American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences
[SJR: 0.347] [H-I: 15] [10 followers] Follow
Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1557-4989 - ISSN (Online) 1557-4997
Published by Science Publications [28 journals]
- Determinants Factors of Agricultural Extension Services Performance and
Impacts on Farmers' Behavior
Abstract: Agricultural extension plays an important role in improving the quality of human resources, also it function as a learning process for the main actors so that farmer will be able to help and organize themselves in accessing market information, technology, capital and other resources. Problem that arise among stakeholders have been widely debated. Since then, determinant factor of Agricultural Extension Services (BPP) performance should be identified and how it will impact on farmers behaviour. There is a strong assumption that, BPP performance will affect agricultural development, but it is very difficult to determine by factors. The research objectives were to analyze determinants of BPP performance and impact on farmers behaviour. This research was conducted in South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia by selecting 109 BPP based on Slovin Method. The analysis analized with Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using LISREL software. The results showed that development of BPP; management BPP, human resources, assisted farmers, resource of BPP, adaptation of BPP are positively affect Action Program of BPP. In addition, these determinants affect farmers behaviour in terms of farmers competency and participation through indirectly action program. This leads to argue that in order to improve farmers behaviour (improving competency and participation), it is needed to step up performance of BPP (making action program properly, in other words) through extension program improvement, groups activity plan and operational cost management.
- The Single and Combined Effect of MC4R and GH Genes on Productive Traits
Abstract: The aim of our work is to identify the single and combined effect of MC4R and GH polymorphism genes on growth and reproduction traits of pigs. The study was carried out on 204 crossbred F1 females (?Landrace ? ?Large White) of the Breeding Farm in Russia. The analyzed productive traits were: The number of Days to 100-kg (Days to 100 kg), Length of Body (LB), Backfat Thickness (BF) and Number of piglets Born Alive (NBA). The G1426A of MC4R and G316A of GH polymorphism were determined by PCR-RFLP method. The results showed a significant additive effect of MC4R (G1426A) on all analyzed traits and dominant effect on LB and NBA. With better Days to 100 kg associated genotype AA/MC4R, but the best indicators LB, BF and NBA installed for genotype GG/MC4R. The single effect of GH was determined to BF (dominant effect) and NBA (additive effect). The effect of genotype AG/GH on BF was observed in combination with genotypes of MC4R. In our studies we observed only six combinations of MC4R and GH genes instead of nine theoretically expected. The detected genotypes were following: AA/MC4R - AG/GH, AA/MC4R - GG/GH, AG/MC4R - AA/GH, AG/MC4R - AG/GH, AG/MC4R - GG/GH, GG/MC4R - GG/GH. The combination effect is defined for genotype AA/MC4R with genotypes of GH. The best means for all studied productivity traits were observed for the combination AA/MC4R-AG/GH. The combined effect of genotype AG/MC4R with genotypes of GH was not identified, but it was observed independently influence of MC4R on Days to 100 kg and NBA and GH on BF. The genotype GG/MC4R was detected only in combination with GG/GH genotype, which does not allow evaluating the combination effect of other GH genotypes.
- The Occurrence of Entomopathogenic Fungi on Mineral and Peat Soils in
Abstract: The aims of this study are to isolate and identify Entomopathogenic Fungi (EPF) from mineral and peat soils in relation with the soil physico-chemical parameters. The mineral soil was sampled from the MPOB Research Station Hulu Paka in Terengganu, whereas peat soil was sampled from the MPOB Research Station Teluk Intan in Perak. Isolation of these fungi was carried out using a selective medium. Morphological characteristics of fungi were studied by observing the mycelium and conidia grown on agar plates using a light microscope. Soil physico-chemical parameters such as pH, water content, carbon and nitrogen content were also determined. Two species of EPF isolated from both types of soils were identified as Isaria amoenerosea and Metarhizium anisopliae. On potato dextrose agar, the colony of I. amoenerosea was pink in colour and slow growing with floccose mycelium which producing conidiophores with 3 to 4 phialides. The conidia were subglobose or irregular shapes between 2.0-3.0 µm long × 1.7-2.0 µm wide. The colony of M. anisopliae was whitish yellow and turned to dark green when matured; slow growing with floccose mycelium. The conidia were cylindrical with the dimension ranging from 6.0-7.0 µm long × 2.0-2.8 µm wide. The result shows that the occurrence of I. amoenerosea was more dominant than M. anisopliae. In mineral soil, out of 30 samples, I. amoenerosea was isolated from 25 soil samples (83%), while the M. anisopliae was only found in 15 samples (50%). In peat soil, out of 36 samples collected, 26 samples (72%) were found with I. amoenerosea, while the fungus M. anisopliae was isolated from eight samples (22%). In this study, the occurrence of EPF on mineral soil was higher than from peat soil, which was possibly due to low water content, high soil temperature and low C/N ratio.
