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  Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 793 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (70 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (557 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (92 journals)
    - DAIRYING AND DAIRY PRODUCTS (28 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (46 journals)

AGRICULTURE (557 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 263 Journals sorted alphabetically
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta agriculturae Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Agrobotanica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Agronomica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Agronomica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Technologica Agriculturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Agriculture & Botanics     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Horticultural Science     Open Access  
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Agra Europe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agribusiness : an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Agric     Open Access  
Agricultura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultura, Sociedad y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultural Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Agricultural Commodities     Full-text available via subscription  
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Agricultural History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America     Open Access  
Agriculture and Food Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Agriprobe     Open Access  
Agrivita : Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Agroalimentaria     Open Access  
Agrociencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agrociencia Uruguay     Open Access  
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
Agronomía Colombiana     Open Access  
Agronomía Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access  
Agronomie Africaine     Full-text available via subscription  
Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agrosearch     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Akademik Ziraat Dergisi     Open Access  
Alinteri Zirai Bilimler Dergisi : Alinteri Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Ambiência     Open Access  
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Botany     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals Valahia University of Targoviste - Agriculture     Open Access  
Annual Review of Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
APCBEE Procedia     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Applied Financial Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ARO. The Scientific Journal of Koya University     Open Access  
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Grain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Agricultural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Sugarcane     Full-text available via subscription  
Avances en Investigacion Agropecuaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Agronomy Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioagro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biological Agriculture & Horticulture : An International Journal for Sustainable Production Systems     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Biosystems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biotecnología en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial     Open Access  
Biotemas     Open Access  
Boletín Semillas Ambientales     Open Access  
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
British Poultry Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca. Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Caderno de Ciências Agrárias     Open Access  
Cahiers Agricultures     Open Access  
California Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cambridge Journal of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Ceiba     Open Access  
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CERNE     Open Access  
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Change and Adaptation in Socio-Ecological Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemical and Biological Technologies for Agriculture     Open Access  
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia & Natura     Open Access  
Ciência e Agrotecnologia     Open Access  
Ciencia e investigación agraria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciência e Técnica Vitivinícola     Open Access  
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Agricultura     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
COCOS : The Journal of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coffee Science     Open Access  
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Corps et culture     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cuadernos de Desarrollo Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cultivos Tropicales     Open Access  
Cultural Geographies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Cultural Studies - Critical Methodologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cultural Studies of Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cultural Trends     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Current Agricultural Science and Technology     Open Access  
Current Agriculture Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Research in Dairy Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Developments in Agricultural Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Agricultural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Diatom Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Die Bodenkultur : Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment     Open Access  
Dossiers Agraris     Open Access  
Ecological Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 148)
Economic Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Economic and Industrial Democracy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Economic Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Encuentro     Open Access  
Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food     Hybrid Journal  
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Eppo Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ethology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
EU agrarian Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Euphytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Eurochoices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Agrophysical Journal     Open Access  
European Journal of Agronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
European Journal of American Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Health Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
EvoDevo     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Extensão Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Farmer’s Weekly     Full-text available via subscription  
Farmlink Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Fitosanidad     Open Access  
Florea : Jurnal Biologi dan Pembelajarannya     Open Access  
Folia Horticulturae     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food and Agricultural Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food and Energy Security     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Food Economics - Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Food Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
  [SJR: 0.322]   [H-I: 42]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0001-3765 - ISSN (Online) 1678-2690
   Published by SciELO Homepage  [717 journals]
  • The Qualis system: a perspective from a multidisciplinary journal

    •  
  • A new model for describing remission times: the generalized beta-generated
           Lindley distribution

    • Abstract: New generators are required to define wider distributions for modeling real data in survival analysis. To that end we introduce the four-parameter generalized beta-generated Lindley distribution. It has explicit expressions for the ordinary and incomplete moments, mean deviations, generating and quantile functions. We propose a maximum likelihood procedure to estimate the model parameters, which is assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation study. We also derive an additional estimation scheme by means of least square between percentiles. The usefulness of the proposed distribution to describe remission times of cancer patients is illustrated by means of an application to real data.
       
  • Terpene Esters from Natural Products: Synthesis and Evaluation of
           Cytotoxic Activity

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Natural steroids and triterpenes such as b-sitosterol, stigmasterol, lupeol, ursolic and betulinic acids were transformed into its hexanoic and oleic esters, to evaluate the influence of chemical modification towards the cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. The derivatives were evaluated against five tumor cell lines [OVCAR-8 (ovarian carcinoma); SF-295 (glioblastoma); HCT-116 (colon adenocarcinoma); HL-60 (leukemia); and PC-3 (prostate carcinoma)] and the results showed only betulinic acid hexyl ester exhibits cytotoxic potential activity.
       
  • Poly(methylene blue)-modified electrode for indirect electrochemical
           sensing of OH radicals and radical scavengers

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT A new modified electrode for indirect sensing of OH· and radical scavengers was described. The electrochemical polymerization of methylene blue in aqueous solutions and the properties of the resulting films on a glassy carbon electrode were carried out using cyclic voltammetry. A surface coverage of 1.11 × 109mol cm2 was obtained, revealing a complete surface coverage of the polymeric film on the electrode surface. OH· was able to destroy the poly(methylene blue) film by exposure to a Fenton solution. The loss of the electrochemical signal of the residual polymeric film attached to the electrode surface was related to the extent of its dissolution. The applicability of the sensor was demonstrated by evaluating the OH radical scavenging effect on different concentrations of ascorbic acid. The obtained radical scavenging capacity were 31.4%, 55.7%, 98.9% and 65.7% for the ascorbic acid concentrations of 5, 10, 30 and 50 mM, respectively.
       
  • Physical and chemical study of lattice kaolinites and their interaction
           with orthophosphate

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT This study covers the evaluation of the structure and the capacity in adsorbing orthophosphate ions of kaolinites collected from sampling sites in Manaus (Brazil). The kaolinites were obtained using physical fractioning (sieving/siphoning) techniques and chemical treatment with HCl, H2SO4, H2O2 and KCl. The investigation of the kaolinite lattices involved the Hinckley and Plançon indexes determined from X-ray diffraction data, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The absorption capacity of orthophosphate ions was calculated by Freundlich and Langergren isotherms. A transitional state was observed in the crystallographic structure from kaolinites because of the isomorphic substitution of Al3+ by Fe3+. This isomorphic substitution occurs accompanied by the optical pleochroism behavior, but it also reduces the mean particle sizes and increases the number of structural defects and magnetic properties of these kaolinites. Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that the substituting Fe3+ preferentially occupies octahedral sites. In the kaolinite lattices there are different octahedral sites of Al bounded by cis-OH-Fe3+ and trans-OH-Fe3+ octahedral sites. The kaolinite from the Kao1 sample has a higher number of cis-OH-Fe3+ from octahedral sites and is able to adsorb higher contents of orthophosphate ions than those from samples Kao2 and Kao3.
       
