American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences
[SJR: 0.231] [H-I: 11] [9 followers] Follow
Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1557-4989 - ISSN (Online) 1557-4997
Published by Science Publications [28 journals]
- Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Pretreated Kenaf using a Recombinant Xylanase:
Effects of Reaction Conditions for Optimum Hemicellulose Hydrolysis
Abstract: An efficient hemicellulose hydrolysis has now become a crucial step for xylooligosaccharides production for food additives and nutraceuticals industries. In this study, xylanase hydrolysis of pretreated hemicellulosic kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) for substantial hemicellulose hydrolysis was demonstrated. Experiments were performed primarily to investigate the effect of several critical reaction conditions towards the enzymatic hydrolysis of the pre-treated kenaf. The effects of various ranges of reaction conditions (substrate loading, xylanase loading, pH, temperature and time) were systematically and thoroughly studied. The study of hemicellulosic kenaf conversion using single enzyme was proven to effectively yield up to 59% of conversion after 48 h incubation using 3% (w/v) of substrate loading and 400 U of xylanase loading at 50°C in pH 4.0 buffer systems. The use of a single xylanase on the pre-treated kenaf was a key parameter in understanding the action of the main hemicellulose degrading enzyme towards hydrolysing the hemicellulose backbone of the pre-treated kenaf. Enzyme feeding strategy was also conducted and the results revealed that a batch feeding strategy of 400 U xylanase loading yielded the highest hemicellulose hydrolysis compared to the other fed batch enzyme feeding strategy. It was concluded that each reaction conditions and enzyme feeding strategy gave a significant impact towards the enzymatic hydrolysis and the use of optimum reaction conditions resulted in a high product yield at the end of the reaction. With the discovery of the importance of each reaction conditions involved in a hydrolysis, this study highlights the need for a comprehensive investigation on the reaction conditions using a mixture of enzymes towards achieving a complete hydrolysis with a higher product yield.
- Heterophylly in Murraya exotica L. (Rutaceae)
Abstract: Heterophylly, the existence of different leaf types and leaflet shapes on the same plant was observed for the first time in Murraya exotica L. populations from different locations in Java, Indonesia. In each population, three types of compound leaves (paripinnate, imparipinnate and intermediate) and three types of leaflet shape (oblong, rounded and obcordate) were observed. This heterophyllous condition was found on both juvenile and adult plants. The variation in leaf type and leaflet shape may be due to the environmental conditions prevailing at the time of leaf production directing leaf development or due to developmental noise caused by random interactions between genes and the environment.
- Quality Herbage Production of Dwarf Napiergrass with Italian Ryegrass
Cropping under Digested Effluent Application in Southern Kyushu, Japan
Abstract: Digested effluent produced by a biogas-plant contains essential plant nutrients to solve the treated and disposal problems of livestock manure. Dwarf variety of late-heading type (dwarf) napiergrass as a perennial summer crop and intercropping of over-sown Italian ryegrass as an annual winter crop were applied to 3 levels of digested effluent in southern Kyushu from 2007 to 2009. Digested effluent revealed so effective fertilizer as chemical one to increase dry matter yield, wintering ability and forage quality in crude protein concentration and in vitro dry matter digestibility (digestibility) with increasing application rate. Digestibility in leaf blade of napiergrass and that in whole Italian ryegrass were positively correlated with acid detergent lignin and neutral detergent fiber concentrations, respectively, which might be mediated with reducing tiller size with defoliation proceeded. The present cropping systems have a potential under sufficient application of the effluent to achieve sustainable quality herbage production in southern Kyushu, Japan.
- Can Contract Marketing Motivate Farmers to Go Organic' Measuring the
Moderation Effect of Contract Marketing
Abstract: The demand for organic food is growing in Malaysia due to consumer concerns for food safety, sustainable development, and urban expansion. However, the share of farmers engaged in this type of agriculture in Malaysia is notably low with only 72 (0.02%) organic vegetable farmers out of a total of 272,000 farmers in the country. Therefore, it is crucial to understand why the majority of the farmers do not practice organic farming and suggest possible solutions through contract marketing as a motivating tool to enhance their participation in organic farming. In this study, a total of 329 conventional vegetable farmers were selected and interviewed through multi-stage systematic random sampling method via a structured questionnaire. Factor analysis and hierarchical multiple regression analysis has revealed that there is a moderating role by contract marketing to strengthen the relationship between attitude and public farmersâ intention to practice organic farming. This study has identified contract marketing as a component which moderates the perceived behavioral control-intention to practice organic farming. Therefore, contract farming not only shapes the attitude of farmers but it also develops the control over the chain by channeling farmersâ products to the buyers.
