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AGRICULTURE (465 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Acta agriculturae Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Agrobotanica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Agronomica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Agronomica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Technologica Agriculturae     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access  
Advances in Agriculture & Botanics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Agriculture, Sciences and Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AFBM Journal     Open Access  
Africa Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Horticultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Range and Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Agribusiness : an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agricultural Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agricultural and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Agricultural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 249)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Agricultural Science     Open Access  
Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Agricultural Sciences in China     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Agriprobe     Full-text available via subscription  
Agrivita : Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Agroalimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agrociencia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomie Africaine     Full-text available via subscription  
Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Agrosearch     Open Access  
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alinteri Zirai Bilimler Dergisi : Alinteri Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Ambiência     Open Access  
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Botany     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
APCBEE Procedia     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Applied Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Applied Financial Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access  
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Grain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian Journal of Agricultural Engineering     Open Access  
Australian Sugarcane     Full-text available via subscription  
Avances en Investigacion Agropecuaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berkala Ilmiah Pertanian     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioagro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Biological Agriculture & Horticulture : An International Journal for Sustainable Production Systems     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Biosystems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biotemas     Open Access  
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Journal Cover American Journal of Potato Research     [SJR: 0.639]   [H-I: 26]
   [4 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1874-9380 - ISSN (Online) 1099-209X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2210 journals]
  • Effect of Time of Day of Sampling on Potato Foliar Gene Expression Used to
           Assess Crop Nitrogen Status
    • Abstract: Abstract The potential to use gene expression as an indicator of plant N status has been identified, however how such expression indicators may vary with time of day (TOD) has not been examined. This study quantified variation in gene expression at four times during the day (8:00, 11:00, 14:00 and 17:00) on potato plots receiving 0 or 180 kg N ha−1. Expression of 24 experimental genes was quantified by nCounter and normalized by reference genes. Expression of all but one of the experimental genes varied significantly with time of day. Most (15) genes, across a range of gene function categories, had greater expression at 8:00 and 17:00 than during midday, and 10 of these genes had least expression at 14:00, the sampling time with greatest solar radiation. For 7 genes, expression was greater during midday, and for carbohydrate metabolism or chlorophyll-related genes maximum expression occurred at 14:00. Expression of ammonium transporter AT1, previously identified as a good predictor of potato N status, varied strongly with TOD and became insensitive to potato N status during midday. TOD effects on both experimental and reference genes must be considered in developing gene expression based diagnostic tests of crop N status, and ideally, genes which are sensitive to crop N status, but insensitive to TOD, can be identified for such diagnostic purposes.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22
  • Assessing SNPs Versus RAPDs for Predicting Heterogeneity and Screening
           Efficiency in Wild Potato ( Solanum ) Species
    • Abstract: Abstract Knowing how genetic diversity is partitioned among and within wild potato species populations is important for efficient sampling for collection, preservation and evaluation. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of SNPs for assessing germplasm by using the exact set of four model species previously evaluated by RAPDs. To avoid large numbers of SNP samples, population bulks of 25 plants were used, and original RAPD data was adjusted to match SNP genotype data. It was noted that especially for SNPs, it was necessary to examine only loci polymorphic within species to get a realistic view of genetic partitioning within species. This resulted in only a few hundred useful loci for some species. When considering among-population versus within-population partitioning of diversity, both SNPs and RAPDs distinguished the species as expected according to their known breeding system. Primitive wild species were confirmed as very heterogeneous within their populations. Both SNP and RAPD markers can be used to help breeders and genebank managers understand patterns and use in potato germplasm diversity.
