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  Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 832 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (76 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (586 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (95 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (48 journals)

AGRICULTURE (586 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 263 Journals sorted alphabetically
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta agriculturae Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Agrobotanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Agronomica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Agronomica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Technologica Agriculturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Agriculture & Botanics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Horticultural Science     Open Access  
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
African Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Agra Europe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agribusiness : an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Agric     Open Access  
Agricultura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultura, Sociedad y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultural Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Agricultural Commodities     Full-text available via subscription  
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Agricultural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 167)
Agricultural History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America     Open Access  
Agriculture and Food Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Agriprobe     Open Access  
Agrivita : Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Agroalimentaria     Open Access  
Agrociencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agrociencia Uruguay     Open Access  
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
Agronomía Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access  
Agronomie Africaine     Full-text available via subscription  
Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agrosearch     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agrotekma : Jurnal Agroteknologi dan Ilmu Pertanian     Open Access  
Agrovigor     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Akademik Ziraat Dergisi     Open Access  
Alinteri Zirai Bilimler Dergisi : Alinteri Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Ambiência     Open Access  
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Botany     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
American Journal of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals Valahia University of Targoviste - Agriculture     Open Access  
Annual Review of Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
APCBEE Procedia     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Applied Financial Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aquacultura Indonesiana     Open Access  
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ARO. The Scientific Journal of Koya University     Open Access  
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Agriculture     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Grain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Australian Journal of Agricultural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Sugarcane     Full-text available via subscription  
Avances en Investigacion Agropecuaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Agronomy Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioagro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biological Agriculture & Horticulture : An International Journal for Sustainable Production Systems     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Biosystems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial     Open Access  
Biotemas     Open Access  
Boletín Semillas Ambientales     Open Access  
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
British Poultry Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Buletin Ilmu Makanan Ternak     Open Access  
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca. Agriculture     Open Access  
Caderno de Ciências Agrárias     Open Access  
Cahiers Agricultures     Open Access  
California Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cambridge Journal of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Ceiba     Open Access  
Central European Forestry Journal     Open Access  
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CERNE     Open Access  
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Change and Adaptation in Socio-Ecological Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemical and Biological Technologies for Agriculture     Open Access  
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia & Natura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciência e Agrotecnologia     Open Access  
Ciencia e investigación agraria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciência e Técnica Vitivinícola     Open Access  
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Agricultura     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
COCOS : The Journal of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coffee Science     Open Access  
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Corpoica Ciencia y Tecnología Agropecuaria     Open Access  
Corps et culture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cuadernos de Desarrollo Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cultivos Tropicales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cultural Geographies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Cultural Studies - Critical Methodologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cultural Studies of Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cultural Trends     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Agricultural Science and Technology     Open Access  
Current Agriculture Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Research in Dairy Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Agricultural Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Developments in Agricultural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diatom Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Die Bodenkultur : Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment     Open Access  
Dossiers Agraris     Open Access  
Ecological Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 152)
Economic Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Economic and Industrial Democracy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Economic Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Encuentro     Open Access  
Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food     Hybrid Journal  
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environment and Development Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Eppo Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ethology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
EU agrarian Law     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Euphytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Eurochoices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Agrophysical Journal     Open Access  
European Journal of Agronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of American Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Health Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
EvoDevo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Extensão Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Farmer’s Weekly     Full-text available via subscription  
Farmlink Africa     Full-text available via subscription  

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Advances in Agronomy
  [SJR: 2.071]   [H-I: 82]   [12 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0065-2113
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • On the Use of Silicon as an Agronomic Mitigation Strategy to Decrease
           Arsenic Uptake by Rice
    • Authors: Angelia L. Seyfferth; Matt A. Limmer; Gretchen E. Dykes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Angelia L. Seyfferth, Matt A. Limmer, Gretchen E. Dykes
      Rice is a staple food for over half the global population and its sustainable production is directly linked to global food security. Rice yield and human health are threatened by arsenic (As) contamination in rice grain. Arsenic enters rice mainly because the geochemical parameters under which rice is conventionally grown mobilize soil As, and because three of the four predominant As species are taken up by rice roots along the efficient silicon (Si) transport pathway. Several strategies have been explored to decrease toxic As uptake by rice including water management, plant breeding and genetic approaches, and Si management. Water management is effective at decreasing As uptake by rice and decreases methane (CH4) emissions, but may decrease rice yield and increase grain cadmium (Cd) content and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Plant breeding or genetic approaches aim to select for or engineer cultivars that limit grain As. Si management aims to increase plant-available Si to compete with As for root uptake. Addition of Si improves rice yield, particularly when plants are stressed with As. Si also affects As speciation, both in the porewater and in the plant, Fe plaque mineral composition and quantity, and greenhouse gas emissions, although performance is amendment specific. More research is needed to mechanistically understand the diverse interactions between Si and As in sorption, porewater chemistry, microbial processes, plant uptake of As, and grain accumulation and speciation of As. Because of the plethora of beneficial effects of Si, Si holds tremendous promise as a sustainable soil amendment in the effort to mitigate rice accumulation of As.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T20:43:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2018.01.002
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 148

