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  Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 703 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (73 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (474 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (92 journals)
    - DAIRYING AND DAIRY PRODUCTS (25 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (39 journals)

AGRICULTURE (474 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta agriculturae Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Agrobotanica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Agronomica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Agronomica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Technologica Agriculturae     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Agriculture & Botanics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Agriculture, Sciences and Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
AFBM Journal     Open Access  
Africa Development     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Horticultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Agribusiness : an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agricultural Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agricultural and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Agricultural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 272)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Agricultural Science     Open Access  
Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Agricultural Sciences in China     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Agriprobe     Full-text available via subscription  
Agrivita : Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Agroalimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agrociencia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomie Africaine     Full-text available via subscription  
Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Agrosearch     Open Access  
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alinteri Zirai Bilimler Dergisi : Alinteri Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Ambiência     Open Access  
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Botany     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
APCBEE Procedia     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Applied Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied Financial Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access  
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Grain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian Journal of Agricultural Engineering     Open Access  
Australian Sugarcane     Full-text available via subscription  
Avances en Investigacion Agropecuaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berkala Ilmiah Pertanian     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioagro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Biological Agriculture & Horticulture : An International Journal for Sustainable Production Systems     Partially Free   (Followers: 14)
Biosystems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biotemas     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Journal Cover   American Journal of Potato Research
  [SJR: 0.519]   [H-I: 29]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1874-9380 - ISSN (Online) 1099-209X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2302 journals]
  • Germplasm Release: Three Potato Clones Incorporating Combined Resistances
           to Early Blight from S. palustre and Late Blight from S. bulbocastanum
           into a S. tuberosum Background
    • Abstract: Abstract Three clones in a segregating population derived from a cross between the disease resistant parents +297 and K41 are being released as germplasm with resistance to both early blight, caused by Alternaria solani, and late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans. The source of resistance to early blight in +297 is the wild species S. palustre and late blight resistance in K41 is conferred by the RB gene from S. bulbocastanum. These clones, named BR3, BR5, and BR85 (BR for Blight Resistant), yield well at a temperate zone latitude. In addition to containing heritable resistance to both early and late blights, these clones possess multiple other desirable agronomic traits, are fertile, and readily cross to cultivars.
      PubDate: 2015-03-20
       
  • Biology and control of Pectobacterium in potato
    • Abstract: Abstract Pectobacterium species cause soft rot, blackleg, and stem rot in potato and a wide range of other vegetable crops and ornamental plants. Diseases caused by Pectobacterium are controlled mainly through use of healthy planting material, sanitation and copper sprays. Environmental factors, such as temperature, moisture and soil oxygen concentration, have a large effect on development of diseases caused by Pectobacterium and disease incidence can be unpredictable. The pathogen is spread by various mechanisms including water, seed, equipment and insects. Little is understood about plant resistance to soft rot bacterial pathogens and no commercial potato cultivars are resistant to soft rot, although some have tolerance and some wild potato species are resistant. Pectobacterium is a diverse genus, with multiple species capable of infecting potato. Multiple Pectobacterium species may be found in the same field and even on the same plant. Pectobacterium strains vary in aggressiveness and the virulence genes they encode but there are many commonalities across the genus. Over the past decade, genomic studies have provided new insights into Pectobacterium biology. For example, some Pectobacterium strains may elicit plant cell death to promote disease in leaves. Strains of the pathogen also produce an orange pigment and volatile compounds that increase virulence and that may act as insect kairomones. Recent work with a supervised machine learning program has identified several novel target genes likely to contribute to plant-microbe interactions, suggesting that there is still much to learn about how soft rot bacteria cause disease.
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
       
  • Rapid Colorimetric Detection of the Fungal Phytopathogen Synchytrium
           endobioticum Using Cyanine dye-Indicated PNA Hybridization
    • Abstract: Abstract Synchytrium endobioticum is a parasitic fungus that is considered to be the most important potato pathogen worldwide. Spread of the fungus can result in catastrophic impacts to agriculture and economy, as it is very infective and can survive in spore form for over 70 years. To date, the gold standard for S. endobioticum identification relies on visual classification by highly trained personnel. This paper presents the colorimetric detection of S. endobioticum from potato wart samples using a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe and a cyanine dye. A segment of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene was sequenced for several S. endobioticum pathotypes and used to design a species-specific PNA probe. The probe was used in a rapid colorimetric hybridization assay that detected RNA from infected wart tissue down to 10−17 mol within 15 min. This technique demonstrates potential for rapid identification of potato wart in non-laboratory settings with minimally trained staff.
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
       
