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  Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 762 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (74 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (519 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (90 journals)
    - DAIRYING AND DAIRY PRODUCTS (30 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (49 journals)

AGRICULTURE (519 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 263 Journals sorted alphabetically
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta agriculturae Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Agronomica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access  
Acta Technologica Agriculturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria     Open Access  
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Agriculture & Botanics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
AFBM Journal     Open Access  
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Agra Europe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agribusiness : an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultura, Sociedad y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultural Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Agricultural Commodities     Full-text available via subscription  
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Agricultural History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agricultural Sciences in China     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Food Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Agriprobe     Open Access  
Agrivita : Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Agroalimentaria     Open Access  
Agrociencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agrociencia Uruguay     Open Access  
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
Agronomía Colombiana     Open Access  
Agronomía Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access  
Agronomie Africaine     Full-text available via subscription  
Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agrosearch     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Akademik Ziraat Dergisi     Open Access  
Alinteri Zirai Bilimler Dergisi : Alinteri Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Botany     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
APCBEE Procedia     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Applied Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Applied Financial Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ARO. The Scientific Journal of Koya University     Open Access  
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Grain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Agricultural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Sugarcane     Full-text available via subscription  
Avances en Investigacion Agropecuaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics     Full-text available via subscription  
Bangladesh Agronomy Journal     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioagro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biological Agriculture & Horticulture : An International Journal for Sustainable Production Systems     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Biosystems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biotemas     Open Access  
Boletín Semillas Ambientales     Open Access  
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Poultry Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Cahiers Agricultures     Open Access  
California Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Journal of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ceiba     Open Access  
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CERNE     Open Access  
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Change and Adaptation in Socio-Ecological Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemical and Biological Technologies for Agriculture     Open Access  
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia & Natura     Open Access  
Ciência e Agrotecnologia     Open Access  
Ciencia e investigación agraria     Open Access  
Ciência e Técnica Vitivinícola     Open Access  
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
COCOS : The Journal of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coffee Science     Open Access  
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Corps et culture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cuadernos de Desarrollo Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cultivos Tropicales     Open Access  
Cultural Geographies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Cultural Studies - Critical Methodologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cultural Studies of Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cultural Trends     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Culture & Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Research in Dairy Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Derim     Open Access  
Developments in Agricultural Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Agricultural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
Diatom Research     Hybrid Journal  
Die Bodenkultur : Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment     Open Access  
Dossiers Agraris     Open Access  
Ecological Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 118)
Economic Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Economic and Industrial Democracy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Economic Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Encuentro     Open Access  
Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food     Hybrid Journal  
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Eppo Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ethology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
EU agrarian Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Euphytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Eurochoices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Agrophysical Journal     Open Access  
European Journal of Agronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of American Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Health Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
EvoDevo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Extensão Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Farmer’s Weekly     Full-text available via subscription  
Farmlink Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Fitosanidad     Open Access  
Folia Horticulturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food and Agricultural Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food and Energy Security     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Food Economics - Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Food Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Forum for Health Economics & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Agriculture in China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Future of Food : Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geoderma     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Global Approaches to Extension Practice : A Journal of Agricultural Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Global Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Hacquetia     Open Access  
Handbook of Agricultural Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Heliyon     Open Access  
Hereditas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Advances in Agronomy
  [SJR: 2.071]   [H-I: 82]   [13 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0065-2113
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3039 journals]
  • A Review of Uptake and Translocation of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care
           Products by Food Crops Irrigated with Treated Wastewater
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): B. Colon, G.S. Toor
      Concerns and knowledge of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) presence in agricultural soils have led to research efforts to assess the uptake and translocation of PPCPs into edible parts of crops. This interest stems because PPCPs can be transferred from soils to food crops due to the use of treated wastewater, also called reclaimed or recycled water, for irrigation. We identified and reviewed 28 plant uptake studies relevant to food crops irrigated with reclaimed water to better understand how PPCPs are taken and translocated in food crops. The food crops included bulb vegetables, cole crops, cucurbits, cereal grains, fruiting and leafy vegetables, herbs and spices, and roots and tuber vegetables. Of the 28 studies of reclaimed water use, 22 were conducted in controlled or greenhouse settings and 6 were field studies. The data from these studies collectively showed that PPCPs can be taken up and then translocate into edible parts of food crops at detectable levels. However, human exposure of PPCPs from food crops is expected to be low due to the smaller concentrations found in food crops. Our major knowledge gap in current understanding of PPCPs uptake by crops irrigated with reclaimed water are lack of sufficient field data as only a limited number of field studies have been conducted. As reclaimed water use is anticipated to increase to meet agriculture water demands, we suggest that additional field studies are needed to better understand the uptake and translocation of PPCPs by crops over multiple growing seasons in different parts of the world.


      PubDate: 2016-09-09T05:43:48Z
       
  • Delineating the Convergence of Biogeochemical Factors Responsible for
           Arsenic Release to Groundwater in South and Southeast Asia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): J.W. Stuckey, D.L. Sparks, S. Fendorf
      Arsenic (As), a toxic metalloid common throughout the Earth's crust, accounts for the most widespread poisoning of a human population in history. Within the major deltas of South and Southeast (S/SE) Asia, rivers annually deposit As-bearing iron oxides, oxyhydroxides, and hydroxides (collectively referred to as Fe oxides hereafter) derived from the Himalaya. The high primary productivity and monsoonal flooding in the tropical deltas promote microbially driven As release to groundwater through dissimilatory As(V)/Fe(III) reduction. Groundwater is a primary source of drinking and irrigation water in the region, especially within rural areas. Prolonged consumption of As-contaminated groundwater can lead to a multitude of serious health complications, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. Here we define the parameters controlling the locations of active microbially driven As release to groundwater, including suboxic/anoxic conditions, microbial communities capable of mediating As(V)/Fe(III) reduction, the reactivity of As-bearing Fe oxides, and the sources and reactivity of organic carbon (C). Conditions for microbially driven As release are optimized where the reactivity of both As-bearing Fe oxides and organic C is greatest. Optimal conditions for As release are found in near-surface sediments of the Red River, under permanent wetlands of the Mekong River, and at depth (∼20m) in the Yangtze River Basin, whereas findings are variable within the Bengal Basin. Land and water management changes resulting in increased flood duration in deltaic environments may result in new locations of active microbial As release to groundwater.