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T20:43:13Z
  • Biochar Effects on Rice Paddy: Meta-analysis
    • Authors: Yasser M. Awad; Jinyang Wang; Avanthi D. Igalavithana; Daniel C.W. Tsang; Ki-Hyun Kim; Sang S. Lee; Yong Sik Ok
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Yasser M. Awad, Jinyang Wang, Avanthi D. Igalavithana, Daniel C.W. Tsang, Ki-Hyun Kim, Sang S. Lee, Yong Sik Ok
      Rice is staple for nearly half of the world population. Biochar (BC) improves crop yields, reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and immobilizes heavy metals in the soil. This study was aimed to meta-analyze the data from the published articles focused on the various BCs’ effects on rice yield, soil acidity, GHG emissions, and bioavailability of Cd and Pb. The data of pyrolysis temperature, application rate, and feedstock of BCs were categorized by using the MetaWin software for calculating the mean effect sizes (E) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Compared to the control, the BCs increased soil pH and rice yield by 11.8% (medium E +: 0.436 to 0.439) and 16% (large E +: 0.790 to 0.883), respectively. Applying BCs derived from different feedstocks and pyrolysis temperatures reduced N2O emissions from rice paddies (large E −: −0.692 to −0.863). The BCs produced at 550–600°C reduced the GHG emission with medium to large negative effects (E −: −1.571 to −0.413). Applications of BCs at a range of 41–50tha−1 were the best for rice productivity. Applications of all types and rates of BCs showed the significant decrease of available Cd by 35.4%–38.0% in a soil and led to the Cd reduction by an average of 43.6% in rice grains compared to the untreated soils. Applying BC is a promising approach to meet the challenges of sustainable global rice production, and the properties of BCs should be fully characterized and designed depending on its needs prior to its application.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:07:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2017.11.005
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 147

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:07:02Z
  • Soil Processes and Wheat Cropping Under Emerging Climate Change Scenarios
           in South Asia
    • Authors: Mangi L. Jat; Bijay-Singh; Clare M. Stirling; Hanuman S. Jat; Jagdish P. Tetarwal; Raj K. Jat; Rajbir Singh; Santiago Lopez-Ridaura; Paresh B. Shirsath
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Mangi L. Jat, Bijay-Singh, Clare M. Stirling, Hanuman S. Jat, Jagdish P. Tetarwal, Raj K. Jat, Rajbir Singh, Santiago Lopez-Ridaura, Paresh B. Shirsath
      Wheat is one of the most important staple foods as it provides 55% of the carbohydrates and 20% of the food calories and protein consumed worldwide. Demand for wheat is projected to continue to grow over the coming decades, particularly in the developing world, to feed an increasing population. More than 22% of global area under wheat is located in South Asia which is home to about 25% of the world's population. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has projected that in the 21st century South Asia is going to be hit hard by climate change. Changes in mean annual temperature will exceed 2°C above the late-20th-century baseline and there can be declines in the absolute amount of precipitation during December to February, when wheat is grown in the region. Temperature, precipitation, and enhanced CO2 level in the atmosphere, the three climate change drivers can affect wheat cropping both directly at plant level and indirectly through changes in properties and processes in the soil, shifts in nutrient cycling, insect pest occurrence, and plant diseases. Studies pertaining to the effects of climate change on soil processes and properties are now becoming available and it is becoming increasingly clear that climate change will impact soil organic matter dynamics, including soil organisms and the multiple soil properties that are tied to organic matter, soil water, and soil erosion. Warmer conditions will stimulate soil N availability through higher rates of mineralization so that fertilizer management in wheat is also going to be governed by emerging climate change scenarios. Similarly, higher temperatures and altered precipitation regimes will determine the net irrigation water requirements of wheat. Several simulation models have projected reduced wheat yields in the emerging climate change scenarios, but occurrence of an extreme heat event around senescence can lead to crop models to underestimate the effects of heat on senescence by as much as 50% for late sowing dates for 2°C rise in mean temperature. So as to project productivity of wheat in South Asia in the emerging climate change scenarios with increased certainty, integrated holistic modeling studies will be needed which also take into account effect of extreme heat events as well as the contribution of altered soil processes and properties.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T13:33:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2017.11.006
  • Distributed Temperature Sensing for Soil Physical Measurements and Its
           Similarity to Heat Pulse Method
    • Authors: Hailong He; Miles F. Dyck; Robert Horton; Min Li; Huijun Jin; Bingcheng Si
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Hailong He, Miles F. Dyck, Robert Horton, Min Li, Huijun Jin, Bingcheng Si
      Application of the distributed temperature sensing (DTS) system in environmental and earth sciences is a rapidly evolving field. The aim of this review is to provide information to the novice and expert alike for the use of a DTS system for soil physical measurements. DTS is capable of measuring soil temperature at scales of meters to kilometers, and soil thermal properties and water contents can be derived based on DTS-measured temperatures. This literature review summarizes the interdisciplinary results obtained by theoretical, experimental, and numerical methods in laboratory and field investigations. This review is organized as follows: (1) review of theories and principles for Raman-DTS, the components of a DTS system, methods for measurements, calibration, data interpretation, and accuracy and precision assessment of the DTS method for soil science and hydrological application; (2) discussion of the applications of the DTS method for soil temperature, thermal properties, and water/moisture measurement; and (3) discussion of the limitations and perspectives for the application of DTS and its similarity to the heat pulse method. The chapter closes with a brief overview of future needs and opportunities for further development and application of the DTS method.

      PubDate: 2017-12-17T18:01:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2017.11.003
  • Establishing High-Yielding Maize System for Sustainable Intensification in
    • Authors: Qingfeng Meng; Zhenling Cui; Haishun Yang; Fusuo Zhang; Xinping Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Qingfeng Meng, Zhenling Cui, Haishun Yang, Fusuo Zhang, Xinping Chen
      Although importance of high-yielding maize system for food security has been extensively studied and discussed worldwide, more must be done in the context of improving yield while simultaneously reducing agricultural environmental costs to achieve sustainable intensification (SI). Using China's maize production as an example, we discussed the system with equal emphasis on high yield and high nitrogen (N) use efficiency in regards to SI. Through yield potentials and gaps analysis with the help of crop modeling, the high-yielding maize system was designed and developed to make maximum use of solar energy and growing season with favorable temperatures via genetics×environment×management (G×E×M) interactions. In this high-yielding system compared with the low-yielding traditional farmers system, total dry matter increased with stable harvest index, aboveground plant N uptake requirement per grain yield deceased largely, and the percentage of the dry matter and N accumulation during the middle-late growing season increased significantly. Accordingly, an in-season root-zone N management was developed for high-yielding maize system to match the total N requirement by crop in application amount, placement, and timing for nonlimiting N supply with minimum losses to the environment. The high-yielding system showed great potential for SI which reduced N2O and other greenhouse gas emission intensity by 10%–30%. Moreover, we suggest future research direction for high-yielding maize system to address multiply challenges in a changing world including climate change, resource depletion and shortage, and soil constrains and degradation to ensure food security.