  • Streptomyces – from Basic Microbiology to Role as a Plant Pathogen
    • Abstract: Abstract Streptomycetes are spore-forming Gram-positive bacteria found in soil in large numbers world-wide. More than 600 Streptomyces species have been described. The complex developmental morphology and molecular genetics of Streptomyces is connected to production of a wealth of secondary products, including more than 60% of antibiotics in industrial and pharmaceutical use. Streptomycetes have important roles in soil ecology as decomposers, though specific roles in microbial community structure and plant health are poorly understood. Some species are used as biocontrol agents while others have specific associations with potatoes as endophytes, pathogens or as part of plant rhizosphere communities. Very few species are plant pathogenic (ca. 1%), causing common scab disease on underground tubers in potatoes and root diseases in a broad range of host plants. Several unique aspects of Streptomyces as a plant pathogen are that (a) there is a main dominant pathogenicity determinant (thaxtomin); (b) only the developing underground stems, stolons and tubers are susceptible to potato common scab (CS); (c) Streptomyces does not incite a plant defense response; and (d) CS is not easily managed. The best available control is the use of resistant potato cultivars and there is wide variation in resistance (tolerance) among potato cultivars, though none is completely resistant. New molecular genetic tools, including the complete genome sequences of a number of plant pathogenic Streptomyces species and association mapping using the potato genome sequence, promise greater understanding of the genetics of CS tolerance and of regulation of thaxtomin production and contributory pathogenicity factors for better management of potato CS.
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
       
  • Introduction to 2013 Symposium on Bacterial Diseases of Potatoes
    • Abstract: Abstract Numerous bacterial diseases limit potato productivity. Healthy potato seed tubers are vital for sustaining the continued supply of potatoes between seasons. The pathogens that cause soft rots and ring rots of tubers, and wilting and stem and foliar necrosis may be introduced as secondary-infecting pathogens after the plant has been compromised or be disseminated within seed tubers. Recurrent and persistent bacterial soil-borne diseases have long plagued potato production systems, such as common scab. Recently, a more insidious bacterial disease that is vectored by the potato psyllid, Zebra chip appeared in North America and New Zealand. Although conventional agrochemical pest control has historically been generally ineffective for control of bacterial diseases of potatoes, integrated methods of bacterial disease management is driven by increasing concern over economic and environmental sustainability of potato production. The 2013 Potato Association of America Symposium entitled “Bacterial Disease Issues, Basic to Applied Aspects“ was organized to summarize persistent and emerging bacterial disease issues in potato production. Four speakers presented their experience with the underlying theme common in many academic circles, the process of applying basic research and applied research to benefit the food production system. On a sad note, Dr. Leslie Wanner who presented information on common scab of potato passed away on Christmas day, 2014. All who knew her will miss her. We have all benefited from her excellent and extensive research and spirit of collegiality.
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
       
  • Wild Yeast Strains as Prospective Candidates to Induce Resistance Against
           Potato Late Blight ( Phytophthora infestans )
    • Abstract: Abstract The potential for crop destruction by Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of the Late Blight of potato has not diminished since its impact led to the Irish potato famine. Potato production generally requires frequent applications of synthetic fungicides to hold this disease in check. As possible alternatives to fungicides, we investigated wild yeasts as bio-control agents. Ten strains of wild yeasts isolated from vineyards within Washington State were assessed for the ability to reduce effects of P. infestans in potato leaf assays, and for suppression of growth of selected plant pathogenic fungi in agar culture. Metschnidowia pulcherrima (Mp), Curibasidium pallidicorallinum (Cp), and Candida saitoana (Cs) strains applied to potato leaves prior to inoculation with P. infestans reduced symptoms in a manner suggestive of induced immunity. A narrow concentration range of Mp most favorably suppressed late blight symptoms. These and other wild yeast strains were shown to induce phytoalexin production in a pea system developed for monitoring nonhost resistance. Further work toward developing successful agricultural application of this biocontrol agent will require verification of resistance-inducing benefits under field conditions.
      PubDate: 2015-03-14
       
