American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1557-4989 - ISSN (Online) 1557-4997
Published by Science Publications [28 journals] [SJR: 0.248] [H-I: 8]
- EVALUATING THE SENSITIVITY OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA, ESCHERICHIA COLI AND
SALMONELLA TYPHI TO VARIOUS BRANDS OF AMPICILLIN AND AMOXICILLIN AVAILABLE
Abstract: The failure of antimicrobial agents in the treatment of some ailments has become a great concern to health care practitioners. This is the reason why this study was carried out to evaluate the sensitivity of various brands of Amoxicillin and Ampicillin on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi. One hundred of the clinical isolates each were identified from the clinical samples collected from hospitals in Delta State, Nigeria. These isolates were subjected to two fold serial dilution method to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) from which the sensitivity of the isolates to the various brands of the antibiotics was determined. The result showed that the sensitivity of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi to the various brands of Amoxicillin are 54, 62 and 68% respectively. The result also revealed that the sensitivity of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi to Ampicillin are 64, 64 and 70% respectively. The result further indicates that a mean sensitivity of the isolates to Amoxicillin was 61%, while the mean sensitivity to Ampicillin was obtained as 66%. The study has therefore established the need for a routine evaluation of antibiotics in the Nigeria markets.
- INTEREST COVERAGE RATIOS (ICRs) AND FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY: APPLICATION
TO FIRMS WITH BOVINE DAIRY LIVESTOCK
Abstract: Agricultural firms with bovine dairy livestock are characterized by high investments in capital equipment and this is determined by the biological cycle of production, which requires large investments in land, facilities and bovine herd. These large investments require funding from equity capital or debt capital, which generates financial costs. Therefore, it is necessary to assess not only the profitability of firms in the sector but also the financial sustainability of the business cycle, applying appropriate indexes. To analyze this issue, the article has developed an approach to the verification of the financial sustainability of debt, out of a sample of dairy companies in Italy, putting in comparison Interest Coverage Ratios (ICRs) calculated using different approaches. In the article, we propose a financial approach to calculate the ICRs and verify the correlation and diversity, where statistically significant, of ICRs calculated with the Financial (FICRs) and the Economic (EICRs) approaches. The research shows that the sample firms have difficulty in generating cash flow and this difficulty is highlighted by traditional profitability analysis. Likewise, EICRs traditionally applied by banks are statistically different, even if correlated, with respect to the FICRs proposed in the article. The results of the research suggest that firms in the sector must pay particular attention to the financial sustainability of operations, in particular in dealing with the banks for the financing of debts. Similarly, banks should put in place systems analysis that are more effective than those currently used to assess the agricultural firms. The suggested approach could be applied even to other sectorsâ agrifood system, particularly if capital intensive; at the same time, the approach could be useful also if applied to agricultural cooperatives, even in developing countries that often suffer by financial constraints.
- THE USAGE OF ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE ORIGIN RAW MATERIALS COMBINATORICS IN
MEAT PRODUCTS OF âHALALâ CATEGORY
Abstract: Integrated researches aimed to develop technologies and recipes for meat products of âHalalâ category using seed fat and Milk Protein-Carbohydrate Concentrate (MPCC) represent a new generation of scientific and practical interest. In this connection, the authors propose technologies and recipes for meat products of âHalalâ category, designed on the basis of rational combinatorics of animal and vegetable origin raw materials, that let us to expand the range of halal meat products and to develop cost-effective technologies. The results of the research have provided expanding the range of functional meat products, including Halal products for muslims, that meet the quality standards of the finished product in the category Â«HalalÂ». Practical feasibility of using a vegetable fats complex and Milk Protein-Carbohydrate Concentrate (MPCC) Â«Lactobel-EDÂ» in sausage production has been found. The levels of adding to the formula have been proved. Thermodenaturation of milk and whey proteins during thickening and drying of âLactobel-EDâ increases the availability of peptide chains and ionized amino acid residues. Solubility study showed that the concentrate is highly soluble in aqueous solutions, but this has a high dispersion degree, which increases the overall adsorption surface. Analysis of the results of structural and mechanical changes in the characteristics of minced model systems indicates a decline in YV of prototypes with sunflower oil on average 99.5 Pa.
