American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1557-4989 - ISSN (Online) 1557-4997
Published by Science Publications [28 journals]
- Control of Subterranean Termite Coptotermes Curvignathus (Isoptera:
Rhinotermitidae) by Entomopathogen Metarhizium Anisopliae Var. Anisopliae
Cultured in Liquid State Fermentation
Abstract: Solidstate fermentation has been used for mass production of Metarhiziumanisopliaemany years ago. However, solid state fermentation was timeconsuming, costly and unable to produce in large amount. We examined thesuitability of liquid state fermentation to mass produce M. anisopliae and theeffect of culture medium on fungal pathogenicity. Three different liquid mediumselected for this study was Jenkins medium, Leland medium and MPOB medium. Thefungus was cultured for 5 days to examine the growth rate. Yield of submergedconidia in different medium was assessed on day 3. Fungal virulence was bioassayedon termite Coptotermes curvignathus. Theresults indicated that Jenkins medium yielded significantly lower growth rateand dry weight (1.472 mg mL-1), but the fungus exhibitedhighest virulence (100% mortality on day 4) among the 3 medium studied. MPOBmedium had the highest growth rate and DW yield (1.961 mg mL-1) but achieved 100% mortalityonly on day 6. The LC50 result showed Jenkins medium yielded themost virulent fungus culture compared to Leland medium and MPOB medium.
- Assessing of the Competitiveness Level in the Industry using the
Correlation Analysis on the Example of Agriculture of the Republic of
Tatarstan, Russian Federation
Abstract: This study presents the resultsof evaluation of the competitiveness of farmers and the agricultural sector in theregion as a whole. Traditional approach of estimating monopolization level usesHerfindahl-Hirshman and Lerner indexes. But this methods not applicable in caseof inhomogeneity of product in industry or when firms manufacture different typeof products. The evaluation was performed by using the instruments of fuzzy settheory and the correlation analysis. This technique allows us to estimate the degreeof monopolization of the industry and its sub-sectors, as well as to hold a comparativeanalysis and to identify trends of development. Technique consists several steps.Determine the maximum amount of product produced by any company in the sector inthe period and the percentage of the volume of production from which the companycan be named as leader. Fuzzy numbers of leadership are calculated for each firm’sproduct. If the company produces more than one product, the fuzzy numbers for eachproduct are aggregated into one by using the fuzzy operation "or". Dependingon the percentage level in the industry will change and the number of companiesthat are recognized as leaders. Simulations proved that correlation between percentagelevel and number of leaders in industry depends on market structure: Monopoly, oligopolyor pure competition. Correlation coefficient tends from -1 for the monopolized industriesto 0 for pure competition. We provided computer simulation to calculate the boundariesof correlation coefficient to identify types of market structure. The analysis washeld according to the industrial and economic activity of all 509 agricultural enterprisesand 13 types of products in Republic Tatarstan of Russian Federation during 2011-2013.The obtained results are comparable with the results of the calculation the Herfindahl-Hirschmanindex for each product. However, the proposed technique allows us to make a generalassessment of industry’s competitiveness. The technique has an applied significancein the development of government support measures.
- Profitability and Financial Sustainability Analysis in Italian Aquaculture
Firms by Application of Economic and Financial Margins
Abstract: Agricultural Firms operating inthe aquaculture sector in Italy are often characterized by high investment andhigh capital intensity. In fact, these companies need to develop structures andbreeding systems to generate adequate cash flow to repay their investment infixed assets. In addition, the biological cycle of breeding further extends theneed for capital, in this case to finance working capital. There is thereforeoften a mismatch between the economic and financial cycles, wherein profitmargins may differ from financial margins. In this way, such companies have aneconomic advantage but no sustainable financial cycle. In these cases, severalcrisis may force companies to default, especially when firns are unable tocover debt repayment. This difficulty is particularly present in Italy, whereaquaculture firms are often Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and thereforehave greater difficulty than large companies accessing the capital market. Ourresearch evaluates the cost effectiveness and financial sustainability of asample of forty firms operating in the aquaculture sector in Italy, within atimespan of five years, through comparative analysis of the economic andfinancial margins. The analysis shows that such firms are capital intensive (TA/VPof median value is 1.16%). Financial debt emerges as the first source ofcapital then increasing companies’ financial dependence through credit systemsand borrowing costs. Firms have a particular absorption in the NWC cycle, withI_DAYS being 143.29 days, AR_DAYS being 72.75 and 145.51 AP_DAYS expressingfinancial operating cycle (I_DAYS + AR_DAYS - AP_DAYS) with a length of 70.53days. Profit margins, even if they are correlated with financial margins, are loweron average. The research highlights that economic model worst explains FCFE (F= 0.011 and adjusted R2 = 0.803), while the financial model bestexplains FCFE (F = 0.000 and adjusted R2 = 0.922). Our research willbe further developed through analyzing cooperatives, unincorporatedpartnerships and sole proprietorships. It may also be useful to undertake acomparative analysis of aquaculture firms operating in other countries of theMediterranean basin.
