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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0006-8705 - ISSN (Online) 1678-4499
Published by SciELO [801 journals]
- Changes in phytochemical contents in different parts of Clinacanthus
nutans (Burm. f.) lindau due to storage duration
Abstract: Clinacanthus nutans is a well recognized medicinal herb for its high phytochemical contents. Several aspects may contribute to the phytochemical contents, and thus determine the quality and efficacy of an herb. An experiment was conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD) with five replications, in a factorial arrangement of treatments. including two plant parts harvested at two different stages such as young leaves, young stems, matured leaves and matured stems, and four different storage durations such as 1, 2, 3 and 4 days. The study was aimed at determining how storage duration affects selected phytochemical contents of different plant parts of C. nutans at different harvesting stages. Total phytochemical content, total flavonoids content and DPPH radical scavenging activities are higher in young plants than in old plants, moreover, all those compounds are higher in leaves than in stems, and decrease gradually due to storage. Phytochemical, ascorbic acid and chlorophyll content of C. nutans differ among different plant parts and change due to storage. In general, young plant parts contain higher amount of phytochemicals, ascorbic acid and chlorophyll compared with matured parts confirming that phytochemicals content of C. nutans decreases when plants tend to maturity. Prolonged storage reduces phytochemical, ascorbic acid and chlorophyll content of C. nutans,which demands fresh use of this medicinal herb to avoid phytochemical losses. Further research focusing on the proper storage is necessary to minimize phytochemicals losses of C. nutans.
- Leaf area and solar radiation interception by orange tree top
Abstract: ResumoDevido à importância de quantificar a radiação solar interceptada (K*) pela vegetação, determinou-se a interferência da área foliar da copa de uma laranjeira Pêra-Rio sobre a eficiência de interceptação (εint) e o coeficiente de extinção de radiação (k). Para a medida da radiação solar transmitida foi instalado um piranômetro abaixo da copa. O sensor, distante 0,65m do tronco, girava horizontalmente em torno do mesmo (3 rpm), realizando uma medida espaço-temporal. O mesmo modelo teórico usado para determinar o coeficiente de extinção ‘k’ (Teoria de Monsi & Saeki) foi usado também para a estimativa de K*. Os dados revelaram uma clara interferência dos ramos e galhos sobre a εint, com valor mínimo de 0,52 com ausência completa de folhas. Os resultados também foram distintos em relação à obtenção do coeficiente de extinção ‘k’, mais uma vez por influência das estruturas lenhosas. A simulação de K* a partir dos coeficientes de extinção (k), obtidos por ajuste linear e quadrático, resultou, respectivamente, em classificações boa e ótima de acordo com o cálculo do índice de desempenho ‘c’.AbstractLeaf area changes affect solar radiation interception (K*), interception efficiency (εint) and extinction coefficient (k) of an orange tree top (cv. Pêra-Rio). In order to measure radiation transmitted through the crown a mobile sensor was horizontally installed below the crown and 0.65 m from the trunk, moving around it at 3 rpm. The model used for k determination (Monsi & Saeki theory) was assessed with independent data to estimate K*. With absence of leaves, it was detected an intense interference of trunk and branches on εint, with a minimum value of 0.52. The results were also distinct in obtaining k, when the best fit was found with a quadratic rather than a linear equation, again influenced by woody structures. Simulation of K* using extinction coefficient (k) was statistically classified as good.
- Artificial neural networks for corn yield prediction and definition of
site-specific crop management through soil properties
Abstract: O entendimento dos fatores que influenciam a produtividade é essencial para o sucesso produtivo e para adoção de manejo diferenciado em sítios específicos. Na busca de alternativas para predizer a produtividade de grãos de milho a partir de atributos do solo, uma alternativa consiste no uso de redes neurais artificiais (RNAs). Diante disso, o presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a eficácia de adoção de atributos do solo por interface da análise de regressão, e das RNAs no estabelecimento de sítios de manejo diferenciado e predição da produtividade de grãos de milho, “segunda safra”, em solos de cerrado. Os dados foram obtidos em uma área de 41,76 ha, cultivada em 2010 e 2011. Apesar de demandar maior tempo de construção e processamento em relação à regressão linear, a adoção de RNAs permite melhor predição da produtividade de grãos. Em consonância ao estabelecimento de sítios específicos de manejo diferenciado do solo, a partir dos atributos teor de argila, capacidade de troca de cátions, matéria orgânica do solo e saturação de bases.The understanding of the factors influencing yield is essential for the crop success and adoption of site-specific management. The use of artificial neural networks (ANN) is an alternative of corn yield prediction from soil properties attributes. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of adoption of soil properties by interface of the regression analysis, and ANNs in the establishment of site-specific management zones and prediction of corn yield, second crop in Cerrado’s soil. Data were collected in an area of 41.76 ha cropped in 2010 and 2011. The adoption of ANNs allows better corn yield prediction despite of higher demand of construction time and processing when compared to linear regression. In consonance to the soil site-specific establishment from clay content, exchange cation capacity, organic matter and base soil saturation.