  • Zebra Chip Disease, Candidatus Liberibacter, and Potato Psyllid: A Global
           Threat to the Potato Industry
    • Abstract: Abstract Zebra chip (ZC), a new and economically important disease of potato in the United States, Mexico, Central America, and New Zealand, is caused by the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum”, transmitted to potato by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli. The disease has caused millions of dollars in losses to the potato industry. Whole crops have been rejected because of ZC, occasionally leading to abandonment of entire fields. Plant growth and yield are severely affected by the disease. Chips or fries processed from ZC-infected tubers exhibit dark stripes that become markedly more visible with frying, and hence are commercially unacceptable. Additionally, the disease causes serious losses to the fresh market, tablestock and export potato industry. ZC-infected tubers generally do not sprout and if they do, produce hair sprouts, weak, or short-lived plants. Furthermore, there are indications that ZC symptoms might develop in tubers during storage. All commercial potato cultivars are susceptible to ZC, thus management tactics targeted against the potato psyllid are currently the only means to effectively manage the disease. An overview of ZC history, geographic distribution, biology, epidemiology, and management are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-03-13
       
  • Field Performance of Cultivars Nicola and Russet Burbank Micro and
           Minitubers
    • Abstract: Abstract Tuber yield of plants from three sizes of in vitro produced microtubers were compared to yields of plants from three sizes of greenhouse produced minitubers of Nicola and Russet Burbank. Microtubers were: small-size, 0.2–1.5 g; mid-size, 1.5–3.0 g; and large-size, >3.0 g. Minitubers were: small-size, 15–20 g; mid-size, 20–40 g; and large-size, >40 g. Both cultivars produced more tubers with micro than with minitubers, 1,033,333 vs. 568,750 tubers/ha−1 for Nicola and 605,417 vs. 482,291 tubers/ha−1 for Russet Burbank. Within the same type of tuber, Nicola was not influenced by size. With Russet Burbank, however, large-size microtubers produced the highest number of tubers, 606,875 per ha−1, and small-size minitubers gave the lowest tuber number, 409,375 tubers/ha−1. Regarding tuber yield, the type of tuber did not influence either cultivar. Nicola was influenced neither by type nor by size of tubers. Russet Burbank, however, was sensitive to size of tubers, especially, within minitubers. Large-size mini and microtubers were the most productive, 49 and 40 t ha−1, respectively.
      PubDate: 2015-03-13
       
  • A Low Nutrient Solution Temperature and the Application of Stress
           Treatments Increase Potato Mini-tubers Production in an Aeroponic System
    • Abstract: Abstract This study was conducted to test the impact of the nutrient solution temperature and the application of different stress treatments at tuberization on several growth variables for two potato cultivars grown in an aeroponic system. At 25 days after transplanting, low pH level, wilting stress and nitrogen withdrawal under warm (24 °C) and cool (18 °C) root-zone temperatures were applied to potato plants cv. Mystere and Chieftain. Significant differences in mini-tuber production, stolon number and length and root length were observed among root zone temperatures, stress treatments and cultivars. Cooling the nutrient solution temperature to 18 °C significantly increased most growth variables and tuber yield for both cultivars. Plants subjected to nitrogen withdrawal at tuberization out-performed plants of the other treatments as well as the control and exhibited faster tuberization, higher mini-tuber number and weight as well as significantly higher root length, stolon number/plant and number of stolon branches/plant. The low pH and wilting treatments reduced plant growth and mini-tuber number/plant. They dramatically increased the number of stolon branches/plant and stolon number respectively. However, this increase did not counteract the negative effects on the other variables. The results of this study demonstrate that a judicious use of these stresses can effectively promote tuberization in aeroponics.
      PubDate: 2015-03-12
       
  • Genotype x Environment Interaction and Stability of Potato Tuber Yield and
           Bacterial Wilt Resistance in Kenya
    • Abstract: Abstract Genotype x environment interactions (GEI) slows the genetic progress in breeding through reduced selection gains. The additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis and genotype main effect and genotype x environment interaction (GGE) biplot analysis are widely used to measure stability of yield and its components. The objective of this study was to estimate the magnitude of GEI for potato tuber yield and bacterial wilt resistance and to identify the most discriminating and representative environments for potato testing in Kenya. The study was conducted in four environments. Forty eight potato families were evaluated using a 6 × 8 alpha lattice design replicated three times. Data on days from planting to onset of wilting, area under the disease progress curve, total tuber weight (t ha−1), total tuber numbers/hectare, proportion of ware sized tubers, proportion of symptomatic tubers based on weight, proportion of symptomatic tubers based on tuber numbers, and latent infection of the tubers were subjected to combined analysis of variance in order identify crosses that were resistant to bacterial wilt. Data on tuber yields were analysed using AMMI and GGE biplot methods in order to identify the highest yielding and most stable family as well as the most discriminating and yet representative test environment. Family 20 was closest to the ideal genotype; it was the highest yielding (104.686 t ha−1) and most stable; it was followed by family 43. The environment ENVI 1 was the closest to ideal environment and therefore the most desirable of the four test environments.
      PubDate: 2015-03-12
       
