American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1557-4989 - ISSN (Online) 1557-4997
Published by Science Publications [28 journals]
- Year-Round Forage Yield Stability through a System Combining Triple-Maize
Crops with Winter Barley in Kyushu, Japan
Abstract: Reduction of feeding cost for the beef and dairy cow industry is an urgent matter requiring the intensification of summer and winter forage cropping in Kyushu, Japan. Forage maize is a prominent high-yield summer crop in the region, where it used to be sown from late March to early August. Due to global warming, maize cropping in the common hot summer now easily suffers from heavy rain and typhoons and this contrasts with the need of expanding the growth periods suitable for maize cropping. This study tested the cropping of triple (spring, summer and autumn) maize crops with winter barley to determine its suitability to be cultivated in the region. Winter barley, sown into inter-rows of the previous row crops in mid-November, was harvested from late February to late March, when spring maize was sown earlier than the current season, after the danger of late frost has passed. Summer maize was sown from early June to early July and autumn maize which was sown from late August to mid-September was harvested in mid-to late November. Winter barley yielded 900-1090 g dry matter (DM)/m2 with 22% ear DM. Early-planted spring maize which was sown in early March yielded 1600-1880 g DM/m2 with 16-28% ear DM and summer maize yielded 900-1280 g DM/m2 with 19-39% ear DM. However, the autumn maize yield varied from 130-300 g DM/m2 without seed maturation to 740-880 g DM/m2 with 51-54% ear DM due to typhoon and cool weather damage. Therefore, triple maize with winter barley cropping can produce a yield of more than 4000 g DM/m2, especially from 2600 g DM/m2 from winter barley and spring maize crops sown in early March, leading to the conclusion that spring maize sown in early March can be harvested without high risk from weather disasters in the region (290 words ≤ 300 words, upper-limit).
- SSR Analysis of Maternal and Paternal Lines Selected in the Don Region
Abstract: Evaluation of DNA polymorphisms of breeding material of sunflower from L.A. Zhdanov Don Experimental Station of oil Crops of V.S. Pustovoit All-Russian Research Institute of Oil Crops represented by 17 maternal (CMS) lines and 12 paternal (Rf) lines was conducted. There were identified 35 allelic variants of CMS lines and 42 allelic variants of Rf lines with use of 11 SSR markers. It is shown that the level of genetic diversity of microsatellite loci of CMS lines is 1.2 times lower than that of Rf lines. The average number of alleles per SSR locus for maternal lines also lowers than for paternal lines. In addition, CMS lines and Rf lines differ in the frequency of alleles of SSR loci. Thus, the discriminatory capacity of the studied marker system for identification of cultivated sunflower lines was quite high and is suitable for certification of the lines.
- Models of Winter Wheat Yield Based on Calcareous Chernozem Fertility
Abstract: The use of polyelement diagnostics and regression analysis for predicting the yield of winter wheat at different stages of vegetation is considered. It has been established that the prediction and integrated assessment of grain yield and quality should be performed with consideration for the balance of macro-and micronutrients in the grain and the aboveground biomass of plants. Possibility of predicting the contents of macro-and micronutrients in wheat grain from the chemical composition of plants at the shooting stage has been revealed. Scientifically based recommendations are presented for managing the grain yield and quality of winter wheat.
- Compaction Properties of Silty Soils in Relation to Soil Texture, Moisture
Content and Organic Matter
Abstract: Soil compaction is recognized as an increasingly challenging problem with regard to root growth and yield reduction in agricultural production in Thailand. The aim of this research was to study the effect of soil texture, moisture content and organic matter on the compaction properties of silty soils. Three soils with different silt contents were studied-loam, silty clay loam and silt loam. The study showed that compacting silt loam soil using the modified Proctor test resulted in a higher bulk density than from the oedometer test at 200 kPa. Statistical analysis showed that soil type and the moisture content significantly affected both the bulk density and penetration resistance. However, organic matter showed a significant effect only on the bulk density. The bulk density increased with increased moisture content. The bulk densities of compacted soils were higher in the order of loam, silt loam and silty clay loam. The penetration resistance seemed to increase with increased silt content. The differences in the bulk density and penetration resistance among these three soils decreased as the moisture content increased. Adding organic matter at 5% by weight to soils resulted in lower bulk densities of the soil using the oedometer test, with reductions of 3.9, 3.8 and 7.7% for loam, silty clay loam and silt loam, respectively. In order to avoid effects on root growth, it is recommended that machines with 200 kPa of tire contact pressure should only work in fields with a moisture content not exceeding 20.27, 18.74 and 17.88% for loam, silt loam and silty clay loam, respectively.
