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  Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 775 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (77 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (528 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (91 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (49 journals)

AGRICULTURE (528 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 263 Journals sorted alphabetically
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta agriculturae Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Agronomica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Technologica Agriculturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Agriculture & Botanics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
AFBM Journal     Open Access  
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Agra Europe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agribusiness : an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultura, Sociedad y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultural and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Agricultural Commodities     Full-text available via subscription  
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Agricultural History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agricultural Sciences in China     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Food Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Agriprobe     Open Access  
Agrivita : Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Agroalimentaria     Open Access  
Agrociencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agrociencia Uruguay     Open Access  
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
Agronomía Colombiana     Open Access  
Agronomía Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access  
Agronomie Africaine     Full-text available via subscription  
Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agrosearch     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Akademik Ziraat Dergisi     Open Access  
Alinteri Zirai Bilimler Dergisi : Alinteri Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Botany     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
APCBEE Procedia     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Applied Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Applied Financial Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ARO. The Scientific Journal of Koya University     Open Access  
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Grain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Agricultural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Sugarcane     Full-text available via subscription  
Avances en Investigacion Agropecuaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics     Full-text available via subscription  
Bangladesh Agronomy Journal     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioagro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biological Agriculture & Horticulture : An International Journal for Sustainable Production Systems     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Biosystems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biotemas     Open Access  
Boletín Semillas Ambientales     Open Access  
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
British Poultry Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access  
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Cahiers Agricultures     Open Access  
California Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Journal of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ceiba     Open Access  
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CERNE     Open Access  
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Change and Adaptation in Socio-Ecological Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemical and Biological Technologies for Agriculture     Open Access  
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia & Natura     Open Access  
Ciência e Agrotecnologia     Open Access  
Ciencia e investigación agraria     Open Access  
Ciência e Técnica Vitivinícola     Open Access  
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Agricultura     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
COCOS : The Journal of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coffee Science     Open Access  
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Corps et culture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cuadernos de Desarrollo Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cultivos Tropicales     Open Access  
Cultural Geographies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Cultural Studies - Critical Methodologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cultural Studies of Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cultural Trends     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Culture & Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Research in Dairy Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Derim     Open Access  
Developments in Agricultural Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Agricultural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Diatom Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Die Bodenkultur : Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment     Open Access  
Dossiers Agraris     Open Access  
Ecological Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 127)
Economic Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Economic and Industrial Democracy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Economic Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Encuentro     Open Access  
Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food     Hybrid Journal  
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Eppo Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ethology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
EU agrarian Law     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Euphytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Eurochoices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Agrophysical Journal     Open Access  
European Journal of Agronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of American Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Health Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
EvoDevo     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Extensão Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Farmer’s Weekly     Full-text available via subscription  
Farmlink Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Fitosanidad     Open Access  
Folia Horticulturae     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food and Agricultural Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food and Energy Security     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Food Economics - Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Food Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Forum for Health Economics & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Agriculture in China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Future of Food : Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geoderma     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Global Approaches to Extension Practice : A Journal of Agricultural Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Global Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Gontor Agrotech Science Journal     Open Access  
Hacquetia     Open Access  

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Advances in Agronomy
  [SJR: 2.071]   [H-I: 82]   [14 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal  (Not entitled to full-text)
   ISSN (Print) 0065-2113
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3040 journals]
  • Effects of Dry and Wet Sieving of Soil on Identification and
           Interpretation of Microbial Community Composition
    • Authors: A. Blaud; M. Menon; B. van der Zaan; G.J. Lair; S. Banwart
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): A. Blaud, M. Menon, B. van der Zaan, G.J. Lair, S. Banwart
      Soil aggregates are microhabitats for microorganisms, and directly influence microorganisms that live within and are influenced by microorganisms in return. Two methods are used to isolate soil aggregates by their size: dry sieving (sieving air-dried soil) and wet sieving (sieving soil in water). Wet-sieving methods are generally considered to represent separation of aggregate classes that are stable to physical disaggregation in water, a condition considered favorable for protecting soil structure over time. However, little is known about the effect of sieving methods on microbial abundance, diversity, and functions, hindering the understanding of the relationship between soil structure and soil aggregates as habitat and soil microorganisms. In this study, the effect of dry and wet sieving on bacterial diversity, and abundance of microorganisms involved in N fixation (nifH gene), nitrification (amoA bacteria and archaea), and denitrification (narG, nirS and nosZ genes), was determined for four sizes of soil aggregates from a cropland and grassland. Quantitative-PCR (Q-PCR) showed little differences in relative gene abundance between size fractions of soil aggregates, but wet-sieving method significantly increased gene abundance for amoA bacteria, nirS and nosZ genes. When the N functional genes were expressed as percentage of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes, the wet sieving resulted in significantly higher genes percentage for all the genes (except for narG gene), and significant differences between soil aggregate size fractions at the grassland site. The different sieving methods resulted in different bacterial community compositions, but only the wet-sieving method was able to reveal significant differences in bacterial community composition between soil fractions in grassland. The results demonstrate significantly different quantitative and qualitative interpretation of soil microbial community depending on whether aggregate samples were obtained from wet or dry sieving, highlighting the importance in the choice of the sieving method.

      PubDate: 2017-01-09T06:05:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.10.006
  • Valuation of Soil Ecosystem Services
    • Authors: J.Ö.G. Jónsson; B. Davíðsdóttir; N.P. Nikolaidis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): J.Ö.G. Jónsson, B. Davíðsdóttir, N.P. Nikolaidis
      Soil natural capital and soil ecosystem services (ES) are under increasing pressure because of human activities. Soils provide multiple benefits to humans, and the role of soil in Earth's Critical Zone is fundamental to its functions that provide these benefits. Despite their importance, soils are rarely appreciated for the values they provide. One reason is the absence of their economic value in land-use decision making. We present a framework for categorizing and economically valuing soil ES and illustrating the use of the framework in a case study for three soil ES in the Koiliaris watershed on the Greek island of Crete. The value of the soil ES estimated was crop and livestock biomass 740–7560id$ha−1 year−1; filtering of nutrients and contaminants 0–278id$ha−1 year−1; and climate regulation −2200 to −5610id$ha−1 year−1. Highlights • Soils provide multiple economic benefits that are rarely accounted for. • A framework for the classification and economic valuation of soil ecosystem services (ES) is presented. • The soil framework is applied at Koiliaris, Crete, Greece for three soil ES. • This chapter illustrates soil ES values from −5610 to 7560id$ha−1 year−1 depending on the specific soil ES.

