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  Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 772 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (74 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (524 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (94 journals)
    - DAIRYING AND DAIRY PRODUCTS (30 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (50 journals)

AGRICULTURE (524 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta agriculturae Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Agrobotanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Agronomica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Agronomica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access  
Acta Technologica Agriculturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria     Open Access  
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Agriculture & Botanics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
AFBM Journal     Open Access  
Africa Development     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Horticultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Agra Europe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agribusiness : an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultural Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Agricultural Commodities     Full-text available via subscription  
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Agricultural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 76)
Agricultural History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Agricultural Science     Open Access  
Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agricultural Sciences in China     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Full-text available via subscription  
Agriculture and Food Sciences Research     Open Access  
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Agriprobe     Full-text available via subscription  
Agriscientia     Open Access  
Agrivita : Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Agroalimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agrociencia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agrociencia Uruguay     Open Access  
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía Colombiana     Open Access  
Agronomía Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access  
Agronomie Africaine     Full-text available via subscription  
Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrosearch     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Alinteri Zirai Bilimler Dergisi : Alinteri Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Ambiência     Open Access  
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Botany     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
APCBEE Procedia     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Applied Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Applied Financial Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access  
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Grain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Agricultural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Sugarcane     Full-text available via subscription  
Avances en Investigacion Agropecuaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics     Full-text available via subscription  
Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Advances in Agronomy
  [SJR: 1.742]   [H-I: 67]   [12 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0065-2113
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2801 journals]
  • A Comprehensive Review of the CERES-Wheat, -Maize and -Rice Models’
           Performances
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Bruno Basso, Lin Liu, Joe T. Ritchie
      The Crop Environment Resource Synthesis (CERES) models have been developed and utilized for the last 30years to simulate crop growth in response to climate, soil, genotypes and management across locations throughout the world. We reviewed 215 papers found in the literature that contained field observed data where the CERES models were tested. Over 30 simulated variables of the CERES models have been tested in 43 different countries under various experimental treatments. Across all testing conditions, the CERES models simulated grain yield with a root mean square error (RMSE) of less than 1400kg/ha (∼10% relative error, RE), 1200kg/ha (∼20% RE) and 800kg/ha (∼10% RE) for maize, wheat, and rice, respectively. Phenological development was simulated with less than 7days difference from the observations in most studies. The CERES models simulated aboveground biomass, harvest index, evapotranspiration, and soil water reasonably well too. The simulations of grain number (up to 4340 root mean square error, RMSE), grain weight (up to 22% error), intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IPAR, up to 0.41MJ/plant), leaf area index (LAI, 31.9% error), soil temperature (over 10°C difference), and nitrogen (N) dynamics (up to 80% error) were less accurate. In fact the average error of CERES model simulations tends to be higher under marginal crop growing conditions such as extreme heat or cold, water and nutrient deficit conditions.


      PubDate: 2016-01-13T06:41:50Z
       
  • Performance of Coffee Seedlings as Affected by Soil Moisture and Nitrogen
           Application
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Alveiro Salamanca-Jimenez, Timothy A. Doane, William R. Horwath
      Nitrogen (N) and soil moisture are the most important factors controlling yield in Colombian coffee crops. Since long-term productivity is contingent on robust early growth, it is imperative to study these factors in seedlings in order to ensure maximum yield potential of mature trees. A greenhouse experiment with four soil water and four N levels was used to determine how these two important variables affect quantifiable parameters representing seedling performance. Shoot biomass, the most obvious indicator of performance, was increased by both higher soil moisture and higher N application, although root biomass increased with N application only in wetter soils and in general the root to shoot ratio diminished with increasing N application. Like shoot biomass, leaf N content and N derived from fertilizer (Ndff) also increased with increasing N application, with relatively more leaf N recovered from fertilizer as soil moisture increased. Evapotranspiration (EVPT) responded to soil moisture, whereas water use efficiency, in terms of shoot mass produced per unit of evapotranspired water, responded dramatically to N level but was not affected by soil moisture. The strong effect of N application on water use efficiency was affirmed by the higher 13C/12C ratios and stem water potentials of plants grown under higher N levels, indicating greater water stress in these plants. All of these responses were associated with changes in photosynthesis as a result of acclimation to the imposed conditions. Consideration of these results will facilitate new recommendations for maximizing growth of coffee seedlings by increasing water and N use efficiency while reducing the economic and environmental impacts attributed to N fertilizers.


      PubDate: 2016-01-09T04:16:49Z
       
  • Perspectives About the National Cooperative Soil Survey
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Richard W. Arnold
      A discussion of nine tenets of pedology provides perspectives of the US soil survey program. The tenets are: paradigm of soils, scientific methodology, functional landscapes, soils as individuals, behavioral functions of soils, improving documentation, sharing pedological knowledge, reliability of information, and enhancing decision making. Highlights of each reveal progress, concerns, and opportunities. Accepting soil as a continuum rather than as individual entities may be the most important shift in our thought processes and understanding of the pedosphere. New technologies and changing social and political strategies suggest there is hope for a viable and sustainable Earth. Pedology can provide meaningful information and knowledge about soil resources.