      PubDate: 2016-09-09T05:43:48Z
       
  • Preface
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 139




      PubDate: 2016-08-30T00:55:03Z
       
  • Series page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 139




      PubDate: 2016-08-30T00:55:03Z
       
  • Title page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 139




      PubDate: 2016-08-30T00:55:03Z
       
  • Copyright page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 139




      PubDate: 2016-08-30T00:55:03Z
       
  • Contributors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 139




      PubDate: 2016-08-30T00:55:03Z
       
  • Half title page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 139




      PubDate: 2016-08-30T00:55:03Z
       
  • Climate Resilient Villages for Sustainable Food Security in Tropical
           India: Concept, Process, Technologies, Institutions, and Impacts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Ch. Srinivasa Rao, K.A. Gopinath, J.V.N.S. Prasad, Prasannakumar, A.K. Singh
      The world population is expected to increase by a further three billion by 2050 and 90% of the three billion will be from developing countries that rely on existing land, water, and ecology for food and well-being of human kind. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its fifth assessment report (AR5) stated that warming of the climate system is unequivocal and is more pronounced since the 1950s. The atmosphere and oceans have warmed, the amounts of snow and ice have diminished, and sea level has risen. Each of the last three decades has been successively warmer at the earth's surface than any preceding decade since 1850 and the globally averaged combined land and ocean surface temperature data as calculated by a linear trend show a warming of 0.85°C (0.65–1.06°C) over the period of 1880–2012. World Meteorological Organization (WMO) ranked 2015 as the hottest year on record. Climate change poses many challenges to growth and development in South Asia. The Indian agriculture production system faces the daunting task of feeding 17.5% of the global population with only 2.4% of land and 4% of water resources at its disposal. India is more vulnerable to climate change in view of the dependence of huge population on agriculture, excessive pressure on natural resources, and relatively weak coping mechanisms. The warming trend in India over the past 100 years has indicated an increase of 0.6°C, which is likely to impact many crops, negatively impacting food and livelihood security of millions of farmers. There are already evidences of negative impacts on yield of wheat and paddy in some parts of India due to increased temperature, water stress, and reduction in number of rainy days. Significant negative impacts have been projected under medium-term (2020–39) climate change scenario, for example, yield reduction by 4.5–9%, depending on the magnitude and distribution of warming. Since agriculture currently contributes about 15% of India's gross domestic product (GDP), a negative impact on production implies cost of climate change to roughly range from 0.7% to 1.35% of GDP per year. Indian agriculture, with 80% of farmers being smallholders (<0.5ha) having diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, is monsoon-dependent rainfed agriculture (58%), about 30% of population undernourished, migration from rural to urban regions, child malnutrition etc., has become more vulnerable with changed climate or variability situations. During the past decade, frequency of droughts, cyclone, and hailstorms increased, with 2002, 2004, 2009, 2012, and 2014 being severe droughts. Frequent cyclones and severe hailstorms in drought prone areas have become common. Eastern part of the country is affected by seawater intrusion. Reduced food grain productivity, loss to vegetable and fruit crops, fodder scarcity, shortage of drinking water to animals during summer, forced migration of animals, severe loss to poultry and fishery sectors were registered, threatening the livelihoods of rural poor. Enhancing agricultural productivity, therefore, is critical for ensuring food and nutritional security for all, particularly the resource-poor, small, and marginal farmers who would be the most affected. In the absence of planned adaptation, the consequences of long-term climate change on the livelihood security of the poor could be severe. In India, the estimated countrywide agricultural loss in 2030 is expected to be over $7 billion that will severely affect the income of at least 10% of the population. However, this could be reduced by 80%, if cost-effective climate resilient measures are implemented. Climate risks are best addressed through increasing adaptive capacity and building resilience which can bring immediate benefits and can also reduce the adverse impacts of climate change. Climate resilient agriculture (CRA) encompasses the incorporation of adaptation and resilient practices in agriculture which increases the capacity of the system to respond to various climate-related disturbances by resisting damage and ensures quick recovery. Such disturbances include events such as drought, flood, heat/cold wave, erratic rainfall pattern, pest outbreaks, and other threats caused by changing climate. Resilience is the ability of the system to bounce back and essentially involves judicious and improved management of natural resources, land, water, soil, and genetic resources through adoption of best bet practices. CRA is a way to achieve short- and long-term agricultural development priorities in the face of climate change and serves as a bridge to other development priorities. It seeks to support countries and other actors in securing the necessary policy, technical and financial conditions to enable them to: (1) sustainably increase agricultural productivity and incomes in order to meet national food security and development goals, (2) build resilience and the capacity of agricultural and food systems to adapt to climate change, and (3) seek opportunities to mitigate emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and increase carbon sequestration. These three conditions (food security, adaptation, and mitigation) are referred to as the “triple win” of overall CRA.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30T00:55:03Z
       