- Soil attributes under different crop management systems in an Amazon
Abstract: AbstractSoil biological properties have a high potential for use in assessing the impacts of crop systems. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of cropping systems on the biological attributes of an oxisol in the Amazonian state of Pará. The treatments consisted of approximately 20-year-old secondary vegetation, recovered pasture, no-tillage systems (NT) maintained for 4 and 8 years after planting with corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.), and conventional tillage (CT) systems every 2 years after planting with rice (Oryza sativa L.) and soybean. The microbial biomass to nitrogen ratio was higher in the NT system (0.68 mg kg–1), and the NT system had greater microbial NT8. Thus, the contributions of organic matter from straw improved the soil quality in these areas. The total organic carbon (TOC) content was greater in the secondary forest and CT areas (46.7 and 48.0 mg kg–1, respectively), potentially due to the higher amounts of organic matter and organic matter mineralization in these areas. However, the largest TOC stocks were observed in the pasture, which corresponded with greater carbon storage (63.5 Mg ha–1). By contrast, the no-till systems were not efficient for storing C, with concentrations of 5.0 and 5.3 Mg ha–1 in NT-4 and NT-8, respectively. These results may reflect the short period that these systems were adopted and the vast microbial activity that was observed in these areas, with microbial quotients of 8.03 and 10.41% in NT-4 and NT-8, respectively.
- Use of chitosan film to control aflatoxins in peanuts
Abstract: Neste estudo, verificou-se a utilização de um filme de quitosana para o controle do crescimento e produção de aflatoxinas por A. parasiticus em amendoim. Os filmes foram aplicados sobre os grãos por meio de duas metodologias (aspersão e imersão). Os grãos recobertos foram inoculados com 2,5 ml de uma suspensão contendo 1,0×106 esporos/ml e incubados a 25 oC por 7 dias. A concentração de aflatoxinas foi determinada por cromatografia em camada delgada, utilizando a técnica de densitometria. A verificação da inibição do crescimento fúngico foi realizada por meio da inoculação do patógeno em placas de Petri contendo GYEP suplementado com quitosana a 2% e incubadas por 7 dias a 25 ºC. Após incubação, o diâmetro da colônia do patógeno foi estimado e comparado com o controle. Todos os testes foram realizados com cinco repetições. Para a verificação de alterações morfológicas, uma suspensão de esporos ou hifas incubados na presença de quitosana foi submetida à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Foi observado que tanto o método de imersão quanto o de aspersão reduziram a produção de aflatoxina significativamente, 84,3% e 86,7% respectivamente. A presença de quitosana no meio de cultura reduziu o diâmetro das colônias e promoveu modificações morfológicas nos esporos de A. parasiticus. Com esse procedimento foi verificado que a utilização de quitosana a 2% na forma de filme, principalmente por aspersão, pode reduzir a concentração de esporos e aflatoxinas de A. parasiticus em amendoim, o que confere a essa substância uma grande perspectiva de utilização no controle de fungos aflatoxigênicos.In this study, we evaluate the utilization on chitosan film to control the growth and aflatoxin production by A. parasiticus in peanut. The films were inoculated over the grains by aspersion or immersion methods. The chitosan coated grains were inoculated with 2.5 ml solution with 1.0×106spores/ml and incubated at 25 °C for 7 days. The aflatoxin concentration was estimated by thin layer chromatography and densitometry. The fungus growth inhibition was observed by pathogen inoculation in Petri dishes with GYEP media plus 2% chitosan and incubated by 7 days at 25 °C. After incubation the colony diameter was measured and compared with the control. All assays were repeated five times. To verify morphological alterations, a spore/hypha suspension was incubated in media with chitosan and observed in scanning electron microscopy.Both methods (immersion and aspersion) were able to reduce the aflatoxin production significantly, 84.3% and 86.7%, respectively. The chitosan reduced the colonies diameters and promoted morphological alterations in A. parasiticus spores. With this, was observed that a 2% chitosan film, specially inoculated by aspersion, can to reduce A. parasiticus spores and aflatoxins concentrations in peanuts. This characteristic gives to this substance an excellent perspective to be used in aflatoxigenic fungi control.
