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  Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 767 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (75 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (522 journals)
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AGRICULTURE (522 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 263 Journals sorted alphabetically
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta agriculturae Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Agronomica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Technologica Agriculturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Agriculture & Botanics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
AFBM Journal     Open Access  
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Agra Europe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agribusiness : an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultura, Sociedad y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultural and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Agricultural Commodities     Full-text available via subscription  
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Agricultural History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agricultural Sciences in China     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Food Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Agriprobe     Open Access  
Agrivita : Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Agroalimentaria     Open Access  
Agrociencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agrociencia Uruguay     Open Access  
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
Agronomía Colombiana     Open Access  
Agronomía Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access  
Agronomie Africaine     Full-text available via subscription  
Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agrosearch     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Akademik Ziraat Dergisi     Open Access  
Alinteri Zirai Bilimler Dergisi : Alinteri Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Botany     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
APCBEE Procedia     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Applied Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Applied Financial Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ARO. The Scientific Journal of Koya University     Open Access  
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Grain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Agricultural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Sugarcane     Full-text available via subscription  
Avances en Investigacion Agropecuaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics     Full-text available via subscription  
Bangladesh Agronomy Journal     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioagro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biological Agriculture & Horticulture : An International Journal for Sustainable Production Systems     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Biosystems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biotemas     Open Access  
Boletín Semillas Ambientales     Open Access  
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
British Poultry Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Cahiers Agricultures     Open Access  
California Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Journal of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ceiba     Open Access  
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CERNE     Open Access  
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Change and Adaptation in Socio-Ecological Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemical and Biological Technologies for Agriculture     Open Access  
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia & Natura     Open Access  
Ciência e Agrotecnologia     Open Access  
Ciencia e investigación agraria     Open Access  
Ciência e Técnica Vitivinícola     Open Access  
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Agricultura     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
COCOS : The Journal of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coffee Science     Open Access  
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Corps et culture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cuadernos de Desarrollo Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cultivos Tropicales     Open Access  
Cultural Geographies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Cultural Studies - Critical Methodologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cultural Studies of Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cultural Trends     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Culture & Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Research in Dairy Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Derim     Open Access  
Developments in Agricultural Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Agricultural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Diatom Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Die Bodenkultur : Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment     Open Access  
Dossiers Agraris     Open Access  
Ecological Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 128)
Economic Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Economic and Industrial Democracy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Economic Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Encuentro     Open Access  
Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food     Hybrid Journal  
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Eppo Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ethology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
EU agrarian Law     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Euphytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Eurochoices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Agrophysical Journal     Open Access  
European Journal of Agronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of American Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Health Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
EvoDevo     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Extensão Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Farmer’s Weekly     Full-text available via subscription  
Farmlink Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Fitosanidad     Open Access  
Folia Horticulturae     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food and Agricultural Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food and Energy Security     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Food Economics - Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Food Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Forum for Health Economics & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Agriculture in China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Future of Food : Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geoderma     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Global Approaches to Extension Practice : A Journal of Agricultural Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Global Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Gontor Agrotech Science Journal     Open Access  
Hacquetia     Open Access  

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Biosystems Engineering
  [SJR: 0.824]   [H-I: 77]   [7 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1537-5110 - ISSN (Online) 1537-5129
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3038 journals]
  • Performance analysis of a novel cyclone-type pneumatic rice polisher
    • Authors: Ch. Someswararao; Swati Mahato; Lobzang Namgial; Muhammed Sirajul Huda; Susanta Kumar Das
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 153
      Author(s): Ch. Someswararao, Swati Mahato, Lobzang Namgial, Muhammed Sirajul Huda, Susanta Kumar Das
      Energy intensive commercial abrasive-friction rice polishing systems with heavy moving parts induces considerable breakage of rice. Jet polishing, used for metals with high speed air-abrasive particles, could be adopted to develop a simple pneumatic rice polishing system without any moving parts. Its construction is similar to a gas-cyclone system. The effect of four abrasive surfaces, viz., coarse (CR, 483 μm), medium (MD, 254 μm), fine (FN,122 μm) and very fine (VF, 89 μm) on degree of polishing (DP) and broken yield (Br) was studied. Particle-trajectory, particle-abrasive surface interaction, grain rotation pattern and progress of bran removal were also studied. DP and Br increased linearly with number of passes for all the abrasive surfaces. Higher DP (8.49 ± 0.2 and 8.49 ± 0.3%) with CR and MD was attributed to removal of bran layer along with endosperm fractions while FN and VF removed proportionally more bran layer (DP, 6.27 ± 0.3 and 8.31 ± 0.4%) with negligible endosperm fraction. Br was least (24.13 ± 0.5%) with VF and highest (34.0 ± 2.2%) with CR.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.10.020
      Issue No: Vol. 153 (2016)
  • Comparison of statistical regression and data-mining techniques in
           estimating soil water retention of tropical delta soils
    • Authors: Phuong M. Nguyen; Amir Haghverdi; Jan de Pue; Yves-Dady Botula; Khoa V. Le; Willem Waegeman; Wim M. Cornelis
      Pages: 12 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 153
      Author(s): Phuong M. Nguyen, Amir Haghverdi, Jan de Pue, Yves-Dady Botula, Khoa V. Le, Willem Waegeman, Wim M. Cornelis
      Although a great number of studies have been devoted to develop and evaluate pedotransfer functions (PTFs), several questions still are to be addressed, particularly pertaining to tropical delta soils which received very little attention. One such question relates to the optimal structural dependency between basic soil properties and soil water retention characteristics (SWRC), which could be formulated by various regression methods. It is hypothesised that data mining techniques provide more accurate SWRC-PTFs than statistical linear regression. However, data-mining techniques are often proven as highly data-demanding techniques. The aim of this study was, therefore, to verify that hypothesis for a limited data set of tropical delta soils by comparing the predictive capabilities of point PTFs and pseudo-continuous (PC) PTFs developed by Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Support Vector Machine for Regression (SVR), and k-Nearest Neighbours (kNN) methods. The results show that point-PTFs derived from data-mining techniques (i.e. ANN, SVR, kNN) offer accurate and reliable estimation of soil water content at several matric potentials. In case of PC-PTFs, ANN and kNN models outperformed SVR and MLR PTFs in validation phase (RMSE of ANN and kNN PTFs were around 0.05 m3 m−3, while those of SVR PTFs and MLR PTFs rose up to 0.068 and 0.066 m3 m−3). Our findings confirm the superiority of data-mining approaches in modelling the complex system of soil and water, even when a limited data set is available. The non-parametric kNN method, though being constrained in estimating SWRC in pseudo-continuous manner, has great benefits due to its flexibility, simplicity, accuracy and capacity to append new observations.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.10.013
      Issue No: Vol. 153 (2016)
  • Reference trajectory planning under constraints and path tracking using
           linear time-varying model predictive control for agricultural machines
    • Authors: Mogens M. Graf Plessen; Alberto Bemporad
      Pages: 28 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 153
      Author(s): Mogens M. Graf Plessen, Alberto Bemporad
      A method for the control of autonomously and slowly moving agricultural machinery is presented. Special emphasis is on offline reference trajectory generation tailored for high-precision closed-loop tracking within agricultural fields using linear time-varying model predictive control. When optimisation is carried out, high-level logistical processing can result in edgy reference paths for field coverage. Subsequent trajectory smoothing can consider specific actuator rate constraints and field geometry. The latter step is the subject of this paper. Focussing on forward motion only, the role of non-convexly shaped field geometry, repressed area minimisation and spraying gap avoidance is analysed. Three design methods for generating smooth reference trajectories are discussed: circle-segments, generalised elementary paths, and bi-elementary paths.

      PubDate: 2016-11-23T12:45:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.10.019
      Issue No: Vol. 153 (2016)
  • Effect of rainfall and swath density on dry matter and composition change
           during drying of switchgrass and corn stover
    • Authors: Amit Khanchi; Stuart J. Birrell
      Pages: 42 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 153
      Author(s): Amit Khanchi, Stuart J. Birrell
      During field drying, crops can be subjected to rainfall losses due to leaching, respiration and mechanical treatments. The objective of this study was to measure the impact of rainfall amount (8–75 mm) and crop density (0.8–2.6 (corn stover), 1 to 3.2 (switchgrass) kg [DM] m−2) on dry matter and composition change of corn stover (CS) and switchgrass. CS and switchgrass lost 0.3–4.7% and 0.2–2.8% as leaching loss from 8 to 75 mm of rainfall, respectively. After the incubation period of 48 h, the dry matter loss increased to 7.2–9.8% (CS) and 2.6–6.1% (switchgrass) from 8 to 75 mm of rainfall, respectively. Water soluble portion of CS and switchgrass was more severely affected than the fibre portion. Corn stover, being more exposed to rainfall in low density (LD) swaths, lost 56.7% ash content, compared to 19% in high density (HD) swaths. In CS, a significant decrease of K (10.2–63.8%) and Mg (5.6–41.7%) was observed with greater reductions in LD swaths compared to HD swaths. Similarly, a significant decrease in K (6.2–23.0%) and Mg (5.1–17%) content was observed in switchgrass but it was less prominent than CS.