  • Asymmetric bioreduction of β-ketoesters derivatives by Kluyveromyces
           marxianus: influence of molecular structure on the conversion and
           enantiomeric excess

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT This study presents the bioreduction of six β-ketoesters by whole cells of Kluyveromyces marxianus and molecular investigation of a series of 13 β-ketoesters by hologram quantitative structure-activity relationship (HQSAR) in order to relate with conversion and enantiomeric excess of β-stereogenic-hydroxyesters obtained by the same methodology. Four of these were obtained as (R)-configuration and two (S)-configuration, among them four compounds exhibited >99% enantiomeric excess. The β-ketoesters series LUMO maps showed that the β-carbon of the ketoester scaffold are exposed to undergo nucleophilic attack, suggesting a more favorable β-carbon side to enzymatic reduction based on adopted molecular conformation at the reaction moment. The HQSAR method was performed on the β-ketoesters derivatives separating them into those provided predominantly (R)- or (S)-β-hydroxyesters. The HQSAR models for both (R)- and (S)-configuration showed high predictive capacity. The HQSAR contribution maps suggest the importance of β-ketoesters scaffold as well as the substituents attached therein to asymmetric reduction, showing a possible influence of the ester group carbonyl position on the molecular conformation in the enzyme catalytic site, exposing a β-carbon side to the bioconversion to (S)- and (R)-enantiomers.
       
  • Comparative toxicity of essential oil and blends of selected terpenes of
           Ocotea species from Pernambuco, Brazil, against Tetranychus urticae Koch

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Essential oils from the leaves of two species of the genus Ocotea that occur in the Atlantic Forest in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The acaricidal activity of these oils as well as 11 selected components and blends were evaluated in fumigation and residual contact tests against the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae). Sixty-seven constituents were identified, totaling 97.3 ± 0.3% and 97.8 ± 0.5% of the oils from O. duckei and O. glomerata, respectively. Sesquiterpene was the dominant class. The compounds β-caryophyllene (18.6 ± 0.1%) and aromadendrene (17.3 ± 0.6%) were the main constituents of the oils from O. duckei and O. glomerata, respectively. Acaricidal action varied depending on the method employed, species and chemical nature of the selected constituents. The mites were susceptible to the oils and chemical constituents using the fumigation method. The O. duckei oil was respectively 2.5-fold and 1.5-fold more toxic than the O. glomerata oil using the fumigation and residual contact methods. Among the selected constituents, β-caryophyllene was the most toxic, independently of the method employed. The individual toxicity of the selected compounds and their blends as well as the role of these constituents in the overall toxicity of the essential oils are also discussed.
       
  • Analog Models of Flanking Structures and a Natural Example in the
           Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Minas Gerais

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to present analog models of flanking structures and to analyze the Fábrica Nova synform, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Minas Gerais, from a geometric point of view. We set up seven models using a linear viscous silicone and produced flanking structures with a shear velocity of 2 cm h-1. At different initial orientations with respect to the shear zone boundary, a rigid cross-cutting element with lubricated boundaries was deformed via sinistral bulk flow at a shear strain of γ = 1.28. The most interesting features of our experiments are the geometries of the different marker lines, which are heterogeneous and resulted from thickening and thinning of the silicone at the cross-cutting element terminations. To compare our analog models and the Fábrica Nova synform, we analyzed the outermost marker line of the analog models and the top surface of the Cauê Formation in the Paleoproterozoic metasediments. The best comparisons between the experiments and the natural example were obtained by our CIS90 model in terms of the flexure shape near the cross-cutting element and the cross-cutting element orientation. Thus, we suggest that the cross-cutting elements in both situations act as obstacles and consequently produce local perturbations in laminar flow.
       
  • Ostracoda and foraminifera from Paleocene (Olinda well), Paraíba
           Basin, Brazilian Northeast

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Paleocene ostracods and planktonic foraminifera from the Maria Farinha Formation, Paraíba Basin, are herein presented. Eleven ostracod species were identified in the genera Cytherella Jones, Cytherelloidea Alexander, Eocytheropteron Alexander, Semicytherura Wagner, Paracosta Siddiqui, Buntonia Howe, Soudanella Apostolescu, Leguminocythereis Howe and, probably, Pataviella Liebau. The planktonic foraminifera are represented by the genera Guembelitria Cushman, Parvularugoglobigerina Hofker, Woodringina Loeblich and Tappan, Heterohelix Ehrenberg, Zeauvigerina Finlay, Muricohedbergella Huber and Leckie, and Praemurica Olsson, Hemleben, Berggren and Liu. The ostracods and foraminifera analyzed indicate an inner shelf paleoenvironment for the studied section. Blooms of Guembelitria spp., which indicate either shallow environments or upwelling zones, were also recorded reinforcing previous paleoenvironmental interpretations based on other fossil groups for this basin.
       
  • The last dinosaurs of Brazil: The Bauru Group and its implications for the
           end-Cretaceous mass extinction

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The non-avian dinosaurs died out at the end of the Cretaceous, ~66 million years ago, after an asteroid impact. The prevailing hypothesis is that the effects of the impact suddenly killed the dinosaurs, but the poor fossil record of latest Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian) dinosaurs from outside Laurasia (and even more particularly, North America) makes it difficult to test specific extinction scenarios. Over the past few decades, a wealth of new discoveries from the Bauru Group of Brazil has revealed a unique window into the evolution of terminal Cretaceous dinosaurs from the southern continents. We review this record and demonstrate that there was a diversity of dinosaurs, of varying body sizes, diets, and ecological roles, that survived to the very end of the Cretaceous (Maastrichtian: 72-66 million years ago) in Brazil, including a core fauna of titanosaurian sauropods and abelisaurid and carcharodontosaurid theropods, along with a variety of small-to-mid-sized theropods. We argue that this pattern best fits the hypothesis that southern dinosaurs, like their northern counterparts, were still diversifying and occupying prominent roles in their ecosystems before the asteroid suddenly caused their extinction. However, this hypothesis remains to be tested with more refined paleontological and geochronological data, and we give suggestions for future work.
       
  • Assigning dates and identifying areas affected by fires in Portugal based
           on MODIS data

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT An automated procedure is here presented that allows identifying and dating burned areas in Portugal using values of daily reflectance from near-infrared and middle-infrared bands, as obtained from the MODIS instrument. The algorithm detects persistent changes in monthly composites of the so-called (V,W) Burn-Sensitive Index and the day of maximum change in daily time series of W is in turn identified as the day of the burning event. The procedure is tested for 2005, the second worst fire season ever recorded in Portugal. Comparison between the obtained burned area map and the reference derived from Landsat imagery resulted in a Proportion Correct of 95.6%. Despite being applied only to the months of August and September, the algorithm is able to identify almost two-thirds of all scars that have occurred during the entire year of 2005. An assessment of the temporal accuracy of the dating procedure was also conducted, showing that 75% of estimated dates presented deviations between -5 and 5 days from dates of hotspots derived from the MODIS instrument. Information about location and date of burning events as provided by the proposed procedure may be viewed as complementary to the currently available official maps based on end-of-season Landsat imagery.
       
