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  Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 660 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (71 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (443 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (84 journals)
    - DAIRYING AND DAIRY PRODUCTS (25 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (37 journals)

AGRICULTURE (443 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Acta agriculturae Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Agrobotanica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Agronomica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Agronomica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Technologica Agriculturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Agriculture & Botanics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Agriculture, Sciences and Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AFBM Journal     Open Access  
Africa Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Horticultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Range and Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agribusiness : an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultural Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Agricultural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 148)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agricultural Sciences in China     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Full-text available via subscription  
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Agriprobe     Full-text available via subscription  
Agrivita : Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Agroalimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agrociencia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agronomía Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomie Africaine     Full-text available via subscription  
Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Agrosearch     Open Access  
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alinteri Zirai Bilimler Dergisi : Alinteri Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Ambiência     Open Access  
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Botany     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annales UMCS, Agricultura     Open Access  
Annales UMCS, Horticultura     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
APCBEE Procedia     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Applied Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Financial Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access  
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access  
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Grain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian Journal of Agricultural Engineering     Open Access  
Australian Sugarcane     Full-text available via subscription  
Avances en Investigacion Agropecuaria     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Berkala Ilmiah Pertanian     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioagro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Biological Agriculture & Horticulture : An International Journal for Sustainable Production Systems     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Biosystems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biotemas     Open Access  
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Poultry Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
California Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 5 | Last

American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences
   [11 followers]  Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 1557-4989 - ISSN (Online) 1557-4997
     Published by Science Publications Homepage  [28 journals]   [SJR: 0.248]   [H-I: 8]
  • ASCORBIC ACID FOLIIAR SPRAY COUNTERACTING EFFECT OF SALINITY ON GROWTH,
           NUTRIENTS CONCENTRATIONS, PHOTOSYNTHESIS, ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND LIPID
           PEROXIDATION OF BEAN (PHASEULUS VULGARIS L.) CULTIVARS

    • Abstract: A water culture experiment was carried out in the Department of Fertilization Technology at National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt, to investigate the effect of Ascorbic Acid (AsA) foliar application and salinity stress (100 ppm and 100 mmoL NaCl) on growth, nutrients concentration and some biochemical parameters of two kidney bean (Phaseulus Vulgaris L.) cultivars. Salinity caused significant reduction in growth parameters (leaves and root dry weights) and some of biochemical parameters (nutrients concentration, photosynthesis pigment, Carbonic Anhydrase Activity (CAA), antioxidant enzyme activity Peroxidase (POD) and lipid peroxidation). The reduction effect on Paulista cultivar was higher than Nebraska cultivar at 100 mM NaCl salinity stress. Meanwhile, POD activity was increased under salt stress conditions. Lipid Peroxidation (LP) under 100 mmoL NaCl salinity was significantly increased. The two cultivars showed an increase in MDA content with NaCl salinity stress, but the increase in sensitive cultivars Paulista was higher than that in salt-tolerant Nebraska cultivar. Application of (AsA) not only mitigated the inhibitory effect of salt stress in both kidney bean cultivars, but also in some cases induced a stimulatory effect greater than that estimated in the control plants on growth parameters which were accompanied by marked increases in nutrients concentration and photosynthetic system (pigments and carbonic anhydrase activity). Ascorbic Acid (AsA) has been shown to be an essential antioxidant; agent may act as a scavenger of ROS for mitigating the injury on bio-membranes under salt stress. Therefore, this study suggested that (AsA) application may induce an adaptive response in kidney bean through stimulation of the antioxidant enzymes activities, photosynthesis processes and lower lipid peroxidation, in Nebraska relative to Paulista may contribute to salt tolerance mechanism in Nebraska.
       
  • IMPROVING PHOSPHORUS NUTRITION OF COTTON

    • Abstract: Crop recovery of applied Phosphorus (P) fertilizer can be low, especially during season of low soil temperature, which decreases plant root growth and nutrient uptake. The H2PO4- or HPO4-2 anions readily react with soil cations such as Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe) and Aluminum (Al) to produce various phosphate compounds of very limited water solubility. Specialty Fertilizer Products (SFP), Leawood, KS, USA has developed and patented a product registered as AVAIL® that is reported to attract and sequester antagonistic cations out of the soil solution leaving more of applied P in available form for plant uptake. To evaluate effectiveness of AVAIL product for cotton production, experiments were conducted in two locations in West Tennessee, Grand Junction (GJ) in Hardeman County and Ames Plantation (AP) located in Fayette County. Treatments consisted of applying Mono-Ammonium Phosphate (MAP, 11-52-0) alone or coated with AVAIL at rates of 34 or 68 kg ha-1 P2O5. A no P check was also included. An additional treatment consisting of AVAIL treated P in combination with Nutrisphere-N®, a Nitrogen (N) stabilizer product offered by SFP, was also included. At GJ site, when averaged over P rates and years, AVAIL treated MAP improved tissue P concentration and increased cotton lint yield by 157 kg ha-1 over untreated MAP. At AP site, when averaged over years and P rates, application of AVAIL treated MAP increased cotton lint yield by 85 kg ha-1 over untreated MAP. In both experiments, 34 kg ha-1 AVAIL treated MAP produced higher tissue P concentrations and greater yields than 68 kg ha-1 without AVAIL. Influencing reactions in the micro-environment around the fertilizer granule has proven to have a significant benefit on the yield and P uptake of cotton. More research is needed to determine P content in the soil and further improve fertility recommendations.
       
