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AGRICULTURE (447 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Acta agriculturae Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Agrobotanica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Agronomica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Agronomica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Technologica Agriculturae     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Agriculture & Botanics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Agriculture, Sciences and Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
AFBM Journal     Open Access  
Africa Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Horticultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Range and Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Agribusiness : an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agricultural Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agricultural and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Agricultural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 187)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Agricultural Sciences in China     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Agriprobe     Full-text available via subscription  
Agrivita : Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Agroalimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agrociencia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agronomía Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomie Africaine     Full-text available via subscription  
Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Agrosearch     Open Access  
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alinteri Zirai Bilimler Dergisi : Alinteri Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Ambiência     Open Access  
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Botany     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annales UMCS, Agricultura     Open Access  
Annales UMCS, Horticultura     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
APCBEE Procedia     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Applied Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Financial Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access  
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Grain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian Journal of Agricultural Engineering     Open Access  
Australian Sugarcane     Full-text available via subscription  
Avances en Investigacion Agropecuaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berkala Ilmiah Pertanian     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioagro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Biological Agriculture & Horticulture : An International Journal for Sustainable Production Systems     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Biosystems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biotemas     Open Access  
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Poultry Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)

        1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Journal Cover American Journal of Potato Research
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero [4 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1874-9380 - ISSN (Online) 1099-209X
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2209 journals]   [SJR: 0.639]   [H-I: 26]
  • Use of Hill Shape with Various Nitrogen Timing Splits to Improve
           Fertilizer Use Efficiency
    • Abstract: Abstract The efficient use of fertilizer nitrogen (N) is critical for potato production in regions with sandy soils as concerns for groundwater contamination have become more apparent. The interactive effects of different hill shapes and distribution of in-season N fertilizer applications at various timings were evaluated in a 3-year potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Russet Burbank) field experiment on a sandy soil in central Wisconsin. A split-plot design was used with hill shape (standard, shaped-plateau, or pointed) as the main plots and 202 kg N ha−1 divided into two, three, or four applications as the split plots. Broader, flatter hills provided tuber yield increases of 7 to 10 %, tuber size and grade improvements of 8 to 25 %, and increased tuber N uptake an average of 22 % in some years; however, post-emergence hilling operations negatively affected yield and tuber size and grade out in 1 of 2 years. Splitting the N into three in-season applications (emergence, early tuberization, and tuberization + 20 days) increased tuber yield by about 4 % or tuber size by 19 % in years where rain increased leaching potential on this sandy soil, but further splitting increased the proportion of small tubers that passed a 5.1-cm screen. This study confirmed that more blocky-shaped hills with only one hilling operation at emergence can significantly benefit potato yield and quality, and fertilizer N use efficiency on these sandy soils.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • Influence of Location, Year, Potato Rotation, and Chemical Seed Treatment
           on Incidence and Severity of Silver Scurf on Progeny Tubers
    • Abstract: Abstract A three-year study was conducted in 1999, 2001, and 2002 to examine the influence of seed-borne inoculum and fludioxonil+mancozeb seed treatment on silver scurf (caused by Helminthosporium solani) development on progeny tubers at six locations under different potato rotations in the semi-arid U.S. Pacific Northwest. Disease-free pre-nuclear seed and diseased generation 3 seed was either treated or not treated with fludioxonil plus mancozeb, planted, and progeny tubers were harvested and then evaluated for silver scurf incidence and severity. Experiments were conducted in the southern Columbia Basin (Oregon), northern Columbia Basin (Washington), central Oregon, southern Oregon, western Idaho, and eastern Idaho under short (<3 years), normal (3–5 years), and long (>5 years) potato rotations over the three years for a total of 19 location-year-rotation combinations. Significant differences were observed among years and locations with disease incidence being highest in central Oregon. Progeny tubers from untreated generation 3 seed had significantly higher silver scurf incidence (18.4 %) and severity (1.3) compared to untreated progeny tubers from pre-nuclear seed (1.2 % and 0.04 for incidence and severity, respectively). Seed treatment with fludioxonil+mancozeb reduced incidence (3.8 %) and severity (0.2) significantly compared to the untreated control (15.8 % and 1.1 for incidence and severity, respectively). Significant (P < 0.0001) interactions between treatments and location-year-rotation were observed and additive main effects multiplicative interaction analysis discriminated those with high incidence, severity, and variability. These data indicate that seed, not soil, is the primary source of progeny tuber infection in the field in the Pacific Northwest. For long term storage, purchase of clean seed is an essential component for managing silver scurf.