      PubDate: 2016-11-23T12:45:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.10.022
      Issue No: Vol. 153 (2016)
  • Reducing nitrogen contamination from agricultural subsurface drainage with
           denitrification bioreactors and controlled drainage
    • Authors: Barry R. Husk; Bruce C. Anderson; Joann K. Whalen; Juan S. Sanchez
      Pages: 52 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 153
      Author(s): Barry R. Husk, Bruce C. Anderson, Joann K. Whalen, Juan S. Sanchez
      Reactive nitrogen leaving agricultural fields through subsurface drainage systems enters aquatic systems and contributes to eutrophication, habitat degradation and loss of biodiversity. Denitrification bioreactors, in combination with controlled drainage, are proposed as a means of reducing nitrogen emitted through subsurface agricultural drainage systems, but their suitability in colder climates where soils and drainage systems freeze during winter is poorly understood. This study presents the first field-scale evaluation of denitrification bioreactors under cold climate conditions during a three-year period in Quebec, Canada. Under a three-year crop rotation, about 55% of the total annual subsurface drainage water passed through bioreactors, which significantly lowered the total-nitrogen (72%) and nitrate-nitrogen (99%) median concentrations in the subsurface drainage outflows. Loadings of nitrate-nitrogen from the test fields to surface drainage ditches were reduced by 99%, equivalent to about 11 kg nitrate-nitrogen ha−1 year−1 removal in the test area and approximately 7 g nitrate-nitrogen removal m−3 bioreactor volume d−1. Aquatic environmental criteria non-compliance events declined by 96% for nitrate-nitrogen and by 50% for total-nitrogen during the three-year study. This study demonstrates that denitrification bioreactors, combined with controlled drainage, are an effective in-field technology for nitrogen removal from agricultural subsurface drainage water that will improve water quality under cold climate conditions.

      PubDate: 2016-11-23T12:45:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.10.021
      Issue No: Vol. 153 (2016)
  • Early and non-intrusive lameness detection in dairy cows using
           3-dimensional video
    • Authors: K. Abdul Jabbar; Mark F. Hansen; Melvyn L. Smith; Lyndon N. Smith
      Pages: 63 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 153
      Author(s): K. Abdul Jabbar, Mark F. Hansen, Melvyn L. Smith, Lyndon N. Smith
      Lameness is a major issue in dairy herds and its early and automated detection offers animal welfare benefits together with potentially high commercial savings for farmers. Current advancements in automated detection have not achieved a sensitive measure for classifying early lameness. A novel proxy for lameness using 3-dimensional (3D) depth video data to analyse the animal's gait asymmetry is introduced. This dynamic proxy is derived from the height variations in the hip joint during walking. The video capture setup is completely covert and it facilitates an automated process. The animals are recorded using an overhead 3D depth camera as they walk freely in single file after the milking session. A 3D depth image of the cow's body is used to automatically track key regions such as the hooks and the spine. The height movements are calculated from these regions to form the locomotion signals of this study, which are analysed using a Hilbert transform. Our results using a 1–5 locomotion scoring (LS) system on 22 Holstein Friesian dairy cows, a threshold could be identified between LS 1 and 2 (and above). This boundary is important as it represents the earliest point in time at which a cow is considered lame, and its early detection could improve intervention outcome thereby minimising losses and reducing animal suffering. Using a linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) binary classification model, the threshold achieved an accuracy of 95.7% with a 100% sensitivity (detecting lame cows) and 75% specificity (detecting non-lame cows).

      PubDate: 2016-11-29T02:50:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.09.017
      Issue No: Vol. 153 (2016)
  • Wireless sensor networks for greenhouse climate and plant condition
    • Authors: Konstantinos P. Ferentinos; Nikolaos Katsoulas; Antonis Tzounis; Thomas Bartzanas; Constantinos Kittas
      Pages: 70 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 153
      Author(s): Konstantinos P. Ferentinos, Nikolaos Katsoulas, Antonis Tzounis, Thomas Bartzanas, Constantinos Kittas
      Spatially distributed environmental measurements at plant level can be used to create a precise and detailed representation of the climate at various regions inside a greenhouse. Climatic heterogeneity can cause significant differences in terms of yield, productivity, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the plants, as well as the development of various diseases. This work presents: i) the assessment of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) operation reliability and accuracy in actual greenhouse conditions, ii) the development of a distributed monitoring system using a WSN in a commercial greenhouse, and iii) the analysis of the collected spatially distributed data for the investigation of possible problematic situations for the growing plants caused by climatic heterogeneity inside the greenhouse. A prototype WSN was initially developed in order to investigate the effects of the environmental conditions to the operation reliability of the network and assess its performance and the feasibility of its operation in a commercial greenhouse. The enhanced WSN was then installed in a commercial greenhouse to investigate the spatial variation of the existing environmental conditions. Analysis based on WSN measurements showed significant spatial variability in temperature and humidity with average differences up to 3.3 °C and 9% relative humidity and transpiration, with the greatest variability occurring during daytime in the summer period. There were conditions that favoured condensation on leaf surfaces and other problematic situations.

      PubDate: 2016-11-29T02:50:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 153 (2016)
  • A smart-vision algorithm for counting whiteflies and thrips on sticky
           traps using two-dimensional Fourier transform spectrum
    • Authors: Yurui Sun; Hong Cheng; Qiang Cheng; Haiyang Zhou; Menghua Li; Youheng Fan; Guilin Shan; Lutz Damerow; Peter Schulze Lammers; Scott B. Jones
      Pages: 82 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 153
      Author(s): Yurui Sun, Hong Cheng, Qiang Cheng, Haiyang Zhou, Menghua Li, Youheng Fan, Guilin Shan, Lutz Damerow, Peter Schulze Lammers, Scott B. Jones
      Although sticky traps are reliable indicators of pest population dynamics but pest counting by humans is time-consuming and menial labour. A novel smart vision algorithm based on two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) spectrum is presented. Rather than directly counting the pests captured on the traps, the novel concept is to treat trapped pests as noise in a two-dimensional (2D) image with 2DFT serving as a specific noise collector. The research objectives included comparing human and 2DFT counting in two proof-of-principle tests: (i) simulated pests with various quantities and distributions arrayed on two series of templates using both ordered and random patterns; (ii) sweet potato whiteflies [Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae] on yellow sticky traps (YSTs) and western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), Thysanoptera: Thripidae] on blue sticky traps (BSTs). Tests of simulated pests (2–512) on eight templates verified that the 2DFT-based index provides accurate estimates of pests captured on the traps (R2 = 1), independent of pest distribution pattern. High correlations were obtained from count results of whiteflies on 34 YSTs (R2 = 0.9994) and thrips on 33 BSTs (R2 = 0.9989). Measurement errors were addressed.

      PubDate: 2016-11-29T02:50:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 153 (2016)
  • Effect of leaf pruning on energy partitioning and microclimate in an
           insect-proof screenhouse with a tomato crop
    • Authors: Meir Teitel; Hao Liang; Asher Levi; Danny Harel; Hana Alon
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Meir Teitel, Hao Liang, Asher Levi, Danny Harel, Hana Alon
      An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of leaf pruning on energy partitioning and microclimate in a screenhouse with a tomato crop. The experiment was conducted in a flat-roof insect-proof screenhouse, 4 m in height with a floor area of 745 m2, which was ventilated only through the roof. Measurements included global solar radiation inside and outside the screenhouse, net radiation, soil heat flux, transpiration, air velocity and air temperature and humidity. The results showed that leaf pruning in a tomato crop significantly affects energy partitioning in a screenhouse: it reduced transpiration at noon by more than 100%, increased soil heat flux by more than 200% and consequently increased sensible heat flux from crop to screenhouse air by nearly 70%. As a result of leaf pruning, air temperature increased slightly, but vapour-pressure deficit increased significantly. Furthermore, leaf pruning strongly reduced the gradients of temperature and vapour-pressure deficit in the air layer above the canopy at noon, resulting in a more homogeneous environment in the vertical direction. Finally, leaf pruning contributed to a higher air velocity within the canopy, especially at high wind speed.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.08.014
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Computed tomography imaging-based bitter pit evaluation in apples
    • Authors: Yongsheng Si; Sindhuja Sankaran
      Pages: 9 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Yongsheng Si, Sindhuja Sankaran
      Bitter pit is an economically important physiological disorder in apples resulting in serious economic losses. Current visual assessment techniques are not completely useful in evaluating the extent of bitter pit development as they are limited to external symptoms. An X-ray computer tomography (CT) based imaging and associated image processing algorithm was used to assess the number of bitter pits inside the fruit and on the surface of apples. Samples of 40 healthy and 40 bitter pit affected ‘Honeycrisp’ apples were selected from two different field sites, and scanned with CT equipment on 0, 21 and 63 days after harvest. The results showed that the average number of bitter pits increased both on the surface and inside the fruits with increasing storage period. An average of 42–66% pits was present inside the apple fruits in bitter pit-affected apples. In addition, most of the newly developed bitter pits in healthy apples appeared within the fruit. Therefore, the usefulness of X-ray CT imaging as an effective phenotyping tool in identifying internal bitter pit and on the surface in the automated manner was demonstrated in this study.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.08.008
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Experimental and numerical investigations to determine the modulus and
           fracture mechanics of tamarind seed (Tamarindus indica L.)