- Responses of Dendrobium 'darrenn glory' and Mokara 'calypso jumbo' orchids
to 1-methylcyclopropene and aqueous ozone postharvest treatments
Abstract: AbstractOrchids possess a very special place amongst ornamental plants. But high ethylene sensitivity and early flower senescence of orchid result in a short vase life and rapid quality deterioration which is of great concern for the growers, traders and consumers. An attempt was made to study the influence of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) (0 and 300 nL L–1) and аquеous ozone (0 and 5.2 nL L–1) in prolonging vase life and maintaining quality of two cut orchid hybrids Dendrobium 'Darren Glory' (DDG) and Mokara “Calypso Jumbo” (MCJ). Results showed that orchid hybrids exhibited differences in their ethylene sensitivity, vase life, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content and ACC oxidase activities. Pre-treatment with 1-MCP resulted in reduced ethylene production, vase life, ACC content and ACC oxidase activities, but increased bud opening %. Pre-treatment with аquеous ozone failed to influence all those parameters except bud opening %. Interaction effects of hybrid and 1-MCP were significant for ethylene production, hybrid and ozone for vas life, 1-MCP and ozone for bud opening %, and hybrid, 1-MCP and ozone for ethylene production and vase life. Aqueous ozone markedly contributed to the inhibition of microbial growth in vase solution. Pre-treatment of the cut orchid flowers with 300 nL L–11-MCP, followed by using 5.2 mg L–1 aqueous ozone as the vase solution could be recommended to maintain quality and extend vase life of both the DDG and MCJ orchid hybrids.
- Effect of growth regulators application on the quality maintenance of
Abstract: AbstractThe main goal of the present study was to elucidate the effect of growth regulators at harvest and postharvest quality of 'Brookfield' apples stored under controlled atmosphere through a multivariate approach. Thus, an experiment with two steps (field and storage) was carried out. The treatments in field were applied with an output of 1,000 L ha–1 of water. The following treatments were tested: Control: only water application; AVG (aminoethoxyvinylglycine): 0.83 kg ha–1 of Retain® applied 30 days before harvest (BH); NAA (naphthalene acetic acid): 40g ha–1of naphthalene acetic acid applied 7 days BH; Ethephon: 2.0 L ha–1 of Ethrel® applied 10 days BH; 1-MCP: 0.625µL L–1 of 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene): applied during postharvest (storage); LE (low ethylene): with the allocation of potassium permanganate sachets during postharvest. Fruits treated with AVG in the field showed an opposite response to the fruits with NAA. AVG application followed by another growth regulator (AVG + Ethephon and AVG + NAA) showed an advance in maturation, nearing these fruits to the control treatment, this effect is likely related to the higher ethylene production by these fruits compared to fruits with AVG alone. AVG, 1-MCP and LE kept a similar response on quality maintenance. Ethephon application prevented the negative effect of NAA at harvest, but after storage, the combined NAA + ethephon application increased the physiological disorders, reducing internal quality.
- Antagonistic rhizobacteria and jasmonic acid induce resistance against
tomato bacterial spot
Abstract: AbstractTomato bacterial spot on tomato may be caused by four species of Xanthomonas and among them X. gardneri(Xg) is the most destructive one, especially in areas irrigated using a center pivot system in Minas Gerais state and the midwest region of Brazil. Due to the ineffectiveness of chemical control and the lack of cultivars with high levels of genetic resistance, this study investigated the potential of three antagonists (Streptomyces setonii (UFV618), Bacillus cereus (UFV592) and Serratia marcescens (UFV252)), and the hormone jasmonic acid (JA) as a positive control, to reduce bacterial spot symptoms and to potentiate defense enzymes in the leaves of tomato plants infected by Xg. Tomato seeds were microbiolized with each antagonist, and the soil was drenched with these bacteria. The plants were sprayed with JA 48 h before Xginoculation. The final average severity on the tomato plants was reduced by 29.44, 59.26 and 61.33% in the UFV592, UFV618 and JA treatments, respectively. The UFV618 antagonist was as effective as JA in reducing bacterial spot symptoms on tomatoes, which can be explained by the greater activities of defense enzymes that are commonly involved in host resistance against bacterial diseases. These results suggest that JA and the UFV618 antagonist can be used in the integrated management of bacterial spot on tomatoes.
