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  Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 775 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (68 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (539 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (94 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (46 journals)

AGRICULTURE (539 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 263 Journals sorted alphabetically
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta agriculturae Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Agrobotanica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Agronomica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Agronomica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Technologica Agriculturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Agriculture & Botanics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Agra Europe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agribusiness : an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Agricultura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultura, Sociedad y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultural Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Agricultural Commodities     Full-text available via subscription  
Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Agricultural History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Food Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Agriprobe     Open Access  
Agrivita : Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Agroalimentaria     Open Access  
Agrociencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agrociencia Uruguay     Open Access  
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
Agronomía Colombiana     Open Access  
Agronomía Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access  
Agronomie Africaine     Full-text available via subscription  
Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agrosearch     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Akademik Ziraat Dergisi     Open Access  
Alinteri Zirai Bilimler Dergisi : Alinteri Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Ambiência     Open Access  
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Botany     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals Valahia University of Targoviste - Agriculture     Open Access  
Annual Review of Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
APCBEE Procedia     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Applied Financial Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ARO. The Scientific Journal of Koya University     Open Access  
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Grain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Agricultural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Sugarcane     Full-text available via subscription  
Avances en Investigacion Agropecuaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Agronomy Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioagro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biological Agriculture & Horticulture : An International Journal for Sustainable Production Systems     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Biosystems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biotemas     Open Access  
Boletín Semillas Ambientales     Open Access  
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
British Poultry Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access  
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca. Agriculture     Open Access  
Cahiers Agricultures     Open Access  
California Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cambridge Journal of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ceiba     Open Access  
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CERNE     Open Access  
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Change and Adaptation in Socio-Ecological Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemical and Biological Technologies for Agriculture     Open Access  
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia & Natura     Open Access  
Ciência e Agrotecnologia     Open Access  
Ciencia e investigación agraria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciência e Técnica Vitivinícola     Open Access  
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Agricultura     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
COCOS : The Journal of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coffee Science     Open Access  
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Corps et culture     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cuadernos de Desarrollo Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cultivos Tropicales     Open Access  
Cultural Geographies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Cultural Studies - Critical Methodologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cultural Studies of Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cultural Trends     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Agricultural Science and Technology     Open Access  
Current Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Research in Dairy Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Developments in Agricultural Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Agricultural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Diatom Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Die Bodenkultur : Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment     Open Access  
Dossiers Agraris     Open Access  
Ecological Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 138)
Economic Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Economic and Industrial Democracy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Economic Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Encuentro     Open Access  
Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food     Hybrid Journal  
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Eppo Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ethology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
EU agrarian Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Euphytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Eurochoices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Agrophysical Journal     Open Access  
European Journal of Agronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
European Journal of American Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Health Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
EvoDevo     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Extensão Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Farmer’s Weekly     Full-text available via subscription  
Farmlink Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Fitosanidad     Open Access  
Folia Horticulturae     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food and Agricultural Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food and Energy Security     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Food Economics - Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Food Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Forest@ : Journal of Silviculture and Forest Ecology     Open Access  
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Forum for Health Economics & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Agriculture in China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Future of Food : Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geoderma     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Biosystems Engineering
  [SJR: 0.824]   [H-I: 77]   [8 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1537-5110 - ISSN (Online) 1537-5129
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3034 journals]
  • Anaerobic co-digestion of cattle manure and meadow grass: Effect of serial
           configurations of continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTRs)
    • Authors: Lu Feng; Radziah Wahid; Alastair J. Ward; Henrik B. Møller
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 160
      Author(s): Lu Feng, Radziah Wahid, Alastair J. Ward, Henrik B. Møller
      In this study, anaerobic co-digestion of cattle manure (CM) and meadow grass (MG) with serial configurations of continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) was investigated. Four laboratory-scale CSTRs were operated at thermophilic condition (55 °C), of which two CSTRs were connected serially with equal working volumes while the remaining two CSTRs were operated as single CSTRs as controls. Improvements on bio-methane yield, methane contents and solids reduction were observed with serial CSTR configurations. The results showed that co-digestion with 5% (w/w) MG with serial configurations of CSTRs produced 24% more bio-methane compared with single reactor, with the total hydraulic retention time (HRT) being the same. The volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was found higher in the 1st reactor, but was reduced by 40–50% in the 2nd reactor. The improved bio-methane yield with serial CSTR configuration with 100% CM was 8%, indicating that the serial CSTRs process is superior in a co-digestion set up with addition of MG.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T10:24:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 160 (2017)
  • Modelling and experimental verification of the thermal performance of an
           active solar heat storage-release system in a Chinese solar greenhouse
    • Authors: Wei Lu; Yi Zhang; Hui Fang; Xinglin Ke; Qichang Yang
      Pages: 12 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 160
      Author(s): Wei Lu, Yi Zhang, Hui Fang, Xinglin Ke, Qichang Yang
      An active solar heat storage-release (AHS) system that stores solar energy in a water storage tank can supplement heat to raise the air temperature in Chinese solar greenhouses (CSGs) during cold winter nights. To quantify such heat transfer processes and to improve the performance of AHS systems, a tank temperature model was developed. The model was calibrated and validated, and it can predict water temperatures in the storage tank with an average accuracy of 0.4 °C. The model was used to determine the required solar collector area and storage tank volume under various desired air temperatures in different greenhouses. In two cases, greenhouses with a ground area of 272 m2 and roughly 62 m2 of solar collectors were installed to maintain temperatures above 12 °C under Beijing climate conditions. To facilitate a 1 °C increase in the air temperature set-point, approximately 2 m2 of additional solar collectors and 0.1 m3 of additional storage tanks are needed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T10:30:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.05.006
      Issue No: Vol. 160 (2017)
  • Composting potential of the solid fraction of digested pulp produced by a
           biogas plant
    • Authors: W. Czekała; J. Dach; R. Dong; D. Janczak; K. Malińska; K. Jóźwiakowski; A. Smurzyńska; M. Cieślik
      Pages: 25 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 160
      Author(s): W. Czekała, J. Dach, R. Dong, D. Janczak, K. Malińska, K. Jóźwiakowski, A. Smurzyńska, M. Cieślik
      Agricultural biogas plants produce biogas and residues referred to as digested pulp. In Europe, digestate is mostly used as fertilizer for agricultural soils although it can be converted to solid fertilizer and also used for biofuel production. The aim of this study was to evaluate if solid fraction of the digestate (DSF) is a suitable material for composting. Composting of DSF was performed for 51 d in a specially designed and constructed system of composting bioreactors (each with volume of 165 l). The process was controlled by daily measurements of temperature and gaseous emissions and samples of composted material tested for dry and organic matter, pH and conductivity. The maximum temperature of the composted mixture was 70.2 °C. High temperature (over 60 °C) for at least two days will allow to annihilate most pathogens. Dynamic temperature rise was related to significant decrease in organic matter (by 39.6%) – from an initial 8.46 kg to 5.12 kg at the end of the process. Decomposition of organic matter during the thermophilic phase of composting was also related to intensive emissions of CO2. The maximum values of carbon dioxide occurred at the highest compost temperature on the third day of the experiment and amounted to 13.3% in the chamber. The results of the analysed parameters allowed us to conclude that the composting process was operating properly and that composting of DSF can a solution for the management of biogas effluent.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T10:30:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 160 (2017)
  • Histogram-based automatic thresholding for bruise detection of apples by
           structured-illumination reflectance imaging
    • Authors: Yuzhen Lu; Renfu Lu
      Pages: 30 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 160
      Author(s): Yuzhen Lu, Renfu Lu
      Thresholding is an important step in the segmentation of image features, and the existing methods are not all effective when the image histogram exhibits a unimodal pattern, which is common in defect detection of fruit. This study was aimed at developing a general automatic thresholding methodology for fast and effective segmentation of bruises from the images acquired by structured-illumination reflectance imaging (SIRI). SIRI images, under sinusoidal patterns of illumination at a spatial frequency of 100 cycles m−1, were acquired from 120 apple samples of four varieties with artificially created bruises and from another 40 apples with naturally occurred bruises. Subsequently, three sets of images, i.e., amplitude component (AC), direct component (DC) and ratio (i.e., dividing AC by DC), were derived from the original SIRI images. A unimodal thresholding method, called UNIMODE, was first applied to DC images for background removal, and then nine automatic thresholding techniques, including one unimodal and eight bimodal, were applied to the ratio images for bruise segmentation. It was found that severe over-segmentation occurred when using the bimodal thresholding methods, and this problem was mitigated by confining threshold selection to the lower part of the histogram that contained bruise information. Three bimodal thresholding techniques, i.e., INTERMODE (histogram valley emphasized), RIDLER (iterative thresholding), OTSU (clustering based) achieved the best bruise detection results with the overall accuracies of more than 90%. The overall detection results were further improved by integrating these techniques with the unimodal thresholding, due to reductions in the false positive error. The three bimodal thresholding techniques resulted in overall detection accuracies of 77–85% for naturally occurred bruises. This study has showed that the proposed automatic thresholding methodology provides a simple and effective tool for bruise detection of apples.