      PubDate: 2017-01-09T06:05:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.10.011
  • European Contribution Towards a Global Assessment of Agricultural Soil
           Organic Carbon Stocks
    • Authors: Y. Yigini; L. Montanarella; P. Panagos
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Y. Yigini, L. Montanarella, P. Panagos
      The chapter discusses a study that predicts the global organic carbon stocks for agricultural soils using European databases with geostatistical analysis and modeling. The overall statistical model consists of two submodels namely donor and donee modules. The donor module uses statistics to quantify the relationships between soil organic carbon (SOC) and environmental covariates. The covariates were selected based on their availability at global scale and their roles as major drivers that affect the carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystems. Multiple linear regression was used in the donor module with the selected covariates and dense SOC measurements coming from LUCAS soil database (Toth et al., 2013a). The LUCAS soil database has more than 22,000 SOC measurements from European countries and a standardized sampling procedure was used routinely to collect samples of around 0.5kg of topsoil (0–20cm) each. The donor module reveals and quantifies the relationships between SOC mass concentration in soil and the predictors to be used in the donee model to extend the prediction at global scale using the same set of predictors. We used the WorldClim dataset (Hijmans et al., 2005), which is comprised of global climate data layers representing long-term conditions for the years from 1950 to 2000. The land cover data were extracted from the GlobCover 2009 (ESA and Universite' Catholique de Louvain, 2010) provided by the European Space Agency (ESA), the terrain parameters were derived from CGIAR-CSI SRTM 90m Database (Jarvis et al., 2008), the soil layers obtained from Harmonized World Soil Database (FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC, 2012), and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data were obtained from Copernicus Global Land Service Data Portal (Copernicus Global Land Service, 2015). The study yielded promising results which are broadly consistent with similar efforts predicting global agricultural SOC stocks. Our model fits the SOC data well (R 2 =0.35) and preliminary results suggest a global agricultural SOC estimate of 100.34Pg (Petagrams) in the first 20cm. The study predicts the global agricultural SOC stocks using a geostatistical approach and the results are consistent with previous studies that used process-based SOC models.

      PubDate: 2017-01-09T06:05:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.10.012
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 141

      PubDate: 2017-01-09T06:05:06Z
  • Chapter One Root Iron Plaque on Wetland Plants as a Dynamic Pool of
           Nutrients and Contaminants
    • Authors: N. Khan; B. Seshadri; N. Bolan; C.P. Saint; M.B. Kirkham; S. Chowdhury; N. Yamaguchi; D.Y. Lee; G. Li; A. Kunhikrishnan; F. Qi; R. Karunanithi; R. Qiu; Y.-G. Zhu; C.H. Syu
      Pages: 1 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 138
      Author(s): N. Khan, B. Seshadri, N. Bolan, C.P. Saint, M.B. Kirkham, S. Chowdhury, N. Yamaguchi, D.Y. Lee, G. Li, A. Kunhikrishnan, F. Qi, R. Karunanithi, R. Qiu, Y.-G. Zhu, C.H. Syu
      Loading of nutrients and contaminants is increasing in wetlands due to anthropogenic activities. The scope of this paper is to (1) provide an overview of natural, cultivated, and constructed wetlands and hydrophytes, (2) characterize root iron plaque of hydrophytes, (3) show roles played by root iron plaque as a source and sink for nutrients and contaminants for hydrophytes, (4) present toxicity tolerance mechanisms employed by hydrophytes, and (5) offer implications of the findings about iron plaque, and (6) to suggest future research. Iron plaque deposits on hydrophyte root surfaces are a result of oxidation of ferrous iron in the oxic rhizosphere under waterlogged conditions in wetlands. The iron plaques mainly consists of amorphous and crystalline iron oxyhydroxides. They, therefore, can sequester nutrients and contaminants that can bind to iron oxides. Recently advanced spectroscopic techniques, such as synchrotron radiation techniques, have been used to identify and characterize iron plaque components. Sequestration and plant uptake of these materials mainly depend on the available nutrients and contaminants, oxygen diffusion capability of hydrophyte roots, and bio-physico-chemical properties of the rhizosphere. Root iron plaque plays a vital role in controlling the sequestration of excess loads of nutrients and contaminants in wetlands.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T19:09:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2016)
  • Chapter Three Exposure, Toxicity, Health Impacts, and Bioavailability of
           Heavy Metal Mixtures
    • Authors: M.A.A. Wijayawardena; M. Megharaj; R. Naidu
      Pages: 175 - 234
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 138
      Author(s): M.A.A. Wijayawardena, M. Megharaj, R. Naidu
      Exposure to chemical mixtures is a common and important determinant of toxicity in human and environmental health issues. Although there is a wealth of information on single metal interactions, very few studies have been conducted on the effects of mixtures of heavy metals on environmental quality and human health. Current national regulatory guidelines for soils are based solely on individual metal and metalloids concentrations. However, heavy metals and metalloids do not exist in isolation at the majority of sites. Soil properties such as pH, Eh, clay minerals, and cation exchange capacity influence multiple metal interactions. There are numerous adverse health effects on human, animals, and the environment due to mixed metal exposure resulting from additive and synergistic interactions even when concentrations of the individual metals are below their ecotoxicological benchmark levels. Two key strategies currently recognized as suitable for predicting toxicity of a mixture are: first, concentration addition, also known as Loewe additivity and second, effect addition, also referred to as the Bliss model of independent action. In this review we draw attention to research illustrating the interactions of multiple metal contaminants and their potential health impacts.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T19:09:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2016)
  • Brazilian Agriculture in Perspective: Great Expectations vs Reality
    • Authors: F.A.O. Camargo; L.S. Silva; G.H. Merten; F.S. Carlos; P.C. Baveye; EW. Triplett
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): F.A.O. Camargo, L.S. Silva, G.H. Merten, F.S. Carlos, P.C. Baveye, EW. Triplett
      Agronomists in most parts of the world are already, and will be increasingly in the next couple of decades, solicited to resolve pressing issues associated with global climate change and food security. For a number of reasons, it is most likely that in both of these areas, their research will be very tightly linked to what happens in Brazil. In that context, this chapter attempts to offer as complete a picture as possible of the events and influences that have shaped historically both Brazilian agriculture and its agricultural research efforts, as well as their relationships with other sectors of Brazilian society. An account is provided of the history of Brazilian agriculture and of the initially slow, then extremely rapid development of the agricultural research sector. This chapter also analyzes in detail the present contributions of agriculture to the economic and social consolidation of Brazil, describes the main actors of research and technological development, discusses the effect of agricultural production and expansion on the environment, tries to identify the various forces that are influencing Brazilian agriculture in the future, and lists the main challenges that will have to be faced in the future of Brazilian and world agriculture. Throughout the chapter, we try to make clear how Brazilians interpret as half-truths a number of statements commonly made about Brazilian agriculture, and how they see their agriculture evolve in the foreseeable future, with a discourse that often differs substantially from the one commonly put forth by the media or even scientists elsewhere in the world. This analysis results in the description of a proposed national agricultural policy that attempts to move Brazilian agriculture in the right direction within the context of the nation's economy.