      PubDate: 2017-12-17T18:01:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2017.11.004
  • Stabilization of Soil Organic Carbon as Influenced by Clay Mineralogy
    • Authors: Mandeep Singh; Binoy Sarkar; Subhas Sarkar; Jock Churchman; Nanthi Bolan; Sanchita Mandal; Manoj Menon; Tapan J. Purakayastha; David J. Beerling
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Mandeep Singh, Binoy Sarkar, Subhas Sarkar, Jock Churchman, Nanthi Bolan, Sanchita Mandal, Manoj Menon, Tapan J. Purakayastha, David J. Beerling
      There is a growing concern about climate change, and soils have attracted significant research attention as a sink for atmospheric CO2. Mechanisms of soil organic carbon (SOC) stabilization have received much focus recently due to its relevance in controlling the global C cycle. The purpose of this chapter is to review our existing knowledge of soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics with special reference to the role of clay mineralogy in the retention and stabilization of OC in soil. A good understanding of the stabilization mechanisms of SOM will help in adopting good management practices for SOM storage, improving soil structure and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Here we present the SOM dynamics in relation to their sources and sinks, factors affecting SOC sequestration, and various processes involved in SOM stabilization. We critically review the studies examining soil, environmental, and management factors impacting SOM stabilization with a special reference to clay mineralogy. Finally, we present some future research needs in this area.