- ELECTROLYSIS OF SWINE MANURE EFFLUENTS USING THREE DIFFERENT ELECTRODES
Fe-Fe, Al-Al AND Fe-Al
Abstract: Swine effluent with high organic strength need to be treated to make it suitable for applying to crop/pasture fields, or discharging to any waterways. Electrocoagulation is a relatively simpler and cheaper technique over biological and chemical treatment methods currently used to treat high-strength industrial and municipal wastewater. The performance of an electrocoagulation system mainly depends on the pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC) of the medium, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) loading rates and catalytic activity of the electrodes used. In this research, a study was conducted to compare the pollutant removal efficiencies of three electrodes (Fe-Fe, Al-Al and Fe-Al) with three electric current levels (500, 1000 and 2000 mA) while treating swine manure effluents. The electrochemical cell consisted of two parallel rectangular plates (90Ã25Ã1.5 mm) of Iron (Fe-Fe), Aluminum (Al-Al) and Iron-Aluminum (Fe-Al, later on described as hybrid) electrodes; immersed in a beaker with 550 mL swine effluents and powered by a Direct Current (DC) supply. All studies were conducted in batches at room temperature. In general, removal efficiencies were increased with increasing current densities and electrolysis times for electrodes evaluated. Aluminum electrodes outperformed iron and hybrid (iron-aluminum electrodes) in removing Total Phosphorus (TP) at all current density levels tested. Overall, use of hybrid electrodes resulted in better COD removal. For the same treatment times (1200 s) at higher current density (21 mA cm-2), hybrid electrodes removed about 100% COD, which are about 1.9 and 1.3 times higher than those of aluminum and iron electrodes, respectively. Iron electrodes showed the highest removal efficiency (85%) for Total Organic Carbon (TOC) at 21 mA cm-2 current density and 1200 s treatment time. Overall, lower Specific Electrical Energy Consumptions (SEECs) per kg of Pollutants (TP, COD and TOC) were estimated for the aluminum electrodes than the other electrodes combination.
- SELF-INCOMPATIBILITY AND EFFECT OF RECIPROCAL CROSS AND OPEN POLLINATION
ON FRUIT SET AND FRUIT CHARACTERISTIC IN JORDANIAN ALMOND LANDRACES
Abstract: Limited studies were carried out to identify self- and cross-compatibility relationships among Jordanian almond landraces. Therefore, this study aimed at studying the level of self-incompatibility and the effect of cross and open pollination on fruit set and shell, nut and kernel related traits in almond. To achieve this objective, field experiments were carried out during 2012 and 2013 cropping season on five Jordanian almond landraces and one wild bitter almond (A. communis) available in the farmer's fields at Ajloun district, Jordan. Fruit set was recorded in the field after open-pollination, self-pollination by bagging the branches with flower buds and cross pollination after emasculation of the floral buds. All almond genotypes showed complete self-incompatibility. Genotypes showed variable percentages in fruit set with similar trend in the two growing seasons. Following cross pollination treatment, genotypes exhibited fruit set ranging from 40.3% in Hajari to 94.0% in Fark and from 34.1% in Mukhmaly to 93.3% in Fark in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Results showed that cross pollination of Hami Hallo (79.7-81.7 and 77.8-89.2% in 2012 and 2013 respectively) and Fark (83.0-94.0 and 86.1-93.3% in 2012 and 2013 respectively) with other landraces led to high level of fruit set indicating high cross-incompatibility. Slight differences were recorded in fruit set in reciprocal crosses. Pollen source did not affect shell, nut and kernel traits. As a conclusion, results obtained from this study showed that, all of the genotypes were self in-compatible and all genotypes showed high level of cross-compatibility with variable degree among genotypes.
- BRASSINOSTEROIDS IN BREEDING TECHNOLOGIES HEALTHCARE POTATO
Abstract: The regulator of anti-stress action Epin-Extra (24-epibrassinolide) was tested in laboratory and field (protected ground) conditions. The aim of this research was to study the influence of growth regulators on the growth, development and productivity of improved initial promising varieties of potato: Native (cultivated varieties Udacha) and foreign (cultivated varieties Red Scarlett) selections obtained by the method of apical meristem in the Volga-Vyatka region. The obtained results suggest a promising use of the product for improving the growth and development of plants in vitro. Adding Epin-Extra into an artificial culture medium at the final stage of micropropagation in vitro increases the height of plants by 29.6-47.7%, the number of internodes in plants by 26.4-25.7% depending on the cultivated variety, increases the root growth for cultivar Udacha 2.1 times and reduces the one for the cultivar Red Scarlett 1.9 times. The use of the Epin-Extra product-in recommended concentration for growing mini-tubers by seedling method in protected soil (greenhouse) in the budding phase-increases the biometric indicators such as plant height (35.7-21.8%), number of stems in the bush (30.9-19.0%) and mass of roots (19.1-8.5%), depending on the variety. As a result, the treatment with Epin-Extra increases productivity by 25.6-15.9%, the multiplication factor by 25.3-18.4%, as well as helps to reduce the prevalence (by 69.5-44.1%) and development (by 50.0-44.3%) of the late blight on the tops of potato plants, depending on the cultivar.