- Can Anthocyanins be Part of the Metal Homeostasis Network in Plant?
Abstract: Anthocyanins are a class of flavonoids with a high level ofdiversification and likely the most studied pathway of secondary metabolism in Plantae.Anthocyanins have raised a growing interest due to the huge variability oftheir chemical structures and the more new anthocyanins are isolated fromplants, the more questions on their evolutionary and ecological meaning theyraise. Antioxidant, photoprotection against high light and UV, defence againstherbivores and pathogens, attraction of pollinator are only some proposedbiological functions for those versatile compounds. Anthocyanins have also beenfound complexed with metal ions either in flower pigments (commelin andprotocyanin) or in leaves and stems. Due to the potentiality of anthocyanins tochelate to metals, their involvement in the attenuation of metal toxicity hasbeen recently proposed. Conversely, the ability of plants to remobilize metalions from stored metal-anthocyanin complexes when plants experience a period oftransient metal shortage has never been investigated before. The aim of this paperis to support the hypothesis that the anthocyanin-metal interactions mightrepresent a further ecological role for these pigments and also thatanthocyanins can be part of the complex network of metal homeostasis in plant.
- GIS Mapping of Basal Stem Rot Disease in Relation to Soil Series Among Oil
Abstract: Basal Stem Rot (BSR) is a disease caused by fungus which affect oil palm tree. This study aims to visualize the geographical distribution of BSR incidence among oil palm smallholders in Selangor using Geographical Information System (GIS) and its relationship to the type of soil series. The geographical distribution of BSR incidence of smallholders in Selangor were mapped using 168 Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinate of possible infected area. The methodology followed in finding the relationship between BSR and soil series by assigning percentage of BSR incidence based on type of soil series. Majority of the BSR incidences were found to be confined to the Selangor-Kangkong (Aeric Tropic Fluvaquent-Typic sulfuric tropic fluvaquent) soil series followed on Peat (Typic Fibric Tropohemist) soil then Kranji (Typic Sulfaquents) soil series and finally the Briah-Organic Clay and Muck (Typic Tropic Fluvaquent) soil series. Distribution pattern of the BSR revealed that most of the incidences were confined along the coastal area which might be due to the planting of oil palm in previous coconut stands. Low pH of Selangor (Aeric Tropic Fluvaquent) and Peat (Typic Fibric Tropohemist) soil series shows a higher BSR incidence while high pH of Kranji (Typic Sulfaquents) and Briah (Typic Tropic Fluvaquent) soil series shows slightly lower BSR incidence. From this study, it can be concluded that the distribution of BSR were mostly confined to the coastal areas which might be due to the planting of oil palm in previous coconut stands rather than any relationship with the type of soil series. This distribution map of BSR incidence can be used to deliver effective extension services regarding BSR to smallholders with a specified target based on location and soil series.
- Introgression the SalTol QTL into the Elite Rice Variety of Russia by
Abstract: The present work is devoted to investigation of the possibility to apply methods of Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS) to introgression the SalTol QTL into genotypes of elite Russian varieties of rice. It was shown that microsatellite markers Rm493, may be effectively used to control transfer the SalTol QTL genes into Russian populations of rice. Based on the highly productive variety “Novator”, we obtained the lines Nov-129 and Nov-148 carrying loci SalTol in homozygous state. The lines Nov-129 and Nov-148 are used as an improved salt tolerance donor source to obtain hybrids tolerance to salinity.