      PubDate: 2017-12-17T18:01:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2017.11.001
  • Rice in Saline Soils: Physiology, Biochemistry, Genetics, and Management
    • Authors: Mubshar Hussain; Shakeel Ahmad; Sajjad Hussain; Rattan Lal; Sami Ul-Allah; Ahmad Nawaz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Mubshar Hussain, Shakeel Ahmad, Sajjad Hussain, Rattan Lal, Sami Ul-Allah, Ahmad Nawaz
      Salt stress is an acute threat to plants, especially to field crops in irrigated and saline areas of the world. Rice is the second staple crop of the world after wheat, and its production is strongly affected by salinity. Therefore, to ensure food security, it is crucial to manage salt stress for sustainable rice production under saline conditions. Plant physiological, biochemical, and genetic characteristics play an important role in the adaptation of rice to saline environments. Further, the knowledge of the relationship among these characteristics is necessary to manage the salt stress and achieve optimal rice production. This review focuses on the response of rice to salinity stress; its physiological, biochemical, and genetic changes; its adaptation to saline soils through osmoregulation, ion homeostasis, apoplastic acidification, synthesis of antioxidants, genes, and hormonal regulations; and synthesis of stress-responsive proteins. Future research is needed on management strategies such as breeding for salt-tolerant cultivars, application of molecular markers to select salt-tolerant germplasm, potential of genetic transformation for salinity resistance, application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and plant growth-regulating rhizobacteria, nutrient management, and seed priming techniques for sustainable rice production in saline areas. In conclusion, salt stress affects metabolism and physiology of rice and reduces the agronomic yield. Therefore, development of salt-tolerant genotypes may be a prudent strategy to manage the salinity. Focused research on integration of different management options can lead to sustainable rice production in saline areas which may contribute significantly to global food security.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T10:56:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2017.11.002
  • Improved Phosphorus Recycling in Organic Farming: Navigating Between
    • Authors: Kurt Möller; Astrid Oberson; Else K. Bünemann; Julia Cooper; Jürgen K. Friedel; Nadia Glæsner; Stefan Hörtenhuber; Anne-Kristin Løes; Paul Mäder; Gregor Meyer; Torsten Müller; Sarah Symanczik; Lina Weissengruber; Iris Wollmann; Jakob Magid
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Kurt Möller, Astrid Oberson, Else K. Bünemann, Julia Cooper, Jürgen K. Friedel, Nadia Glæsner, Stefan Hörtenhuber, Anne-Kristin Løes, Paul Mäder, Gregor Meyer, Torsten Müller, Sarah Symanczik, Lina Weissengruber, Iris Wollmann, Jakob Magid
      Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for all living organisms. At the current rate of extraction, global reserves of mineable deposits will be exhausted within the next few centuries. This publication aims to summarize the current knowledge on P recycling for organic farming. The evaluation of recycled P fertilizers (RPFs) includes (i) a chemical characterization, (ii) assessment of their plant P availability and added effects in the soil, (iii) life cycle assessments, (iv) a risk assessment of their long-term impacts on soil pollution, and (v) the compilation of other environmental impacts of different treatment approaches to produce RPFs. The highest nutrient recovery rates for P are achieved by rather simple process approaches of P recycling, while more sophisticated approaches often result in lower P recovery rates (e.g., chemical approaches for P precipitation), lower plant P availability in the final product (e.g., most thermal approaches), and losses of organic matter and nutrients like nitrogen and sulfur (e.g., thermal approaches). The plant P availability of many RPFs is higher than that of phosphate rock. Each P recycling approach has strengths and weaknesses. We conclude that any decision not to use a potential recycled P source or to introduce sophisticated treatments may have consequences compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Nevertheless, we need to minimize risks for current and future generations caused by contamination linked to fertilization. Therefore, any management of nutrient recycling requires navigation between constraints. The challenge for the organic agriculture sector is to assess RPFs using a balanced approach that compromises neither the principle of ecology nor the principle of care.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T10:56:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2017.10.004
  • The Important Role of Layered Double Hydroxides in Soil Chemical Processes
           and Remediation: What We Have Learned Over the Past 20 Years
    • Authors: Matthew G. Siebecker; Wei Li; Donald L. Sparks
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Matthew G. Siebecker, Wei Li, Donald L. Sparks
      Soils are a nonrenewable resource and particularly vulnerable to long-term environmental contamination. Sorption reactions on soil mineral surfaces affect dissolved metal mobility and influence the fate of metal contaminants in soils and groundwater. Since the early 1980s, the Environmental Soil Chemistry group at the University of Delaware has studied sorption reactions of metal contaminants and plant nutrients on clay minerals and soil components using a multitude of spectroscopic, microscopic, thermochemical, kinetics, and wet chemical techniques to identify adsorption species and surface precipitates. Of particular significance has been the formation of layered double hydroxide (LDH) surface precipitates. Many research areas focus on LDHs; however, this review highlights environmentally related LDHs due to their impact on limiting metal contaminant mobility in soils and sediments. This chapter, in three sections, consists of (1) a literature review of LDH research done by this group and others, (2) the structure and thermodynamic properties of LDHs, and (3) the kinetics and proposed mechanisms of environmental LDH formation in geochemical systems such as in soils, sediments, and mineral surfaces. This review mainly discusses Ni, Zn, and Fe(II)–Al LDHs. Particular emphasis is placed on comparing proposed mechanisms of formation and distinguishing between isomorphous substitution and heteroepitaxial growth. Ultimately, evidence from quick-scanning X-ray absorption spectroscopy and Al precipitation kinetics yields the conclusion that heteroepitaxial growth (surface precipitation) on clay mineral surfaces is the manner in which environmental LDHs form.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T10:56:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2017.10.001
  • Smart Fertilizers as a Strategy for Sustainable Agriculture
    • Authors: Marcela Calabi-Floody; Jorge Medina; Cornelia Rumpel; Leo M. Condron; Marcela Hernandez; Marc Dumont; Maria de la Luz Mora
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Marcela Calabi-Floody, Jorge Medina, Cornelia Rumpel, Leo M. Condron, Marcela Hernandez, Marc Dumont, Maria de la Luz Mora
      In the coming decades there will be increasing pressure on global food systems, and agriculture will have the challenge to provide food security for a growing world population without impacting environmental security. Accordingly, it will be necessary to use modern technologies in agroecosystems in order to supply sufficient food and decrease the negative impacts on the environment induced by chemical fertilization and by inadequate disposal or reuse of agricultural wastes. A combination of biotechnology and nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionize agricultural systems and provide solutions for current and future problems. These include the development and use of smart fertilizers with controlled nutrient release, together with bioformulations based on bacteria or enzymes. This study was designed to provide a critical review of information related to current food security issues and the role of smart fertilizer development in future food production. We concentrate on advances in the development of controlled-release biofertilizers and the use of harvesting residues as coating and carrier materials.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T10:56:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2017.10.003
  • Addressing Two Bottlenecks to Advance the Understanding of Preferential
           Flow in Soils
    • Authors: Li Guo; Henry Lin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Li Guo, Henry Lin
      A large number of studies over the past four decades have demonstrated the ubiquity of preferential flow in diverse soils. Because of its significant impacts on ecosystem services and environmental quality, preferential flow in soils has become a crucial issue in both the scientific community and policymaking. Despite increasing attention and research efforts on this topic, a theoretical bottleneck and a technological bottleneck continue to impede further advancement in understanding, modeling, and managing preferential flow. The theoretical bottleneck refers to the lack of a cohesive conceptual framework to integrate major space–time factors that govern the occurrence and dynamics of preferential flow in soils. The technological bottleneck refers to the inadequacy of observational techniques for detecting and quantifying complex preferential flow patterns, particularly in situ. To help breakthrough these two bottlenecks, we first summarize the dominant controls of preferential flow across a wide variety of soils and landscapes based on a synthesis of 190 case studies. A framework of six key categories of controls is developed to assess the susceptibility of various soils to preferential flow. Mechanisms of different controlling factors affecting preferential flow are then discussed using the proposed framework. To address the technological bottleneck, we summarize recent applications of soil moisture sensor networks and geophysical imaging methods to characterize preferential flow in field soils, especially repeatedly and noninvasively. Finally, a future outlook on predicting the magnitude of preferential flow and enhancing field observation of preferential flow is presented.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T09:11:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2017.10.002
  • Limitations of Existing Weed Control Practices Necessitate Development of
           Alternative Techniques Based on Biological Approaches
    • Authors: Tasawar Abbas; Zahir A. Zahir; Muhammad Naveed; Robert J. Kremer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Tasawar Abbas, Zahir A. Zahir, Muhammad Naveed, Robert J. Kremer
      Weeds constitute major losses to crops which necessitates the use of control practices. In conventional management systems, weeds are typically controlled using manual, mechanical, and chemical methods. Manual weeding is considered as most efficient control but its use has reduced due to shortage of labor for crop production on large scale and growing cost of labor. Mechanical weeding is suitable only for a limited number of crops and sowing methods. Additionally, requirements for multiple operations and adverse environmental impacts have limited use of mechanical weeding. Reliance on herbicides has increased over time due to convenience in application and quick response. Continuous use of herbicides has disturbed weed ecology, biodiversity, environment, and human health. They have caused herbicide resistance in weeds, shift in weed flora, and yield reduction of sensitive crops. Herbicide drift, persistence in soil, contamination of waterbodies, and accumulation of residues in plants have exposed all life forms to their hazardous effects. They are held responsible for many health disorders in human beings. So many challenges have been posed by chemical herbicides that the cost of weed control and limitations of other control methods now necessitate development of alternative techniques for at least integration into existing weed management practices. These alternative techniques may be based on biological approaches, i.e., inoculative biological control, inundative biological control, and allelopathy. A detailed review of limitations of currently used control methods and the feasibility of development of alternative techniques especially opportunities offered by rhizobacteria for weed management are discussed in this chapter.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T01:54:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2017.10.005
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 146