  • VARIABILITY IN THE LIGNINOLYTIC ENZYMES ACTIVITY BY LENTINULA EDODES IN
           SUBMERGED CULTURE WITH LIGNIN AND GLUCOSE

    • Abstract: The white-rot basidiomycete Lentinula edodes is the second most edible mushroom cultivated on the world. This fungus decomposes cell-wall associated macromolecules, is a natural degrader of lignin polymers. The differences in enzyme activities between strains of L. edodes provided useful information about the participation of enzymes in different development stages of the fungus. The effect of lignin on the fungal biomass production and activity behavior of ligninolytic enzymes when L. edodes is cultivated in a medium containing lignin with and without glucose as a carbohydrate source was tested. When glucose was present in the culture, lignin increase the mycelial biomass by 70% at 22 days compared to the control culture. The lignin media without glucose affected mycelial growth up to 20% less that the control without lignin and glucose. The activity of laccase, lignin peroxidase, aryl alcohol oxidase, manganese dependent peroxidase and catalase was modified depending on whether the medium had lignin and glucose, or lignin alone. A carbohydrate source is important to fungal growth, but the dissolution of lignin monomers might switch the signal that controls growth rate and enzymatic activity.
       
  • ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RHIZOBIA AND PLANT GROWTH-PROMOTING
           RHIZOBACTERIA AND THEIR EFFECTS ON GROWTH OF RICE SEEDLINGS

    • Abstract: Biofertilizer is a relatively safer, environmentally friendly and cost-effective approach as an alternative to reduce chemical fertilizer usage. The selection of bacterial strains with multiple beneficial characteristics are important to maximize the effectiveness on the host plant. Due to aforementioned interest, several Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterial (PGPR) and rhizobial strains were isolated from rice and legume roots, respectively, at four locations in Malaysia namely Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang, Selangor; Besut, Terengganu; Tunjung, Kelantan and Sik, Kedah. Bacterial isolations were undertaken to select the best isolates which exhibit multiple beneficial effects to the rice plant and a total of 205 bacterial strains were isolated and categorized as follows; 94 rhizospheric and 107 endophytic bacteria from rice roots, one rhizobial strain from soybean and three from Mimosa pudica. These isolates were screened for their abilities to fix N2 and solubilize phosphate; 52 were positive for both tests. The selected isolates were then tested for IAA production and other biochemical tests such as potassium solubilization, hydrolyzing enzymes (cellulase and pectinase) and iron siderophore productions. Four isolates, namely UPMB19 (rhizospheric PGPR from Tunjung, Kelantan), UPMB20 (endophytic PGPR from Besut, Terengganu), UPMR30 (rhizobia from soybean) and UPMR31 (rhizobia from Mimosa) were selected for subsequent plant inoculation tests with UPMB10, a PGPR isolated from oil palm root, as the reference strain. Based on 16S rDNA gene sequencing, these bacterial strains were identified under several genera: Lysinibacillus, Alcaligenes, Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium and Bacillus, respectively. Results of plant inoculation test indicated that UPMB19 significantly enhanced the seedling height at the early growth stage (7 days after transplanting, DAT) which could be attributed to the higher N2 fixation rate of this strain as compared to the other strains, except UPMB20. UPMB10 and UPMR31 also showed significant effects with increased seedling height and Total Dry Weight (TDW) at the later stage (14 DAT) possibly due to the higher bacterial population and IAA produced as observed in the residual nutrient solution without addition of fertilizer-N. This study has successfully demonstrated the effectiveness of locally isolated PGPR and rhizobial strains with multiple beneficial characteristics on early growth and vigor of rice seedlings under controlled condition. The result proved to be a vital information in the development of a liquid biofertilizer for rice; thus further studies will be done to evaluate the effectiveness of these isolates under glasshouse and field conditions on growth, tillering and yield of rice.
       