    • Authors: Nitikorn Noraphaiphipaksa; Witchapong Sochu; Anchalee Manonukul; Chaosuan Kanchanomai
      Pages: 17 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Nitikorn Noraphaiphipaksa, Witchapong Sochu, Anchalee Manonukul, Chaosuan Kanchanomai
      The testa of tamarind seed (Tamarindus indica L.) should be completely removed from the kernel to avoid the risks from tannin and therefore, knowledge of the mechanical properties of a tamarind seed are essential for the removal process. Here, the moduli of the testa and kernel were separately estimated using the reverse engineering method, i.e., a combination of experiments and numerical analysis. The modulus of testa was found to be 1.192 GPa, while that of kernel was 0.506 GPa. Under the quasi-static compression test, the strength of a tamarind seed depended on the direction of loading. For compressive loading in the width direction, the fracture load (105.68 N), deformation to fracture (0.26 mm), and fracture energy (11.69 N mm) of a tamarind seed were the lowest. Thus, the removal of testa from kernel should be performed by applying compressive loading across the width. Cracks on the testa nucleated in the region of the maximum absolute value of principal stresses and propagated normal to the maximum tensile principal stress. Numerical predictions of the location of nucleated crack and the path of propagating crack corresponded to those observed during the quasi-static compression test.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.08.021
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Identification of key factors for dust generation in a nursery pig house
           and evaluation of dust reduction efficiency using a CFD technique
    • Authors: Kyeong-seok Kwon; In-bok Lee; Tahwan Ha
      Pages: 28 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Kyeong-seok Kwon, In-bok Lee, Tahwan Ha
      An evaluation of airborne dust in nursery pig houses is needed because the air quality within the buildings can deteriorate, compromising the respiratory health of both pigs and farmers. Creating acceptable aero-environmental conditions inside a livestock house requires an understanding of the mechanisms of dust generation, which involves a complicated combination of variables. A long-term, intensive dust monitoring study was carried out in a mechanically ventilated nursery pig house to determine the key factors affecting dust generation in different size fractions. The ventilation rate, indoor and outdoor air temperature, number and age of animals, and relative pig activity level were used as independent variables in multiple regression analyses. From our observations and statistical analyses, ventilation was the most influential factor of total suspended particulates and PM10. Vigorous activity among the animals, number of animals, and ventilation were significant factors in the generation of inhalable dust, and ventilation, indoor air temperature, and animal activity were significant factors in the generation of respirable dust. The statistical models identified adjusting the ventilation rate and improving the systematic characteristics of ventilation as effective components of a dust reduction strategy in terms of productivity and economic feasibility. Computational fluid dynamics was used to evaluate the dust reduction efficiency of pipe-exhaust systems during feed supply. According to the simulations, the application of a pipe-exhaust system would improve the indoor air quality of the experimental pig nursery house.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.08.020
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Minimising soil disturbance and reaction forces for high speed sowing
           using bentleg furrow openers
    • Authors: James B. Barr; Jack M.A. Desbiolles; John M. Fielke
      Pages: 53 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): James B. Barr, Jack M.A. Desbiolles, John M. Fielke
      Australian no-till farmers often use narrow point openers to create furrows for seed and fertilizer placement. However, operational speeds are limited due to excessive lateral soil throw reducing furrow backfill and causing interactions between adjacent furrows. This study measured the effects of speed (8, 12 and 16 km h−1) on soil disturbance and tillage forces for five different openers, aiming to evaluate suitable options for high speed seeding. Three straight shank openers, 90° (blunt and chamfered face) and 53° rake angles were compared to two bentleg geometries (45 and 95 mm offsets), in a dry silt-loam field soil. The 53° straight opener showed the largest response to speed, reducing furrow backfill and increasing lateral soil throw (from furrow center). The addition of a double sided chamfer reduced lateral soil throw and maintained 100% backfill at 8 km h−1 but soil disturbance increased at 12 and 16 km h−1. Both bentleg openers maintained 100% backfill and operated with a lateral soil throw less than half the straight openers at 8 km h−1. However, the 45 mm offset bentleg opener had more soil throw at speed. This resulted in reduced furrow backfill and increased lateral soil throw at 16 km h−1 (reaching similar to the straight shank openers). The 95 mm offset bentleg was able to maintain its low soil disturbance characteristics at speeds up to 16 km h−1. The findings show potential for new opener technology to increase operating speeds of no-till seeding operations by minimising soil disturbance and draft, therefore improving work-rate and timeliness of sowing.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.08.025
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Heat transfer during forest biomass particles drying in an agitated
           fluidised bed
    • Authors: Rogelio M. Moreno; Gregorio Antolín; Alejandro E. Reyes
      Pages: 65 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Rogelio M. Moreno, Gregorio Antolín, Alejandro E. Reyes
      The phenomenon of convective heat transfer between gas and biomass particles during the drying process of fluidised bed material was analysed in order to obtain the heat transfer coefficients between the gas and the particle surface. In order to promote high homogeneity of the particles suspension, the bed was mechanically stirred, to obtain a uniform temperature inside the bed. The results showed a correlation between, the Nusselt and Reynolds numbers, which predicts the surface heat transfer coefficient with a deviation of ±15%, in relation to the experimental data.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Plant species classification using deep convolutional neural network
    • Authors: Mads Dyrmann; Henrik Karstoft; Henrik Skov Midtiby
      Pages: 72 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Mads Dyrmann, Henrik Karstoft, Henrik Skov Midtiby
      Information on which weed species are present within agricultural fields is important for site specific weed management. This paper presents a method that is capable of recognising plant species in colour images by using a convolutional neural network. The network is built from scratch trained and tested on a total of 10,413 images containing 22 weed and crop species at early growth stages. These images originate from six different data sets, which have variations with respect to lighting, resolution, and soil type. This includes images taken under controlled conditions with regard to camera stabilisation and illumination, and images shot with hand-held mobile phones in fields with changing lighting conditions and different soil types. For these 22 species, the network is able to achieve a classification accuracy of 86.2%.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.08.024
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Automatic estimation of number of piglets in a pen during farrowing, using
           image analysis
    • Authors: Maciej Oczak; Kristina Maschat; Daniel Berckmans; Erik Vranken; Johannes Baumgartner
      Pages: 81 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Maciej Oczak, Kristina Maschat, Daniel Berckmans, Erik Vranken, Johannes Baumgartner
      The objective was to develop a camera based monitoring system of the farrowing process in sows. The system, when used in practical farm conditions, should support the farm staff in reducing the problems of mortality in piglets due to perinatal asphyxia and crushing. The experiments took place in the research farm of the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, using a herd of 120 Large White sows. Data were collected from sows housed in farrowing pens with possibility of temporary crating. The farrowing process of 8 sows was video recorded and labelled for a period of 6 h before the start of farrowing until the end of farrowing. Timestamps of births of all piglets in the litter were labelled. Images obtained during the experiment were segmented with focus on piglet detection. Three parameters were extracted from segmented images: number of objects detected, area and perimeter of all objects. On the basis of the parameters, a Transfer Function (TF) model was estimated with output variable defined as number of piglets in the pen. The developed model explained 82% (R 2) variability in the training set composed of 5 sows and 81% (R 2) in the validation set composed of 3 sows. Number of piglets in the pen was estimated with a standard error of 1.73 piglets in the training set and 1.72 in the validation set. The potential application of the developed technique is monitoring of start of farrowing, perinatal asphyxia and crushing in piglets.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.08.018
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Vision-based extraction of spatial information in grape clusters for
           harvesting robots
    • Authors: Lufeng Luo; Yunchao Tang; Xiangjun Zou; Min Ye; Wenxian Feng; Guoqing Li
      Pages: 90 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Lufeng Luo, Yunchao Tang, Xiangjun Zou, Min Ye, Wenxian Feng, Guoqing Li
      Grapes are likely to have collisions and be damaged by manipulations when harvesting grape clusters. To conduct an undamaged robotic harvesting, this paper focuses mainly on locating the spatial coordinates of the cutting points on a peduncle of grape clusters for the end-effector and determining the bounding volume of the grape clusters for the motion planner of the manipulator. A method for acquiring spatial information from grape clusters is presented based on binocular stereo vision. This method includes four steps: (1) calibrating the binocular cameras and rectifying the images, (2) detecting the cutting points on the peduncle and the centres of the grape berries, (3) extracting three-dimensional spatial coordinates of the points detected in step 2, and (4) calculating the bounding volume of the grape clusters. A total of 300 images were captured in the vineyard and were tested to validate the method for the cutting point detection, and the success rate was approximately 87%. The accuracy of the localisation of the cutting points was determined under outdoor conditions, and the accuracy in the Z and X directions was 12 mm and 9 mm, respectively. The acquired bounding volume of the grape cluster was compared with manual measurements, and errors in the height and maximum diameter were less than 17 mm and 19 mm, respectively. The elapsed time of the whole algorithm was less than 0.7 s. The demonstrated performance of this developed method indicated that it could be used on harvesting robots.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.08.026