  • Aromatic Arsenical Additives (AAAs) in the Soil Environment: Detection,
           Environmental Behaviors, Toxicities, and Remediation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 July 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Q.-L. Fu, C. Liu, V. Achal, Y.-J. Wang, D.-M. Zhou
      Due to the extensive application of aromatic arsenical additives (AAAs) in the animal feeding industry worldwide, soil contamination by AAAs has attracted great interests recently. This paper comprehensively reviewed the recent advances in the detection, environmental behaviors, toxicities, and remediation for AAAs in soil system. As of now, HPLC-ICP-MS and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS are the most predominent techniques used to separate and determine the species and concentrations of AAAs as well as their metabolites. Sorption and biotic transformation are the two main processes in affecting the fate of AAAs in soil, but few works have focused on their aerobic degradation, plant accumulation, and transformation mechanisms. Arsenic is highly toxic, and the toxicity of arsenic species ranked in the order of MMA(III) (monomethylarsonic acid)>iAs(III)>iAs(V)>organic As. However, the combined toxicity of different arsenic species to soil organisms and their potential human risk should be emphasized in the future. It has been found that Fe- and/or Al-containing drinking-water treatment residuals are promising materials to immobilize arsenic in AAAs polluted sites, but to reduce AAAs application in animal feeding industry will be vital for soil environmental protection.


      PubDate: 2016-07-24T06:14:07Z
       
  • Monitoring and Modeling Soil Change: The Influence of Human Activity and
           Climatic Shifts on Aspects of Soil Spatiotemporally – A Review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 July 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): P. Filippi, B. Minasny, S.R. Cattle, T.F.A. Bishop
      Soils naturally change through time, but anthropogenic activity has significantly altered the rate and direction of soil change. As well as further impacts of human activity on soil into the future, it is also expected that recent climatic shifts will have an important effect. There are a variety of methods of monitoring changes in soil, but a shift in focusing on change over larger areas has increased the implementation of national and regional soil monitoring networks. Despite the advantages of these networks, their time and resource consuming nature is often a constraint, which has led to the utilization of “legacy data” to detect spatiotemporal changes in soil. Although using legacy data has its challenges, it is invaluable in detecting historical shifts in soil condition. Additionally, it is also imperative to predict how climate and land use will influence how soil changes in the future through the use of temporal soil models. There have been many recent increases in the number and quality of these models, and as we strive to move away from laborious and expensive soil surveys, these models become more invaluable. This review reinforces the cruciality of soil monitoring, and suggests that we should focus on the wealth of soil legacy data available. We should place more attention on monitoring several important soil properties at various vertical depths, attempt to better understand the impact that climatic shifts will have on soil, and take full advantage of available statistical analytical methods to detect soil change. With all this in place, the accurate representation of past and future changes in soil condition is possible, providing a guide for future land use adaptation.


      PubDate: 2016-07-24T06:14:07Z
       
  • Functional Relationships of Soil Acidification, Liming, and Greenhouse Gas
           Flux
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): A. Kunhikrishnan, R. Thangarajan, N.S. Bolan, Y. Xu, S. Mandal, D.B. Gleeson, B. Seshadri, M. Zaman, L. Barton, C. Tang, J. Luo, R. Dalal, W. Ding, M.B. Kirkham, R. Naidu
      Soil acidification can be accelerated by intensive farming or prevented by sustainable management practices. Soil acidification in a managed agricultural production system is caused by the transformation of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and sulfur (S), which releases protons (H+) to soil solution. Soil acidification decreases soil pH, causing adverse effects on plants and soil microorganisms. Acidification, coupled with aluminum, manganese, and iron toxicities, and phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, and potassium deficiencies, can lead to low soil fertility. Soil acidity influences soil C and N cycles by controlling activities of microorganisms involved in the transformations of these two elements. Traditionally, lime materials are added to neutralize acidic soils and to overcome the problems associated with soil acidification, but they also influence C and N cycles, thereby affecting greenhouse gas (GHG) flux in soils. For example, liming has been shown to decrease nitrification-induced nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from many agricultural lands. However, there are concerns that liming increases the availability of soil nitrate ( N O 3 − ), which is a substrate for N2O emission through denitrification. The dissolution of liming materials can act as either a net source or sink for carbon dioxide (CO2). Lime-derived CO2 reacts with microbial respiration-derived carbonic acid in soils to yield carbonate material, serving as a sink of CO2 in soil. In calcareous soils with high pH, agricultural lime (CaCO3) serves as a net sink for CO2 whereas in acid soils it serves as a net source of CO2. In acid soils, increased availability of aluminum (Al3+) ions inhibits activity of methane (CH4) oxidizers. Adding lime to soils has shown to increase CH4 oxidation and reduce GHG emission. The present review brings together basic concepts of soil acidification and recent developments on the implications of liming in relation to C and N transformations and cycling, particularly GHG emissions from soils. Given the major influence of lime addition on soil microorganisms relating to C and N cycles, future research should focus on the role of liming on soil microbial communities to provide insight into combined mitigation of N2O, CO2, and CH4 gases from agricultural soils.