      PubDate: 2015-01-17
  • The Aluminum Cryo-plate Increases Efficiency of Cryopreservation Protocols
           for Potato Shoot Tips
    • Abstract: Abstract The possibility of streamlining general cryoprotection procedures is investigated using aluminium cryoplates with wells, facilitating fluid handling and drying treatment. Precultured shoot tips of potato cultivar ‘Sayaka’ were embedded in calcium alginate gel in wells of the aluminium cryo-plates. In the V cryo-plate protocol, dehydration was performed for 30 min at 25 °C in plant vitrification solution after osmoprotection. In the D cryo-plate protocol, dehydration was performed by placing the cryo-plates for 2.0 h under an air current in a laminar flow cabinet after osmoprotection. In both protocols, cooling was performed by placing the cryo-plates in uncapped cryotubes, which were immersed in liquid nitrogen. For rewarming, the cryo-plates were immersed in liquid MS medium supplemented with 1.0 M sucrose and diluted for 15 min at room temperature. Under these conditions, regrowth rates of cryopreserved shoot tips in V cryo-plate and D cryo-plate were 96.7 and 93.3 %, respectively. Both protocols will facilitate efficient strategies for preservation, storage, and maintenance of genetic stability of important potato germplasm.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Variation of Resistance to Different Strains of Ralstonia Solanacearum in
           Highland Tropics Adapted Potato Genotypes
    • Abstract: Abstract Ten potato genotypes with field resistance to bacterial wilt were evaluated for resistance to five strains of Ralstonia solanacearum belonging to biovars 1, 2A, 2T and 3 (phylotypes I and II) under greenhouse conditions. The plants were inoculated by pouring bacterial suspension into the soil and wilt incidence was recorded weekly. Stems and tubers of symptomless plants were tested for latent infection using post-enrichment NCM-ELISA. The analysis of variance of the percentage of infected plants indicated significant differences among potato genotypes and strains of R.solanacearum. Complete resistance to all tested strains was not observed in any of the potato genotypes. However, CIP 394895.7 was the most resistant genotype, showing hardly any wilting and low level of latent infections. The use of potato varieties with partial resistance like this genotype in combination with crop rotation, healthy seed and sanitation practices could significantly reduce losses due to bacterial wilt.
      PubDate: 2014-12-25
  • Development of Action Thresholds for Management of Bactericera cockerelli
           and Zebra Chip Disease in Potatoes at Pukekohe, New Zealand
    • Abstract: Abstract Bactericera cockerelli (tomato potato psyllid, TPP) is a serious pest of potato crops, causing feeding damage and also vectoring Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum, the causal agent of the Zebra Chip (ZC) disease in potatoes. The results of 6 years of early and main crop potato trials at Pukekohe, New Zealand, are summarised and damage caused by TPP is reported. Results show that spring-sown (early) potato crops do not require insecticides. In main crop summer trials we tested action thresholds based on 10 and 20 TPP nymphs per 100 middle leaves but the incidence of ZC damage was commercially unacceptable, ranging from 4 to 9 %. Subsequently we tested an action threshold of >3 TPP adults per yellow sticky trap per week that led to ZC damage ranging from 0.9 to 1.6 %. We also compared monitoring of TPP using sticky trap catches with a degree day model started in mid winter (1 July) for forecasting generation times of TPP. On the basis of the field trial results, we recommend that from early summer onwards, the timing of the first foliar application of insecticide needs to be applied early enough to protect main crop potatoes from the first generation of TPP that occurs after potato tubers have emerged (at Pukekohe, this is the third TPP generation from 1 July when using degree day modelling). Three years of main crop trials indicate that an action threshold of >3 TPP per trap per week provides effective TPP/ZC management in the Pukekohe region when used in conjunction with natural enemies and an insecticide programme that features the use of selective insecticides.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18
  • Low-Cost Potato Tissue Culture with Microwave and Bleach Media Preparation
           and Sterilization
    • Abstract: Abstract Labor and equipment costs are the main expenses in potato micropropagation. To determine if we could reduce costs associated with media sterilization, a disinfectant, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), in combination with microwave heating, were assayed as media sterilants. Incorporating a common 5 % NaOCl household beach at a concentration of 9 ppm (active chlorine) in media sterilized with an autoclave or microwave oven controlled microorganism growth and maintained plantlet growth performance. Non-sterile 473 ml (16 oz.) clear deli containers were selected as an inexpensive replacement for traditional culture vessels and were effectively sterilized with a 50 ppm (active chlorine) NaOCl solution. Reuse of the non-sterile clear deli containers and alternate media water sources were also tested but this decreased plantlet growth performance. Comparison of a controlled growth chamber and ambient laboratory conditions was also investigated. Microorganism growth was significantly less in a controlled growth chamber (5 %) as compared to uncontrolled conditions (26–36 %).