  • Geo-environmental zoning using physiographic compartmentalization: a
           proposal for supporting sustainable decision-making

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The geo-environmental zoning represents an important strategy in the territorial management. However, it requires a logical and structured procedure. Therefore, an approach using physiographic compartmentalization is proposed and applied as case study in a region covered by the topographic maps of São José dos Campos and Jacareí, Brazil. This region has great geological and geomorphological peculiarities, beyond being a place with large human interventions because of its quickly economic growth. The methodology is based on photointerpretation techniques and remote sensing in GIS environment. As a result, seven geo-environmental zones were obtained from a weighted integration by multicriteria analysis of physiographic units with land-use classes. In conclusion, taking into account potentialities and limitations, the proposed approach can be considered able to support sustainable decision-making, being applicable in other regions.
       
  • Numerical Simulations to Assess ART and MART Performance for Ionospheric
           Tomography of Chapman Profiles

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The incomplete geometrical coverage of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) makes the ionospheric tomographic system an ill-conditioned problem for ionospheric imaging. In order to detect the principal limitations of the ill-conditioned tomographic solutions, numerical simulations of the ionosphere are under constant investigation. In this paper, we show an investigation of the accuracy of Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) and Multiplicative ART (MART) for performing tomographic reconstruction of Chapman profiles using a simulated optimum scenario of GNSS signals tracked by ground-based receivers. Chapman functions were used to represent the ionospheric morphology and a set of analyses was conducted to assess ART and MART performance for estimating the Total Electron Content (TEC) and parameters that describes the Chapman function. The results showed that MART performed better in the reconstruction of the electron density peak and ART gave a better representation for estimating TEC and the shape of the ionosphere. Since we used an optimum scenario of the GNSS signals, the analyses indicate the intrinsic problems that may occur with ART and MART to recover valuable information for many applications of Telecommunication, Spatial Geodesy and Space Weather.
       
  • Spider species richness and sampling effort at Cracraft´S Belém
           Area of Endemism

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT A list of spider species is presented for the Belém Area of Endemism, the most threatened region in the Amazon Basin, comprising portions of eastern State of Pará and western State of Maranhão, Brazil. The data are based both on records from the taxonomic and biodiversity survey literature and on scientific collection databases. A total of 319 identified species were recorded, with 318 occurring in Pará and only 22 in Maranhão. About 80% of species are recorded at the vicinities of the city of Belém, indicating that sampling effort have been strongly biased. To identify potentially high-diversity areas, discounting the effect of variations in sampling effort, the residues of a linear regression between the number of records and number of species mapped in each 0.25°grid cells were analyzed. One grid, representing the Alto Turiaçu Indigenous land, had the highest deviation from the expected from the linear regression, indicating high expected species richness. Several other grid cells showed intermediate values of the regression residuals, indicating species richness moderately above to the expected from the model.
       
  • Antidiarrheal activity of extracts from Maytenus gonoclada and inhibition
           of Dengue virus by lupeol

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Diarrhea is an infectious disease caused by bacterial, virus, or protozoan, and dengue is caused by virus, included among the neglected diseases in several underdeveloped and developing countries, with an urgent demand for new drugs. Considering the antidiarrheal potential of species of Maytenus genus, a phytochemical investigation followed by antibacterial activity test with extracts of branches and heartwood and bark of roots from Maytenus gonoclada were conducted. Moreover, due the frequency of isolation of lupeol from Maytenus genus the antiviral activity against Dengue virus and cytotoxicity of lupeol and its complex with β-cyclodextrins were also tested. The results indicated the bioactivity of ethyl acetate extract from branches and ethanol extract from heartwood of roots of M. gonoclada against diarrheagenic bacteria. The lupeol showed potent activity against Dengue virus and low cytotoxicity in LLC-MK2 cells, but its complex with β-cyclodextrin was inactive. Considering the importance of novel and selective antiviral drug candidates the results seem to be promising.
       
  • Clusia criuva Cambess. (Clusiaceae): anatomical characterization, chemical
           prospecting and antioxidant activity

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT This study aims the anatomical description and chemical characterization of aerial parts of Clusia criuva Cambess., Clusiaceae in addition to the evaluation of the antioxidant activity of crude extracts, correlated to the flavonoid content. The morphological characterization was performed using traditional techniques of plant anatomy. For phytochemical studies, crude extracts were obtained by static maceration and analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The antioxidant activity and the flavonoids content were determined by colorimetric methods involving, respectively, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical and aluminum chloride. C. criuva has uniseriate epidermis, paracytic stomata, hypostomatic leaves, cuticular flanges and cordiform vascular cylinder with accessory bundles. Chemical prospecting confirmed the abundant presence of terpenes and phenols in the extracts of leaves and of fruits. The methanolic extract of seeds showed the lowest EC50 value, but the methanolic extract of pericarps exhibited the highest maximum antioxidant activity. The results suggested a high percentage of flavonoids in the hexanic extract of pericarps, however, this could represent, in fact, the presence of benzophenones. Secretory ducts and the shape of the midrib are diagnostic for C. criuva. The antioxidant activity is not directly related to the flavonoids. The results indicate the importance of future studies with C. criuva chemical constituents.
       
  • First Assessment of Carbon Stock in the Belowground Biomass of Brazilian
           Mangroves

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Studies on belowground roots biomass have increasingly reported the importance of the contribution of this compartment in carbon stock maintenance in mangrove forests. To date, there are no estimates of this contribution in Brazilian mangrove forests, although the country has the second largest area of mangroves worldwide. For this study, trenches dug in fringing forests in Guaratiba State Biological Reserve (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) were used to evaluate the contribution of the different classes of roots and the vertical stratification of carbon stock. The total carbon stock average in belowground roots biomass in these forests was 104.41 ± 20.73 tC.ha−1. From that, an average of 84.13 ± 21.34 tC.ha−1 corresponded to the carbon stock only in fine roots, which have diameters smaller than 5 mm and are responsible for over 80% of the total belowground biomass. Most of the belowground carbon stock is concentrated in the first 40 cm below the surface (about 70%). The root:shoot ratio in this study is 1.14. These estimates demonstrate that the belowground roots biomass significantly contributes, more than 50%, to the carbon stock in mangrove forests. And the mangrove root biomass can be greater than that of other Brazilian ecosystems.
       
  • Correlations of condition factor and gonadosomatic, hepatosomatic and
           lipo-somatic relations of Leptodactylus macrosternum (ANURA:
           Leptodactylidae) in the Brazilian Semi-arid

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to assess variations of the condition factor (K1) in relation to the gonadosomatic- RGS and energy reserves (hepatosomatic - RWL and liposomatic - RFB relations) of Leptodactylus macrosternum and their relationship to climate variation in the Northeast of Brazil, Caatinga area, state of Paraiba. The animals were captured fortnightly through active collecting, between January and December 2013. Significant differences were observed in the monthly variations of K1, RGS and RFB indices in male and female L. macrosternum over the months of collection. In males, K1 showed no significant relationship with the other variables. In females, RGS values only show notable correlations with RWF and K1 values. K1 values showed significant correlations with all other weight and length ratios. Climate change in the HFOB region showed significant relationships with the variation of the indexes evaluated, with the exception of RWF. The variation of K1, RGS, RWL and RFB values over the months of collection as well as their relation with the local climatic variation, showed a brief reproductive activity for the species.
       