      PubDate: 2016-06-18T19:41:18Z
       
  • Ideotype Root System Architecture for Maize to Achieve High Yield and
           Resource Use Efficiency in Intensive Cropping Systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): G. Mi, F. Chen, L. Yuan, F. Zhang
      The importance of root system in supporting shoot growth has been extensively studied and discussed under nutrient and/or water deficit conditions, but much less in the context of intensive cropping system in which plant density is high and nutrients can be supplemented through fertilizer application to match the requirement of plant growth and grain yield formation. Taking maize as a model crop, the ideotype root system architecture (RSA) under intensive production conditions was discussed in regard to high yield and resource use efficiency. An ideotype maize RSA should meet the requirements not only for efficient use of water and unevenly distributed nutrients, but also for greater root-lodging resistance. In addition, the construction of RSA should adapt to efficient utilization of carbon and/or nutrients within the plant. The embryonic root system and the postembryonic root system should be considered separately because they are controlled by different genetic mechanisms and function in different growth stages during which soil environment varies. Considering all the previously mentioned factors, we proposed two separate models for the ideotype maize RSAs at seedling stage and at adult plant stage, and the characteristics of axile root and lateral root traits for each model are described in detail.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T19:09:18Z
       
  • Environmental Impact of Organic Agriculture
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): K. Lorenz, R. Lal
      Organic agriculture (OA) is practiced on 1% of the global agricultural land area and its importance continues to grow. Specifically, OA is perceived by many as having less negative effects on the environment than conventional agriculture because applications of soluble mineral fertilizers, and synthetic herbicides and pesticides are prohibited. However, scientific evidence for better environmental impact is scanty. Specifically, yields under OA are about 19% lower and the attendant lower soil carbon (C) inputs together with tillage for weed control contributes to lower profile soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks under OA. Less well known are the effects on soil inorganic carbon (SIC) stocks. Otherwise, soils managed by OA may emit less carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4). Specifically, by the adoption of OA practices 1.65Mg CO2 ha−1 y−1 may be sequestered in the top 20-cm layer. Further, N2O emissions from soils managed by OA may be 492kg CO2 eq. ha−1 y−1 lower than those from conventionally managed soils. Under OA management, a higher CH4 uptake of 3.2kg CO2 eq. ha−1 y−1 may be observed for arable soils. The soil, air, and water quality may also be enhanced by OA whereas effects on biodiversity are mixed. Thus, there is an urgent need to strengthen the database on environmental impacts of OA by establishing and studying long-term field experiments in all major biomes and principal soils. Consumer demand for organic products will continue to grow driven by food safety concerns and increasing affluence. Due to lower yields, however, natural ecosystems may be increasingly converted to agroecosystems to meet the demand with less well-known consequences for the environment. Nonetheless, scientific interest in OA is less than a century old, and there is significant potential to lessen its environmental impacts while methods derived from OA can contribute to sustainable intensification of agricultural systems.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T19:09:18Z
       
  • Agronomic Effectiveness of Zinc Sources as Micronutrient Fertilizer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): D. Montalvo, F. Degryse, R.C. da Silva, R. Baird, M.J. McLaughlin
      Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient for plants and humans. Millions of hectares of agricultural land are affected by Zn deficiency and it has been estimated that about one-third of the world's population is Zn deficient. One of the strategies that has been successfully used to tackle Zn deficiency is the application of Zn fertilizers. A large array of Zn sources is available in the market, although the most commonly used fertilizers are ZnO and ZnSO4. The availability of Zn fertilizers is affected by the chemical reactions of Zn with the soil which are also affected by the chemical and physical properties of the fertilizer (eg, granule size or physical state solid vs fluid, water solubility of Zn) and the fertilizer application method. Application of fertilizers to the soil at sowing is an effective strategy to increase soil available Zn and crop yields, and the relative effectiveness of sulfate and oxide sources of Zn varies with placement. Cogranulating Zn with phosphorus fertilizers can reduce effectiveness due to formation of insoluble Zn phosphates, but various technologies are becoming available to circumvent this issue. The application of foliar Zn sprays should be considered when plants are grown in Zn-sufficient soils and the main goal is food biofortification.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T19:09:18Z
       
  • Copyright page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 137




      PubDate: 2016-06-16T19:09:18Z
       
  • Contributors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 137




      PubDate: 2016-06-16T19:09:18Z
       
  • Preface
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 137
      Author(s): Donald L. Sparks