      PubDate: 2016-12-28T10:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.10.003
  • Interception of Subsurface Lateral Flow Through Enhanced Vertical
           Preferential Flow in an Agroforestry System Observed Using Dye-Tracing and
           Rainfall Simulation Experiments
    • Authors: Y. Wang; B. Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Y. Wang, B. Zhang
      Surface soil hydrology is a major control on the terrestrial water cycle in Earth's Critical Zone (CZ). Partitioning of vertical preferential flow and subsurface lateral flow is commonly attributed to the heterogeneity of slope, soil profile horizon, and soil structure, but the influences of land-use types are largely unknown. Agroforestry systems (AF) can intercept subsurface lateral flow for reducing nitrogen losses to drainage water and for alleviating secondary salinity in central China and southeast Australia. These effects have been attributed to enhanced evapotranspiration and canopy interception in the agroforestry systems compared to monocropping systems (MC). Here, we show the differences in lateral and vertical soil hydrological pathways between AF and MC with dye-tracing experiments before and during a simulated rainfall event. Before the rainfall, the vertical and horizontal dye-staining patterns demonstrated that preferential flow occurred through isolated macropores with fine tree roots in AF and through connected cracks in MC. The dye coverage area and depth indicated greater vertical preferential flow in AF than in MC. During the 2-h rainfall event, the dye-staining area at different depths indicated that the preferential flow contributed to greater near-surface lateral flow in MC than in AF. The changes in the hydrological pathways were attributed to deep roots and no physical barrier from plough pan in AF and the presence of the plough pan in MC. These results suggest that land use has strong water partitioning effects not only above ground but also in the subsurface, and that understanding the landscape hydrology in the Earth's Critical Zone required quantification of the considering coupled pedological and biological processes.

      PubDate: 2016-12-28T10:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.10.014
  • Factors Controlling Soil Structure Dynamics and Carbon Sequestration
           Across Different Climatic and Lithological Conditions
    • Authors: S.K. Panakoulia; N.P. Nikolaidis; N.V. Paranychianakis; M. Menon; J. Schiefer; G.J. Lair; P. Kram; S.A. Banwart
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): S.K. Panakoulia, N.P. Nikolaidis, N.V. Paranychianakis, M. Menon, J. Schiefer, G.J. Lair, P. Kram, S.A. Banwart
      Soil organic carbon (SOC) is a strong determinant of soil fertility through its positive effects on soil structure and soil chemical and biological properties which in turn stimulate primary production. The objective of this work was to simulate field sites that represent different land uses and management practices in three continents, in order to identify the most important factors controlling soil structure dynamics and C sequestration across different climatic and lithological conditions as well as to quantify the rates of the aforementioned processes. The carbon, aggregation, and structure turnover (CAST) model was used to simulate SOC sequestration, aggregate formation, and structure dynamics in three field sites including nontilled soils of natural ecosystems and tilled soils of agricultural fields in Europe (Critical Zone Observatories (CZO) of the SoilTrEC network) and one site in North America. Derived data from the simulations’ results of SOC stocks and water-stable aggregate (WSA) particle size distribution, together with the respective results of three additional sites (Damma Glacier CZO, Milia (Greece), and Heilongjiang Mollisols (China)), were statistically analyzed in order to determine the factors affecting SOC sequestration and soil structure development. The natural ecosystems include nontilled soils covered with natural local vegetation, while the agricultural sites include cultivated and tilled soils covered with crops. The natural ecosystems were represented by Damma Glacier CZO (Switzerland), Heilongjiang Mollisols (China), Koiliaris CZO (Greece), Clear Creek (United States), and the Slavkov Forrest CZO (Czech Republic), whereas the agricultural field sites were located at Heilongjiang Mollisols (China), Koiliaris CZO (Greece), Clear Creek (United States), Marchfeld CZO (Austria), and Milia (Greece). Principal component analysis (PCA) identified clay content, bulk density, climatic conditions (precipitation and evapotranspiration), organic matter (OM), and its decomposition rates as the most important factors that controlled soil structure development. The relative importance of each of these factors differs under differing climatic and lithological conditions and differing stages of soil development. Overall, the modeling results for both natural ecosystems and agricultural fields were consistent with the field data. The model reliably simulated C and soil structure dynamics in various land uses, climatic conditions, and soil properties providing support for the underlying conceptual and mathematical modeling and evidence that the CAST model is a reliable tool to interpret soil structure formation processes and to aid the design of sustainable soil management practices.

      PubDate: 2016-12-28T10:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.10.008
  • Integrated Critical Zone Model (1D-ICZ): A Tool for Dynamic Simulation of
           Soil Functions and Soil Structure
    • Authors: G.V. Giannakis; N.P. Nikolaidis; J. Valstar; E.C. Rowe; K. Moirogiorgou; M. Kotronakis; N.V. Paranychianakis; S. Rousseva; F.E. Stamati; S.A. Banwart
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): G.V. Giannakis, N.P. Nikolaidis, J. Valstar, E.C. Rowe, K. Moirogiorgou, M. Kotronakis, N.V. Paranychianakis, S. Rousseva, F.E. Stamati, S.A. Banwart
      Food security should be addressed in relation to soil sustainability and sustainable land care, and examined within the science framework of Earth's critical zone as an integrated system that includes Earth surface interactions, connected to soil functions, and ecosystem services. There is a great need to develop critical zone mathematical models that will simulate and quantify soil functions and that can be used as management tools to address soil sustainability and land care practices. The integrated critical zone model, 1D-ICZ, couples computational modules for soil organic matter dynamics, soil aggregation and structure dynamics, bioturbation, plant productivity and nutrient uptake, water flow, solute speciation and transport, and mineral weathering kinetics. The 1D-ICZ model, coupled with new pedotransfer functions to predict bulk soil properties, introduces for the first time a model that dynamically links soil structure characteristics and hydraulic soil properties by simulating their changes under varying meteorological conditions and plant growth. Field data from a Mediterranean olive grove at the Koiliaris Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) were used to simulate carbon addition to soil and agricultural management scenarios, in order to illustrate the model's ability to quantify soil management impact on soil functions and biogeochemical transformations and fluxes. The 1D-ICZ model can be used to assess, understand, and quantify the complex interactions between the different processes in the soil-plant-water system and can be applied as a tool to design sustainable agricultural management practices, taking into consideration synergy and trade-offs among soil functions.