- Field Evaluation of Sugarcane Orange Rust for First Clonal Stage of the CP
Cultivar Development Program
Abstract: Consistent development of high-yielding sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) cultivars with resistance or tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses is critical to commercial sugarcane production. Currently, orange rust (caused by Puccinia kuehnii E.J. Butler) is a big challenge for the sugarcane production in Florida, USA. A better understanding of sugarcane genotypic variability in response to orange rust disease will help optimize breeding and selection strategies for disease resistance. Orange rust ratings, scaled from non-infection (0) to severe infection (4) with intervals of 0.5, were recorded from genotypes at the first clonal selection stage (Stage I) of the Canal Point sugarcane breeding and cultivar development program in Florida. Data were collected from all 14,272 and 12,661 genotypes and four replicated reference cultivars, CP 78-1628, CP 80-1743, CP 88-1762 and CP 89-2143, in July-August 2012 and 2013, respectively. Mean rust rating, % of rust infection and rust severity in each family (i.e., progeny of the cross from a female and male) and female parent and their Coefficients of Variation (CV) within and among families (females) were estimated. Results indicated that considerable variation exists in rust tolerance among families or females. The families or females for their progenies with the high susceptibility or resistance to orange rust were identified and ranked. The findings of this study are useful for evaluating sugarcane crosses and parents for rust disease and can help breeders use desirable parents for crossing and improve genotypic resistance to orange rust in the sugarcane breeding programs.
- A Review on Biochemical Mechanism of Fatty Acids Synthesis and Oil
Deposition in Brassica and Arabidopsis
Abstract: Oilseeds crops provide edible oil for humansâ diet or oil for industrial purpose. Triacylglycerols (TAG) are the main components in seed oil which is formed by the esterification of fatty acids to glycerol back bone. In plants, fatty acid biosynthesis process initiated in plastid and ended in the endoplasmic reticulum. A series of biochemical steps are involved in TAG formation and many of the genes involved in this process have been identified. The quality of seed oil depends on the type of fatty acids esterified to glycerol. Finally, the TAGs are stored as lipid in seeds. The biosynthesis process of fatty acids and oil formation in seeds is reviewed in this manuscript.
- INTERNAL EVALUATION IN BIOCHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT, MEDICINE FACULTY, TEHRAN
UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES
Abstract: Evaluation is a systematic process for collecting, analyzing and interpretation of the obtained information for the purpose of investigating how many the objectives in mind can be achieved. Education in an academic educational system means bringing about proper and increasing changes that affect the outcome of this system, that is affecting the students and the aim of such evaluation was promotion of the quality of an education process. In this study Biochemistry Department, Medicine Faculty Tehran University of Medical Sciences, benefiting from opinion poll of university lectures, student and graduates have evaluated their system of educational in the year 2004 and their aim was to remodel and adjust educational system with the societyâs needs and promotion of the quality of such educations. The employed method was cross sectional and descriptive and analytical on the basis of 10 procedural steps and within 8 sections dealing with evaluated factors. Such as faculty board members, management and organizational capability, students, manpower and logistic affairs, educational environments research work centers, health and therapeutic sections, educational equipment, research equipment, laboratory and diagnosis centers, educational courses and programs, teaching and learning process as well as satisfaction expressed by students. The results of the research showed that general average of 8 investigating sections, based on SWOTs model was %58 that may well be interpreted as a desirable research work. Educational evaluation is the best indicator showing how much we should go to achieve certain aims, analyses quality of the activity if such a system and by which we achieve logical and routine results.