  • Preparation and characterization of alginate and gelatin microcapsules
           containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT This paper describes the preparation and characterization of alginate beads coated with gelatin and containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Capsules were obtained by extrusion method using CaCl2 as cross linker. An experimental design was performed using alginate and gelatin concentrations as the variables investigated, while the response variable was the concentration of viable cells. Beads were characterized in terms of size, morphology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), moisture content, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR), thermal behavior and cell viability during storage. The results showed that the highest concentration of viable cells (4.2 x 109 CFU/g) was obtained for 1 % w/v of alginate and 0.1 % w/v of gelatin. Capsules were predominantly spherical with a rough surface, a narrow size distribution ranging from 1.53 to 1.90 mm and a moisture content of 97.70 ± 0.03 %. Furthermore, FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis indicated an interaction between alginate-gelatin. Cell concentration of alginate/gelatin microcapsules was 105 CFU/g after 4 months of storage at 8 oC.
       
  • Influence of substrate on the richness and composition of Neotropical cave
           fauna

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The food base in the subterranean environment consists mainly of allochthonous materials. In this environment the resources are distributed generally in a heterogeneous dispersed way and the distribution of resources and their availability determine where the terrestrial invertebrates will reside, which is important for understanding ecological relationships and to establish conservation strategies. Thus, we tested how the complexity of substrates influences the richness and composition of the subterranean terrestrial invertebrates in the Presidente Olegário karst area, southeastern Brazil. We carried out collections in six caves during both dry and wet seasons, using combined collection methods. We observed different distributions in relation to the substrate, because the environmental heterogeneity increases the amount of available niches for the fauna. Some taxa showed a preference for specific substrates, probably related to the availability of food resources and humidity and to body size restriction, emphasizing the niche differentiation between species. Anthropogenic impacts can cause irreversible alterations in the subterranean fauna because the subterranean environment is dependent on the surface for input of trophic resources. On-going impacts in the Presidente Olegario karst area, like agriculture, pastures, gas extraction, and hydroelectric projects, are therefore a serious threat to subterranean biodiversity and this region should be prioritized for conservation.
       
  • The use of Proteinase K to access genitalia morphology, vouchering and DNA
           extraction in minute wasps

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Genitalia are rich source of characters in insect taxonomy. Usually, they are examined after dissection and cleaning with potassium hydroxide (KOH), procedure that may damage both genital morphological structures and intracellular molecular contents. Enzymatic procedure with Proteinase K has been used to clean muscle off the genitalia while extract DNA, but its damage to the genital structures has not been evaluated. Herein, we qualitatively compare the use of KOH and Proteinase K to prepare genital structures in minute insects (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae). We show that Proteinase K is better to preserve the genital structure and provides quality DNA.
       
  • First record of Scybalocanthon nigriceps (Harold, 1868) (Coleoptera:
           Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) in Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The dung beetle, Scybalocanthon nigriceps (Harold, 1868), is recorded in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, for the first time, at the Moreno Fortes Biological Reserve, municipality of Dois Irmãos das Missões, northwest region of the state, expanding the area of occurrence and distribution of this species in the country.
       
  • A new name for Agromyza flava Sousa & Couri (Diptera:
           Agromyzidae)

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT A new name Agromyza pauciflava nom. nov. is proposed for Agromyza flava Sousa & Couri.
       
  • Development and evaluation of an inhalation chamber for in vivo
           tests

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The bioavailability, toxicity, and therapeutic efficacy of a drug is directly related to its administration route. The pulmonary route can be accessed by inhalation after fumigation, vaporization or nebulization. Thus, pharmacological and toxicological evaluation accessed by an apparatus specifically designed and validated for this type of administration is extremely important. Based on pre-existing models, an inhalation chamber was developed. This presents a central structure with five animal holders. The nebulized air passes directly and continuously through these holders and subsequently to an outlet. Evaluation of its operation was performed using clove essential oil, a nebulizer, and a flow meter. The air within the chamber was collected by static headspace and analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. For this purpose, a 2.5 minutes chromatographic method was developed. The air flow in each of the five outputs was 0.92 liters per minute. During the first minute, the chamber became saturated with the nebulized material. Homogeneous and continuous operation of the chamber was observed without accumulation of volatile material inside it for 25 minutes. The inhalation chamber works satisfactorily for in vivo tests with medicines designed to be administrated by inhalation.
       
  • Is Forced Swimming Immobility a Good Endpoint for Modeling Negative
           Symptoms of Schizophrenia' - Study of Sub-Anesthetic Ketamine Repeated
           Administration Effects

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Immobility time in the forced swimming has been described as analogous to emotional blunting or apathy and has been used for characterizing schizophrenia animal models. Several clinical studies support the use of NMDA receptor antagonists to model schizophrenia in rodents. Some works describe the effects of ketamine on immobility behavior but there is variability in the experimental design used leading to controversial results. In this study, we evaluated the effects of repeated administration of ketamine sub-anesthetic doses in forced swimming, locomotion in response to novelty and novel object recognition, aiming a broader evaluation of the usefulness of this experimental approach for modeling schizophrenia in mice. Ketamine (30 mg/kg/day i.p. for 14 days) induced a not persistent decrease in immobility time, detected 24h but not 72h after treatment. This same administration protocol induced a deficit in novel object recognition. No change was observed in mice locomotion. Our results confirm that repeated administration of sub-anesthetic doses of ketamine is useful in modeling schizophrenia-related behavioral changes in mice. However, the immobility time during forced swimming does not seem to be a good endpoint to evaluate the modeling of negative symptoms in NMDAR antagonist animal models of schizophrenia.
       
  • Antifungal and antioxidant activity of fatty acid methyl esters from
           vegetable oils

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were obtained from vegetable oils of soybean, corn and sunflower. The current study was focused on evaluating the antifungal activity of FAMEs mainly against Paracoccidioides spp., as well as testing the interaction of these compounds with commercial antifungal drugs and also their antioxidant potential. FAMEs presented small IC50 values (1.86-9.42 μg/mL). All three FAMEs tested showed antifungal activity against isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. with MIC values ranging from 15.6-500 µg/mL. Sunflower FAMEs exhibited antifungal activity that extended also to other genera, with an MIC of 15.6 μg/mL against Candida glabrata and C. krusei and 31.2 μg/mL against C. parapsilosis. FAMEs exhibited a synergetic effect with itraconazole. The antifungal activity of the FAMEs against isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. is likely due to the presence of methyl linoleate, the major compound present in all three FAMEs. The results obtained indicate the potential of FAMEs as sources for antifungal and antioxidant activity.
       