      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:39:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.05.005
      Issue No: Vol. 160 (2017)
  • Benefits of dry comminution of biomass pellets in a knife mill
    • Authors: Orla Williams; Edward Lester; Sam Kingman; Donald Giddings; Stephen Lormor; Carol Eastwick
      Pages: 42 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 160
      Author(s): Orla Williams, Edward Lester, Sam Kingman, Donald Giddings, Stephen Lormor, Carol Eastwick
      The potential benefits of dry comminution in a knife mill for a diverse range of biomass pellets are explored. The impact of dry comminution on energy consumption, particle size and shape, is examined as well as the link between milling and mechanical durability. Biomass pellet comminution energy was significantly lower (19.3–32.5 kW h t−1 [fresh] and 17.8–23.2 kW h t−1 [dry]) than values reported in literature for non-densified biomass in similar knife mills. The impact of drying was found to vary by feedstock. Dry grinding reduced milling energy by 38% for mixed wood pellets, but only 2% for steam exploded pellets. Particle size and shape, particle distribution dispersion, and distribution shape parameters changes between fresh and dry milling were also material dependent. Von Rittinger analysis showed that to maximise mill throughput, pellets should be composed of particles which can pass through the screen and thus have a neutral size change. A strong correlation was found between pellet durability and energy consumption for fresh biomass pellets. Dry grinding has the potential to significantly reduce energy consumption without compromising the product particle size, as well as enhancing product quality and optimising biomass pellet comminution and combustion.

      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:39:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.05.011
      Issue No: Vol. 160 (2017)
  • Measurement and numerical simulation of single-sided mechanical
           ventilation in broiler houses
    • Authors: Eliseo Bustamante; Salvador Calvet; Fernando Estellés; Antonio G. Torres; Antonio Hospitaler
      Pages: 55 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 160
      Author(s): Eliseo Bustamante, Salvador Calvet, Fernando Estellés, Antonio G. Torres, Antonio Hospitaler
      In recent years, some broiler production farms especially in Mediterranean areas, have incorporated single-sided mechanical ventilation (i.e. air inlets and fans are located in the same lateral wall). However, little scientific information on the performance of mechanical single-sided ventilation systems is available to date. This ventilation method is fitted to broiler houses because this ventilation system appears appropriate to diminish the stress and mortality of broilers during hot seasons in this climate. To analyse the single-sided ventilation method scientifically, the indoor environments of broiler houses were examined by numerical simulation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with validation using a range of different buildings with direct measurements using a multi-sensor system. An analysis of variation of the results of the validation tests produced to a p-value of 0.3908. Thus, the methodology employed (i.e. CFD or sensors) was not significant. The CFD simulations showed a wide range of values for air velocity: the minimum value of air velocity at broiler level was 0.52 ± 0.40 m s−1 and the maximum was 1.29 ± 0.41 m s−1. Two major conclusions were drawn in terms indoor air velocity: (i) excessive heterogeneity in the plane where the animals were located; and (ii) insufficient air movement to contribute to the thermoregulation of the birds and lower their internal heat and associated thermal stress in occasional periods of hot weather.

      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:39:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.05.009
      Issue No: Vol. 160 (2017)
  • Impact forces on the drive spoon of a large cannon irrigation sprinkler:
           Simple theory, CFD numerical simulation and validation
    • Authors: Pan Tang; Hong Li; Zakaria Issaka; Chao Chen
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 159
      Author(s): Pan Tang, Hong Li, Zakaria Issaka, Chao Chen
      The service life and stability of the large cannon sprinklers depends on the stress distribution that occurs on the drive spoon caused by the impact force of the driving water jet. A simple theory of the forces caused by the impact of the water jet on the drive spoon was developed, and a three-dimensional (3D) model numerical simulation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was constructed. An experiment was carried out to verify the accuracy of the simple momentum-based theory and the numerical CFD simulations. The results showed a large deviation between the simulated and measured values under low pressure conditions, with a maximum deviation of 15.98%. However, the simulations had good accuracy under high pressure conditions. The difference between simple theory and experimental values also decreased with increasing working pressure when considering both horizontal and vertical components. The simple theory was adjusted by the use of correction factors that were regressed with working pressure using experimental data. The coefficient of determination of the correction factor expressions for both the horizontal and vertical components were 0.9799 and 0.9289 respectively. After adjustment of the simple theory, the calculated values of the vertical and horizontal impact forces were compared to the experimental values and had a difference <5%.

      PubDate: 2017-05-07T10:23:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 159 (2017)
  • Spatial assessment of soluble solid contents on apple slices using
           hyperspectral imaging
    • Authors: Changyeun Mo; Moon S. Kim; Giyoung Kim; Jongguk Lim; Stephen R. Delwiche; Kuanglin Chao; Hoonsoo Lee; Byoung-Kwan Cho
      Pages: 10 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 159
      Author(s): Changyeun Mo, Moon S. Kim, Giyoung Kim, Jongguk Lim, Stephen R. Delwiche, Kuanglin Chao, Hoonsoo Lee, Byoung-Kwan Cho
      A partial least squares regression (PLSR) model to map internal soluble solids content (SSC) of apples using visible/near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral imaging was developed. The reflectance spectra of sliced apples were extracted from hyperspectral absorbance images obtained in the 400–1000 nm range. Prediction models for SSC mapping were developed for three different measurement/sampling designs that varied in the number and size of the regions of interest (ROIs) used for apple SSC measurement and spectral averaging. Case 1 used 29 small ROIs per apple, Case II used 9 moderate-size ROIs per apple, and Case III used 5 large ROIs per apple. The optimal pre-treatment of the spectra extracted from the hyperspectral images was investigated to enhance the performance of the prediction models. The coefficients of determination and root mean square errors of the best-performing models were, respectively, 0.802 and ±0.674 °Brix for Case I, 0.871 and ±0.524 °Brix for Case II, and 0.876 and ±0.514 °Brix for Case III. The accuracy of the PLSR models was enhanced by using the spectra and SSC measured/averaged from the fewer but larger areas of the apples rather than from more numerous but smaller areas. PLS images of SSC showed the predicted internal distribution of SSC within the apples. The overall results demonstrate that hyperspectral absorbance imaging techniques may be useful for mapping internal soluble solids content of apples.