- Hayman’s diallel analysis of traits related to the production and
quality of papaya fruit
Abstract: ResumoEm mamoeiro, informações sobre o controle genético de características relacionadas à produção e à qualidade de frutos ainda são escassas. Nesse sentido, no presente estudo, foram estimados os parâmetros genéticos durante a análise da herança de características relacionadas à produção e à qualidade de seus frutos, por meio de cruzamento dialélico completo (F1's, recíprocos e genitores). Quantificaram-se o número de frutos comerciais (NFC), o peso médio do fruto (PMF), a produtividade (PROD), a espessura (ESP) e firmeza do fruto (FIRM) e o teor de sólidos solúveis (TSS). Somente NFC, FIRM e TSS tiveram ausência de significância nos três testes de suficiência do modelo aditivo-dominante. A estimativa do grau médio de dominância indicou a existência de dominância parcial entre os alelos que atuam no controle genético das três características. Observou-se o predomínio de efeitos associados a componentes aditivos se comparados aos componentes associados aos efeitos de dominância para as três características. Para número de frutos comerciais (NFC) e firmeza do fruto (FIRM), alelos recessivos, predominante, mas não exclusivamente, atuam no sentido de aumentar a média dessa variável. Por outro lado, para teor de sólidos solúveis (TSS), são os alelos dominantes que, predominante, mas não exclusivamente, atuam no sentido de aumentar a média dessa variável.AbstractIn papaya, information on the genetic control of traits related to the production and fruit quality are still scarce. In this sense, this study estimated genetic parameters and analyzed the inheritance of traits related to the production and quality of papaya fruit through complete diallel cross (F1's, reciprocal and parents). The number of commercial fruit, fruit weight, fruit yield, thickness of the pulp, firmness of the fruit and the soluble solids content were quantified. Number of commercial fruit, firmness of the fruit and the total soluble solids content had no significant effect in the three sufficiency tests of the additive-dominant model. The estimate of the average degree of dominance indicated partial dominance between alleles that act in the genetic control of the three traits. There was predominance of effects associated with additive components compared to the components associated with dominance effects for the three traits. For the number of marketable fruits and fruit firmness, predominant, but not exclusive recessive alleles, work to increase the mean value of this variable. In turn, for soluble solids content, predominant, but not exclusive dominant alleles, work to increase the mean value of this variable.
- Application of artificial neural networks in indirect selection: a case
study on the breeding of lettuce
Abstract: The efficiency of artificial neural networks (ANN) to model complex problems may enable the prediction of characteristics that are hard to measure, providing better results than the traditional indirect selection. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the potential of using artificial neural networks (ANN) for indirect selection against early flowering in lettuce, identify the influence of genotype by environment interaction in this strategy and compare your results with the traditional indirect selection. The number of days to anthesis were used as the desired output and the information of six characteristics (fresh weight of shoots, mass of marketable fresh matter of shoots, commercial dry matter of shoots, average diameter of the head, head circumference and leaf number) as input file for the training of the ANN-MLP (Perceptron Multi-Layer). The use of ANN has great potential adjustment for indirect selection for genetic improvement of lettuce against early flowering. The selection based on the predicted values by network provided estimates of gain selection largest that traditional indirect selection. The ANN trained with data from an experiment have low power extrapolation to another experiment, due to effect of interaction genotype by environment. The ANNs trained simultaneously with data from different experiments presented greater predictive power and extrapolation.