- Effect of Sticky Trap Color and Height on the Capture of Adult Oriental
Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Chili
Abstract: Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a destructive pest to many major crops, including chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L). The insect can cause yield loss up to 100% in the absence of any control measures. One control tactic commonly used by pepper growers to control the fruit fly is sticky trap to capture the adults. The purpose of the current study was to elucidate the effect of trap color and height on the fly capture. The results showed that yellow trap was consistently the most attractive trap amongst the other trap colors tested with an overall average of 62.6 adults per trap during the study. The second most attractive traps were white and green traps with overall averages of 45.2 and 40 adults per trap, respectively. The attractiveness levels of the red and blue traps were comparable each other with overall averages of 29.4 and 25.4 adults per trap, respectively. The least attractive trap was black trap with an overall average of 17.1 adults per trap, which was significantly lower than the other trap colors. In addition, traps set up at 25 and 50 cm above the ground captured significantly more adults (187.8 and 171.9 per trap, respectively) compared to those set up at 75 and 100 cm above the ground (60.8 and 37.1 per trap, respectively). When the combination of the color and height of the traps were analyzed, the yellow, white and green traps set up at 25 and 50 cm above the ground caught the highest numbers of adult fruit flies and they were not significantly different each other. Thus, these combinations should be recommended to the pepper growers to control the insect in their plantations.
- Validation of SSR markers associated with Submergence Tolerance in Rice
(Oryza sativa L.)
Abstract: The present work is devoted to the validation of SSR markers associated with submergence tolerance (Sub1A) QTLs in rice. It was shown that only microsatellite markers RM 7481 differentiates donor lines and recipient variety. Based upon the results of DNA analysis with the marker of the RM 7481 of the F2-plants, the 14 homozygotes by the locus Sub1A, 40 samples carried Sub1A in the heterozygous state, 22 plants inherited only alleles from the recipient variety Novator were identified. Survival analysis of parental and hybrid plants (21 days after germination) showed that the most submergence tolerance forms were donor lines of Sub1A loci and F2-plants carrying Sub1A locus in homozygous and heterozygous state according to the data of molecular genetic analysis. Thus, it was shown that RM 7481 microsatellite marker is effective for breeding of submergence tolerance rice using Russian elite cultivars.
- An Empirical Analysis of Supply Response of Rubber in Malaysia
Abstract: Supply response of rubber to changes in economic incentives is analysed using co-integration approach. Time series data is taken for the period 1990 to 2014 and the vector error correction model framework has been applied. The empirical results confirmed the existence of a unique long-run equilibrium relationship among planted acreage, the relative price of rubber and price of fertilizer. Further, the estimates suggested that rubber supply is significantly influenced by the relative price of rubber and the price of fertilizer. The estimated short- and long-run elasticities of acreage with respect to relative price are respectively 0.04 and 0.77, while the short- and long-run elasticities of acreage with respect to fertilizer price are -0.20 and -0.28 respectively. The study recommends the design of an appropriate economic incentive structure to stimulate output and hence the income of farmers.
- Biophysic Factors Related to a Local Famous Sweet Potato Variety (Ipomoea
batatas L.) Production: A Study Based on Local Knowledge and Field Data in
Abstract: Cilembu sweet potato is one of the famous local sweet potatoes in Indonesia. The aim of this study is to determine biophysic factors related to Cilembu sweet potato production based on local knowledge and field data. The research was conducted between September 2014 and October 2015. The methods used simple analytical hierarchy processes and selection guide of land use requirements for local knowledge exploration and Pearson correlation for biophysic factors related to Cilembu production. The samples of study include expert farmers, sweet potatoes and soil samples were selected using purposive sampling technique. The samples of soil and sweet potato were collected during harvest from each cultivation field. The result showed that soil and climate are the dominant environmental factors affecting Cilembu sweet potato production based on farmer perceptions. Correlation analysis confirms the farmers' perception analysis and the field data shows that soil and climate factors have significance correlation to yield and sugar content of Cilembu production. This study is useful for preliminary stage of local varieties land suitability criteria development, more so in the situation of limited data and expertise on the topic.