- CHARACTERIZATION OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH AND RICE HUSK BIOCHARS AND
THEIR POTENTIAL TO ADSORB ARSENIC AND CADMIUM
Abstract: Biochar as a new soil amendment has a potential in controlling the fate of trace elements in the soil system. However, the production of biochar from different feedstocks and pyrolysis conditions resulted in variable biochar properties which have an influence on trace elements availability. The experimental works are focused on physical and chemical properties of biochars produced from Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Rice Husk (RH) as heavy metals adsorbents. The morphology of EFB biochar comprise rigid structure with uniform pores size. The surface area of biochars ranged between 23.22-46.32 m2 g-1, dominated with mesopores. The chemical characterization of biochars revealed high carbon content in EFB biochar compared to RH biochar (54.08 and 7.78%). Both biochars are alkaline in nature (>pH 9) and contain substantial amounts of N, P, K, Ca and Mg. Fourier transform infra-red spectra showed the heterogenic functional groups on EFB biochar surface and domination of silica content in RH biochar. The batch experiment was employed to determine the adsorption capacity of these biochars for As and Cd. The adsorption data were fitted well in Langmuir isotherm with high correlation coefficient (R2>0.9) for As and Cd. The qmax of EFB biochar for As and Cd was higher than RH biochar. The qmax of EFB biochar was 0.4240 and 15.1515 mg g-1 for As and Cd, respectively. In contrast, the qmax of RH biochar for As and Cd was only 0.3522 and 3.1908 mg g-1. The results show that EFB biochar and RH biochar have potentials as good sorbent for As and Cd. Therefore, it can be suggested that the application of these biochars may possibly reduce the trace elements availability in the contaminated soil.
- RESISTANT STARCH AND BIOACTIVE CONTENTS OF UNRIPE BANANA FLOUR AS
INFLUENCED BY HARVESTING PERIODS AND ITS APPLICATION
Abstract: Recently, various innovative products from unripe banana flour have been reported as it is high in resistant starch and other important compounds. The harvesting period of the unripe banana fruit is one of the key factors affecting the quality of the unripe banana flour in terms of resistant starch and bioactive compound content. The study aimed to investigate the effect of the harvesting stages of unripe banana fruit on Resistant Starch (RS) content, carotenoid content, antioxidant activity and the application of unripe banana flour to prepare high RS rice noodle. Four different harvesting stages of banana fruits of Musa sapientum Linn including 75, 90, 105 and 120 days after bloom, were processed for banana flours. The results indicated that the maturation stages affected RS, some bioactive contents, antioxidant activities. The highest RS content (48.88%) of banana flour was obtained from the 105 day banana fruits. The total phenolic and carotenoid contents were high in the banana flours harvested between 75 and 105 days. The unripe banana flour could be substituted for rice flour as high as 80% and contained RS content as high as 18.64% whereas the commercial rice noodle had 4.21% of RS content. Therefore, the preparation of unripe banana flour from banana fruit harvested at 105 days and applying it in the preparation of functional food is promising.
- EFFECT OF DROUGHT CONDITION ON GROWTH, YIELD AND GRAIN QUALITY OF UPLAND
Abstract: Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of drought condition on growth, yield and grain quality of two varieties in upland rice: Nangdam and Lebnok. The experiment was performed at the King Mongkutâs Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chumphon Campus, Thailand during July to November, 2010. The study was conducted in randomized complete block design with four replications. This results showed that Nangdam and Labnok varieties were got 12.40-97.10 mm of average monthly rainfall in the vegetative, reproductive and grain formation to ripening stages. Nangdam and Lebnok had days to booting of 72 and 68 Days After Germination (DAG), respectively, days to 50% flowering of 93 and 90 DAG, respectively, which were higher than the normal average of 2 to 6 days. The two tested varieties had low grain yields of 29.12 and 26.20 kg/ha, respectively, when they were grown at the low level rainfall. All varieties had higher number of empty grain of 48 and 33 grain per panicle, respectively, number of low perfect grains of 53 and 57 grain per panicle, respectively, number of imperfect grains of 35 and 30 grain per panicle, respectively, chalky grains of 17.50 and 15.20%, respectively and breaking grains of 0.75 and 2.50%, respectively. However, there were no significant different among those traits between the two varieties. The two varieties of upland rice had smaller grain which was lower than the standard.