      PubDate: 2016-06-16T19:09:18Z
       
  • Chapter Three Climate Change and Agriculture: Adaptation Strategies and
           Mitigation Opportunities for Food Security in South Asia and Latin America
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 137
      Author(s): M.L. Jat, J.C. Dagar, T.B. Sapkota, Yadvinder-Singh, B. Govaerts, S.L. Ridaura, Y.S. Saharawat, R.K. Sharma, J.P. Tetarwal, R.K. Jat, H. Hobbs, C. Stirling
      During the past two centuries, the world has witnessed a remarkable increase in the atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases (GHGs), namely carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O), as a result of human activities after 1750 (preindustrial era). During 1750 the concentrations for these gases were 280ppm, 715 ppb, and 270 ppb, respectively which increased to 379ppm, 1774 ppb, and 319 ppb, respectively in 2005. It showed an increase of 0.23, 0.96, and 0.12% annually. The same has further increased to 385ppm, 1797 ppb, and 322 ppb, respectively in 2008 representing 1.6, 1.2, and 0.9% increase, respectively from 2005 levels at an annual increase of 0.53, 0.43, and 0.31%, annually. Increase in atmospheric CO2 promotes growth and productivity of plants with C3 photosynthetic pathway but the increase in temperature, on the other hand, can reduce crop duration, increase crop respiration rates, affect the survival and distribution of pest populations, and may hasten nutrient mineralization in soils, decrease fertilizer-use efficiency, and increase evapotranspiration. The water resources which are already scarce may come under enhanced stress. Thus, the impact of climate change is likely to have a significant influence on agriculture and eventually on the food security and livelihoods of large sections of the urban and rural populations globally. The developing countries, particularly in South Asia and Latin America, with diverse agroclimatic regions, challenging geographies, growing economies, diverse agricultural production systems, and farm typologies are more vulnerable to the effect of climate change due to heavy dependence on agriculture for livelihood. These regions also are demonstrating poor coping mechanisms to adapt to these challenges, and as a result there is evidence of negative impacts on productivity of wheat, rice, and other crops to varying extent depending on agroecologies. Upscaling of modern technologies such as conservation and climate smart agriculture, judicious utilization of available water for agriculture through microirrigation and water saving technologies, developing multiple stress-tolerant crop cultivars and biotypes through biotechnological tools, restoration of degraded soils and waters, promoting carbon sequestration through alternate production technologies and land use, and conservation of biodiversity must be promoted at regional and country level to ensure durable food and nutritional security. Reliable early warning system of environmental changes, their spatial and temporal magnitude, coupled with policies to support the diffusion of this information, can help interpret these forecasts in terms of their agronomic and economic implications for the benefit of farmers and to provide agriculture-dependent industries and policymakers with more informed options to support farmers. These countries need to formulate both short-term and long-term policies for improvement, sustenance, and protection of natural resources. There is an urgent need for capacity building through international collaboration in order to develop databases and analysis systems for efficient weather forecasting as well as preparing contingency plans for vulnerable areas. The objectives of this paper are to summarize the available information on adaptation strategies and the mitigation options for climate change to meet the food security in South Asia and Latin America.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T19:09:18Z
       
  • Half title page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 137




      PubDate: 2016-06-16T19:09:18Z
       
  • Series page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 137




      PubDate: 2016-06-16T19:09:18Z
       
  • Title page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 137




      PubDate: 2016-06-16T19:09:18Z
       
  • Chapter Four Integrated Farming Systems and the Livelihood Security of
           Small and Marginal Farmers in India and Other Developing Countries
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 138
      Author(s): U.K. Behera, J. France
      Agriculture in India and other Asian countries is facing multiple and complex challenges which are expected to become more severe with the passage of time. Some of the major challenges are sustainability of natural resources, impact of climate change and decline in factor of productivity. Besides, the declining trend in size of land holding poses a serious challenge to the profitability and sustainability of farming. In view of the decline in per capita availability of land, it is imperative to develop strategies and agricultural technologies that enable adequate employment and income generation, especially for small-holders (farmers with <2.0ha of land) who constitute the vast majority of the farming community in the developing world. No single farm enterprise, such as a typical mono-cropping system, is likely to be able to sustain the small-holder farmer. Integrated farming systems (IFS) are less risky if managed efficiently, as they benefit from synergisms among enterprises, diversity in produce, and environmental soundness. On this basis, IFS have been suggested for the development of small and marginal farms across Asia, and researchers have developed strategies which have benefited small-holder farmers by providing additional income and employment and minimizing risk. However, these IFS have not been promulgated and promoted effectively. The present review helps to remedy this by providing comprehensive information on the concepts and advantages of IFS for small-holder farmers, which is lacking at present. The review covers the key literature on farming systems and allied aspects published over the period 1970–2015.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T19:09:18Z
       
  • Chapter Three Exposure, Toxicity, Health Impacts, and Bioavailability of
           Heavy Metal Mixtures
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 138
      Author(s): M.A.A. Wijayawardena, M. Megharaj, R. Naidu
      Exposure to chemical mixtures is a common and important determinant of toxicity in human and environmental health issues. Although there is a wealth of information on single metal interactions, very few studies have been conducted on the effects of mixtures of heavy metals on environmental quality and human health. Current national regulatory guidelines for soils are based solely on individual metal and metalloids concentrations. However, heavy metals and metalloids do not exist in isolation at the majority of sites. Soil properties such as pH, Eh, clay minerals, and cation exchange capacity influence multiple metal interactions. There are numerous adverse health effects on human, animals, and the environment due to mixed metal exposure resulting from additive and synergistic interactions even when concentrations of the individual metals are below their ecotoxicological benchmark levels. Two key strategies currently recognized as suitable for predicting toxicity of a mixture are: first, concentration addition, also known as Loewe additivity and second, effect addition, also referred to as the Bliss model of independent action. In this review we draw attention to research illustrating the interactions of multiple metal contaminants and their potential health impacts.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T19:09:18Z
       