- Effects of Cement Dust on the Physiological Activities of Arabidopsis
Abstract: Air pollution exerts detrimental effects on plant ecosystems and restricts agricultural productivity. Cement dust is considered to be one of the most harmful air pollutants of industrial origin and is a limiting factor for plant growth and productivity. This study aims to uncover the impacts of cement dust on photosynthetic pigments, protein content, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation, lipid per oxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities of Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, Arabidopsis plants were dusted with cement at a rate of 1.5 g per 1-m2 area and measurements were undertaken at 10 days after cement dust application. Treatment with cement dust resulted insignificant reductions in chlorophyll content and total soluble protein accumulation. Neither carotenoid nor starch content of Arabidopsis plants was affected by exposure to cement dust, whereas protease activity was significantly enhanced in cement dust-treated plants. Furthermore, exposure to cement dust significantly enhanced the production of H2O2, a product of oxidative stress, in the leaves of Arabidopsis plants. Moreover, Malondialdehyde (MDA) content, a product of lipid per oxidation, significantly increased after exposure to cement dust. In response to cement dust, activities of scavenging enzymes such as Ascorbate Peroxides (APX), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Guaiacol Peroxidase (GPX) increased, whereas the activity of Catalase (CAT) activity decreased. The present results suggest that cement dust induced oxidative stress in Arabidopsis plants through the generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), induction of lipid peroxidation and up regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities.
- Genetic Relationship among Wild Medicinal Genotypes of Ziziphora canescens
Benth. and Ziziphora tenuior L. and Detection of Genetic Variations
Resulted From Tissue Culture, Salinity and pH Media
Abstract: Ziziphora tenuior L. and Ziziphora canescens Benth. are two of plants which using in folk medicine in the Kalamoon Mountains areas of Syria for cough, stomachache and dysentery. Samples of Ziziphora genotypes were collected from four different locations (Assal Al-Ward, Yabroud, Qarah and Maaraba), 20 RAPD and 12 ISSR primers were used to assess the genetic diversity of 10 genotypes. Amplified fragments were polymorphic with percentage 93.4% and 100% when RAPD and ISSR markers were used respectively. The first cluster depending on RAPD data formed by the grouping of all Ziziphora tenuior L. and the second cluster formed by grouping of all Ziziphora canescens Benth. genotypes. While the first cluster based on ISSR data formed by two genotypes Ziziphora tenuior L. (Maaraba), the second cluster formed by three genotypes Ziziphora tenuior L. and five genotypes Ziziphora canescens Benth. (Assal Al-Ward, Yabroud and Qarah). ISSR markers were recorded a high degree of biodiversity among Ziziphora tenuior L. genotype collected from Maaraba and other genotypes. Genetic stability of Ziziphora tenuior L. and Ziziphora canescens Benth. was confirmed among mother plant and shoots that underwent one to nine cycles of in vitro subculturing by RAPD markers that produced monomorphic bands, while ISSR bands were polymorphic especially in 7,8 and 9 subcultures. Also Genetic variations of Ziziphora canescens Benth. that resulted from salinity (1,2,3,4 and 5 g/L) and pH (7,8 and 9) media were detected, both of RAPD and ISSR bands were polymorphic compared with control except some RAPD primers produced monomorphic bands. Callus from Ziziphora tenuior L. that induction on different media (MS + 1.5 mg/L NAA + 0.5 mg/L Kin) or (MS + 2 mg/L IBA + 0.5 mg/L Kin) showed high variations compare with micropropagated plants from apical mirestem on media (MS + 1 mg/L Kin + 0.1 mg/L NAA).
