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AGRICULTURE (489 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta agriculturae Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Agrobotanica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Agronomica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Agronomica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Technologica Agriculturae     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Agriculture & Botanics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
AFBM Journal     Open Access  
Africa Development     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Horticultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Agribusiness : an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agricultural Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agricultural and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Agricultural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 83)
Agricultural History Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Agricultural Science     Open Access  
Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Agricultural Sciences in China     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Agriprobe     Full-text available via subscription  
Agriscientia     Open Access  
Agrivita : Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Agroalimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agrociencia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomie Africaine     Full-text available via subscription  
Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Agrosearch     Open Access  
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alinteri Zirai Bilimler Dergisi : Alinteri Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Ambiência     Open Access  
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Botany     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
APCBEE Procedia     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Applied Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied Financial Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access  
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Grain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Agricultural Engineering     Open Access  
Australian Sugarcane     Full-text available via subscription  
Avances en Investigacion Agropecuaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berkala Ilmiah Pertanian     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioagro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Biological Agriculture & Horticulture : An International Journal for Sustainable Production Systems     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Biosystems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Journal Cover   American Journal of Potato Research
  [SJR: 0.519]   [H-I: 29]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1874-9380 - ISSN (Online) 1099-209X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2302 journals]
  • ATTX961014-1R/Y a.k.a. Sierra Rose TM : A Red-Skin, Yellow-Flesh Potato
           Cultivar for the Specialty/Gourmet Market
    • Abstract: ATTX961014-1R/Y is a high yielding, red- skin, yellow- flesh cultivar which was released by Texas A&M AgriLife Research in 2012. It resulted from a cross of A90601-2RDY(♀) by Mazama(♂). ATTX961014-1R/Y is susceptible to late blight (Phytophthora infestans), potato leaf roll virus (PLRV), and potato virus Y (PVY). It is moderately susceptible to common scab (Streptomyces scabies) and black scurf (Rhizoctonia solani). In addition to attractive tubers, ATTX961014-1R/Y produces excellent tuber size distribution, with high yields of 4-6-oz (113–170-g) tubers that are desirable for the gourmet/specialty market, and low yields of over-size and cull tubers. Cooking and culinary qualities meet or exceed Yukon Gold, Red LaSoda, and Dark Red Norland. ATTX961014-1R/Y received the highest average fresh merit scores in both the Southwestern and Western Regional Trials.
      PubDate: 2015-05-05
  • Assessment of Potato Psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)
           and Zebra Chip Disease in Four Commercial Potato Varieties in the Columbia
    • Abstract: Potato varieties may respond differently to the occurrence of arthropod pests including plant-pathogen. Although the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli Sulc. (Hemiptera:Triozidae), the putative vector of Zebra Chip (ZC) disease, has been historically reported in the southern, central and western United States, the occurrence of the disease in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) is relatively new. Thus, there is a lack of information about infestation levels in commercial varieties, including russet potatoes, the predominant variety type of the region. In addition, susceptibility of russet varieties to ZC, which has become a serious production threat for the PNW since 2011, has not been thoroughly investigated. In the current 2-year study, the level of potato psyllid infestations and the impact of ZC disease in four commercial potato varieties, Ranger Russet, Russet Burbank, Umatilla Russet and Premier Russet, was evaluated. Psyllid adults were collected using a vacuum sampler based on an inverted leaf blower design, and leaf samples were used to collect eggs and nymphs. Also, ZC incidence and severity in fresh tubers was determined. The number of naturally occurring adults, nymphs and eggs per sample was similar among varieties suggesting a lack of affinity for any given variety. There was a positive relationship between the number of infective psyllids and disease incidence in 2011, while no relationship was detected in 2012. Although all varieties were equally susceptible to the disease, Ranger Russet numerically had the highest ZC incidence in tubers and Umatilla Russet the lowest.