      PubDate: 2016-01-09T04:16:49Z
       
  • Impact of Herbicides on Soil Biology and Function
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Michael T. Rose, Timothy R. Cavagnaro, Craig A. Scanlan, Terry J. Rose, Tony Vancov, Stephen Kimber, Ivan R. Kennedy, Rai S. Kookana, Lukas Van Zwieten
      There is a growing awareness among farmers about the importance of soil for sustaining crop production and providing beneficial ecosystem services. Over the last 2 decades, global herbicide use has increased as farmers have shifted to more sustainable conservation tillage practices and have adopted herbicide-tolerant crop cultivars. The implications of increased herbicide use for soil biology are being questioned, but a comprehensive review on this topic is lacking. In this chapter we outline the chemistry and use of the major herbicide classes, and review the soil functions relevant to crop production. We then collate and critically evaluate the evidence for herbicide effects on soil biota and activity. In general, most studies suggest that the impacts of herbicide application on soil function are only minor and/or temporary. However, there are some instances where findings consistently suggest effects that could significantly alter soil function. These include disruptions to earthworm ecology in soils exposed to glyphosate and atrazine; inhibition of soil N-cycling (including biological N2-fixation, mineralization and nitrification) by sulfonylurea herbicides in alkaline or low organic matter soils; and site-specific increases in disease resulting from the application of a variety of herbicides. Issues with extrapolating these findings to broadacre farming include the lack of a consistent framework for assessing herbicide risk to soil biology, the relevance of the magnitude of herbicide impacts compared with the impacts of other soil management practices such as tillage or crop rotation, the complexity of herbicide formulations and mixtures, and the limited number of long-term field studies.


      PubDate: 2016-01-09T04:16:49Z
       
  • Groundwater Depletion by Agricultural Intensification in China's HHH
           Plains, Since 1980s
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 December 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Xiangbin Kong, Xueliang Zhang, Rattan Lal, Fengrong Zhang, Xunhong Chen, Zhenguo Niu, Lei Han, Wei Song
      Sustainable use of groundwater is critical to China's present and future food security. Natural groundwater resources of Huang–Huai–Hai plains (HHH), the region that produces 60–80% of China's wheat (Triticum aestivum) and 35–40% of its maize (Zea mays), are being jeopardized by excessive water withdrawal. While previous studies have assessed the groundwater depletion rate in parts of this region, there is a lack of data on the rate of groundwater depletion and the corresponding change process analysis at the entire scale in the HHH. In this article, we document that the groundwater is being depleted at a mean rate of 0.46±0.37 m year−1 for the shallow aquifer and 1.14±0.58 m year−1 for deep aquifer. Based on the general specific yield of aquifer in the HHH, the rate of loss of total groundwater in the entire region is 8.32–10.75 km3 year−1. The severity of groundwater depletion is attributed to the long-term intensive irrigation for increasing crop yields and total biomass production in the HHH. Increasing 1 million Mg of wheat production lower the deep groundwater by 1.8 m (e.g., in Dezhou in the flood and coastal plains) and the shallow groundwater by 0.37 m (e.g., in Shijiazhuang in the piedmont plains). Thus, effective measures must be adopted to mitigate groundwater depletion for sustaining the present level of food production in the HHH.


      PubDate: 2015-12-13T12:30:56Z
       
  • Scientific Underpinnings of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI): What
           Is Known So Far?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Amod K. Thakur, Norman T. Uphoff, Willem A. Stoop
      During the last 10 plus years, the system of rice intensification (SRI), a methodology for rice cultivation with many reported benefits, has been promoted in a number of countries, particularly in the major rice-growing nations of China, India, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Cambodia, which produce two-thirds of the world's rice. However, reports of substantial yield increases and phenotypic changes resulting from SRI management have been challenged on various grounds in the scientific literature. The debate has been among the most contentious in recent agronomic forums, although it has been receding in recent years as evidence continues to accumulate. This paper reviews information now available in the scientific literature that supports the multiple agronomic, plant physiologic, and soil microbiologic foundations for the reported SRI performance, and discusses how these effects are becoming even more relevant in the context of changing climates.


      PubDate: 2015-12-08T10:06:19Z
       
  • Molecular and Genomic Tools Provide Insights on Crop Domestication and
           Evolution
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Mulatu Geleta, Rodomiro Ortiz
      Rapid progress in genomic research and the development of genome-wide molecular markers for various crops significantly improved our knowledge on plant domestication and evolution. Molecular markers and other genomic tools have been used to understand the evolutionary changes that converted wild plants into domesticated crops, and the identification of loci behind domestication syndrome traits will have significant importance in the fast-track domestication of new plants. The application of genomics-assisted selection in plant breeding programs has significantly contributed to efficient plant breeding for desirable traits. Genomic tools also facilitated the efficient identification of progenitors of crops as well as centers of domestication. Multiple genomic regions with signature of selection during plant domestication have been found in various crops. Extensive analyses of plant genomes revealed that genes underlying domestication syndrome traits show a significant loss of diversity, for example, up to 95% of genetic diversity in wild relatives has been lost during domestication process in extreme cases. Genomic research revealed repeated occurrence of polyploidization during plant evolution and various interesting events that occurred following polyploidization such as gene loss and silencing. The loss of most replicated genes through time and nonrandom retention of some duplicated genes that serve as signatures of polyploidy are among interesting changes in polyploid plant genomes. Further insights into the advances in our knowledge on plant domestication and evolution made through the use of DNA markers and genomic tools is provided in this paper.