      PubDate: 2016-12-28T10:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.10.009
  • Bio-Intervention of Naturally Occurring Silicate Minerals for Alternative
           Source of Potassium: Challenges and Opportunities
    • Authors: B.B. Basak; B. Sarkar; D.R. Biswas; S. Sarkar; P. Sanderson; R. Naidu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): B.B. Basak, B. Sarkar, D.R. Biswas, S. Sarkar, P. Sanderson, R. Naidu
      Soil needs simultaneous replenishment of various nutrients to maintain its inherent fertility status under extensive cropping systems. Replenishing soil nutrients with commercial fertilizer is costly. Among various fertilizers, deposits of potassium (K) ore suitable for the production of commercial K fertilizer (KCl) are distributed in few northern hemisphere countries (Canada, Russia, Belarus, and Germany) which control more than 70% of the world's potash market. Naturally occurring minerals, particularly silicate minerals, could be used as a source of K, but not as satisfactorily as commercial K fertilizers. In this context, bio-intervention (in combination with microorganisms and/or composting) of silicate minerals has been found quite promising to improve plant K availability and assimilation. This is an energy efficient and environmentally friendly approach. Here we present a critical review of existing literature on direct application of silicate minerals as a source of K for plant nutrition as well as soil fertility enhancement by underpinning the bio-intervention strategies and related K solubilization mechanisms. An advancement of knowledge in this field will not only contribute to a better understanding of the complex natural processes of soil K fertility, but also help to develop a new approach to utilize natural mineral resources for sustainable and environmental friendly agricultural practices.

      PubDate: 2016-12-28T10:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.10.016
  • Long-Term Aging of Biochar: A Molecular Understanding With Agricultural
           and Environmental Implications
    • Authors: S. Mia; F.A. Dijkstra; B. Singh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): S. Mia, F.A. Dijkstra, B. Singh
      Biochar has unveiled a new avenue for carbon (C) sequestration and has shown the potential to increase agricultural productivity. Although there is still debate about the mineralization rate of biochar and its role in sustaining soil fertility after fresh biochar amendment, oxidized or aged biochar has shown strong positive effects on crop productivity. Aging of biochar changes its physiochemical properties, while a range of biochar-derived organic materials (BDOMs) can be formed. These changes have significant consequences for the bioavailability and transport of nutrients and contaminants. In this review, we provide an overview of biochar aging, focusing on its change in structure, surface chemical properties, and the interactions of biochar and BDOMs with nutrients and contaminants in the soil. Synthesis of spectroscopic data from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and near edge X-ray fine structure (NEXAFS) showed that with progressive aging, either artificially or naturally, biochar undergoes structural and chemical changes leading to progressive formation of surface functional groups such as carboxyl, phenolic, and carbonyl groups. As a result, the O:C ratio, negative surface charge, and cation exchange capacity increase with increased level of aging. The surface oxidized biochar and BDOMs may interact with soil minerals, nutrients, and contaminants resulting in increased mineral-stabilized organic matter, cation retention, anion bioavailability, and reduced organic contaminants’ sorption. Therefore, application of aged biochar could potentially increase agricultural productivity with increased capacities to retain nutrients while serving the role of C sequestration.

      PubDate: 2016-12-28T10:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.10.001
  • Mineral Nutrition of Cocoa: A Review
    • Authors: J.A. van Vliet; K.E. Giller
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): J.A. van Vliet, K.E. Giller
      Cocoa is an important global commodity. It is mostly grown on small farms by millions of cocoa farmers who depend on the crop for their livelihood. Although potential yields exceed 6000kg/ha, average farm yields are often around 400kg/ha. Among the production constraints met by farmers is nutrient limitation. In this review, we compile current knowledge on nutrient cycling in cocoa production systems, nutrient requirements of cocoa, and yield response to fertilizer application in relation to factors such as management, climatic, and soil conditions. Large amounts of nutrients are cycled within cocoa systems, mostly through 5–10t/ha/yr litter fall. Still, harvesting and small nutrient losses such as leaching lead to nutrient exports causing gradual soil nutrient depletion. Exact nutrient requirements of cocoa are unknown. Leaf and soil test interpretation to identify additional nutrient needs remain ambiguous. Recommended nutrient application rates vary more than 10-fold. In several trials fertilizer application more than doubled cocoa productivity; in other cases response is minimal. Differences in response between regions, fields and even trees have yet to be explained. Interactions with agroecology and management (especially shade) are poorly understood. Without this fundamental knowledge, farm level recommendations have a weak scientific base. Different types of research are recommended to complement current knowledge. Existing data and trials can be exploited through additional analysis and more detailed measurements. Cocoa farms are highly diverse and on-farm trials offer opportunities for understanding variability in production and fertilizer response. Finally, multifactorial shade–fertilizer response trials will be essential to address some of the fundamental knowledge gaps.