      PubDate: 2014-08-30
  • Production of Hybrids Between the 2EBN Bridge Species        class="a-plus-plus">Solanum verrucosum and 1EBN
           diploid Potato Species
    • Abstract: Abstract The potato crop has diploid wild relatives in the primitive 1EBN crossability group that have a wealth of desirable traits, but are currently difficult to access through conventional crossing. The objective of this study was to develop an efficient technique for using 1EBN species in breeding by crossing to 2EBN bridge species S. verrucosum. Success was obtained with several 1EBN diploid species: S. bulbocastanum, S. pinnatisectum, S. polyadenium, S. commersonii and S. circaeifolium. Use of 2x(2EBN) S. verrucosum as a receptive female avoided prezygotic interspecific incompatibility, and double “rescue” pollination was done using haploid-inducing clone, S. phureja IvP35 to minimize postzygotic failure due to abortion of berries with few or small seeds. In total, 4,646 hybrid seeds were obtained in crosses between S. verrucosum and the 1EBN species. Rescue pollination particularly improved seeds per pollination for S. pinnatisectum hybrids. The hybrid seeds were normal in appearance and had high germination (47–88 %). They produced plants with the distinctive phenotypic characteristics and molecular markers specific to their 1EBN parents. Hybrids had poor male fertility, but crossed easily as females to diploid S. tuberosum at an average of 38 seeds per pollination.
      PubDate: 2014-08-19
  • Stability and Broad-Sense Heritability of Mineral Content in Potato:
           Copper and Sulfur
    • Abstract: Abstract Sulfur and copper are important for human health. Sulfur deficiency is rare, but may occur in the elderly. However, a large percentage of the U.S. population is deficient in copper. The purpose of this study was to determine the range of values for sulfur and copper available in advanced potato germplasm and varieties and estimate how much genetic variation exists for these two elements. Potato breeding lines and varieties in three multisite trials were evaluated for copper and sulfur content by wet ashing and Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma Emission Spectrophotometer analysis. Stability and broad-sense heritability were determined. Among genotypes, copper content ranged from 2.0 to 4.5 ug-g−1 DW. This was a 2.25-fold difference. In these three trials, environment was never significant, while genotype by environment interactions were always significant. Genotype was significant in two of the regional trials. Broad-sense heritabilities were estimated to be 0.0, 0.93 and 0.51 for the Tri-State, Western Regional Russet and Western Regional Red/Specialty trials, respectively. Among genotypes, sulfur content ranged from 991 to 1488 ug-g−1 DW. The highest value was 50 % higher than the lowest. In these three trials, environment was never significant, while genotype x environment interactions were always significant. Genotype was significant in two of the regional trials. Broad-sense heritabilities were estimated to be 0.53, 0.68 and 0.88, for Tri-State, Western Regional Russet, and Western Regional Red/Specialty trials, respectively. For both sulfur and copper, selection in the Western Regional Russet and Western Regional Red/Specialty trials is likely to lead to an increase in content. Selection for sulfur in the Tri-State would result in a gain as well. These results suggest that genetic improvements could be made to potato to enhance the concentrations of these minerals.
      PubDate: 2014-08-14
  • Propensity for Flying and Walking by the Colorado Potato Beetles Treated
           with Imidacloprid
    • Abstract: Abstract The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) is a very serious pest of potatoes which is highly mobile and capable of rapid evolution of resistance to chemical control. Insect movement, resulting in gene flow between resistant and susceptible populations, is considered to be an important factor affecting the development and spread of insecticide resistance. We investigated the movement of adult Colorado potato beetles by flight and by walking following the treatment with a sublethal dose of imidacloprid in the laboratory. Imidacloprid had a pronounced negative effect on beetle mobility. The proportion of beetles flying and walking, as well as the number and duration of performed flights, were significantly decreased for the treated beetles. Since local selection followed by long-distance dispersal have been reported to lead to serious area-wide problems with the insecticide-resistant Colorado potato beetle, long-term suppression of flight activity recorded in our study suggests that imidacloprid applications may reduce outflow of resistant alleles.