      PubDate: 2015-12-08T10:06:19Z
       
  • Adsorption Properties of Subtropical and Tropical Variable Charge Soils:
           Implications from Climate Change and Biochar Amendment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 December 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Ren-kou Xu, Nikolla P. Qafoku, Eric Van Ranst, Jiu-yu Li, Jun Jiang
      This review paper attempts to summarize the progress made in research efforts conducted over the past years to study the surface chemical properties of the tropical and subtropical soils, usually called variable charge soils, and the way they response to different management. The paper is composed of an introductory section that provides a brief discussion on the surface chemical properties of these soils, and five other review sections. The focus of the following sections is on the evolution of surface chemical properties during the development of the variable charge properties (second section), interactions between oppositely charged particles and the resulting effects on the soil properties and especially on soil acidity (third section), the surface effects of low molecular weight organic acids sorbed to mineral surfaces and the chemical behavior of aluminum (fourth section), and the crop-straw-derived biochar-induced changes of the surface chemical properties of these soils (fifth section). A discussion on the effect of climate change variables on the properties of the variable charge soils is included at the end of this review paper (sixth section).


      PubDate: 2015-12-04T09:15:48Z
       
  • Impact of Climate Change Factors on Weeds and Herbicide Efficacy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 December 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Aruna Varanasi, P.V. Vara Prasad, Mithila Jugulam
      Rising carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and associated changes in global temperature and precipitation are major concerns for future weed management and crop production. This review focuses on the impacts of climate change factors on the growth of weeds and the potential variations in the efficacy of herbicides under changing climate conditions. Weeds are likely to show greater resilience and better adaptation to changes in CO2 concentrations and rising temperature in competition with crops due to their diverse gene pool and greater physiological plasticity. Weeds with C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways may exhibit differential responses to higher CO2 levels and temperatures, which can affect the dynamics of crop–weed competition. In addition to its positive impact on weed growth, climate change factors could influence the efficacy of many herbicides, making weed management a major challenge for sustainable crop production. To enhance our understanding of the impact of climate change factors on herbicide efficacy, it is important to evaluate the effects of environmental conditions on various herbicide modes of action. Environmental factors such as CO2, light, temperature, relative humidity, and soil moisture differentially affect the uptake, translocation, and activity of different herbicide chemistries. Furthermore, interactions among these environmental factors may have unpredictable effects on herbicide activity. Existing literature suggests that climate change factors impacts vary not only within herbicide modes of action but also among herbicides belonging to same mode of action, so making generalized assumptions for each mode of action is difficult. Extensive research on the impact of climate change factors and their interactions on all commonly used herbicides is necessary to understand the implications for weed management in future climate scenarios.


      PubDate: 2015-12-04T09:15:48Z
       
  • Preface
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 134




      PubDate: 2015-10-20T04:39:38Z
       
  • Contributors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 134




      PubDate: 2015-10-20T04:39:38Z
       
  • Copyright
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 134




      PubDate: 2015-10-20T04:39:38Z
       
  • Front Matter
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 134




      PubDate: 2015-10-20T04:39:38Z
       
  • Advances in Agronomy
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 134




      PubDate: 2015-10-20T04:39:38Z
       
  • Advances in Agronomy
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 134




      PubDate: 2015-10-20T04:39:38Z
       
  • Management-Induced Changes to Soil Organic Carbon in China: A
           Meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Xin Zhao, Ran Zhang, Jian-Fu Xue, Chao Pu, Xiang-Qian Zhang, Sheng-Li Liu, Fu Chen, Rattan Lal, Hai-Lin Zhang
      Soil carbon (C) sequestration is an environmentally friendly and efficient strategy to offset emissions of greenhouse gases and mitigate climate change. However, inappropriate farming practices can deplete soil organic carbon (SOC) stock and degrade soil quality. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess and identify the effects of improved farming practices on SOC sequestration in China by compiling a data set of 83 studies. The results indicated that SOC concentration and stocks at 0–30cm depth significantly increased by 1.00±0.26gkg−1 and 0.97±0.24Mgha−1 when plow tillage with residue removal was converted to no-till with residue retention (NT); 1.11±0.21gkg−1 and 2.09±0.46Mgha−1 when no fertilization was changed to chemical fertilization (CF); and 1.99±0.62gkg−1 and 3.09±0.99Mgha−1 when CF was changed to manure application (MF) (P <0.05), respectively. However, increases in SOC were primarily observed in the surface layer and decreased with soil depth. Therefore, the adoption of NT and MF in conjunction with CF is an effective strategy to enhance SOC stock in the surface layer. Further, in single-crop farming regions, the effects are more significant at 0–10cm depth; and the new equilibrium can occur within 11–20years after the adoption of NT. In double-crop farming regions, conversion to MF enhanced the SOC at 0–20cm depth over 16years. Additional research is warranted to credibly assess the rates of residue and manure input, soil “C saturation,” and soil type on the potential SOC sink capacity in China's croplands.