  • COMPARISON OF EDTA AND EDDS ENHANCTED PHYTOEXTRACTION OF Cr AND Pb FROM
           CONTAMINATED SOIL BY ANANASCOMOSUS (L.) MERR

    • Abstract: The effects of chelating agents on Chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) absorption were studied by planting pineapple, Ananascomosus (L.) Merr.in contaminated soil. All plant samples were grown in a nursery for 30 days and then separated into seven sets: Set (1) had nothing added (Blank); (2) had Pb added as Pb(II) Nitrate (Pb(NO3)2) at 500 mg kg-1 soil; (3) added Pb(II) nitrate and EDTA, a chelating agent; (4) contained both Pb(II) nitrate and EDDS, a second chelating agent; (5) only added Cr as potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), at 400 mg kg-1 soil; (6) was treated with Cr (potassium dichromate) plus EDTA; and (7) contained both Cr (potassium dichromate) and EDDS. The chelating agent concentrations were 2 millimoles per kilogram soil. Soil and plant contamination levels were measured by analyzing the Cr, Cr(VI) and total Pb after growing for 30, 60, 90 and 120 days. The analysis divided the plant samples into two parts: Aboveground and underground. Plant growth was also analyzed by dry weight, root length and expression of toxicity through withered leaves and yellow leaf symptoms. The results of this study indicate that after 60 days, the EDTA agent had the highest Pb absorption efficiency, with the plant sample absorbing 288.14 mg Pb per kg soil in the aboveground part and 796.66 mg kg-1 soil in the underground part. The EDTA agent had high Cr absorption efficiency, with the plant sample absorbing Cr at 545.72 mg kg-1 soil in the aboveground part and 2267.99 mg kg-1 soil in the underground part after 90 days. The EDTA and EDDS agents did not affect pineapple growth and expression of toxicity symptoms were statistically significant (p≤0.05) compared with the control sets.
       
  • EVALUATION FOR SALT STRESS TOLERANCE IN TWO STRAWBERRY CULTIVARS

    • Abstract: Salt stress conditions have been found to destroy the vital physiological process in plant where slower cell division and cell enlargement or both and limit mineral nutrient uptake with clearly nutritional imbalance. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out at Agricultural Research Station, Mu’tah University, Jordan to evaluate growth responses and mineral composition of two strawberry cultivars to salt stress by different NaCl levels. Six NaCl levels (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 mM) and two strawberry cultivars, Camarosa and Albino, were used. Nutrient elements were added at the 0.5-strength Hoagland nutrient concentration. Distilled water supplemented with half strength Hoagland solution was used as control. Number of leaves and runners of both strawberry cultivars were significantly reduced by increasing NaCl level. Growth parameters (shoot, root and total dry weights and root: Shoot ratios) were significantly reduced with each increase in salinity level. Camarosa had higher value for all these parameters compared with Albino. Leaf chlorophyll content of both strawberry cultivars was significantly decreased when 25 mM NaCl or higher was applied. Regardless of NaCl level, Camarosa cultivar had significantly higher chlorophyll content compared with Albino. Elevated salinity level significantly increased leaf proline content of both cultivars. Albino leaves accumulated higher proline compared with Camarosa at salinized and non-salinized treatments. Both strawberry cultivars had significantly higher leaf and root Na and Cl contents under salinized conditions compared with non-salinized conditions. Each increase in NaCl level resulted in an increase in leaf and root Na and Cl contents of both cultivars. On contrast, leaf K content was decreased with salinity, root content of this mineral was significantly increased with salinity. It could be recommended to avoid growing ‘Camarosa’ and ‘Albino’ strawberry using irrigation water of 25 mM NaCl or more.
       
  • EFFECT OF LIMING AND FERTILIZER APPLICATION IN HEMIC AND SAPRIC OF
           TROPICAL PEAT: PHOSPHORUS MINERALIZATION, INFRA-RED SPECTROSCOPY AND
           MICROSCOPY

    • Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the changes in nutrient level P as well as in the structural and functional groups upon the decomposition of Hemic and Sapric peat material due to application of lime and fertilizers. The peat materials were left to decompose for 8 weeks under laboratory incubation and samples were taken for the determination of extractable P at 1 week interval. At 8 weeks, samples were sent for FTIR and SEM analysis. Although both types of peat material exhibit similar patterns in the mineralization of phosphorus, however, the amount of extractable phosphorus between Hemic and Sapric during the decomposition process differed. Addition of fertilizer (T3) resulted in a significantly large increase in extractable P compared to T1 and T2 but the effect was temporal as the extractable P declined throughout the incubation period. Sapric material displayed more absorption bands from the FTIR spectral analysis compared to Hemic although there were few similarities between the bands produced. Application of fertilizer in T3 caused the peaks that were similar with other treatments became weaker and different functional groups were shown at lower frequencies. Images from SEM showed that addition of lime and fertilizers caused the collapsing and degradation of the plant cell structures in the organic materials of the peat justifying the process of decomposition had occurred. Hemic and Sapric peat material showed some similarities as well as differences in extractable P, plant cell structures and spectral bands upon the application of lime and fertilizers.
       