- Evaluation of Antiviral Activity of Different Medicinal Plants against
Newcastle Disease Virus
Abstract: Newcastle Disease (ND) is a highly contagious viral disease that has a tremendous negative impact on the poultry industry worldwide. Plant extracts were prepared from five different medicinal plants and applied against Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) to evaluate the antiviral replication in Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF) chicken embryos. Three dilutions from each plant extract were prepared and mixed with a fixed titer (104 EID50/mL) of virulent NDV strain Herts 33. The mix was inoculated into nine-day-old SPF chicken embryos that were monitored for five days. Real-time PCR and hemagglutination tests were conducted to evaluate the activity of NDV and its viral RNA titer. Some plant extracts showed a complete inhibition of NDV evidenced by the absence of embryo deaths, the absence of HA titer and viral RNA in the allantoic fluid. These plant extracts were from Moringa peregrina (leaves), Acacia cyanophylla (leaves), Eucalyptus camaldulensis (fruits) and Pistacia atlantica (leaves and stems). Other plant extracts showed partial inhibition of NDV, such as Ceratonia siliqua (leaves) and Eucalyptus camaldulensis (leaves). This experiment shows the potential of using medicinal plants as antiviral agents.
- Using the Environmental Kuznets Curve to Study the Mutual Effects between
CO2 Emissions and Economic Growth in Jordan
Abstract: This study analyzes the dynamic relationship between economic growth and CO2 emissions in Jordan using the Environmental Kuznets Curve. The study looks at the direction of the causal relationship both in the long and short-run to determine the mutual effects between the two variables during the 1980-2010 period. Using the ARDL bound testing approach and the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM), the study shows that the results are consistent with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. Furthermore, the study shows the existence of a bidirectional causal relationship, both in the long and short run, between economic growth and CO2 emissions. Based on that, the authors conclude that environmental issues must be taken into consideration when formulating economic policies, as well as using environmentally friendly technologies in the manufacturing and transportation sectors.
- Development and Cultivation of Local Kidney Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L)
Through Breeding to use Multi gamma Irradiation Technique (Nuclear)
Abstract: Mutation on the all species of plant were generally caused by gamma or multi gamma radiation sources. The largest effect of that was occurred on chromosome and genetic factor, specially on structure and composition of chromosome and Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid (DNA). This case can be used for breeding of several important plants in Agricultural science. The objectives of this research is to develop of local kidney bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L) that tolerant to dry condition and high production. Multi gamma radiation and selection are the main methods to use in this research and other methods comprised of observation/survey, sampling, comparison, analyzing and interpretation. The number of mutant varieties of kidney bean (superior seed of mutant) obtained in this research based on selection method are ten mutant varieties. The growth percentage rate, protein content of control and mutant variety of kidney bean were estimated respectively of 97, 22.54 and 24.21%. The production of mutant kidney bean was between 3.97 tons/ha up to 5.28 tons/ha and the average production was 4.71 tons/ha. The average production of control was 2.60 tons/ha, in order that the production was significantly increased by 44.80%.
- The Resistance Evaluation of Dry Subtropics Brown Soils to Heavy Metal and
Oil Contamination by Biological Indicators
Abstract: Contamination of brown calcareous soils with Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and oil leads to deterioration of their biological properties. There is a reduction in activity of catalase and dehydrogenase, an abundance of Azotobacter genus bacteria, cellulolytic activity and the length of radish roots. As a rule, there is a direct relationship between the content of contaminant in the soil and degree of deterioration of biological properties of the soil. According to the degree of negative impact on the biological properties of brown soil heavy metals form the following series: Cr > Cu > = Pb > = Ni. The pattern that chromium is more toxic and copper, lead and nickel have less and similar to each other degree of toxicity was established earlier in research conducted by the same method, with other soils in southern Russia. According to the degree of resistance brown soils are close to chestnut soils, they are less stable than chernozems and more stable than brown semi desert soils. Regional standards of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and oil content in brown soils of Ciscaucasia dry subtropics Ciscaucasia are proposed.