      PubDate: 2015-07-30T22:01:32Z
       
  • Using Functional Traits to Assess the Services Provided by Cover Plants: A
           Review of Potentialities in Banana Cropping Systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Gaëlle Damour, Eric Garnier, Marie Laure Navas, Marc Dorel, Jean-Michel Risède
      Cover plant-based cropping systems have gained considerable attention over the last few years because of the recognized benefits of increasing the diversity of agrosystems to sustain services other than those pertaining to production. While agronomical tools and methods to assess these services in multispecies plant communities barely exist, trait-based approaches, originally developed in the field of comparative functional ecology, provide an appropriated framework to study the effects of plant diversity on agrosystems. The aim of this article is to discuss how a trait-based approach can be used to assess the services delivered in cover plant-based cropping system. We focus on semiperennial cropping systems based on cover plants, exemplified by the banana cropping systems. These systems are described in a first section to identify the services targeted. A second section, based on a literature survey, analyzes the processes associated with each service and identifies related effect traits of cover plants. A shortlist of markers to be used to assess agrosystem processes is proposed and hypothesis on trade-offs and synergies among services are formulated. In a third section, issues related to the scaling-up from plant traits to the services delivered by plant agricultural communities are discussed. Such an approach, originated in the field of ecology, appears highly promising to tackle agronomic issues and its application to agrosystems constitutes a challenging test of their genericity. It raises specific questions and stresses the need for new methodological developments, which could be part of a research agenda at the interface between the two disciplines.


      PubDate: 2015-07-30T22:01:32Z
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 131




      PubDate: 2015-07-30T22:01:32Z
       
  • Title Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 131




      PubDate: 2015-07-30T22:01:32Z
       
  • Copyright Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 131




      PubDate: 2015-07-30T22:01:32Z
       
  • Contributors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 131




      PubDate: 2015-07-30T22:01:32Z
       
  • Copyright Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 132




      PubDate: 2015-07-30T22:01:32Z
       
  • Contributors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 132




      PubDate: 2015-07-30T22:01:32Z
       
  • Preface
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 132
      Author(s): Donald L. Sparks



      PubDate: 2015-07-30T22:01:32Z
       
  • Half Title Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 131




      PubDate: 2015-07-30T22:01:32Z
       
  • Half Title Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 132




      PubDate: 2015-07-30T22:01:32Z
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 132




      PubDate: 2015-07-30T22:01:32Z
       
  • Title Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 132




      PubDate: 2015-07-30T22:01:32Z
       
  • Chapter Five Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) Analysis and
           Risk Assessment for Soil Compaction—A European Perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 133
      Author(s): Per Schjønning, Jan J.H. van den Akker, Thomas Keller, Mogens H. Greve, Mathieu Lamandé, Asko Simojoki, Matthias Stettler, Johan Arvidsson, Henrik Breuning-Madsen
      Compaction of subsoil is a hidden but persistent damage that impairs a range of soil functions and ecosystem services. We analyzed the soil compaction issue in the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) context. The driving force (DPSIR-D) is the farmers' efforts to sustain economic viability. This entails a steady increase in the size and weight of the agricultural machinery (DPSIR-P) exerting the specific pressures on the soil system. Simulations using historical data for agricultural machinery show significant increases in the mechanical stresses exerted on the soil profile during the last five decades. Surveys and comparative measurements (DPSIR-S) in the literature indicate that much of the European subsoil is compacted to critical levels for cropping. This calls for changes in agricultural management (DPSIR-R). Mechanical stresses impact the soil (DPSIR-I) by reducing the volume, dimensions, and interconnections of soil pores. Subsequent impacts on ecosystem services (subtle DPSIR-I aspects) include a decrease in crop production, an impaired soil filtering of pollutants, and the risk of higher greenhouse gas emissions. The natural ability of compacted subsoil to recover is poor. We highlight the need to expand the DPSIR concept to include a risk assessment methodology to identify sustainable management systems. Risk assessment involves the evaluation of the mechanistic cause–effect chain of the compaction process. Measured data as well as modeling indicate that contemporary tires are not able to carry the loads frequently inflicted on wet soil without exerting critical stresses on deep subsoil layers. We suggest the use of online modeling tools that combine existing knowledge. Such tools may also create maps of vulnerable areas from the field to the continent scale. Groups of stakeholders including researchers, farmers and their consultants, and policy-makers need to identify sustainable traffic systems that secure both presently focused ecosystem services as well as nonuse soil values (the bequest for future generations).