      PubDate: 2014-08-14
  • Studies on varietal response to different strains of        class="a-plus-plus">Potato virus Y (PVY) reveal
           hypersensitive resistance in Exploits to PVY       class="a-plus-plus">O and extreme resistance in
           F87084 to all tested strains
    • Abstract: Abstract Potato cultivar Exploits and breeding clone F87084 have been considered resistant to Potato virus Y (PVY). To further explore the degree of resistance and whether the resistance is strain specific, these materials, together with cultivar Rochdale Gold-Dorée and breeding line F02010, were investigated for their response to different PVY strains including PVYO, PVYN:O, PVYNTN and PVYN. Both F02010 and Rochdale Gold-Dorée were readily infected with all tested PVY strains after either mechanical or graft inoculation, indicating susceptibility of the materials to PVY. F87084 was unable to be infected by any of the tested PVY strains as no ELISA-detectable level of PVY were found in plants after either mechanical or graft inoculation, demonstrating extreme resistance in F87084 to all strains of PVY tested. Exploits was infected with PVYN:O/PVYNTN/PVYN after either mechanical or graft inoculation, indicating susceptibility of the cultivar to these PVY strains. The cultivar was also infected readily with PVYO after graft inoculation. However, despite induction of local lesions on the inoculated leaves, mechanical inoculation with PVYO may or may not lead to systemic symptoms and ELISA-detectable level of PVY, depending on temperature. At low temperature (e.g., 22 °C), no visible systemic symptoms or ELISA-detectable level of PVY was found in the plants; whereas at high temperature (e.g., 30 °C), systemic symptoms and high level of PVY were detected in the plants. These results demonstrate that Exploits possesses temperature-dependent hypersensitive resistance to PVYO. Analysis of a segregating population of F87084 × F02010 revealed that the ER in F87084 is controlled by a dominant resistance gene.
      PubDate: 2014-08-09
  • Site and Clone Effects on the Potato Root-Associated Core Microbiome and
           its Relationship to Tuber Yield and Nutrients
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to describe the variability in the root-associated bacterial community due to location and clone, and to determine whether an underlying core bacterial community exists that might benefit the quality of the potato crop. Root-associated bacterial communities from one growing season were examined with 454 sequencing. Variance analysis using perMANOVA attributed 45.4 % and 24.1 % of the community variability to site and clone effects, respectively. A total of 123 bacterial operational taxonomic units were correlated with tuber yield and/or tuber nutrient content, a majority belong to the order Rhizobiales. Rhizobiales bacteria are recognized contributors to crop nitrogen needs for many legumes; however, no known symbiotic relationship between potato roots and nitrogen fixing bacteria exists. Within the Rhizobiales order, the genus Devosia is a major contributor to both the presence/absence core “bacteriome” and the sparse partial least squares core “bacteriome,” thus further exploration into this unknown relationship is warranted.
      PubDate: 2014-08-09
  • Teton Russet: An Early-Maturing, Dual-Purpose Potato Cultivar Having
           Higher Protein and Vitamin C Content, Low Asparagine, and Resistances to
           Common Scab and        class="a-plus-plus">Fusarium Dry Rot
    • Abstract: Abstract Teton Russet is an early-maturing, medium-russeted, potato cultivar with high merit for both fresh-pack and processing. In early harvest trials in the Pacific Northwest, Teton Russet had total yields similar to Russet Norkotah, and higher than Ranger Russet and Russet Burbank. Marketable yield of Teton Russet in the early harvest trials was also comparable to or higher than Russet Norkotah in Washington and Oregon, and higher than Ranger Russet and Russet Burbank at these sites, as well as in Idaho. In full-season trials, while total yield of the earlier-maturing Teton Russet tended to be lower than Ranger Russet and Russet Burbank, marketable yield was generally higher than Russet Burbank across the majority of sites due to its higher percentage of U.S. No. 1 tubers. Teton Russet is suitable for processing, with acceptable fry color following up to 8 months of storage at 8.9 °C. Uniformity of fry color was also very consistent. Teton Russet has shown lower levels of the amino acid asparagine relative to Ranger Russet and Russet Burbank which may contribute to lower acrylamide levels in French fries and other processed potato products. Teton Russet is notable for having resistance to common scab (Streptomyces spp.) and Fusarium dry rot, and is moderately resistant to tuber net necrosis. Analyses have also shown Teton Russet to have significantly higher protein levels than Russet Norkotah, Ranger Russet, and Russet Burbank, as well as higher vitamin C content than Russet Norkotah and Russet Burbank. Teton Russet was released in 2011 by the USDA-ARS and the Agricultural Experiment Stations of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, and is a product of the Pacific Northwest Potato Variety (Tri-State) Development Program.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Stability Analysis of Agronomic Traits in Potato Cultivars of Different