      PubDate: 2014-12-06
  • Field Assessment of AtCBF1 Transgenic Potato Lines ( Solanum tuberosum )
           for Drought Tolerance
    • Abstract: Abstract Drought prone areas have been increasing around the world and it is expected that these areas will continue to expand and become more severe due to climate change. Increasing the drought stress tolerance of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) could aid in feeding the growing global population. The Arabidopsis CBF1 gene (AtCBF1), which has been shown to increase drought tolerance in other plants, was transformed into a cultivated potato line under the control of the stress inducible promoter COR15a. The expression of the AtCBF1 transgene was verified by RT-PCR and the transformed lines were evaluated in field trials to assess agronomic performance under sub-optimal water management. Despite expression of the AtCBF1 gene, none of the transgenic lines out-performed the control cultivar under drought-stressed conditions. Abiotic stress responsive genes from cultivated potato and wild related species may yield more promising results thus CBF1 genes from S. tuberosum and S. commersonii will be transformed into the potato cultivar Desiree and will be field tested for drought tolerance.
      PubDate: 2014-12-06
  • Soil Phosphorus Increases Dry Matter and Nutrient Accumulation and
           Allocation in Potato Cultivars
    • Abstract: Abstract Understanding the influence of P in the pattern of production and partitioning of dry matter (DM) and nutrients to the tubers of potato cultivars is critical for development of rational fertilization strategies to optimize tuber yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of soil P availability (Low P: 10 mg dm−3 and High P: 111 mg dm−3) in the leaf nutrients concentration, nutrients and DM accumulation and allocation to tubers of five potato cultivars (Agata, Asterix, Atlantic, Markies, and Mondial). The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions in pots containing 35 L of a Typic Acrortox soil. High P availability in the soil increased P concentrations in all plant organs, uptake of P and Cu, and DM production of all potato cultivars. The cultivars showed differences in the harvest index (HI) and uptake and allocation of N, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, and Zn to the tubers in response to P supply. Even with higher whole plant DM production and HI under high P availability in the soil, some of the cultivars did not increase the uptake and proportion allocated to the tubers of some nutrients as a response to the high P supply. This highly controlled greenhouse experiment was able to reveal cultivar differences in DM, HI, and nutrient accumulation influenced by P, a first step toward future studies exploiting these differences in the field production environment.
      PubDate: 2014-12-06
  • A Sampling Plan for Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae) on a
           Potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) Plantation
    • Abstract: Abstract No sampling plans specifically developed for mines associated with the pest Liriomyza huidobrensis in potato fields have been published to date. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the sampling unit and to establish the number of samples needed for the application of this study’s sampling plan. For this purpose, we evaluated 16 commercial fields of the potato cultivar Agata (24.5 ha). We evaluated the number of mines located in the apical, middle, and basal canopy-sections of plants. Higher mine densities were found in the leaves in the middle and basal section of plants than in the apical section. The middle canopy-section was best suited for sampling the mines. The result showed that the negative binomial distribution fit the mine density of L. huidobrensis. Fifteen samples/24.5 ha was determined to be appropriate for use in conventional sampling. The cost for sampling was US $ 5.32 per ha. The cost of performing the sampling was significantly lower than the cost of insecticide application.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Clopyralid and Dicamba Residue Impacts on Potatoes and Weeds
    • Abstract: Abstract Clopyralid and dicamba are used in Alaska to control certain invasive and agricultural weed species; however they may have an extended soil half-life in interior Alaska resulting in carry-over injury in potatoes. Field studies at experiment stations in Delta Junction, Fairbanks, and Palmer, Alaska were established to determine the dose–response of weeds and above and below ground potato growth to soil-applied clopyralid or dicamba (0, 35, 70, 140, 280, and 560 g ae ha−1). Both Norwegian cinquefoil (Potentilla norvegica) and narrowleaf hawksbeard (Crepis tectorum) were susceptible to clopyralid with over 90 % control in Delta Junction; whereas only flixweed (Descurainia sophia) was partially controlled (70 %) with dicamba. In Palmer narrowleaf hawksbeard was controlled (87 %) with clopyralid. At Delta Junction and Fairbanks, clopyralid applied at140 g ae ha−1 injured potatoes greater than 25 %, whereas at Palmer visual injury was greater than 25 % at 70 g ae ha−1. Above ground dicamba injury was greater than 