      PubDate: 2015-07-30T22:01:32Z
       
  • Chapter Four Potential and Challenges of Rainfed Farming in India
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 133
      Author(s): Cherukumalli Srinivasa Rao, Rattan Lal, Jasti V.N.S. Prasad, Kodigal A. Gopinath, Rajbir Singh, Vijay S. Jakkula, Kanwar L. Sahrawat, Bandi Venkateswarlu, Alok K. Sikka, Surinder M. Virmani
      India ranks first in rainfed agriculture globally in both area (86Mha) and the value of produce. Rainfed regions in India contribute substantially toward food grain production including 44% of rice, 87% of coarse cereals (sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), maize (Zea mays)), and 85% of food legumes, 72% of oilseeds, 65% of cotton, and 90% of minor millets. Overall, the rainfed areas produce 40% of the food grains, support two-thirds of the livestock population, and are critical to food security, equity, and sustainability. India is home to 18% of world's population, 15% of the world livestock, 4.2% of fresh water resources, 1% of forests, and 0.5% of pasture land, but only has 2.3% of the geographical area. India is home to 25% of the world's hungry population of ∼1 billion along with an estimated 43% of children malnourished under the age of five. The net sown area in India has remained constant for several years at 141Mha, but the human and livestock populations have been steadily increasing. Though the Indian population increased from 361 million in 1951 to 1140 million in 2011, tripling over 60years, the food-grain production has more than quadrupled, but the yield gains are largely from the irrigated agroecosystems. Notwithstanding the increase in average productivity from 0.6Mgha−1 in the 1980s to 1.1Mgha−1 at the present time, large yield gaps exist for rainfed crops in the semiarid regions. Even after realizing the full irrigation potential, nearly 40% of the net sown area of 141Mha will remain totally rainfed. The per capita availability of land has fallen drastically from 2.4ha in 1951 to about 0.32ha in 2001; and it is projected to decline further to 0.09ha by 2050. Increasing productivity of rainfed cropping systems is of critical importance to meet the food demands of an ever-increasing population in India. The potential productivity of maize (Z. mays) in high rainfall regions under rainfed condition is 8.0Mgha−1 vis-a-vis the national average yield of 2.1Mgha−1, indicating an unbridged yield gap of ∼6Mgha−1. Large yield gaps exist in other crops as well which are primarily grown under rainfed conditions. Recommended management practices (RMPs) such as improved cultivars, site specific nutrient management (precision agriculture), and water harvesting and recycling can potentially increase the yields in several crops up to 6Mgha−1, indicating the large realizable potential under rainfed conditions. There are many districts in India where the actual yields are much lower than the national average, and there is enormous potential for improvement. The objective of this article is to discuss the production potentials and the yield gaps of predominant crops grown under rainfed conditions in India, biotic and abiotic constraints, and RMPs for realizing the potentials.


      PubDate: 2015-07-30T22:01:32Z
       
  • Chapter Three Advances in Structured Light Sensors Applications in
           Precision Agriculture and Livestock Farming
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 133
      Author(s): Joan R. Rosell-Polo, Fernando Auat Cheein, Eduard Gregorio, Dionisio Andújar, Lluís Puigdomènech, Joan Masip, Alexandre Escolà
      The sustained growth of the world's population in the coming years will require an even greater role for agriculture to meet the food needs of humankind. To improve the productivity and competitiveness of the agricultural industry, it is necessary to develop new and affordable sensing technologies for agricultural operations. This kind of innovations should be implemented in a framework considering the farm, the crops, and their surroundings, with the aim of providing the farmer with information to take better decisions to enhance the production. This is the case of precision agriculture and precision livestock farming. This chapter reviews and discusses the use of structured light sensors in the characterization and phenotyping of crops in orchards and groves, weeds, and animals. As a result of a collaboration between researchers from Spain and Chile, opportunities for this type of sensors have been identified in these countries as examples of South American and European agriculture. In this context, several empirical case studies are presented regarding the use of structured light sensors for flower, fruit, branch, and trunk characterization considering depth and RGB (red-green-blue colors) information in avocados, lemons, apple, and pear orchards. Applications to weed detection and classification as well as to livestock phenotyping are also illustrated. Regarding the presented case studies, experimental and statistical results are provided showing the pros and cons of structured light sensors applied to agricultural environments. Additionally, several considerations are included for the use of this type of sensors to improve the agricultural process.