    • Abstract: Abstract Potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum) cultivars are expected to express a stable level for traits important for growers and consumers. To investigate how this expectation was met by a set of 21 cultivars bred in Hungary, Poland and Spain, 2-year field experiments were carried out in these countries for the evaluation of tuber yield, starch content and yield, and occurrence of secondary growth of tubers. Stability in an agronomic sense was evaluated by the analysis of genotype by environment interaction (GE) using the Scheffé-Caliński mixed model. Unstable trait expression was indicated by the statistically significant share of GE in the variability contributed by a specific cultivar. This instability could lead to either complete or partial unpredictability. Stable trait expression was observed for 6–11 cultivars, depending on the trait. A significant genetic factor, which indicates broad adaptation, was rarely found. Stable expression of tuber yield occurred together with stable or predictable expression of both starch content and yield. Unstable expressions of tuber and starch yield were also associated. The stability or instability of secondary growth was not associated with stability or instability of the other measured traits. Analysis of GE interaction was useful for identifying stable or unstable responses and revealed the presence of incomplete stability or partial unpredictability as intermediate types of reaction.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Potato Early Dying and Yield Responses to Compost, Green Manures, Seed
           Meal and Chemical Treatments
    • Abstract: Abstract Verticillium dahliae Kleb. is a soilborne fungal pathogen of many crops. In potato, it is the major causal agent of Early Dying. In Manitoba, potato fields planted with cv. Russet Burbank are infested with highly pathogenic V. dahliae isolates, which can produce up to 90 % disease severity. The objective of the study was to evaluate selected compost, green manure, and seed-meal treatments, in comparison with the soil fumigant Vapam, for their ability to reduce propagule density of V. dahliae in soil and decrease disease, and to enhance potato yield. Select green manure crops (oriental and white mustard, Canada milk vetch, sorghum-sudangrass, rye, alfalfa, oat/pea mixture), organic amendments (composted cattle manure and mustard seed-meal), and Vapam, and crop sequences that contribute to the suppression of Verticillium, or the improvement of potato yield were used in a 3-year field study initiated in 2006. Survival in soil of microsclerotia was evaluated as a measure of treatments’ success in potentially reducing Early Dying. Compost and seed-meal treatments, compared to an untreated control, reduced incidence to 30 and 40 %, respectively, but only seed-meal reduced V. dahliae propagule density. Overall, green manures over 1 or 2-years were ineffective in reducing propagule density or improving potato yield. Vapam was partially effective in reducing the propagule density only at the beginning of the potato season, but it did not reduce disease incidence compared to the control. Compost and seed-meal are promising as alternative control of V. dahliae. Only compost reduced disease and increased potato yield, which was associated with improved nutrient availability (phosphorus and sulfate) in soil.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Glyphosate Carryover in Seed Potato: Effects on Mother Crop and Daughter
    • Abstract: Abstract Field studies were conducted in 2008 and 2009 in Aberdeen, ID, Ontario, OR, and Paterson, WA to determine the effect of simulated glyphosate drift on ‘Ranger Russet’ potato during the application year and the crop growing the next year from the daughter tubers. Glyphosate was applied at 8.5, 54, 107, 215, and 423 g ae ha−1 which corresponds to 1/00, 1/16, 1/8, ¼, and 1/2 of the lowest recommended single-application rate for glyphosate-resistant corn and sugar beet of 846 g ha–1. Glyphosate was applied when potato plants were at 10 to 15 cm tall (Early), or at stolon hooking (H), tuber initiation (TI), or during mid-bulking (MB). In general, the MB applications caused less visual foliar injury to the mother crop than earlier applications at ID or OR, and H applications at WA. Mother crop injury increased as glyphosate rate increased regardless of location, application timing, and rating date. U.S. No.1 and total tuber yields were usually related to the injury level resulting from glyphosate application timings and rates. Although injury to the mother crop from glyphosate applied at MB usually was the lowest compared to injury from other application timings, when daughter tubers from that timing were planted the following year, emergence, plant vigor, and yield was most detrimentally impacted compared with that of