  • Effects of Cover Type and Harvest Date on Yield, Quality and
           Cost-Effectiveness of Early Potato Cultivation
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cover type (control, agro-textile or perforated plastic film) and harvest date (60 or 75 days after planting and at full physiological maturity) on the yield, quality and cost-effectiveness of early harvest potato cultivation. The study was conducted in the years 2008–2011, at the Gorzyń Experimental-Education Laboratory for Soil and Plant Cultivation, Gorzyń Branch, part of the University of Natural Sciences in Poznań. The experiment was set up in a split-plot randomized block design with four replications. Covers increased the total and marketable tuber yields at early harvest dates, in particular on the 60th day after planting, compared to the reference. Tubers cultivated under covers were also found to contain higher amounts of dry matter and starch than those which were not covered. The proportion of tuber fractions with a diameter between 4.6 and 5.5 cm and above in the total yield was found to be strongly dependent on cover type. The proportion of these fractions was significantly lower under plastic film than under Agro-textile. Over the 3 years cycle, high gross margins were achieved on the 60th and 75th days after planting with perforated film and agro-textile.
      PubDate: 2015-03-12
       
  • Effect of NPK Media Concentrations on In Vitro Potato Tuberization of
           Cultivars Nicola and Russet Burbank
    • Abstract: Abstract Our objective was to test whether the NPK levels in commonly used Murashige and Skoog (MS) media are optimal for microtuberiztion for the two cultivars tested. Two N (N1 = 841 and N2 = 1418 mg L−1); three P (P1 = 39, P2 = 76.9 and P3 = 115 mg L−1; and two K (K1 = 784 and K2 = 1518 mg L−1) media concentrations were evaluated for microtuberization. Higher levels of N2P3K2 were more effective for microtuberization than the lower levels of N1P1K1 in standard MS media. N2P3K2 was the best concentration for all yield components studied, tuber number, tuber weight, and stem and root weight. For the two cultivars, our results suggest that higher NPK levels than those in MS media would enhance in vitro microtuberization, and that optimum NPK levels could vary for cultivars.
      PubDate: 2015-03-12
       
  • Why Genomics Research on Pectobacterium and Dickeya Makes a Difference
    • Abstract: Abstract The genome sequence of Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pba), one of the most economically damaging bacterial diseases of potato in temperate regions, was published in 2004. Even though, at the time, the number of completely sequenced bacterial genomes numbered only in the low hundreds we were able to use comparative genomics techniques to identify novel regions of DNA that were specific to Pba or only shared with closely related bacteria. Pba was found to contain many genes that were previously undescribed in this group of pathogens but were potentially coding for pathogenicity determinants, some of which appeared to be involved in either triggering or suppressing the plant’s disease resistance processes. Our work since then has employed functional genomics methods to elucidate the ways in which this pathogen interacts with plants and causes disease, and how it has acquired the means to do this. These studies have allowed us to demonstrate a role in pathogenesis for bacterial genes, and to identify potato genes involved in resistance, leading to production of a transgenic potato plant that was fully resistant to the pathogen. Pba genes involved in phenotypes suited to a plant-associated lifestyle were also identified, with roles including attachment to, and colonization of, the roots of both crops and weeds. This understanding has led us to study alternative host plants for Pba in the environment, and the importance of this mode of environmental persistence for pathogen epidemiology and its spread to and between potato crops. Recently, we sequenced 25 strains representing the species range of the related phytopathogenic Dickeya genus (all formerly Erwinia chrysanthemi). Comparative genomic analyses of these sequences enabled application of a novel bioinformatics pipeline for generating diagnostic primers, enabling assays for the soft rot potato pathogens D. dianthicola and D. solani (which are an increasing problem on potato in Europe) as well as other Dickeya species. These assays are currently being validated for molecular diagnostic testing by a number of European plant health laboratories.
      PubDate: 2015-03-12
       