  • Copyright page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 138




      PubDate: 2016-06-16T19:09:18Z
       
  • Contributors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 138




      PubDate: 2016-06-16T19:09:18Z
       
  • Preface
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 138




      PubDate: 2016-06-16T19:09:18Z
       
  • Chapter One Root Iron Plaque on Wetland Plants as a Dynamic Pool of
           Nutrients and Contaminants
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 138
      Author(s): N. Khan, B. Seshadri, N. Bolan, C.P. Saint, M.B. Kirkham, S. Chowdhury, N. Yamaguchi, D.Y. Lee, G. Li, A. Kunhikrishnan, F. Qi, R. Karunanithi, R. Qiu, Y.-G. Zhu, C.H. Syu
      Loading of nutrients and contaminants is increasing in wetlands due to anthropogenic activities. The scope of this paper is to (1) provide an overview of natural, cultivated, and constructed wetlands and hydrophytes, (2) characterize root iron plaque of hydrophytes, (3) show roles played by root iron plaque as a source and sink for nutrients and contaminants for hydrophytes, (4) present toxicity tolerance mechanisms employed by hydrophytes, and (5) offer implications of the findings about iron plaque, and (6) to suggest future research. Iron plaque deposits on hydrophyte root surfaces are a result of oxidation of ferrous iron in the oxic rhizosphere under waterlogged conditions in wetlands. The iron plaques mainly consists of amorphous and crystalline iron oxyhydroxides. They, therefore, can sequester nutrients and contaminants that can bind to iron oxides. Recently advanced spectroscopic techniques, such as synchrotron radiation techniques, have been used to identify and characterize iron plaque components. Sequestration and plant uptake of these materials mainly depend on the available nutrients and contaminants, oxygen diffusion capability of hydrophyte roots, and bio-physico-chemical properties of the rhizosphere. Root iron plaque plays a vital role in controlling the sequestration of excess loads of nutrients and contaminants in wetlands.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T19:09:18Z
       
  • Half title page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 138




      PubDate: 2016-06-16T19:09:18Z
       
  • Series page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 138




      PubDate: 2016-06-16T19:09:18Z
       
  • Title page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 138




      PubDate: 2016-06-16T19:09:18Z
       
  • Utilization of Biowaste for Mine Spoil Rehabilitation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): H. Wijesekara, N.S. Bolan, M. Vithanage, Y. Xu, S. Mandal, S.L. Brown, G.M. Hettiarachchi, G.M. Pierzynski, L. Huang, Y.S. Ok, M.B. Kirkham, C. Saint, A. Surapaneni
      Globally, around 0.4×106 km2 area of land is estimated to be disturbed by mining activities, thereby contributing to severe environmental consequences including the generation of large amounts of mine spoils. The shortfall in topsoil due to poor striping practices and low levels of organic matter have been identified as common problems in rehabilitation of mining spoil. High heavy metal concentrations in mine spoil can adversely impact microbial activity and subsequent revegetation succession. The release of acids associated with mine spoils (ie, acid mine drainage through oxidation of pyrite) can also create adverse effects on the surrounding vegetation. Large quantities of biowaste, such as manure compost, biosolids, and municipal solid waste (MSW) that are low in contaminants [including metal(loid)s] can be used to rehabilitate mine spoils. These biowastes provide a source of nutrients and improve the fertility of spoils. These biowastes also act as a sink for metal(loid)s in mine tailings reducing their bioavailability through adsorption, complexation, reduction, and volatilization of metal(loid)s. This review provides an overview of the sources of biowastes and the current regulations for utilization; describes their benefits in terms of improving the physical, chemical, and biological properties of mine spoils; and elaborates on the role of the utilization of biowastes on mine spoil rehabilitation through several case studies. Finally, future research needs and strategies are identified in terms of sustainable biowaste utilization in mine spoil rehabilitation.


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T04:56:46Z
       
  • Organic Farming, Soil Health, and Food Quality: Considering Possible Links
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): J.R. Reeve, L.A. Hoagland, J.J. Villalba, P.M. Carr, A. Atucha, C. Cambardella, D.R. Davis, K. Delate
      That the health of soils, plants, animals, and people are linked is an ancient idea that still resonates. Growing evidence links farm management, soil health, and plant health but relationships among soil health, food crop nutritional quality, and human health are less understood. Numerous studies compare organic with conventional farming in order to shed light on these links. Organic farming systems utilize carbon-based amendments, diverse crop rotations, and cover crops to build soil fertility. These practices increase biologically available soil organic matter and beneficial soil microbe and invertebrate activities, improve soil physical properties, reduce disease potential, and increase plant health. To date, comparisons of nutrient content between organic and conventional foods have been inconsistent. Recent evidence suggests that organically grown fruits and vegetables contain higher levels of health promoting phytochemicals, possibly linked to greater plant stress, rhizosphere microbial communities, and/or lower available nitrogen. But the overlap in management practices among farming systems make broad generalizations difficult. Moreover, environmental and crop species and/or cultivar interactions may exert stronger effects than management. Here we summarize the known factors influencing soil and plant health and link these with food-crop quality and human health. Though this paper draws primarily from research on organic farming, management practices that enhance soil, plant, and human health remain an important goal for all sustainable food production systems.


      PubDate: 2016-03-21T21:54:22Z
       
  • A Career Perspective on Soil Management in the Cerrado Region of Brazil
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): A.S. Lopes, L.R. Guimarães Guilherme
      The rise of agriculture production in the Brazilian savanna is seen as one of the greatest achievements of worldwide agricultural science in the 20th century. Yet, reaching this current situation was, and still is, not an easy task. Actually, until the 1960s, 23% of Brazil (2million km2) was occupied by a savanna-like vegetation generally called “Cerrado,” developed in highly weathered soils, with particularly low natural fertility, used for extensive beef cattle production on unimproved pastures. This review paper intends to summarize a pioneer survey study by Dr Alfredo Lopes on “Cerrado” soils in the mid-1970s aiming to: (1) revisit the main chemical and physical properties of 518 topsoil samples under “Cerrado” vegetation in Central Brazil; (2) compare these results with some of the critical levels suggested for soil fertility interpretation; and, (3) study some relations among soil physical, chemical, and mineralogical characteristics in selected 44 topsoil samples with data concerning available water, phosphorus fixation, charge attributes, as well as extractable and total zinc. Besides stressing on the importance of adequate management strategies to allow the incorporation of these low natural fertility soils into successful crop production, we also highlight the historical importance of international collaborations that contribute to the development of soil fertility evaluation and agronomic–economic research programs on tropical soils in the Brazilian Cerrados. Lastly, additional comments are provided concerning the need of strategic actions and appropriate political decisions for the continuous sustainable development of this region.