- Profitability Analysis of Small-Scale Beekeeping Firms by Using Life Cycle
Costing (LCC) Methodology
Abstract: Increasingly, beekeeping sector attracts attention dueto its potentialities linked to several aspects: Environmental benefits,commercial value and of promotion of rural development. Indeed, among thesmall-scale agro-food chains, beekeeping plays a significant role, especiallyin rural context, where the diversification of farms activities can be providea relevant integration of income. However, frequently, apicultural activitiesare characterized by several weaknesses ascribable to the fragmentedproduction, difficulty of marketing actions and lack of training of operators.These problems are particularly present in Calabria region in South Italywhere, anyway, thanks to several suitable climatic conditions, high qualitystandards of honey are obtained. So, in order to achieve the efficiency offirms and to improve the business beekeeping production it is necessary to arrange a production system that takes intoaccount the real availability of material resources. The economic behavior ofbeekeepers and their investment choices are fundamental to accomplish asuccessful business that, more and more today, needs to high productivity oflabor and adequate equipment, guaranteed by optimization of production factors.This paper has a two-fold purpose: Firstly, it aims to conduct an economicanalysis of beekeeping activities, as significant small-scale agri-food chainin southern Italy, by analyzing the production, processing and packaging ofhoney in farm realities of Calabrian region. The second objective of this paperis to evaluate the profitability of investments realized in beekeeping firms.For this purpose, a joint use of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) methodology andeconomic indicators was applied in order to analyze in detail cash outflowslinked to each phase of honey production system (planning, management anddisposal) and to identify key elements that can improve the farm management.Results showed the economic viability of the investment and a suitable level ofprofitability. Furthermore, the analysis carried out confirms thesemethodologies as useful tools to support investment choices and to improveeconomic performances of management strategies of agro-food producers.
- Features of Microelement Composition of Ordinary Chernozems of the Azov
and Lower Don Regions
Abstract: Ordinary chernozems in the Azov Plain have a low backgroundcontent of mobile zinc compounds, a sufficient supply with copper and anincreased content of lead compounds. This specificity of the regionalmicroelement composition is due to the high carbonate content in the soilprofiles, the natural enrichment of littoral geochemical landscapes and theeffect of the significant sources of microelement emission (Mariupolmetallurgical enterprises, Novocherkassk regional power station, etc.). Thehigh buffer capacity of soils in the Azov region significantly mitigates thenegative effects of pollution.
- The Influence of Mineral Fertilizers on the Chemical Composition of
Verdurous Masses of Forder Crops
Abstract: This article presents the results of sorghum and pearl millet studies conducted in order to develop the technology of their cultivation as a new forage crops for livestock in arid areas of Kazakhstan. The article presents data on the effect of seeding rates and term of sowing on seeds germination and survival of plants and a crop of verdurous masses of sorghum and pearl millet against the background of watering. The optimal seeding rate and sowing of sorghum and pearl millet in saline soils of rice irrigation systems are determined in terms of the ecological crisis in Aral Sea region, Kazakhstan.
- Evaluation of Inbred Lines and Hybrid Maize (Zea mays L.) for Tolerance to
Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth in the Guinea Savanna Agro-Ecological Zone
Abstract: The study was conducted at the experimental field of the Savanna Agricultural Research Institute (SARI) to screen maize inbred and hybrid lines for Striga tolerance. Maize seeds of hybrid and inbred lines were collected from the West and Central African Maize Collaborative Network (WECAMAN), Boake, La Cote d’Ivoire, for the experiment. The experimental design used was the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with fourteen treatments replicated four times for the hybrids. For the inbred lines, there were twelve treatments replicated three times. The results of the hybrid experiment indicated that varieties including 9914-14 STR, 8425-8 STR, 9925-49 STR, 9916-11 STR, 9925-3 STR, CLH105 STR and CLH109 STR were comparatively better off than the others in terms of field weight and tolerance to Striga. For the inbred lines, the results indicated that GH110-5, 991228-1 and 991233-1 performed better than the rest of the varieties in terms of yield components such as plant height, days to 50% pollen shed, days to 50% silking and Striga plant rating. On Striga infested Agricultural lands, farmers can therefore use cultivars or varieties like, 9914-14 STR, 8425-8 STR, 9925-49 STR, 9916-11 STR, 9925-3 STR, CLH105 STR and CLH109 STR or their crosses in order to improve yield and hence maximize profit.