  • MICROWAVE-ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF PHENOLIC ANTIOXIDANTS FROM SEMIARID
           PLANTS

    • Abstract: Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE) kinetic in three temperatures was investigated for extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from Jatropha dioica, Flourensia cernua, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Turnera diffusa which are plants of semiarid regions of Mexico. The two-site kinetic model and saturation simple equation were used to describe the experimental data. The fit of the data demonstrated that saturation simple equation was better and could explain the data with a slight loss of goodness of fit. The results showed that MAE optimum conditions were extraction temperature of 60°C and extraction time in the range from 1 to 6 min. The MAE was more efficient than the conventional Heat Reflux Extraction (HRE). Maximal antioxidant potential was observed in E. camaldulensis extracts. Interestingly differences in phenolic composition and antioxidant activity were observed in the extracts obtained by MAE and HRE for all plants used. Quercetin and catechin were found to be the predominant phenolic compounds. The MAE procedure resulted in suitable alternative to obtain bioactive phenolic compounds from semiarid plants due to this technology is higher efficient than conventional methods increasing yield in shorter times.
       
  • NATURAL ANTIOXIDANT INGREDIENT FROM BY-PRODUCTS OF FRUITS

    • Abstract: The contents of total phenolics compounds and their phenolic constituents were quantified in organic and aqueous of four varieties (Zebdia, Sukkari, taimor and Hindi) of mango (Mangifera indica L.), seeds pulp and kernel, one varieties of pomegranate (Punica ranatum L., peel) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L., Giza 6, shell) by-products. The antioxidant activities of all by products extracts were assessed by five antioxidant methods as well as by rancimate test. The total Phenolic content of aqueous and organic extracts of among all mango varieties, pomegranate and peanut shell showed the content values ranging from 71.06 to 124.18 mg/100g, 95.07 to 124.18 mg/100g and 41.64 to 71.06, respectively. Nineteen phenolic compounds were identified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) among all mango varieties, of which vanillic acid, benzoic acid and mangiferin were occurred in high amounts. The major phenolic compounds were detected in pomegranate and peanut shell were chlorogenic and gallic and caffeic (24.42%), respectively. All fruits by products were exhibited remarkable antioxidant activity, with various degrees in all tested methods. However, among all by-products extracts, organic extract had higher antioxidant than that aqueous extracts toward all antioxidant tested. Mango kernel peel and pomegranates showed high radical scavenging activity, which could be compared with the synthetic antioxidants Butylated Hydroxyanisol (BHA). However, all by-products extracts exhibited high inhibit effect against the lipid peroxidation of sunflower oil (at 100°C) as assessed by rancimat methods. However, this antioxidant activity was found to be strong significant correlation with phenolic contents (p
       
  • IMPROVING PHOSPHORUS NUTRITION OF CORN

    • Abstract: Phosphorus (P) generally occurs in soils as the anions H2PO4- or HPO4-2 depending on soil pH. These anions readily react with soil cations such as calcium, magnesium, iron and aluminum to produce various phosphate compounds of very limited water solubility. Crop recovery of applied phosphate fertilizer can be quite low during the season of application. In addition, the large amounts of crop residue present in no-tillage production systems can lower soil temperature thus reducing root growth and nutrient uptake of plants even on soils not low in available Phosphorus (P). Specialty Fertilizer Products, Leawood, KS has developed and patented a product registered as AVAIL® that is reported to attract and sequester antagonistic cations out of the soil solution leaving more of the applied P in available form for plant uptake. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of AVAIL treated P-fertilizer on growth, P-uptake and yield of irrigated corn (Zea mays L.) grown in a no-tillage production system. A 3-year experiment was conducted from 2001-2003 at the North Central Kansas Experiment Field, located near Scandia, KS, on a Crete silt loam soil (fine, montmorillonitic, mesic Pachic Arquistoll). Treatments consisted of three rates of P with or without AVAIL. A no P check plot was also included. When averaged over the years and P rates, the use of AVAIL increased yield of corn by 1.1 Mg ha-1. AVAIL also increased corn dry weight at the six-leaf stage, whole plant P uptake at the six-leaf stage and P concentration at mid-silk. The use of AVAIL proved beneficial in overcoming many of the problems associated with P nutrition in corn. AVAIL consistently increased P uptake and yield in this experiment.
       
  • TYPICAL MEXICAN AGROINDUSTRIAL RESIDUES AS SUPPORTS FOR SOLID-STATE
           FERMENTATION

    • Abstract: Biological wastes contain several reusable substances of high value such as soluble sugars and fiber. Direct disposal of such wastes to soil or landfill causes serious environmental problems. Thus, the development of potential value-added processes for these wastes is highly attractive. These biological wastes can be used as support-substrates in Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) to produce industrially relevant metabolites with great economical advantage. In addition, it is an environment friendly method of waste management. In this study were analyzed six different Mexican agro industrial residues to evaluate their suitability as support-substrate in SSF, between physicochemical properties that have included Water Absorption Index (WAI), Critical Moisture Point (CHP) and Packing Density (PD). The selection of an appropriate solid substrate plays an important role in the development of an efficient SSF process. The results provided important knowledge about the characteristics of these materials revealing their potential for use in fermentation processes.
       
