pass filtering. The tidal range oscillated with the highest value of 3.3 m during the equinox and the lowest value of 0.7 m during the solstice. Differences between the spring and neap tides were as high as 1 m. A total of 59 tidal constituents were obtained from harmonic analysis, and the regional tide was classified as semi-diurnal pure with a form number of 0.11. An assessment of the monthly variability of the main tidal constituents (M2, S2, N2, O1, and K1) indicated that the main semi-diurnal solar S2 presented the highest variability, ranging from 0.21 to 0.41 m; it was the main element altering the form number through the years. The low frequency sea-level variability is negligible, although there is a persistent signal with an energy peak in the 10-15 day period, and it cannot be explained by the effects of local winds.
- Modeling the reflection of Photosynthetically active radiation in a
monodominant floodable forest in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso State using
multivariate statistics and neural networks
Abstract: ABSTRACT The study of radiation entrance and exit dynamics and energy consumption in a system is important for understanding the environmental processes that rule the biosphere-atmosphere interactions of all ecosystems. This study provides an analysis of the interaction of energy in the form of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in the Pantanal, a Brazilian wetland forest, by studying the variation of PAR reflectance and its interaction with local rainfall. The study site is located in Private Reserve of Natural Heritage, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, where the vegetation is a monodominant forest of Vochysia divergens Phol. The results showed a high correlation between the reflection of visible radiation and rainfall; however, the behavior was not the same at the three heights studied. An analysis of the hourly variation of the reflected waves also showed the seasonality of these phenomena in relation to the dry and rainy seasons. A predictive model for PAR was developed with a neural network that has a hidden layer, and it showed a determination coefficient of 0.938. This model showed that the Julian day and time of measurements had an inverse association with the wind profile and a direct association with the relative humidity profile.
- What the largest tadpole feeds on? A detailed analysis of the diet
composition of Pseudis minuta tadpoles (Hylidae, Dendropsophini)
Abstract: ABSTRACT We analyzed the diet of 25 individuals of Pseudis minuta tadpoles which consisted in debris with more than 30%, follow by diatoms, euglenids, green algae, and desmids. With regard to the feeding strategy, P. minuta tadpoles are generalist consumer. The negative correlation between the abundance of items in the digestive tract and the mouth width indicate an effect of metamorphosis on the diet.
- The classic episode of biological invasion: Cochliomyia macellaria
(Fabricius, 1775) versus Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera:
Calliphoridae) - evaluation of the biotic potential
Abstract: ABSTRACT The classic episode of biological invasion: Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) versus Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) - evaluation of the biotic potential. The biotic of the native fly Cochliomyia macellaria and the exotic Chrysomya megacephala was compared, through the reproductive capacity and longevity. The experiment took place in a climatized chamber, with four repetitions of 15 grouped couples of each species. The posture, egg mass weight, and death of individuals were observed daily. C. macellaria showed an average of longevity of 27.72 days while in C. megacephala the average was 41.96 days. The egg mass weight average per repetition was 0.58 g and 1.22 g, respectively. These results give a better understanding about the population dynamics of these species in nature.
- Diversity of insect galls associated with coastal shrub vegetation in Rio
de Janeiro, Brazil
Abstract: ABSTRACT Surveys in the coastal sandy plains (restingas) of Rio de Janeiro have shown a great richness of galls. We investigated the galling insects in two preserved restingas areas of Rio de Janeiro state: Parque Estadual da Costa do Sol and Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Fazenda Caruara. The collections were done each two months, from June 2011 to May 2012. We investigated 38 points during 45 minutes each per collection. The galls were taken to the laboratory for rearing the insects. A total number of 151 insect galls were found in 82 plant species distributed into 34 botanic families. Most of the galls occurred on leaves and the plant families with the highest richness of galls were Myrtaceae and Fabaceae. All the six insect orders with galling species were found in this survey, where Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) was the main galler group. Hymenoptera and Thysanoptera were found as parasitoids and inquilines in 29 galls. The richness of galls in the surveyed areas reveals the importance of restinga for the composition and diversity of gall-inducing insect fauna.