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T12:03:26Z
  • National Comparison of the Total and Sequestered Organic Matter Contents
           of Conventional and Organic Farm Soils
    • Authors: Elham A. Ghabbour; Geoffrey Davies; Tracy Misiewicz; Reem A. Alami; Erin M. Askounis; Nicholas P. Cuozzo; Alexia J. Filice; Jennifer M. Haskell; Andy K. Moy; Alexandra C. Roach; Jessica Shade
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Elham A. Ghabbour, Geoffrey Davies, Tracy Misiewicz, Reem A. Alami, Erin M. Askounis, Nicholas P. Cuozzo, Alexia J. Filice, Jennifer M. Haskell, Andy K. Moy, Alexandra C. Roach, Jessica Shade
      Intensive agriculture has been linked to declining soil fertility and is a known source of greenhouse gas emissions. Decline in soil organic matter (SOM) is of particular concern due to its key role in maintaining soil health. Previous research supports the view that fertility management practices utilized in organic agriculture can maintain and even grow the SOM pool, but fewer studies examine what proportion of SOM is sequestered over long periods of time. Using data from the National Soil Project SOM sequestration between soils from organically and conventionally managed farms from across the United States is compared. Total %SOM ranged from 0.63 to 46.1 for conventional farm samples (mean 7.37) and 0.5 to 88.9 for the organic samples (mean 8.33). %FA ranged from 0.08 to 2.20 (mean 0.26) for conventional and 0.04 to 14.8 (mean 0.65) organic farm soils. %HA ranged from 0.17 to 23.0 (mean 2.85) for conventional and 0.25 to 48.9 (mean 4.1) for organic samples. Mean %humification (i.e., sequestration) was 45.6 for conventional soils and 57.3 for organic. Results presented here support previous assertions that FA are the precursors of HA. With the exception of water retention, comparisons of SOM, FA, HA, and humification suggest that organic farming practices support healthy soils and build and/or or maintain SOM more effectively than conventional farming practices. The data from this study can serve as benchmarks for other soils, and the spectroscopic analytical approaches employed should be useful in tracking the effects of changes in farm soil management practices over space and time.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T19:26:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2017.07.003
  • Harvest Index of Maize (Zea mays L.): Are There Possibilities for
    • Authors: Birgit W. Hütsch; Sven Schubert
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Birgit W. Hütsch, Sven Schubert
      During the last decades, the harvest index (HI) of many agricultural crops (e.g., wheat) was genetically or agronomically increased, whereas the HI of hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) remained almost unchanged in the major growing areas. In maize, opposite to wheat, a close positive correlation exists between dry matter accumulation and grain yield. However, the production of vegetative biomass which is usually not utilized requires high amounts of water and nutrients. In this review two main ways for improvement of maize HI are suggested: Increase in kernel setting and decrease of vegetative shoot biomass. In salt-stressed maize plants which are particularly prone to kernel abortion, a decrease in plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity in kernels was found around pollination. It is hypothesized that with application of phytohormones, specifically auxins, H+-ATPase activity can be enhanced, leading to an improved transport of hexoses into the developing kernels and thus to a better kernel set. For the reduction of vegetative biomass, the focus lies on the the phytohormones gibberellins (GAs). We demonstrated that after shoot growth reduction, achieved either by application of a GA biosynthesis inhibitor or under drought stress, the HI was significantly increased with a concomitant improvement of resource use efficiencies. After this proof of concept (increase of maize HI is possible without grain yield losses), the identification of the responsible physiological mechanisms is necessary in order to apply the knowledge to other maize genotypes and to a broader range of growth conditions, eventually contributing to a more sustainable crop production.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T19:26:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2017.07.004
  • Enhanced Plant Rooting and Crop System Management for Improved N Use
    • Authors: Ciro A. Rosolem; Karl Ritz; Heitor Cantarella; Marcelo V. Galdos; Malcolm J. Hawkesford; Willian R. Whalley; Sacha J. Mooney
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Ciro A. Rosolem, Karl Ritz, Heitor Cantarella, Marcelo V. Galdos, Malcolm J. Hawkesford, Willian R. Whalley, Sacha J. Mooney
      Despite the significant inroads into increasing agricultural productivity in recent decades, nitrogen remains a key limiting factor for crop growth and yield. Though highly variable globally, the amount of reactive N added yearly onto cropland that is subsequently lost to the environment remains high. As such the interest in agronomic approaches to address this and improve nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is currently very high. Here, we have shown the combined approaches of management interventions such as no-till, intercropping with leguminous and grass species, use of nitrogen inhibitors, and combined crop–livestock systems offer considerable potential for enhancing NUE and are already being readily deployed in the tropics. Grass species such as Brachiaria in particular have demonstrated enormous potential via their deep root architectures to reduce losses by leaching. However, the potential for increases in NUE through interaction and association of the root systems with the soil microbial community via rhizodeposits remains a major area for future research. Increasingly it is recognized that truly enhancing NUE requires consideration of the whole system. Improving NUE is not simply a matter of how much fertilizer is used but also the need for a deeper understanding of the interactions between nutrients, plants, microbes, and soils under specific agronomic situations such as the integrated maize/grass–livestock systems that are now regularly employed in the tropics. This more holistic approach to the management of nitrogen offers considerable benefits that can hopefully be realized not only from an agricultural perspective but also from an environmental and socioeconomic view point.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T19:26:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2017.07.002
  • Purine-Derived Ureides Under Drought and Salinity
    • Authors: Bikash Baral; Maria Luisa Izaguirre-Mayoral
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Bikash Baral, Maria Luisa Izaguirre-Mayoral
      Purine-derived ureides (allantoin and allantoate) are the dominant nitrogenous (N) products transported from the root nodules to the aerial plant organs by rhizobia-nodulated (Rh+) ureidic legumes. However, ureides are not exclusively synthesized in Rh+ legumes as some evidence suggest a more universal ureide metabolism in C3 and C4 plants to recycle N for growth maintenance. Metabolism of ureides is tightly regulated and highly modulated by abiotic factors, with accumulating evidence describing large similarities among ureidic or amide-producing Rh+, nonrhizobia-nodulated (Rh−) legumes and nonlegumes, in terms of the critical role played by ureides on plant drought and salinity tolerance. Most reports relate drought or salt sensitivity with increased ureide content in different plant organs, and relate drought or salinity tolerance with the growth trait of high rates of ureide catabolism, regardless of the species and their root nodulating status. However, a considerable number of research articles argue for a hindered rather than active ureide catabolism as the survival trait for plants subjected to periods of mild drought or salinity due to the alternative prime stress signaling function of uric acid and allantoin. Therefore, the selection between the growth or survival trait for breeding programs requires a deep understanding of the purine pathway in Rh+, Rh− legumes and nonlegumes subjected to drought and salinity, based on relevant examples. Finally, this review may benefit both plant scientists and growers in providing detailed insights into ureide metabolism as it relates to abiotic stress responses.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T11:17:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2017.07.001
  • Significance and Role of Si in Crop Production
    • Authors: Richard J. Haynes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Richard J. Haynes
      Silicon is a beneficial plant nutrient, and yield responses to its application on Si-deficient soils have been frequently demonstrated in Si-accumulator crops such as rice, sugarcane, maize, and wheat as well as a wide range of other crops. Plants take up silicic acid from soil solution and it is translocated to the shoots where it is deposited mainly as phytolith silica in the outer walls of epidermal leaf cells. Uptake of Si by accumulator plants has been shown to be an active process mediated by influx and efflux protein transporters. Yield increases are the result of increased plant resistance to a combination of biotic (plant pathogens, insect pests) and abiotic (water shortage, excess salts, metal toxicities) stresses. Addition of substantial quantities of soluble Si via plant roots is required to increase the intracellular Si status of the plant and elicit such stress resistance. Present knowledge suggests that added Si accelerates/intensifies basal defense responses to a range of stresses and it may act, at least partially, through influencing signaling systems in plants generated by endogenous phytohormones (GA, SA, ABA, JA, and ET). In natural ecosystems, phytogenic Si is returned to the soil in plant litter where it slowly dissolves and is recycled for plant uptake. However, continual removal of Si from agricultural soils, via harvested crop and crop residues, enhances soil desilification and means that Si will need to be applied more extensively and frequently in the future. Soil testing, plant analysis, and irrigation water analysis can all be important in assessing the need for application of soluble Si fertilizers (mainly industrial by-product slags) in the field.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T11:17:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2017.06.001
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 145