25 % at 140, 70, and 35 g ae ha−1 at Delta Junction, Fairbanks and Palmer, respectively. Potato tuber production was reduced by clopyralid at rates of 35 and 140 g ae ha−1 at Delta Junction and Palmer, respectively. At Delta Junction, dicamba did not reduce potato tuber production, however in Palmer, dicamba rates at 70 g ae ha−1 and greater reduced potato tuber production more than 50 %. Sub-samples of potato tubers from Delta Junction and Palmer were grown out to determine if clopyralid and dicamba content in tubers would reduce subsequent growth. Dicamba at rates of 140 g ae ha−1 or greater injured plants grown from daughter tubers and reduced shoot height, but had no effect on the number of emerged shoots. Clopyralid at all rates injured plants that emerged from daughter tubers and injury increased with increasing rate. At Palmer, clopyralid in daughter tubers rates at 140 g ae ha−1 or greater reduced shoot height and at 280 g ae ha−1 or greater reduced shoot number. At Delta, clopyralid in daughter tubers reduced shoot height at 280 and 560 g ae ha−1, but had no effect on shoot number.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Differential Accumulation and Degradation Of Anthocyanins In Red Norland
           Periderm is Dependent On Soil Type And Tuber Storage Duration
    • Abstract: Abstract To determine how soil type, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) treatment, and storage affects color and anthocyanin accumulation of Red Norland potatoes, tubers were grown in sand or peat, with or without 2,4-D treatment, and measured at vine kill, harvest or after storage. Tubers grown in sand were less red and accumulated fewer anthocyanins than tubers grown in peat. 2,4-D treatment increased redness regardless of soil type. Redness loss varied greatly among tubers with storage. Tubers that lost color with storage had a two-fold reduction in anthocyanins, and a two-fold increase in benzoic and cinnamic acids compared to harvest, indicating chemical degradation of anthocyanidins via B-ring cleavage and autoxidation. Sand-grown potatoes did not exhibit greater cinnamic acids compared to peat-grown potatoes, suggesting that their color differences were due more to differences in biosynthesis than degradation during skin set. To improve Red Norland tuber color, research should focus on increasing biosynthesis of anthocyanins.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Economic Impact of Zebra Chip Control Costs on Grower Returns in Seven US
    • Abstract: Abstract Zebra Chip (ZC) disease exposes growers to the risk of large economic losses. Enterprise budgets are developed to evaluate how the competitive position of eight major US potato producing regions could be impacted by ZC infestations. When using three year (2010–2012) average marketing year prices for “all potatoes” and three year average (2010–2012) yields obtained from USDA-NASS, results highlight the inability of Pacific Northwest growers to sustain a profit if they adopt a routine insecticide program for ZC protection that begins at plant emergence. The uncertain threat of psyllid control costs are also considered within the context of processor contract price negotiations.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Production of Hybrids Between the 2EBN Bridge Species Solanum verrucosum
           and 1EBN diploid Potato Species
    • Abstract: Abstract The potato crop has diploid wild relatives in the primitive 1EBN crossability group that have a wealth of desirable traits, but are currently difficult to access through conventional crossing. The objective of this study was to develop an efficient technique for using 1EBN species in breeding by crossing to 2EBN bridge species S. verrucosum. Success was obtained with several 1EBN diploid species: S. bulbocastanum, S. pinnatisectum, S. polyadenium, S. commersonii and S. circaeifolium. Use of 2x(2EBN) S. verrucosum as a receptive female avoided prezygotic interspecific incompatibility, and double “rescue” pollination was done using haploid-inducing clone, S. phureja IvP35 to minimize postzygotic failure due to abortion of berries with few or small seeds. In total, 4,646 hybrid seeds were obtained in crosses between S. verrucosum and the 1EBN species. Rescue pollination particularly improved seeds per pollination for S. pinnatisectum hybrids. The hybrid seeds were normal in appearance and had high germination (47–88 %). They produced plants with the distinctive phenotypic characteristics and molecular markers specific to their 1EBN parents. Hybrids had poor male fertility, but crossed easily as females to diploid S. tuberosum at an average of 38 seeds per pollination.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Stability and Broad-Sense Heritability of Mineral Content in Potato:
           Copper and Sulfur