- Are salty liquid food flavorings
Abstract: ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative, cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of salty liquid synthetic flavorings of Butter, Cheddar Cheese and Onion. The antiproliferative potential (2.9-1500 µg/mL) was assessed by MTT assay after 72h using the human tumor lines SF-295 (glioblastoma), OVCAR-8 (ovarian), HCT-116 (colon) and HL-60 (promyelocytic leukemia) and primary cultures of murine Sarcoma 180 (S180) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Allium cepa bulbs were exposed to growing respective doses (1 mL and 2 mL). Only Butter and Cheddar flavorings revealed cytotoxic activity on cancer cells, with IC50 values ranging from 125.4 µg/mL (Cheddar - HCT-116) to 402.6 µg/mL (Butter - OVCAR-8). Butter flavoring was the most cytotoxic on PBMC (136.3 µg/mL) and increased cell division rate in relation to the mitotic index but did not cause cellular aberrations. Onion and Cheddar flavorings reduced the mitotic index after 24h and 48h exposure, but only Onion flavoring resulted in cellular aberrations and mitotic spindle abnormalities, such as anaphase and telophase bridges, micronucleated cells, conchicine-metaphases and amplifications. So, Butter, Onion and/or Cheddar flavorings caused significant changes in the division of meristematic cells of A. cepa and presented cytotoxic action even on decontrolled proliferating human tumor cells.
- Phytochemical Screening and Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of
Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in Swiss Albino Mice
Abstract: ABSTRACT Mangroves represent areas of high biological productivity and it is a region rich in bioactive substances used in medicine production. Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae) known as button mangrove is one of the species found in mangroves and it is used in folk medicine in the treatment of anemia, catarrh, conjunctivitis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, headache, hemorrhage, orchitis, rash, bumps and syphilis. The present study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. erectus in Swiss albino mice. The plant material was collected in Vila Velha mangroves, located in Itamaracá (PE). The material was subjected to a phytochemical screening where extractive protocols to identify majority molecules present in leaves were used. The evaluation of acute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. erectus followed the model of Acute Toxicity Class based on OECD 423 Guideline, 2001. The majority molecules were identified: flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The LD50 was estimated at 2,000 mg/kg bw. Therefore, the aqueous extract showed low acute toxicity classified in category 5.RESUMO Os manguezais representam zonas de elevada produtividade biológica sendo uma das regiões mais ricas em substâncias bioativas utilizadas na produção de medicamentos. Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae) conhecida como mangue botão é uma das espécies encontrada nos manguezais e é utilizada na medicina popular no tratamento de anemia, catarro, conjuntivite, diabetes, diarréia, febre, gonorréia, dor de cabeça, hemorragia, orquite, brotoeja, inchaços e sífilis. O presente estudo objetivou investigar a toxicidade aguda de extrato aquoso de folhas de C. erectus em camundongos albinos suíços. O material vegetal foi coletado no manguezal de Vila Velha, localizado em Itamaracá (PE). O material foi submetido a um screening fitoquímico onde foram usados protocolos extrativos de identificação de moléculas majoritárias presentes nas folhas. A avaliação da toxicidade aguda do extrato aquoso de C. erectus seguiu o modelo da Toxicidade Aguda de Classe baseado no Guia da OECD 423, 2001. As moléculas majoritárias identificadas foram: flavonóides, taninos e saponinas. A DL50 foi estimada em 2.000 mg/Kg p.c. Portanto, o extrato apresentou baixa toxicidade aguda classificada na categoria 5.