  • R2 - like Gene Contributes to Resistance to Phytophthora infestans in
           Polish Potato Cultivar Bzura
    • Abstract: Abstract Potato cultivar Bzura bred in 1986 is one of the few European cultivars outstanding in high level of durable resistance to late blight, but its resistance has not been characterized. The presented study was aimed at clarifying bases of durable resistance in Bzura by testing its resistance and resistance in progeny individuals. In ten-year field experiment Bzura was significantly more resistant than mid-resistant standards Escort and Robijn, and only slightly less resistant than highly resistant Sárpo Mira. Bzura expressed also high resistance in detached leaflet tests when inoculated with specific isolates of Phytophthora infestans. It was found in Bzura progeny that this race-specific resistance segregated in 1:1 ratio and is governed by a major resistance gene R2-like. However, the long-lasting field resistance observed in Bzura could be explained by combination of R2-like gene and specific genetic background of this cultivar rather than by this gene exclusively.
      PubDate: 2015-02-13
       
  • Attainable CO 2 Emission of Ware Potatoes Under High Yield Conditions in
           Southern Chile
    • Abstract: Abstract The objective of the analysis was to calculate the attainable CO2 emissions associated with the production of one ton of potatoes in a high yield environment in southern Chile. Two field experiments were performed. The first field experiment used an optimal sowing date while the second experiment used a late sowing date. In each experiment, treatments were the factorial combination of (i) four N fertilization rates (0, 75, 150 and 250 kg N ha−1) and (ii) four P fertilization rates (0, 150, 300 33 and 450 kg P2O5 ha−1). The Cool Farm Tool – Potato (CFT) was used to calculate the amount of CO2 produced per one ton of potatoes and LINTUL-Potato was used to simulate potential yields. High variations in tuber yields were observed across experiments (90 and 36 t ha−1). The average tuber yield in experiment one (82 t ha−1) was greater than experiment two (51 t ha−1). Tuber yields were not significantly affected by N fertilization in either experiment. In contrast, tuber yield responded (P < 0.01) positively to P fertilization (10–82 %). The gaps between maximum and potential yields simulated in experiments one and two were 4 and 14 %, respectively. In experiment one, the average total CO2 emissions per ton of potatoes were lower than experiment two (41 and 72 kg CO2 eq t−1, respectively). In both experiments the total CO2 emissions were affected (P < 0.01) by both N and P fertilization. We conclude an average CO2 emission of 46 CO2 eq t−1 could be considered an attainable value for potato production systems with high technology intending to improve their carbon footprints in southern Chile.
      PubDate: 2015-02-12
       
  • A One-Step, Real-Time Reverse Transcription Loopmediated Isothermal
           Amplification Assay to Detect Potato Virus Y
    • Abstract: Abstract Potato viruses such as Potato virus Y (PVY) cause diseases that affect potato quality and thus damage potato production worldwide. Current tests for viral infection use double-antibody sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (DAS‑ELISA) or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)/real-time RT-PCR. Despite many advantages, these assays have a number of drawbacks that affect cost and time of diagnosis. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) allows fast detection of target RNA. Here, we developed a closed-tube real-time RT‑LAMP assay for fluorescent detection of PVY. Specific RT-LAMP primers were designed to target the conserved region of the sequence encoding the PVY coat protein. The assay was specific and facilitated sensitive PVY detection in a single tube at 65 °C. The time-to-positive values depended on the PVY concentration in tested samples. The effectiveness of RT‑LAMP in testing field-grown plants compared favorably with DAS‑ELISA and RT-PCR; under the tested conditions, RT-LAMP was about 1000-fold more sensitive than DAS‑ELISA and lateral flow assay (LFA) and about 10-fold more sensitive than RT‑PCR. Thus, this fluorescent RT-LAMP assay has great potential for routine detection of PVY.
      PubDate: 2015-02-11
       
