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AGRICULTURE (524 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta agriculturae Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Agrobotanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Agronomica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Agronomica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access  
Acta Technologica Agriculturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria     Open Access  
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Agriculture & Botanics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
AFBM Journal     Open Access  
Africa Development     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
African Journal of Horticultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Agra Europe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agribusiness : an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultural Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Agricultural Commodities     Full-text available via subscription  
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Agricultural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 76)
Agricultural History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Agricultural Science     Open Access  
Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agricultural Sciences in China     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Full-text available via subscription  
Agriculture and Food Sciences Research     Open Access  
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Agriprobe     Full-text available via subscription  
Agriscientia     Open Access  
Agrivita : Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Agroalimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agrociencia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agrociencia Uruguay     Open Access  
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía Colombiana     Open Access  
Agronomía Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access  
Agronomie Africaine     Full-text available via subscription  
Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrosearch     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Alinteri Zirai Bilimler Dergisi : Alinteri Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Ambiência     Open Access  
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Botany     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
APCBEE Procedia     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Applied Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Applied Financial Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access  
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Grain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Agricultural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Sugarcane     Full-text available via subscription  
Avances en Investigacion Agropecuaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics     Full-text available via subscription  
Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover American Journal of Potato Research
  [SJR: 0.519]   [H-I: 29]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1874-9380 - ISSN (Online) 1099-209X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2280 journals]
  • Grading Seed Potato Lots to Remove Tubers with Powdery Scab Damage may not
           Eliminate the Pathogen Threat
    • Abstract: Abstract Grading seed tubers is a common practice to remove visually diseased tubers and meet certification standards. This study sought to quantify Spongospora subterranea inocula, the causal agent of powdery scab in eight commercial seedlots prior to and following grading. Pathogen levels generally decreased although the extent of reduction was dependant on the mean disease level within each seedlot, prior to grading. Where mean seedlot disease incidence was high (20 to 40 %) grading was not effective, reducing pathogen levels by only 2-fold (P > 0.05) on the visually disease-free seed following grading which remained a high risk for disease in progeny plants. However, where mean seedlot disease incidence was low (5 to 7 %) grading substantially reduced S. subterranea inoculum (12–23-fold, P < 0.05) on the visually disease-free seed to low risk levels. In further pot and field trials, planting visually disease-free tubers graded from contaminated lines gave variable disease levels in progeny plants, although under conducive conditions resulted in root and tuber disease no different to planting diseased seed.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08
  • Influence of a Native Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigenum Potato Variety on
           Management of the Guatemalan Potato Moth in the Venezuelan Andes
    • Abstract: Abstract Smallholder farmers in the Venezuelan Andes have observed that native Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigenum (Andigena) potato varieties are less susceptible to damage from the invasive pest, Tecia solanivora P. (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) than improved varieties. Surprisingly, the value of using Andigena varieties in the management of T. solanivora remains unexplored. Field trials were established in Misinta, Venezuela, to assess T. solanivora damage on potatoes from an Andigena variety, ‘Imilla negra’, and two improved varieties, ‘Andinita’ and ‘Unica’. The influence of intercropped Imilla negra varieties on T. solanivora damage and marketable yield in neighboring improved potato varieties was also assessed. While Imilla negra had significantly less T. solanivora damage per plant (percentage of damaged tubers) and per tuber (number of larval exit perforations) than Andinita and Unica in monoculture trials, intercropped Imilla negra did not reduce T. solanivora damage or increase undamaged tuber yield of improved varieties in polycultures. The results support Andean farmer knowledge on Andigena potato varieties and suggest that the proper incorporation of these varieties into potato cropping systems might be a promising strategy in managing T. solanivora. Nevertheless, further evaluation extending beyond a single growing season is needed to validate the findings of this study over time, as year to year variability in environmental conditions can alter host plant preference in herbivorous insects.