- Neuroprotective effect of Portulaca oleracea extracts against
6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion of dopaminergic neurons
Abstract: ABSTRACT The Portulaca oleracea L. (Portulacaceae) is a cosmopolitan species with a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidant and neuroprotective actions. We investigated the effects of P. oleracea extracts in a 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease, a debilitating disorder without effective treatments. Chemical profiles of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of whole plant were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and the antioxidant activity was assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrilhidrazila method. Male Wistar rats received intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine and were treated with vehicle or extracts (oral, 200 and 400 mg/kg) daily for two weeks. The behavioral open field test was conducted at days 1 and 15. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed 4 weeks after surgery to quantify tyrosine-hydroxylase cell counts in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Extracts presented antioxidant activity in concentrations above 300 µg/kg. The chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of Levodopa, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids and polysaccharides. Both extracts improved motor recovery 15 days after lesion and protected from tyrosine-hydroxylase cell loss after 4 weeks, but these effects were more evident for the aqueous extract. Because the dopamine precursor is present, in addition to antioxidant compounds and neuroprotective effects, P. oleracea can be considered as potential strategy for treating Parkinson's disease.RESUMO A Portulaca oleracea L. (Portulacaceae) é uma espécie cosmopolita com uma vasta gama de atividades biológicas, incluindo as ações antioxidante e neuroprotetora. No presente trabalho foram investigados os efeitos do tratamento com extratos de P. oleracea em modelo animal (aplicação de 6-hidroxidopamina) para estudo da doença de Parkinson, uma desordem debilitante para a qual não há tratamentos efetivos. Os perfis químicos do extrato aquoso e etanólico obtidos a partir de todas as partes da planta foram analisados por cromatografia em camada delgada e a atividade antioxidante foi avaliada pelo método de 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH). Ratos Wistar machos receberam aplicação intraestrial de 6-hidroxidopamina e foram tratados com veículo ou com os extratos (por via oral, 200 e 400 mg/kg) diariamente durante duas semanas. O teste comportamental de campo aberto foi realizado nos dias 1 e 15. A análise imunohistoquímica foi realizada 4 semanas depois da cirurgia a fim de quantificar as células positivamente marcadas para a enzima tirosina-hidroxilase na substância negra compacta. Os extratos apresentaram atividade antioxidante em concentrações superiores a 300 µg/kg. A análise cromatográfica revelou a presença de levodopa, alcalóides, flavonóides, saponinas, taninos, terpenóides e polissacáridos. Ambos os extratos promoveram recuperação da função motora 15 dias após a lesão e protegeram contra a perda de neurônios positivos para a tirosina-hidroxilase depois de 4 semanas, mas estes efeitos foram mais evidentes para o extrato aquoso. Considerando a presença no precursor dopaminérgico e de compostos com ação antioxidante e neuroprotetora nos extratos, a P. oleracea pode representar uma potencial alternativa para o tratamento da doença de Parkinson.
- Inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis as inducer of immunity in silver catfish
Abstract: ABSTRACT Molecules with immune modulating activity are ubiquitously distributed in nature and their impact on aquaculture has been exploited in order to increase fish resistance to pathogens. Here, we investigated the effect of inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) on blood cells and innate and acquired immune response of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). iPPVO inoculation had no effect on respiratory burst activity; however, following iPPVO inoculation, we observed a significant decrease on circulating monocytes concomitantly with an increased number of heterophilic granulocytes and thrombocytes, which are the main cells involved in innate immunity and provide connection with acquired immunity. Fish inoculated with a combination of bovine serum albumin (BSA) + iPPVO had significantly higher levels of antibodies to BSA compared to fish inoculated with BSA alone, but lower than fish inoculated with BSA + Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA). These findings points to the potential usefulness of iPPVO as immunomodulator in fish and instigate further research to identify its component that interact with immune cells and that could be exploited as adjuvants in fish.
- Capsular Contracture In Silicone Breast Implants: Insights From Rat Models
Abstract: ABSTRACT Breast augmentation with silicone implants is one of the most common procedures performed by plastic surgeons around the world. Capsular contracture is a frequent complication in breast augmentation and reconstructive surgery, that requires invasive intervention. The inflammatory response to implanted mammary prostheses appears to be directly associated to capsular contracture. This review discusses the evidences from rat models studies, on the role of inflammation and fibrosis in capsular contraction and its relation to silicone breast implants surface.