- Year-Round Forage Yield Stability through a System Combining Triple-Maize
Crops with Winter Barley in Kyushu, Japan
Abstract: Reduction of feeding cost for the beef and dairy cow industry is an urgent matter requiring the intensification of summer and winter forage cropping in Kyushu, Japan. Forage maize is a prominent high-yield summer crop in the region, where it used to be sown from late March to early August. Due to global warming, maize cropping in the common hot summer now easily suffers from heavy rain and typhoons and this contrasts with the need of expanding the growth periods suitable for maize cropping. This study tested the cropping of triple (spring, summer and autumn) maize crops with winter barley to determine its suitability to be cultivated in the region. Winter barley, sown into inter-rows of the previous row crops in mid-November, was harvested from late February to late March, when spring maize was sown earlier than the current season, after the danger of late frost has passed. Summer maize was sown from early June to early July and autumn maize which was sown from late August to mid-September was harvested in mid-to late November. Winter barley yielded 900-1090 g dry matter (DM)/m2 with 22% ear DM. Early-planted spring maize which was sown in early March yielded 1600-1880 g DM/m2 with 16-28% ear DM and summer maize yielded 900-1280 g DM/m2 with 19-39% ear DM. However, the autumn maize yield varied from 130-300 g DM/m2 without seed maturation to 740-880 g DM/m2 with 51-54% ear DM due to typhoon and cool weather damage. Therefore, triple maize with winter barley cropping can produce a yield of more than 4000 g DM/m2, especially from 2600 g DM/m2 from winter barley and spring maize crops sown in early March, leading to the conclusion that spring maize sown in early March can be harvested without high risk from weather disasters in the region (290 words ≤ 300 words, upper-limit).
- SSR Analysis of Maternal and Paternal Lines Selected in the Don Region
Abstract: Evaluation of DNA polymorphisms of breeding material of sunflower from L.A. Zhdanov Don Experimental Station of oil Crops of V.S. Pustovoit All-Russian Research Institute of Oil Crops represented by 17 maternal (CMS) lines and 12 paternal (Rf) lines was conducted. There were identified 35 allelic variants of CMS lines and 42 allelic variants of Rf lines with use of 11 SSR markers. It is shown that the level of genetic diversity of microsatellite loci of CMS lines is 1.2 times lower than that of Rf lines. The average number of alleles per SSR locus for maternal lines also lowers than for paternal lines. In addition, CMS lines and Rf lines differ in the frequency of alleles of SSR loci. Thus, the discriminatory capacity of the studied marker system for identification of cultivated sunflower lines was quite high and is suitable for certification of the lines.
- GIS Mapping of Basal Stem Rot Disease in Relation to Soil Series Among Oil
Abstract: Basal Stem Rot (BSR) is a disease caused by fungus which affect oil palm tree. This study aims to visualize the geographical distribution of BSR incidence among oil palm smallholders in Selangor using Geographical Information System (GIS) and its relationship to the type of soil series. The geographical distribution of BSR incidence of smallholders in Selangor were mapped using 168 Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinate of possible infected area. The methodology followed in finding the relationship between BSR and soil series by assigning percentage of BSR incidence based on type of soil series. Majority of the BSR incidences were found to be confined to the Selangor-Kangkong (Aeric Tropic Fluvaquent-Typic sulfuric tropic fluvaquent) soil series followed on Peat (Typic Fibric Tropohemist) soil then Kranji (Typic Sulfaquents) soil series and finally the Briah-Organic Clay and Muck (Typic Tropic Fluvaquent) soil series. Distribution pattern of the BSR revealed that most of the incidences were confined along the coastal area which might be due to the planting of oil palm in previous coconut stands. Low pH of Selangor (Aeric Tropic Fluvaquent) and Peat (Typic Fibric Tropohemist) soil series shows a higher BSR incidence while high pH of Kranji (Typic Sulfaquents) and Briah (Typic Tropic Fluvaquent) soil series shows slightly lower BSR incidence. From this study, it can be concluded that the distribution of BSR were mostly confined to the coastal areas which might be due to the planting of oil palm in previous coconut stands rather than any relationship with the type of soil series. This distribution map of BSR incidence can be used to deliver effective extension services regarding BSR to smallholders with a specified target based on location and soil series.