      PubDate: 2016-02-05
  • Colorado Potato Beetle Response to Potato Plants Infected with Potato
           Virus Y and Potato Leafroll Virus
    • Abstract: Abstract Agricultural systems are often simultaneously impacted by multiple stressors. In our study, we investigated the effects of two commonly occurring viruses of potato, Potato virus Y (PVY) and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) on host plant selection and utilization across various spatial scales by the Colorado potato beetle. Adult beetles selected PLRV-infected foliage in the cage choice trails, and larvae that fed exclusively on PLRV-infected foliage developed into larger adults. PVY-infected foliage was avoided in the cage trials and had no effect on the weight of developing adults. In field trials, preference and utilization of potato plants was more dependent on plant size than on virus infection. These results demonstrate that while virus-infected plants can cause physiological changes that influence beetle preference, beetle abundance and/or distribution is driven by a more complex array of factors at the field level. Additionally, this study demonstrates the importance of investigating the applicability of laboratory findings at the field level.
      PubDate: 2016-02-04
  • In-canopy Environment of Sprinkler Irrigated Potato Fields as a Factor for
           Late Blight Management in the Semiarid Environment of the Columbia Basin
    • Abstract: Abstract Relative humidity (RH), leaf wetness and temperature were quantitatively characterized within potato crop canopies and their potential effect on late blight development was estimated in commercial potato fields under sprinkler irrigation in the Columbia Basin in 1993, 1994, 1996, 2004, and 2013. Humid periods of relative humidity > 90 % for 10 or more hours per day with mean temperatures favorable of late blight development were not observed prior to canopy closure. However, at and after canopy closure, a total of 34 of 54 (62.9 %) weeks summed over 5 fields during 1993, 1994, 1996, and 2004 had humid periods favorable for late blight development when considering 10 h humid periods, and a total of 47 of 54 (87 %) weeks had late blight favorable periods when considering 12 h humid periods. In 2013, the mean number of days per week after canopy closure from four sites ranged from 0 to 5.5 days when RH was > 90 % for at least 10 h per day, ranged from 0 to 4.3 days when RH was > 90 % for at least 12 h per day, ranged from 0 to 3.0 days when RH was > 90 % for at least 14 h per day, and ranged from 0 to 2.0 days when RH was > 90 % for at least 16 h per day. Daily hours of contiguous RH > 90 % varied between mid- and low-canopy levels, monitoring sites within fields and between fields. Daily humid periods favorable for late blight development were frequent in June at mid- and low-canopy levels and continued intermittently in July and August in 2 of 2 fields in 2013. Mean temperatures after row closure were generally favorable for late blight development during the humid periods and were > 7.2 °C in June and > 12.2 °C in July and August. Number of rainy days per week and weeks with long periods of RH > 90 % within the potato canopy was significantly correlated, indicating that rare rain events in a semi-arid environment promote long periods of RH in irrigated fields. However, favorable late blight periods occurred without rain and were a factor of sprinkler irrigation. Canopy and ambient relative humidity and temperatures were highly associated, and the association could be used to model late blight development from existing, proximal weather stations. The mean hourly RH over the trial season at all sites for potato canopies attained minima between 1500 and 1700 h in 2013 of < 46 %. From the minima the RH increased rapidly to approximately 2200 h then increased moderately until attaining maxima at 0600. Monitoring duration of RH > 90 % was more practical and efficient than monitoring leaf wetness.