- ANTIOBESITY EFFECTS OF HUMAN SOLUBLE LEPTIN IN MICE NOURISHED WITH A
HIGH-FAT/HIGH FRUCTOSE DIET
Abstract: Leptin is a hormone that regulates energy balance. Since its discovery two decades ago, several efforts have been made to fully understand its role in metabolic regulation of feeding behavior, reproduction, glucose homeostasis, immune function, bone formation, lipid metabolism, among others. Its use as a therapeutic option in obese patients is still limited due to the syndrome known as Leptin resistance. In this study, we determined that the treatment of a soluble form of human Leptin (W100E) reduced food intake, body weight and triglycerides levels, but increased HDL-cholesterol levels on obese mice subjected to high-fat/high-fructose diet. In contrast, treatment with soluble human Leptin increased food intake but did not increase body weight and total-cholesterol in mice with normal diet. When stopping the treatment with human W100E-Leptin, it was detected a significant increase in body weight in all groups of mice apart from the control, indicating a rebound effect. The results contribute to the understanding of how to increase Leptin sensitivity and in consequence to overcome Leptin resistance syndrome. This might be relevant in offering more evidence of the potential use of the Leptin in the treatment against obesity and overweight conditions.
- Ð¡HEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM OF SOIL SOLUTION IN STEPPE ZONE SOIL
Abstract: Dynamics of material composition, migration and accumulation of salts is determined by chemical equilibrium in soil solution. Soil solution contains associated electrically neutral ion pairs Ð¡Ð°Ð¡Ð30; CaSO40, MgCO30, MgSO40, charged ion pairs CaHCO3+, MgHCO3+, NaCO3-, NaSO4-, CaOH+, MgOH+. Calculation method is proposed for quantitative assessment of real ion forms in the soil solution of chestnut solonetz soil complex. Were proposed equations to calculate free and associated forms of ions. To solve the equations were used an iteration, a linear interpolation of equilibrium constants, a Method of Ionic Pairs including a law of initial concentration preservation, a law of the operating masses of equilibrium system, the concentration constants of ion pair dissociation on the law of operating masses. Was determined the quantity of ion free form and a coefficient of ion association as ratio of ions free form to analytical content Î³e = Cass/Can. The association of ions varies in individual soils and soil layer. Increasing soil solution salinity amplifies the ions association. In form of ionic pairs in soil solution are: 11.8-53.8% of Ca2+; 9.4-57.3% of Mg2+; 0.7-11.9% of Na+; 2.2-22.3% of HCO3-, 11.8-62.7% of SO42-. The ion CO32- is high associated, the share of ions in associated form is up to 92.7%. The degree of soil solution saturation was obtained for three level of approximation accounting on analytical concentration, calculated association coefficient, calculated coefficient of association. Relating to thermodynamic solubility product S0, the mathematical product of analytical ionic pairs indicated super saturation of soil solutions up to K1 = 100, taking into account calculated coefficient of association ion activity super saturation of soil solutions is absent, K3â1. Only for solonetz chestnut meadow K3â2-5. The soil solution saturation degree in soil profile and laterally in landscape varies. The quantitative assessment of real ion forms in the soil solution allows explain evolution of landscape of salted soils, structure of soil cover. Calculations fulfilled show that a possibility of soil degradation scenario taking into account the laws of association of ions in soil solution is much more probable and dangerous than it was assessed before. New understanding of water-salt transfer, geochemical barriers and ecological functions of soil will help to improve rainfed and irrigational agriculture.
- THE RURAL TOURISM AS DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITY OR FARMS. THE CASE OF DIRECT
SALES IN SICILY
Abstract: Tourism has an important role modifying rural communities in their environmental, economic, social and cultural structures, processes and dynamics. In this context rural tourism plays a primary role because it is not the rural product that reaches the consumer in the purchase point, but it is the consumer (tourist) that has to move towards tourist destination to enjoy the product. So, the aim of this study is to analyse how the opportunities created by the rural tourism can represent a vector to promote the growth of farms and territory. Specifically, through a telephone survey conducted among the Sicilian entrepreneurs which join to the national network Campagna Amica, it has been analysed how the direct sales in the farm can contribute competitiveness to business and therefore to the permanence of man in the territory. The empirical analysis has shown that direct sales, associated with the conventional sales, can represent a growing opportunity for farms and whole rural community, leading to an improvement of business economic performances, an increase of investments and a creation of new job opportunities. This hightligted that agriculture can play a positive role on many components of the territorial system in which it operates
- EVALUATION OF N ADDITIVES FOR IMPROVING N USE EFFICIENCY OF SURFACE
APPLIED UREA TO DRY SEEDED AND PERMANENTLY FLOODED RICE
Abstract: There are several potential Nitrogen (N) loss mechanisms in a dry seeded and delayed flood system rice (Oryza Satvia L.) production system including urea volatilization and denitrification. The scope and magnitude of these potential losses are largely weather dependent. Two additives (stabilizers), Agrotain and Nutrisphere-N, have been offered to rice producers for controlling these potential losses. This study compared these two products in their ability to maintain rice grain yields, where cultural management maximizes these loss mechanisms. Response of rice to urea-N stabilizers varied in 2007 and 2008 depending on soil and environmental conditions. In 2007, dry soil surface at time of urea-N application and lack of rainfall resulted in a low loss due to N volatilization. However, urea-N volatilization or denitrification were higher in 2008 and using Agrotain stabilizer resulted in higher yields of rice at 78 kg N haï-1. Across years, Agrotain and Nutrisphere-N were similar in terms of slightly improving rice grain yields compared to untreated urea at the rate of 78 kg N ha-ï1. Therefore, urea stabilizers may offer a good solution in years with high potential for urea-N losses.