- Models of Winter Wheat Yield Based on Calcareous Chernozem Fertility
Abstract: The use of polyelement diagnostics and regression analysis for predicting the yield of winter wheat at different stages of vegetation is considered. It has been established that the prediction and integrated assessment of grain yield and quality should be performed with consideration for the balance of macro-and micronutrients in the grain and the aboveground biomass of plants. Possibility of predicting the contents of macro-and micronutrients in wheat grain from the chemical composition of plants at the shooting stage has been revealed. Scientifically based recommendations are presented for managing the grain yield and quality of winter wheat.
- Compaction Properties of Silty Soils in Relation to Soil Texture, Moisture
Content and Organic Matter
Abstract: Soil compaction is recognized as an increasingly challenging problem with regard to root growth and yield reduction in agricultural production in Thailand. The aim of this research was to study the effect of soil texture, moisture content and organic matter on the compaction properties of silty soils. Three soils with different silt contents were studied-loam, silty clay loam and silt loam. The study showed that compacting silt loam soil using the modified Proctor test resulted in a higher bulk density than from the oedometer test at 200 kPa. Statistical analysis showed that soil type and the moisture content significantly affected both the bulk density and penetration resistance. However, organic matter showed a significant effect only on the bulk density. The bulk density increased with increased moisture content. The bulk densities of compacted soils were higher in the order of loam, silt loam and silty clay loam. The penetration resistance seemed to increase with increased silt content. The differences in the bulk density and penetration resistance among these three soils decreased as the moisture content increased. Adding organic matter at 5% by weight to soils resulted in lower bulk densities of the soil using the oedometer test, with reductions of 3.9, 3.8 and 7.7% for loam, silty clay loam and silt loam, respectively. In order to avoid effects on root growth, it is recommended that machines with 200 kPa of tire contact pressure should only work in fields with a moisture content not exceeding 20.27, 18.74 and 17.88% for loam, silt loam and silty clay loam, respectively.
- Can Anthocyanins be Part of the Metal Homeostasis Network in Plant?
Abstract: Anthocyanins are a class of flavonoids with a high level ofdiversification and likely the most studied pathway of secondary metabolism in Plantae.Anthocyanins have raised a growing interest due to the huge variability oftheir chemical structures and the more new anthocyanins are isolated fromplants, the more questions on their evolutionary and ecological meaning theyraise. Antioxidant, photoprotection against high light and UV, defence againstherbivores and pathogens, attraction of pollinator are only some proposedbiological functions for those versatile compounds. Anthocyanins have also beenfound complexed with metal ions either in flower pigments (commelin andprotocyanin) or in leaves and stems. Due to the potentiality of anthocyanins tochelate to metals, their involvement in the attenuation of metal toxicity hasbeen recently proposed. Conversely, the ability of plants to remobilize metalions from stored metal-anthocyanin complexes when plants experience a period oftransient metal shortage has never been investigated before. The aim of this paperis to support the hypothesis that the anthocyanin-metal interactions mightrepresent a further ecological role for these pigments and also thatanthocyanins can be part of the complex network of metal homeostasis in plant.
- Introgression the SalTol QTL into the Elite Rice Variety of Russia by
Abstract: The present work is devoted to investigation of the possibility to apply methods of Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS) to introgression the SalTol QTL into genotypes of elite Russian varieties of rice. It was shown that microsatellite markers Rm493, may be effectively used to control transfer the SalTol QTL genes into Russian populations of rice. Based on the highly productive variety “Novator”, we obtained the lines Nov-129 and Nov-148 carrying loci SalTol in homozygous state. The lines Nov-129 and Nov-148 are used as an improved salt tolerance donor source to obtain hybrids tolerance to salinity.