      PubDate: 2016-03-21T21:54:22Z
       
  • Iron Redox Cycling Coupled to Transformation and Immobilization of Heavy
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): H.-Y Yu, F.-B. Li, C.-S. Liu, W. Huang, T.-X. Liu, W.-M. Yu
      Red soil is an important soil resource, which bears substantial implication for sustainable development of agriculture and healthy growth of economy. However, the red soil in China has been deteriorating in recent years and facing many threats, such as soil erosion, acidification, and pollution. Among these, contamination of heavy metals, particularly arsenic and cadmium pollution in paddy soils of the red soil regions, has become a major environmental concern. In this paper, we reviewed recent publications on iron redox cycling and its coupling to the fate of heavy metals and metalloids. The most exciting findings on the iron biogeochemistry processes include dissimilatory iron reduction, Fe(II) oxidation, and Fe2+-catalyzed recrystallization of iron (hydro)oxides, all of which contribute to the immobilization of heavy metals. Although these findings are mainly based on laboratory experiments, they provide guidance for exploring innovative remediation strategies for controlling pollution of heavy metals in paddy soils of the red soil regions. We also summarized how the iron redox cycling may be affected by other biogeochemical processes or active constituents, such as the nitrogen cycling, the sulfur cycling and humic substances. It appears that the mechanisms underlying the interactions among these multiple components and processes are not sufficiently understood and may require further studies. Finally, future research needs pertaining to iron redox cycling coupled to the fate of heavy metals are suggested. The results summarized in this review may provide insights for solving the heavy metal pollution of paddy soils in the red soil regions.


      PubDate: 2016-03-11T15:08:46Z
       
  • The definition of soil since the early 1800s
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Alfred E. Hartemink
      The soil is defined differently by soil scientists, and its definition has changed over time. This paper reviews how the definition of the soil has changed since the early 1800s by selecting and listing 81 definitions given in a wide range of soil science books, handbooks, glossaries, and dictionaries. Initial definitions of the soil were based on developments in agricultural chemistry or geology. The soil was seen as a production factor (medium) for agriculture that needed to be understood before it could be improved, or the soil was defined as disintegrated rocks mixed with organic matter. Definitions were rudimentary reflecting the overall level of understanding. Soil variation was not well understood. Overarching soil definitions appeared in the late 1800s following some major shifts in the understanding and knowledge about soils. The definition of the soil was particularly relevant for soil survey and in soil classification because it affected how soils were viewed in the field and represented in a two dimensional way (soil maps). Both the World Reference Base (WRB) and Soil Taxonomy have defined the soil, but standard field books describing soils often lack a definition. Most of the definitions in dictionaries and glossaries are detailed stressing the organic and inorganic part of the soil as well the origin, complexity, and some of its functions. Current soil definitions have a more environmental outlook reflecting the broadening of the soil science discipline but definitions will change following scientific advances and discovery. Soils are defined differently by subdisciplines. Considerable research is conducted nowadays outside soil science departments and research centres, and for some researchers the soil may solely be a medium—just as it was in the mid-1800s. The effect of increased specialisation and expansion in soil science causes the detail of the investigation to prevail over the idea of soil as a complex dynamic system that is part of a much wider Earth system. This review ends with a proposal for a scientific definition of soil, and a definition for lay persons and the general public.


      PubDate: 2016-02-13T21:54:09Z
       
  • Plant Bioregulators for Sustainable Agriculture: Integrating Redox
           Signaling as a Possible Unifying Mechanism
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Ashish Kumar Srivastava, Ratnakumar Pasala, Paramjit Singh Minhas, Penna Suprasanna
      Increasing agricultural productivity and sustainability will have to be prioritized to enhance food production. The major challenge toward this emanates from multiple stress factors and unpredictable climatic conditions. Thus, it is critical to understand and characterize the plant responses to changing environmental conditions. Needless to say, plant breeding has contributed a great deal to crop improvement over the past decades and is still supplementing the biotechnological advancement to bring technologies for enhancing crop yield. In recent years, although several stress tolerant transgenic lines have been developed; however, their performance in farmer's field is still to be tested. In this regard, present review describes Low External Input and Sustainable Agriculture (LEISA) based agriculture wherein low concentration of plant bioregulators (PBRs) are applied externally at a suitable developmental stage to boost the plant signaling which finally leads to enhanced growth and crop yield. There is a wide range of chemical- and hormone-based PBRs used for different crops and here in, we have proposed a unified mechanism for their mode of action. This is based upon PBRs ability to fine tune plant redox homeostasis which regulate root growth for improving plant water/nutrient status, photosynthetic efficiency and source–sink homeostasis for enhanced crop yield and metabolism for overall improvement in plant growth. The knowledge gaps and quality control aspect have also been discussed to ensure the adoptability and applicability of PBRs on a wider scale.