- TRANSPIRATION INFLUENCES CADMIUM UPTAKE BY BABY LEAF SPINACH (SPINACIA
Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal whose concentration in soils is rising. This study investigated the effect of transpiration on Cd uptake by plants using soil conditions akin to those experienced by field crops. Two experiments were performed using baby leaf spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) grown in soil containing Chloride (Cl) at a typical concentration of 70 mg kg-1. Experiment 1 explored plant response to Cd over the range ~0.04 to 10 mg kg-1 so that a non-toxic concentration could be selected for Experiment 2. Experiment 2 tested the hypothesis that transpiration and Cd uptake were related using soil amended to 70 mg Cl kg-1 and 0.24 mg Cd kg-1. Differences in transpiration were achieved by manipulating atmospheric CO2 (~400 and ~640 ÂµL CO2 L-1) and air temperature (22/14, 26/18 and 30/22Â°C day/night). In Experiment 1, Cd in the foliage variedfrom ~2 to ~100 mg kg-1 DW, yet there was no evidence of Cd toxicity. In Experiment 2, temperature and [CO2] caused large differences in plant growth. [Cd] was lower in chambers with increased temperature and higher in those with elevated CO2. Despite differences in growth, transpiration and foliar Cd uptake were positively and strongly correlated, even when both parameters were expressed on a DW basis. The data are consistent with Cd transport by mass flow towards the roots being a substantial contributor to Cd uptake. Higher [Cd] at elevated CO2 raises concerns about future chronic dietary exposure to Cd. The findings challenge the interpretation of earlier studies on the effects of CO2 and temperature on Cd uptake and may partly explain the inter-seasonal variation in Cd uptake by field crops.
- DETECTION OF PROSAPOSIN AND MATURE SAPOSINS IN GOAT MILK
Abstract: Increased scientific knowledge related to the nutritional, functional and biological activities and health benefits of goat milk is needed to further promote goat farming, goat milk and traditional or innovative neutraceuticals as a basis for socio-economic benefit. Identification and characterization of milk derived Prosaposin is essential to development of neutraceuticals from goat milk that maybe beneficial to human health. The objectives of this study were to detect Prosaposin and its mature proteins in milk from different breeds of goats. Raw milk was collected from eight different breeds of goat. Whey fractions were separated by high speed centrifugation. Extracts were analyzed by electrophoresis using the Pharmacia Phastsystem (GE Healthcare) in 12.5% homogeneous gels. Gels were silver stained to analyze total protein. Phastsystem diffusion immunoblotting with HRP enzyme-labeled polyclonal anti-Prosaposin, anti-saposin and a tetramethylbenzidine substrate was used to identify specific proteins. Multiple proteins were observed in whey fractions from all animals tested. Antibodies detected a 70-65 kDa Prosaposin band and a 12-14 kDa saposin C band in all goat breeds. Both Prosaposin and its derivative saposin A, B, C and D were detected in caprine milk. These studies show that Prosaposin is present in milk from different breeds of goats contributing to therapeutic attributes of goat milk. The biological activity of saposins such as the neurotrophic activity of goat saposin C need further characterization.
- EVALUATING THE SENSITIVITY OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA, ESCHERICHIA COLI AND
SALMONELLA TYPHI TO VARIOUS BRANDS OF AMPICILLIN AND AMOXICILLIN AVAILABLE
Abstract: The failure of antimicrobial agents in the treatment of some ailments has become a great concern to health care practitioners. This is the reason why this study was carried out to evaluate the sensitivity of various brands of Amoxicillin and Ampicillin on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi. One hundred of the clinical isolates each were identified from the clinical samples collected from hospitals in Delta State, Nigeria. These isolates were subjected to two fold serial dilution method to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) from which the sensitivity of the isolates to the various brands of the antibiotics was determined. The result showed that the sensitivity of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi to the various brands of Amoxicillin are 54, 62 and 68% respectively. The result also revealed that the sensitivity of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi to Ampicillin are 64, 64 and 70% respectively. The result further indicates that a mean sensitivity of the isolates to Amoxicillin was 61%, while the mean sensitivity to Ampicillin was obtained as 66%. The study has therefore established the need for a routine evaluation of antibiotics in the Nigeria markets.
- INTEREST COVERAGE RATIOS (ICRs) AND FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY: APPLICATION
TO FIRMS WITH BOVINE DAIRY LIVESTOCK
Abstract: Agricultural firms with bovine dairy livestock are characterized by high investments in capital equipment and this is determined by the biological cycle of production, which requires large investments in land, facilities and bovine herd. These large investments require funding from equity capital or debt capital, which generates financial costs. Therefore, it is necessary to assess not only the profitability of firms in the sector but also the financial sustainability of the business cycle, applying appropriate indexes. To analyze this issue, the article has developed an approach to the verification of the financial sustainability of debt, out of a sample of dairy companies in Italy, putting in comparison Interest Coverage Ratios (ICRs) calculated using different approaches. In the article, we propose a financial approach to calculate the ICRs and verify the correlation and diversity, where statistically significant, of ICRs calculated with the Financial (FICRs) and the Economic (EICRs) approaches. The research shows that the sample firms have difficulty in generating cash flow and this difficulty is highlighted by traditional profitability analysis. Likewise, EICRs traditionally applied by banks are statistically different, even if correlated, with respect to the FICRs proposed in the article. The results of the research suggest that firms in the sector must pay particular attention to the financial sustainability of operations, in particular in dealing with the banks for the financing of debts. Similarly, banks should put in place systems analysis that are more effective than those currently used to assess the agricultural firms. The suggested approach could be applied even to other sectorsâ agrifood system, particularly if capital intensive; at the same time, the approach could be useful also if applied to agricultural cooperatives, even in developing countries that often suffer by financial constraints.