- Effects of Cement Dust on the Physiological Activities of Arabidopsis
Abstract: Air pollution exerts detrimental effects on plant ecosystems and restricts agricultural productivity. Cement dust is considered to be one of the most harmful air pollutants of industrial origin and is a limiting factor for plant growth and productivity. This study aims to uncover the impacts of cement dust on photosynthetic pigments, protein content, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation, lipid per oxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities of Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, Arabidopsis plants were dusted with cement at a rate of 1.5 g per 1-m2 area and measurements were undertaken at 10 days after cement dust application. Treatment with cement dust resulted insignificant reductions in chlorophyll content and total soluble protein accumulation. Neither carotenoid nor starch content of Arabidopsis plants was affected by exposure to cement dust, whereas protease activity was significantly enhanced in cement dust-treated plants. Furthermore, exposure to cement dust significantly enhanced the production of H2O2, a product of oxidative stress, in the leaves of Arabidopsis plants. Moreover, Malondialdehyde (MDA) content, a product of lipid per oxidation, significantly increased after exposure to cement dust. In response to cement dust, activities of scavenging enzymes such as Ascorbate Peroxides (APX), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Guaiacol Peroxidase (GPX) increased, whereas the activity of Catalase (CAT) activity decreased. The present results suggest that cement dust induced oxidative stress in Arabidopsis plants through the generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), induction of lipid peroxidation and up regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities.
- Genetic Relationship among Wild Medicinal Genotypes of Ziziphora canescens
Benth. and Ziziphora tenuior L. and Detection of Genetic Variations
Resulted From Tissue Culture, Salinity and pH Media
Abstract: Ziziphora tenuior L. and Ziziphora canescens Benth. are two of plants which using in folk medicine in the Kalamoon Mountains areas of Syria for cough, stomachache and dysentery. Samples of Ziziphora genotypes were collected from four different locations (Assal Al-Ward, Yabroud, Qarah and Maaraba), 20 RAPD and 12 ISSR primers were used to assess the genetic diversity of 10 genotypes. Amplified fragments were polymorphic with percentage 93.4% and 100% when RAPD and ISSR markers were used respectively. The first cluster depending on RAPD data formed by the grouping of all Ziziphora tenuior L. and the second cluster formed by grouping of all Ziziphora canescens Benth. genotypes. While the first cluster based on ISSR data formed by two genotypes Ziziphora tenuior L. (Maaraba), the second cluster formed by three genotypes Ziziphora tenuior L. and five genotypes Ziziphora canescens Benth. (Assal Al-Ward, Yabroud and Qarah). ISSR markers were recorded a high degree of biodiversity among Ziziphora tenuior L. genotype collected from Maaraba and other genotypes. Genetic stability of Ziziphora tenuior L. and Ziziphora canescens Benth. was confirmed among mother plant and shoots that underwent one to nine cycles of in vitro subculturing by RAPD markers that produced monomorphic bands, while ISSR bands were polymorphic especially in 7,8 and 9 subcultures. Also Genetic variations of Ziziphora canescens Benth. that resulted from salinity (1,2,3,4 and 5 g/L) and pH (7,8 and 9) media were detected, both of RAPD and ISSR bands were polymorphic compared with control except some RAPD primers produced monomorphic bands. Callus from Ziziphora tenuior L. that induction on different media (MS + 1.5 mg/L NAA + 0.5 mg/L Kin) or (MS + 2 mg/L IBA + 0.5 mg/L Kin) showed high variations compare with micropropagated plants from apical mirestem on media (MS + 1 mg/L Kin + 0.1 mg/L NAA).