  • A possible relationship between gluconeogenesis and glycogen metabolism in
           rabbits during myocardial ischemia

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Ischemia is responsible for many metabolic abnormalities in the heart, causing changes in organ function. One of modifications occurring in the ischemic cell is changing from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. This change causes the predominance of the use of carbohydrates as an energy substrate instead of lipids. In this case, the glycogen is essential to the maintenance of heart energy intake, being an important reserve to resist the stress caused by hypoxia, using glycolysis and lactic acid fermentation. In order to study the glucose anaerobic pathways utilization and understand the metabolic adaptations, New Zealand white rabbits were subjected to ischemia caused by Inflow occlusion technique. The animals were monitored during surgery by pH and lactate levels. Transcription analysis of the pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase enzymes were performed by qRT-PCR, and glycogen quantification was determined enzymatically. Pyruvate kinase transcription increased during ischemia, followed by glycogen consumption content. The gluconeogenesis increased in control and ischemia moments, suggesting a relationship between gluconeogenesis and glycogen metabolism. This result shows the significant contribution of these substrates in the organ energy supply and demonstrates the capacity of the heart to adapt the metabolism after this injury, sustaining the homeostasis during short-term myocardial ischemia.
       
  • A scientific survey on 1550 cases of oral lesions diagnosed in a Brazilian
           referral center

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The present study aimed to perform an epidemiological survey on the prevalence rate of oral lesions diagnosed in a referral center in Brazil and to establish association between the lesions and the age and gender of the affected patients. This analytical observational study analyzed 3521 medical records of anatomopathological exams of the Pathological Anatomy and Cytopathology Laboratory of the Cancer Hospital of the state of Mato Grosso (Brazil), from December 2011 to September 2015. A total of 1550 relevant medical records was detected. Patients aging between 41 and 60 consisted of 42.84% of the sample. Males were more affected than females (60.13%). Inflammatory processess consisted of the most prevalent diagnosis (43.29%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (6.06%), and periapical granuloma (5.23%). Oral health public policies must give major attention to Brazilian males aged between the fourth and sixth decades of life in order to improve their quality of life.
       
  • Oral insulin improves metabolic parameters in high fat diet fed rats

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Introduction/Aim: The gut has shown to have a pivotal role on the pathophysiology of metabolic disease. Food stimulation of distal intestinal segments promotes enterohormones secretion influencing insulin metabolism. In diabetic rats, oral insulin has potential to change intestinal epithelium behavior. This macromolecule promotes positive effects on laboratorial metabolic parameters and decreases diabetic intestinal hypertrophy. This study aims to test if oral insulin can influence metabolic parameters and intestinal weight in obese non-diabetic rats. Methods: Twelve weeks old Wistar rats were divided in 3 groups: control (CTRL) standard chow group; high fat diet low carbohydrates group (HFD) and HFD plus daily oral 20U insulin gavage (HFD+INS). Weight and food consumption were weekly obtained. After eight weeks, fasting blood samples were collected for laboratorial analysis. After euthanasia gut samples were isolated. Results: Rat oral insulin treatment decreased body weight gain (p<0,001), fasting glucose and triglycerides serum levels (p<0,05) an increased intestinal weight of distal ileum (P<0,05). Animal submitted to high fat diet presented higher levels of HOMA-IR although significant difference to CT was not achieved. HOMA-beta were significantly higher (p<0.05) in HFD+INS. Visceral fat was 10% lower in HFD+INS but the difference was not significant. Conclusions: In non-diabetic obese rats, oral insulin improves metabolic malfunction associated to rescue of beta-cell activity.
       
  • Fatty acid profile in vertical strata of elephant grass subjected to
           intermittent stocking

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The milk and meat from animals with a pasture-based diet have higher proportions of CLA and C18:3 and lower omega-6:omega-3 ratios than products from animals with diets based on corn silage and concentrate. However, most of the published studies have evaluated fatty acid profiles in temperate climate grasses and the literature with tropical grasses is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological and fatty acid compositions in the vertical strata of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) swards subjected to grazing heights (90 or 120 cm pre-grazing heights) and levels of defoliation (50% or 70% removal of the initial pre-grazing height). There were no interactions among pre-grazing height, the level of defoliation and grazing stratum. However, higher proportion of C18:3 (58% and 63%) was found in the 90-cm swards and in the half upper stratum. A higher proportion of C18:3 was associated with a higher leaf proportion and crude protein content. Thus, the upper stratum of sward or a grazing management scheme (e.g. first-last stocking) resulting in a higher proportion of leaves and crude protein both provide higher proportions of C18:3 to animals grazing in elephant grass swards.
       
  • Evaluation of cell proliferation and endometrial thickness of bitches in
           different periods of diestrus

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the histological features of the endometrium of bitches, as well as the cell proliferation at specific moments of diestrus, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days post ovulation, correlating the endometrial thickness with the uterine cell proliferation and the metabolic state (weight, blood glucose and plasma cholesterol) of the animals. Therefore, the right and left uterine horns of 26 clinically healthy bitches submitted to ovariohysterectomy were histologically analyzed 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days post ovulation. The hematoxylin-eosin and AgNOR staining techniques were performed. All parameters were evaluated by ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey test (p<0.05). The correlation between endometrial thickness and uterine cell proliferation, weight, blood glucose and plasma cholesterol of animals was observed using the Pearson method (p<0.05). In the present study, it is concluded that endometrial thickness does not differ at any of the moments analyzed in diestrus. The endometrial thickness is not influenced by hormones, weight, blood glucose or serum cholesterol of bitches in this phase of the estrous cycle. However, there is greater cell proliferation in the endometrium at day 40 compared to day 60 post ovulation under the influence of the endocrine profile.
       
  • Leaf area estimation of cassava from linear dimensions

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine predictor models of leaf area of ​​cassava from linear leaf measurements. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse in the municipality of Botucatu, São Paulo state, Brazil. The stem cuttings with 5-7 nodes of the cultivar IAC 576-70 were planted in boxes filled with about 320 liters of soil, keeping soil moisture at field capacity, monitored by puncturing tensiometers. At 80 days after planting, 140 leaves were randomly collected from the top, middle third and base of cassava plants. We evaluated the length and width of the central lobe of leaves, number of lobes and leaf area. The measurements of leaf areas were correlated with the length and width of the central lobe and the number of lobes of the leaves, and adjusted to polynomial and multiple regression models. The linear function that used the length of the central lobe LA = -69.91114 + 15.06462L and linear multiple functions LA = -69.9188 + 15.5102L + 0.0197726K - 0.0768998J or LA = -69.9346 + 15.0106L + 0.188931K - 0.0264323H are suitable models to estimate leaf area of ​​cassava cultivar IAC 576-70.
       
  • Occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on King George Island, South
           Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi make up an important ecological niche in ecosystems, and knowledge of their diversity in extreme environments is still incipient. The objective of this work was to evaluate the density and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the soil of King George Island in the South Shetland Islands archipelago, Antarctica. For that, soil and roots of Deschampsia antarctica were collected at the brazilian research station in Antarctica. The spore density, species diversity and mycorrhizal colonization in the roots were evaluated. There was a low density of spores (27.4 ± 17.7) and root mycorrhizal colonization (6 ± 5.1%), which did not present statistical difference. Four species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were identified, distributed in two genera: three species of the genus Glomus (Glomus sp1, Glomus sp2 and Glomus sp3) and one of the genus Acaulospora, which was identified at species level (Acaulospora mellea). Greater soil diversity was verified with pH 5.9 and phosphorus concentration of 111 mg dm-3, occurring two species of genus Glomus and A. mellea. Based on literature data, this may be the first record of this species of Acaulospora mellea in Antarctic soils, colonizing D. antarctica plants.
       
  • The quantification of testicular cells during the postnatal development in
           two Caviomorph rodents: the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) and the cutia
           (Dasyprocta agouti)

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The germinative, Sertoli and Leydig cells of two caviomorph rodents (Cavia porcellus and Dasyprocta agouti) were counted as well as the estimation of the total volume of the testis and the total volume of seminiferous tubules and interstitium in prepubertal, pubertal and adult animals. The number of spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids cells increased during the pubertal phase in both rodents, notably the spermatid cells. The spermatocyte and spermatid slightly decreased in the adult of both rodents, but the increment in spermatogonia cells number was seen, mainly in cutias. The number of Sertoli cells increased in pubertal rodents, but in the adult the number reduced. Substantial number of Leydig cells was counted in pubertal and adult guinea pigs. In cutias, the number of Leydig cells increased in pubertal phase and decline in adults. The design-based stereological method has proven to be unbiased and reliable to be applied in reproduction studies.
       
  • Forage potential of native ecotypes of Paspalum notatum and
           P. guenoarum

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The Paspalum genus includes several species that are important for livestock in Rio Grande do Sul, such as P. notatum and P. guenoarum, typical of native pastures of the Pampa biome. The aim of this study was to investigate forage production and chemical composition of four ecotypes of these species in relation to the cv. ‘Pensacola’ (P. notatum). Ecotypes of P. guenoarum (Azulão and Baio) and P. notatum (André da Rocha and Bagual) and the cv. ‘Pensacola’ were evaluated for two years, during which four cuts/year were made. The work was carried out under field conditions at the Agronomic Experimental Station of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (30°05’S; 51°39’W), in a completely randomized design. P. guenoarum stood out for higher productivity and greater tolerance to cold; the Azulão ecotype showed more autumn production in relation to the other ecotypes. Crude protein content ranged from 14 (Baio) to 15% (‘Pensacola’); for neutral detergent fiber, the variation was 68 (Azulão) to 71% (‘Pensacola’) and for acid detergent fiber there was a variation of 38 (‘Pensacola’) to 43% (Baio). The data demonstrates the potential of native genotypes for use as cattle feeding in southern Brazil.
       
  • Carbon and nutrient stocks of three Fabaceae trees used for forest
           restoration and subjected to fertilization in Amazonia

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Amazonia is crucial to global carbon cycle. Deforestation continues to be one of the main causes of the release of C into the atmosphere, but forest restoration plantations can reverse this scenario. However, there is still diffuse information about the C and nutrient stocks in the vegetation biomass. We investigated the carbon and nutrient stocks of Fabaceae trees (Inga edulis, Schizolobium amazonicum and Dipteryx odorata) subjected to fertilization treatments (T1 - no fertilization; T2 - chemical; T3 - organic; and T4 - organic and chemical fertilization) in a degraded area of the Balbina Hydroelectric Dam, AM - Brazil. As an early successional species, I. edulis stocked more C and nutrients than the other two species independent of the fertilization treatment, and S. amazonicum stocked more C than D. odorata under T1 and T4. The mixed species plantation had the potential to stock 4.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1, while I. edulis alone could stock 9.4 Mg C ha-1 year-1. Mixing species that rapidly assimilate C and are of significant ecological and commercial value (e.g., Fabaceae trees) represents a good way to restore degraded areas. Our results suggest that the tested species be used for forest restoration in Amazonia.
       
  • Assessment of cow and farm level risk factors associated with Ureaplasma
           diversum in pasture-based dairy systems - A field study

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Potential risk factors for Ureaplasma diversum in the vaginal mucus of 1,238 dairy cows were included in a multivariate logistic regression model, based on the cow level (i.e., granular vulvovaginitis [+GVV], yearly milk production [4500 kg or more], pregnancy, predominance of Bos taurus [+Bos Taurus], score of corporal condition [at least 2.5], concomitant positivity for Escherichia coli [+E.coli]), and farm level i.e., milking room hygiene (-Milking room), dunghill location, and replacement female). Ureaplasma diversum was present in 41.1% of the samples. Independent risk factors for U. diversum were +GVV (odds ratio [OR], 1.31); +Mycoplasma spp (OR, 5.67); yearly milk production (4500 kg or more) (OR, 1.99); +Bos taurus (OR, 1.68); +E. coli (OR, 4.96); -milking room (OR, 2.31); and replacement females (OR, 1.89). Ureaplasma diversum vaginal colonization was strongly associated with Mycoplasma spp., E. coli, and number of pregnant cows.
       
  • Activity of Brazilian propolis against Aeromonas hydrophila and its effect
           on Nile tilapia growth, hematological and non-specific immune response
           under bacterial infection

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The effect of the ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) on Aeromonas hydrophila was analyzed by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Then, the effects of crude propolis powder (CPP) on growth, hemato-immune parameters of the Nile tilapia, as well as its effects on resistance to A. hydrophila challenge were investigated. The CPP (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0%) was added to the diet of 280 Nile tilapia (50.0 ± 5.7 g fish-1). Hemato-immune parameters were analyzed before and after the bacterial challenge. Red blood cell, hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) were evaluated. The MIC of the EEP was 13% (v/v) with a bactericidal effect after 24 hours. Growth performance was significantly lower for those fish fed diets containing 2.5 and 3% of CPP compared to the control diet. Differences in CPP levels affected fish hemoglobin, neutrophils number and NO following the bacterial challenge. For others parameters no significant differences were observed. Our results show that although propolis has bactericidal properties in vitro, the addition of crude propolis powder to Nile tilapia extruded diets does not necessarily lead to an improvement of fish health.
       
  • Selection of alfalfa genotypes for resistance to the foliar pathogen
           Curvularia geniculata

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Foliar diseases impose severe restrictions on the persistence and productivity of Medicago sativa, both of which may be increased by developing disease resistant and more competitive genotypes that can improve pasture quality. We found Curvularia geniculata as the principal alfalfa foliar pathogen in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS). Growth chamber experiments evaluated the resistance of alfalfa genotypes ‘E1C4’, ‘CPPSul’, ‘ABT 805’ and ‘CUF-101’ to C. geniculata as compared the control ‘Crioula’ genotype. These genotypes were also evaluated in field trials at a sea level site in Eldorado do Sul in central RS and at two sites £200 m above sea level, one in Bagé municipality in south west RS and the other at a farm near the town of Alto Feliz in north east RS. Plants were spray-inoculated with 1.6 x 106 ml-1 of C. geniculata spores and visually evaluated for leaf damage 14 days later. The C. geniculata infection rates varied from zero to 100%. Alfalfa persistence and forage mean dry mass (DM) production at the Eldorado site were measured during different seasons from November 2013 to January 2015 by calculating the incidence of invasive plants and morphologically separating leaves from stems and calculating both leaf and stem DM. Data were analysed using mixed statistical models. The best results for persistence and forage DM were shown by the ‘CPPSul’ genotypes (DM = 16,600 kg ha-1) and ‘Crioula’ (DM = 15,750 kg ha-1). These two genotypes will be used for subsequent investigations and selection cycles.
       