- Effect of Endophytic Treatments on Plant Growth Performance and Disease
Incidences in Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril) Cultivar JS-335 against
Challenge Inoculation with R. solani
Abstract: Endophytes could be efficient biological control agentin sustainable crop production and offer unique opportunity for crop protectionand biological control. Present study was carried out to investigate theeffects of indigenous endophytic microorganisms Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp., Burkholderia sp.Streptomyces sp., Actinoplanes sp., Alternaria sp. AndFusarium sp. on plant growth and disease control against challengeinoculation with Rhizoctonia solani in soybean (Glycine max (L.)Merril). It was observed that treatment with endophytes significantly (p<0.05)improved the seed germination, root, shoot length, Seedling Vigour Index (SVI),root nodulation in soybean. The significant increments were recorded fresh anddry weight, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) uptake and seed yield(p<0.05). The disease incidences were reduced significantly over control(p<0.05). Thus, present studies indicate that utilization of indigenousendophytes may exert more favorable effects on plant health, disease controlwhich ultimately will enhance crop productivity.
- Estimated Acrylamide Intake from Coffee Consumption in Latin America
Abstract: The presence of acrylamide in foods such as coffee canpose risks to human health. Coffee consumption and production in Latin Americahave increased in recent years. According to the FAO, world coffee consumptionis divided into five groups of countries according to average yearly per capitaconsumption: (i) between 8.0 kg and 12 kg; (ii) between 4.1 kg and 8.0 kg; (iii)between 2.4 kg and 4.5 kg; (iv) between 0.8 kg and 2.4 kg; and (v) less than0.8 kg. In this work, the countries of Latin America are divided into threegroups according to annual per capita coffee consumption: group 1: between 4.1kg and 8.0 kg (Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Costa Rica); group 2: between2.4 kg and 4.5 kg (Guyana, French Guyana, Honduras, Suriname, Uruguay andVenezuela); and group 3: between 0.8 kg and 2.4 kg (Bolivia, Chile, Cuba, ElSalvador, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama,Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic). There are greatdifferences in the consumption of acrylamide-forming foods among populationsfrom different countries. The literature shows a range from 0.5 to 4.21 µg ofacrylamide per 300 mL of coffee and the World Health Organization recommends amaximum daily limit for acrylamide intake of 1 µg/kg bw. Thus, coffee is abeverage that contributes greatly to acrylamide intake in almost all populationgroups. From the calculated data on acrylamide intake in Latin America, it waspossible to estimate the daily intake in the region’s countries. According tothe maximum limit set by the WHO of 1 µg acrylamide per day per bw, for peoplein the countries of group 1, coffee makes a large contribution to the intake ofacrylamide. Thus, there should be focus on reducing the levels of acrylamide infoods, since they are the predominant sources of this substance for somepopulations.
- Spatial Pattern of Natural Spread of Rice False Smut (Ustilaginoidea
virens) Disease in Fields
Abstract: Pattern of disease spreadprovides improved knowledge on how the pathogen introduces itself and interactswith environment in fields and expresses as a disease. It is especiallysignificant when epidemiology of a disease, such as Rice False Smut (RFSm), isunclearly understood. Not reported before, this study attempted an analysis ofspatial pattern of natural spread of RFSm in nine fields in an intensive riceecosystem in Bangladesh. Both conventional and specialized statistical methodswere applied in the analysis. Results showthat the spread of the disease was not similar between and within the fieldsand even some fields were almost disease free. RFSm recorded aggregation inspaces in most of the fields, but the location of this aggregation differedbetween the fields. Symptom recorded on panicles in regenerated tillers fromharvested main crop (otherwise known as ratoons). The disease tended to beprominent towards proximity of drainage channels. The probability of occurringone diseased tiller per hill was calculated as 73% and cumulative probabilityof four or less smut balls per diseased panicle as little over 60%. This studyestablishes soil as the absolute dominant source of initiation of the epidemic.The analysis did not find evidence of any long- or short-distance primary and/or secondary sources ofinfection. It is concluded that the disease management be directed specific tothe fields at risk. It suggests development of a soil testing tool forquantifying inoculum potential in a field to ascertain the risk. With thediscovery of symptom on ratoons, this study highlights the need for fresh thinking onidentifying the pathway of entry of the pathogen into the plant.