- Bioactivities of the ethanol extract from Ageratum fastigiatum branches:
antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory
Abstract: ABSTRACT The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract from Ageratum fastigiatum branches. Phytochemical screening and total phenol and flavonoid contents were determined. The antioxidant activity was assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrilhydrazin (DPPH) and iron reducing power methods. The antinociceptive effect was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin, hot plate and tail immersion assays; while the carrageenan-induced paw edema and pleurisy tests were performed to examine the anti-inflammatory activity against acute inflammation. The extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, terpenes, sterols and saponins. Expressive levels of total phenols and flavonoids and a promising antioxidant effect were quantified. At the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, the extract inhibited the writhing, reduced both phases of paw licking time and increased the reaction time on the hot plate. In the tail immersion test, the extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) caused a significant inhibition of pain. In these doses, the paw edema, exudate volume and leucocyte mobilization were significantly reduced. These results suggest that A. fastigiatum can be an active source of substances with antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, adding scientific support to the appropriate use in the Brazilian folk medicine.RESUMO O presente estudo foi projetado para investigar as atividades antioxidante, antinociceptiva e anti-inflamatória do extrato etanólico dos galhos de Ageratum fastigiatum. Perfil fitoquímico e teores de fenois totais e flavonoids foram determinados. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada por 2,2-difenil-1-picril-hidrazila (DPPH) e pelo método de poder de redução do ferro. O efeito antinociceptivo foi avaliado usando os ensaios de contorções abdominais induzidas por ácido acético, formalina, placa quente e imersão da cauda; enquanto os testes do edema de pata e pleurisia induzidos por carragenina foram realizados para examinar a atividade anti-inflamatória contra inflamação aguda. O extrato revelou a presença de flavonoides, taninos, cumarinas, terpenos, esteroides e saponina. Teores expressivos de fenóis totais e flavonoides e um promissor efeito antioxidante foram quantificados. Nas doses de 50, 100 e 200 mg/kg, o extrato inibiu as contorções, reduziu ambas as fases do tempo da lambida da pata e aumentou o tempo de reação sobre a placa quente. No teste de imersão da cauda, o extrato (50, 100 e 200 mg/kg) causou uma inibição significativa da dor. Nessas doses, o edema de pata, o volume do exsudato e a migração leucocitária foram significativamente reduzidos. Esses resultados sugerem que A. fastigiatum pode ser uma fonte de substâncias ativas com atividades antioxidante, antinociceptiva e anti-inflamatória, adicionando uma base científica para o uso na medicina popular brasileira.
- Macrophages as target cells for Mayaro virus infection: involvement of
reactive oxygen species in the inflammatory response during virus
Abstract: ABSTRACT Alphaviruses among the viruses that cause arthritis, consisting in a public health problem worldwide by causing localized outbreaks, as well as large epidemics in humans. Interestingly, while the Old World alphaviruses are arthritogenic, the New World alphaviruses cause encephalitis. One exception is Mayaro virus (MAYV), which circulates exclusively in South America but causes arthralgia and is phylogenetically related to the Old World alphaviruses. Although MAYV-induced arthritis in humans is well documented, the molecular and cellular factors that contribute to its pathogenesis are completely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that macrophages, key players in arthritis development, are target cells for MAYV infection, which leads to cell death through apoptosis. We showed that MAYV replication in macrophage induced the expression of TNF, a cytokine that would contribute to pathogenesis of MAYV fever, since TNF promotes an inflammatory profile characteristic of arthritis. We also found a significant increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at early times of infection, which coincides with the peak of virus replication and precedes TNF secretion. Treatment of the cells with antioxidant agents just after infection completely abolished TNF secretion, indicating an involvement of ROS in inflammation induced during MAYV infection.
- Nasal carriage of resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a medical
Abstract: ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus can cause a variety of infections due to its high transmissibility, high pathogenic potential and resistance to multiple drugs, factors that contribute to the relevance of infections in healthcare services. The aim of this study was to document phenotypic and genotypic resistance factors of Staphylococcus aureus strains, isolated from nasal mucosa of medical students. A nasal swab was collected from the nares (nostrils) of 222 medical students. After collection, the samples were submitted to isolation and identification procedures. From 204 valid samples, 20.6% (42 samples) were positive for S. aureus. For the assessment of phenotypic resistance by disk-diffusion technique, from 42 samples, 95.2% showed resistance to erythromycin, 42.8% to clindamycin, 16.6% to cephoxitin and 9.5% to oxacillin. The D test showed that 26.2% of samples were resistant to macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramin B. A PCR assay allowed for the evaluation of a genotypic resistance profile, in which 16.6% of the samples were positive for the mecA gene, 35.7% positive for the ermC gene or ermA gene and 28.5% were positive for both genes. These results demonstrate that medical students can enter the healthcare service previously colonized by multidrug resistant strains and become potential spreaders in the hospital environment.