daughter tubers from other timing treatments. MB daughter tuber emergence was less than 30 % of the nontreated control tuber emergence while emergence of daughter tubers from the other treatments was 60 to 95 %. As rate of glyphosate applied to the mother crop increased, daughter tuber emergence decreased. When MB daughter tubers did emerge, plants were chlorotic and stunted as if the plants had been directly sprayed with glyphosate. Regardless of whether the daughter tubers had defects or not, results the following year were the same. Implications are that if a mother seed crop encounters glyphosate during bulking, injury may not even be noticeable on the foliage or the tubers, however, emergence, vigor, and yield of the crop growing the following year from the daughter tubers could be greatly impacted.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Mineral Oil Inhibits Movement of        class="a-plus-plus">Potato Virus Y in Potato
           Plants in an Age-Dependent Manner
    • Abstract: Abstract Potato Virus Y (PVY) is one of the most devastating pathogens threatening potato production worldwide. It is a RNA virus that is disseminated by aphids in a non-persistent manner. Regular application of mineral oil on potato fields is known to reduce the number of PVY-positive tubers in post-harvest testing. The mechanism of this phenomenon is not well understood, but it is hypothesized to influence the virus-vector-plant relationships. Here, we present data from greenhouse and field trials that shed light on the effect of mineral oil on local and systemic accumulation of PVYO in susceptible Shepody and Russet Burbank. The data suggests that mineral oil did not influence PVYO levels in mechanically-inoculated leaves nor tubers of plants with a secondary infection. However, a reduction in systemic PVYO levels was observed in mineral oil-treated older plants but not in younger plants, suggesting that mineral oil inhibits PVYO movement in an age-dependent manner.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Effects of Soil Water Level, Black Dot (       class="a-plus-plus">Colletotrichum coccodes)
           Infested Soil and Nutrient Depletion on Potato in a Controlled Environment
    • Abstract: Abstract The effects of soil water level and soil infested or not infested with Colletotrichum coccodes were quantified and compared on Umatilla Russet potato in repeated greenhouse trials. Nitrogen levels in leaflets and tuber yield differed significantly for effect of water level but there was no effect for soil infestation in both trials. More leaflet N as measured by chlorophyll and less tuber yield occurred in the low than the medium and high soil water treatments. Number of progeny tubers was not affected by C. coccodes but numbers were significantly less for the low water level than the high water level in one trial. Root weight was significantly reduced by C. coccodes in both trials and was significantly less in the high than the low and medium soil water levels in one trial. Incidence of infected progeny tubers was significantly reduced in infested soils for the low soil water compared to the medium or high soil water levels in one trial. The effect of increasing levels of water in infested soils had large and significant increases for percentage of stem area with sclerotia in both trials. Managing soil water by not overwatering in irrigated potato fields in the presence of C. coccodes may reduce black dot severity and quantity of sclerotia that potentially can overwinter and serve as sources of infection for subsequent crops. Analyses demonstrated a potential for significant associations between plant and disease variables not evidence for cause and effect.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Modification of ELISA by Replacing Incubation of Microtiter Plates in an
           Incubator with Their Shaking in PVY, PVM and PLRV Detection
    • Abstract: Abstract ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a sensitive and reliable method of plant virus detection. It is commonly used in daily research carried out by scientific institutions and laboratories working on the certification of potato tubers. The key stage in this method is a 3–4-h-long incubation of microtiter plates with IgG and with a conjugate in an incubator at a temperature of 37 °C. The aim of the research was to replace this type of incubation process with a technique of mechanically shaking the plates using a shaker to induce a vibrating movement. Three durations of shaking, performed at room temperature, were adopted: 30, 60 and 90 min with two incubation periods at a temperature of 37 °C: 60 and 180 min which were applied at the stage of coating the IgG plates, following addition of the conjugate. The assessment was made for three dilutions of lyophilized sap from leaf of potatoes (1:10, 1:100, 1:1,000). Replacing the stages of plates incubation with IgG and conjugate at 37 °C with mechanical shaking allowed the whole process of DAS-ELISA to be reduced below 3–4 h without any significant impact on its quality. The process turned out to be equally efficient as the 3-h-long incubation