- Evaluating the Potential for Development of Vegetable Nursery Industry:
Analysis in an Important Vegetable Region in Italy
Abstract: Nursery industry has a considerable importance in thevalue chain’ building of vegetable companies. Its importance increases in acountry like Italy, where vegetable productions in open field and in greenhousecontribute significantly to the creation of income and employment and to thesocio-economic support of entire geographic areas. However, this sector isunderpowered, if compared to the potential expressed by the vegetableproduction, considering that technical, economic and market literature suggeststhe opportunity to extend the use of transplantation as an alternative to thedirect seeding in order to achieve environmental and commercial benefits. Thiswork was both the result of a meta-analysis and a direct survey and aims todetermine an estimate of demand of nursery industry in Sicily, a region thatintercepts approximately 31% of national investments in protected cultivationand provides the basis for evaluating the activation potential of newinvestments, considering technical legislative and market aspects and thesupply chain integration.
- Factor Affecting Technical Efficiency of Smallholder Rubber Farming in
Abstract: With the increase of rubberproduction, Para rubber farmers in Northeastern Thailand have faced the limitedphysical and socio-economic conditions that have given rise to the improvementof technical efficiency. This study investigated the technical efficiency ofPara rubber farmers. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used tocollect cross sectional data on 300 farmers. The data was analyzed usingdescriptive statistics and stochastic frontier analysis. The results revealedthat the variance of gamma and sigma squared of the frontier productionfunction was significant at a level of p = 0.01. All inputs (exceptchemical fertilizer) are major factors that have influenced the changes in theoutput of Para rubber production. The mean technical efficiency index for thefarmers was found to be 0.573 and the efficiency factors, which were comprisedof age of farmers, education, gender and age of the rubber trees, were found tobe the significant factors that affected the variation in technical efficiencyamong the farmers. The policy implication of the study is that technicalefficiency of Para rubber could be increased by 42.7% by improving the use ofavailable resources. Thus, the government should give more education aboutrubber production, including tapping trees and managing farms because thiseducation will impact the knowledge that can be applied to farming techniquesin order to enhance efficiency.
- Physiological and Biochemical Evaluation of Fe-Efficiency in Fe-Deficient
Abstract: Iron (Fe) deficiency is prevalent particularly incalcareous soils of arid and semiarid regions. The present study aimed toinvestigate the response of eight local maize genotypes to Fe deficiency. Inaddition, a Fe- efficient (WF9) and a Fe-inefficient (ys1) indicator genotypeswere used in this study. All genotypes were grown in growth chamber for 21 daysin two levels of Fe, sufficient [+Fe (FNS) = 20 µM Fe EDTA] and deficient [-Fe (FNS)= 2 µM Fe EDTA] Fe supply. Shoots dry weight, Fe concentration and uptake inshoots, active iron concentration, peroxidase activity and cholorophyll contentwere determined and their validities as screening parameters were discussed.Generally, genotype (WF9) as the Fe efficient indicator and genotype (34) werethe less affected by Fe-deficiency. Genotype (ys1) as the Fe inefficientindicator and genotype (62) were highly affected when grown in the nutrientsolution with the deficient Fe supply. The present study emphasize that shootdry weight, Fe uptake, active Fe content, chlorophyll content and peroxidaseactivity could be used for evaluating the present maize genotypes for Feefficiency.