      PubDate: 2017-07-28T09:43:57Z
  • Conservation Agriculture Effects on Dynamics of Soil C and N under Climate
           Change Scenario
    • Authors: Nanak S. Pasricha
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Nanak S. Pasricha
      Anthropogenic release of greenhouse gases is fast affecting climate change and global warming. This will increase soil organic matter decomposition and soil water deficits in future. Greater frequency of high intensity rainfall events, runoff, and flooding in future would cause high soil erosion losses unless offsetting conservation measures are taken. Mitigation strategy of diverting CO2 from atmosphere to soil as SOC by adopting conservation agricultural practices of reduced or no-tillage, crop residue retention, and diverse cropping system is now a recognized such method which has the potential of offsetting a significant portion of the future atmospheric increase in CO2 concentration. Cropping intensification combined with no-tillage or reduced tillage systems and optimum fertilizer management targeted to production level of the system affects favorably the SOC and N stocking. Such a stocking is more pronounced in the surface soil layer which fosters productivity and regulates terrestrial water flow, high infiltration rate, and higher amount of water storage in soil profile. Increased soil profile stored water, by facilitating increased cropping intensity, helps in overcoming the problem from keeping the soil fallow, a management system which is responsible for rapid loss of SOC and N and soil erosion in dry land and rain fed conditions. Conservation tillage practice also reduces the relative quantity of residual soil NO3-N available for leaching and/or denitrification even under situations of higher fertilizer N applications, thus preventing their possible leakage to the environment. Some residual NO3 may be denitrified to N2O gas especially in SOC-rich heavy soils prone to excessive wetness after several years of no-till practice.