- Phenomenon of Thrips (Thysanoptera) Attack on Chili Plant (Capsicum annuum
Abstract: Phenomenon of Thrips (Thysanoptera) Attacks on Chili Plant (Capsicum annuum L.). Thrips are insects that damage agricultural plants such as chili plants (Capsicum annuum L.). The attacks which was caused by the thrips starting from mild to severe attacks. In Jambi province there was not any report about the attacks phenomenon of thrips on chili plants. The research aimed to analyze the phenomenon of thrips attack on chili plant. The study was conducted by observing the attacks of thrips on the leaves chili plant. First, observations were done on 160 chili plants in the infested cage thrips which obtained from chili plantation, cucumbers and squash. Observations were carried out at the part of affected leaves, color, shape and location of the attack, leaf structure, chlorophyll content and the content of nitrogen, fats and carbohydrates of affected leaves. Besides, tests Elisa was also done on the affected leaves. Second, observations of thrips population and the attack percentage, as well as the abundance of predators were performed on 400 chili plants in the field experiment in Jambi University. The thrips attack was allowed to happen naturally without spraying plants by insecticide. Observations in captivity found that thrips attack occurs on the upper leaf surface, occurs at the base, the middle and the edges with silvery attack. Thrips attacks on chili plant lower chlorophyll content and damage the structure of the leaf cells. Levels of nitrogen, fats and carbohydrates of chili leaf which attacked by thrips were not significantly different from control leaves at the level of 5%. Elisa test results showed that the leaves were attacked by the thrips which derived from chili plantation and host plant do not contain Tospovirus. Results of research in the field shows that the population of thrips, the percentage of the attack and the abundance of insect predators of thrips fluctuate and the highest is at the age of 8 mst chili plants. There are 15 species of predatory thrips were found in the field experiment of Jambi University. The members of Sphecidae, Araneidae, Theridiidae and Coccinellidae were found mostly.
- Forecasting of Banana Production in Bangladesh
Abstract: In Bangladesh, banana is a very popular fruit and cultivated almost everywhere round the year. Rank of Bangladesh is 14 among the top 20 banana producing countries in the world. It is a commercial fruit, but in Bangladesh it is grown in limited area commercially. The demand of banana is increasing day by day in Bangladesh. Thus, this paper attempts to identify the Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model that could be used to forecast the production of banana in Bangladesh. This study considered the secondary data of yearly banana production in Bangladesh over the period 1972 to 2013. The best selected ARIMA model to forecast the banana productions in Bangladesh is ARIMA (0,2,1). The graphical comparison between the observed and forecasted banana production indicate the fitted model behaved statistically well during and beyond the estimation period.
- Thermodynamic Model of Calcium Carbonate System of Soil Solution
Abstract: Carbonate system determines the basic processes of soil formation and evolution. The aim of research was to show the importance of chemical Carbonate Calcium Equilibrium (CCE) in soil solutions. CCE causes a degree of soil solution’s saturation with CaCO3 as a factor of carbonate geochemical cycle. CCE depends on chemical composition, pH, Eh, buffering properties of liquid phase, dissolution, migration, precipitation of carbonates in the soil profile and landscape, ion exchange processes at the interface of soil solid and liquid phases. At high ionic force in soil solution are formed electrically neutral ion pairs ????30; CaSO40, MgCO30, MgSO40 and charged ion pairs CaHCO3+, MgHCO3+, NaCO3-, NaSO4-, CaOH+, MgOH+. The object of research-saline soil of dry steppe zone of Southern Russia. This soil is moderately thick, solonized, humus 2.6%, physical clay 47.7%, clay 29.5%, CaCO3 0.15% (up to 3-10% at the depth of 0,8-1,5 m), pH = 7.8-9.0, readily soluble salts in soil solution from 0.2% in 0-5 cm to 3.5% in 70-80 cm, exchangeable cations: Ca2+ – 182 mmol kg-1, Mg2+ – 65 mmol kg-1, Na+ – 34 mmol kg-1. The soil solution was extracted from soil layers at the depth of 0-150 cm. Ion’s composition of the soil solution was determined using standard analytical methods. The mathematical model shows the real state of associated ions at high ionic strength of saline soil solution. On the basis of algorithm CCE a computer program was developed The concentration of free and associated ion form is a result of iteration beginning from analytical ion concentration considering ion material balance, linear interpolation of equilibrium constants, method of ionic pairs, laws of: Initial concentration preservation, operating masses of equilibrium system. Concentration constants of ion pair dissociation were calculated following the law of operating masses. Were determined a quantity of ion free form and the coefficient of ion association γe as a ratio of ion’s free form to its analytical content γe = Cass/Can. Because of association of ions, which differs in soil layers: The chemical equilibrium in soil solution determines high mobility of carbonates, transformation of solution, carbon sink from soil.