- Technique of spinal cord compression induced by inflation of epidural
balloon catheter in rabbits (Oryctologus cuniculus): efficient and easy to
Abstract: ABSTRACT The most common cause of spinal cord injury are high impact trauma, which often result in some motor impairment, sensory or autonomic a greater or lesser extent in the distal areas the level of trauma. In terms of survival and complications due to sequelae, veterinary patients have a poor prognosis unfavorable. Therefore justified the study of experimental models of spinal cord injury production that could provide more support to research potential treatments for spinal cord injuries in medicine and veterinary medicine. Preclinical studies of acute spinal cord injury require an experimental animal model easily reproducible. The most common experimental animal model is the rat, and several techniques for producing a spinal cord injury. The objective of this study was to describe and evaluate the effectiveness of acute spinal cord injury production technique through inflation of Fogarty(r) catheter using rabbits as an experimental model because it is a species that has fewer conclusive publications and contemplating. The main requirements of a model as low cost, handling convenience, reproducibility and uniformity. The technique was adequate for performing preclinical studies in neuro-traumatology area, effectively leading to degeneration and necrosis of the nervous tissue fostering the emergence of acute paraplegia.
- Expanding the knowledge of the chemical structure of glycoconjugates from
Trypanosoma cruzi TcI genotype. Contribution to taxonomic studies
Abstract: ABSTRACT One of the main obstacles to the treatment of Chagas disease is the genetic and phenotypical variance displayed by T. cruzi strains, resulting in differences in morphology, virulence, pathogenicity and drug susceptibility. To better understand the role of glycoconjungates in Chagas disease, we performed the molecular characterization of the O-linked chains from mucins and glycoinositolphospholipids (GIPLs) of the Silvio X10 clone 1 strain. We demonstrated the presence of a β-galactofuranose (β-Galf) unity linked to the O-4 position of the α-N-acetylglucosamine (α-GlcNAc)O-4 in Tc-mucins. GIPLs analysis showed that the lipidic portion is exclusively composed of ceramide and the PI-oligossacharidic portion contains the Man4(AEP)GlcN-Ins-PO4 core, substituted by ethanolamine-phosphate (EtNP) on the third distal mannose from inositol, which may or may not have a terminal β Galf unity. These results confirm the classification of the Silvio X10/1 strain in group T. cruzi I. Again, it is noted that the study of T. cruzi surface glycoconjugates confirm the molecular results and the hypothesis that surface glycoconjugates may be interesting biomarker for the differentiation of trypanosomatid strains.