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Grain supply chain network design and logistics planning for reducing
           post-harvest loss
    • Authors: Seyed Mohammad Nourbakhsh; Yun Bai; Guilherme D.N. Maia; Yanfeng Ouyang; Luis Rodriguez
      Pages: 105 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Seyed Mohammad Nourbakhsh, Yun Bai, Guilherme D.N. Maia, Yanfeng Ouyang, Luis Rodriguez
      In this paper we present a mathematical model for reducing post-harvest loss (PHL) in grain supply chain networks. The proposed model determines the optimal logistics for grain transportation and infrastructure investment by identifying the optimal locations for new pre-processing facilities and by optimising roadway/railway capacity expansion. The objective is to minimise the total system cost, including both infrastructure investment and economic cost from PHL. In this paper we incorporated both quality and quantity PHL during the transportation, transhipment, and pre-processing stages in the supply chain and considers different PHL rates for processed and unprocessed grains. Finally, we conducted a numerical analysis on a real-world network in the State of Illinois and a series of sensitivity analyses to provide insights into the optimal system design under different scenarios.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.08.011
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Evaluation of bacterial population on chicken meats using a briefcase
           electronic nose
    • Authors: Kriengkri Timsorn; Theeraphop Thoopboochagorn; Noppon Lertwattanasakul; Chatchawal Wongchoosuk
      Pages: 116 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Kriengkri Timsorn, Theeraphop Thoopboochagorn, Noppon Lertwattanasakul, Chatchawal Wongchoosuk
      A novel portable electronic nose (E-nose) based on eight metal oxide sensors was used for evaluation of chicken meat freshness and bacterial population on chicken meat stored at 4.0 °C and 30.0 °C for up to 5 days. Aerobic plate counts were employed for the total count of bacterial population in term of typical biological analysis. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of fresh and spoilage chicken meats was presented. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for pattern recognition and classification. A model for bacterial population evaluation was built by using a back propagation neural network (BPNN) based on sensor responses from the E-nose. The PCA results clearly showed the classification of chicken meat freshness corresponding to different storage days and temperatures. The E-nose with a constructed BPNN prediction model exhibited good evaluation of bacterial population on chicken with high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.94) and mean square error of 0.016. The results suggested that the developed E-nose system can be used as a rapid and alternative way for evaluation of bacterial population on meats and offers several advantages including fast, portable, low cost, and non-destructive measurement with high relative accuracy.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Structured design of an automated monitoring tool for pest species
    • Authors: Monique F. Mul; Johan P.M. Ploegaert; David R. George; Bastiaan G. Meerburg; Marcel Dicke; Peter W.G. Groot Koerkamp
      Pages: 126 - 140
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Monique F. Mul, Johan P.M. Ploegaert, David R. George, Bastiaan G. Meerburg, Marcel Dicke, Peter W.G. Groot Koerkamp
      Pests and diseases in agricultural systems cause severe production losses with associated economic impact. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a sustainable method to limit these losses. For improved implementation of IPM, fully automated monitoring tools are needed to provide instantaneous pest monitoring data and associated real time, user-friendly treatment advice for producers. The application of the Reflexive Interactive Design approach to design an automated pest monitoring tool including an automated pest detection sensor is described with Poultry Red Mite (PRM) as a model target. Three different concepts were designed for the automated mite detection sensor based on a combination of solutions to carry out the key functions. The functioning of the main solutions in the three concepts was tested with live mites to ensure that solutions aligned with the behaviour and biology of PRM in vivo. The best solutions were combined into two different prototypes, which were subsequently tested in the laboratory and on-farm. The most successful prototype of the automated mite detection sensor was situated under the bird's perch, had a through-beam sensor and was able to remove mites from the through-beam sensor area once recorded. Involvement of various multidisciplinary actors, users and varied user networks in the design process was vital for its rapid progress, the quality of the final product and the limited number of set-backs encountered. It is expected that this same design structure, with the addition of an evaluation step, is applicable to the design of automated monitoring tools for other pest species.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.08.023
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Method for the characterisation of the mechanical behaviour of straw bales
    • Authors: Mirko Maraldi; Luisa Molari; Nicolò Regazzi; Giovanni Molari
      Pages: 141 - 151
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Mirko Maraldi, Luisa Molari, Nicolò Regazzi, Giovanni Molari
      The use of straw bale construction is strongly on the rise. Despite the need for a deep understanding of the mechanical behaviour of straw bales, there is little research on the testing of single unplastered straw bales and a standard test method does not exist. In this paper, a method able to evaluate the mechanical behaviour of single straw bales is proposed. Force and displacement of the bale in all the three directions was measured in real time without stopping the test; this allowed to best deal with the time-dependent nature of the mechanical behaviour of the bales to be. The test apparatus included a hydraulic press for loading plus digital cameras and a 3D laser scanner for measuring the lateral displacement of the bale. The method was validated by testing six rice bales (three bales laid flat and three on-edge). Results showed that there is no significant difference in the elastic modulus between flat and on-edge orientations. For on-edge bales, string burst was observed, whereas for flat bales no string failure occurred. By using digital image correlation it was observed that straw bales exhibit a typical deformation pattern which is due to the baling process. Measurements also showed that the Poisson's ratio does not remain constant along the longitudinal direction during loading and it is null along the transverse direction. The proposed method can be implemented to evaluate the influence of a variety of parameters and loading conditions on straw bales mechanical response.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Cross-polarised VNIR hyperspectral reflectance imaging system for agrifood
    • Authors: Nghia Nguyen-Do-Trong; Janos C. Keresztes; Bart De Ketelaere; Wouter Saeys
      Pages: 152 - 157
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Nghia Nguyen-Do-Trong, Janos C. Keresztes, Bart De Ketelaere, Wouter Saeys
      Hyperspectral reflectance imaging using unpolarised light has high potential for various applications in non-destructive quality evaluation of food and agricultural products. However, one of the most important challenges is the existence of glare in the obtained hyperspectral reflectance images due to specular reflection of the illuminating light on the sample surface. Whilst this can be avoided for flat surfaces by optimising the viewing angle, this is not possible for curved food products. Therefore, cross-polarisation has been implemented in this study to block the specular reflection and exclude it from the acquired hyperspectral reflectance images in the 450–1000 nm range. The added value of this approach has been successfully demonstrated for three glossy agricultural products: aubergine and two apple cultivars, for which the quality of the obtained hyperspectral images, expressed by signal-to-noise ratios, could be improved from 1.1 to 3 times depending on the wavelength regions.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.08.027
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Energy demand and greenhouse gases emissions in the life cycle of tractors
    • Authors: Edemilson J. Mantoam; Thiago L. Romanelli; Leandro M. Gimenez
      Pages: 158 - 170
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Edemilson J. Mantoam, Thiago L. Romanelli, Leandro M. Gimenez
      Energy supply and global warming are two of the main challenges of 21st century. To produce food to satisfy the increasing world population requires using more assets, more energy and emitting more greenhouse gases. Studies approaching embodied energy into and greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural machinery are rare. This study determined the energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions in the life cycle of tractors. Four tractors with distinct power levels were evaluated: 55 kW (T1); 90 kW (T2); 172 kW (T3) and 246 kW (T4). Life cycles considered were obtained from three different sources. Consumption of the direct inputs used in the assembly phase and of the input used in the maintenance phase were accounted. The results presented higher embodied energy and emissions in life cycle than are found in the literature. The following indicators were determined: T1, 122.7 MJ kg−1 and 5.7 kg [CO2eq.] kg−1; T2, 91.2 MJ kg−1 and 4.2 kg [CO2eq.] kg−1; T3, 85.2 MJ kg−1 and 3.8 kg [CO2eq.] kg−1; and T4, 71.9 MJ kg−1 and 3.3 kg [CO2eq.] kg−1. The hypothesis that more powerful tractors would require less energy and emit less greenhouse gas per functional unit (mass and power) was proved. Tractor (T4) has 313.2% more mass than (T1), but it required 70.6% less energy and 72.7% less GHG per unit mass, or 84.7% less energy and 87.7% less GHG per unit engine power than T1. For further use in modelling, equations were provided to determine energy demand and emission associated with either engine power or tractor mass.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.08.028
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Performance of thermal pretreatment and mesophilic fermentation system on
           pathogen inactivation and biogas production of faecal sludge: Initial
           laboratory results
    • Authors: Fubin Yin; Zifu Li; Dongling Wang; Thomas Ohlsen; Hongmin Dong
      Pages: 171 - 177
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Fubin Yin, Zifu Li, Dongling Wang, Thomas Ohlsen, Hongmin Dong