- Profitability Analysis of Small-Scale Beekeeping Firms by Using Life Cycle
Costing (LCC) Methodology
Abstract: Increasingly, beekeeping sector attracts attention dueto its potentialities linked to several aspects: Environmental benefits,commercial value and of promotion of rural development. Indeed, among thesmall-scale agro-food chains, beekeeping plays a significant role, especiallyin rural context, where the diversification of farms activities can be providea relevant integration of income. However, frequently, apicultural activitiesare characterized by several weaknesses ascribable to the fragmentedproduction, difficulty of marketing actions and lack of training of operators.These problems are particularly present in Calabria region in South Italywhere, anyway, thanks to several suitable climatic conditions, high qualitystandards of honey are obtained. So, in order to achieve the efficiency offirms and to improve the business beekeeping production it is necessary to arrange a production system that takes intoaccount the real availability of material resources. The economic behavior ofbeekeepers and their investment choices are fundamental to accomplish asuccessful business that, more and more today, needs to high productivity oflabor and adequate equipment, guaranteed by optimization of production factors.This paper has a two-fold purpose: Firstly, it aims to conduct an economicanalysis of beekeeping activities, as significant small-scale agri-food chainin southern Italy, by analyzing the production, processing and packaging ofhoney in farm realities of Calabrian region. The second objective of this paperis to evaluate the profitability of investments realized in beekeeping firms.For this purpose, a joint use of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) methodology andeconomic indicators was applied in order to analyze in detail cash outflowslinked to each phase of honey production system (planning, management anddisposal) and to identify key elements that can improve the farm management.Results showed the economic viability of the investment and a suitable level ofprofitability. Furthermore, the analysis carried out confirms thesemethodologies as useful tools to support investment choices and to improveeconomic performances of management strategies of agro-food producers.
- Features of Microelement Composition of Ordinary Chernozems of the Azov
and Lower Don Regions
Abstract: Ordinary chernozems in the Azov Plain have a low backgroundcontent of mobile zinc compounds, a sufficient supply with copper and anincreased content of lead compounds. This specificity of the regionalmicroelement composition is due to the high carbonate content in the soilprofiles, the natural enrichment of littoral geochemical landscapes and theeffect of the significant sources of microelement emission (Mariupolmetallurgical enterprises, Novocherkassk regional power station, etc.). Thehigh buffer capacity of soils in the Azov region significantly mitigates thenegative effects of pollution.
- The Influence of Mineral Fertilizers on the Chemical Composition of
Verdurous Masses of Forder Crops
Abstract: This article presents the results of sorghum and pearl millet studies conducted in order to develop the technology of their cultivation as a new forage crops for livestock in arid areas of Kazakhstan. The article presents data on the effect of seeding rates and term of sowing on seeds germination and survival of plants and a crop of verdurous masses of sorghum and pearl millet against the background of watering. The optimal seeding rate and sowing of sorghum and pearl millet in saline soils of rice irrigation systems are determined in terms of the ecological crisis in Aral Sea region, Kazakhstan.
- Evaluation of Inbred Lines and Hybrid Maize (Zea mays L.) for Tolerance to
Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth in the Guinea Savanna Agro-Ecological Zone
Abstract: The study was conducted at the experimental field of the Savanna Agricultural Research Institute (SARI) to screen maize inbred and hybrid lines for Striga tolerance. Maize seeds of hybrid and inbred lines were collected from the West and Central African Maize Collaborative Network (WECAMAN), Boake, La Cote d’Ivoire, for the experiment. The experimental design used was the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with fourteen treatments replicated four times for the hybrids. For the inbred lines, there were twelve treatments replicated three times. The results of the hybrid experiment indicated that varieties including 9914-14 STR, 8425-8 STR, 9925-49 STR, 9916-11 STR, 9925-3 STR, CLH105 STR and CLH109 STR were comparatively better off than the others in terms of field weight and tolerance to Striga. For the inbred lines, the results indicated that GH110-5, 991228-1 and 991233-1 performed better than the rest of the varieties in terms of yield components such as plant height, days to 50% pollen shed, days to 50% silking and Striga plant rating. On Striga infested Agricultural lands, farmers can therefore use cultivars or varieties like, 9914-14 STR, 8425-8 STR, 9925-49 STR, 9916-11 STR, 9925-3 STR, CLH105 STR and CLH109 STR or their crosses in order to improve yield and hence maximize profit.