      PubDate: 2016-02-04
  • Genome-wide Analysis of the Snakin/ GASA Gene Family in Solanum tuberosum
           cv. Kennebec
    • Abstract: Abstract Snakin/GASA proteins have been involved in different aspects of plant growth and development although their exact role is still intriguing. All of them maintain 12 cysteines of the C-terminus in highly conserved positions that are responsible for their structure and are essential for their biochemical activity as antioxidants. Two members were isolated from Solanum tuberosum to date (Snakin-1 and Snakin-2) and were shown to have antimicrobial activity. We have recently demonstrated that Snakin-1 has additional roles in plant growth and development. We carried out a genome-wide search for new Snakin/GASA family members in potato. 16 Snakin/GASA genes were isolated, sequenced and characterized. Interestingly, we found in Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum cv. Kennebec that Snakin-1, Snakin-2 and Snakin-3 expression is affected by bacterial and/or fungal inoculation. These results strengthen the participation of Snakin-1 and Snakin-2 genes in biotic stress tolerance and suggest that Snakin-3 is also involved in plant defense. The data presented here could be a good starting point for more focused and deep investigations regarding the biological functions of potato Snakin/GASA genes during plant development and in response to environmental stress.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28
  • Salt Accumulation and Potato Tuber Yield Response to Historical Dairy
           Manure Applications in South-Central Idaho
    • Abstract: Abstract Dairy manure applications are common practice in southern Idaho. Questions have arisen regarding the salt accumulations commonly associated with dairy manure applications on salt-sensitive crops like potatoes. The objective of this 2-year study was to evaluate the impact of dairy manure, dairy compost, dairy lagoon water and fertilizer application on salt accumulation and tuber yields in south-central Idaho based on grower-reported nutrient applications and yields. Soil samples and grower-reported tuber yield information were collected midseason (during time period of July 1st-July 30th) from 84 cooperator potato fields in south-central Idaho in both 2009 and 2010. Soil samples were collected to a 30 cm depth and analyzed for soil electrical conductivity (EC), soluble K, Na, Ca, Mg, and pH. Information on manure application, cultural management practices, and total tuber yield was collected for each field. Average reported application rates (wet basis) of these amendments were: 128 Mg ha−1 dairy manure (28 fields), 29 Mg ha−1 dairy compost (11 fields), 415,000 l ha−1 dairy lagoon water (9 fields), or no manure applied (33 fields) over the 4 year period prior to the study. Mean soil soluble K for dairy manure (1.6 mmolc L−1) and dairy lagoon water fields (1.4 mmolc L−1) were significantly greater than dairy compost (0.6 mmolc L−1) or fertilizer fields (0.4 mmolc L−1). Manure application history had no significant treatment effect on soil electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), soluble Na, Ca, or K, soil pH, or grower-reported total tuber yield. These overall findings suggest that current dairy manure, compost, and lagoon water application practices to potato production systems in south-central Idaho are not significantly influencing tuber yield or soil salt accumulations. However, significant soluble K accumulations in the soil suggest that dairy manure and dairy lagoon water applications should still be monitored to avoid potential salt accumulations and yield losses.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28
  • Monitoring and Controlling the Beet Leafhopper Circulifer tenellus in the
           Columbia Basin
    • Abstract: Abstract The beet leafhopper (BLH, Circulifer tenellus Baker) is a frequent pest of potatoes in the Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington. Beet leafhoppers vector the causal agent of potato Purple top disease, known as Beet Leafhopper Transmitted Virescence Agent (BLTVA). Over 70 % of BLH in the region can be infected with BLVTA. Current control methods include making regular insecticide applications beginning in May; however it is unclear if those applications are needed. Thus, are insecticide applications necessary to control BLH and reduce BLTVA through the entire season? To answer that question, a field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 to assess season-long control of BLH. There were 14 treatments, including the control, that were based on gradually eliminating insecticide applications weekly. Plots were sampled weekly for BLH and surveyed for Purple Top disease. Beet leafhoppers were sampled using sweep nets and an inverted leaf blower. Natural BLH populations were low in 2008 and 2009, but differed significantly among treatments in 2009 for inverted leaf blower and sweep net samples. Yields were assessed at the end of each season and no significant differences were found. Trends in the yield, BLH populations and BLTVA incidence support early-season insecticide application when BLH populations are low. The practice of using a calendar spray regime was not supported as yields were similar regardless of insecticide applications. As BLH populations were low, the results emphasized the importance of monitoring before making insecticide applications.