      PubDate: 2016-12-28T10:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.10.017
  • Reduced Subsurface Lateral Flow in Agroforestry System Is Balanced by
           Increased Water Retention Capacity: Rainfall Simulation and Model
    • Authors: Y. Wang; B. Zhang; S.A. Banwart
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Y. Wang, B. Zhang, S.A. Banwart
      Soil hydrology controls the terrestrial water cycle and the transport of substances to influence the environmental quality of Earth's critical zone (CZ). Soil and water management in agroforestry systems (AF) is able to reduce soil nitrogen losses and to alleviate secondary salinity in some regions of the world by reducing subsurface lateral flow. Compared to monocropping (MC) system, the reduction of subsurface lateral flow in AF has been attributed not only to the enhanced evapotranspiration and canopy interception but also to changes in soil structure and related hydraulic properties. However, for AF, it remains unclear how changes in soil structure and hydraulic properties occur and can act to reduce the subsurface later flow. Rainfall simulation experiments were conducted in the field and soil matric potential was measured to determine the effect of AF and MC on the dynamics of rainfall infiltration, subsurface lateral flow, and soil water storage in the soil profile. The calculated isolines of soil matric potential showed that a physical domain of water saturation occurred in the subsoils during the rainfall and diminished after the rainfall. The water saturation domain was larger during the rainfall and drained more slowly after the rainfall in AF than in MC. These results illustrated that AF increased vertical preferential flow and retarded the subsurface lateral flow, resulting in increased water retention capacity in the soil profile, compared to MC. The changed water mass and flow distribution was attributed to the deep roots, which increase macropores oriented in the vertical direction and modify micro- and mesopores in the lateral direction, resulting in changes in anisotropy of soil hydraulic properties along transects of slope. These proposed mechanisms were successfully verified by mathematical modeling. Numerical experiments using the Hydrus-2D mathematical modeling code at the virtual condition of the same antecedent soil moisture condition along the slope at different rainfall events ruled out the effect of antecedent soil moisture or evapotranspiration on generation of subsurface flow. These findings suggest that land use has strong effects on water distribution not only above the ground but also in the subsurface. The changes in soil structure and hydraulic properties need to be considered in understanding landscape hydrology related to agricultural practices and their impacts on Earth's CZ.

      PubDate: 2016-12-21T11:40:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.10.005
  • Quantifying the Incipient Development of Soil Structure and Functions
           Within a Glacial Forefield Chronosequence
    • Authors: M. Andrianaki; S.M. Bernasconi; N.P. Nikolaidis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): M. Andrianaki, S.M. Bernasconi, N.P. Nikolaidis
      In this study, we used the newly developed mathematical model CAST (carbon, aggregation, and structure turnover) to simulate the accumulation of soil organic carbon and the development of soil structure along the 150 years soil chronosequence of the Damma glacier Critical Zone Observatory (CZO). As first step in the modeling procedure, an adaptation of the widely used multipool Rothamsted carbon model RothC was tested. The calibration of the model is based on the extensive dataset available for the Damma glacier CZO and a published reconstruction of climate back to 1867. The adapted RothC model simulates effectively the dynamics of total organic carbon (TOC), microbial biomass (BIO), and humified organic matter (HUM) pools, while decomposable plant material (DPM) and resistant plant material (RPM) pools which are calculated by the model are slightly overestimated compared to measured values. In a second set of simulations, the CAST model was applied and captured effectively the carbon content of the three aggregate classes which are considered by the model (macroaggregates: >250μm (AC3), microaggregates: 53–250μm (AC2), silt–clay-sized aggregates: <53μm (AC1)). The major percentage of aggregates belongs to the AC3 class, which consists of the particulate organic matter primarily loosely bound with the mineral particles. The amount of aggregates within the AC1 aggregate class is low, while the formation of the AC2 aggregates has not been initiated at this stage of soil development. One of the most important finding of this study is that the CAST model realistically calculates the processes during the initial stages of soil structure development, even though the soils of the Damma glacier CZO soil chronosequence are characterized by very poor soil structure and low clay content. The main process for soil development at this early stage is identified to be the macroaggregation through the addition of particulate organic matter. Microaggregation of smaller-sized particles and aggregates is not found to be a major contribution to soil structure development at this stage and it is only observed at the end of the chronosequence. Finally, despite the extreme climatic conditions of the alpine environment, the young nature of the soils and the short growing season, both models performed very well after calibration of the carbon turnover rates.

      PubDate: 2016-12-21T11:40:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.10.013
  • Livestock Production and Its Impact on Nutrient Pollution and Greenhouse
           Gas Emissions
    • Authors: K. Sakadevan; M.-L. Nguyen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): K. Sakadevan, M.-L. Nguyen
      The livestock sector provides more than one-third of human protein needs and is a major provider of livelihood in almost all developing countries. While providing such immense benefits to the population, poor livestock management can potentially provide harmful environmental impacts at local, regional, and national levels which have not been adequately addressed in many countries with emerging economies. Twenty-six percent of global land area is used for livestock production and forest lands are continuously being lost to such activities. Land degradation through soil erosion and nutrient depletion is very common across pastures and rangelands. The intensification of livestock production led to large surpluses of on-farm nitrogen and phosphorus inputs that can potentially contribute to nonpoint source pollution of water resources in many parts of the world. The sector is one of the largest sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs) contributing around 14.5% of all human-induced GHG emissions, a major driver of use and pollution of freshwater (accounting 10% anthropogenic water use) and a contributor to the loss of biodiversity. About 60% of global biomass harvested annually to support all human activity is consumed by livestock industry, undermining the sustainability of allocating such large resource to the industry. Despite the negative impacts of livestock production, opportunities exist to balance the competing demands of livestock production and the environment. These include (1) improved technologies and practices that increase livestock productivity with optimal use of land and water, (2) reorienting grazing systems to provide environmental services for water, biodiversity, carbon sequestration, and resource conservation, (3) reducing GHG emission from livestock production, and (4) an effective management strategy for efficient and sustainable use of manure in livestock production. Further research, appropriate policy development, and institutional support are important to ensure the competitiveness of the industry. Integration of crops with livestock production provides opportunities for increasing resource use efficiencies and reducing environmental pollution, making the system resilient to impacts of climate change, reducing GHG emissions from the system, enhancing soil quality and fertility, and improving water quantity and quality. Appropriate techniques for assessing and monitoring impacts of livestock production are necessary for developing strategies and making the system profitable, sustainable, and resilient. Isotopic and nuclear techniques play an important role in such assessment and monitoring.

      PubDate: 2016-12-13T11:02:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.10.002
  • Title page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 140

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T12:22:56Z
  • Series page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 140

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T12:22:56Z
  • Half title page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 140

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T12:22:56Z
  • A Review of Uptake and Translocation of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care
           Products by Food Crops Irrigated with Treated Wastewater
    • Authors: B. Colon; G.S. Toor
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): B. Colon, G.S. Toor
      Concerns and knowledge of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) presence in agricultural soils have led to research efforts to assess the uptake and translocation of PPCPs into edible parts of crops. This interest stems because PPCPs can be transferred from soils to food crops due to the use of treated wastewater, also called reclaimed or recycled water, for irrigation. We identified and reviewed 28 plant uptake studies relevant to food crops irrigated with reclaimed water to better understand how PPCPs are taken and translocated in food crops. The food crops included bulb vegetables, cole crops, cucurbits, cereal grains, fruiting and leafy vegetables, herbs and spices, and roots and tuber vegetables. Of the 28 studies of reclaimed water use, 22 were conducted in controlled or greenhouse settings and 6 were field studies. The data from these studies collectively showed that PPCPs can be taken up and then translocate into edible parts of food crops at detectable levels. However, human exposure of PPCPs from food crops is expected to be low due to the smaller concentrations found in food crops. Our major knowledge gap in current understanding of PPCPs uptake by crops irrigated with reclaimed water are lack of sufficient field data as only a limited number of field studies have been conducted. As reclaimed water use is anticipated to increase to meet agriculture water demands, we suggest that additional field studies are needed to better understand the uptake and translocation of PPCPs by crops over multiple growing seasons in different parts of the world.