- Effect of Endophytic Treatments on Plant Growth Performance and Disease
Incidences in Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril) Cultivar JS-335 against
Challenge Inoculation with R. solani
Abstract: Endophytes could be efficient biological control agentin sustainable crop production and offer unique opportunity for crop protectionand biological control. Present study was carried out to investigate theeffects of indigenous endophytic microorganisms Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp., Burkholderia sp.Streptomyces sp., Actinoplanes sp., Alternaria sp. AndFusarium sp. on plant growth and disease control against challengeinoculation with Rhizoctonia solani in soybean (Glycine max (L.)Merril). It was observed that treatment with endophytes significantly (p<0.05)improved the seed germination, root, shoot length, Seedling Vigour Index (SVI),root nodulation in soybean. The significant increments were recorded fresh anddry weight, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) uptake and seed yield(p<0.05). The disease incidences were reduced significantly over control(p<0.05). Thus, present studies indicate that utilization of indigenousendophytes may exert more favorable effects on plant health, disease controlwhich ultimately will enhance crop productivity.
- Estimated Acrylamide Intake from Coffee Consumption in Latin America
Abstract: The presence of acrylamide in foods such as coffee canpose risks to human health. Coffee consumption and production in Latin Americahave increased in recent years. According to the FAO, world coffee consumptionis divided into five groups of countries according to average yearly per capitaconsumption: (i) between 8.0 kg and 12 kg; (ii) between 4.1 kg and 8.0 kg; (iii)between 2.4 kg and 4.5 kg; (iv) between 0.8 kg and 2.4 kg; and (v) less than0.8 kg. In this work, the countries of Latin America are divided into threegroups according to annual per capita coffee consumption: group 1: between 4.1kg and 8.0 kg (Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Costa Rica); group 2: between2.4 kg and 4.5 kg (Guyana, French Guyana, Honduras, Suriname, Uruguay andVenezuela); and group 3: between 0.8 kg and 2.4 kg (Bolivia, Chile, Cuba, ElSalvador, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama,Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic). There are greatdifferences in the consumption of acrylamide-forming foods among populationsfrom different countries. The literature shows a range from 0.5 to 4.21 µg ofacrylamide per 300 mL of coffee and the World Health Organization recommends amaximum daily limit for acrylamide intake of 1 µg/kg bw. Thus, coffee is abeverage that contributes greatly to acrylamide intake in almost all populationgroups. From the calculated data on acrylamide intake in Latin America, it waspossible to estimate the daily intake in the region’s countries. According tothe maximum limit set by the WHO of 1 µg acrylamide per day per bw, for peoplein the countries of group 1, coffee makes a large contribution to the intake ofacrylamide. Thus, there should be focus on reducing the levels of acrylamide infoods, since they are the predominant sources of this substance for somepopulations.
- Spatial Pattern of Natural Spread of Rice False Smut (Ustilaginoidea
virens) Disease in Fields
Abstract: Pattern of disease spreadprovides improved knowledge on how the pathogen introduces itself and interactswith environment in fields and expresses as a disease. It is especiallysignificant when epidemiology of a disease, such as Rice False Smut (RFSm), isunclearly understood. Not reported before, this study attempted an analysis ofspatial pattern of natural spread of RFSm in nine fields in an intensive riceecosystem in Bangladesh. Both conventional and specialized statistical methodswere applied in the analysis. Results showthat the spread of the disease was not similar between and within the fieldsand even some fields were almost disease free. RFSm recorded aggregation inspaces in most of the fields, but the location of this aggregation differedbetween the fields. Symptom recorded on panicles in regenerated tillers fromharvested main crop (otherwise known as ratoons). The disease tended to beprominent towards proximity of drainage channels. The probability of occurringone diseased tiller per hill was calculated as 73% and cumulative probabilityof four or less smut balls per diseased panicle as little over 60%. This studyestablishes soil as the absolute dominant source of initiation of the epidemic.The analysis did not find evidence of any long- or short-distance primary and/or secondary sources ofinfection. It is concluded that the disease management be directed specific tothe fields at risk. It suggests development of a soil testing tool forquantifying inoculum potential in a field to ascertain the risk. With thediscovery of symptom on ratoons, this study highlights the need for fresh thinking onidentifying the pathway of entry of the pathogen into the plant.