- THE USAGE OF ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE ORIGIN RAW MATERIALS COMBINATORICS IN
MEAT PRODUCTS OF âHALALâ CATEGORY
Abstract: Integrated researches aimed to develop technologies and recipes for meat products of âHalalâ category using seed fat and Milk Protein-Carbohydrate Concentrate (MPCC) represent a new generation of scientific and practical interest. In this connection, the authors propose technologies and recipes for meat products of âHalalâ category, designed on the basis of rational combinatorics of animal and vegetable origin raw materials, that let us to expand the range of halal meat products and to develop cost-effective technologies. The results of the research have provided expanding the range of functional meat products, including Halal products for muslims, that meet the quality standards of the finished product in the category Â«HalalÂ». Practical feasibility of using a vegetable fats complex and Milk Protein-Carbohydrate Concentrate (MPCC) Â«Lactobel-EDÂ» in sausage production has been found. The levels of adding to the formula have been proved. Thermodenaturation of milk and whey proteins during thickening and drying of âLactobel-EDâ increases the availability of peptide chains and ionized amino acid residues. Solubility study showed that the concentrate is highly soluble in aqueous solutions, but this has a high dispersion degree, which increases the overall adsorption surface. Analysis of the results of structural and mechanical changes in the characteristics of minced model systems indicates a decline in YV of prototypes with sunflower oil on average 99.5 Pa.
- ELECTROLYSIS OF SWINE MANURE EFFLUENTS USING THREE DIFFERENT ELECTRODES
Fe-Fe, Al-Al AND Fe-Al
Abstract: Swine effluent with high organic strength need to be treated to make it suitable for applying to crop/pasture fields, or discharging to any waterways. Electrocoagulation is a relatively simpler and cheaper technique over biological and chemical treatment methods currently used to treat high-strength industrial and municipal wastewater. The performance of an electrocoagulation system mainly depends on the pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC) of the medium, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) loading rates and catalytic activity of the electrodes used. In this research, a study was conducted to compare the pollutant removal efficiencies of three electrodes (Fe-Fe, Al-Al and Fe-Al) with three electric current levels (500, 1000 and 2000 mA) while treating swine manure effluents. The electrochemical cell consisted of two parallel rectangular plates (90Ã25Ã1.5 mm) of Iron (Fe-Fe), Aluminum (Al-Al) and Iron-Aluminum (Fe-Al, later on described as hybrid) electrodes; immersed in a beaker with 550 mL swine effluents and powered by a Direct Current (DC) supply. All studies were conducted in batches at room temperature. In general, removal efficiencies were increased with increasing current densities and electrolysis times for electrodes evaluated. Aluminum electrodes outperformed iron and hybrid (iron-aluminum electrodes) in removing Total Phosphorus (TP) at all current density levels tested. Overall, use of hybrid electrodes resulted in better COD removal. For the same treatment times (1200 s) at higher current density (21 mA cm-2), hybrid electrodes removed about 100% COD, which are about 1.9 and 1.3 times higher than those of aluminum and iron electrodes, respectively. Iron electrodes showed the highest removal efficiency (85%) for Total Organic Carbon (TOC) at 21 mA cm-2 current density and 1200 s treatment time. Overall, lower Specific Electrical Energy Consumptions (SEECs) per kg of Pollutants (TP, COD and TOC) were estimated for the aluminum electrodes than the other electrodes combination.