  • EFFICACY OF ESSENTIAL OILS FROM MEDICINAL PLANTS IN CONTROL OF THE HAIRY
           ROSE BEETLE, TROPINOTA SQUALIDA (SCOPOLI) AND THEIR COMPARATIVE TOXICITY
           TO THE HONEY BEE, APIS MELLIFERA L.

    • Abstract: The insecticidal activity of essential plants oils against an important insect pest of fruit trees, the hairy rose beetle, was evaluated in topical and feeding applications in the laboratory. Essential oils that caused more than 50% mortality were further tested against the hairy rose beetle and the honey bee using different concentrations and their relative toxicities were evaluated. Results showed that eucalyptol and fir oils outperformed other tested oils and caused 72 and 64% mortality, respectively. These mortalities were not different from the application of the commercial insecticide, Deltamethrin. Moreover, eucalyptol and fir oils were more toxic to the hairy rose beetle than the dominant pollinator during fruit trees flowering, the honey bee. However, eucalyptol was relatively safer to the honey bees than fir oil. These findings indicate that eucalyptol might be applied during fruit trees bloom to control the hairy rose beetle even in the presence of honey bees if used for the crop pollination.
       
  • ANTIFUNGAL EFFECT OF ETHANOL PLANT EXTRACT ON CANDIDA SP

    • Abstract: In this study, we investigated the in-vitro antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants in the Arabian peninsula, including Rhamnus globosa, Ocimum basilicum, Tecoma stans and Coleus forskohlii. Our results showed high inhibitory growth in yeast after treatment with R. globosa and O. basilicum. C. tropicalis was shown to be a sensitive strain with an inhibition of 29, 28, 35, 25 and 27 mm after treatment with R. globosa, R. globosa* “leaf with thorns,” O. basilicum, Tecoma stans and Coleus forskohlii, respectively. Thus, our results confirmed the fungicidal effect of O. basilicum and R. globosa with a 20 and 30% reduction in CFU compared with the starting inoculums in the time-kill.
       
  • THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HETEROSIS AND GENETIC DISTANCES BASED ON SSR
           MARKERS IN HELIANTHUS ANNUUS

    • Abstract: Identifying the best inbred combinations for the development of commercial hybrid of sunflower remains the main challenge to sunflower breeders. In the present research the level of heterosis of F1 hybrids, genetic diversity of parental lines based on SSR markers, as well as its connection with specific combining ability of sunflower were studied. Ten sunflower elite inbred lines (3 restorer lines and 7 cytoplasmic male sterility lines) and their hybrids were examined for plant height, seed yield, thousand seed mass, oil content and husk content. Field tests were carried out in 5-6 seasons. The level of heterosis was calculated using measurement of midparent heterosis. Genetic distance between pairs of tested sunflower inbred lines ranged from 0.45 to 0.74. Significant positive correlation was found between genetic distances among lines, measured using SSR markers and midparent heterosis for seed yield of hybrids (r = 0.79 p
       
  • SCREENING FOR CUCUMBER MOSAIC RESISTANT LINES FROM THE OVULECULTUREDERIVED
           DOUBLE HAPLOID CUCUMBERS

    • Abstract: CMV is one of the major destructive viruses worldwide and commercial CMV resistant cucumber is very rare. Therefore we aimed to establish the ovule derived resistant lines used for the breeding program. Haploid plants of sixty-eight cucumber lines were successfully obtained by culturing the un pollinated ovaries harvested one day before an thesis on a modified MS medium supplemented with BAP and IAA at the ratio of 2:1 which was optimal to induce embryogenesis in most of the tested lines. For whole plant regeneration, another modified MS medium was used supplemented with a combination of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA) (2:1) or BAP and IAA/6-(gamma, gamma-dimethylallylamino) purine (2ip) and IAA (5:1) and 5 ppm AgNO3. Ploidy levels of the regenerants were determined by cytological analysis. Thirteen out of 42 clones derived from 14 accessions showed a chromosome number of n = 7 and chloroplast number of 6/pair of guard cell, 24 lines were auto-dihaploid with n = 14 and a chloroplast number of 11-12/pair of guard cell. Twenty-eight Double Haploid (DH) lines were mechanically inoculated with CMV and the level of resistance was evaluated by using DAS-ELISA. Ten highly Resistant lines (R) included 70S2, 91e, 91.1, 93S4-1, 93S42-, 95S1-2, 95S2 DHS1, 117S2-1-3, 136.1 and 194S1 did not show any virus symptom and gave negative ELISA results. Twelve moderately resistant clones were identified including two clones from line 11, three clones from line 93, four clones from line 91 and one clone each from line 117S2 and 123, whereas clone 11.4 was moderately susceptible. Five DH clones; 117S2-1-1, 117S2-2, 117S2-4, 117S2-7 and 117S2-8were classified as highly susceptible.
       