      PubDate: 2016-01-07
  • Late Blight and Early Blight Resistance from Solanum hougasii Introgressed
           Into Solanum tuberosum
    • Abstract: Abstract Late blight and early blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans and Alternaria solani, respectively, are the two most widely occurring foliar diseases of potato in the U.S.A. Resistance to both diseases is necessary if growers are to reduce fungicide applications. Field resistance to late blight has previously been reported in an accession of Solanum hougasii (2n = 72). The putative aneuploid clone E53.61, derived from (S. hougasii x S. tuberosum) x S. tuberosum was obtained from C.R. Brown and crossed with three S. tuberosum clones. Thirty-five hybrid clones were evaluated for foliar late blight resistance at the Russell E. Larson Agricultural Research Center near State College, PA along with the susceptible check ‘Atlantic’ and for foliar early blight resistance in Presque Isle, ME along with the susceptible check ‘Harley Blackwell’ for 3 years (2012 to 2014). The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with two to three replications each year. The US-23 genotype of P. infestans occurred naturally and/or was used in inoculations in PA and plants were infected naturally with A. solani in ME. Relative area under the disease progress curve (RAUDPC) values were calculated based on visual assessment of foliar disease four to five times late in the season each year and subjected to statistical and stability analyses. There were significant differences among clones and the clone x environment interaction was significant for both diseases. Of the 35 hybrid clones evaluated for late blight, 16 were more resistant, 7 were more susceptible, and 12 were as susceptible as ‘Atlantic’. Of those same hybrid clones evaluated for early blight, 23 were more resistant than ‘Harley Blackwell’; the rest were as susceptible. Late blight resistance or susceptibility was independent of the stability of resistance, however, early blight resistance was associated with greater stability. Fourteen clones were more resistant than the check varieties for both late blight and early blight, suggesting that resistance genes for both late blight and early blight have been combined in this genetic material; three of these clones also had high specific gravity and acceptable chip color out of 10 °C storage.
      PubDate: 2016-01-07
  • The Involvement of Gibberellins in 1,8-Cineole-Mediated Inhibition of
           Sprout Growth in Russet Burbank Tubers
    • Abstract: Abstract The involvement of gibberellins in 1,8-cineole-mediated inhibition of tuber sprout growth was investigated in non-dormant field- and greenhouse-grown tubers of Russet Burbank. Continuous exposure of tubers to cineole in the vapor-phase resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of sprout growth. Comparative studies using plant bioassay systems whose growth was differentially dependent on cell division, cell elongation, or both demonstrated that cineole had no direct effect on either process. Of the assays used, only cineole-mediated inhibition of etiolated hypocotyl growth mirrored the inhibition of tuber sprout growth which suggested an effect on gibberellin synthesis or action. Both GA19 and GA20 were detected in extracts prepared from control sprouts but only GA19 was found in extracts prepared from cineole treated sprouts. Exogenous GA3, GA20, and GA1 (but not GA19) reversed cineole-mediated sprout growth inhibition. Expression of genes encoding key GA metabolic enzymes was altered by cineole treatment in a manner consistent with diminished endogenous GA content. Collectively, these results suggest that the inhibition of sprout growth by low vapor-phase concentrations of cineole is in part a result of impaired GA biosynthesis resulting in a reduction in bioactive GA content.
      PubDate: 2015-12-22
  • A Mutant eIF4E Confers Resistance to Potato Virus Y Strains and is
           Inherited in a Dominant Manner in the Potato Varieties Atlantic and Russet
    • Abstract: Abstract Potato Virus Y (PVY) is one of the most important pathogens affecting potato production worldwide. Here we tested the efficacy of engineered resistance against PVY in two popular susceptible potato varieties, Russet Norkotah and Atlantic. This resistance is based on the expression of a modified potato eIF4E gene containing mutations homologous to those in the recessive resistant allelic variant found in pepper. The expression of this eIF4E variant conferred differential resistance responses against three prevalent PVY strains including PVYO, PVYN:O and PVYNTN in the five tested transgenic lines. When resistance was established, the virus was not detectable in the inoculated leaves, the newly emerged leaves, nor in the sprouted tubers. Some strains were restrained to a low but detectable level in some of the potato lines. Crosses between transformed and wild type lines demonstrated that the engineered resistance gene was inherited in a dominant manner.