- Injuries caused by the venomous catfish pintado and cachara
(Pseudoplatystoma genus) in fishermen of the Pantanal region in Brazil
Abstract: ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: the fishing activity throughout the Upper Paraguay River Basin has huge financial and biological importance. This retrospective study investigated the occurrence of injuries caused by fish of the Pseudoplatystoma genus (spotted catfish or pintado and striped catfish or cachara) in professional fishermen of the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul State. METHODS: we collected information through a questionnaire, showing that fishing is carried out by workers with low level of education, mainly adults or seniors with low financial gains. RESULTS: in Miranda town, 126 of 315 fishermen were interviewed and 38 individuals reported injuries (30.16%). In Corumbá town, 355 of 627 fishermen were interviewed, and 111 (56,61%) reported injuries. The lacerated lesions were the most common, associate with edema, erythema, radiating pain to the root of the limb, paresthesias and local necrosis. More rarely, they reported the occurrence of fever, cardiac arrhythmias and cold sweating. These manifestations may be associated with late secondary infections or envenomations caused by the toxins in the stingers of the fish. Many questionable and inappropriate treatments are used, sometimes aggravating the injuries. CONCLUSIONS: the freshwater professional fishermen need guidance on first aid measures and prevention of accidents caused by these venomous fish.RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: a atividade pesqueira no alto Rio Paraguai tem grande impacto financeiro e biológico. Este estudo retrospectivo investigou a ocorrência de acidentes causados por peixes do gênero Pseudoplatystoma (pintados e cacharas) em pescadores do Pantanal do Mato Grosso do Sul. MÉTODOS: obtivemos as informações através de um questionário, que mostrou que a pesca é feita por trabalhadores com baixo nível de educação, principalmente adultos ou idosos com baixos ganhos financeiros. RESULTADOS: no município de Miranda, 126 dos 315 pescadores foram entrevistados, com 38 relatando acidentes (30.16%). Em Corumbá, 355 de 627 pescadores foram entrevistados, com 111 acidentados. As lesões laceradas foram mais comuns, associadas com edema, eritema, dor irradiada para a raiz do membro, parestesias e necrose local. Mais raramente, reportaram a ocorrência de fenômenos sistêmicos, como febre, arritmias e sudorese fria. Estas manifestações podem estar relacionadas com infecções secundárias. Muitos tratamentos questionáveis e inapropriados são usados, por vezes agravando o quadro. CONCLUSÕES: os pescadores profissionais de água doce necessitam de orientação sobre primeiros socorros e medidas de prevenção de acidentes causados por estes peixes.
- Decreased inflammatory response in rat bladder after intravesical
administration of capsaicin-loaded liposomes
Abstract: ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to study the reduction in the capsaicin toxicity by encapsulation in liposomes. Capsaicin was extracted from peppers and characterized with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We determined the zeta potential, polydispersivity index (PdI) and vesicle size of liposomes. Wistar rats were submitted to intravesical instillation of liposomes (LIP), capsaicin (CAP) or liposomes with capsaicin (CAPLIP). After 24 hours, bladders were removed for histological analysis. Vesicle size ranged from 68 to 105 nm with PdI smaller than 0.2 and zeta potential around -30 mV. The vesicles maintained stability over the 14-day study. The histological analysis of the CAP group showed intense inflammation in almost all bladder layers, as well as ulcer formation. Conversely, the CAPLIP group showed a smooth inflammatory reaction and hyperemia. In conclusion, the liposomes effectively protected the bladder against the irritative action of capsaicin.
- Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus in the cities of the northern region of
Espírito Santo, Brazil
Abstract: ABSTRACT The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that approximately 2 billion people worldwide have already had contact with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and 373 million have become chronic carriers. Hepatitis B is a major cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, leading to a large number of deaths annually. Both viral factors and the host immune response have been implicated in the pathogenesis and clinical result of HBV infection. Many Brazilian cities, including the cities of the northern region of the state of Espírito Santo are located in regions with little health infrastructure. Our study performed an epidemiological analysis of cases of Hepatitis B in São Mateus, using methodology of Geographic Information System (GIS), aiming to raise the number of disease cases, establishing preventive measures to control the disease, improving the quality of life of people affected by this pathology. The city of São Mateus had the largest number of reported cases of hepatitis B northern region of Espírito Santo. The age group with the highest number of hepatitis B notifications was 20-49 years, mostly females. The major forms of contact with HBV in these cities were dental treatment, use of injectable medications, surgical procedures and multiple sexual partners.