- Evaluating the Potential for Development of Vegetable Nursery Industry:
Analysis in an Important Vegetable Region in Italy
Abstract: Nursery industry has a considerable importance in thevalue chain’ building of vegetable companies. Its importance increases in acountry like Italy, where vegetable productions in open field and in greenhousecontribute significantly to the creation of income and employment and to thesocio-economic support of entire geographic areas. However, this sector isunderpowered, if compared to the potential expressed by the vegetableproduction, considering that technical, economic and market literature suggeststhe opportunity to extend the use of transplantation as an alternative to thedirect seeding in order to achieve environmental and commercial benefits. Thiswork was both the result of a meta-analysis and a direct survey and aims todetermine an estimate of demand of nursery industry in Sicily, a region thatintercepts approximately 31% of national investments in protected cultivationand provides the basis for evaluating the activation potential of newinvestments, considering technical legislative and market aspects and thesupply chain integration.
- Factor Affecting Technical Efficiency of Smallholder Rubber Farming in
Abstract: With the increase of rubberproduction, Para rubber farmers in Northeastern Thailand have faced the limitedphysical and socio-economic conditions that have given rise to the improvementof technical efficiency. This study investigated the technical efficiency ofPara rubber farmers. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used tocollect cross sectional data on 300 farmers. The data was analyzed usingdescriptive statistics and stochastic frontier analysis. The results revealedthat the variance of gamma and sigma squared of the frontier productionfunction was significant at a level of p = 0.01. All inputs (exceptchemical fertilizer) are major factors that have influenced the changes in theoutput of Para rubber production. The mean technical efficiency index for thefarmers was found to be 0.573 and the efficiency factors, which were comprisedof age of farmers, education, gender and age of the rubber trees, were found tobe the significant factors that affected the variation in technical efficiencyamong the farmers. The policy implication of the study is that technicalefficiency of Para rubber could be increased by 42.7% by improving the use ofavailable resources. Thus, the government should give more education aboutrubber production, including tapping trees and managing farms because thiseducation will impact the knowledge that can be applied to farming techniquesin order to enhance efficiency.
- Physiological and Biochemical Evaluation of Fe-Efficiency in Fe-Deficient
Abstract: Iron (Fe) deficiency is prevalent particularly incalcareous soils of arid and semiarid regions. The present study aimed toinvestigate the response of eight local maize genotypes to Fe deficiency. Inaddition, a Fe- efficient (WF9) and a Fe-inefficient (ys1) indicator genotypeswere used in this study. All genotypes were grown in growth chamber for 21 daysin two levels of Fe, sufficient [+Fe (FNS) = 20 µM Fe EDTA] and deficient [-Fe (FNS)= 2 µM Fe EDTA] Fe supply. Shoots dry weight, Fe concentration and uptake inshoots, active iron concentration, peroxidase activity and cholorophyll contentwere determined and their validities as screening parameters were discussed.Generally, genotype (WF9) as the Fe efficient indicator and genotype (34) werethe less affected by Fe-deficiency. Genotype (ys1) as the Fe inefficientindicator and genotype (62) were highly affected when grown in the nutrientsolution with the deficient Fe supply. The present study emphasize that shootdry weight, Fe uptake, active Fe content, chlorophyll content and peroxidaseactivity could be used for evaluating the present maize genotypes for Feefficiency.
- FLYER: A Simple Yet Robust Model for Estimating Yield Loss from Rice False
Smut Disease (Ustilaginoidea virens)
Abstract: Rice False Smut (RFSm) is presently an internationallyimportant fugal disease of rice. While the Yield Loss (YL) from this disease isreported in many countries, there exists no tool to instantly estimate the YLby visual field inspection. This study developed a simple model, FLYER, for this purpose. The model is run by twoinputs: (i) fraction of productive but diseased tillers in a field and (ii)averaged number of smut balls present in the diseased panicles. FLYER wasdeveloped using data from Bangladesh, India and Japan. The driving algorithm ofthe model, the yield reduction in a diseased panicle as a function of number ofsmut balls present in the panicle, was validated with additional data fromBangladesh and Japan. When tested with independent data from fields infectednaturally by RFSm, FLYER closely estimated the yield loss (YL, %) againstobserved datasets from Bangladesh (Root Mean Squared Deviation (RMSD) =1.15% YL), Egypt (RMSD = 1.65% YL) and India (RMSD = 1.68% YL). Thismodel could contribute to rapid assessment of regional and variety-specificyield loss and strategic management of the disease on a field-by-field basis.