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T07:39:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2017.05.004
  • Potential Hotspot Areas of Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Grazed Pastoral
           Dairy Farm Systems
    • Authors: Jiafa Luo; Justin Wyatt; Tony J. van der Weerden; Steve M. Thomas; Cecile A.M. de Klein; Yan Li; Mike Rollo; Stuart Lindsey; Stewart F. Ledgard; Jie Li; Weixin Ding; Shuping Qin; Nannan Zhang; Nanthi Bolan; M.B. Kirkham; Zhaohai Bai; Lin Ma; Xiying Zhang; Hailong Wang; Hongbin Liu; Gerald Rys
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Jiafa Luo, Justin Wyatt, Tony J. van der Weerden, Steve M. Thomas, Cecile A.M. de Klein, Yan Li, Mike Rollo, Stuart Lindsey, Stewart F. Ledgard, Jie Li, Weixin Ding, Shuping Qin, Nannan Zhang, Nanthi Bolan, M.B. Kirkham, Zhaohai Bai, Lin Ma, Xiying Zhang, Hailong Wang, Hongbin Liu, Gerald Rys
      Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 265–298 times greater than carbon dioxide (CO2) and causes destruction of stratospheric ozone. In soil, N2O is produced through the process of incomplete microbial denitrification or as a by-product of nitrification. Agricultural soils are the main source of N2O emissions globally. Total N2O emissions from dairy grazed farm systems can be dominated by large emissions within a small area (hotspots). Typically, N2O hotspots are areas with high stocking density, high excretal inputs (resulting in high soil N), and situations when soil water filled pore space is elevated. Different pasture grazing systems can be used on dairy farms, including year-round low input dairy systems and higher input systems with some animal confinement component. Potential N2O hotspot areas can be categorized into the following: areas of manure accumulation, storage, and spreading; areas of high stocking intensity leading to soil compaction and high inputs of urine and dung; cultivation and grazing of forage crops; and landscape features including topography, riparian areas, and soil property effects. High input systems can lead to a greater potential for N2O emission hotspots. To demonstrate the effect of hotspot zones on the calculation of total farm N2O emissions, a model was developed and used to assess the N2O emissions from a New Zealand case-study farm. Emission factor (EF3) values for cow urine in the gateway and water-trough areas were measured on the case-study farm and were both found to be about five times that of the rest of the paddock. Using these values for the total farm emissions calculation, it was found that gateways could be significant hotspots for N2O emission with 3.2% of the farm area contributing 9.4% of the total farm N2O emissions. Knowledge of the significance of hotspot zones would enable more accurate calculation of total farm emissions and more efficient targeting of N2O mitigation strategies. There is a paucity of studies which specifically examine hotspots of N2O emissions from farm-scale features and the full magnitude of the emissions from possible hotspot areas and their contributions to the total farm emissions require further investigation.

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T07:39:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2017.05.006
  • Weed Dynamics and Management in Wheat
    • Authors: Khawar Jabran; Khalid Mahmood; Bo Melander; Ali A. Bajwa; Per Kudsk
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Khawar Jabran, Khalid Mahmood, Bo Melander, Ali A. Bajwa, Per Kudsk
      Wheat is among the most important cereal and food crops of world and is grown in almost all parts of the world. It is a staple for a large part of the world population. Any decline in wheat yield by biotic or abiotic factors may affect global food security adversely. Weeds are the most damaging pest of wheat causing in total 24% losses in wheat grain yield. In this chapter, we discuss the (i) weed flora in different wheat-growing regions of world; (ii) the yield losses caused by weeds in wheat; (iii) the preventive and cultural options for weed management; (iv) physical weed control; (v) chemical weed control; and (vi) integrated weed management strategy in wheat. A critical analysis of recent literature indicated that broadleaved weeds are the most common group of weeds in wheat fields followed by grass weeds, while sedges were rarely noted in wheat fields. Across the globe, the most important weeds in wheat fields were Avena fatua L., Chenopodium album L., Phalaris minor Retz., Galium aparine L., Stellaria media (L.) Vill., and Veronica persica Poir., respectively. Adoption of wise weed management strategies may help control weeds and avoid yield losses. Both preventive measures and cultural practices have proved their significance for improving weed control in wheat; physical and chemical tools are the other options. Moreover, site-specific herbicide application may help to make weed control economical and reduce the herbicide input. Nonetheless, integrated strategies should be opted for effective and ecofriendly weed management in wheat.

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T07:39:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2017.05.002
  • Allelopathic Potential of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) in Weed
           Control: A Comprehensive Review
    • Authors: Lilianna Głąb; Józef Sowiński; Raven Bough; Franck E. Dayan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Lilianna Głąb, Józef Sowiński, Raven Bough, Franck E. Dayan
      Weeds constitute the largest biotic threat affecting the yield of cultivated plants. While conventional agriculture relies principally on chemicals for weed control, alternative biological methods may be important tools to reduce weed pressure in agroecosystems. Furthermore, as the problem of excessive residue of plant protection agents in agroecosystems and the growing number of herbicide resistant weed biotypes continue to increase, new solutions that have smaller impacts on the environment are becoming increasingly desirable. One promising such method is the use of crops that exert a negative phytotoxic influence on weeds. This natural phenomenon describing the ability of certain plant species to produce compounds that affect the growth of other plants in their surroundings is called allelopathy. Managing weed infestations in cultivated fields by planting allelopathic crops is a sustainable, economic, and environmentally friendly approach that has been strongly articulated in the international arena. Among cultivated crops, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) has been intensively studied because of demonstrated allelopathic potential. This report provides a comprehensive literature review of the applications of sorghum allelopathy in agriculture. A critical analysis of the allelopathic properties of sorghum identified the following areas contributing to its ability to reduce weed infestation in agroecosystems: 1. a large number of compounds produced by sorghum have allelopathic properties, 2. allelopathic compounds can be applied in the form of mixed plant extracts or in combination with herbicides, 3. sorghum extracts have a broad spectrum of activity, 4. sorghum may be used to produce bioherbicides.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T19:18:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2017.05.001
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 144

      PubDate: 2017-05-16T13:01:06Z
  • Current Approaches and Future Trends in Compost Quality Criteria for
           Agronomic, Environmental, and Human Health Benefits
    • Authors: M. Pilar Bernal; Sven G. Sommer; Dave Chadwick; Chen Qing; Li Guoxue; Frederick C. Michel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 April 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): M. Pilar Bernal, Sven G. Sommer, Dave Chadwick, Chen Qing, Li Guoxue, Frederick C. Michel
      Organic wastes are composted to stabilize organic matter, reduce the moisture content, increase the concentrations of plant nutrients, eliminate pathogens and weed seeds, develop disease suppressiveness, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The requirements for compost quality depend on its final destination, which includes agriculture, horticulture, and urban landscaping. The development of a market for compost greatly depends on the definition and adoption of quality standards. Several countries and public and private organizations have established quality standards for compost, where certain properties are prioritized and different limits are established according to the end use. However, there is a need to harmonize such criteria at the international level. Also, if the process of composting is not managed properly, then it can result in excessive emissions of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4). This review compares compost quality criteria across different countries, addresses strategies for reducing the environmental impacts of composting processes, and evaluates new analytical and microbiological approaches to define compost quality. An overview of compost quality standards in Europe, China, and the United States of America is given, including a characterization of the plant residues, livestock manure, and organic wastes that can be composted.