      PubDate: 2015-12-22
  • Mountain Gem Russet: a Potato Variety with High Early and Full Season
           Yield Potential and Excellent Fresh Market and Early Processing
    • Abstract: Abstract Mountain Gem Russet is a potato variety notable for having both high early and full-season yields of oblong-long, medium-russeted tubers with higher protein content than those of standard potato varieties. Mountain Gem Russet has greater resistance to soft rot, tuber late blight, growth cracks and second growth than Russet Burbank. Mountain Gem Russet produced greater total and U.S. No. 1 yields than Ranger Russet and Russet Norkotah in early-season trials conducted in Idaho, Oregon and Washington over a 3 year period. In full-season trials conducted in five western states over a 4 year period, average total and U.S. No. 1 yields for Mountain Gem Russet were almost always higher than Ranger Russet and Russet Burbank, with specific gravities averaging between these two standard cultivars. It maintains acceptable reducing sugar concentrations and fry quality when stored at 8.9 °C and has displayed a high level of fry color uniformity from tuber stem to bud end providing good potential for early processing. High fresh merit ratings and taste panel sensory scores comparable to Russet Burbank indicate good fresh market potential for Mountain Gem Russet. It was released in 2015 by the USDA-ARS and the Agricultural Experiment Stations of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, and is a product of the Pacific Northwest Potato Variety (Tri-State) Development Program.
      PubDate: 2015-12-22
  • Control of Early Blight in the San Luis Valley, Colorado
    • Abstract: Abstract Early blight of potatoes caused by Alternaria solani is a disease that growers in Colorado often do not consider a major problem. However, past and this current research suggest that judicious use of a well-managed fungicide program can significantly reduce disease and increase yields. Additionally, wide spread use of fungicides in various rotations (azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, chlorothalonil, dithiocarbamate, mancozeb and boscalid) was shown to substantially decrease the disease levels of plants in treated versus untreated plots. Field trials evaluating fungicide rotations and application scheduling were conducted using the cultivar Russet Norkotah Selection 8. Treatments were first applied to either coincide with the dates as indicated by the early blight degree day model currently used in the San Luis Valley (~60 days after planting - DAP), or starting later in the season (~80 DAP). While significant differences (P < 0.05) in disease reduction were noted each year using fungicides, there was no corresponding yield advantage of fungicide treated versus the control (un-treated) plots. However, when data were analyzed over three years, a significant higher (P < 0.05) foliar disease control and subsequent yield increase among treatments was observed when a strobilurin product was used first in the fungicide rotation at 78 DAP. Results indicate that for a cost of $100–125/ha, growers can use fungicides with an appropriate rotation of active ingredients to control early blight and potentially increase yields.
      PubDate: 2015-12-10
  • The Viability of Winter Sporangia of Synchytrium endobioticum (Schilb.)
           Perc. from Poland
    • Abstract: Abstract The longevity, infectivity and virulence of winter sporangia of Synchytrium endobioticum, the causal agent of potato wart disease, were studied in soil collected from an infested plot 43 years since the last observed infection. The demarcated plot was located in a mountainous area of the central part of Sudetes Mountain range in Poland and no potatoes were grown in the plots over that period. Sporangia of S. endobioticum were collected from the samples and retained viability after 46 years. Infectivity of the fungus was tested using modified Potoček’s tube test. The ability of the spores to invade and replicate in potato host tissue was demonstrated using sporangia collected after 43 years. The virulence of the obtained isolates was tested with the Glynne-Lemmerzal method. Two different pathotypes were identified: 1(D1), the most widely distributed in Europe and 3(M1), a unique Polish local pathotype, which was isolated and identified for the first time from the same location in 1965.