- SELF-INCOMPATIBILITY AND EFFECT OF RECIPROCAL CROSS AND OPEN POLLINATION
ON FRUIT SET AND FRUIT CHARACTERISTIC IN JORDANIAN ALMOND LANDRACES
Abstract: Limited studies were carried out to identify self- and cross-compatibility relationships among Jordanian almond landraces. Therefore, this study aimed at studying the level of self-incompatibility and the effect of cross and open pollination on fruit set and shell, nut and kernel related traits in almond. To achieve this objective, field experiments were carried out during 2012 and 2013 cropping season on five Jordanian almond landraces and one wild bitter almond (A. communis) available in the farmer's fields at Ajloun district, Jordan. Fruit set was recorded in the field after open-pollination, self-pollination by bagging the branches with flower buds and cross pollination after emasculation of the floral buds. All almond genotypes showed complete self-incompatibility. Genotypes showed variable percentages in fruit set with similar trend in the two growing seasons. Following cross pollination treatment, genotypes exhibited fruit set ranging from 40.3% in Hajari to 94.0% in Fark and from 34.1% in Mukhmaly to 93.3% in Fark in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Results showed that cross pollination of Hami Hallo (79.7-81.7 and 77.8-89.2% in 2012 and 2013 respectively) and Fark (83.0-94.0 and 86.1-93.3% in 2012 and 2013 respectively) with other landraces led to high level of fruit set indicating high cross-incompatibility. Slight differences were recorded in fruit set in reciprocal crosses. Pollen source did not affect shell, nut and kernel traits. As a conclusion, results obtained from this study showed that, all of the genotypes were self in-compatible and all genotypes showed high level of cross-compatibility with variable degree among genotypes.
- BRASSINOSTEROIDS IN BREEDING TECHNOLOGIES HEALTHCARE POTATO
Abstract: The regulator of anti-stress action Epin-Extra (24-epibrassinolide) was tested in laboratory and field (protected ground) conditions. The aim of this research was to study the influence of growth regulators on the growth, development and productivity of improved initial promising varieties of potato: Native (cultivated varieties Udacha) and foreign (cultivated varieties Red Scarlett) selections obtained by the method of apical meristem in the Volga-Vyatka region. The obtained results suggest a promising use of the product for improving the growth and development of plants in vitro. Adding Epin-Extra into an artificial culture medium at the final stage of micropropagation in vitro increases the height of plants by 29.6-47.7%, the number of internodes in plants by 26.4-25.7% depending on the cultivated variety, increases the root growth for cultivar Udacha 2.1 times and reduces the one for the cultivar Red Scarlett 1.9 times. The use of the Epin-Extra product-in recommended concentration for growing mini-tubers by seedling method in protected soil (greenhouse) in the budding phase-increases the biometric indicators such as plant height (35.7-21.8%), number of stems in the bush (30.9-19.0%) and mass of roots (19.1-8.5%), depending on the variety. As a result, the treatment with Epin-Extra increases productivity by 25.6-15.9%, the multiplication factor by 25.3-18.4%, as well as helps to reduce the prevalence (by 69.5-44.1%) and development (by 50.0-44.3%) of the late blight on the tops of potato plants, depending on the cultivar.
- CHARACTERIZATION OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH AND RICE HUSK BIOCHARS AND
THEIR POTENTIAL TO ADSORB ARSENIC AND CADMIUM
Abstract: Biochar as a new soil amendment has a potential in controlling the fate of trace elements in the soil system. However, the production of biochar from different feedstocks and pyrolysis conditions resulted in variable biochar properties which have an influence on trace elements availability. The experimental works are focused on physical and chemical properties of biochars produced from Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Rice Husk (RH) as heavy metals adsorbents. The morphology of EFB biochar comprise rigid structure with uniform pores size. The surface area of biochars ranged between 23.22-46.32 m2 g-1, dominated with mesopores. The chemical characterization of biochars revealed high carbon content in EFB biochar compared to RH biochar (54.08 and 7.78%). Both biochars are alkaline in nature (>pH 9) and contain substantial amounts of N, P, K, Ca and Mg. Fourier transform infra-red spectra showed the heterogenic functional groups on EFB biochar surface and domination of silica content in RH biochar. The batch experiment was employed to determine the adsorption capacity of these biochars for As and Cd. The adsorption data were fitted well in Langmuir isotherm with high correlation coefficient (R2>0.9) for As and Cd. The qmax of EFB biochar for As and Cd was higher than RH biochar. The qmax of EFB biochar was 0.4240 and 15.1515 mg g-1 for As and Cd, respectively. In contrast, the qmax of RH biochar for As and Cd was only 0.3522 and 3.1908 mg g-1. The results show that EFB biochar and RH biochar have potentials as good sorbent for As and Cd. Therefore, it can be suggested that the application of these biochars may possibly reduce the trace elements availability in the contaminated soil.