      PubDate: 2015-07-30T22:01:32Z
       
  • Chapter Two Climate Change Effects on the Suitability of an Agricultural
           Area to Maize Cultivation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 133
      Author(s): Antonello Bonfante, Eugenia Monaco, Silvia M. Alfieri, Francesca De Lorenzi, Piero Manna, Angelo Basile, Johan Bouma
      Climate change is likely to have a major impact on agricultural production in Mediterranean regions, due to higher temperatures and lower water availability for irrigation. A Hybrid Land Evaluation System (HLES) is proposed allowing a comparison between plant demands on the one hand and estimated future temperatures and soil water regimes on the other. A storyline is followed for each plant species hybrid and each soil mapping unit in the area to be studied, starting with step 1: evaluation of thermal conditions, followed by step 2: a traditional empirical land evaluation procedure identifying limiting features that are not covered by crop simulation models (such as flooding, surface stones, salt). Step 3 applies the quantitative Soil–Water–Atmosphere–Plant (SWAP) model and calculates soil water regimes and associated productions, at 100%, 80%, and 60% hypothetical irrigation water availability. HLES was applied in the Destra Sele area in Italy, comparing two climates: “reference” (1961–1990) and “future” (2021–2050), studying 11 maize hybrids and showing that in future, 6 hybrids suffered severely at 80% water availability and 7 could not meet requirements at 60%. HLES allows a proactive approach to future water allocation issues and provides data for genetic modification studies in terms of defining hydrological conditions for sites of native plants and for areas where new hybrids are to be introduced. HLES presents options, to be explored in close interaction with users, rather than one-way judgments.


      PubDate: 2015-07-30T22:01:32Z
       
  • Front Matter
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 133




      PubDate: 2015-07-30T22:01:32Z
       
  • Copyright
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 133




      PubDate: 2015-07-30T22:01:32Z
       
  • Contributors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 133




      PubDate: 2015-07-30T22:01:32Z
       
  • Preface
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 133
      Author(s): Donald L. Sparks



      PubDate: 2015-07-30T22:01:32Z
       
  • Chapter One Advances in Using Soft X-Ray Spectroscopy for Measurement of
           Soil Biogeochemical Processes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 133
      Author(s): Adam W. Gillespie, Courtney L. Phillips, James J. Dynes, David Chevrier, Thomas Z. Regier, Derek Peak
      Light elements are particularly important in biogeochemical processes. These include organic matter components and macronutrients (C, N, O, S, P), micronutrients (Na, Mg, K, Mg), mineral elements (Si, Al), and transition metals. Determining the chemical speciation of these light elements in environmental samples is important for understanding bioavailability, decomposition, contamination mobility, and nutrient cycling. Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a useful tool available to probe the chemistry of atoms important in biogeochemical processes. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) probes the local bonding and coordination environment of these elements in whole samples. Bulk XAS techniques permit for high throughput, the study of whole soils, and high sampling density. These analyses are complementary to X-ray transmission microscopy techniques which are limited by low throughput, thin particles (<100nm), and low sampling density. In many projects, these bulk XAS measurements may be essential to understanding large-scale processes in soils such as the global C cycle. Despite these important applications, bulk soft XAS has not been extensively applied to environmental samples until recently. The primary reasons for this gap is the lack of beamline endstations that are suitable for “dirty” samples and the technical challenges related to acquiring and normalizing spectra from dilute samples. Many of these technical challenges have now been overcome through the development of energy-resolving detectors, proper detector positioning, and development of liquid cell applications. Technical developments and recent applications will be presented, showing how bulk soft X-ray XAS is now positioned to contribute significantly to advancing the characterization of soils and environmental samples.


      PubDate: 2015-07-30T22:01:32Z
       
  • Advances in Agronomy
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 133




      PubDate: 2015-07-30T22:01:32Z
       
  • Advances in Agronomy
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 133




      PubDate: 2015-07-30T22:01:32Z
       
  • Bacterial Diseases of Crops: Elucidation of the Factors that Lead to
           Differences Between Field and Experimental Infections
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 July 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Jay Ram Lamichhane
      Diseases caused by plant pathogenic bacteria have attained great concern worldwide as they are responsible for severe economic losses throughout the cultivated areas. Although studies performed in experimental conditions have provided many new insights into chemical and molecular signaling between plants and bacterial pathogens during pathogenesis, little is known about the factors that interact in natural field conditions. In particular, a wide gap exists between these two systems in terms of disease occurrence and severity. This review attempts to highlight the possible reasons that make natural field conditions different from the experimental ones, which might be useful to bridge the current gap and to facilitate the development of adequate control measures.


      PubDate: 2015-07-30T22:01:32Z
       
  • Advances and Perspectives to Improve the Phosphorus Availability in
           Cropping Systems for Agroecological Phosphorus Management
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Michel-Pierre Faucon, David Houben, Jean-Paul Reynoird, Anne-Maïmiti Mercadal-Dulaurent, Romain Armand, Hans Lambers
      Phosphorus (P) is a limiting nutrient for the productivity of many agroecosystems, and the depletion of global mineral P reserves is of concern for global food security. On the other hand, overfertilization with P and its subsequent export through runoff can cause eutrophication of water bodies and natural terrestrial habitats. An important challenge is therefore to develop productive farming systems in which P availability in soils is increased, while reducing mineral P inputs, outputs, and negative off-site impacts. Increasing the P availability in cropping systems requires several approaches including management of soil properties and P amendments, agroecology of cropping systems, and plant breeding. The objective of the present review is to identify new research perspectives in agronomy and emerging strategies to improve the P availability in cropping systems. For this purpose, we explore the following: (1) the use of renewable waste-derived P resources (including crop residues, excreta, struvite, and biochar) to improve P availability, particularly the impacts of applications of such renewable P sources on the chemical properties of the soil, soil organic matter dynamics, soil microbial and rhizospheric activity, and, ultimately, P availability; (2) the effects of multispecies cropping system on P availability, notably the incorporation of the concepts of positive plant–soil feedback on P availability, previously demonstrated in grassland and forest ecosystems, to multispecies cropping systems; and (3) the identification of genetic traits of plant–microorganism relations involved in the tolerance of low-P soils to improve plant breeding outcomes. The challenge for sustainable management of P resources for agriculture is now to reengineer agricultural systems at several scales and to define P management strategies in cropping systems by combining the use of renewable P resources and the management of soil properties, multispecies cropping system, and crop cultivars that increase soil P availability.