- Variation of photosynthesis and carbohydrate levels induced by ethephon
and water deficit on the ripening stage of sugarcane
Abstract: ResumoUm importante índice para a indústria sucroalcooleira é a produtividade de sacarose em cana-de-açúcar, que pode ser relacionada à capacidade da planta em acumular sacarose durante a maturação. Apesar de se conhecer a eficiência de tratamentos como a restrição hídrica e a aplicação de reguladores para estimular o acúmulo de sacarose nos colmos, pouco se conhece sobre as respostas fisiológicas da planta que levam à maturação. Nesse contexto, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as respostas fisiológicas da cana-de-açúcar a diferentes tratamentos indutores de maturação e, assim, compreender melhor a fisiologia desse processo. Duas variedades, a IACSP95-5000, de alta produtividade, e a IACSP94-2094, de produtividade moderada, foram submetidas ao déficit hídrico, à aplicação de regulador químico (etefom 480 g ha–1) e aos dois tratamentos associados. Foram medidos o crescimento, a concentração de carboidratos em folhas e colmos e as trocas gasosas. Concluiu-se que o efeito do etefom em cana-de-açúcar é genótipo-dependente, estimulando o acúmulo de sacarose no colmo e o suprimento de fotoassimilados pela fonte na variedade responsiva (IACSP95-5000). Tais efeitos não são associados à restrição do crescimento. Em relação à aplicação dos tratamentos de déficit hídrico e etefom associados, a variedade responsiva apresenta aumento no teor de sacarose no colmo nos mesmos níveis apresentados quando apenas etefom é aplicado, de modo que os tratamentos não apresentam efeitos aditivos na maturação da cana-de-açúcar.AbstractAn important index for the ethanol industry is the sucrose yield in sugarcane, which is affected by plant ability to accumulate sucrose during ripening. Despite the known efficiency of treatments such as water restriction and the application of regulators to stimulate the sucrose storage in culms, little is known about the physiological responses of the plant that lead to ripening. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological responses of sugarcane to different ripening treatments. Two varieties, IACSP95-5000, with high yield, and IACSP94-2094, with moderate yield were subjected to water deficit or application of chemical regulator (ethephon 480 g ha–1) and both treatments associated. Growth, accumulation of carbohydrates in leaves and culms were measured. It can be concluded that the effects of ethephon on sugarcane are genotype-dependent. Ethephon stimulates sucrose accumulation in the culm and the photosynthate supply by the source in the responsive variety (IACSP95-5000). Such effects are not associated with growth restriction. In relation to the drought combined with the application of ethephon, the responsive variety shows increased sucrose content in culm at the same level as when ethephon is applied alone, hence treatments have no additive effects on sugarcane ripening.
- Physiological aspect sand quality of pepper seedlings in response to vigor
and conditioning seeds
Abstract: ResumoA pimenta é um fruto do gênero Capsicum, bastante utilizada na culinária como tempero. Objetivou-se com este trabalho verificar o efeito do condicionamento fisiológico em sementes de Capsicum frutescens, e sobre as mudas obtidas das sementes condicionadas. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2x6, designado por: qualidade fisiológica das sementes (vigor acima e abaixo) e cinco agentes no condicionamento fisiológico (água, nitrato de potássio a 0,2%, nitrato de cálcio a 0,2%, giberelina GA3 a 200 ppm e antioxidante riboflavina a 25 ppm), e testemunha, com quatro repetições. Para obtenção das sementes com vigor abaixo foi realizado a deterioração a 42 °C por 24 horas. O método de condicionamento fisiológico empregado foi à hidratação entre papéis, pelo período de 20 horas à 25 ºC. Foram avaliados a germinação, o vigor das sementes e a qualidade de mudas. Sementes com vigor acima apresentam melhor expressão do potencial fisiológico em relação às de vigor abaixo. O condicionamento fisiológico propiciou maior velocidade de emergência. Sementes condicionadas produziram mudas com maior fitomassa seca.AbstractPepperis a fruit of the genus Capsicum, widely used in cooking as a seasoning. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of priming in Capsicum frutescens seeds, and on the seedlings obtained from seeds conditioned. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme 2x6, referred to as: seed quality (above and below vigor) and five agents in priming (water, potassium nitrate at 0.2%, calcium nitrate at 0.2%, gibberellin GA3 at 200 ppm and antioxidant riboflavin at 25 ppm), and the control; with four replications. To obtain of seeds with smaller vigor minus the deterioration was performed at 42 °C for 24 hours. The employee priming method was to hydration between roles, by 20 hours at 25 ° C period. Germination and seed vigor were evaluated, as well as the emergence and seedling quality. Seeds with above vigor have better expression of the physiological potential in relation to the below vigor. The priming presented higher emergence rate. Primed seeds produced seedlings with higher dry matter.
- Can the critical temperature for photochemical damage in common bean
plants be changed after a drought event?