- Field Evaluation of Sugarcane Orange Rust for First Clonal Stage of the CP
Cultivar Development Program
Abstract: Consistent development of high-yielding sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) cultivars with resistance or tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses is critical to commercial sugarcane production. Currently, orange rust (caused by Puccinia kuehnii E.J. Butler) is a big challenge for the sugarcane production in Florida, USA. A better understanding of sugarcane genotypic variability in response to orange rust disease will help optimize breeding and selection strategies for disease resistance. Orange rust ratings, scaled from non-infection (0) to severe infection (4) with intervals of 0.5, were recorded from genotypes at the first clonal selection stage (Stage I) of the Canal Point sugarcane breeding and cultivar development program in Florida. Data were collected from all 14,272 and 12,661 genotypes and four replicated reference cultivars, CP 78-1628, CP 80-1743, CP 88-1762 and CP 89-2143, in July-August 2012 and 2013, respectively. Mean rust rating, % of rust infection and rust severity in each family (i.e., progeny of the cross from a female and male) and female parent and their Coefficients of Variation (CV) within and among families (females) were estimated. Results indicated that considerable variation exists in rust tolerance among families or females. The families or females for their progenies with the high susceptibility or resistance to orange rust were identified and ranked. The findings of this study are useful for evaluating sugarcane crosses and parents for rust disease and can help breeders use desirable parents for crossing and improve genotypic resistance to orange rust in the sugarcane breeding programs.
- Assessing of the Competitiveness Level in the Industry using the
Correlation Analysis on the Example of Agriculture of the Republic of
Tatarstan, Russian Federation
Abstract: This study presents the resultsof evaluation of the competitiveness of farmers and the agricultural sector in theregion as a whole. Traditional approach of estimating monopolization level usesHerfindahl-Hirshman and Lerner indexes. But this methods not applicable in caseof inhomogeneity of product in industry or when firms manufacture different typeof products. The evaluation was performed by using the instruments of fuzzy settheory and the correlation analysis. This technique allows us to estimate the degreeof monopolization of the industry and its sub-sectors, as well as to hold a comparativeanalysis and to identify trends of development. Technique consists several steps.Determine the maximum amount of product produced by any company in the sector inthe period and the percentage of the volume of production from which the companycan be named as leader. Fuzzy numbers of leadership are calculated for each firm’sproduct. If the company produces more than one product, the fuzzy numbers for eachproduct are aggregated into one by using the fuzzy operation "or". Dependingon the percentage level in the industry will change and the number of companiesthat are recognized as leaders. Simulations proved that correlation between percentagelevel and number of leaders in industry depends on market structure: Monopoly, oligopolyor pure competition. Correlation coefficient tends from -1 for the monopolized industriesto 0 for pure competition. We provided computer simulation to calculate the boundariesof correlation coefficient to identify types of market structure. The analysis washeld according to the industrial and economic activity of all 509 agricultural enterprisesand 13 types of products in Republic Tatarstan of Russian Federation during 2011-2013.The obtained results are comparable with the results of the calculation the Herfindahl-Hirschmanindex for each product. However, the proposed technique allows us to make a generalassessment of industry’s competitiveness. The technique has an applied significancein the development of government support measures.
- Profitability and Financial Sustainability Analysis in Italian Aquaculture
Firms by Application of Economic and Financial Margins
Abstract: Agricultural Firms operating inthe aquaculture sector in Italy are often characterized by high investment andhigh capital intensity. In fact, these companies need to develop structures andbreeding systems to generate adequate cash flow to repay their investment infixed assets. In addition, the biological cycle of breeding further extends theneed for capital, in this case to finance working capital. There is thereforeoften a mismatch between the economic and financial cycles, wherein profitmargins may differ from financial margins. In this way, such companies have aneconomic advantage but no sustainable financial cycle. In these cases, severalcrisis may force companies to default, especially when firns are unable tocover debt repayment. This difficulty is particularly present in Italy, whereaquaculture firms are often Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and thereforehave greater difficulty than large companies accessing the capital market. Ourresearch evaluates the cost effectiveness and financial sustainability of asample of forty firms operating in the aquaculture sector in Italy, within atimespan of five years, through comparative analysis of the economic andfinancial margins. The analysis shows that such firms are capital intensive (TA/VPof median value is 1.16%). Financial debt emerges as the first source ofcapital then increasing companies’ financial dependence through credit systemsand borrowing costs. Firms have a particular absorption in the NWC cycle, withI_DAYS being 143.29 days, AR_DAYS being 72.75 and 145.51 AP_DAYS expressingfinancial operating cycle (I_DAYS + AR_DAYS - AP_DAYS) with a length of 70.53days. Profit margins, even if they are correlated with financial margins, are loweron average. The research highlights that economic model worst explains FCFE (F= 0.011 and adjusted R2 = 0.803), while the financial model bestexplains FCFE (F = 0.000 and adjusted R2 = 0.922). Our research willbe further developed through analyzing cooperatives, unincorporatedpartnerships and sole proprietorships. It may also be useful to undertake acomparative analysis of aquaculture firms operating in other countries of theMediterranean basin.