      PubDate: 2016-02-08T20:28:32Z
       
  • Half title page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 136




      PubDate: 2016-02-08T20:28:32Z
       
  • Series page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 136




      PubDate: 2016-02-08T20:28:32Z
       
  • Title page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 136




      PubDate: 2016-02-08T20:28:32Z
       
  • Copyright page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 136




      PubDate: 2016-02-08T20:28:32Z
       
  • Contributors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 136




      PubDate: 2016-02-08T20:28:32Z
       
  • Preface
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 136
      Author(s): Donald L. Sparks



      PubDate: 2016-02-08T20:28:32Z
       
  • A Comprehensive Review of the CERES-Wheat, -Maize and -Rice Models’
           Performances
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Bruno Basso, Lin Liu, Joe T. Ritchie
      The Crop Environment Resource Synthesis (CERES) models have been developed and utilized for the last 30years to simulate crop growth in response to climate, soil, genotypes and management across locations throughout the world. We reviewed 215 papers found in the literature that contained field observed data where the CERES models were tested. Over 30 simulated variables of the CERES models have been tested in 43 different countries under various experimental treatments. Across all testing conditions, the CERES models simulated grain yield with a root mean square error (RMSE) of less than 1400kg/ha (∼10% relative error, RE), 1200kg/ha (∼20% RE) and 800kg/ha (∼10% RE) for maize, wheat, and rice, respectively. Phenological development was simulated with less than 7days difference from the observations in most studies. The CERES models simulated aboveground biomass, harvest index, evapotranspiration, and soil water reasonably well too. The simulations of grain number (up to 4340 root mean square error, RMSE), grain weight (up to 22% error), intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IPAR, up to 0.41MJ/plant), leaf area index (LAI, 31.9% error), soil temperature (over 10°C difference), and nitrogen (N) dynamics (up to 80% error) were less accurate. In fact the average error of CERES model simulations tends to be higher under marginal crop growing conditions such as extreme heat or cold, water and nutrient deficit conditions.


      PubDate: 2016-01-13T06:41:50Z
       
  • Performance of Coffee Seedlings as Affected by Soil Moisture and Nitrogen
           Application
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Alveiro Salamanca-Jimenez, Timothy A. Doane, William R. Horwath
      Nitrogen (N) and soil moisture are the most important factors controlling yield in Colombian coffee crops. Since long-term productivity is contingent on robust early growth, it is imperative to study these factors in seedlings in order to ensure maximum yield potential of mature trees. A greenhouse experiment with four soil water and four N levels was used to determine how these two important variables affect quantifiable parameters representing seedling performance. Shoot biomass, the most obvious indicator of performance, was increased by both higher soil moisture and higher N application, although root biomass increased with N application only in wetter soils and in general the root to shoot ratio diminished with increasing N application. Like shoot biomass, leaf N content and N derived from fertilizer (Ndff) also increased with increasing N application, with relatively more leaf N recovered from fertilizer as soil moisture increased. Evapotranspiration (EVPT) responded to soil moisture, whereas water use efficiency, in terms of shoot mass produced per unit of evapotranspired water, responded dramatically to N level but was not affected by soil moisture. The strong effect of N application on water use efficiency was affirmed by the higher 13C/12C ratios and stem water potentials of plants grown under higher N levels, indicating greater water stress in these plants. All of these responses were associated with changes in photosynthesis as a result of acclimation to the imposed conditions. Consideration of these results will facilitate new recommendations for maximizing growth of coffee seedlings by increasing water and N use efficiency while reducing the economic and environmental impacts attributed to N fertilizers.


      PubDate: 2016-01-09T04:16:49Z
       
  • Perspectives About the National Cooperative Soil Survey
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Richard W. Arnold
      A discussion of nine tenets of pedology provides perspectives of the US soil survey program. The tenets are: paradigm of soils, scientific methodology, functional landscapes, soils as individuals, behavioral functions of soils, improving documentation, sharing pedological knowledge, reliability of information, and enhancing decision making. Highlights of each reveal progress, concerns, and opportunities. Accepting soil as a continuum rather than as individual entities may be the most important shift in our thought processes and understanding of the pedosphere. New technologies and changing social and political strategies suggest there is hope for a viable and sustainable Earth. Pedology can provide meaningful information and knowledge about soil resources.


      PubDate: 2016-01-09T04:16:49Z
       
  • Impact of Herbicides on Soil Biology and Function
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Michael T. Rose, Timothy R. Cavagnaro, Craig A. Scanlan, Terry J. Rose, Tony Vancov, Stephen Kimber, Ivan R. Kennedy, Rai S. Kookana, Lukas Van Zwieten
      There is a growing awareness among farmers about the importance of soil for sustaining crop production and providing beneficial ecosystem services. Over the last 2 decades, global herbicide use has increased as farmers have shifted to more sustainable conservation tillage practices and have adopted herbicide-tolerant crop cultivars. The implications of increased herbicide use for soil biology are being questioned, but a comprehensive review on this topic is lacking. In this chapter we outline the chemistry and use of the major herbicide classes, and review the soil functions relevant to crop production. We then collate and critically evaluate the evidence for herbicide effects on soil biota and activity. In general, most studies suggest that the impacts of herbicide application on soil function are only minor and/or temporary. However, there are some instances where findings consistently suggest effects that could significantly alter soil function. These include disruptions to earthworm ecology in soils exposed to glyphosate and atrazine; inhibition of soil N-cycling (including biological N2-fixation, mineralization and nitrification) by sulfonylurea herbicides in alkaline or low organic matter soils; and site-specific increases in disease resulting from the application of a variety of herbicides. Issues with extrapolating these findings to broadacre farming include the lack of a consistent framework for assessing herbicide risk to soil biology, the relevance of the magnitude of herbicide impacts compared with the impacts of other soil management practices such as tillage or crop rotation, the complexity of herbicide formulations and mixtures, and the limited number of long-term field studies.


      PubDate: 2016-01-09T04:16:49Z
       
 
 
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