in an incubator for PVY, PVM and PLRV detection by means of DAS ELISA. Applying the 90-min-long incubation on a shaker in comparison to a 3-h-long incubation in an incubator gave comparable or even slightly improved results. The reaction background, i.e. the value of absorbance for sap from healthy plants (negative control) was very low in all the combinations irrespective of the time of reading after the substrate was placed. No significant differences for this parameter were found between the combinations and times of reading. Only in the case of PLRV was a clearly visible decrease in test sensitivity found (no positive reactions) at diluted sap over 1:10. Moreover, it was observed that an increase in dilutions impacted the length of reaction. The dilution 1:10 seemed to be the most favorable (maximum 1:100 for PVY and PVM), wherein the sensitivity and pace of staining the substrate for each of the methods did not provoke any doubts regarding the reliability of the test.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Varietal Differences in Minituber Production Costs
    • Abstract: Abstract Minitubers have become important components of seed potato production systems. Minituber production methods and yields affect costs. We used data from the University of Wisconsin seed potato program to estimate minituber production costs by variety in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Labor is identified as the most significant operating cost, while salaries represent the greatest fixed cost. The 3 year average total cost per minituber across all varieties was estimated at $0.47. Of the varieties grown in all 3 years of analysis Langlade had the highest average yield and lowest cost. Yukon Gold and Pike had the lowest yields and highest costs.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Selection and Validation of an AFLP Marker Core Collection for the Wild
           Potato Solanum
    • Abstract: Abstract Solanum microdontum is a diploid potato species with features that make it a good model for research into management and use of germplasm in the genebank. Its taxonomic status is unambiguous and it is in the taxonomic series of wild species closest to cultivated forms. It is represented by about 100 populations in the genebank—not too many for comprehensive evaluation, yet not too few to make prioritization of the most valuable populations worthwhile. This species is also particularly rich in desirable traits, often exhibiting very broad segregation. We here report use of DNA markers for selection of a core set of populations, and assessing whether that core captures populations with the most desirable evaluation results for economic traits. DNA was extracted from bulks of 27 plants from each of 94 populations to generate AFLPs. A total of 1,741 informative loci were detected. AFLP loci were treated as though they were traits, with the banded condition considered to be the desired state to include in a core set. At least one band unique to a population was present in 45 populations, and these 45 populations together captured 98 % of all bands. Adding another 14 populations for a core of 59 populations captured 100 % of bands. This core set was assessed for whether it encompassed those populations known to have useful traits, including nutritional and quality components; and disease, stress and pest resistances. As with AFLP bands, 25 of 26 of the most desirable phenotypic traits were also found in populations in the core set of 59 populations. The most desirable status of 3 traits is lost by selecting a core of 45 populations. We conclude that these core sets would be a rational starting point when prospecting for new useful traits in microdontum.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Resistance of Selected Potato Genotypes to the Potato Psyllid (Hemiptera:
    • Abstract: Abstract The characterization of resistance of selected potato, Solanum tuberosum L., breeding clones to the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) was investigated. Antixenosis was assessed in choice tests in which a single plant of each genotype was placed inside a rearing cage, where 60 female psyllid adults were released and the number of adults and eggs on each genotype was counted 24 h later. Antibiosis was evaluated in no-choice tests in which adults (five males and five females) were confined in a cage fixed to the upper side of leaves. After 4 h of exposure, adults were removed and the number of eggs counted. The developmental time and survival of offspring were recorded until all insects became adults. All the resistant genotypes showed strong antibiotic effects to B. cockerelli. These results show promise for incorporation into an IPM program against B. cockerelli.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Differential Growth Response and Minituber Production of Three Potato
           Cultivars Under Aeroponics and Greenhouse Bed Culture