      PubDate: 2017-05-07T10:23:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.03.015
      Issue No: Vol. 159 (2017)
  • Development of calibration models for the evaluation of pomegranate aril
           quality by Fourier-transform near infrared spectroscopy combined with
    • Authors: Ebrahiema Arendse; Olaniyi A. Fawole; Lembe S. Magwaza; Helene H. Nieuwoudt; Umezuruike L. Opara
      Pages: 22 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 159
      Author(s): Ebrahiema Arendse, Olaniyi A. Fawole, Lembe S. Magwaza, Helene H. Nieuwoudt, Umezuruike L. Opara
      A Fourier transform NIR (FT-NIR) method was developed combining chemometrics for prediction of organoleptic and phytochemical parameters of pomegranate arils using two different FT-NIR acquisition methods; namely, an integrating sphere (IS) and an emission head (EH) used over a spectral region 800–2500 nm. Several pre-processing methods were investigated. Pre-processing methods that yielded higher coefficient of determination (R2) and residual predictive deviation (RPD), lower root mean square error estimation (RMSEE) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) values were used for model development. Model development using the EH gave the best prediction of total soluble solids (R2 = 87.55, RMSEP = 0.30%), pH (R2 = 85.18, RMSEP = 0.10), titratable acidity (R2 = 85.59, RMSEP = 0.10%), BrimA (R2 = 83.43, RMSEP = 0.43), aril hue (R2 = 88.59, RMSEP = 4.19), total phenolic concentration (R2 = 86.48, RMSEP = 0.11 g l−1), total anthocyanin concentration (R2 = 70.50, RMSEP = 0.13 g l−1) and vitamin C concentration (R2 = 84.86, RMSEP = 0.09 g l−1), while the IS provided the best results for TSS:TA (R2 = 82.20, RMSEP = 1.03), aril firmness (R2 = 68.40, RMSEP = 6.71 N), aril colour components (a* (R2 = 73.54, RMSEP = 1.67) and Chroma (R2 = 78.37, RMSEP = 2.31)). Good prediction was observed for both the models based on EH and IS data acquisition methods. However, better prediction performance was obtained with the model based on EH data acquisition method, resulting in accurate predictions of 8 quality parameters. This study demonstrated that FT-NIR and associated chemometric analysis can holistically evaluate the quality parameters of pomegranate arils.

      PubDate: 2017-05-07T10:23:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 159 (2017)
  • Effect of process variables on ethylene removal by vacuum ultraviolet
           radiation: Application in fresh produce storage
    • Authors: Namrata Pathak; Oluwafemi J. Caleb; Cornelia Rauh; Pramod V. Mahajan
      Pages: 33 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 159
      Author(s): Namrata Pathak, Oluwafemi J. Caleb, Cornelia Rauh, Pramod V. Mahajan
      Detrimental effects of ethylene on fresh produce make ethylene removal one of the major challenges in storage of horticultural commodities. Novel techniques based on advanced oxidation processes such as photocatalysis and photolysis by vacuum ultraviolet light (VUV) offer good potential for ethylene removal. This study focused on the use of VUV photolysis and the impact of different process variables on the efficiency of this technique. The set objectives of this study were to investigate the combined effects of three process variables; flow rate, initial ethylene concentration, and ultraviolet radiation on the efficiency of VUV photolysis for removal of ethylene at normal atmospheric conditions. Response surface methodology along with Box–Behnken design was applied to determine the combined effect of these variables. Flowrate exerted the most significant effect on the amount of ethylene removed, followed by initial ethylene concentration and ultraviolet lamp power. The combined effect of these three process parameters exerted a significant effect on percentage ethylene removal. Reducing the flowrate and increasing the lamp power as well as the initial ethylene concentration had a positive effect on the amount of ethylene removed. For an initial ethylene concentration of 5 ppm, the percentage ethylene removal (76%) was highest under optimised process variable of 9 W lamp power and 0.5 L/min flowrate. The developed reactor was tested on short term storage of apples and kiwifruit. The reactor effectively reduced ethylene concentrations in storage space of both products. Kiwifruit storage connected to the reactor had higher flesh firmness compared to the control samples.

      PubDate: 2017-05-12T10:26:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.04.008
      Issue No: Vol. 159 (2017)
  • Evaluation of the ripening stages of apple (Golden Delicious) by means of
           computer vision system
    • Authors: Stefany Cárdenas-Pérez; Jorge Chanona-Pérez; Juan V. Méndez-Méndez; Georgina Calderón-Domínguez; Rubén López-Santiago; María J. Perea-Flores; Israel Arzate-Vázquez
      Pages: 46 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 159
      Author(s): Stefany Cárdenas-Pérez, Jorge Chanona-Pérez, Juan V. Méndez-Méndez, Georgina Calderón-Domínguez, Rubén López-Santiago, María J. Perea-Flores, Israel Arzate-Vázquez
      Mexican apple production suffers high losses due to poor handling in processing. Implementation of a straightforward, low cost method to sort apples by their ripening stage is required. A set of Golden Delicious apples was used to monitor their physicochemical properties and external colour, a second set of apples was used to validate the method. To classify the stages, a ripening index (RPI) was proposed, in which three stages were identified; unripe, ripe and senescent. Weibull model was applied to the physicochemical parameters in order to describe their kinetic behaviour. The three RPI stages were compared with colour variability using the CIELab colour space, chroma (C ∗) and hue angle (h ∗), allowing the identification of the three ripening stages. Principal component analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between variables. A first correlation was performed between physicochemical and colour parameters and variables correlated correctly between each other except for L ∗, but both described the samples variability with 91.05% reliability. Using only colour parameters, the samples were described accurately with 95.06% reliability. Multivariate discriminant analysis (MDA) was done in order to validate the method. A cross-validation was performed with an initial set of apples used as trial samples and a second set of apples for validation. MDA was capable of classifying apples in their correct ripening stage with 100% accuracy. A second analysis was carried out using four colour parameters (a ∗, b ∗, C and h ∗), and results indicated that the ripening stages can be classified with 100% accuracy.

      PubDate: 2017-05-12T10:26:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.04.009
      Issue No: Vol. 159 (2017)
  • Biofiltration of exhaust air from animal houses: Evaluation of removal
           efficiencies and practical experiences with biobeds at three field sites
    • Authors: Roland W. Melse; Johanna M.G. Hol
      Pages: 59 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 159
      Author(s): Roland W. Melse, Johanna M.G. Hol
      Three wood-chip based biofilters (‘biobeds’) with media depth of 0.25 m were monitored during 6–12 months (capacity and surface area for biofilter #1: 75,000 m3 h−1 from poultry manure dryer, 68 m2; biofilter #2: 100,000 m3 h−1 from pig house, 188 m2; biofilter #3: 300,000 m3 h−1 from pig house, 440 m2). Average empty bed residence times (EBRT) were 1.4, 2.6, and 3.3 s; average pressure drops were 287, 22, and 91 Pa, respectively. Average ammonia (NH3) and odour removal efficiencies per site were 38–74% and 43–62%, respectively; a large variation was found between measurements. Poor moisture control of the packing material decreased these efficiencies (breakthrough). Average fine dust (PM10) removal was mostly 90% or higher. It was found that a significant part of the NH3 may be converted to nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. At one site even 21% of all NH3-N was converted to NO2-N. It is the first time that such high average N2O production rates have been reported for long-term monitoring of biofilters. It is concluded that biofilters have potential for emission reduction at animal houses, but especially high pressure drop (clogging/fouling) and homogeneous moistening of the biobed need attention. To prevent breakthrough of air at dry spots, it is recommended to increase the media depth. Further research is necessary to explore the conditions and parameters that influence N2O production in this type of systems, as currently no control strategy is available for preventing N2O generation.