      The performance of thermal pretreatment of faecal sludge and biogas production of continuous stirred tank reactor (TPCSTR) system on faecal sludge was evaluated in the laboratory of the University of Science and Technology Beijing, China. First, the effectiveness of thermal pretreatment on the inactivation of pathogens and the relationship between complete inactivation time and TS were researched. Second, the effect of sludge retention time (SRT) on the TPCSTR performance of faecal sludge was investigated. Results demonstrated that the time it took for the complete inactivation of pathogens (i.e., faecal coliform, salmonella spp., faecal streptococcus) was 60, 60, 80, 80, 100, 100, and 100 min for the TS faecal sludge concentrations of 1%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, and 12%, respectively. The experiments showed that the TPCSTR process was stable and efficient to inactivate pathogens under the operation conditions (i.e., TS = 8%, agitation speed = 120 rpm, and temperature = 37 ± 1 °C). The highest biogas production of faecal sludge was 453.21 L kg−1[TS] day−1 at SRT of 25 days.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.08.019
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Discrimination of peanuts from bulk cereals and nuts by near infrared
           reflectance spectroscopy
    • Authors: Satyabrata Ghosh; Puneet Mishra; Siti Nur Hidayah Mohamad; Rosario Martín de Santos; Belén Diezma Iglesias; Pilar Barreiro Elorza
      Pages: 178 - 186
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Satyabrata Ghosh, Puneet Mishra, Siti Nur Hidayah Mohamad, Rosario Martín de Santos, Belén Diezma Iglesias, Pilar Barreiro Elorza
      Adulteration and allergenic food materials are a common problem all around the world. European legislation (EU) 1169/2011/EC requires labelling of food products with respect to the presence of allergenic components including nuts, cereals or any other food products. Therefore, rapid methods for analysis of food ingredients are required to enforce this legislation. Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) being fast and non-destructive could be a candidate technique. Present study investigates the potential of NIRS (896–1686 nm) and chemometrics to classify thirty different cereals and nineteen different nuts based on their spectral signatures. The aim was to perform the specificity analysis for peanuts to detect its presence in various food materials. As a first step, Principal Components (PCs) modelling was used to perform a primary classification. PCs provided a classification of the samples into five major groups as gluten, non-gluten, high fatty acid, high fibre and omega-3 fatty acid. To perform segregation within the class identified as nuts intermixed with oilseeds (high fatty acid class), Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLSDA) was performed. First two discriminant vectors obtained from PLSDA were successfully able to segregate a group identified as peanuts and pine nuts, from other nuts (almond) and cereals (sesame and flaxseed). However, to segregate peanuts from pine nuts, first and third discriminant vectors were used. Results concluded that NIRS combined with chemometrics is a robust method for specificity analysis of peanuts from different cereals and nuts.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.09.008
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • An adaptable tillage depth monitoring system for tillage machine
    • Authors: Honglei Jia; Mingzhuo Guo; Haibo Yu; Yang Li; Xianzhen Feng; Jiale Zhao; Jiangtao Qi
      Pages: 187 - 199
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Honglei Jia, Mingzhuo Guo, Haibo Yu, Yang Li, Xianzhen Feng, Jiale Zhao, Jiangtao Qi
      Tillage depth plays an important role in crop growth and should be well managed during cultivation. Herein, an adaptable tillage depth monitoring system, which is provided with a surface-fitting swing arm and an optical encoder to measure the rotation of the swing arm, has been designed and developed. In the paper, the processes of uphill and downhill, which have been divided into 5 stages, are analysed respectively. Moreover, a LabVIEW program that can be employed to adjust the depth measurement according to the pitch angle between the implement and the ground, as well as the inclined angle of the ground, has been established to achieve adaptable measurement on different terrain morphologies. The system uses different models to allow for the variation of the angle and displacement in the process of tractor-implement combination going through the slope, and thus can achieve adaptable measurement of tillage depth. Besides, the tillage depth monitoring system can not only monitor tillage depth in real time, but also display a graphical trace of tillage history. Field experiments have been conducted to evaluate the system's performance, and have demonstrated good accuracy on both regular surface and sloped surface, showing maximal absolute errors of 11.3 mm and −12.8 mm, as well as maximum relative errors of 7.40% and 8.53% for the field experiments respectively. Hence, such a measuring system holds good potential for its application to the current tillage depth monitoring, particularly in the case of covered ground as in conservation farming.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.08.022
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Mechanisms of natural ventilation in livestock buildings: Perspectives on
           past achievements and future challenges
    • Authors: Li Rong; Bjarne Bjerg; Thomas Batzanas; Guoqiang Zhang
      Pages: 200 - 217
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Li Rong, Bjarne Bjerg, Thomas Batzanas, Guoqiang Zhang
      Studies on the mechanisms of natural ventilation in livestock buildings are reviewed and influences on discharge and pressure coefficients are discussed. Compared to studies conducted on buildings for human occupation and industrial buildings which focus on thermal comfort, ventilation systems, indoor air quality, building physics and energy etc., our understanding of the mechanisms involved in natural ventilation of livestock buildings are still limited to the application of the orifice equation. It has been observed that the assumptions made for application of the orifice equation are not valid for wind-induced cross ventilation through large openings. This review identifies that the power balance model, the concept of stream tube and the local dynamic similarity model has helped in the fundamental understanding of wind-induced natural ventilation in buildings for human occupation and industrial buildings. These concepts have distinguished the flow through large openings from that of ‘cracks’ (i.e. small openings), which is where the orifice equation is normally used for prediction of airflow rate. More field measurements on the effect of wind turbulence on ventilation rate need to be encouraged, particularly under conditions where the mean pressure differences through building openings are much lower than the fluctuations of pressure differences. Research on bidirectional flow that occurs at openings is also limited.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Modelling water vapour transport, transpiration and weight loss in a
           perforated modified atmosphere packaging for feijoa fruits
    • Authors: Diego A. Castellanos; Deissy R. Herrera; Aníbal O. Herrera
      Pages: 218 - 230
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Diego A. Castellanos, Deissy R. Herrera, Aníbal O. Herrera
      In modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), the transpiration of the fresh product and exchange of water through the polymeric packaging are often not properly considered. This paper presents a mathematical model to describe the evolution in water vapour, O2 and CO2 concentrations in the packaging headspace, the weight loss of the product and the condensation of water in a MAP system with perforations. Transpiration was considered as the sum of water transferred out from the product due to the gain of energy from its respiration process and the difference in water activities between the product and the surrounding atmosphere. Respiration was represented using Michaelis–Menten enzyme kinetics. The gas transfer through the packaging and the perforations was described with Fick equations. The temperature influence on these processes was considered to follow the Arrhenius' law. To experimentally determine the model parameters, feijoa fruits (Acca sellowiana Berg) were stored under different storage conditions: packaging type, relative humidity and temperature. The completed model was subsequently validated in a MAP test by packaging fruits in perforated polypropylene (PP) and polylactic acid (PLA) bags for 13 days at 12 °C and 75% RH. Inside the PP bags, a saturated atmosphere (100% RH) was reached and 1.48% of the initial weight in the packed fruit was lost by day 13, while in the PLA bags, an equilibrium RH of 83% and a fruit weight loss of 3.29% were measured. The prediction capacity of the model was satisfactory, with coefficients of determination (R2) between 0.88 and 0.99 for the different tests.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.08.015
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Compression strength of ventilated corrugated paperboard packages:
           Numerical modelling, experimental validation and effects of vent geometric
    • Authors: Tobi Fadiji; Corne Coetzee; Umezuruike Linus Opara
      Pages: 231 - 247
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Tobi Fadiji, Corne Coetzee, Umezuruike Linus Opara
      Ventilated corrugated paperboard (VCP) packaging is used for transporting fresh produce through a distribution system that requires maintaining a balance between uniform cooling of the produce and mechanical integrity of the package. A validated finite element analysis (FEA) model capable of predicting the compressive strength of two commonly used VCP packages is developed; the MK4 with higher length-to-height ratio and vent area compared to the MK6. The validated model was used to study the effects of vent geometric parameters such as vent height, shape, orientation, number and area on the strength of the packages. FEA results were in good agreement with the experimental results with a difference of 4.7% for MK4 and 8.2% for MK6. The MK6 had higher compression strength than MK4 with a difference of 11% and 17% at standard and refrigerated conditions, respectively. Results showed that the compression strength was lower by 11% and 16% respectively, for MK6 and MK4 packages when stored at low temperature (0 °C and 90% Relative humidity (RH)) compared to standard conditions (23 °C and 50% RH). With an increase in vent area from 2 to 7%, buckling load decreased by 8% for MK4 and by 12% for MK6. A linear correlation was observed between vent height and buckling load with R2 values of 0.8215 and 0.9717 for MK4 and MK6 packages, respectively. Results showed that vent number, orientation, and shape affected the buckling of the packages. Rectangular vent holes better retained the strength of the packages. Irrespective of the vent design parameters studied, the MK6 had higher buckling load.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.09.010
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Radio frequency (RF) control of red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) in
           stored rapeseeds (Brassica napus L.)