  • Predicting of biomass in Brazilian tropical dry forest: a statistical
           evaluation of generic equations

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Dry tropical forests are a key component in the global carbon cycle and their biomass estimates depend almost exclusively of fitted equations for multi-species or individual species data. Therefore, a systematic evaluation of statistical models through validation of estimates of aboveground biomass stocks is justifiable. In this study was analyzed the capacity of generic and specific equations obtained from different locations in Mexico and Brazil, to estimate aboveground biomass at multi-species levels and for four different species. Generic equations developed in Mexico and Brazil performed better in estimating tree biomass for multi-species data. For Poincianella bracteosa and Mimosa ophthalmocentra, only the Sampaio and Silva (2005) generic equation was the most recommended. These equations indicate lower tendency and lower bias, and biomass estimates for these equations are similar. For the species Mimosa tenuiflora, Aspidosperma pyrifolium and for the genus Croton the specific regional equations are more recommended, although the generic equation of Sampaio and Silva (2005) is not discarded for biomass estimates. Models considering gender, families, successional groups, climatic variables and wood specific gravity should be adjusted, tested and the resulting equations should be validated at both local and regional levels as well as on the scales of tropics with dry forest dominance.
       
  • Sampling procedures for inventory of commercial volume tree species in
           Amazon Forest

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The spatial distribution of tropical tree species can affect the consistency of the estimators in commercial forest inventories, therefore, appropriate sampling procedures are required to survey species with different spatial patterns in the Amazon Forest. For this, the present study aims to evaluate the conventional sampling procedures and introduce the adaptive cluster sampling for volumetric inventories of Amazonian tree species, considering the hypotheses that the density, the spatial distribution and the zero-plots affect the consistency of the estimators, and that the adaptive cluster sampling allows to obtain more accurate volumetric estimation. We use data from a census carried out in Jamari National Forest, Brazil, where trees with diameters equal to or higher than 40 cm were measured in 1,355 plots. Species with different spatial patterns were selected and sampled with simple random sampling, systematic sampling, linear cluster sampling and adaptive cluster sampling, whereby the accuracy of the volumetric estimation and presence of zero-plots were evaluated. The sampling procedures applied to species were affected by the low density of trees and the large number of zero-plots, wherein the adaptive clusters allowed concentrating the sampling effort in plots with trees and, thus, agglutinating more representative samples to estimate the commercial volume.
       
  • New seminal variety of Stevia rebaudiana: Obtaining fractions with high
           antioxidant potential of leaves

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the composition and antioxidant potential of leaves of a new variety of Stevia rebaudiana (Stevia UEM-13). Stevia leaves of UEM-13 contain rebaudioside A as the main glycoside, while most wild Stevia plants contain stevioside. Furthermore can be multiplied by seed, which reduces the cost of plant culture techniques as other clonal varieties are multiplied by buds, requiring sophisticated and expensive seedling production systems. Ethanol and methanol were used in the extraction to determine the bioactive compounds. The methanolic extract was fractionated sequentially with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and isobutanol, and the highest concentration of phenolic compounds and flavonoids was obtained in the ethyl acetate fraction (524.20 mg galic acid equivalent/g; 380.62 µg quercetin equivalent/g). The glycoside content varied greatly among the fractions (0.5% - 65.3%). Higher antioxidant potential was found in the methanol extract and the ethyl acetate fraction with 93.5% and 97.32%, respectively. In addition to being an excellent source for obtaining of extracts rich in glycoside, this new variety can also be used as raw material for the production of extracts or fractions with a significant amount of antioxidant activity and potential to be used as additives in food.
       
  • Leaf area estimation from linear measurements in different ages of
           Crotalaria juncea plants

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The goal of this study was to estimate the leaf area of Crotalaria juncea according to the linear dimensions of leaves from different ages. Two experiments were conducted with C. juncea cultivar IAC-KR1, in the 2014/2015 sowing seasons. At 59, 82, 102, 129 days after sowing (DAS) of the first and 61, 80, 92, 104 DAS of the second experiment, 500 leaves were collected, totaling 4,000 leaves. In each leaf, the linear dimensions were measured (length, width, length/width ratio and length × width product) and the specific leaf area was determined through Digimizer and Sigma Scan Pro software, after scanning images. Then, 3,200 leaves were randomly separated to generate mathematical models of leaf area (Y) in function of linear dimension (x), and 800 leaves for the models validation. In C. juncea, the leaf areas determined by Digimizer and Sigma Scan Pro software are identical. The estimation models of leaf area as a function of length × width product showed superior adjustments to those obtained based on the evaluation of only one linear dimension. The linear model Ŷ=0.7390x (R2=0.9849) of the real leaf area (Y) as a function of length × width product (x) is adequate to estimate the C. juncea leaf area.
       
  • Biological Activity of Piper aduncum extracts on Anticarsia gemmatalis
           (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)
           (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Piper aduncum found naturally in the Amazon and southeastern Brazil, is known for its secondary metabolites that have activity on insects. Anticarsia gemmatalis and Spodoptera frugiperda are among the major insect pests associated with agricultural production. This research evaluated the biological activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol extracts of P. aduncum leaves on mortality and duration of larval and pupal periods, as well as weight, width, and length of A. gemmatalis and S. frugiperda pupae. The mortality of A. gemmatalis larvae in trials with P. aduncum extracts were 93.3% (hexane) and 90% (ethyl acetate), estimating LC50 of 6.35 and 5.79 mg/mL, respectively. Mortality in S. frugiperda submitted to the hexane extract ranged from 3.33% to 96.66% (LC50 of 8.22 mg/mL). The ethanol extract induced low mortality (3.33% to 23.33%). The P. aduncum extracts did not affect the development of S. frugiperda pupae. In A. gemmatalis differences in weight and length occurred. The chemical characterization was by GC-MS, which revealed that the major constituent in the hexane extract of P. aduncum was apiol (90.7%). P. aduncum extracts are important and promising components to manage A. gemmatalis and S. frugiperda, which cause extensive production losses.
       