- Physicochemical, Antioxidant and Sensory Quality of Brazilian Blueberry
Abstract: ABSTRACT Currently, Rio Grande do Sul state is the main producer of blueberry in Brazil. Practically all production is commercialized in fresh state and only a small portion is subject to processing. The blueberry wine making process is an alternative to expand the beverage industry and offers to the consumer a value-added product as well as a new market for Brazilian blueberry producers. The objectives of this study were to produce wines from blueberries and to evaluate the effect of deacidification (with calcium carbonate) and chaptalization (with glucose syrup or sucrose) on physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant content, and sensory parameters. Samples were analyzed for total soluble solids, pH, total titratable acidity, total sugar content, alcohol content, monomeric and total anthocyanin, total flavonols, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP methods. The use of calcium carbonate caused a reduction in total titratable acidity, while the use of glucose syrup resulted in wines with low alcohol content. The blueberries wine from Climax and Aliceblue cultivars had higher content of anthocyanin when produced with glucose syrup. The use of calcium carbonate and glucose syrup also provided wines more appreciated by tasters in relation to color. With regard to flavor, George and Aliceblue were the cultivars with lower preference under the control treatments (without carbonate and sugar). The presence of phenolic compounds may have provided a positive influence on wine flavor, once the more preferred wines presented the greater phenolic content.RESUMO Atualmente o Rio Grande do Sul é o principal estado produtor de mirtilo no Brasil. Praticamente toda produção é comercializada in natura, com pouca quantidade destinada ao processamento. A produção de fermentado alcoólico de mirtilo é uma alternativa para ampliar a indústria de bebidas e oferecer ao consumidor um produto de valor agregado, bem como um novo mercado para os produtores brasileiros de mirtilo. Os objetivos deste estudo foram produzir fermentados alcoólicos de mirtilo, avaliar o efeito da desacidificação (com carbonato de cálcio) e da chaptalização (com xarope de glicose e sacarose) sobre as características físico-químicas, teor de antioxidantes e parâmetros sensoriais. As amostras foram avaliadas quanto ao teor de sólidos solúveis totais, pH, acidez total titulável, açúcares totais, graduação alcoólica, antocianinas monoméricas e totais, flavonóis totais, compostos fenólicos totais e atividade antioxidante pelos métodos DPPH e FRAP. O uso de carbonato de cálcio causou a redução da acidez total enquanto o uso de xarope de glicose resultou em fermentados de baixo teor alcoólico. Os fermentados de mirtilo das cultivares Climax e Aliceblue apresentaram maior conteúdo de antocianinas quando produzidos com xarope de glicose. O uso de carbonato de cálcio e xarope de glicose também resultou em fermentados mais apreciados pelos provadores em relação a cor. Quanto ao sabor, os fermentados das cultivares George e Aliceblue que não receberam tratamento foram os menos preferidos sem tratamento (sem adição de carbonato e não chaptalizados). A presença de compostos fenólicos pode ter influenciado positivamente o sabor dos fermentados, uma vez que os fermentados mais preferidos apresentaram maior conteúdo desses compostos.
- Artificial tritrophic exposure system for environmental risk analysis on
Abstract: ABSTRACT We evaluated an artificial tritrophic exposure system for use in ecotoxicological evaluations of environmental stressors on aphidophagous predators. It consists of an acrylic tube with a Parafilm M sachet containing liquid aphid diet, into which can be added environmental stressors. Immature Cycloneda sanguinea, Harmonia axyridis and Chrysoperla externa, and adult H. axyridis were reared on Myzus persicae. Larval and pupal development and survival of all species and reproductive parameters of H. axyridis were similar to published results. The system provides a suitable tritrophic exposure route, enables ex-ante evaluation of stressors, and improves the accuracy of the assessment.
- Science communication in Brazil: A historical review and considerations
about the current situation
Abstract: ABSTRACT In this paper, we present a historical overview of the science communication activities in Brazil since the nineteenth century and we analyze the current situation and its main concerns. The principal scopes and tools for science communication discussed here are the following: science centers and museums, mass media and large public events for communicating science and technology (S&T). In recent years, such activities have had a significant breakthrough in Brazil. Yet, there is still a long way to go in order to deliver a quality and extensive science and technology communication to the Brazilians as well as to achieve a suitable level of social appropriation of knowledge on S&T by the Brazilian society. Some of the main challenges that we are facing are discussed herein.
- Scientometrics: Nature Index and Brazilian science
Abstract: ABSTRACT A recent published newspaper article commented on the (lack of) quality of Brazilian science and its (in) efficiency. The newspaper article was based on a special issue of Nature and on a new resource for scientometrics called Nature Index. I show here arguments and sources of bias that, under the light of the principle in dubio pro reo, it is questionable to dispute the quality and efficiency of the Brazilian science on these grounds, as it was commented on the referred article. A brief overview of Brazilian science is provided for readers to make their own judgment.