- Oil and Fatty Acids in Seed of Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and Some
Related and Unrelated Solanum Species
Abstract: The seed oil content of 305 genebank accessions of eggplant (Solanum melongena), five related species (S. aethiopicum L., S. incanum L., S. anguivi Lam., S. linnaeanum Hepper and P.M.L. Jaeger and S. macrocarpon L.) and 27 additional Solanums pecies, was determined by NMR. Eggplant (S. melongena) seed oil content varied from 17.2% (PI 63911317471) to 28.0% (GRIF 13962) with a mean of 23.7% (std. dev = 2.1) across the 305 samples. Seed oil content in other Solanum species varied from 11.8% (S. capsicoides-PI 370043) to 44.9% (S. aviculare-PI 420414). Fatty acids were also determined by HPLC in genebank accessions of S. melongena (55), S. aethiopicum (10), S. anguivi (4), S. incanum (4) and S. macrocarpon (2). In all samples examined, the predominant fatty acid was linoleic acid (18:2) followed by oleic acid (18:1) and palmitic acid (16:0). Levels of linoleic acid ranged from 57% (S. aethiopicum-PI 194166) to 74.5% (S. anguivi-PI 183357). Oleic and palmitic acid levels ranged from 11.3% (S. anguivi-PI 183357) to 25.2% (S. aethiopicum-PI 194166) and 8.4% (S. melongena-PI 115507) to 11.2% (S. melongena-PI 600912), respectively. Oil extracted from seed of S. melongena cv. Black Beauty had a pour point of -12°C, viscosities of 28.8 (40°C) and 7.3 (100°C), a viscosity index of 240, an oxidation onset temperature of 160°C and a Gardner Color of 6+.
- Durum Wheat Seed Germination Response to Hydrogel Coatings and Moisture
under Drought Stress
Abstract: Technologies that can increase crop production while maintaining low pollution are essential for sustainable agriculture. This study compares the germination performance of Durum wheat seeds (Triticum durum Desf.) which were coated with synthetic coatings [polyacrylamide (PA)] and novel natural coatings [mixtures of agar/ι-carrageenan (AC)] at different moisture levels. A number of germination performance indicators were measured for each of the categories of coatings. These included: (i) % germination, (ii) radicle emergence, (iii) speed of germination, (iv) seedling length, (v) fresh seed weight and (vi) seed vigour index. Results showed that both the synthetic and natural coatings improved germination performance in the Durum wheat seeds versus the untreated seeds when non-drought (80% moisture) conditions were used. However, when 40% moisture levels were used, the natural coated seeds showed a 6% improvement in germination performance over the synthetic PA coated seeds. This improved germination performance under drought stress along with the fact that these novel AC coatings used are completely natural and environmentally friendly suggests that these novel coatings have a big future in seed coatings, especially in countries which experience drought conditions and are dependent on natural irrigation.
- Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Pretreated Kenaf using a Recombinant Xylanase:
Effects of Reaction Conditions for Optimum Hemicellulose Hydrolysis
Abstract: An efficient hemicellulose hydrolysis has now become a crucial step for xylooligosaccharides production for food additives and nutraceuticals industries. In this study, xylanase hydrolysis of pretreated hemicellulosic kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) for substantial hemicellulose hydrolysis was demonstrated. Experiments were performed primarily to investigate the effect of several critical reaction conditions towards the enzymatic hydrolysis of the pre-treated kenaf. The effects of various ranges of reaction conditions (substrate loading, xylanase loading, pH, temperature and time) were systematically and thoroughly studied. The study of hemicellulosic kenaf conversion using single enzyme was proven to effectively yield up to 59% of conversion after 48 h incubation using 3% (w/v) of substrate loading and 400 U of xylanase loading at 50°C in pH 4.0 buffer systems. The use of a single xylanase on the pre-treated kenaf was a key parameter in understanding the action of the main hemicellulose degrading enzyme towards hydrolysing the hemicellulose backbone of the pre-treated kenaf. Enzyme feeding strategy was also conducted and the results revealed that a batch feeding strategy of 400 U xylanase loading yielded the highest hemicellulose hydrolysis compared to the other fed batch enzyme feeding strategy. It was concluded that each reaction conditions and enzyme feeding strategy gave a significant impact towards the enzymatic hydrolysis and the use of optimum reaction conditions resulted in a high product yield at the end of the reaction. With the discovery of the importance of each reaction conditions involved in a hydrolysis, this study highlights the need for a comprehensive investigation on the reaction conditions using a mixture of enzymes towards achieving a complete hydrolysis with a higher product yield.