  • EFFECTS OF MELANOCORTIN-4 RECEPTOR GENE ON GROWTH AND MEAT TRAITS IN PIGS
           RAISED IN RUSSIA

    • Abstract: Тhe Melanocortin-4 Receptor (MC4R), a G-protein coupled receptor, is implicated in mediating the effect of leptin on food intake and energy balance. A previous candidate gene study reported an association between an MC4R polymorphism (Asp298Asn) and growth and meat productive traits of pigs. The aim of this work was to determine frequencies of the MC4R/Taq I genotypes and alleles in Danish Landrace (LD), Canadian Landrace (LC) and crossbred pigs Danish Landrace × Canadian Landrace (LD × LC) in breeding Cent “Plemzavod Jubilee” (Tyumen) Russia and to estimate their associations with some growth and meat traits. The polymorphism was identified by PCR-RFLP method. The traits studied were: Number of days to 100-kg, Average Daily Gain (ADG), Backfat Thickness (BFT), average daily Feed Intake (FI) and Length of Body (LB). In the all test groups we found a higher frequency of G allele (0.71) compared with the A allele (0.29). The results of present study suggest that the MC4R gene contributes to Days to 100 kg, ADG and BF. The heterozygous genotype AG was favorable in LD breed. The significant effects of-1.43 (LD male) and -2.81(LD female) for Days to 100 kg and of+61.17 (LD male) and +26.3 (LD female) for ADG were calculated. The homozygous genotype GG was favorable in crossbred LD × LC. The significant effects of +74.2 for ADG and-1.5 for BF were calculated. Therefore, the data support a role for the MC4R Asp298Asn polymorphism in the genetic basis of economically important traits in pigs of Russia. Further research is needed to determine the effect of this gene on growth, meat and reproduction traits in pigs of different breeds and crosses.
       
  • THE ASSOCIATION OF IONS IN THE SOIL SOLUTION OF SALINE SOILS

    • Abstract: The chemical equilibrium in the soil solution determines the dynamics of its material composition, migration and accumulation of salts. In the soil solution are formed electrically neutral ion pairs СаСО3°; CaSO4°, MgCO3°, MgSO4°, charged ion pairs CaHCO3+, MgHCO3+, NaCO3-, NaSO4-, CaOH+, MgOH+. The calculation method proposed for quantitative assessment of real ion forms in the soil solution of solonetz taking into account the ions association. Determination of real condition of the main ions in soil solution is based on ion association and its influence on physical and chemical properties of solution. Were calculated the free and associated ion form concentration according to analytical ion concentration. Were used an iteration to solve the equations of ion material balance, a linear interpolation of equilibrium constants, a Method of Ionic Pairs including a law of initial concentration preservation, a law of the operating masses of equilibrium system, the concentration constants of ion pair dissociation following the law of operating masses. Upon completion of iterative procedure, was determined the quantity of ion free form and a coefficient of ion association γe as the ratio of ions free form to its analytical content γe = Cass/Can. For calculation procedure were used the own software products. The association of ions varies in individual soils and soil layers, шncreasing the soil solution salinity amplifies the ions association. Depending on concentration and composition of soil solution the ionic pairs are: 15-45% Ca2+; 16-49% Mg2+; 0,6-8,4% Na+; 2,2-17,6% HCO3-, 16-51% SO42-, up to 88% CO32-. The proposed thermodynamic calculation method for quantitative assessment of real ion forms in the soil solution helps to explain the evolution of salted soils, maintain the soil, improve plant nutrition and irrigation.
       
  • INFLUENCE OF INCUBATION PERIOD, TEMPERATURE AND DIFFERENT PHOSPHATE LEVELS
           ON PHOSPHATE ADSORPTION IN SOIL

    • Abstract: Phosphorus (P) is the most important element after nitrogen but P sorption properties are poorly documented in many soils. In this study, P sorption capacity in relation to incubation period and temperature under various P levels were determined for two different soil series (Rustam and Miani). Phosphorus was added at 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 µg g-1 to the soils and incubated for the period of 1, 3, 7, 15, 30 and 60 days at 25 and 35±1°C temperatures. Phosphorus sorption was significantly influenced by the temperature, added P and incubation period. Clay content has major influence on P sorption. Rustum Series adsorbed more P than that of Miani Series. The P sorption was faster at high temperature (35°C). At the end of period in the Rustum Series with added 2.5 and 1000 µg g-1 P level, P sorption were found 0.7 and 943 µg g-1, respectively, at 25±1°C temperature, whereas at 35±1°C temperature the respective P sorption for same P levels were 1.8 and 987.0 µg g-1. In the Miani Series at 25±1°C temperature, P sorption was 0.7 and 941 µg g-1, while at the temperature of 35±1°C, P sorption were 1.0 and 986 µg g-1 soil. Increasing P levels, temperature and incubation, resulted in higher P sorption. Hence, high clay in combination with calcium carbonate contents enhanced P adsorption, while high organic matter and high native soil P resulted in lesser P adsorption.
       