  • Nutrition facts and limits for micronutrients in tree species used in
           urban forestry

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT There is a huge lack of researches that evaluate the nutritional limits in tree species used in urban forestry, especially in terms of micronutrients. This study aimed to establish limits and range of micronutrients levels for the proper development of tree species utilized in urban forestry. The study was conducted in the city of Santa Maria-RS-Brazil. Through forest inventory, 23 forest species present in urban forest were selected, and 05 vegetative branches of each tree were collected, in which the contents of B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn were analyzed. Ranges of micronutrients’ contents were developed for class limits criteria. Nutritional problems were detected for B, Cu and Zn in G. robusta and S. cumini, indicating a need of fertilization and management of these trees. The levels of Mn were within an adequate range only for the species C. illinoensis and H. chrysotrichus. The contents of B were higher than the level considered adequate for H. chrysotrichusand M. nigra. The rates of Fe showed high levels for E. japonica, H. chrysotrichusand S. babylonica. The estimated nutritional limits enable a greater control in the classification of the results for each tree species utilized in urban forestry.
       
  • Modeling and mapping basal area of Pinus taeda L. plantation
           using airborne LiDAR data

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Basal area (BA) is a good predictor of timber stand volume and forest growth. This study developed predictive models using field and airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data for estimation of basal area in Pinus taeda plantation in south Brazil. In the field, BA was collected from conventional forest inventory plots. Multiple linear regression models for predicting BA from LiDAR-derived metrics were developed and evaluated for predictive power and parsimony. The best model to predict BA from a family of six models was selected based on corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) and assessed by the adjusted coefficient of determination (adj. R²) and root mean square error (RMSE). The best model revealed an adj. R²=0.93 and RMSE=7.74%. Leave one out cross-validation of the best regression model was also computed, and revealed an adj. R² and RMSE of 0.92 and 8.31%, respectively. This study showed that LiDAR-derived metrics can be used to predict BA in Pinus taeda plantations in south Brazil with high precision. We conclude that there is good potential to monitor growth in this type of plantations using airborne LiDAR. We hope that the promising results for BA modeling presented herein will stimulate to operate this technology in Brazil.
       
  • Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of
           essential oils from leaves and flowers of Eugenia klotzschiana Berg
           (Myrtaceae)

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Many essential oils (EOs) of different plant species possess interesting antimicrobial effects on buccal bacteria and antioxidant properties. Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (pêra-do-cerrado, in Portuguese) is a species of Myrtaceae with restricted distribution in the Cerrado. The essential oils were extracted through the hydrodistillation technique using a modified Clevenger apparatus (2 hours) and chemically characterized by GC-MS. The major compounds were α-copaene (10.6 %) found in oil from leaves in natura, β-bisabolene (17.4 %) in the essential oil from dry leaves and α-(E)-bergamotene (29.9 %) in oil from flowers. The antioxidant activity of essential oils showed similarities in both methods under analysis (DPPH and ABTS˙+) and the results suggested moderate to high antioxidant activity. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), using the microdilution method. MIC values below 400 µg/mL were obtained against Streptococcus salivarius (200 µg/mL), S. mutans (50 µg/mL), S. mitis (200 µg/mL) and Prevotella nigrescens (50 µg/mL). This is the first report of the chemical composition and antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils of E. klotzschiana. These results suggest that E. klotzschiana, a Brazilian plant, provide initial evidence of a new and alternative source of substances with medicinal interest.
       
  • Palisadegrass effects on N fertilizer dynamic in intercropping systems
           with corn

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Corn grain yield, nitrogen (N) fertilizer efficiency and distribution to corn alone and three forms of corn and palisadegrass (Urochloa spp.) intercropping implantation was investigated. A field experiment with 15N labeling fertilizer was performed in randomized block design. No form of palisadegrass intercropping implantation affected corn grain yield, total N accumulation and N use efficiency (NUE), which were 8.7 t ha-1, 205 kg ha-1 and 37% respectively. The palisadegrass produced on average 1.9 t of dry mass, absorbing a maximum of 6 kg ha-1 or 5.5% of N fertilizer during corn growing. Furthermore, the palisadegrass did not affect N fertilizer distribution in soil-plant system, in which 28.2% was recovered in the soil and 40.4% in the plants (corn + palisadegrass). The results show that for the three intercropping implantation methods the palisadegrass did not compete with corn for N fertilizer.
       
  • Morphophysiological and biochemical alterations in Ricinus communis L.
           seeds submitted to cobalt60 gamma radiation

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the radiosensitivity of castor bean seeds after applications of different doses of Cobalt60 gamma radiation. Seeds were pre-soaked for 24 hours in distilled water and then irradiated with 50, 100, 150, and 200 Gy, except the control. Sowing was performed in trays, which contained soil as substrate and were maintained in a greenhouse. The electrical conductivity, emergence, emergence speed index, growth parameters and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and catalase) were evaluated in the leaves and roots of castor bean seedlings. Gamma radiation did not affect the electrical conductivity of the seeds; however, at a dose of 200 Gy, the emergence and emergence speed index of the seedlings was negatively affected. An analysis of the morphophysiological parameters revealed a reduction in seedling size as the radiation dose increased. There was a significant increase in superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase activities at higher radiation doses in the leaves, but not in roots. Thus, the analysis of all the variables suggests a response pattern as to the morphophysiological and biochemical changes of castor bean seedlings due to the increase of gamma radiation, which may serve as a tool for generating greater genetic variability.
       
  • Productive performance of Holstein calves finished in feedlot or pasture

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The use of animals from dairy farms is an alternative to meat production since it provides an increment of total income for farmers. This study aims to evaluate the performance of Holstein calves finished in two feeding systems (feedlot or pasture). Forty-three animals with 58 days old and 57 kg were divided in two treatments: 23 animals finished in feedlot with corn silage plus concentrate based on corn and soybean meal (40:60); 20 animals kept in cultivated pastures according to the period of the year: Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum) with supplementation with the same feedlot-concentrate at 1% body weight. Animals were slaughtered with 200 kg. Dry matter and nutrient intake were determined, with the use of chromium oxide for estimating pasture intake. Feedlot animals had greater total intake and total digestible nutrients, resulting in higher average daily gain (0.949 vs 0.694 kg day-1). Crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber and feed conversion did not show significant differences. Holstein calves have improved performance when finished in feedlot.
       
  • Hybrid Geoid Model: Theory and Application in Brazil

    • Abstract: Determination of the ellipsoidal height by Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) is becoming better known and used for purposes of leveling with the aid of geoid models. However, the disadvantage of this method is the quality of the geoid models, which degrade heights and limit the application of the method. In order to provide better quality in transforming height using GNSS leveling, this research aims to develop a hybridization methodology of gravimetric geoid models EGM08, MAPGEO2015 and GEOIDSP2014 for the State of São Paulo, providing more consistent models with GNSS technology. Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural networks were used to obtain the corrector surface, based on differences between geoid model undulations and the undulations obtained by GNSS tracking in benchmarks. The experiments showed that the most suitable interpolation for correction modeling is the linear RBF. Checkpoints indicate that the geoid hybrid models feature root mean square deviation ± 0.107, ± 0.104 and ± 0.098 m, respectively. The results shows an improvement of 30 to 40% in consistencies compared with the gravimetric geoids, providing users with better quality in transformation of geometric to orthometric heights.
       
 
 
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