      PubDate: 2017-05-12T10:26:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.04.007
      Issue No: Vol. 159 (2017)
  • Dynamic modelling of cut-and-store systems for year-round deliveries of
           short rotation coppice willow
    • Authors: Daniel Nilsson; Anders Larsolle; Nils-Erik Nordh; Per-Anders Hansson
      Pages: 70 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 159
      Author(s): Daniel Nilsson, Anders Larsolle, Nils-Erik Nordh, Per-Anders Hansson
      Short rotation coppice willow (SRCW) is a high-yielding energy crop that can be used to produce solid, liquid or gaseous biofuels. The crop is harvested during the winter, when the leaves have dropped. For economic reasons, however, most fuel processing plants require continuous year-round delivery of raw material. Thus, SRCW should be harvested as stems or in larger pieces in order to be storable, and not chipped directly at harvest for immediate use in large-scale heating plants, which is common practice at present. The aim of the project within which this study was conducted is to find cost-effective whole-stem harvesting and handling systems for year-round deliveries of natural-dried SRCW. A discrete event simulation model for such systems was developed in this study, taking weather, soil trafficability, geographical conditions, natural drying of the material and storage losses into account. The model was applied to a fictitious processing plant in Uppsala, Sweden. Machine performance and costs for a system with one stem harvester and up to three in-field shuttles, together with one chipper truck for chipping and transport, were investigated. The simulations showed that field trafficability had a crucial impact on total quantity harvested. The total cost was € 40 t−1 dry matter. Yield of SRCW and harvest productivity were important factors regarding costs. The model can be used to design cost-effective harvesting and handling systems for year-round deliveries of SRCW.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T09:50:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.04.010
      Issue No: Vol. 159 (2017)
  • Consistency of electrical and physiological properties of tea leaves on
           indicating critical cold temperature
    • Authors: Yongzong Lu; Yongguang Hu; Pingping Li
      Pages: 89 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 159
      Author(s): Yongzong Lu, Yongguang Hu, Pingping Li
      Critical cold temperature is the main control parameter for frost protection and has been indicated by testing plants electrical properties. But limited studies present a clear relationship between the response of electrical properties and critical cold temperature. The objective of this article is to analyse the relationship between physiological and electrical properties of tea leaf under freezing injury and validate the feasibility of using electrical properties to indicate the critical cold temperature. A system of measuring tea leaf's electrical property was established to obtain its typical temperature, at which the capacitance, impedance, resistance and reactance of tea leaves had obvious responses to cold stress. Relative electrical conductivity (REC) and cell damage rate of two cultivars (Fuding Dabai and Maolu) were measured under different cold stress conditions. Logistic regression analysis between REC and temperature was used to determine the low semi-lethal temperature (LT50). The results showed that the typical temperatures of Fuding Dabai and Maolu were −6.6 °C and −4.0 °C, respectively. REC of the two cultivars increased with the temperature decreasing from 0 to −10 °C and LT50 of Fuding Dabai and Maolu was −10.68 °C and −4.20 °C, respectively. The temperatures at which cell damage rate increased rapidly to 82.21% for Fuding Dabai and 77.93% for Maolu were −6.0 °C and −4.0 °C, respectively. When the electrical properties had obvious response at the typical temperatures, the cells were suffered serious cold stress and most of them were damaged. Therefore, the typical temperature could assess the freezing tolerance of tea leaves and indicate their critical cold temperature.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T09:50:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.04.012
      Issue No: Vol. 159 (2017)
  • Simulation and experimental test of waterless washing nozzles for fresh
    • Authors: Hongkui Chu; Ruoyu Zhang; Yanjie Qi; Za Kan
      Pages: 97 - 108
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 159
      Author(s): Hongkui Chu, Ruoyu Zhang, Yanjie Qi, Za Kan
      To design a nozzle for washing fresh apricot with compressed air, four types of nozzles were studied by simulation and test methods. The working section for waterless washing was determined through the analysis of the air jet flow characteristics of the nozzles. In this working section, the best nozzle of the four tested was found through a comparison analysis of their flow characteristics by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation and pressure-sensing test. The results showed that the trends of the simulation velocity and the test stress were consistent. A machine vision test was also conducted to assess the cleaning effect of the four nozzles. The results showed that the best nozzle was the column cone nozzle, and its average waterless washing efficiency was up to 99.07%. This study indicated that the combination of a simulation and an experimental test can be used to analyse and design waterless washing nozzles for fresh apricots.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T09:56:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 159 (2017)
  • Prediction mapping of physicochemical properties in mango by hyperspectral
    • Authors: Parika Rungpichayapichet; Marcus Nagle; Pasinee Yuwanbun; Pramote Khuwijitjaru; Busarakorn Mahayothee; Joachim Müller
      Pages: 109 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 159
      Author(s): Parika Rungpichayapichet, Marcus Nagle, Pasinee Yuwanbun, Pramote Khuwijitjaru, Busarakorn Mahayothee, Joachim Müller
      Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) techniques using a newly-developed frame camera were applied to determine internal properties of mango fruits including firmness, total soluble solids (TSS) and titratable acidity (TA). Prediction models were developed using spectral data from relative surface reflectance of 160 fruits in the visible and near infrared (vis/NIR) region of 450–998 nm analysed by PLS regression. For data reduction, MLR analysis showed 16 significant factors for firmness, 17 for TA, and 20 for TSS. The results of MLR did not substantially affect the prediction performance as compared to PLS. An original approach with combined chemometric and HSI data analyses was applied using R programming. Significant correlations were found between HSI data and firmness (R2 = 0.81 and RMSE = 2.83 N) followed by TA (R2 = 0.81 and RMSE = 0.24%) and TSS (R2 = 0.5 and RMSE = 2.0%). Prediction maps of physicochemical qualities were achieved by applying the prediction models to each pixel of HSI to visualise their spatial distribution. The variation of firmness, TSS, and TA within the fruit indicated fruit ripening started from shoulder toward to tip part. From these results, HSI can be used as a non-destructive technique for determining the quality of fruits which could potentially enhance grading capabilities in the industrial handling and processing of mango.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T09:56:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.04.006
      Issue No: Vol. 159 (2017)
  • Low frequency aeration of pig slurry affects slurry characteristics and
           emissions of greenhouse gases and ammonia
    • Authors: Salvador Calvet; John Hunt; Tom H. Misselbrook
      Pages: 121 - 132
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 159
      Author(s): Salvador Calvet, John Hunt, Tom H. Misselbrook
      Low frequency aeration of slurries may reduce ammonia (NH3) and methane (CH4) emissions without increasing nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The aim of this study was to quantify this potential reduction and to establish the underlying mechanisms. A batch experiment was designed with 6 tanks with 1 m3 of pig slurry each. After an initial phase of 7 days when none of the tanks were aerated, a second phase of 4 weeks subjected three of the tanks to aeration (2 min every 6 h, airflow 10 m3 h−1), whereas the other three tanks remained as a control. A final phase of 9 days was established with no aeration in any tank. Emissions of NH3, CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2) and N2O were measured. In the initial phase no differences in emissions were detected, but during the second phase aeration increased NH3 emissions by 20% with respect to the controls (8.48 vs. 7.07 g m−3 [slurry] d−1, P < 0.05). A higher pH was found in the aerated tanks at the end of this phase (7.7 vs. 7.0 in the aerated and control tanks, respectively, P < 0.05). CH4 emissions were 40% lower in the aerated tanks (2.04 vs. 3.39 g m−3 [slurry] d−1, P < 0.05). These differences in NH3 and CH4 emissions remained after the aeration phase had finished. No effect was detected for CO2, and no relevant N2O emissions were detected during the experiment. Our results demonstrate that low frequency aeration of stored pig slurry increases slurry pH and increases NH3 emissions.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T09:56:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.04.011
      Issue No: Vol. 159 (2017)
  • Proactive energy management of solar greenhouses with risk assessment to
           enhance smart specialisation in China
    • Authors: Jieyu Li; Li Li; Haihua Wang; Konstantinos P. Ferentinos; Minzan Li; Nick Sigrimis
      Pages: 10 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 158
      Author(s): Jieyu Li, Li Li, Haihua Wang, Konstantinos P. Ferentinos, Minzan Li, Nick Sigrimis
      For better time-allocation of stored energy, the solar greenhouse (SGH) is equipped with some storage devices designed economically for local weather: wall storage actively managed with energy-store/retrieve fans and Safety Energy (SE which is a solar collector and fully thermally isolated heat tank) designed for non-regular extreme weather. A proactive energy management process, addressing the optimal energy utilisation through dynamic cooperation of the wall and the SE, is presented in this paper. Based on probabilistic weather forecast and a SGH thermal model, found by system identification, the operation set-points are optimised proactively by minimising the plant probable thermal “cost” and weather-related risk in a scheduling period to take pre-emptory action against potential emergencies. The optimisation is formulated in a two-level control scheme. A master problem optimises the primary (wall-soil) storage operation against the expected weather, and a sub-problem operates the SE as a supplement to the limited wall storage in order to create a better indoor environment. The main task of the slave problem manager is to find the optimal SE operation under probable extreme weather to keep reserves to minimise any risk of severe crop loss. The overall optimisation is solved by a hybrid evolutionary algorithm based on a genetic algorithm. The tests show good potential for energy saving and crop cold stress minimisation, as well as great tolerance to forecast errors for most of the cases in Monte-Carlo simulation. The capacity of the proposed real-world system to implement the tested risk management scheme over web “recommendations” satisfies the need to close the loop of an effective Internet of Things (IoT) system, based on the MACQU (Management And Control for QUality) technological platform.