    • Authors: Daeung Yu; Bijay Shrestha; Oon-Doo Baik
      Pages: 248 - 260
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Daeung Yu, Bijay Shrestha, Oon-Doo Baik
      Absolute and relative mortalities of red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) infesting the rapeseeds of a small (196.3 cm3) and a large (1766 cm3) volumes during radio frequency (RF) heating (1.5 kW, 27.12 MHz) were determined at different end temperatures (30–80 °C) and initial seed moisture contents (5%, 7%, 9%, and 11% wet basis). 100% absolute and relative mortalities of the adult insects were achieved at 80 °C for the small volume of the seeds at all moisture contents (MCs) and at 60 °C and 9% and 11% MCs, and 70 °C and 5% and 7% MCs for the large volume. Over 80% and 96% of the absolute and the relative mortalities of the adult insects were achieved at over 60 °C for both volumes of the seeds. 100% mortalities of larvae infesting the small and the large volume seeds were achieved at 55 °C at all MCs. Germination, major and minor axes, roundness, colour of the seeds and qualities of the rapeseed oil were not affected significantly by RF treatment temperature at entire MCs. Therefore, a complete mortality of the red flour beetle infesting the rapeseeds with acceptable thermal degradation to qualities of the seeds could be achieved at under 60 °C by the RF treatment with a proper design of RF disinfestation.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Data estimation methods for predicting temperatures of fruit in
           refrigerated containers
    • Authors: Ricardo Badia-Melis; Ultan Mc Carthy; Ismail Uysal
      Pages: 261 - 272
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Ricardo Badia-Melis, Ultan Mc Carthy, Ismail Uysal
      Improving the capability and resolution of monitoring perishable products during their transportation and storage is essential, but there is a key requirement it is not to increase costs or the number monitoring devices. Currently there lies a knowledge gap in studies on the spatial prediction and mapping of determinant parameters (e.g. temperature) for the shelf life of perishable products. Through the viewpoint of different refrigeration failure scenarios this paper investigates and compares three data estimation tools (artificial neural networks, Kriging and capacitive heat transfer) for improved food safety. Results indicate that using these techniques makes it possible to reduce the number of sensors (through estimation of temperature distribution) within an industrial scale fully loaded strawberry-shipping container, thus reducing the overall commercial cost. Using a set of eight source sensors, an average error of 0.1 °C was achieved, which represents an improvement of 97.14% in regards to the absolute error between the ambient and product temperatures. Even when using only a single container sensor as a source for prediction, with an average error of 1.49 °C there still was an improvement of 62% with regards to the same baseline. This paper demonstrates that the adoption of these technologies not only presents significant industrial value-added potential but also the data obtained can further improve cold chain strategies and reduce product losses through more accurate shelf life calculations.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.09.009
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Computational modelling of thermal and humidity gradients for a naturally
           ventilated poultry house
    • Authors: Fernando Rojano; Pierre-Emmanuel Bournet; Melynda Hassouna; Paul Robin; Murat Kacira; Christopher Y. Choi
      Pages: 273 - 285
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Fernando Rojano, Pierre-Emmanuel Bournet, Melynda Hassouna, Paul Robin, Murat Kacira, Christopher Y. Choi
      Natural ventilation represents a strong tool for ameliorating climate and air quality in poultry houses if the benefits of weather conditions can be maximised. To that end, this investigation analyses the impact of natural ventilation on the dynamics of the internal climate of a poultry house focussing on the role played by the outside climatic parameters except wind direction. Experimental data with prevailing North-East wind direction was considered to identify seven periods with at least 4 h of stable wind direction. Three of these periods were chosen as typical examples and used to validate a 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, to integrate the main elements determining the internal climate: animal heat and water vapour generation, radiative heat transfer, and ventilation. The three periods under analysis allowed us to deduce, from the experimental and simulated data, the influence of all the other external climatic variables (i.e. temperature, absolute humidity, solar radiation and wind velocity) that affected the internal climate. The accuracy of the CFD model at evaluating each of the three periods reached a RMSE of 1.3 °C, 1.2 °C and 0.5 °C for internal temperature and a RMSE of 0.9 g [H2O] kg−1 [dry air], 0.6 g [H2O] kg−1 [dry air] and 0.2 g [H2O] kg−1 [dry air] for internal absolute humidity, respectively. Then, the predictions of the 3D CFD model were analysed, using air residence-time concept to estimate ventilation rates, and also to investigate sensible and latent heat exchanges.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.09.012
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • CFD modeling of air flow distribution in rice bin storage system with
           different grain mass configurations
    • Authors: Gbenga Olatunde; Griffiths G. Atungulu; Sammy Sadaka
      Pages: 286 - 297
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Gbenga Olatunde, Griffiths G. Atungulu, Sammy Sadaka
      Poor airflow distribution in grain mass during in-bin aeration, drying and storage may lead to moisture content variations that could be detrimental to grain quality. The effects of grain mass configuration and porosity on airflow distribution inside a rice bin were investigated using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations and experiments. A finite volume method with porous media formulation was used to simulate air flow characteristics in peaked, inverted, and levelled grain mass configurations for long-grain rough rice with a porosity of 0.55, and mean particle size distribution of 2.94 mm. The airflows through the rough rice masses were simulated for airflow rates of 0.55, 0.825 and 1.1 m3 min−1[air] t−1 [rice]. The model was validated using a bench scale pressure drop system and an actual long-grain rice in-bin storage with peaked grain mass configuration having a capacity of 700 Mt. The results showed that long-grain rice has viscous and inertial resistance coefficients of 9.72E+06 and 36,185, respectively. Non-uniform airflow distribution dominated peaked and inverted grain mass configurations with peaked configuration having the highest restriction to airflow. Airflow at peak positions in the bed were significantly (p < 0.05) lower compared to other parts. The average non-uniformity coefficient (NUF) measured directly from the bin was 34% and those obtained from the model using constant and variable porosities were 19% and 71%, respectively. For inverted scenario, a maximum of 50 t of rice is needed to be removed from the rice storage bin to ensure an airflow distribution with an NUF <50%.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.09.007
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Mechanical properties of maize fibre bundles and their contribution to
           lodging resistance
    • Authors: Jiale Huang; Wangyu Liu; Feng Zhou; Yujian Peng; Ningling Wang
      Pages: 298 - 307
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Jiale Huang, Wangyu Liu, Feng Zhou, Yujian Peng, Ningling Wang
      Tensile properties of fibre bundles were estimated according to their location in the stem. The average tensile modulus and tensile strength in the core group of the fibre bundles (4.44 ± 0.28 GPa and 32.35 ± 2.07 MPa, respectively) were significant lower than that in the skin group (10.80 ± 0.62 GPa and 92.65 ± 6.23 MPa, respectively). The large variation of tensile properties can be attributed to the large difference in the ratio of the areas of the vascular bundle sheath and the fibre cell wall thickness. Gradient distribution of bundle stiffness is found along the radial and axial direction of stem. Such gradient distribution increases the stiffness of basal stem; thus it is a key factor of lodging resistance for maize plants.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.09.016
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Approximate georeferencing and automatic blurred image detection to reduce
           the costs of UAV use in environmental and agricultural applications
    • Authors: Krishna Ribeiro-Gomes; David Hernandez-Lopez; Rocío Ballesteros; Miguel A. Moreno
      Pages: 308 - 327
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Krishna Ribeiro-Gomes, David Hernandez-Lopez, Rocío Ballesteros, Miguel A. Moreno
      The application of geomatic products in environmental and agricultural applications directly depends on the cost of obtaining these products. This cost is primarily affected by the cost of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and the image acquisition and treatment processes that are conducted to obtain the geomatic products. In this study, a methodology was developed to reduce the cost of generating geomatic products by 1) automatically detecting blurred images in a set of images that was captured with a UAV by establishing a numeric indicator that describes the level of blur in the images for a specific camera setting and by 2) eliminating the need to measure ground control points (GCPs) for georeferencing the final geomatic products with the approximate exterior orientation of the images and control points from existing geomatic products. The time that was saved in performing the manual tasks that were required to generate geomatic products, which are the tasks that strongly influence cost, were decreased in our 40 ha case study by 65–69%, which corresponds to a cost savings of €200–225.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.09.014
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • The effect of the disc setup angles and working depth on disc harrow
           working resistance
    • Authors: Zbigniew Kogut; Leszek Sergiel; Grzegorz Żurek
      Pages: 328 - 337
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Zbigniew Kogut, Leszek Sergiel, Grzegorz Żurek
      Horizontal, longitudinal and vertical components of working resistance of a compact disc harrow (CDH) were investigated in a field experiment. Three values of the attack angle (12°, 16°, 21°) and two of the tilt angle (7°, 15°) of the plane of the front discs were used. The third parameter was the working depth measured at the lowest point of discs circumference edge. The dependent variable was the horizontal and vertical resultant component of forces occurring in the three-point linkage system on a tractor. Statistically significant differences in the resistance components were found depending on the disc set-up. For evaluation of soil reaction forces on harrow discs the above resistance components were transformed into components of the unit resistance relating to the units of actual working width and depth. Their dependence on the CDH setting parameters was next examined using the empirical estimation of the regression equation. Horizontal and vertical components of the bearing and the pressure area of the discs were used as independent variables. Values of the bearing area were close to zero and only the components of pressure were used. This model describes the components of the horizontal and vertical resistance as a function of design parameters and disc settings expressed by means of pressure area. It reflects the empirical results with 99.7% accuracy for the horizontal component and in 99.9% for the vertical component of the resistance.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Modelling and validation of maize seed orientation by pushing
    • Authors: Adrian A. Koller; Randy K. Taylor; William B. Raun; Paul R. Weckler; Michael D. Buser
      Pages: 338 - 349
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Adrian A. Koller, Randy K. Taylor, William B. Raun, Paul R. Weckler, Michael D. Buser