      PubDate: 2015-05-05
  • Variation for Tuber Greening in the Diploid Wild Potato Solanum
    • Abstract: Greening of the tuber skin is an undesirable defect in fresh and processed potato. Tubers of 92 Solanum microdontum families represented by 12 individuals each were generated in the winter greenhouse in 2009–2010. These were evaluated in two trials of family bulks after 4 days of exposure to 200 ft candles of fluorescent white light at room temperature, similar to that observed in local grocery stores, and according to preliminary tests, able to turn some microdontum tubers very green. A qualitative score of green (G) or white (W) was assigned to each tuber. Tubers of about 10 % of families were scored as mostly W. In comparison, when 185 named Solanum tuberosum cultivars were illuminated in the same way, none from Europe or North America scored W. Two replicates of G and W individual tubers were selected from a variety of microdontum families and planted to create a new clonal generation of tubers. Those second generation daughter tubers showed a response to illumination which was consistent with that of the previous clonal generation. Finally, W and G clones were selected and mated. All GxG hybrids were uniformly G, but only three WxW crosses produced families that were nearly uniformly W. Thus some selections were shown to have consistent non-greening over trials spaced in time, over a clonal generation, and, when crossed together produced pure non-greening progeny. On the other hand, several very green selections similarly were consistently very green over time, clonal regeneration, and intermating. Tests of tuber tissue for glycoalkaloids showed that some illuminated clones neither green nor accumulate glycoalkaloids. These materials would make good models for further study of inheritance and physiology of the greening trait, and for breeding.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
  • Comparative Study of Soft Computing Methodologies for Energy
           Input–Output Analysis to Predict Potato Production
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was developed to predict potato production in Iran. Data related to potato yield from 2010 to 2011 was collected from 50 potato producers in Hamedan, Iran. The resulting ANFIS network has an input layer with eight neurons and an output layer with a single neuron (potato yield). The energy inputs were manual labor, diesel, chemical fertilizers, and manure from farm animals, chemicals, machinery, water, and seed. The most significant and influential inputs were selected from the eight initial inputs and the ANFIS network was used to choose the parameters that have the most influence on potato yield. A new ANFIS model was created after the three most influential parameters were selected. The new ANFIS model was then utilized to estimate yield using the three energy inputs. Next, the ANFIS model results were compared with the results from the support vector regression (SVR) technique. The end results revealed that ANFIS provided more accurate predictions and had the capacity to generalize. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r) for ANFIS potato yield prediction was 0.9999 in the training and testing phases, while the SVR model had a correlation coefficient of 0.8484 in training and 0.9984 in testing.
      PubDate: 2015-04-28
  • A Multiplex Reverse Transcription (RT) High-Fidelity PCR Protocol for the
           Detection of Six Viruses that Cause Potato Tuber Necrosis
    • Abstract: Abstract Viruses that cause necrotic symptoms in potato tubers can be difficult to distinguish based on symptoms and frequently require multiple molecular tests to identify the pathogen. In this study, a multiplex RT PCR high fidelity PCR protocol was developed using previously validated primers that could accurately detect six important potato viruses and detect multiple viruses in a single sample simultaneously. To test the protocol, 53 tubers previously tested using conventional PCR were retested using this multiplex protocol and blindly evaluated. In every case, the multiplex PCR results were consistent with previous findings. In addition, the multiplex PCR protocol also detected several mixed infections that were previously undetected. The results demonstrate that this technique could be a valuable assay not only for diagnostic laboratories, but also for seed certification and regulatory agency laboratories to diagnose the virus(es) that may be present in tubers with surface or internal necrotic symptoms.
      PubDate: 2015-04-24
  • Site, Year and Cultivar Effects on Relationships Between Periderm Nutrient
           Contents and Common Scab Severity
    • Abstract: Abstract Common scab (CS) severity was assessed in relationship to mineral contents of potato periderm in 18 cultivars varying in maturity period and CS susceptibility. Two field experiments, one repeated in 3 years, were conducted. The effect of site, cultivar and growing period on the disease severity was always significant but not that of year to year variability. Zn, Mn and Fe periderm contents were related to site, while Ca content to cultivar effects. In both experiments, the CS severity was positively correlated to calcium and negatively to phosphorus periderm content, while correlations of CS severity to other nutrients were dependent on site or year. Since soil pH, Ca and P soil contents were not different between sites, relatively small differences in other soil chemical characteristics combined with specific cultivar nutrient requirements seemed to determine the CS severity.