      PubDate: 2016-09-09T05:43:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.07.001
  • Delineating the Convergence of Biogeochemical Factors Responsible for
           Arsenic Release to Groundwater in South and Southeast Asia
    • Authors: J.W. Stuckey; D.L. Sparks; S. Fendorf
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): J.W. Stuckey, D.L. Sparks, S. Fendorf
      Arsenic (As), a toxic metalloid common throughout the Earth's crust, accounts for the most widespread poisoning of a human population in history. Within the major deltas of South and Southeast (S/SE) Asia, rivers annually deposit As-bearing iron oxides, oxyhydroxides, and hydroxides (collectively referred to as Fe oxides hereafter) derived from the Himalaya. The high primary productivity and monsoonal flooding in the tropical deltas promote microbially driven As release to groundwater through dissimilatory As(V)/Fe(III) reduction. Groundwater is a primary source of drinking and irrigation water in the region, especially within rural areas. Prolonged consumption of As-contaminated groundwater can lead to a multitude of serious health complications, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. Here we define the parameters controlling the locations of active microbially driven As release to groundwater, including suboxic/anoxic conditions, microbial communities capable of mediating As(V)/Fe(III) reduction, the reactivity of As-bearing Fe oxides, and the sources and reactivity of organic carbon (C). Conditions for microbially driven As release are optimized where the reactivity of both As-bearing Fe oxides and organic C is greatest. Optimal conditions for As release are found in near-surface sediments of the Red River, under permanent wetlands of the Mekong River, and at depth (∼20m) in the Yangtze River Basin, whereas findings are variable within the Bengal Basin. Land and water management changes resulting in increased flood duration in deltaic environments may result in new locations of active microbial As release to groundwater.

      PubDate: 2016-09-09T05:43:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.06.002
  • Series page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 139

      PubDate: 2016-08-30T00:55:03Z
  • Title page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 139

      PubDate: 2016-08-30T00:55:03Z
  • Half title page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 139

      PubDate: 2016-08-30T00:55:03Z
  • Climate Resilient Villages for Sustainable Food Security in Tropical
           India: Concept, Process, Technologies, Institutions, and Impacts
    • Authors: Ch. Srinivasa Rao; K.A. Gopinath; J.V.N.S. Prasad; Prasannakumar; A.K. Singh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Ch. Srinivasa Rao, K.A. Gopinath, J.V.N.S. Prasad, Prasannakumar, A.K. Singh
      The world population is expected to increase by a further three billion by 2050 and 90% of the three billion will be from developing countries that rely on existing land, water, and ecology for food and well-being of human kind. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its fifth assessment report (AR5) stated that warming of the climate system is unequivocal and is more pronounced since the 1950s. The atmosphere and oceans have warmed, the amounts of snow and ice have diminished, and sea level has risen. Each of the last three decades has been successively warmer at the earth's surface than any preceding decade since 1850 and the globally averaged combined land and ocean surface temperature data as calculated by a linear trend show a warming of 0.85°C (0.65–1.06°C) over the period of 1880–2012. World Meteorological Organization (WMO) ranked 2015 as the hottest year on record. Climate change poses many challenges to growth and development in South Asia. The Indian agriculture production system faces the daunting task of feeding 17.5% of the global population with only 2.4% of land and 4% of water resources at its disposal. India is more vulnerable to climate change in view of the dependence of huge population on agriculture, excessive pressure on natural resources, and relatively weak coping mechanisms. The warming trend in India over the past 100 years has indicated an increase of 0.6°C, which is likely to impact many crops, negatively impacting food and livelihood security of millions of farmers. There are already evidences of negative impacts on yield of wheat and paddy in some parts of India due to increased temperature, water stress, and reduction in number of rainy days. Significant negative impacts have been projected under medium-term (2020–39) climate change scenario, for example, yield reduction by 4.5–9%, depending on the magnitude and distribution of warming. Since agriculture currently contributes about 15% of India's gross domestic product (GDP), a negative impact on production implies cost of climate change to roughly range from 0.7% to 1.35% of GDP per year. Indian agriculture, with 80% of farmers being smallholders (<0.5ha) having diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, is monsoon-dependent rainfed agriculture (58%), about 30% of population undernourished, migration from rural to urban regions, child malnutrition etc., has become more vulnerable with changed climate or variability situations. During the past decade, frequency of droughts, cyclone, and hailstorms increased, with 2002, 2004, 2009, 2012, and 2014 being severe droughts. Frequent cyclones and severe hailstorms in drought prone areas have become common. Eastern part of the country is affected by seawater intrusion. Reduced food grain productivity, loss to vegetable and fruit crops, fodder scarcity, shortage of drinking water to animals during summer, forced migration of animals, severe loss to poultry and fishery sectors were registered, threatening the livelihoods of rural poor. Enhancing agricultural productivity, therefore, is critical for ensuring food and nutritional security for all, particularly the resource-poor, small, and marginal farmers who would be the most affected. In the absence of planned adaptation, the consequences of long-term climate change on the livelihood security of the poor could be severe. In India, the estimated countrywide agricultural loss in 2030 is expected to be over $7 billion that will severely affect the income of at least 10% of the population. However, this could be reduced by 80%, if cost-effective climate resilient measures are implemented. Climate risks are best addressed through increasing adaptive capacity and building resilience which can bring immediate benefits and can also reduce the adverse impacts of climate change. Climate resilient agriculture (CRA) encompasses the incorporation of adaptation and resilient practices in agriculture which increases the capacity of the system to respond to various climate-related disturbances by resisting damage and ensures quick recovery. Such disturbances include events such as drought, flood, heat/cold wave, erratic rainfall pattern, pest outbreaks, and other threats caused by changing climate. Resilience is the ability of the system to bounce back and essentially involves judicious and improved management of natural resources, land, water, soil, and genetic resources through adoption of best bet practices. CRA is a way to achieve short- and long-term agricultural development priorities in the face of climate change and serves as a bridge to other development priorities. It seeks to support countries and other actors in securing the necessary policy, technical and financial conditions to enable them to: (1) sustainably increase agricultural productivity and incomes in order to meet national food security and development goals, (2) build resilience and the capacity of agricultural and food systems to adapt to climate change, and (3) seek opportunities to mitigate emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and increase carbon sequestration. These three conditions (food security, adaptation, and mitigation) are referred to as the “triple win” of overall CRA.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30T00:55:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.06.003
  • Aromatic Arsenical Additives (AAAs) in the Soil Environment: Detection,
           Environmental Behaviors, Toxicities, and Remediation
    • Authors: Q.-L. Fu; C. Liu; V. Achal; Y.-J. Wang; D.-M. Zhou
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 July 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Q.-L. Fu, C. Liu, V. Achal, Y.-J. Wang, D.-M. Zhou
      Due to the extensive application of aromatic arsenical additives (AAAs) in the animal feeding industry worldwide, soil contamination by AAAs has attracted great interests recently. This paper comprehensively reviewed the recent advances in the detection, environmental behaviors, toxicities, and remediation for AAAs in soil system. As of now, HPLC-ICP-MS and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS are the most predominent techniques used to separate and determine the species and concentrations of AAAs as well as their metabolites. Sorption and biotic transformation are the two main processes in affecting the fate of AAAs in soil, but few works have focused on their aerobic degradation, plant accumulation, and transformation mechanisms. Arsenic is highly toxic, and the toxicity of arsenic species ranked in the order of MMA(III) (monomethylarsonic acid)>iAs(III)>iAs(V)>organic As. However, the combined toxicity of different arsenic species to soil organisms and their potential human risk should be emphasized in the future. It has been found that Fe- and/or Al-containing drinking-water treatment residuals are promising materials to immobilize arsenic in AAAs polluted sites, but to reduce AAAs application in animal feeding industry will be vital for soil environmental protection.