      PubDate: 2015-11-11
  • Scheduling Reduced Irrigation on ‘Atlantic’ Potato for Minimal
    • Abstract: Abstract Droughts are common in the US High Plains, causing declining water availability and lowering water allocations. The objective of this 4-year field study was to identify a period of water deficit least detrimental to potato production. Fully irrigated ‘Atlantic’ potato received 62–63 cm of applied water. Total applied water was reduced by 25 % in three seasonal periods, 50 % water from emergence to 8 weeks after emergence (WAE) (early stress), 50 % water from 8 to 13 WAE (late stress), and 50 % from 0 to 5 WAE and again from 10 to 13 WAE (outer stress). Main plots were irrigation regime and split with three N levels, 101, 168, and 235 kg/ha. Soil and petiole N were higher when applied water was reduced. Lower irrigation inhibited growth, i.e., canopy height (10–20 %), weight (20–30 %) and leaf area index (50–70 %). Yield decreased 25 % and 13 % with early and outer stress, respectively. Chip color was darkest with early stress compared to fully irrigated plots. Common scab occurrence was greater in early stress than with other regimes. N rate had no effect on canopy growth, yield, chip color, or common scab. If applied water is reduced 15 cm, it is best late in the season and worst between 5 and 8 WAE compared to fully irrigated plants
      PubDate: 2015-11-05
  • Colorado Potato Beetle Resistance in Solanum oplocense X Solanum tuberosum
           Intercross Hybrids and Metabolite Markers for Selection
    • Abstract: Abstract S. oplocense Hawkes, a wild relative of the potato S. tuberosum L. and source of resistance against the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (CPB), was intercrossed with S. tuberosum. Backcross clones carried varying levels of resistance. Differences in foliar metabolites between resistant and susceptible clones were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Supervised machine learning classification methods uncorrelated shrunken centroids (USC), k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and support vector machines (SVM) were applied to develop algorithms that can classify resistant and susceptible plants using the metabolite data. Five metabolites were found to have a low error rate of prediction of CPB resistance. The five metabolites included two glycoalkaloids previously associated with resistance and susceptibility to CPB, dehydrocommersonine and solanine, respectively. Resistance was associated with a change in composition of glycoalkaloids to higher ratios of dehydrocommersonine over solanine.
      PubDate: 2015-11-05
  • The Influence of Foliar Ethephon Application on Economic Returns of Red
           LaSoda Potatoes
    • Abstract: Abstract The successful marketing of fresh potatoes is heavily reliant upon tuber appearance. Past attempts to improve the color and appearance of fresh potatoes have included the adoption of new cultivars, application of waxes during packing, control of skin damaging diseases, and foliar application of growth regulators. An analysis of the potential economic impact of the use of the plant growth regulator ethephon(2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) was conducted. Data on the influence of ethephon application rate on tuber size distribution and yield was collected from field trials on the red-skinned cultivar Red LaSoda during 2011 and 2012. These data were then used in conjunction with records of red potato prices for the most recently available five crop years to calculate gross returns. Production costs, chemical and application costs, and packing costs were then subtracted to calculate net economic returns. No adjustment in market value was made to account for the improved skin color measured due to ethephon application, as there are no data to support this assumption. Ethephon rate did not significantly affect total yield in either year, but did influence the distribution of various market classes (A, B and Creamers) in 2012. There was some influence in net value by size class, but total net return was not significantly affected in either year. While ethephon is not a very expensive addition to the total cost of production, it does not appear to provide a significant economic benefit based on the change in tuber size distribution alone.