      PubDate: 2015-04-22
  • Review of Potato Molecular Markers to Enhance Trait Selection
    • Abstract: Noncommercial varieties of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) harbor genetic potential for improvements of disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance in commercial potato cultivars; however, introducing traits from noncommercial varieties to breeding stock can be extremely labor intensive. Molecular genetic markers closely associated with a trait can be used to decrease the time spent phenotyping varieties. Here we review genetic markers that have been used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in potato. Most MAS markers have been used to detect disease resistance genes, and our review focuses on those markers. Complex traits such as cold, drought and viral tolerance can be studied by comparing expressed genes; next-generation sequencing technologies will help in the discovery of trait-specific molecular markers. This review aids in summarizing the potential of these molecular tools when breeding for complex traits in potato.
      PubDate: 2015-04-15
  • Strategies for Selecting Stable Common Scab Resistant Clones in a Potato
           Breeding Program
    • Abstract: Common scab (CS) of potato, caused by Streptomyces scabies, is an important disease in the US. CS problems can be avoided using resistant varieties. However, evaluating breeding clones can be complicated by high location and season-based soil and environmental variation. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of screening for CS resistance within the Wisconsin breeding program across multiple environments from 2006 to 2013. In each trial, 60–160 clones were evaluated. We compared the ability to select for CS resistance in a set of 18 dedicated CS screening trials (DST) versus 18 similar parallel standard breeding trials (SBT). Heritability for CS rating across DST was 0.83 vs. 0.53 in SBT. Data analysis from DST was able to separate CS susceptible cultivars (Atlantic, Snowden) from resistant cultivars (Pike, Snowden). However, same data analysis from SBT was not able to separate susceptible from resistant cultivars. Using DST datasets, we estimated the genotypic stability of scab performance across years and locations. We also calculated the probability distributions for the better or worse performance of a given clone vs. a standard variety. Using results from six or more DST we identified five round white clones that outperformed or matched CS tolerant Pike, eleven russet clones that outperformed or matched CS tolerant Russet Burbank and five red or yellow skin clones that outperformed or matched CS resistance level of Dark Red Norland. The approaches utilized here offer useful additional information for breeding programs which aim to improve selection efficiency for scab resistance.
      PubDate: 2015-04-15
  • Investigations on Putative Zebra Chip Tolerant Potato Selections
    • Abstract: ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) has emerged as a devastating pathogen of solanaceous and other vegetable crops. In potato, Lso is the causative agent of zebra chip (ZC) disease, which threatens production in North and Central America and New Zealand. Lso has caused significant economic losses to the potato industry in Texas since the emergence of the disease in 2000. Presently, disease control relies on pesticide applications, but efforts are under way to identify plant resistance. The objective of this work was to validate the most promising cultivars identified as potentially resistant or tolerant to ZC from previous field trials in different Texas locations and in multiple years. An important component of the study was the development of protocols to effectively evaluate resistance or tolerance. Results show that, while none of the tested cultivars displayed resistance against ZC, differences in susceptibility among them were confirmed. Results also demonstrated the importance of performing cage trials in which vector and disease pressure can be controlled.