      PubDate: 2016-07-24T06:14:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.06.004
  • Half title page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 138

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T19:09:18Z
  • Series page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 138

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T19:09:18Z
  • Title page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 138

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T19:09:18Z
  • Functional Relationships of Soil Acidification, Liming, and Greenhouse Gas
    • Authors: A. Kunhikrishnan; R. Thangarajan; N.S. Bolan; Y. Xu; S. Mandal; D.B. Gleeson; B. Seshadri; M. Zaman; L. Barton; C. Tang; J. Luo; R. Dalal; W. Ding; M.B. Kirkham; R. Naidu
      Pages: 1 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): A. Kunhikrishnan, R. Thangarajan, N.S. Bolan, Y. Xu, S. Mandal, D.B. Gleeson, B. Seshadri, M. Zaman, L. Barton, C. Tang, J. Luo, R. Dalal, W. Ding, M.B. Kirkham, R. Naidu
      Soil acidification can be accelerated by intensive farming or prevented by sustainable management practices. Soil acidification in a managed agricultural production system is caused by the transformation of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and sulfur (S), which releases protons (H+) to soil solution. Soil acidification decreases soil pH, causing adverse effects on plants and soil microorganisms. Acidification, coupled with aluminum, manganese, and iron toxicities, and phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, and potassium deficiencies, can lead to low soil fertility. Soil acidity influences soil C and N cycles by controlling activities of microorganisms involved in the transformations of these two elements. Traditionally, lime materials are added to neutralize acidic soils and to overcome the problems associated with soil acidification, but they also influence C and N cycles, thereby affecting greenhouse gas (GHG) flux in soils. For example, liming has been shown to decrease nitrification-induced nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from many agricultural lands. However, there are concerns that liming increases the availability of soil nitrate ( N O 3 − ), which is a substrate for N2O emission through denitrification. The dissolution of liming materials can act as either a net source or sink for carbon dioxide (CO2). Lime-derived CO2 reacts with microbial respiration-derived carbonic acid in soils to yield carbonate material, serving as a sink of CO2 in soil. In calcareous soils with high pH, agricultural lime (CaCO3) serves as a net sink for CO2 whereas in acid soils it serves as a net source of CO2. In acid soils, increased availability of aluminum (Al3+) ions inhibits activity of methane (CH4) oxidizers. Adding lime to soils has shown to increase CH4 oxidation and reduce GHG emission. The present review brings together basic concepts of soil acidification and recent developments on the implications of liming in relation to C and N transformations and cycling, particularly GHG emissions from soils. Given the major influence of lime addition on soil microorganisms relating to C and N cycles, future research should focus on the role of liming on soil microbial communities to provide insight into combined mitigation of N2O, CO2, and CH4 gases from agricultural soils.