- Heterophylly in Murraya exotica L. (Rutaceae)
Abstract: Heterophylly, the existence of different leaf types and leaflet shapes on the same plant was observed for the first time in Murraya exotica L. populations from different locations in Java, Indonesia. In each population, three types of compound leaves (paripinnate, imparipinnate and intermediate) and three types of leaflet shape (oblong, rounded and obcordate) were observed. This heterophyllous condition was found on both juvenile and adult plants. The variation in leaf type and leaflet shape may be due to the environmental conditions prevailing at the time of leaf production directing leaf development or due to developmental noise caused by random interactions between genes and the environment.
- Quality Herbage Production of Dwarf Napiergrass with Italian Ryegrass
Cropping under Digested Effluent Application in Southern Kyushu, Japan
Abstract: Digested effluent produced by a biogas-plant contains essential plant nutrients to solve the treated and disposal problems of livestock manure. Dwarf variety of late-heading type (dwarf) napiergrass as a perennial summer crop and intercropping of over-sown Italian ryegrass as an annual winter crop were applied to 3 levels of digested effluent in southern Kyushu from 2007 to 2009. Digested effluent revealed so effective fertilizer as chemical one to increase dry matter yield, wintering ability and forage quality in crude protein concentration and in vitro dry matter digestibility (digestibility) with increasing application rate. Digestibility in leaf blade of napiergrass and that in whole Italian ryegrass were positively correlated with acid detergent lignin and neutral detergent fiber concentrations, respectively, which might be mediated with reducing tiller size with defoliation proceeded. The present cropping systems have a potential under sufficient application of the effluent to achieve sustainable quality herbage production in southern Kyushu, Japan.
- Can Contract Marketing Motivate Farmers to Go Organic? Measuring the
Moderation Effect of Contract Marketing
Abstract: The demand for organic food is growing in Malaysia due to consumer concerns for food safety, sustainable development, and urban expansion. However, the share of farmers engaged in this type of agriculture in Malaysia is notably low with only 72 (0.02%) organic vegetable farmers out of a total of 272,000 farmers in the country. Therefore, it is crucial to understand why the majority of the farmers do not practice organic farming and suggest possible solutions through contract marketing as a motivating tool to enhance their participation in organic farming. In this study, a total of 329 conventional vegetable farmers were selected and interviewed through multi-stage systematic random sampling method via a structured questionnaire. Factor analysis and hierarchical multiple regression analysis has revealed that there is a moderating role by contract marketing to strengthen the relationship between attitude and public farmersâ intention to practice organic farming. This study has identified contract marketing as a component which moderates the perceived behavioral control-intention to practice organic farming. Therefore, contract farming not only shapes the attitude of farmers but it also develops the control over the chain by channeling farmersâ products to the buyers.
- Year-Round Forage Yield Stability through a System Combining Triple-Maize
Crops with Winter Barley in Kyushu, Japan
Abstract: Reduction of feeding cost for the beef and dairy cow industry is an urgent matter requiring the intensification of summer and winter forage cropping in Kyushu, Japan. Forage maize is a prominent high-yield summer crop in the region, where it used to be sown from late March to early August. Due to global warming, maize cropping in the common hot summer now easily suffers from heavy rain and typhoons and this contrasts with the need of expanding the growth periods suitable for maize cropping. This study tested the cropping of triple (spring, summer and autumn) maize crops with winter barley to determine its suitability to be cultivated in the region. Winter barley, sown into inter-rows of the previous row crops in mid-November, was harvested from late February to late March, when spring maize was sown earlier than the current season, after the danger of late frost has passed. Summer maize was sown from early June to early July and autumn maize which was sown from late August to mid-September was harvested in mid-to late November. Winter barley yielded 900-1090 g dry matter (DM)/m2 with 22% ear DM. Early-planted spring maize which was sown in early March yielded 1600-1880 g DM/m2 with 16-28% ear DM and summer maize yielded 900-1280 g DM/m2 with 19-39% ear DM. However, the autumn maize yield varied from 130-300 g DM/m2 without seed maturation to 740-880 g DM/m2 with 51-54% ear DM due to typhoon and cool weather damage. Therefore, triple maize with winter barley cropping can produce a yield of more than 4000 g DM/m2, especially from 2600 g DM/m2 from winter barley and spring maize crops sown in early March, leading to the conclusion that spring maize sown in early March can be harvested without high risk from weather disasters in the region (290 words ≤ 300 words, upper-limit).