      PubDate: 2015-04-15
  • The Potato Association of America Honorary Life Members, 2014
    • PubDate: 2015-04-04
  • Assessing SNPs Versus RAPDs for Predicting Heterogeneity and Screening
           Efficiency in Wild Potato ( Solanum ) Species
    • Abstract: Knowing how genetic diversity is partitioned among and within wild potato species populations is important for efficient sampling for collection, preservation and evaluation. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of SNPs for assessing germplasm by using the exact set of four model species previously evaluated by RAPDs. To avoid large numbers of SNP samples, population bulks of 25 plants were used, and original RAPD data was adjusted to match SNP genotype data. It was noted that especially for SNPs, it was necessary to examine only loci polymorphic within species to get a realistic view of genetic partitioning within species. This resulted in only a few hundred useful loci for some species. When considering among-population versus within-population partitioning of diversity, both SNPs and RAPDs distinguished the species as expected according to their known breeding system. Primitive wild species were confirmed as very heterogeneous within their populations. Both SNP and RAPD markers can be used to help breeders and genebank managers understand patterns and use in potato germplasm diversity.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
  • Variation of Resistance to Different Strains of Ralstonia Solanacearum in
           Highland Tropics Adapted Potato Genotypes
    • Abstract: Ten potato genotypes with field resistance to bacterial wilt were evaluated for resistance to five strains of Ralstonia solanacearum belonging to biovars 1, 2A, 2T and 3 (phylotypes I and II) under greenhouse conditions. The plants were inoculated by pouring bacterial suspension into the soil and wilt incidence was recorded weekly. Stems and tubers of symptomless plants were tested for latent infection using post-enrichment NCM-ELISA. The analysis of variance of the percentage of infected plants indicated significant differences among potato genotypes and strains of R.solanacearum. Complete resistance to all tested strains was not observed in any of the potato genotypes. However, CIP 394895.7 was the most resistant genotype, showing hardly any wilting and low level of latent infections. The use of potato varieties with partial resistance like this genotype in combination with crop rotation, healthy seed and sanitation practices could significantly reduce losses due to bacterial wilt.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
  • The Aluminum Cryo-plate Increases Efficiency of Cryopreservation Protocols
           for Potato Shoot Tips
    • Abstract: The possibility of streamlining general cryoprotection procedures is investigated using aluminium cryoplates with wells, facilitating fluid handling and drying treatment. Precultured shoot tips of potato cultivar ‘Sayaka’ were embedded in calcium alginate gel in wells of the aluminium cryo-plates. In the V cryo-plate protocol, dehydration was performed for 30 min at 25 °C in plant vitrification solution after osmoprotection. In the D cryo-plate protocol, dehydration was performed by placing the cryo-plates for 2.0 h under an air current in a laminar flow cabinet after osmoprotection. In both protocols, cooling was performed by placing the cryo-plates in uncapped cryotubes, which were immersed in liquid nitrogen. For rewarming, the cryo-plates were immersed in liquid MS medium supplemented with 1.0 M sucrose and diluted for 15 min at room temperature. Under these conditions, regrowth rates of cryopreserved shoot tips in V cryo-plate and D cryo-plate were 96.7 and 93.3 %, respectively. Both protocols will facilitate efficient strategies for preservation, storage, and maintenance of genetic stability of important potato germplasm.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
  • Field Assessment of AtCBF1 Transgenic Potato Lines ( Solanum tuberosum )
           for Drought Tolerance