      PubDate: 2016-06-18T19:41:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.05.001
  • Ideotype Root System Architecture for Maize to Achieve High Yield and
           Resource Use Efficiency in Intensive Cropping Systems
    • Authors: G. Mi; F. Chen; L. Yuan; F. Zhang
      Pages: 73 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): G. Mi, F. Chen, L. Yuan, F. Zhang
      The importance of root system in supporting shoot growth has been extensively studied and discussed under nutrient and/or water deficit conditions, but much less in the context of intensive cropping system in which plant density is high and nutrients can be supplemented through fertilizer application to match the requirement of plant growth and grain yield formation. Taking maize as a model crop, the ideotype root system architecture (RSA) under intensive production conditions was discussed in regard to high yield and resource use efficiency. An ideotype maize RSA should meet the requirements not only for efficient use of water and unevenly distributed nutrients, but also for greater root-lodging resistance. In addition, the construction of RSA should adapt to efficient utilization of carbon and/or nutrients within the plant. The embryonic root system and the postembryonic root system should be considered separately because they are controlled by different genetic mechanisms and function in different growth stages during which soil environment varies. Considering all the previously mentioned factors, we proposed two separate models for the ideotype maize RSAs at seedling stage and at adult plant stage, and the characteristics of axile root and lateral root traits for each model are described in detail.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T19:09:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.05.002
  • Utilization of Biowaste for Mine Spoil Rehabilitation
    • Authors: H. Wijesekara; N.S. Bolan; M. Vithanage; Y. Xu; S. Mandal; S.L. Brown; G.M. Hettiarachchi; G.M. Pierzynski; L. Huang; Y.S. Ok; M.B. Kirkham; C.P. Saint; A. Surapaneni
      Pages: 97 - 173
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): H. Wijesekara, N.S. Bolan, M. Vithanage, Y. Xu, S. Mandal, S.L. Brown, G.M. Hettiarachchi, G.M. Pierzynski, L. Huang, Y.S. Ok, M.B. Kirkham, C. Saint, A. Surapaneni
      Globally, around 0.4×106 km2 area of land is estimated to be disturbed by mining activities, thereby contributing to severe environmental consequences including the generation of large amounts of mine spoils. The shortfall in topsoil due to poor striping practices and low levels of organic matter have been identified as common problems in rehabilitation of mining spoil. High heavy metal concentrations in mine spoil can adversely impact microbial activity and subsequent revegetation succession. The release of acids associated with mine spoils (ie, acid mine drainage through oxidation of pyrite) can also create adverse effects on the surrounding vegetation. Large quantities of biowaste, such as manure compost, biosolids, and municipal solid waste (MSW) that are low in contaminants [including metal(loid)s] can be used to rehabilitate mine spoils. These biowastes provide a source of nutrients and improve the fertility of spoils. These biowastes also act as a sink for metal(loid)s in mine tailings reducing their bioavailability through adsorption, complexation, reduction, and volatilization of metal(loid)s. This review provides an overview of the sources of biowastes and the current regulations for utilization; describes their benefits in terms of improving the physical, chemical, and biological properties of mine spoils; and elaborates on the role of the utilization of biowastes on mine spoil rehabilitation through several case studies. Finally, future research needs and strategies are identified in terms of sustainable biowaste utilization in mine spoil rehabilitation.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T04:56:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.03.001
  • Environmental Impact of Organic Agriculture
    • Authors: K. Lorenz; R. Lal
      Pages: 99 - 152
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): K. Lorenz, R. Lal
      Organic agriculture (OA) is practiced on 1% of the global agricultural land area and its importance continues to grow. Specifically, OA is perceived by many as having less negative effects on the environment than conventional agriculture because applications of soluble mineral fertilizers, and synthetic herbicides and pesticides are prohibited. However, scientific evidence for better environmental impact is scanty. Specifically, yields under OA are about 19% lower and the attendant lower soil carbon (C) inputs together with tillage for weed control contributes to lower profile soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks under OA. Less well known are the effects on soil inorganic carbon (SIC) stocks. Otherwise, soils managed by OA may emit less carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4). Specifically, by the adoption of OA practices 1.65Mg CO2 ha−1 y−1 may be sequestered in the top 20-cm layer. Further, N2O emissions from soils managed by OA may be 492kg CO2 eq. ha−1 y−1 lower than those from conventionally managed soils. Under OA management, a higher CH4 uptake of 3.2kg CO2 eq. ha−1 y−1 may be observed for arable soils. The soil, air, and water quality may also be enhanced by OA whereas effects on biodiversity are mixed. Thus, there is an urgent need to strengthen the database on environmental impacts of OA by establishing and studying long-term field experiments in all major biomes and principal soils. Consumer demand for organic products will continue to grow driven by food safety concerns and increasing affluence. Due to lower yields, however, natural ecosystems may be increasingly converted to agroecosystems to meet the demand with less well-known consequences for the environment. Nonetheless, scientific interest in OA is less than a century old, and there is significant potential to lessen its environmental impacts while methods derived from OA can contribute to sustainable intensification of agricultural systems.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T19:09:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.05.003
  • Monitoring and Modeling Soil Change: The Influence of Human Activity and
           Climatic Shifts on Aspects of Soil Spatiotemporally – A Review
    • Authors: P. Filippi; B. Minasny; S.R. Cattle; T.F.A. Bishop
      Pages: 153 - 214
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 July 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): P. Filippi, B. Minasny, S.R. Cattle, T.F.A. Bishop
      Soils naturally change through time, but anthropogenic activity has significantly altered the rate and direction of soil change. As well as further impacts of human activity on soil into the future, it is also expected that recent climatic shifts will have an important effect. There are a variety of methods of monitoring changes in soil, but a shift in focusing on change over larger areas has increased the implementation of national and regional soil monitoring networks. Despite the advantages of these networks, their time and resource consuming nature is often a constraint, which has led to the utilization of “legacy data” to detect spatiotemporal changes in soil. Although using legacy data has its challenges, it is invaluable in detecting historical shifts in soil condition. Additionally, it is also imperative to predict how climate and land use will influence how soil changes in the future through the use of temporal soil models. There have been many recent increases in the number and quality of these models, and as we strive to move away from laborious and expensive soil surveys, these models become more invaluable. This review reinforces the cruciality of soil monitoring, and suggests that we should focus on the wealth of soil legacy data available. We should place more attention on monitoring several important soil properties at various vertical depths, attempt to better understand the impact that climatic shifts will have on soil, and take full advantage of available statistical analytical methods to detect soil change. With all this in place, the accurate representation of past and future changes in soil condition is possible, providing a guide for future land use adaptation.

      PubDate: 2016-07-24T06:14:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.06.001
  • Agronomic Effectiveness of Zinc Sources as Micronutrient Fertilizer
    • Authors: D. Montalvo; F. Degryse; R.C. da Silva; R. Baird; M.J. McLaughlin
      Pages: 215 - 267
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): D. Montalvo, F. Degryse, R.C. da Silva, R. Baird, M.J. McLaughlin
      Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient for plants and humans. Millions of hectares of agricultural land are affected by Zn deficiency and it has been estimated that about one-third of the world's population is Zn deficient. One of the strategies that has been successfully used to tackle Zn deficiency is the application of Zn fertilizers. A large array of Zn sources is available in the market, although the most commonly used fertilizers are ZnO and ZnSO4. The availability of Zn fertilizers is affected by the chemical reactions of Zn with the soil which are also affected by the chemical and physical properties of the fertilizer (eg, granule size or physical state solid vs fluid, water solubility of Zn) and the fertilizer application method. Application of fertilizers to the soil at sowing is an effective strategy to increase soil available Zn and crop yields, and the relative effectiveness of sulfate and oxide sources of Zn varies with placement. Cogranulating Zn with phosphorus fertilizers can reduce effectiveness due to formation of insoluble Zn phosphates, but various technologies are becoming available to circumvent this issue. The application of foliar Zn sprays should be considered when plants are grown in Zn-sufficient soils and the main goal is food biofortification.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T19:09:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.05.004
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