      PubDate: 2017-04-10T09:19:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 158 (2017)
  • Validation of a heat, moisture and gas concentration transfer model for
           soybean (Glycine max) grains stored in plastic bags (silo bags)
    • Authors: Alien Arias Barreto; Rita Abalone; Analía Gastón; Dario Ochandio; Leandro Cardoso; Ricardo Bartosik
      Pages: 23 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 158
      Author(s): Alien Arias Barreto, Rita Abalone, Analía Gastón, Dario Ochandio, Leandro Cardoso, Ricardo Bartosik
      A two dimensional finite element model that predicts temperature distribution and moisture content of soybean stored in silo bags due to seasonal variation of climatic conditions is described. The model includes grain respiration and calculates carbon dioxide and oxygen concentrations during storage. The model validation was carried out by comparing predicted temperature, moisture content and gas concentration with measured data in field tests. Overall, the model underpredicted grain temperatures. Mean absolute difference was 0.5–1 °C for the bottom and middle layers and about 1.5 °C for the top layer. A slight moisture increase (0.4% w.b. at most) was predicted for the top grain layer while moisture for the middle and bottom layers remained almost unchanged during the storage period. A model of respiration rate of soybean as a function of temperature, moisture content and O2 level was used to predicted gas concentrations in the interstitial air. Average CO2 and O2 concentrations were compared with measured data. As mean grain temperature was below 15 °C for most of the storage period, O2 consumption and CO2 production were low. O2 level was about 19–20% V/V for dry soybean (13% w.b.) and about 16–17% V/V for wet soybean (15% w.b.). Predicted CO2 concentration varied from 1% V/V for dry soybean (13% w.b.) to 2% V/V points for wet soybean (15% w.b.). Though CO2 relative differences were high, the general trends of measured gas evolution were compatible with the simulated ones, indicating that the changes in CO2 and O2 concentrations during storage were satisfactorily predicted by use of the proposed correlations.

      PubDate: 2017-04-10T09:19:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 158 (2017)
  • Hyperspectral imaging of spinach canopy under combined water and nitrogen
           stress to estimate biomass, water, and nitrogen content
    • Authors: Martina Corti; Pietro Marino Gallina; Daniele Cavalli; Giovanni Cabassi
      Pages: 38 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 158
      Author(s): Martina Corti, Pietro Marino Gallina, Daniele Cavalli, Giovanni Cabassi
      This work had the goal to assess the capability of hyperspectral line scan imaging (400–1000 nm) to estimate crop variables in the greenhouse under combined water and nitrogen stress using multivariate data analysis and two data compression methods: canopy average spectra and hyperspectrogram extraction. Hyperspectral images contain far more information than do multispectral ones, which permits discrimination among minute pattern differences in canopy spectral reflectance. A pot greenhouse experiment of eight treatments, from the combination of four nitrogen supply levels and two water supply levels, was designed to test widely varied spinach canopies. Using partial least square regression models, the fresh and dry matter of aboveground biomasses and water and nitrogen contents were estimated from a 76-sample dataset. Both the canopy reflectance-based and hyperspectrogram-based models performed well in estimating variables strictly related to canopy leaf area index (LAI) and geometry, i.e., water content and fresh and dry matters, such that R2 in independent validation reached values of 0.87, 0.65, 0.65, and 0.86, 0.74, 0.72, respectively. Estimation of nitrogen concentration from single leaf spectra hyperspectral images produced a high cross-validation R2 (0.83), as opposed to the poor predictive results produced from canopy scans. This latter result arose from orientation effects due to canopy architecture. Finally, for estimation purposes, image hyperspectrogram compression without spatial information loss produced more encouraging results while considering canopy structure in crop variables than did average canopy spectra.

      PubDate: 2017-04-10T09:19:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 158 (2017)
  • Non-destructive determination of carbohydrate reserves in leaves of
           ornamental cuttings by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a key
           indicator for quality assessments
    • Authors: Dieter Lohr; Peter Tillmann; Uwe Druege; Siegfried Zerche; Thomas Rath; Elke Meinken
      Pages: 51 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 158
      Author(s): Dieter Lohr, Peter Tillmann, Uwe Druege, Siegfried Zerche, Thomas Rath, Elke Meinken
      The importance of carbohydrate reserves in leaves for rooting performance of ornamental cuttings is well-known. Especially under environmental conditions unfavourable for photosynthesis, sufficient reserves are indispensable for an undisturbed adventitious root formation and to prevent senescence of leaves during rooting. However, due to time and costs, established methods for carbohydrates analysis are not suitable for implementation in global production chains of ornamentals. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) might be a valuable alternative. To explore the suitability of this technique, NIR spectra were taken from intact cuttings as well as from upper and lower side of detached leaves of chrysanthemum and pelargonium cuttings and partial least squares (PLS) calibration models were developed for glucose, fructose, sucrose and starch in leaves, which were analysed by a stepwise enzymatic-photometric method. Presumably because of a high percentage of cuttings with very low amounts of glucose, fructose and sucrose, calibration models for single soluble sugars and sum of soluble sugars were poor (RCV 2 ≤ 0.5, RPDCV ≤ 1.5), while prediction performance for starch and sum of starch and soluble sugars was quite good (R2 > 0.8, RPD > 2.0, RER > 10). The high number of cuttings with depleted reserves of soluble sugars seems to have been at least partly caused by transportation of cuttings, before NIR analysis, from stock plant facilities in Africa and Latin America to Central Europe. The quite low levels of leaf carbohydrates on delivery at rooting facilities cannot be detected by NIRS properly. Thus, NIRS seems to be more suitable for monitoring of leaf carbohydrates in stock plants to optimise crop management than for assessment of cutting quality before rooting.