    • Abstract: Drought prone areas have been increasing around the world and it is expected that these areas will continue to expand and become more severe due to climate change. Increasing the drought stress tolerance of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) could aid in feeding the growing global population. The Arabidopsis CBF1 gene (AtCBF1), which has been shown to increase drought tolerance in other plants, was transformed into a cultivated potato line under the control of the stress inducible promoter COR15a. The expression of the AtCBF1 transgene was verified by RT-PCR and the transformed lines were evaluated in field trials to assess agronomic performance under sub-optimal water management. Despite expression of the AtCBF1 gene, none of the transgenic lines out-performed the control cultivar under drought-stressed conditions. Abiotic stress responsive genes from cultivated potato and wild related species may yield more promising results thus CBF1 genes from S. tuberosum and S. commersonii will be transformed into the potato cultivar Desiree and will be field tested for drought tolerance.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
  • Streptomyces – from Basic Microbiology to Role as a Plant Pathogen
    • Abstract: Streptomycetes are spore-forming Gram-positive bacteria found in soil in large numbers world-wide. More than 600 Streptomyces species have been described. The complex developmental morphology and molecular genetics of Streptomyces is connected to production of a wealth of secondary products, including more than 60% of antibiotics in industrial and pharmaceutical use. Streptomycetes have important roles in soil ecology as decomposers, though specific roles in microbial community structure and plant health are poorly understood. Some species are used as biocontrol agents while others have specific associations with potatoes as endophytes, pathogens or as part of plant rhizosphere communities. Very few species are plant pathogenic (ca. 1%), causing common scab disease on underground tubers in potatoes and root diseases in a broad range of host plants. Several unique aspects of Streptomyces as a plant pathogen are that (a) there is a main dominant pathogenicity determinant (thaxtomin); (b) only the developing underground stems, stolons and tubers are susceptible to potato common scab (CS); (c) Streptomyces does not incite a plant defense response; and (d) CS is not easily managed. The best available control is the use of resistant potato cultivars and there is wide variation in resistance (tolerance) among potato cultivars, though none is completely resistant. New molecular genetic tools, including the complete genome sequences of a number of plant pathogenic Streptomyces species and association mapping using the potato genome sequence, promise greater understanding of the genetics of CS tolerance and of regulation of thaxtomin production and contributory pathogenicity factors for better management of potato CS.
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
  • Introduction to 2013 Symposium on Bacterial Diseases of Potatoes
    • Abstract: Numerous bacterial diseases limit potato productivity. Healthy potato seed tubers are vital for sustaining the continued supply of potatoes between seasons. The pathogens that cause soft rots and ring rots of tubers, and wilting and stem and foliar necrosis may be introduced as secondary-infecting pathogens after the plant has been compromised or be disseminated within seed tubers. Recurrent and persistent bacterial soil-borne diseases have long plagued potato production systems, such as common scab. Recently, a more insidious bacterial disease that is vectored by the potato psyllid, Zebra chip appeared in North America and New Zealand. Although conventional agrochemical pest control has historically been generally ineffective for control of bacterial diseases of potatoes, integrated methods of bacterial disease management is driven by increasing concern over economic and environmental sustainability of potato production. The 2013 Potato Association of America Symposium entitled “Bacterial Disease Issues, Basic to Applied Aspects“ was organized to summarize persistent and emerging bacterial disease issues in potato production. Four speakers presented their experience with the underlying theme common in many academic circles, the process of applying basic research and applied research to benefit the food production system. On a sad note, Dr. Leslie Wanner who presented information on common scab of potato passed away on Christmas day, 2014. All who knew her will miss her. We have all benefited from her excellent and extensive research and spirit of collegiality.