- STRATEGY TO INCREASE THE FARM COMPETITIVENESS
Abstract: Italyâs wine-growing production structure is highly pulverized. So, for many wine-growing farms lowering the production cost represents the only way of gaining a competitive advantage. Production at average unit costs lower than competitors allows to improve profitability. Among farming operations, winter pruning and tying of productive vine-branches require a high human labor. For this reason the paper presents the results of research conducted on a sample of Sicilian wine-producing farms in order to study the cost-effectiveness to make the pruning and the subsequent ligation of productive branches with tools that facilitate the work. The economic analysis, after the determination of minimum optimum size, shows that the investment is suitable for both large or small farms. This denotes how the process innovation could represent a way to achieve a cost leadership and improve profit margin.
- ASCORBIC ACID FOLIIAR SPRAY COUNTERACTING EFFECT OF SALINITY ON GROWTH,
NUTRIENTS CONCENTRATIONS, PHOTOSYNTHESIS, ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND LIPID
PEROXIDATION OF BEAN (PHASEULUS VULGARIS L.) CULTIVARS
Abstract: A water culture experiment was carried out in the Department of Fertilization Technology at National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt, to investigate the effect of Ascorbic Acid (AsA) foliar application and salinity stress (100 ppm and 100 mmoL NaCl) on growth, nutrients concentration and some biochemical parameters of two kidney bean (Phaseulus Vulgaris L.) cultivars. Salinity caused significant reduction in growth parameters (leaves and root dry weights) and some of biochemical parameters (nutrients concentration, photosynthesis pigment, Carbonic Anhydrase Activity (CAA), antioxidant enzyme activity Peroxidase (POD) and lipid peroxidation). The reduction effect on Paulista cultivar was higher than Nebraska cultivar at 100 mM NaCl salinity stress. Meanwhile, POD activity was increased under salt stress conditions. Lipid Peroxidation (LP) under 100 mmoL NaCl salinity was significantly increased. The two cultivars showed an increase in MDA content with NaCl salinity stress, but the increase in sensitive cultivars Paulista was higher than that in salt-tolerant Nebraska cultivar. Application of (AsA) not only mitigated the inhibitory effect of salt stress in both kidney bean cultivars, but also in some cases induced a stimulatory effect greater than that estimated in the control plants on growth parameters which were accompanied by marked increases in nutrients concentration and photosynthetic system (pigments and carbonic anhydrase activity). Ascorbic Acid (AsA) has been shown to be an essential antioxidant; agent may act as a scavenger of ROS for mitigating the injury on bio-membranes under salt stress. Therefore, this study suggested that (AsA) application may induce an adaptive response in kidney bean through stimulation of the antioxidant enzymes activities, photosynthesis processes and lower lipid peroxidation, in Nebraska relative to Paulista may contribute to salt tolerance mechanism in Nebraska.
- IMPROVING PHOSPHORUS NUTRITION OF COTTON
Abstract: Crop recovery of applied Phosphorus (P) fertilizer can be low, especially during season of low soil temperature, which decreases plant root growth and nutrient uptake. The H2PO4- or HPO4-2 anions readily react with soil cations such as Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe) and Aluminum (Al) to produce various phosphate compounds of very limited water solubility. Specialty Fertilizer Products (SFP), Leawood, KS, USA has developed and patented a product registered as AVAILÂ® that is reported to attract and sequester antagonistic cations out of the soil solution leaving more of applied P in available form for plant uptake. To evaluate effectiveness of AVAIL product for cotton production, experiments were conducted in two locations in West Tennessee, Grand Junction (GJ) in Hardeman County and Ames Plantation (AP) located in Fayette County. Treatments consisted of applying Mono-Ammonium Phosphate (MAP, 11-52-0) alone or coated with AVAIL at rates of 34 or 68 kg ha-1 P2O5. A no P check was also included. An additional treatment consisting of AVAIL treated P in combination with Nutrisphere-NÂ®, a Nitrogen (N) stabilizer product offered by SFP, was also included. At GJ site, when averaged over P rates and years, AVAIL treated MAP improved tissue P concentration and increased cotton lint yield by 157 kg ha-1 over untreated MAP. At AP site, when averaged over years and P rates, application of AVAIL treated MAP increased cotton lint yield by 85 kg ha-1 over untreated MAP. In both experiments, 34 kg ha-1 AVAIL treated MAP produced higher tissue P concentrations and greater yields than 68 kg ha-1 without AVAIL. Influencing reactions in the micro-environment around the fertilizer granule has proven to have a significant benefit on the yield and P uptake of cotton. More research is needed to determine P content in the soil and further improve fertility recommendations.