  • High-Fidelity PCR Improves the Detection of ‘ Candidatus
           Liberibacter solanacearum’ in Potato Tubers
    • Abstract: Abstract Zebra chip disease (ZC) of potato tubers, caused by the unculturable bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) can be difficult to detect from potato tuber tissue. The polymerase chain reaction is an important tool for the detection of plant pathogens, but there are limits to its sensitivity. High-fidelity PCR incorporates a proofreading enzyme with 3′-5′ exonuclease activity and has been shown to increase detection of pathogens when the titer is low or when large amounts of competitor DNA or other host cellular contents inhibit PCR amplification. In this study, high-fidelity PCR and conventional PCR protocols were performed on tubers presenting ZC symptoms. Asymptomatic tubers were used as control. The high-fidelity PCR increased detection of Lso from symptomatic tubers by 30–40 % over conventional PCR. Slight modifications were made from previous high-fidelity protocols to decrease testing time and simplify the protocol.
      PubDate: 2015-02-11
       
  • The Effect of High Temperature Occurring in Subsequent Stages of Plant
           Development on Potato Yield and Tuber Physiological Defects
    • Abstract: Abstract Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is characterized by specific temperature requirements and develops best at about 20 °C. High temperatures during the growing season cause an array of changes in potato plants, which affect its development and may lead to a drastic reduction in economic yield. In natural conditions drought and heat stress are two different types of abiotic stresses that occur in the field simultaneously or separately, in the case of irrigation use on potato plantations. The aim of this work was to assess the response of six potato cultivars to high temperature during the subsequent stages of plant growth under conditions of good soil moisture and drought. The pot experiment was carried out with the cultivars: Aruba, Desirée, Etola, Finezja, Flaming and Tetyda. The impact of high temperature day/ night 35 °C/25 °C on potato plants was tested in three periods: June 16–30, July 1–15 and July 16–30. In these periods half of the plants were watered to a level close to optimal, while the other half remained without irrigation. Final harvest was performed after full maturity of plants in the control combination. Our studies confirm the view that potato productivity is greatly reduced at temperatures higher than optimum. Here we demonstrated that tested potato cultivar’s response to high temperature during the growing season is dependent on the growth stage. The earlier a heat occurs, the more negative its impact on the growth and total yield of potatoes. The results obtained in this study indicate that among the tested cultivars ‘Tetyda’ was the most tolerant to high temperature acting on the plants during the growing season. Our research shows that the total yield is not the only indicator of potato tolerance to high temperature during the growing season, but the assessment should also take into account the occurrence of secondary tuberization and physiological defects of tubers.
      PubDate: 2015-02-11
       
  • Rapid Cycling of Potato Tuber Generations by Overcoming Dormancy
    • Abstract: Abstract Dormancy hinders progress in attempts to fast track potato tuber generations. In this study, we evaluated the ability of gibberellic acid (GA) to overcome dormancy in freshly harvested tubers of 11 potato cultivars in 2 years of field trials. Tubers were wounded and dipped in 0, 10, 100, and 1,000 ppm GA. Then they were planted in the field 5 days later. Vine length and stem number were measured throughout the season. Tubers were also harvested and weighed. Cultivars varied in their response to GA treatment. However, for all cultivars, wounding followed by treatment with 10 or 100 ppm effectively overcame dormancy. The 1,000 ppm treatment produced excessive vine growth and lower yield compared to the lower concentrations. Consequently, wounding of freshly harvested tubers, followed by a dip in 10 or 100 ppm GA is recommended to overcome tuber dormancy in programs interested in rapid cycling.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
       
  • Soil Phosphorus Increases Dry Matter and Nutrient Accumulation and
           Allocation in Potato Cultivars
    • Abstract: Abstract Understanding the influence of P in the pattern of production and partitioning of dry matter (DM) and nutrients to the tubers of potato cultivars is critical for development of rational fertilization strategies to optimize tuber yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of soil P availability (Low P: 10 mg dm−3 and High P: 111 mg dm−3) in the leaf nutrients concentration, nutrients and DM accumulation and allocation to tubers of five potato cultivars (Agata, Asterix, Atlantic, Markies, and Mondial). The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions in pots containing 35 L of a Typic Acrortox soil. High P availability in the soil increased P concentrations in all plant organs, uptake of P and Cu, and DM production of all potato cultivars. The cultivars showed differences in the harvest index (HI) and uptake and allocation of N, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, and Zn to the tubers in response to P supply. Even with higher whole plant DM production and HI under high P availability in the soil, some of the cultivars did not increase the uptake and proportion allocated to the tubers of some nutrients as a response to the high P supply. This highly controlled greenhouse experiment was able to reveal cultivar differences in DM, HI, and nutrient accumulation influenced by P, a first step toward future studies exploiting these differences in the field production environment.
      PubDate: 2014-12-06
       
 
 
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