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
  • Zebra Chip Disease, Candidatus Liberibacter, and Potato Psyllid: A Global
           Threat to the Potato Industry
    • Abstract: Abstract Zebra chip (ZC), a new and economically important disease of potato in the United States, Mexico, Central America, and New Zealand, is caused by the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum”, transmitted to potato by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli. The disease has caused millions of dollars in losses to the potato industry. Whole crops have been rejected because of ZC, occasionally leading to abandonment of entire fields. Plant growth and yield are severely affected by the disease. Chips or fries processed from ZC-infected tubers exhibit dark stripes that become markedly more visible with frying, and hence are commercially unacceptable. Additionally, the disease causes serious losses to the fresh market, tablestock and export potato industry. ZC-infected tubers generally do not sprout and if they do, produce hair sprouts, weak, or short-lived plants. Furthermore, there are indications that ZC symptoms might develop in tubers during storage. All commercial potato cultivars are susceptible to ZC, thus management tactics targeted against the potato psyllid are currently the only means to effectively manage the disease. An overview of ZC history, geographic distribution, biology, epidemiology, and management are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-03-13
  • Field Performance of Cultivars Nicola and Russet Burbank Micro and
    • Abstract: Tuber yield of plants from three sizes of in vitro produced microtubers were compared to yields of plants from three sizes of greenhouse produced minitubers of Nicola and Russet Burbank. Microtubers were: small-size, 0.2–1.5 g; mid-size, 1.5–3.0 g; and large-size, >3.0 g. Minitubers were: small-size, 15–20 g; mid-size, 20–40 g; and large-size, >40 g. Both cultivars produced more tubers with micro than with minitubers, 1,033,333 vs. 568,750 tubers/ha−1 for Nicola and 605,417 vs. 482,291 tubers/ha−1 for Russet Burbank. Within the same type of tuber, Nicola was not influenced by size. With Russet Burbank, however, large-size microtubers produced the highest number of tubers, 606,875 per ha−1, and small-size minitubers gave the lowest tuber number, 409,375 tubers/ha−1. Regarding tuber yield, the type of tuber did not influence either cultivar. Nicola was influenced neither by type nor by size of tubers. Russet Burbank, however, was sensitive to size of tubers, especially, within minitubers. Large-size mini and microtubers were the most productive, 49 and 40 t ha−1, respectively.
      PubDate: 2015-03-13
  • Effect of NPK Media Concentrations on In Vitro Potato Tuberization of
           Cultivars Nicola and Russet Burbank
    • Abstract: Our objective was to test whether the NPK levels in commonly used Murashige and Skoog (MS) media are optimal for microtuberiztion for the two cultivars tested. Two N (N1 = 841 and N2 = 1418 mg L−1); three P (P1 = 39, P2 = 76.9 and P3 = 115 mg L−1; and two K (K1 = 784 and K2 = 1518 mg L−1) media concentrations were evaluated for microtuberization. Higher levels of N2P3K2 were more effective for microtuberization than the lower levels of N1P1K1 in standard MS media. N2P3K2 was the best concentration for all yield components studied, tuber number, tuber weight, and stem and root weight. For the two cultivars, our results suggest that higher NPK levels than those in MS media would enhance in vitro microtuberization, and that optimum NPK levels could vary for cultivars.
      PubDate: 2015-03-12
  • Why Genomics Research on Pectobacterium and Dickeya Makes a Difference
    • Abstract: The genome sequence of Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pba), one of the most economically damaging bacterial diseases of potato in temperate regions, was published in 2004. Even though, at the time, the number of completely sequenced bacterial genomes numbered only in the low hundreds we were able to use comparative genomics techniques to identify novel regions of DNA that were specific to Pba or only shared with closely related bacteria. Pba was found to contain many genes that were previously undescribed in this group of pathogens but were potentially coding for pathogenicity determinants, some of which appeared to be involved in either triggering or suppressing the plant’s disease resistance processes. Our work since then has employed functional genomics methods to elucidate the ways in which this pathogen interacts with plants and causes disease, and how it has acquired the means to do this. These studies have allowed us to demonstrate a role in pathogenesis for bacterial genes, and to identify potato genes involved in resistance, leading to production of a transgenic potato plant that was fully resistant to the pathogen. Pba genes involved in phenotypes suited to a plant-associated lifestyle were also identified, with roles including attachment to, and colonization of, the roots of both crops and weeds. This understanding has led us to study alternative host plants for Pba in the environment, and the importance of this mode of environmental persistence for pathogen epidemiology and its spread to and between potato crops. Recently, we sequenced 25 strains representing the species range of the related phytopathogenic Dickeya genus (all formerly Erwinia chrysanthemi). Comparative genomic analyses of these sequences enabled application of a novel bioinformatics pipeline for generating diagnostic primers, enabling assays for the soft rot potato pathogens D. dianthicola and D. solani (which are an increasing problem on potato in Europe) as well as other Dickeya species. These assays are currently being validated for molecular diagnostic testing by a number of European plant health laboratories.
      PubDate: 2015-03-12
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