      PubDate: 2015-07-30T22:01:32Z
       
  • Soil Biogeochemistry, Plant Physiology, and Phytoremediation of
           Cadmium-Contaminated Soils
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Shanying He, Zhenli He, Xiaoe Yang, Peter J. Stoffella, Virupax C. Baligar
      Cadmium (Cd) loading in soil and the environment has been accelerated worldwide due to enhanced industrialization and intensified agricultural production, particularly in the developing countries. Soil Cd pollution, resulting from both anthropogenic and geogenic sources, has posed an increasing challenge to soil quality and food security as well as to human health. Compared with other heavy metals such as copper (Cu) and lead (Pb), Cd demonstrates greater mobility along food chain and in the environment. Cd is harmful to human health and potentially toxic to biota at lower concentrations. Therefore, it is imperative to develop management strategies for control of pollution sources and remediation of contaminated soils. Extensive studies have been conducted in recent years to understand biogeochemical processes of Cd in soils, its cycle in agroecosystems, impacts on soil quality and food security, and the remediation of Cd-contaminated soils. Phytoremediation as an emergent technology has stimulated refreshed interest since it is cost effective and ecofriendly, especially the use of metal hyperaccumulating plants to extract or mine heavy metals from contaminated soils. Progress has been made in the understanding of mechanisms that govern Cd accumulation and detoxification in accumulating plants. This review provides recent progress in soil biogeochemistry and plant physiology of Cd, mechanisms of hyperaccumulation of Cd in plant, remediation strategies including chemical and microbiological enhancement, and optimization of field management practices, in the hope to stimulate more research in the future.


      PubDate: 2015-07-30T22:01:32Z
       
  • Soil Spectroscopy: An Alternative to Wet Chemistry for Soil Monitoring
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): M. Nocita , A. Stevens , B. van Wesemael , M. Aitkenhead , M. Bachmann , B. Barthès , E. Ben Dor , D.J. Brown , M. Clairotte , A. Csorba , P. Dardenne , J.A.M. Demattê , V. Genot , C. Guerrero , M. Knadel , L. Montanarella , C. Noon , L. Ramirez-Lopez , J. Robertson , H. Sakai , J.M. Soriano-Disla , K.D. Shepherd , B. Stenberg , E.K. Towett , R. Vargas , J. Wetterlind
      The soil science community is facing a growing demand of regional, continental, and worldwide databases in order to monitor the status of the soil. However, the availability of such data is very scarce. Cost-effective tools to measure soil properties for large areas (e.g., Europe) are required. Soil spectroscopy has shown to be a fast, cost-effective, environmental-friendly, nondestructive, reproducible, and repeatable analytical technique. The main aim of this paper is to describe the state of the art of soil spectroscopy as well as its potential to facilitating soil monitoring. The factors constraining the application of soil spectroscopy as an alternative to traditional laboratory analyses, together with the limits of the technique, are addressed. The paper also highlights that the widespread use of spectroscopy to monitor the status of the soil should be encouraged by (1) the creation of a standard for the collection of laboratory soil spectra, to promote the sharing of spectral libraries, and (2) the scanning of existing soil archives, reducing the need for costly sampling campaigns. Finally, routine soil analysis using soil spectroscopy would be beneficial for the end users by a reduction in analytical costs, and an increased comparability of results between laboratories. This ambitious project will materialize only through (1) the establishment of local and regional partnerships among existent institutions able to generate the necessary technical competence, and (2) the support of international organizations. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of United Nations and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission are well placed to promote the use of laboratory and field spectrometers for monitoring the state of soils.


      PubDate: 2015-04-05T11:50:45Z
       
  • Hydrological Aspects of Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater in Eastern
           India
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Saugata Datta
      Arsenic in the Bengal Delta has been the topic of discussion for more than a decade since 73% of the population (more than 140 million people) are under deep stress for locating arsenic-free drinking water. Most of this arsenic is geogenic, having its source from the Himalayan metamorphic facies, and is carried down by major river systems and thereby accumulating on the fluvio-deltaic plains to the southeast. All the states on this path are to some extent have depicted the presence of arsenic in the subsurface groundwaters. Currently, there are two major pathways for ingesting arsenic: (1) by the drinking water; and (2) by the food chain. Various scales of health effects from skin lesions to major cancer outbreaks have been located distinctively and pathologically in about 43% of the affected population. Irrigation practices have exacerbated the lateral extent of high arsenic in this region. Secondary natural minerals Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides seem to adsorb both the valences of arsenic and, in the presence of labile organic carbon as in dissolved organic matter, help in releasing the arsenic into the groundwaters. Shallow to intermediate depth-reducing aquifers within the Holocene floodplains are the most contaminated and range from <10 to 4600 μg L−1. The Bengal Basin, within a few meters of sea level, has repercussions from infiltrating saline seawater, and the impacts of climate change makes the problem worse in this region. Switching groundwater wells, harvesting rainwater, and household small-scale filtration systems, are the three most effective remediation mechanisms known to the people of the Bengal Delta.