    • Abstract: Abstract Sulfur and copper are important for human health. Sulfur deficiency is rare, but may occur in the elderly. However, a large percentage of the U.S. population is deficient in copper. The purpose of this study was to determine the range of values for sulfur and copper available in advanced potato germplasm and varieties and estimate how much genetic variation exists for these two elements. Potato breeding lines and varieties in three multisite trials were evaluated for copper and sulfur content by wet ashing and Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma Emission Spectrophotometer analysis. Stability and broad-sense heritability were determined. Among genotypes, copper content ranged from 2.0 to 4.5 ug-g−1 DW. This was a 2.25-fold difference. In these three trials, environment was never significant, while genotype by environment interactions were always significant. Genotype was significant in two of the regional trials. Broad-sense heritabilities were estimated to be 0.0, 0.93 and 0.51 for the Tri-State, Western Regional Russet and Western Regional Red/Specialty trials, respectively. Among genotypes, sulfur content ranged from 991 to 1488 ug-g−1 DW. The highest value was 50 % higher than the lowest. In these three trials, environment was never significant, while genotype x environment interactions were always significant. Genotype was significant in two of the regional trials. Broad-sense heritabilities were estimated to be 0.53, 0.68 and 0.88, for Tri-State, Western Regional Russet, and Western Regional Red/Specialty trials, respectively. For both sulfur and copper, selection in the Western Regional Russet and Western Regional Red/Specialty trials is likely to lead to an increase in content. Selection for sulfur in the Tri-State would result in a gain as well. These results suggest that genetic improvements could be made to potato to enhance the concentrations of these minerals.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Effect of Potato Virus S Infection on Late Blight Resistance in Potato
    • Abstract: Abstract Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans , is a destructive disease of potato. Defender is the only cultivar in the U.S. with foliar and tuber resistance to this disease. However, this cultivar exhibits susceptibility to infection by Potato virus S (PVS) and severe symptoms appeared on leaves after infection with PVS. PVS is widespread in potato fields in the U.S. To investigate potential interactions between P. infestans and PVS, detached leaves of Defender and Ranger Russet (susceptible to late blight), that were either PVS-infected or non-infected, were inoculated with P. infestans BF-05. The amount of sporulation and the extent of lesion expansion on inoculated leaves were measured to estimate late blight severity. When inoculated with P. infestans only, as expected, Defender exhibited discrete, relatively small, dark purple to black hypersensitive reaction-like spots and on an average had twenty times fewer sporangia compared to Ranger Russet. However, in Defender plants infected with PVS, lesion expansion and sporulation increased significantly compared to PVS-free Defender. The increased severity of late blight in PVS-infected Defender suggests that PVS negatively impacts late blight resistance in this cultivar. This study demonstrates that late blight resistance in cultivars to be released should be screened for PVS susceptibility.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Efficacy of Mineral Oil-Insecticide Mixtures for Protection of Potato
           Tubers Against PVY and PVM
    • Abstract: Abstract The impact of a dozen mixtures of the most commonly applied aphicides: Mospilan 20 SP (acetamiprid), Pirimor 500 (pirimicarb) and Karate Zeon 050 CS (lambda-cyhalothrin), combined with the mineral oil Sunspray 850 EC, was researched in field conditions to assess their effectiveness in limiting potato tuber PVY, PVM and PLRV infection. In spite of the greatest reduction in the number of aphids occurring following application of Mospilan 20 SP, this treatment was not as effective in limiting PVY infection as, for example, applying Sunspray 850 EC mineral oil. Mineral oil, when used on its own or in a mixture with Pirimor 500 WG, was found to be the most effective measure for limiting PVY infection (the incidence of tubers infested with PVY was reduced by 64 % relative to control, i.e. no protection). A slightly weaker effect was observed in the case of a combination of the mineral oil with full doses of Karate Zeon 050 CS with a half of a dose of Mospilan 20 SP insecticide, however only for protection against PVY. A similar trend was observed for PVM even though a significant difference was only observed for Sunspray 850EC + Pirimor 500WG. In conclusion, the application of insecticide mixtures with mineral oil in protecting against PVY infection is not always as effective as the application of the oil itself only. Addition of the insecticide may sometimes improve the efficacy of protection, however, due to the extra costs involved, not always does it have to be economical.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Evidence of a Monogenic Nature of the Nz Gene Conferring Resistance
           Against Potato virus Y Strain Z (PVY Z ) in Potato