      PubDate: 2017-04-30T10:40:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2017.03.002
  • Preventive Weed Management in Direct-Seeded Rice: Targeting the Weed
    • Authors: Adusumilli N. Rao; Daniel C. Brainard; Virender Kumar; Jagdish K. Ladha; David E. Johnson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Adusumilli N. Rao, Daniel C. Brainard, Virender Kumar, Jagdish K. Ladha, David E. Johnson
      In Asia, direct-seeded rice (DSR) is becoming popular as an alternative to puddled transplanted rice (PTR) due to its potential to save scarce resources (labor, water, and energy), reduce greenhouse gas emissions, improve soil physical properties, and increase yields in rotational crops. However, weed management in DSR is more difficult because the initial size differential between weeds and rice is small, reducing crop competitiveness and limiting opportunities for selective control measures including flooding. In this context, preventive approaches—those which focus primarily on limiting dispersal and persistence of weed propagules—may play a critical role in complementing the current reliance on curative tactics such as herbicides. Greater understanding and integration of preventive approaches in DSR may reduce the risks of herbicide resistance development, limit adverse effects of herbicides on human health and the environment, and lower the overall weed management costs. However, information on preventive weed management in DSR is relatively limited. Therefore, the central objectives of this review are to: (i) summarize existing knowledge regarding preventive strategies; (ii) discuss key integrated preventive weed management approaches that have the greatest potential for practical application in DSR systems; and (iii) identify knowledge gaps that limit our ability to optimize preventive approaches. Based on an extensive review of existing literature, we conclude that (i) Minimizing weed seed production in the field is critically important for managing weed seedbanks in DSR, but that given seed dispersal in both time and space, prevention of seed production from neighboring bunds, rice–fallow land and irrigation channels bordering DSR areas may be equally important; (ii) Minimizing dispersal of weed seeds into DSR fields may be a practical approach for species that are dispersed primarily by humans (e.g., as contaminants in crop seeds or through irrigation canals), but not for species that are dispersed primarily by other means (wind and birds); (iii) Promotion of seed predation may be a useful strategy in managing certain weed species in DSR—especially where zero-tillage is used—but more research is needed on the identity of seed predators and management factors that promote their activity; (iv) available evidence suggests that the potential for promotion of seed decay is limited in scope but may be valuable for the management of certain relatively nonpersistent weeds in some cropping systems; (v) strategies that stimulate fatal germination of weed seeds (e.g., stale seedbed) appear to be one of the most promising means of prevention in DSR, but increased information on the mechanisms and timing of dormancy release for key species is needed to optimize and enhance the value of this approach; (vi) Prevention of weed germination and emergence in DSR through mulching—especially in zero-till systems—has proven benefits, but its widespread applicability is limited by the economic tradeoffs associated with using mulch as a source of livestock feed; and (vii) development of anaerobic germination (AG)-tolerant rice cultivars and complementary flooding strategies which can tolerate anaerobic conditions/flooding hold great potential for the suppression of weeds in DSR. Successful integration of preventive approaches for managing weeds in DSR will depend on the development of multidisciplinary approaches which are biologically effective, economically feasible, and socially acceptable. Preventive weed control measures alone are unlikely to be sufficient for the effective and economical management of weeds in DSR systems, but their integration with curative approaches should reduce weed management costs and increase both the likelihood of adoption of DSR and the realization of its benefits for food security.

      PubDate: 2017-04-23T10:37:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2017.02.002
  • An Important Tool With No Instruction Manual: A Review of Gypsum Use in
    • Authors: Samuel M. Zoca; Chad Penn
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Samuel M. Zoca, Chad Penn
      Land application of gypsum has been studied and utilized in agriculture and environmental remediation for many years. Most of the published literature has focused on gypsum application impacts on soil properties rather than crop yields. This literature review was conducted to (i) gather results from gypsum application studies relevant to crop grain yield, soil physical–chemical properties, and environmental impact; (ii) report different methods for determining gypsum application rates; (iii) suggest recommendations for future studies on land application of gypsum. Improvement in plant nitrogen use efficiency was rarely discussed as a potential mechanism for improving yield. Free Al activity has been demonstrated to be more correlated with plant yield responses to gypsum application than exchangeable Al or Al saturation. However, few authors reported Al speciation and Al activity. While gypsum is reported to improve soil chemical properties in most cases, these changes do not necessarily translate to increases in yield. Improvements in physical properties for nonsodic soils are not consistent. It is difficult to exactly determine the positive effects from gypsum application that are responsible for yield increases, since there are often many simultaneous physical and chemical changes occurring in the soil. Improvement in crop yield may be a result of an additive or synergistic effect of each of these potential changes. In addition, these potential changes, as varied as they are, appear to also vary with crop, soil type, and rainfall regime. Therefore, meta-analysis of gypsum experiments is highly recommended in order to improve gypsum recommendations across diverse environments.

      PubDate: 2017-04-23T10:37:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2017.03.001
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