      PubDate: 2017-04-17T09:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 158 (2017)
  • Dynamic performance of a no-till seeding assembly
    • Authors: Galibjon M. Sharipov; Dimitris S. Paraforos; Alim S. Pulatov; Hans W. Griepentrog
      Pages: 64 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 158
      Author(s): Galibjon M. Sharipov, Dimitris S. Paraforos, Alim S. Pulatov, Hans W. Griepentrog
      Precise seeding depth plays an important role in achieving reliable germination rate and even plant emergence. In no-till seeding, this aim is more challenging due to the inappropriate response of the machine dynamics to harsh soil conditions, such as compacted soil undulations and stubble. In this paper, a sensor-frame was mounted on a no-till seeder, to measure the field surface profiles during seeding operation. Its accuracy was validated by acquiring the profile of trapezoidal bumps with known dimensions resulting in a root mean squared (RMS) error of 7.3 and 8.7 mm for travelling speed of 2 km h−1 and 10 km h−1, respectively. Strain gauges were used to measure the soil reaction forces, on one of the seeding assemblies during seeding operation at travelling speed of 10 km h−1. After seeding wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the geo-referenced position of each single seed was measured using a total station, to calculate the seeding depth. The correlation between the seeding depth variation and the developed forces showed that the frequencies of 11.8 Hz and 17.8 Hz of the vertical forces, which corresponded to a wavelength of 0.21 m and 0.14 m, respectively, were responsible for the high variation in seeding depth. For the profile impact forces, these values were equal to 10.7 Hz and 20.6 Hz. The corresponding wavelengths were equal to 0.23 m and 0.12 m. The peak value of seeding depth was detected at a frequency of 8.3 Hz with 0.3 m wavelength for both vertical and impact profile forces.

      PubDate: 2017-04-17T09:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.03.016
      Issue No: Vol. 158 (2017)
  • The contribution of transpiration and respiration in water loss of
           perishable agricultural products: The case of pears
    • Authors: Georgios T. Xanthopoulos; Charalampos G. Templalexis; Nikolaos P. Aleiferis; Diamanto I. Lentzou
      Pages: 76 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 158
      Author(s): Georgios T. Xanthopoulos, Charalampos G. Templalexis, Nikolaos P. Aleiferis, Diamanto I. Lentzou
      Transpiration and to a lesser degree respiration are two well-known processes of water loss from fresh agricultural products, associated with visual and texture degradation. Neglecting respiration as a water loss mechanism leads to erroneous results at saturation where, although the water vapour pressure deficit is zero and therefore water loss should be zero, on the contrary a finite water loss exists. In this context an experiment was set up to analyse the water loss associated with transpiration and respiration in pears (Pyrus communis L., Kontoula) at 0, 10 and 20 °C and 70%, 80% and 95% RH, as well as the air humidity of the cold storage. The choice of pears was based on the fact that they rank third among the most important tree fruits. The estimated transpiration rates ranged between 0.03 and 0.28 mg cm−2 h−1 for water vapour pressure deficit range of 0.0–0.52 kPa. The mean respiration rates were calculated at 0, 10 and 20 °C as 0.48 ± 0.1, 1.27 ± 0.2 and 3.48 ± 1.1 mL[CO2] 100 g−1 h−1. Quantification of the two sources of water loss showed that, close to saturation (20 °C and 95% RH), the water loss due to respiration accounts for 39% of the water loss due to water vapour pressure deficit while, on average, the water loss due to respiration accounts for 8%, 14% and 23% of the water loss due to water vapour deficit at 0, 10 and 20 °C. These findings justify why water loss due to respiration should not be neglected under certain environmental conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-04-17T09:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 158 (2017)
  • Evaluation and characterisation of Passive Infrared Detectors to monitor
           pig activities in an environmental research building
    • Authors: Ji-Qin Ni; Shule Liu; John S. Radcliffe; Caitlin Vonderohe
      Pages: 86 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 158
      Author(s): Ji-Qin Ni, Shule Liu, John S. Radcliffe, Caitlin Vonderohe
      In confined feeding operations, animal activity can affect environmental variables such as indoor gas and dust concentrations, which can have negative impact on animal health and welfare. Therefore, monitoring animal activities is important in research into the environment of animal rearing. In this study, low-cost Passive Infrared Detector (PID) motion sensors were studied to monitor pig activities in the Swine Environmental Research Building, Purdue University, USA. Special functions were programmed into custom-developed data acquisition software to process the sensor analogue output signals and provide real-time, continuous, and quantitative data, which reflected behaviour-related pig activities. Signals from the PID sensors were averaged at different time intervals for data interpretation. Data using the PID sensors demonstrated substantial differences in activity magnitudes of pigs between day and night, which confirmed diurnal patterns of pig behaviours. Short-time disturbance by operational work in the rooms could cause prolonged excitement and activities of the pigs. In addition, the study revealed that pigs were active at different times of the day as they grew up. Pigs were most active between 30 and 100 post-weaning days. Based on the results of this study, PID sensors can be used to assist in monitoring pig activities in livestock production and research into animal behaviours and welfare.

      PubDate: 2017-04-24T09:41:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.03.014
      Issue No: Vol. 158 (2017)
  • Influence of mode stirrer and air renewal on controlled microwave drying
           of sliced zucchini
    • Authors: Gennaro Cuccurullo; Laura Giordano; Antonio Metallo; Luciano Cinquanta
      Pages: 95 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 158
      Author(s): Gennaro Cuccurullo, Laura Giordano, Antonio Metallo, Luciano Cinquanta
      An on-line temperature-controlled microwave (MW) system, based on infrared thermography, was developed for drying zucchini slices. Moreover, the effects of different configurations, including turntable rotation, mode stirrer and air renewal, alone or in combination, on drying kinetics and quality of dried product were evaluated. The combination of stirrer and air renewal reduced the drying time of zucchini slices by about 48% with respect to the basic configuration and by 22% with respect to air renewal only. The lowest oscillation of temperatures about the fixed level (65 °C) was found when operating with the stirrer mode, because of the improved uniformity of the MW distribution. The samples treated by stirrer and air renewal configurations showed less variation in colour: the decrease of brightness was about 19% with respect to fresh samples and the value of global variation of colour, ΔE, was 18. It is important to note that air renewal in MW processing is an almost zero energy-cost option.