    • Abstract: Abstract Hypersensitive resistance (HR) to Potato virus Y (PVY) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) is conferred by strain-specific N genes. Two such genes have been identified in potato so far, Ny tbr conferring HR to PVYO, and Nc tbr conferring HR to PVYC. A third, putative gene Nz tbr was proposed to confer HR against a distinct strain PVYZ. However, due to the scarcity of the PVYZ isolates of PVY, no formal proof of the monogenic nature of this new gene, Nz tbr , was available until now. Here, we report on a genetic study of the Nz tbr inheritance in three crosses between cultivars Maris Bard (Ny:Nz) and King Edward (ny:nz), and Maris Bard (Ny:Nz) and Russet Norkotah (ny:nz). A fully-sequenced PVYZ isolate, L26, was used to screen the parents and progeny for a virus-induced HR phenotype in foliage. Based on the phenotypic analysis of 203 progeny, segregation of HR phenotype in the PVYZ-infected plants was found to be 1:1, indicating a monogenic, dominant nature of the Nz tbr gene. Since the PVYZ strain includes PVYNTN isolates associated with tuber necrotic ringspot disease (PTNRD) in susceptible potato cultivars, the Nz tbr gene represents a valuable source of HR against PTNRD-inducing PVY isolates. This is the first demonstration that Nz tbr is a single, dominant N gene in potato conferring resistance to the PVYZ-NTN strain.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Ethylene in the Atmosphere of Commercial Potato ( Solanum Tuberosum )
           Storage Bins and Potential Effects on Tuber Respiration Rate and Fried
           Chip Color
    • Abstract: Abstract Careful storage management is required to maintain post-harvest potato tuber quality. The plant growth regulator ethylene has well documented effects on potato tuber respiration rate, fried product color, and sprouting, but data on the amount of ethylene present in ventilated potato storages and how ethylene may affect tubers in commercial storage are not available. To address this need, ethylene concentration in ventilated commercial storage bins located in central Wisconsin was quantified using gas chromatography from shortly after bin filling until unloading. Samples of the storage atmosphere were collected approximately every other week from 17, 18 and 14 storage bins in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. Ethylene was present transiently, and only rarely at concentrations greater than 20 nl l−1. In laboratory-scale experiments, chipping potato tubers responded to ethylene at 20 nl l−1 with an increase in tuber respiration rate, but not with an increase in post-fry chip darkening. These data indicate that the impact of atmospheric ethylene on tuber quality and storage management in ventilated potato storages is likely to be small, except near localized regions of high ethylene production.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • High Stability of a Mitochondrial Genetic Marker mtCOII in Polish Colorado
           Potato Beetle Populations
    • Abstract: Abstract Colorado potato beetle (CPB) (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say in Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 3: 298–331, 1824)) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is one of the most serious potato pests. It has been reported worldwide, from North America to Europe and Asia. In this study we analyzed the genetic diversity of a mitochondrial DNA marker – a second subunit of cytochrome oxidase (mtCOII) in Polish CPB populations to assess the possible changes of this gene sequence over time and over the country, influencing the intra-specific variability of CPB. During a three-year survey in Polish potato fields the beetles were collected from 20 evenly spaced locations of varying climatic and geographic conditions, and the nucleotide sequence of this marker was analyzed. Our research revealed that in spite of three years of sampling the mitochondrial haplotype in all individuals was fixed, and no single nucleotide change was found in any individual, indicating a high stability of this maternally inherited marker in L. decemlineata. This finding about the level of biodiversity is of importance for plant protection strategies.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Effects of Curing Treatment on the Browning of Fresh-cut Potatoes
    • Abstract: Abstract Browning is one of the adverse factors that affects quality and shelf life of fresh-cut potatoes. The present paper investigates the effects and mechanism of a curing treatment to control the browning of fresh-cut potatoes. Potatoes were placed in curing conditions (16 ± 1 °C, 90 % RH) for 10 days immediately after harvest. The purpose of curing is to rapidly heal any damage inflicted during harvest and thus to minimize decay and water loss. Potato slices treated with curing retained good color until day 12. Moreover, the extent of discoloration was much lower and the overall sensory quality was much better than the control, which were accompanied with an increase in polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and contents of gallic acid, chlorogenic acid and protocatechuic acid. Compared to control, curing treatment reduced electrolyte leakage and respiration rate, and inhibited the gene expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in fresh-cut potatoes. The present data suggest that the curing treatment has the potential to improve the quality of fresh-cut potatoes and extend its shelf life.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
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