- RESISTANT STARCH AND BIOACTIVE CONTENTS OF UNRIPE BANANA FLOUR AS
INFLUENCED BY HARVESTING PERIODS AND ITS APPLICATION
Abstract: Recently, various innovative products from unripe banana flour have been reported as it is high in resistant starch and other important compounds. The harvesting period of the unripe banana fruit is one of the key factors affecting the quality of the unripe banana flour in terms of resistant starch and bioactive compound content. The study aimed to investigate the effect of the harvesting stages of unripe banana fruit on Resistant Starch (RS) content, carotenoid content, antioxidant activity and the application of unripe banana flour to prepare high RS rice noodle. Four different harvesting stages of banana fruits of Musa sapientum Linn including 75, 90, 105 and 120 days after bloom, were processed for banana flours. The results indicated that the maturation stages affected RS, some bioactive contents, antioxidant activities. The highest RS content (48.88%) of banana flour was obtained from the 105 day banana fruits. The total phenolic and carotenoid contents were high in the banana flours harvested between 75 and 105 days. The unripe banana flour could be substituted for rice flour as high as 80% and contained RS content as high as 18.64% whereas the commercial rice noodle had 4.21% of RS content. Therefore, the preparation of unripe banana flour from banana fruit harvested at 105 days and applying it in the preparation of functional food is promising.
- EFFECT OF DROUGHT CONDITION ON GROWTH, YIELD AND GRAIN QUALITY OF UPLAND
Abstract: Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of drought condition on growth, yield and grain quality of two varieties in upland rice: Nangdam and Lebnok. The experiment was performed at the King Mongkutâs Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chumphon Campus, Thailand during July to November, 2010. The study was conducted in randomized complete block design with four replications. This results showed that Nangdam and Labnok varieties were got 12.40-97.10 mm of average monthly rainfall in the vegetative, reproductive and grain formation to ripening stages. Nangdam and Lebnok had days to booting of 72 and 68 Days After Germination (DAG), respectively, days to 50% flowering of 93 and 90 DAG, respectively, which were higher than the normal average of 2 to 6 days. The two tested varieties had low grain yields of 29.12 and 26.20 kg/ha, respectively, when they were grown at the low level rainfall. All varieties had higher number of empty grain of 48 and 33 grain per panicle, respectively, number of low perfect grains of 53 and 57 grain per panicle, respectively, number of imperfect grains of 35 and 30 grain per panicle, respectively, chalky grains of 17.50 and 15.20%, respectively and breaking grains of 0.75 and 2.50%, respectively. However, there were no significant different among those traits between the two varieties. The two varieties of upland rice had smaller grain which was lower than the standard.
- ANTIOBESITY EFFECTS OF HUMAN SOLUBLE LEPTIN IN MICE NOURISHED WITH A
HIGH-FAT/HIGH FRUCTOSE DIET
Abstract: Leptin is a hormone that regulates energy balance. Since its discovery two decades ago, several efforts have been made to fully understand its role in metabolic regulation of feeding behavior, reproduction, glucose homeostasis, immune function, bone formation, lipid metabolism, among others. Its use as a therapeutic option in obese patients is still limited due to the syndrome known as Leptin resistance. In this study, we determined that the treatment of a soluble form of human Leptin (W100E) reduced food intake, body weight and triglycerides levels, but increased HDL-cholesterol levels on obese mice subjected to high-fat/high-fructose diet. In contrast, treatment with soluble human Leptin increased food intake but did not increase body weight and total-cholesterol in mice with normal diet. When stopping the treatment with human W100E-Leptin, it was detected a significant increase in body weight in all groups of mice apart from the control, indicating a rebound effect. The results contribute to the understanding of how to increase Leptin sensitivity and in consequence to overcome Leptin resistance syndrome. This might be relevant in offering more evidence of the potential use of the Leptin in the treatment against obesity and overweight conditions.
- Ð¡HEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM OF SOIL SOLUTION IN STEPPE ZONE SOIL
Abstract: Dynamics of material composition, migration and accumulation of salts is determined by chemical equilibrium in soil solution. Soil solution contains associated electrically neutral ion pairs Ð¡Ð°Ð¡Ð30; CaSO40, MgCO30, MgSO40, charged ion pairs CaHCO3+, MgHCO3+, NaCO3-, NaSO4-, CaOH+, MgOH+. Calculation method is proposed for quantitative assessment of real ion forms in the soil solution of chestnut solonetz soil complex. Were proposed equations to calculate free and associated forms of ions. To solve the equations were used an iteration, a linear interpolation of equilibrium constants, a Method of Ionic Pairs including a law of initial concentration preservation, a law of the operating masses of equilibrium system, the concentration constants of ion pair dissociation on the law of operating masses. Was determined the quantity of ion free form and a coefficient of ion association as ratio of ions free form to analytical content Î³e = Cass/Can. The association of ions varies in individual soils and soil layer. Increasing soil solution salinity amplifies the ions association. In form of ionic pairs in soil solution are: 11.8-53.8% of Ca2+; 9.4-57.3% of Mg2+; 0.7-11.9% of Na+; 2.2-22.3% of HCO3-, 11.8-62.7% of SO42-. The ion CO32- is high associated, the share of ions in associated form is up to 92.7%. The degree of soil solution saturation was obtained for three level of approximation accounting on analytical concentration, calculated association coefficient, calculated coefficient of association. Relating to thermodynamic solubility product S0, the mathematical product of analytical ionic pairs indicated super saturation of soil solutions up to K1 = 100, taking into account calculated coefficient of association ion activity super saturation of soil solutions is absent, K3â1. Only for solonetz chestnut meadow K3â2-5. The soil solution saturation degree in soil profile and laterally in landscape varies. The quantitative assessment of real ion forms in the soil solution allows explain evolution of landscape of salted soils, structure of soil cover. Calculations fulfilled show that a possibility of soil degradation scenario taking into account the laws of association of ions in soil solution is much more probable and dangerous than it was assessed before. New understanding of water-salt transfer, geochemical barriers and ecological functions of soil will help to improve rainfed and irrigational agriculture.