- FLYER: A Simple Yet Robust Model for Estimating Yield Loss from Rice False
Smut Disease (Ustilaginoidea virens)
Abstract: Rice False Smut (RFSm) is presently an internationallyimportant fugal disease of rice. While the Yield Loss (YL) from this disease isreported in many countries, there exists no tool to instantly estimate the YLby visual field inspection. This study developed a simple model, FLYER, for this purpose. The model is run by twoinputs: (i) fraction of productive but diseased tillers in a field and (ii)averaged number of smut balls present in the diseased panicles. FLYER wasdeveloped using data from Bangladesh, India and Japan. The driving algorithm ofthe model, the yield reduction in a diseased panicle as a function of number ofsmut balls present in the panicle, was validated with additional data fromBangladesh and Japan. When tested with independent data from fields infectednaturally by RFSm, FLYER closely estimated the yield loss (YL, %) againstobserved datasets from Bangladesh (Root Mean Squared Deviation (RMSD) =1.15% YL), Egypt (RMSD = 1.65% YL) and India (RMSD = 1.68% YL). Thismodel could contribute to rapid assessment of regional and variety-specificyield loss and strategic management of the disease on a field-by-field basis.
- Control of Subterranean Termite Coptotermes Curvignathus (Isoptera:
Rhinotermitidae) by Entomopathogen Metarhizium Anisopliae Var. Anisopliae
Cultured in Liquid State Fermentation
Abstract: Solidstate fermentation has been used for mass production of Metarhiziumanisopliaemany years ago. However, solid state fermentation was timeconsuming, costly and unable to produce in large amount. We examined thesuitability of liquid state fermentation to mass produce M. anisopliae and theeffect of culture medium on fungal pathogenicity. Three different liquid mediumselected for this study was Jenkins medium, Leland medium and MPOB medium. Thefungus was cultured for 5 days to examine the growth rate. Yield of submergedconidia in different medium was assessed on day 3. Fungal virulence was bioassayedon termite Coptotermes curvignathus. Theresults indicated that Jenkins medium yielded significantly lower growth rateand dry weight (1.472 mg mL-1), but the fungus exhibitedhighest virulence (100% mortality on day 4) among the 3 medium studied. MPOBmedium had the highest growth rate and DW yield (1.961 mg mL-1) but achieved 100% mortalityonly on day 6. The LC50 result showed Jenkins medium yielded themost virulent fungus culture compared to Leland medium and MPOB medium.
- A Review on Biochemical Mechanism of Fatty Acids Synthesis and Oil
Deposition in Brassica and Arabidopsis
Abstract: Oilseeds crops provide edible oil for humansâ diet or oil for industrial purpose. Triacylglycerols (TAG) are the main components in seed oil which is formed by the esterification of fatty acids to glycerol back bone. In plants, fatty acid biosynthesis process initiated in plastid and ended in the endoplasmic reticulum. A series of biochemical steps are involved in TAG formation and many of the genes involved in this process have been identified. The quality of seed oil depends on the type of fatty acids esterified to glycerol. Finally, the TAGs are stored as lipid in seeds. The biosynthesis process of fatty acids and oil formation in seeds is reviewed in this manuscript.