- VARIABILITY IN THE LIGNINOLYTIC ENZYMES ACTIVITY BY LENTINULA EDODES IN
SUBMERGED CULTURE WITH LIGNIN AND GLUCOSE
Abstract: The white-rot basidiomycete Lentinula edodes is the second most edible mushroom cultivated on the world. This fungus decomposes cell-wall associated macromolecules, is a natural degrader of lignin polymers. The differences in enzyme activities between strains of L. edodes provided useful information about the participation of enzymes in different development stages of the fungus. The effect of lignin on the fungal biomass production and activity behavior of ligninolytic enzymes when L. edodes is cultivated in a medium containing lignin with and without glucose as a carbohydrate source was tested. When glucose was present in the culture, lignin increase the mycelial biomass by 70% at 22 days compared to the control culture. The lignin media without glucose affected mycelial growth up to 20% less that the control without lignin and glucose. The activity of laccase, lignin peroxidase, aryl alcohol oxidase, manganese dependent peroxidase and catalase was modified depending on whether the medium had lignin and glucose, or lignin alone. A carbohydrate source is important to fungal growth, but the dissolution of lignin monomers might switch the signal that controls growth rate and enzymatic activity.
- ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RHIZOBIA AND PLANT GROWTH-PROMOTING
RHIZOBACTERIA AND THEIR EFFECTS ON GROWTH OF RICE SEEDLINGS
Abstract: Biofertilizer is a relatively safer, environmentally friendly and cost-effective approach as an alternative to reduce chemical fertilizer usage. The selection of bacterial strains with multiple beneficial characteristics are important to maximize the effectiveness on the host plant. Due to aforementioned interest, several Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterial (PGPR) and rhizobial strains were isolated from rice and legume roots, respectively, at four locations in Malaysia namely Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang, Selangor; Besut, Terengganu; Tunjung, Kelantan and Sik, Kedah. Bacterial isolations were undertaken to select the best isolates which exhibit multiple beneficial effects to the rice plant and a total of 205 bacterial strains were isolated and categorized as follows; 94 rhizospheric and 107 endophytic bacteria from rice roots, one rhizobial strain from soybean and three from Mimosa pudica. These isolates were screened for their abilities to fix N2 and solubilize phosphate; 52 were positive for both tests. The selected isolates were then tested for IAA production and other biochemical tests such as potassium solubilization, hydrolyzing enzymes (cellulase and pectinase) and iron siderophore productions. Four isolates, namely UPMB19 (rhizospheric PGPR from Tunjung, Kelantan), UPMB20 (endophytic PGPR from Besut, Terengganu), UPMR30 (rhizobia from soybean) and UPMR31 (rhizobia from Mimosa) were selected for subsequent plant inoculation tests with UPMB10, a PGPR isolated from oil palm root, as the reference strain. Based on 16S rDNA gene sequencing, these bacterial strains were identified under several genera: Lysinibacillus, Alcaligenes, Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium and Bacillus, respectively. Results of plant inoculation test indicated that UPMB19 significantly enhanced the seedling height at the early growth stage (7 days after transplanting, DAT) which could be attributed to the higher N2 fixation rate of this strain as compared to the other strains, except UPMB20. UPMB10 and UPMR31 also showed significant effects with increased seedling height and Total Dry Weight (TDW) at the later stage (14 DAT) possibly due to the higher bacterial population and IAA produced as observed in the residual nutrient solution without addition of fertilizer-N. This study has successfully demonstrated the effectiveness of locally isolated PGPR and rhizobial strains with multiple beneficial characteristics on early growth and vigor of rice seedlings under controlled condition. The result proved to be a vital information in the development of a liquid biofertilizer for rice; thus further studies will be done to evaluate the effectiveness of these isolates under glasshouse and field conditions on growth, tillering and yield of rice.