      Oriented planting of maize seed has the potential for yield gains because of optimized light interception in a structured canopy. While research into the agronomic aspects of seed oriented planting has progressed over the past few years, little work has been done with respect to a mechanization solution to seed oriented planting. This study was conducted to determine the feasibility of seed oriented planting by application of the part orientation by pushing concept. Three-dimensional laser scans of 15 kernels of four hybrids with differing average seed shapes ranging from cuboid to discoidal were obtained. Computational analysis of the 3D shape data was conducted to predict the seed orientation by pushing. Analysis of the radius and pushing functions showed that each kernel shape exhibits three clearly identifiable stable angular orientations. Sixty seeds of each of the hybrids from the same population were then tested in a bench-top mechanism emulating the orientation by pushing. The stable point mean directions could be predicted to within less than 1° for 8 out of 12 stable points on the four hybrid kernel shapes and to within 5° for the remaining four. Formal comparison showed that there was no significant difference between prediction and measurement for any of the stable point mean directions. Comparison across hybrids though showed that the stable point mean direction depends on the average kernel shape, which entails that some hybrids may be more or less suitable for seed orientation by pushing.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.09.011
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Development and validation of a Weibull–Arrhenius model to predict
           thermal inactivation of black mustard (Brassica nigra) seeds under
           fluctuating temperature regimens
    • Authors: Ruth M. Dahlquist-Willard; Megan N. Marshall; Stacy L. Betts; Carrie C. Tuell-Todd; Jean S. VanderGheynst; James J. Stapleton
      Pages: 350 - 360
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Ruth M. Dahlquist-Willard, Megan N. Marshall, Stacy L. Betts, Carrie C. Tuell-Todd, Jean S. VanderGheynst, James J. Stapleton
      Soil solarisation uses solar heating for management of soilborne pests including weed seeds. Because soil temperatures under solarisation fluctuate diurnally, models predicting weed seed inactivation as a function of time and fluctuating temperatures are needed to provide accurate treatment guidelines. Inactivation times for Brassica nigra (black mustard) seeds in moist sand were determined at constant temperatures of 42, 46, 50, and 54 °C. Logistic and Weibull models predicting inactivation at each constant temperature were developed with nonlinear regression. The Weibull model was combined with the Arrhenius equation to incorporate temperature dependence, and nonlinear regression was repeated across temperatures to develop a combined Weibull–Arrhenius model. Four validation trials were conducted, using diurnally-fluctuating temperature regimens, to evaluate accuracy of the Weibull–Arrhenius model to predict inactivation with fluctuating temperatures. Seeds reached complete mortality by 3 h at 54 °C, 16 h at 50 °C, 72 h at 46 °C, and 240 h at 42 °C. At 42, 46 and 50 °C, logistic and Weibull models predicted similar times to mortality. Across temperatures, the Weibull shape parameter estimate was 1.03 at 95% CI, indicating sufficiency of first order models to describe B. nigra seed inactivation. The Weibull–Arrhenius model accurately predicted mortality under fluctuating diurnal temperatures, varying (P < 0.05) at only 2 of 19 sampling times. These results indicate that the Weibull–Arrhenius model, constructed from constant temperature data, can predict seed mortality in the range of diurnally-fluctuating soil temperatures commonly occurring during field solarisation. This information provides IPM decision support for end users of solarisation.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.09.015
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Optimisation of the design of pressurised irrigation systems for irregular
           shaped plots
    • Authors: Miguel A. Moreno; Amaro del Castillo; Jesus Montero; Jose M. Tarjuelo; Rocio Ballesteros
      Pages: 361 - 373
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Miguel A. Moreno, Amaro del Castillo, Jesus Montero, Jose M. Tarjuelo, Rocio Ballesteros
      A software tool has been developed to support decision-making in optimising the design of pressurised irrigation systems (sprinkler and drip irrigation) for agricultural fields with sub-plots of any shape or topography. The tool determines the design with minimum total water application cost (C T ) (investment + operation). This study analysed the effect of field size, shape and slope on C T and emission uniformity (EU) for drip irrigation systems for almond and pepper, as well as two possible layouts for a maize crop for permanent sprinkler irrigation systems. The minimum C T design used polyethylene lateral pipes of 13.6 mm internal diameter at 250 kPa for drip irrigation and polyvinylchloride pipes of 46.4 mm internal diameter at 600 kPa for the permanent sprinkler irrigation systems, except in certain cases of where there were triangular plots. In the drip irrigation fields, which were more irregularly shaped and had the largest plots, the lowest C T was achieved with regulated flow emitters which in this study had an emission exponent x = 0.1. This was due to their increased efficiency and therefore decreases volume requirements. The use of pressure compensating drippers is recommended for large sub-plots (>1.5 ha in the analysed cases) with irregular shape and large slopes. Under the conditions studied, the 15 × 15-m layout had a slightly lower C T than the 18 × 18-m layout because it had greater uniformity and its increased irrigation efficiency reduced water consumption, despite having somewhat higher energy consumption and investment requirements than the 15 × 15-m layout.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.10.005
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Crop reflectance monitoring as a tool for water stress detection in
           greenhouses: A review
    • Authors: Nikolaos Katsoulas; Angeliki Elvanidi; Konstantinos P. Ferentinos; Murat Kacira; Thomas Bartzanas; Constantinos Kittas
      Pages: 374 - 398
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Nikolaos Katsoulas, Angeliki Elvanidi, Konstantinos P. Ferentinos, Murat Kacira, Thomas Bartzanas, Constantinos Kittas
      Multisensory platforms for remote sensing measurements offer the possibility to monitor in real-time the crop health status without affecting the crop and environmental conditions. The concept of the speaking plant approach, and plant response based sensing in general, could be valuable providing a better understanding of the interactions between the microclimate and the physical conditions of the plants. Early detection of plant stress is critical, especially in intensive production systems, in order to minimise both acute and chronic loss of productivity. Non-contact and non-destructive sensing techniques can continuously monitor plants and enable automated sensing and control capabilities. This paper reviews past research and recent advances regarding the sensors and approaches used for crop reflectance measurements and the indices used for crop water and nutrient status detection. The most practical and effective indices are those based on ground reflectance sensors data which are evaluated in terms of their efficiency in detecting plant water status under greenhouse conditions. Some possible applications of this approach are summarised. Although crop reflectance measurements have been widely used under open field conditions, there are several factors that limit the application of reflectance measurements under greenhouse conditions. The most promising type of sensors and indices for early stress detection in greenhouse crops are presented and discussed. Future research should focus on real time data analysis and detection of plant water stress using advanced data analysis techniques and to the development of indices that may not be affected by plant microclimate.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Effectiveness of thin film application of imazalil fungicide on decay
           control of Tarocco orange fruit
    • Authors: Giuseppe Altieri; Francesco Genovese; Antonella Tauriello; Giovanni C. Di Renzo; Maria C. Strano; Flora V. Romeo
      Pages: 399 - 408
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Giuseppe Altieri, Francesco Genovese, Antonella Tauriello, Giovanni C. Di Renzo, Maria C. Strano, Flora V. Romeo
      For oranges intended for European markets, it is strongly advisable to find preservation methods increasing shelf-life and favouring the reduction of use of chemical antifungal products, both for reasons of environmental sustainability and to reduce the risk to health. In this paper results related to imazalil fungicide treatment of oranges fruits are reported. The experiments were carried out by comparing the traditional dipping of fruit with an innovative pilot plant process, designated “thin film” (TF), which is designed to reduce fungicide/water mixture concentration. Two film thickness (1 and 3 mm) and two temperatures (20 and 45 °C) were investigated. The incidence of decay was <5% for all treatments during 60 d of cold storage and dipping at 45 °C showed a complete absence of decay during the cold storage. Imazalil residues inside fruits were <5 mg kg−1 using TF method while dipping produced residues >>5 mg kg−1 making the oranges unsuitable for the market. Therefore, TF treatment can be considered a useful method for maintaining high quality of citrus fruit and controlling green and blue mould both during cold storage and shelf-life period. A correlation was found between the overall decay incidence % and fungicide residue at time zero (adjusted R2 of 0.98) and the fungicide destruction rate logarithmically depended on its initial dose.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.10.009
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Extrinsic calibration of a multi-Kinect camera scanning passage for
           measuring functional traits in dairy cows
    • Authors: Jennifer Salau; Jan H. Haas; Wolfgang Junge; Georg Thaller
      Pages: 409 - 424
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Jennifer Salau, Jan H. Haas, Wolfgang Junge, Georg Thaller
      Camera based systems in dairy cattle have been intensively studied over the last years. Past studies have concentrated on single camera systems with a limited range of applications. Here the development of a camera system comprising multiple 3D cameras (six Microsoft Kinect cameras) for monitoring purposes in dairy cows is presented. A recording unit was constructed, and software for recording, synchronising, sorting and segmenting images, and transforming the 3D data in a joint coordinate system was implemented. The latter is called extrinsic calibration and was dealt with in this study using a 3D calibration object. The internal estimations of acceleration data and coefficients for the parametrised plane describing the floor of the scenery obtained by the Kinect camera were tested and discussed with regard to their usage in the calibration process. The presented approach accurately determined whether a Kinect device was a side view camera or one of two types of top view cameras (accuracy 92.9%) and specified its mounting position in the system (accuracy 95.8%). Furthermore, rotations and translations between the cameras and a reference coordinate system were estimated from 3D point clouds of the calibration object. For cameras in upright position (side view cameras) the rotational accuracies were satisfactory, showing 4.4° (±2.9°) deviation from the reference. For the cameras in top view position larger errors (25.5° ± 6.4°) were measured due to them being mounted in an inclined way. Nevertheless, a basis for registration methods was achieved.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.10.008
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Determining the effect of wind on the ballistic flight of fertiliser
    • Authors: Simon R. Cool; Jan G. Pieters; Joris Van Acker; Jan Van Den Bulcke; Koen C. Mertens; David R.E. Nuyttens; Tim C. Van De Gucht; Jürgen Vangeyte
      Pages: 425 - 434
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Simon R. Cool, Jan G. Pieters, Joris Van Acker, Jan Van Den Bulcke, Koen C. Mertens, David R.E. Nuyttens, Tim C. Van De Gucht, Jürgen Vangeyte