  • FLOW CYTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF NUCLEAR DNA BETWEEN OKRA LANDRACES
           (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS L.)

    • Abstract: Okra Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Moench), is an economically important vegetable crop grown in tropical and sub-tropical as well as Mediterranean countries. The genome size of the Abelmoschus genus species is still rare. Ploidy determinations have traditionally been done by counting chromosomes of stained root tips, but this method is laborious and often difficult with species which have small chromosomes and high ploidy levels and can lead to misclassified. Flow cytometry has been widely used in various aspects of plant research, such as the determination of the DNA nuclear content. Nuclear DNA size of fifteen okra genotype was measured using flow cytometry. The data showed variation between Turkish genotype and Jordanian genotype. Genome size of okra ranged from 3.98 pg 2C-1 in Jordanian landrace to 17.67pg 2C-1 in Turkish landrace. The 2C genome size in Mbp ranged from 3897-17321 among Abelmoschus esculentus genotypes. Further studies is recommended to accurate chromosome count to be linked with the genome size.
       
  • IMPLEMENTATION OF HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS REQUIREMENTS
           IN NUTRITION DEPARTMENTS OF SELECTED HOSPITALS IN IRAN

    • Abstract: Nutrition department is one of the most important parts in a hospital since the performance of it has great impact on patients’ satisfaction. HACCP standard is one of tools for management and monitoring of the nutrition department. The aim of this study was reviewing the condition of HACCP standard requirements in nutrition departments of selected hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. In this cross-sectional study, nutrition department of 12 hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences were studied. Data was gathered using questionnaires including 156 questions covering 5 domains through observation and interview. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS v16 and Kruskal-Wallis test. In total, rate of adherence to HACCP standard requirements in the studied hospitals was found as following: Modares (53.7%) and Seyedoshohada (53.1%) Hospitals, unacceptable conditions; Azahra (56.5%), Feiz (60.7%) and Amin (57.9%) Hospitals, moderate; Noor (68.2%), Ali-Asghar (68.2%), Eisabnemaryam (68.7%), Chamran (70.1), Shahid Beheshti (70%), Imam Musa Kazem (69.3%), Farabi (68.2%) and Kashani (68.5%) Hospitals, acceptable conditions. According to Kruskal-Wallis statistical test, scores from the five studied domains were not significantly different while the scores of the 12 hospitals were significantly different (p
       
  • USE OF SALINE WATER FOR GREENHOUSE BELL PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM)
           PRODUCTION

    • Abstract: A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the response of bell pepper to quality of irrigation water and irrigation regimes. The main treatments included non-saline water (EC-0.5 dS m-1) and saline water (EC-3.5 dS m-1). The sub-treatments included three irrigation regimes (at 100, 80 and 60% of crop Evapotranspiration (ETc)) in combination with three crop growth stages (vegetative, flowering to fruit set and fruit development to harvest). Application of saline water significantly reduced marketable fresh fruit yield from 5.47 to 2.60 kg m-2. Irrigation at 80% ETc till the end of vegetative stage and at 100% ETc later significantly increased the yield (5.01 kg m-2). Irrigation with non-saline water at either 80 or 60% ETc till the end of vegetative stage and at 100% ETc later resulted in similar fresh fruit yield. Saline water irrigation at 80% ETc till the end of vegetative stage and at 100% ETc later, proved superior to all the other treatments. Use of saline water (3.5 dS m-1) for irrigation of greenhouse bell pepper resulted in an increase in soil electrical conductivity and caused a drop in the fresh fruit yield by 72% as compared to irrigation with non-saline water (0.5 dS m-1). Irrigation at 80% ETc in the vegetative stage and at 100% ETc in the other two stages (flowering to fruit set and fruit development to harvest) recorded significantly higher total (5.52 kg m-2) and marketable (5.01 kg m-2) fresh fruit yield than all the other irrigation treatments. Saline water irrigation improved fruit quality with higher TSS (10.80%), Vitamin C (228.66 mg-100g) and acidity (0.305%).
       
  • BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM TOFU LIQUID WASTE ON TREATED AGRICULTURAL WASTES

    • Abstract: The Tofu Liquid Waste (TLW) as a pollution might be processed into biogas which was environmentally friendly and had potential to replace burning wood or oil. However, the waste could not directly be employed as the biogas substrate due to the high nitrogen content which was not suitable to the methanogen microorganism on the biogas digester and did not produce biogas. It was therefore necessary to adapt the carbon-nitrogen ratio in TLW with the addition of other organic materials that had a lower nitrogen content so it would be a suitable substrate for generating biogas. The research was aimed to evaluate the addition of the other organic material on the TLW to increase the biogas production. The results showed that TLW combined with sheep dung, cabbage waste, bamboo leaves and paddy straw respectively produced biogas as much as 14,183, 7,250, 2,400, 895 cm3 in 20 days. The 4 treatments gave the same quality of biogas, which was determined using the water boiling test. The pH fluctuation during the process was in the right pH for anaerobic digestion, thus it was not the limiting factor.
       
  • DEVELOPMENT OF A MACHINE VISION SYSTEM FOR WEED DETECTION DURING BOTH OF
           OFF-SEASON AND IN-SEASON IN BROADACRE NO-TILLAGE CROPPING LANDS

    • Abstract: More than half of the Australian cropping land is no-tillage and weed control within continuous no-tillage agricultural cropping area is becoming more and more difficult. A major problem is that the heavy herbicide usage causes some of more prolific weeds becoming more resistant to the regular herbicides and therefore more powerful and more expensive options are being pursued. To overcome such problems with aiming at the reduction of herbicide usage, this proposed research focuses on developing a machine vision system which can detect and mapping weeds or do spot spray. The weed detection methods described in this study include three aspects which are image acquisition, a new green plant detection algorithm using hybrid spectral indices and a new inter-row weed detection method taking the advantage of the location of the crop rows. The developed method could detect the weeds both during the non-growing summer period and also within the growing season until the canopy of the crop has closed. The design of the methods focuses on overcoming the challenges of the complex no-tillage background, the faster image acquisition speed and quicker processing time for real-time spot spray. The experiment results show that the proposed method are more suitable for the weed detection in the no-tillage background than the existing methods and could be used as a powerful tool for the weed control.
       
  • STATUS OF THE ELDERLY HEALTHCARE COSTS

    • Abstract: One of the most fundamental aspects of healthcare for the elderly is planning to reduce challenges associated with their healthcare costs. The present study aimed to assess the status of the elderly health care costs in North Khorasan Province in 2013. In this descriptive-analytical study, all elderly citizens in North Khorasan Province comprised the study population. Sample size was found 400 people using cluster sampling method. Study tools for collecting data consisted of a questionnaire that was completed through interviews with the elderly or their first degree family members. Data were analyzed with SPSS-16 software using descriptive statistical tests of chi square and Kruskal-Wallis. Of the 400 participating elderly, 50.7% were female and the rest male. Mean total healthcare costs of the elderly were 3,335,200 IRR, with mean outpatient care costs of 2151900 IRR and mean in-patient service costs of 1183290 IRR. Mean costs in urban and rural areas were 2609220 IRR and 4039720 IRR, respectively. There was a significant relationship between variables of gender and the service providing center. Given the results obtained, mean costs incurred for the elderly in the province is high, particularly in the male elderly group. Outpatient costs are higher than the in-patient service costs. Furthermore, compared to the urban areas, costs are higher in rural areas.
       
  • EFFECT OF POLYETHYLENE BLACK PLASTIC MULCH ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF TWO
           SUMMER VEGETABLE CROPS UNDER RAIN-FED CONDITIONS UNDER SEMI-ARID REGION
           CONDITIONS

    • Abstract: Water use efficiency in agriculture can be enhanced by several strategies mainly by reducing evaporation from the soil surface. The mulching techniques were being used widely in irrigated crop production worldwide. The mulching techniques can be also implemented in summer vegetables production under rain-fed conditions. The current study aimed at evaluating the effect of polyethylene black plastic mulch on growth and yield of okra, Abelmoschus esculentus and summer squash, Cucurbita pepo L. under rain-fed conditions of Jordan. Two field experiments were conducted during summer growing season at Al-Rabbah Agricultural Research Station, Mu’tah University, Jordan. Soil cover treatments were polyethylene black plastic mulch and no mulch (bare soil). The results indicated that the mulched plots had higher soil moisture content than bare soil plots, which has positively reflected on vegetative and yield parameters. Using polyethylene plastic mulch had pronounced positive effect on yield of okra and squash as compared to bare soil. Early, middle, late and total yield of both vegetable crops were significantly increased in plots covered with plastic mulch. In addition, fruit number and weight had also an increasing trend as fruit yield. Plots covered with black plastic mulch were produced higher fresh and dry weights of both vegetable crops. It ban be concluded that using black plastic mulch as a soil cover increased okra and squash vegetative growth and yield under rain-fed conditions.
       
 
 
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