    • Abstract: Abstract We have evaluated and compared different methods and cultivars for the production of quality prebasic seed in potato. Two cultivation systems, aeroponics and greenhouse beds with a peat moss substrate, and three potato cultivars with different vegetative cycle, Agria, Monalisa and Zorba, were assayed. Plants in the aeroponic system showed increased growth and their vegetative cycle extended between 12 and 36 % compared to the plants cultivated in greenhouse beds. Flowering and tuberization dates, Absolute Growth Rates (AGR) during the period of 60 days after planting (DAP) and height presented a wide variation between cultivars. Zorba showed earlier flowering and tuberization, lower AGR and reached a minor height at 60 DAP. Instead the late season cultivar Agria showed later flowering and tuberization, presented higher AGR and reached an increased height at 60 DAP. The total tuber yield per plant was between 34 and 87 % higher in the aeroponic system, with a marked difference for the earlier cultivars Zorba and Monalisa. Tuber numbers increased between 60 and 80 %. Minituber production in aeroponics showed a better size distribution, with a reduction in the percentage of tubers smaller than 12 mm of between 33 and 86 %. In this soil-less culture system average tuber weight increased in Zorba and Monalisa over 60 % but was lower for Agria. Further studies are needed to optimize aeroponics system, which can be considered a high yield potato multiplication system, particularly for early or mid season potato cultivars that may produce best quality minitubers.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Characteristics of Polish Isolates of        class="a-plus-plus">Fusarium sambucinum: Molecular
           Identification, Pathogenicity, Diversity and Reaction to Control Agents
    • Abstract: Abstract Pathogenicity of 28 Polish isolates of F. sambucinum to potato tubers, their sensitivity to control agents, diversity among isolates and molecular methods of species identification were examined. All isolates were pathogenic to potato tubers and differences in pathogenicity were found. Isolates on the PDA were classified into three different color groups of mycelium (B - bright-beige, P - salmon pink, R - rose) that varied in pathogenicity and mycelium growth rate on PDA. P colonies showed the greatest tuber damage, but they grew the slowest on the PDA. Isolates showed varied reaction to different concentrations of 4 control agents (M - mancozeb, C- captan, CO - copper oxychloride and GE - grapefruit extract). The highest mycelium growth inhibition (MGI) was caused by M and the lowest by CO. Strong MGI by GE was observed especially for P isolates. Individual isolates showed different susceptibility to the control agents. Identification of isolates was determined in PCR assay with species specific FSF1/FSR1 primers, by sequencing of DNA fragments derived from ITS regions and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha gene (TEF). Sequence of the ITS regions were identical for all isolates. Analysis of the TEF DNA fragments showed one SNP (transition C↔T) in the sequences of isolates from the three different color groups.
      PubDate: 2014-07-25
  • Screening Potato Cultivars for new Sources of Resistance to        class="a-plus-plus">Potato virus Y
    • Abstract: Abstract Potato virus Y (PVY) strains have been defined based on genetic reactions in potato indicators expressing hypersensitive reaction (HR) response due to the presence of three different N genes, and also based on genomic information. Nine strains are known currently, with five PVY strains defined biologically, PVYO, PVYC, PVYZ, PVYN, and PVYE. The genetic background of the majority of North American potato cultivars has so far been poorly characterized for the presence of N genes inducing HR towards different PVY strains. Here, the HR response was studied in eight potato cultivars, elicited by five strains of PVY circulating in North America. These PVY isolates included representative isolates of PVYN-Wi, PVYNA-N, PVYO, PVYZ, and PVYN strains. Potato cultivars tested included Russet Burbank, Russet Norkotah, Shepody, Ranger Russet, Western Russet, Alturas, Rio Grande Russet, and Yukon Gem, grown in the U.S., and standard indicators Desiree and Maris Bard with the known genetic background. Three additional strains, PVYN:O, PVY-NE11, and PVYE, were tested on Yukon Gem. Virus-free potato plants were mechanically inoculated with PVY inoculum, and local and systemic foliar symptoms were observed for 8 weeks post-inoculation under different climate-controlled conditions. Virus status of the inoculated plants was tested starting at 3 weeks post-inoculation, by serotype-specific ELISA and RT-PCR, in order to monitor successful infections and confirm the identity of the inoculated PVY isolate. This systematic approach allowed us to identify Ny tbr and Nz tbr genes present in several North American cultivars. Two more new, putative N genes were postulated to be expressed in the cultivar Yukon Gem, and one additional putative N gene was postulated to be expressed in two cultivars, Yukon Gem and Rio Grande Russet. These N genes may represent valuable sources of resistance against multiple strains of PVY.
      PubDate: 2014-07-24
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