      PubDate: 2017-04-24T09:41:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.03.012
      Issue No: Vol. 158 (2017)
  • Density-independent algorithm for sensing moisture content of sawdust
           based on reflection measurements
    • Authors: Sakol Julrat; Samir Trabelsi
      Pages: 102 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 158
      Author(s): Sakol Julrat, Samir Trabelsi
      A density-independent algorithm for moisture content determination in sawdust, based on a one-port reflection measurement technique is proposed for the first time. Performance of this algorithm is demonstrated through measurement of the dielectric properties of sawdust with an open-ended half-mode substrate integrated waveguide (HMSIW) sensor. For accurate measurement of the dielectric properties of sawdust, the HMSIW sensor was calibrated by using a three-material calibration technique, with air, water and 25% ethanol aqueous solution. For moisture determination, a density-independent calibration function expressed in terms of the dielectric properties was used. Both moist and dry bulk densities were considered for the complex-plane representation of the dielectric properties. Results of moisture prediction, relative to each complex-plane representation were found to be similar at 5 GHz and 23 °C with the standard errors of performance of 0.955% and 0.957%, respectively.

      PubDate: 2017-05-01T10:04:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 158 (2017)
  • Modelling of micrometeorology, canopy transpiration and photosynthesis in
           a closed greenhouse using computational fluid dynamics
    • Authors: Thierry Boulard; Jean-Claude Roy; Jean-Baptiste Pouillard; Hicham Fatnassi; Ariane Grisey
      Pages: 110 - 133
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 158
      Author(s): Thierry Boulard, Jean-Claude Roy, Jean-Baptiste Pouillard, Hicham Fatnassi, Ariane Grisey
      Closed greenhouse systems allow micrometeorological conditions to be optimised for both energy saving and high quality yields. However, micrometeorological parameters need to be accurately monitored as a response to daily environmental conditions changes. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was developed to predict the distribution of temperature, water vapour and CO2 occurring in a Venlo-type semi-closed glass greenhouse equipped with air conditioners. Sensible and latent heat fluxes in the crop rows were included in the model along with radiation through a Discrete Ordinates (DO) model. A model for photosynthesis was also included to predict the evolution of the CO2 concentrations inside the greenhouse. Comparisons between simulated and measured values showed a good agreement for temperature and humidity. Good agreement was found also between simulated and experimental CO2 concentration values determined during a sunny summer day. Simulations were also performed to investigate the vertical distribution of temperature and humidity for two different Leaf Area Density (LAD) values (2.95 m− 1 and 5.9 m− 1) and for different arrangements of the air conditioners. Simulation results showed that tall canopies, with high LAD, simultaneously induce a stronger cooling of the interior air. They also enhance temperature stratification providing a substantial decrease at canopy level. Lower suction also enhances stratification of the interior air.

      PubDate: 2017-05-01T10:04:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 158 (2017)
  • Weed segmentation using texture features extracted from wavelet sub-images
    • Authors: Adel Bakhshipour; Abdolabbas Jafari; Seyed Mehdi Nassiri; Dariush Zare
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 157
      Author(s): Adel Bakhshipour, Abdolabbas Jafari, Seyed Mehdi Nassiri, Dariush Zare
      Weed detection is a complicated problem which needs several sources of information to be gathered for successful discrimination. In this paper wavelet texture features were examined to verify their potential in weed detection in a sugar beet crop. Successive steps in a discrimination algorithm were designed to determine the wavelet texture features for each image sub-division to be fed to an artificial neural network. Co-occurrence texture features were determined for each multi-resolution image produced by single-level wavelet transform. Image segmentation was based on the decision made by neural network to label each sub-division as weed or main crop. Optimisation of the algorithm was tried by investigating two manners of discrimination of weeds from the main crop. Principal Component Analysis was used to select 14 from the 52 extracted texture features. Results demonstrated that the wavelet texture features were able to effectively discriminate weeds among the crops even when there was significant amount of occlusion and leaves overlapping.

      PubDate: 2017-03-07T18:56:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 157 (2017)
  • Detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in individual maize kernels using short
           wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging
    • Authors: Xuan Chu; Wei Wang; Seung-Chul Yoon; Xinzhi Ni; Gerald W. Heitschmidt
      Pages: 13 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 157
      Author(s): Xuan Chu, Wei Wang, Seung-Chul Yoon, Xinzhi Ni, Gerald W. Heitschmidt
      Short wave infrared hyperspectral imaging (SWIR) (1000–2500 nm) was used to detect aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in single maize kernels. One hundred and twenty kernels of four varieties artificially inoculated with a toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus in the field were examined. Normalisation and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied on average spectra of each kernel to reduce dimensionality and noise. Combining with support vector machine (SVM) classification methods, the first five principal components (PCs) were used to qualitatively classify the AFB1 contamination levels (<20 ppb, 20–100 ppb, ≥100 ppb) in single kernels without effect of maize variety. Classification accuracies were 83.75% and 82.50% for calibration and validation set, respectively. It was also noted that a general correlation exists between categorical AFB1 content and the first three PCs. Coefficients of determination (R2) of the support vector machine regression model were 0.77 and 0.70 for calibration and validation set separately. A possible distribution map of AFB1 was also made by applying the regression model on every pixel of the hyperspectral image. Moreover, using loading plots of the mutual first three PCs, five wavelengths (1317, 1459, 1865, 1934 and 2274 nm) were selected as characteristic wavelengths. Results indicated that hyperspectral imaging could be used to classify AFB1 level qualitatively in individual maize kernels, however the performance of predicting the categorical AFB1 content still needs to be improved.

      PubDate: 2017-03-07T18:56:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 157 (2017)
  • Optimum design of an array structure for the grain loss sensor to upgrade
           its resolution for harvesting rice in a combine harvester
    • Authors: Zhenwei Liang; Yaoming Li; Lizhang Xu; Zhan Zhao; Zhong Tang
      Pages: 24 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 157
      Author(s): Zhenwei Liang, Yaoming Li, Lizhang Xu, Zhan Zhao, Zhong Tang
      Grain loss is an inevitable part of the working process of a combine harvester and is influenced by a wide range of parameters. Since the 1960s researchers have engaged in developing grain loss auto-detection technology. Monitoring of grain loss has been achieved by quantifying grain impacts during occurring over a fixed interval based on the piezoelectric effect. However, saturation phenomena, originating from impact-based measurement principle, occur with existing grain loss sensors when they deal with high impacts rates. There is a need to optimise structure of the grain loss sensors to improve their resolution to meet requirements in rice harvesting. To establish a proper position for the developed sensor, an experiment was carried out on a test-bench in the laboratory using rice fed at different rates. The geometry of the instrumented plate had a significant influence on the performance of the sensor. To analyse the effect of the structure of the plate on detecting performance, a modal analysis and grain collision tests were carried out using different structural forms of instrumented plate. An array structure for the grain loss sensor was proposed which should enhance its reliability by providing further complementary data from the monitoring array. Calibration experiment results showed that the instrumented plate with a length of 150 mm, width of 40 mm, and a thickness of 1.0 mm was the optimum size and could monitor and discriminate rice grains effectively. Field test results showed that the averaged relative measurement error was <3.83%.