- COMPARISON OF EDTA AND EDDS ENHANCTED PHYTOEXTRACTION OF Cr AND Pb FROM
CONTAMINATED SOIL BY ANANASCOMOSUS (L.) MERR
Abstract: The effects of chelating agents on Chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) absorption were studied by planting pineapple, Ananascomosus (L.) Merr.in contaminated soil. All plant samples were grown in a nursery for 30 days and then separated into seven sets: Set (1) had nothing added (Blank); (2) had Pb added as Pb(II) Nitrate (Pb(NO3)2) at 500 mg kg-1 soil; (3) added Pb(II) nitrate and EDTA, a chelating agent; (4) contained both Pb(II) nitrate and EDDS, a second chelating agent; (5) only added Cr as potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), at 400 mg kg-1 soil; (6) was treated with Cr (potassium dichromate) plus EDTA; and (7) contained both Cr (potassium dichromate) and EDDS. The chelating agent concentrations were 2 millimoles per kilogram soil. Soil and plant contamination levels were measured by analyzing the Cr, Cr(VI) and total Pb after growing for 30, 60, 90 and 120 days. The analysis divided the plant samples into two parts: Aboveground and underground. Plant growth was also analyzed by dry weight, root length and expression of toxicity through withered leaves and yellow leaf symptoms. The results of this study indicate that after 60 days, the EDTA agent had the highest Pb absorption efficiency, with the plant sample absorbing 288.14 mg Pb per kg soil in the aboveground part and 796.66 mg kg-1 soil in the underground part. The EDTA agent had high Cr absorption efficiency, with the plant sample absorbing Cr at 545.72 mg kg-1 soil in the aboveground part and 2267.99 mg kg-1 soil in the underground part after 90 days. The EDTA and EDDS agents did not affect pineapple growth and expression of toxicity symptoms were statistically significant (pâ¤0.05) compared with the control sets.
- EVALUATION FOR SALT STRESS TOLERANCE IN TWO STRAWBERRY CULTIVARS
Abstract: Salt stress conditions have been found to destroy the vital physiological process in plant where slower cell division and cell enlargement or both and limit mineral nutrient uptake with clearly nutritional imbalance. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out at Agricultural Research Station, Muâtah University, Jordan to evaluate growth responses and mineral composition of two strawberry cultivars to salt stress by different NaCl levels. Six NaCl levels (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 mM) and two strawberry cultivars, Camarosa and Albino, were used. Nutrient elements were added at the 0.5-strength Hoagland nutrient concentration. Distilled water supplemented with half strength Hoagland solution was used as control. Number of leaves and runners of both strawberry cultivars were significantly reduced by increasing NaCl level. Growth parameters (shoot, root and total dry weights and root: Shoot ratios) were significantly reduced with each increase in salinity level. Camarosa had higher value for all these parameters compared with Albino. Leaf chlorophyll content of both strawberry cultivars was significantly decreased when 25 mM NaCl or higher was applied. Regardless of NaCl level, Camarosa cultivar had significantly higher chlorophyll content compared with Albino. Elevated salinity level significantly increased leaf proline content of both cultivars. Albino leaves accumulated higher proline compared with Camarosa at salinized and non-salinized treatments. Both strawberry cultivars had significantly higher leaf and root Na and Cl contents under salinized conditions compared with non-salinized conditions. Each increase in NaCl level resulted in an increase in leaf and root Na and Cl contents of both cultivars. On contrast, leaf K content was decreased with salinity, root content of this mineral was significantly increased with salinity. It could be recommended to avoid growing âCamarosaâ and âAlbinoâ strawberry using irrigation water of 25 mM NaCl or more.
- EFFECT OF LIMING AND FERTILIZER APPLICATION IN HEMIC AND SAPRIC OF
TROPICAL PEAT: PHOSPHORUS MINERALIZATION, INFRA-RED SPECTROSCOPY AND
Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the changes in nutrient level P as well as in the structural and functional groups upon the decomposition of Hemic and Sapric peat material due to application of lime and fertilizers. The peat materials were left to decompose for 8 weeks under laboratory incubation and samples were taken for the determination of extractable P at 1 week interval. At 8 weeks, samples were sent for FTIR and SEM analysis. Although both types of peat material exhibit similar patterns in the mineralization of phosphorus, however, the amount of extractable phosphorus between Hemic and Sapric during the decomposition process differed. Addition of fertilizer (T3) resulted in a significantly large increase in extractable P compared to T1 and T2 but the effect was temporal as the extractable P declined throughout the incubation period. Sapric material displayed more absorption bands from the FTIR spectral analysis compared to Hemic although there were few similarities between the bands produced. Application of fertilizer in T3 caused the peaks that were similar with other treatments became weaker and different functional groups were shown at lower frequencies. Images from SEM showed that addition of lime and fertilizers caused the collapsing and degradation of the plant cell structures in the organic materials of the peat justifying the process of decomposition had occurred. Hemic and Sapric peat material showed some similarities as well as differences in extractable P, plant cell structures and spectral bands upon the application of lime and fertilizers.