- THE RURAL TOURISM AS DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITY OR FARMS. THE CASE OF DIRECT
SALES IN SICILY
Abstract: Tourism has an important role modifying rural communities in their environmental, economic, social and cultural structures, processes and dynamics. In this context rural tourism plays a primary role because it is not the rural product that reaches the consumer in the purchase point, but it is the consumer (tourist) that has to move towards tourist destination to enjoy the product. So, the aim of this study is to analyse how the opportunities created by the rural tourism can represent a vector to promote the growth of farms and territory. Specifically, through a telephone survey conducted among the Sicilian entrepreneurs which join to the national network Campagna Amica, it has been analysed how the direct sales in the farm can contribute competitiveness to business and therefore to the permanence of man in the territory. The empirical analysis has shown that direct sales, associated with the conventional sales, can represent a growing opportunity for farms and whole rural community, leading to an improvement of business economic performances, an increase of investments and a creation of new job opportunities. This hightligted that agriculture can play a positive role on many components of the territorial system in which it operates
- EVALUATION OF N ADDITIVES FOR IMPROVING N USE EFFICIENCY OF SURFACE
APPLIED UREA TO DRY SEEDED AND PERMANENTLY FLOODED RICE
Abstract: There are several potential Nitrogen (N) loss mechanisms in a dry seeded and delayed flood system rice (Oryza Satvia L.) production system including urea volatilization and denitrification. The scope and magnitude of these potential losses are largely weather dependent. Two additives (stabilizers), Agrotain and Nutrisphere-N, have been offered to rice producers for controlling these potential losses. This study compared these two products in their ability to maintain rice grain yields, where cultural management maximizes these loss mechanisms. Response of rice to urea-N stabilizers varied in 2007 and 2008 depending on soil and environmental conditions. In 2007, dry soil surface at time of urea-N application and lack of rainfall resulted in a low loss due to N volatilization. However, urea-N volatilization or denitrification were higher in 2008 and using Agrotain stabilizer resulted in higher yields of rice at 78 kg N haï-1. Across years, Agrotain and Nutrisphere-N were similar in terms of slightly improving rice grain yields compared to untreated urea at the rate of 78 kg N ha-ï1. Therefore, urea stabilizers may offer a good solution in years with high potential for urea-N losses.
- STRATEGY TO INCREASE THE FARM COMPETITIVENESS
Abstract: Italyâs wine-growing production structure is highly pulverized. So, for many wine-growing farms lowering the production cost represents the only way of gaining a competitive advantage. Production at average unit costs lower than competitors allows to improve profitability. Among farming operations, winter pruning and tying of productive vine-branches require a high human labor. For this reason the paper presents the results of research conducted on a sample of Sicilian wine-producing farms in order to study the cost-effectiveness to make the pruning and the subsequent ligation of productive branches with tools that facilitate the work. The economic analysis, after the determination of minimum optimum size, shows that the investment is suitable for both large or small farms. This denotes how the process innovation could represent a way to achieve a cost leadership and improve profit margin.