      PubDate: 2015-10-28
  • The Potato Tuber Disease Occurrence as Affected by Conventional and
           Organic Farming Systems
    • Abstract: Abstract A study was conducted which aimed to investigate the effect of farming systems (FS) (four conventional with increasing mineral N fertilizer amounts 0–150 kg of N ha−1) vs. two organic with catch crops (CC) and cattle manure (CC + M)) under the same five crop rotation system on the occurrence of tuber diseases such as common scab (Streptomyces spp.), silver scurf (Helminthosporium solani), dry rot (Fusarium spp.), and soft rot (Pectobacterium spp.). As the average of the first rotation years 2009–2011, the FS had a significant effect on the occurrence of silver scurf, dry rot and common scab (surface cover <30 %). The organic systems had significantly more tubers (around 39 %) infected with common scab (surface cover 4–15 %) than in conventional systems (around 25 %). However, when the surface lesion severity increased (surface cover 16–30 %) then differences occurred only between organic systems (in system Organic CC 4.1 % and in system Organic CC + M 13.1 % of tubers infected). The Organic CC system had significantly fewer tubers infected with silver scurf compared to all conventional farming systems (10.5 % vs 17.8–23.4 %). During the first and after the second disease measurement there were less tubers infected with dry rot in Organic CC (0.8–0.9 %) and conventional N high (0.5–1.4 %) systems compared to N low (1.8–3.0 % of tubers infected) system. Soft rot infections were not influenced by farming systems. Thus we conclude that it is possible to influence the occurrence of some tuber diseases with FS.
      PubDate: 2015-10-28
  • Erratum to: Influence of Location, Year, Potato Rotation, and Chemical
           Seed Treatment on Incidence and Severity of Silver Scurf on Progeny Tubers
    • PubDate: 2015-10-20
  • Sensitivity to Tuber Necrosis Caused by Potato Mop-Top Virus in Advanced
           Potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) Breeding Selections
    • Abstract: Abstract Potato mop-top virus (PMTV) is transmitted by the powdery scab pathogen (Spongospora subterranea f.sp. subterranea (Sss)) and no effective disease control methods are currently available for either pathogen. Eighty-one advanced breeding selections of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) from different market classes and a broad genetic base were evaluated for sensitivity to PMTV-induced tuber necrosis in a field in North Dakota known to be infested with PMTV. Commercial cultivars, ranging from sensitive to tolerant in their reaction to PMTV-induced tuber necrosis incidence were included in each market class as internal controls. Results of tuber assessments revealed high variability in PMTV-induced tuber necrosis incidence and severity among selections. Based on PMTV-induced tuber necrosis incidence results over a two-year period, a total of 17 advanced selections were found to be tolerant, nine - moderately tolerant, eight - moderately sensitive, and six were found to be sensitive. The russet-skinned types had lower tuber necrosis incidence than the red-, white- and yellow-skinned types. Increases in the incidence of PMTV tuber necrosis during the storage period was influenced significantly by selection type and skin-color. Further studies are needed to investigate if tolerant selections are resistant to the virus to determine their suitability as parents in breeding programs to introduce PMTV resistance into commercial potato cultivars. In the short term, tolerant selections with other desirable agronomic characteristics could be released as commercial cultivars for growers to utilize as a means to limit the economic impact of PMTV-induced tuber necrosis.
      PubDate: 2015-10-19
  • AtCBF1 Overexpression Confers Tolerance to High Light Conditions at Warm
           Temperatures in Potato Plants
    • Abstract: Abstract We characterized transcriptional responses of potato plants to multiple abiotic stresses and used this information to identify potential mechanisms through which over-expression of the stress related transcription factor CBF1 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtCBF1) confers multiple stress tolerance. Most transcriptional changes were specific to each condition, but genes involved in phenyl-propanoid biosynthesis were affected by all abiotic stresses evaluated. Interestingly, over-expression of AtCBF1 in potato plants not only conferred tolerance to low temperatures, as previously reported, but also to high-light conditions at 22 °C, suggesting that it confers multiple stress tolerance by enhancing the ability of plants to cope with an excess of radiant energy. Finally, we found that transcriptional changes triggered by abiotic stress were much larger than those resulting from AtCBF1 over-expression in potato, revealing that overexpression of an heterologous transcription factor causes minor alterations in the plant transcriptome in comparison to transcriptional changes triggered by abiotic stresses.
      PubDate: 2015-10-19
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