- MICROWAVE-ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF PHENOLIC ANTIOXIDANTS FROM SEMIARID
Abstract: Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE) kinetic in three temperatures was investigated for extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from Jatropha dioica, Flourensia cernua, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Turnera diffusa which are plants of semiarid regions of Mexico. The two-site kinetic model and saturation simple equation were used to describe the experimental data. The fit of the data demonstrated that saturation simple equation was better and could explain the data with a slight loss of goodness of fit. The results showed that MAE optimum conditions were extraction temperature of 60Â°C and extraction time in the range from 1 to 6 min. The MAE was more efficient than the conventional Heat Reflux Extraction (HRE). Maximal antioxidant potential was observed in E. camaldulensis extracts. Interestingly differences in phenolic composition and antioxidant activity were observed in the extracts obtained by MAE and HRE for all plants used. Quercetin and catechin were found to be the predominant phenolic compounds. The MAE procedure resulted in suitable alternative to obtain bioactive phenolic compounds from semiarid plants due to this technology is higher efficient than conventional methods increasing yield in shorter times.
- NATURAL ANTIOXIDANT INGREDIENT FROM BY-PRODUCTS OF FRUITS
Abstract: The contents of total phenolics compounds and their phenolic constituents were quantified in organic and aqueous of four varieties (Zebdia, Sukkari, taimor and Hindi) of mango (Mangifera indica L.), seeds pulp and kernel, one varieties of pomegranate (Punica ranatum L., peel) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L., Giza 6, shell) by-products. The antioxidant activities of all by products extracts were assessed by five antioxidant methods as well as by rancimate test. The total Phenolic content of aqueous and organic extracts of among all mango varieties, pomegranate and peanut shell showed the content values ranging from 71.06 to 124.18 mg/100g, 95.07 to 124.18 mg/100g and 41.64 to 71.06, respectively. Nineteen phenolic compounds were identified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) among all mango varieties, of which vanillic acid, benzoic acid and mangiferin were occurred in high amounts. The major phenolic compounds were detected in pomegranate and peanut shell were chlorogenic and gallic and caffeic (24.42%), respectively. All fruits by products were exhibited remarkable antioxidant activity, with various degrees in all tested methods. However, among all by-products extracts, organic extract had higher antioxidant than that aqueous extracts toward all antioxidant tested. Mango kernel peel and pomegranates showed high radical scavenging activity, which could be compared with the synthetic antioxidants Butylated Hydroxyanisol (BHA). However, all by-products extracts exhibited high inhibit effect against the lipid peroxidation of sunflower oil (at 100Â°C) as assessed by rancimat methods. However, this antioxidant activity was found to be strong significant correlation with phenolic contents (p
- TYPICAL MEXICAN AGROINDUSTRIAL RESIDUES AS SUPPORTS FOR SOLID-STATE
Abstract: Biological wastes contain several reusable substances of high value such as soluble sugars and fiber. Direct disposal of such wastes to soil or landfill causes serious environmental problems. Thus, the development of potential value-added processes for these wastes is highly attractive. These biological wastes can be used as support-substrates in Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) to produce industrially relevant metabolites with great economical advantage. In addition, it is an environment friendly method of waste management. In this study were analyzed six different Mexican agro industrial residues to evaluate their suitability as support-substrate in SSF, between physicochemical properties that have included Water Absorption Index (WAI), Critical Moisture Point (CHP) and Packing Density (PD). The selection of an appropriate solid substrate plays an important role in the development of an efficient SSF process. The results provided important knowledge about the characteristics of these materials revealing their potential for use in fermentation processes.
- EFFICACY OF ESSENTIAL OILS FROM MEDICINAL PLANTS IN CONTROL OF THE HAIRY
ROSE BEETLE, TROPINOTA SQUALIDA (SCOPOLI) AND THEIR COMPARATIVE TOXICITY
TO THE HONEY BEE, APIS MELLIFERA L.
Abstract: The insecticidal activity of essential plants oils against an important insect pest of fruit trees, the hairy rose beetle, was evaluated in topical and feeding applications in the laboratory. Essential oils that caused more than 50% mortality were further tested against the hairy rose beetle and the honey bee using different concentrations and their relative toxicities were evaluated. Results showed that eucalyptol and fir oils outperformed other tested oils and caused 72 and 64% mortality, respectively. These mortalities were not different from the application of the commercial insecticide, Deltamethrin. Moreover, eucalyptol and fir oils were more toxic to the hairy rose beetle than the dominant pollinator during fruit trees flowering, the honey bee. However, eucalyptol was relatively safer to the honey bees than fir oil. These findings indicate that eucalyptol might be applied during fruit trees bloom to control the hairy rose beetle even in the presence of honey bees if used for the crop pollination.