- ASCORBIC ACID FOLIIAR SPRAY COUNTERACTING EFFECT OF SALINITY ON GROWTH,
NUTRIENTS CONCENTRATIONS, PHOTOSYNTHESIS, ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND LIPID
PEROXIDATION OF BEAN (PHASEULUS VULGARIS L.) CULTIVARS
Abstract: A water culture experiment was carried out in the Department of Fertilization Technology at National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt, to investigate the effect of Ascorbic Acid (AsA) foliar application and salinity stress (100 ppm and 100 mmoL NaCl) on growth, nutrients concentration and some biochemical parameters of two kidney bean (Phaseulus Vulgaris L.) cultivars. Salinity caused significant reduction in growth parameters (leaves and root dry weights) and some of biochemical parameters (nutrients concentration, photosynthesis pigment, Carbonic Anhydrase Activity (CAA), antioxidant enzyme activity Peroxidase (POD) and lipid peroxidation). The reduction effect on Paulista cultivar was higher than Nebraska cultivar at 100 mM NaCl salinity stress. Meanwhile, POD activity was increased under salt stress conditions. Lipid Peroxidation (LP) under 100 mmoL NaCl salinity was significantly increased. The two cultivars showed an increase in MDA content with NaCl salinity stress, but the increase in sensitive cultivars Paulista was higher than that in salt-tolerant Nebraska cultivar. Application of (AsA) not only mitigated the inhibitory effect of salt stress in both kidney bean cultivars, but also in some cases induced a stimulatory effect greater than that estimated in the control plants on growth parameters which were accompanied by marked increases in nutrients concentration and photosynthetic system (pigments and carbonic anhydrase activity). Ascorbic Acid (AsA) has been shown to be an essential antioxidant; agent may act as a scavenger of ROS for mitigating the injury on bio-membranes under salt stress. Therefore, this study suggested that (AsA) application may induce an adaptive response in kidney bean through stimulation of the antioxidant enzymes activities, photosynthesis processes and lower lipid peroxidation, in Nebraska relative to Paulista may contribute to salt tolerance mechanism in Nebraska.
- IMPROVING PHOSPHORUS NUTRITION OF COTTON
Abstract: Crop recovery of applied Phosphorus (P) fertilizer can be low, especially during season of low soil temperature, which decreases plant root growth and nutrient uptake. The H2PO4- or HPO4-2 anions readily react with soil cations such as Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe) and Aluminum (Al) to produce various phosphate compounds of very limited water solubility. Specialty Fertilizer Products (SFP), Leawood, KS, USA has developed and patented a product registered as AVAILÂ® that is reported to attract and sequester antagonistic cations out of the soil solution leaving more of applied P in available form for plant uptake. To evaluate effectiveness of AVAIL product for cotton production, experiments were conducted in two locations in West Tennessee, Grand Junction (GJ) in Hardeman County and Ames Plantation (AP) located in Fayette County. Treatments consisted of applying Mono-Ammonium Phosphate (MAP, 11-52-0) alone or coated with AVAIL at rates of 34 or 68 kg ha-1 P2O5. A no P check was also included. An additional treatment consisting of AVAIL treated P in combination with Nutrisphere-NÂ®, a Nitrogen (N) stabilizer product offered by SFP, was also included. At GJ site, when averaged over P rates and years, AVAIL treated MAP improved tissue P concentration and increased cotton lint yield by 157 kg ha-1 over untreated MAP. At AP site, when averaged over years and P rates, application of AVAIL treated MAP increased cotton lint yield by 85 kg ha-1 over untreated MAP. In both experiments, 34 kg ha-1 AVAIL treated MAP produced higher tissue P concentrations and greater yields than 68 kg ha-1 without AVAIL. Influencing reactions in the micro-environment around the fertilizer granule has proven to have a significant benefit on the yield and P uptake of cotton. More research is needed to determine P content in the soil and further improve fertility recommendations.
- VARIABILITY IN THE LIGNINOLYTIC ENZYMES ACTIVITY BY LENTINULA EDODES IN
SUBMERGED CULTURE WITH LIGNIN AND GLUCOSE
Abstract: The white-rot basidiomycete Lentinula edodes is the second most edible mushroom cultivated on the world. This fungus decomposes cell-wall associated macromolecules, is a natural degrader of lignin polymers. The differences in enzyme activities between strains of L. edodes provided useful information about the participation of enzymes in different development stages of the fungus. The effect of lignin on the fungal biomass production and activity behavior of ligninolytic enzymes when L. edodes is cultivated in a medium containing lignin with and without glucose as a carbohydrate source was tested. When glucose was present in the culture, lignin increase the mycelial biomass by 70% at 22 days compared to the control culture. The lignin media without glucose affected mycelial growth up to 20% less that the control without lignin and glucose. The activity of laccase, lignin peroxidase, aryl alcohol oxidase, manganese dependent peroxidase and catalase was modified depending on whether the medium had lignin and glucose, or lignin alone. A carbohydrate source is important to fungal growth, but the dissolution of lignin monomers might switch the signal that controls growth rate and enzymatic activity.