Abstract: Low water availability and high temperatures occur under field conditions and we hypothesize that the critical temperature for photochemical damage (TC) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants is increased by the occurrence of previous water deficit in a genotype-dependent manner. Five common bean cultivars A320, A222, Carioca, BAT477 and Ouro Negro were evaluated. Thirty days after seedlings emergence, one group of plants was exposed to water deficit for ten days and rehydrated and another one was maintained well hydrated during the experimental period. The minimum chlorophyll fluorescence (FO) was monitored in leaf discs exposed to temperatures ranging from 25 to 45 oC and the TC values estimated. The previous water deficit did not affect TC, which varied between 38.8 and 43.8 oC when considering all cultivars and water regimes. Under well-watered conditions, BAT477 (41.9 oC) and Carioca (43.8 oC) presented higher TCthan Ouro Negro (38.8 oC). Our findings indicate a significant genotypic variation in thermal tolerance in Phaseolus vulgaris, an important crop trait to be considered in breeding programs.
- Estimation of leaf area in coffee leaves (Coffea arabica L.) of
the Castillo® variety
Abstract: Allometric models based on measurements of single leaf dimensions or a combination there are useful tools for determining individual leaf area (LA) because they are non-destructive, precise, simple and economical methods. The present study was carried out at the Central Station Naranjal of Cenicafé, located in the Department of Caldas (Colombia), four models were defined using the variables length (L) and/or width (W) to estimate LA in coffee leaves of the Castillo® variety (Coffea arabica L.). Estimation of regression coefficients was performed using information recorded from 6,441 leaves (group 1), and their validation was performed using records from another 992 leaves (group 2). Leaves were collected from all strata of the canopy and ranged from 0.76 to 140 cm2 in LA. In addition to exhibiting coefficients of variation differing from zero based on t-tests at 1%, the evaluated models possess coefficients of determination between 0.93 and 0.99. Four expressions have developed and adjusted to estimate leaf area in individual leaves, based on the measurement of simple variables and non-destructive.
- Development of soybean cultivars as a function of maturation group and
growth type in high lands and in lowlands
Abstract: O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o desenvolvimento de cultivares de soja com diferentes grupos de maturação e tipos de crescimento em terras altas e terras baixas no Rio Grande do Sul. Foram conduzidas nove épocas de semeadura em Santa Maria (ambiente de terras altas) e uma época de semeadura em Capão do Leão (ambiente de terras baixas) durante os anos agrícolas 2010/2011, 2011/2012 e 2012/2013, com 11 cultivares de soja. O delineamento experimental em todos os experimentos foi blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas. Foi quantificada a duração, em ºC dia, do ciclo de desenvolvimento, da fase vegetativa e reprodutiva, e do período entre a data que ocorreu o início do florescimento e o número final de nós para todas as épocas e locais de semeadura. Houve redução da duração da fase reprodutiva, do ciclo total de desenvolvimento (exceto algumas cultivares semeadas em setembro), com o atraso da data de semeadura independentemente do grupo de maturação e tipo de crescimento. As semeaduras de setembro, janeiro e fevereiro promovem uma redução da fase vegetativa na maioria das cultivares quando comparadas com a época recomendada (novembro e dezembro). Cultivares indeterminadas apresentam um maior período de sobreposição das fases vegetativa e reprodutiva do que as cultivares determinadas em todas as épocas e locais de cultivo. O desenvolvimento da soja é similar quando cultivada em terras altas e terras baixas.The objective of this study was to characterize the development of soybean cultivars with different maturity group, and growth types grown in highlands and in lowlands in Rio Grande do Sul. Field experiments were conducted in Santa Maria (highland) and Capão do Leão (lowland) during the 2010/2011, 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 growing seasons, with 11 treatments (soybean cultivars). Nine sowing dates were conducted in Santa Maria and one in Capão do Leão. The experimental design in all experiments was a randomized block design with split plots. The duration of the development cycle, vegetative and reproductive phases, and the period between the date that was the final number of nodes and early flowering was measured in °C day, for all sites and sowing dates. There was reduction in the duration of the reproductive phase, total development cycle (except some cultivars sown in september), with delay on sowing date regardless of the maturity group and type of growth with delayed sowing. Sowings of September, January and February promote a reduction in vegetative stage in most cultivars when compared with the recommended period (November and December). Cultivars Indeterminate have a longer period of overlap between the vegetative and reproductive phases than certain cultivars in all sites and sowing dates. The soybean development is similar when grown in highlands and lowlands.