      PubDate: 2015-04-05T11:50:45Z
       
  • Nitrogenous Gas Emissions from Soils and Greenhouse Gas Effects
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Ed Gregorich , H. Henry Janzen , Bobbi Helgason , Ben Ellert
      The Haber–Bosch process for synthesizing fertilizer nitrogen (N) is among the most important modern discoveries because it has enabled us to grow enough food for several billion more of us. At the same time, however, profusion of added “reactive” N has become a prominent ecological threat, globally, because a large fraction of applied N is lost from agricultural ecosystems. Nitrogen added to agricultural soils, in organic forms or as synthetic N fertilizers, has one of four fates; it can be assimilated by plants, lost to surface- or groundwater, retained in the soil, or lost to the atmosphere. The last of these is particularly worrisome because of links to climate change and other threats to the biosphere. Our aim is to summarize briefly the processes of atmospheric N emissions to the air from agricultural ecosystems, and to consider how management practices might reduce those emissions. Nitrogen gases emitted from soil emanate from naturally occurring biological processes regulated largely by three interactive factors: substrate availability, aeration, and temperature. Although these factors are partly dictated by weather and intrinsic soil properties, they are also influenced by management so that emissions can be heavily influenced by practices imposed on the land. Variables to consider in devising systems with reduced emissions include: forms, rate, and timing of fertilizer; tillage and residue management; crop rotation, including the use of legumes; and manuring practices. All of these need to be considered together to devise systems, tuned to local conditions, which not only reduce emissions but also meet growing demands for agricultural yields. Developing such systems, based on holistic understanding from many disciplines, is now critical to sustain the long-term productivity and vitality of our ecosystems.


      PubDate: 2015-04-05T11:50:45Z
       
  • Occurrence, Detection, and Molecular and Metabolic Characterization of
           Heat-Resistant Fungi in Soils and Plants and Their Risk to Human Health
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Magdalena Frąc , Stefania Jezierska-Tys , Takashi Yaguchi
      Heat-resistant fungi are often factors causing spoilage of heat-processed products. Contamination of agricultural raw materials is often a result of their contact with soil. Materials contaminated by spores of heat-resistant fungi can be a risk to consumers' health because of toxic metabolites (mycotoxins) produced by these microorganisms. Due to resistance of fungi to high temperatures they are able to survive industry pasteurization process. Therefore, the only way to prevent the growth of these microorganisms in the product is suitable selection of material by conducting tests for the presence of heat-resistant fungi. The use of traditional culture methods is long and, therefore, does not apply in the selection of raw materials for production. However, time is a critical factor in assessing the acceptance or rejection of a given batch of raw material, due to the necessity of processing it fresh, which is very important especially in the case of fruit.


      PubDate: 2015-04-05T11:50:45Z
       
  • Wetland Restoration and Creation for Nitrogen Removal: Challenges to
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2015
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Margaret A. Goldman , Brian A. Needelman
      Concern for the health of the Chesapeake Bay and the establishment of the Bay Total Maximum Daily Load have led to growing interest in restoring and creating wetlands to mitigate agricultural nitrogen inputs. All Bay states have included wetland restoration in their watershed implementation plans (WIPs) to help meet their required reduction in nitrogen loading. In agricultural areas of the coastal plain, efforts to develop a watershed-scale approach to siting and designing wetlands have been met with considerable challenges. Nitrate loss is primarily attributed to base-flow conditions, and groundwater flow is multidimensional and highly variable, so accounting for nitrate transport connectivity between agricultural N source areas and potential wetland restoration areas is difficult. Socioeconomic and political challenges also constrain implementation. Our ability to account for subsurface connectivity may be improved with better assessment of hydrologic connectivity in areas with artificial drainage, catchment-scale studies of hydrogeomorphic predictions of hydrologic connectivity, and improved use of geospatial data. A coordinated monitoring program would improve our ability to estimate wetland nitrogen removal efficiencies across environmental and management conditions. The addition of a requirement that water quality should be an explicit objective of restorations included within WIP accounting would avoid the inclusion of projects with minimal water quality benefits. Research is also needed on farmer attitudes in the Chesapeake Bay watershed toward wetlands for water quality protection. These proposed actions would improve our ability to understand and implement wetland restoration as a component of our response to meet water quality objectives.


      PubDate: 2015-04-05T11:50:45Z
       
 
 
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