      With the increase in working widths for applicators, granular fertiliser particles spread by centrifugal spreaders have more extensive airborne trajectories. In the field, particles can be subjected to wind which can cause their trajectories to change. In this paper, a 3D ballistic model was developed describing the motion of fertiliser particles taking wind effects into account. The physical properties of eight commonly used fertiliser types were determined: particle density, size distribution and angle of repose. X-ray micro computed tomography was used to determine the shape of the particles and estimate the corresponding drag coefficient. Using these parameters in the newly derived ballistic model, the effect of wind on individual fertiliser trajectories was quantified for each fertiliser type. Three wind directions (head- tail- and crosswind) were analysed for two windspeeds: 3 and 6 m s−1. The magnitude of the effect was strongly dependent on the physical properties of the fertiliser type, the windspeed and wind direction. Simulations showed that a windspeed of 3 m s−1 already can affect the landing position of individual fertiliser particles by several metres. Generally, particles with lower density, smaller size and a more irregular shape were more sensitive to wind.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.10.011
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Minimising manpower in rice harvesting and transportation operations
    • Authors: Patrizia Busato; Remigio Berruto
      Pages: 435 - 445
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Patrizia Busato, Remigio Berruto
      Manpower is an important input parameter for both strategic and tactical management levels in agricultural production systems, connected to management tasks such as capacity planning, task times planning, and scheduling. In large scale field operations manpower surplus can lead to an unnecessary increase in operational cost, while, on the other hand, manpower shortages in the absence of appropriate planning can lead to reduced productivity with a high risk for timeliness costs. In this paper, the simulation model reported by Busato [Busato, 2015, A simulation model for a rice-harvesting chain. Biosystems Engineering, 129, 149–159] was extended to incorporate the functionality of the minimisation of manpower in large scale field operations, such as crop harvesting and transportation. Specifically, the model implements the practice where the number of transport units' operators is lower than the number of transport units. The simulation model was validated based on measurements in two harvesting and transport operations. The deviation of the predicted operation parameters as compared to the measured ones was relatively low. Specifically, for the case of area capacity the error in the prediction was 2.2% and 2%, respectively, compared to the measured area capacity in the two operations. Regarding the practice of the reduced number of operators, it was shown that there are significant reductions in required manpower use when fewer operators than the number of transport units are implemented in the operation. For the specific transport units-operators configurations examined, the reduction of manpower use (h ha−1) was in the range of 12%–30%.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.08.029
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Eggshell membrane: Review and impact on engineering
    • Authors: Sunho Park; Kyoung Soon Choi; Dohyeon Lee; Daun Kim; Ki Taek Lim; Kyeong-Hwan Lee; Hoon Seonwoo; Jangho Kim
      Pages: 446 - 463
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Sunho Park, Kyoung Soon Choi, Dohyeon Lee, Daun Kim, Ki Taek Lim, Kyeong-Hwan Lee, Hoon Seonwoo, Jangho Kim
      Agricultural bioresources are being recognised as emerging functional platforms that can find application in biological, environmental, and agricultural engineering. Eggshell membrane (ESM), the protein-rich membrane between the eggshell and egg white, has usually been regarded as waste and overlooked. However, its potential is now being highlighted in many engineering fields. This review provides basic information about ESM starting with its structural, chemical, and physical properties, and expands on its role in engineering fields. It touches upon various fabrication methods for constructing compatible ESM-based functional platforms. The review focuses on the role and performance of ESM in engineering applications: electric devices, sensors, environmental engineering, biomedical engineering, and commercialization. Finally, new perspectives about the potential of ESM as a highly valuable bioresource in various engineering fields are discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.10.014
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Temporal and spatial variation of methane concentrations around lying
           cubicles in dairy barns
    • Authors: Liansun Wu; Peter W.G. Groot Koerkamp; Nico W.M. Ogink
      Pages: 464 - 478
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 151
      Author(s): Liansun Wu, Peter W.G. Groot Koerkamp, Nico W.M. Ogink
      To breed cows for low methane production, farm measurement methods are required to measure individual methane production of cows. The long lying period of cows in cubicles could be utilised here. However, variable aerial conditions around cubicles may challenge this approach. The objective of this study was to (1) assess temporal and spatial variability of methane concentrations around cubicles; (2) explore influencing factors on them; and (3) assess effects of barn background variability in methane concentrations on assessed individual methane production. Concentrations around two cubicles in a naturally ventilated dairy barn were measured during a summer and a winter period. The effect of barn background variability in methane concentration on individual cow measurements was analysed in relation to the working principles of the breath methane concentration and methane flux methods. Mean methane concentrations around the cubicle were 29–37 ppm in the summer and 33–51 ppm in the winter period. Spatial variations of hourly averages of methane concentration around the cubicle were 71% in the summer and 58% in the winter period. Temporal variations of hourly averages of methane concentration varied from 115 to 153% in the summer, and from 57 to 109% in the winter period among the sample locations. These variations were mainly affected by airflows and barn management. The coefficient of variation (CV) of the background concentration strongly influenced the overall measurement CV of assessed methane production, in both the methane flux and breath methane concentration method. This information can be used to limit measurement variation in methane measurement methods.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.10.016
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2016)
  • Field-crop-sprayer potential drift measured using test bench: Effects of
           boom height and nozzle type
    • Authors: Paolo Balsari; Emilio Gil; Paolo Marucco; Jan C. van de Zande; David Nuyttens; Andreas Herbst; Montserrat Gallart
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering
      Author(s): Paolo Balsari, Emilio Gil, Paolo Marucco, Jan C. van de Zande, David Nuyttens, Andreas Herbst, Montserrat Gallart
      Because of variations in environmental conditions, spray-drift field measurements following ISO 22866:2005 involve complicated and time-consuming experiments often with low repeatability. Therefore, simple, repeatable, and precise alternative drift assessment methods that are complementary to the official standards are required. One of the alternatives is the use of a drift test bench for field crop sprayers. Previous studies have demonstrated that the drift test bench can be considered an adequate complement to existing standard protocols for field drift measurements. In this study, in order to further improve the methodology and to evaluate the possibility of classifying different field-crop-sprayer settings according to drift risk using a test bench, a series of tests were performed in a test hall. A conventional mounted Delvano HD3 crop sprayer (Delvano, Kuurne, Belgium) equipped with an 800-l spray tank and a 15-m-wide stainless steel spray boom was used. Eight different sprayer setups were tested, involving three nozzle types (TeeJet XR 110 04, Agrotop TDXL 110 04 and Micron Micromax 3) and three boom heights (0.30, 0.50, and 0.70 m). For the drift classification, the reference sprayer drift behaviour was defined as that obtained using conventional flat fan TeeJet XR 110 04 nozzles operated at 0.30 MPa and at a boom height of 0.50 m. The different sprayer setups were successfully assigned to different drift reduction classes, and the results underlined the effects of nozzle type and boom height on the potential drift. The feasibility of the test-bench methodology for classifying field-crop-sprayer drift according to ISO 22369-1:2006 was demonstrated.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.10.015
  • Assessment of spray drift from pesticide applications in soybean crops
    • Authors: Mariana R. Bueno; João Paulo A. R. da Cunha; Denise G. de Santana
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering
      Author(s): Mariana R. Bueno, João Paulo A. R. da Cunha, Denise G. de Santana
      Determining the downwind behaviour of sprays generated by different equipment is fundamental in managing pesticide applications. The objective of this study was to establish spray drift curves for soybean crops (Glycine max) in Brazilian meteorological conditions using different spray nozzles and to compare them with the model coefficients generated in European conditions. The study was conducted in Uberlândia, MG, Brazil, in a completely randomised block design with a split plot arrangement (4 × 20), with 10 replications. The study measured ground spray drift deposits by applications with a spray volume of 150 l ha−1 and four nozzle types: flat-fan standard and venturi – XR (fine spray) and AIXR (coarse spray); wide angle standard flat-fan and venturi – TT (medium spray) and TTI (very coarse spray), at 20 different sampling distances downwind, parallel to the crop line outside the target area, spaced 2.5 m apart. The deposits on filter paper placed on the soil were evaluated using a fluorescent tracer added to the tank of a boom sprayer and quantified by fluorimetry. Three drift prediction models were obtained for the soybean crop, considering the 90th percentile, for the nozzles XR, TT and AIXR, with exponential tendencies for four parameter regression models. The coefficients obtained were statistically different from those of the Dutch Drift Model for cereal cultivation and from those of the German Drift Model for field crops. Drift was reduced by increasing the size of the droplets produced particularly close to the cropping zones.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.10.017
  • Development and validation of a 3D CFD model of drift and its application
           to air-assisted orchard sprayers
    • Authors: Ashenafi T. Duga; Mulugeta A. Delele; Kris Ruysen; Donald Dekeyser; David Nuyttens; Dany Bylemans; Bart M. Nicolai; Pieter Verboven
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2016
      Source:Biosystems Engineering
      Author(s): Ashenafi T. Duga, Mulugeta A. Delele, Kris Ruysen, Donald Dekeyser, David Nuyttens, Dany Bylemans, Bart M. Nicolai, Pieter Verboven
      Pesticides play an important role in providing high crop yields by minimising the risks associated with pests but some of the sprayed product may move beyond the intended target and result in drift. Modelling approaches can help understand the behaviour of spray drift using computer simulations. However, modelling drift from orchard spraying presents particular challenges: (1) the moving spray interacts with the canopy before drifting outside the target area; (2) the vertical wind profile in the orchard is different to neighbouring fields where there is different vegetation; (3) the moving air jet from the air-assistance cannot be ignored because the airspeed of the fan is usually higher than the wind speed. This work presents a three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of spray drift from orchard sprayers that considers tree architecture, canopy wind flow and the movement of the sprayer to calculate sedimenting and airborne drift; thus tackling the challenges listed above. The model was validated against drift measurements from an apple orchard with different nozzles arrangements. The model was then used to evaluate the effect of drift reducing nozzles and fan airspeed on drift. The model predicted that drift reducing nozzles reduced the drifting distance by 50%, but increased near-tree ground deposition. This increase in ground deposition can be avoided whilst retaining the reduction in the drifting distance, by using a combination of drift reducing and standard nozzles. A reduced sprayer airflow can further reduce drift.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T10:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2016.10.010
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