      PubDate: 2017-03-07T18:56:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 157 (2017)
  • A real-time ultrasonic system to measure wild blueberry plant height
           during harvesting
    • Authors: Young K. Chang; Qamar U. Zaman; Tanzeel U. Rehman; Aitazaz A. Farooque; Travis Esau; Muhammad W. Jameel
      Pages: 35 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 157
      Author(s): Young K. Chang, Qamar U. Zaman, Tanzeel U. Rehman, Aitazaz A. Farooque, Travis Esau, Muhammad W. Jameel
      Spatial variations in wild blueberry plant height pose a serious challenge for the operator to maintain the optimum harvester picking head height. Harvester head adjustment based on plant height increases harvestable fruit yield and quality while preventing plant pulling. An advanced Ultrasonic Plant Height Measurement System II (UPHMS II) was developed and incorporated into a commercial mechanical harvester. The developed system consisted of three ultrasonic sensors covering the width of the harvester head, a real-time kinematics global positioning system (RTK-GPS), custom built software, and a rugged computer. The custom software acquired and processed the ultrasonic sensing data in real-time during mechanical harvesting. Four wild blueberry fields were selected in central Nova Scotia to evaluate the performance of the developed system. Forty eight experimental plots were randomly constructed within four fields and wild blueberry plant heights were recorded manually prior to harvest. The UPHMS II was tested and evaluated to estimate plant height. The manual plant height measurements were compared with ultrasonically sensed data to ensure the accuracy of the developed system. A previous system (UPHMS I) comprising of one ultrasonic sensor was also tested and evaluated. Results of regression and scatter plots revealed that the UPHMS II was able to sense plant height in real-time more accurately with root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.7 cm when compared with the UPHMS I (RMSE = 5.7 cm). The UPHMS II equipped with three sensors covered the complete width of the harvester (0.91 m), which showed higher accuracy compared to the UPHMS I.

      PubDate: 2017-03-12T22:54:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 157 (2017)
  • Adaptability to future climate of irrigated crops: The interplay of water
           management and cultivars responses. A case study on tomato
    • Authors: Francesca De Lorenzi; Silvia M. Alfieri; Eugenia Monaco; Antonello Bonfante; Angelo Basile; Cristina Patanè; Massimo Menenti
      Pages: 45 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 157
      Author(s): Francesca De Lorenzi, Silvia M. Alfieri, Eugenia Monaco, Antonello Bonfante, Angelo Basile, Cristina Patanè, Massimo Menenti
      In the context of climate change strategies are needed towards sustainable agricultural production. The aim of this study is to identify crop adaptation options to face the expected changes in water availability by exploiting the existing intra-specific biodiversity of the tomato crop and accounting for irrigation management and the hydrological properties of soils. The biophysical dimension of crop adaptation is therefore addressed. A study is presented examining an irrigated district in southern Italy. Using as a climatic reference the period 1961–90 and as a future climate the period 2021–2050, a soil water availability indicator was determined by a soil water balance model, at optimal irrigation and at different deficit irrigation strategies, in 23 soil units. For five tomato cultivars, hydrological requirements were determined by means of yield response functions to soil water availability. Cultivar-specific hydrological requirements were evaluated against the soil water availability indicator to determine probabilities of adaptation of each cultivar. These cultivars are not currently being grown in the study area so their potential spatial distribution in the study area was estimated. For instance, with 60% of optimal irrigation, two cultivars were assessed as having probabilities of crop adaptation larger than 0.89, in 90% and 62% of the area. In the future climate, with limited water resources, a proper choice and combination of cultivars, irrigation strategies and soils would allow to maintain the current production system in a large part of the study area.

      PubDate: 2017-03-12T22:54:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 157 (2017)
  • Effect of fruit location on apple detachment with mechanical shaking
    • Authors: Long He; Han Fu; Manoj Karkee; Qin Zhang
      Pages: 63 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 157
      Author(s): Long He, Han Fu, Manoj Karkee, Qin Zhang
      Fresh market apples are picked manually around the world. To reduce dependence on seasonal labour and minimise harvest costs, shake and catch harvesting methods have been investigated (no commercialised product). During shaking, certain amount of fruits could not be detached primarily due to insufficient level of transferred energy. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the efficiency in detaching fruit from different locations of tree branches in modern trellis-trained trees. A fruit location index was formulated and estimated to identify the location of targeted apples on a branch by considering the geometric dimensions of fruit bearing twig (twig index) and excited branch (branch index). A dynamic test system was developed to measure the response of fruit under certain shaking modes. The weights of twig index and branch index were optimised with maximizing R 2 of regression model between fruit acceleration and fruit location index. This study indicated that the fruit location has a critical influence on fruit detachment with shaking. Test fruits (‘Envy’ variety) could generally be detached within 5 s of shaking when fruit acceleration was higher than 5 g, and the corresponding fruit location indices were 0.071, 0.06, and 0.061 in three test frequencies. Harvesting tests showed that over 90% of fruits with location index greater than 0.06 were detached under 20 Hz shaking. Fruit quality assessment was not included in this study. The study provided baseline knowledge and information for improving the fruit canopy management practices to obtain high fruit removal efficiency.

      PubDate: 2017-03-12T22:54:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 157 (2017)
  • Spectral assessment of two-spotted spider mite damage levels in the leaves
           of greenhouse-grown pepper and bean
    • Authors: Ittai Herrmann; Michael Berenstein; Tarin Paz-Kagan; Amit Sade; Arnon Karnieli
      Pages: 72 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 157
      Author(s): Ittai Herrmann, Michael Berenstein, Tarin Paz-Kagan, Amit Sade, Arnon Karnieli
      The two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch; TSSM) feeds on the under-surface of leaves, piercing the chloroplast-containing cells and affecting pigments as well as leaf structure. This damage could be spectrally detectable in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. The aim was to spectrally explore the ability to assess TSSM damage levels in greenhouse-grown pepper (Capsicum annuum) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves. Several vegetation indices (VIs) provided the ability to classify early TSSM damage using a one-way analysis of variance. Hyperspectral (400–1000 nm) and multispectral (five common bands) data were analysed and cross-validated independently by partial least squares-discriminant analysis models. These analyses resulted in 100% and 95% success in identifying early damage with hyperspectral data reflected from pepper and bean leaves, respectively, and in 92% with multispectral data reflected from pepper leaves. Although the TSSM activity occurred on the underside of leaves their damage can be spectrally detected by reflected data from the upper side. Early TSSM damage identification to greenhouse pepper and bean leaves, that their sole damage was by TSSM, can be obtained by VIs, hyperspectral data, and multispectral data. This study shows that by using sub leaf spatial resolution early damage by TSSM can be spectrally detected. It can be potentially applied for greenhouses as well as fields as an early detection method for TSSM management.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T08:23:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 157 (2017)
  • Design and construction of a flexible laboratory-scale mixing apparatus
           for continuous ethylene supplementation of fresh produce
    • Authors: Robert S. Amoah; Sandra Landahl; Leon A. Terry
      Pages: 86 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 157
      Author(s): Robert S. Amoah, Sandra Landahl, Leon A. Terry
      The design and construction of a laboratory-scale apparatus for generating variable concentrations and flow rates of exogenous ethylene for fresh produce supplementation during storage trials is described. A stock of compressed ethylene in nitrogen (5000 μl l−1) was blended into a continuous flow stream of air and diluted to the desired concentrations. The ethylene and air flow rates were controlled with calibrated mass flow control valves. An empirical mathematical model was derived for real-time variation of both the mixed concentration and flow rate during continuous flow. Validation of the model was performed using fresh sweet potato as a case study where a steady continuous ethylene concentration of 10 μl l−1 was achieved for three months. The bespoke system offers easy-to-manage ethylene supplementation for research.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T08:23:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 157 (2017)
  • A multi-Kinect cow scanning system: Calculating linear traits from
           manually marked recordings of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows
    • Authors: Jennifer Salau; Jan H. Haas; Wolfgang Junge; Georg Thaller
      Pages: 92 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 157
      Author(s): Jennifer Salau, Jan H. Haas, Wolfgang Junge, Georg Thaller
      Microsoft Kinect systems have already been used for detecting lameness and determining body condition in dairy cattle. A combination of six Kinect cameras was used with the goal of measuring linear descriptive traits. To access the precision of measurements gathered with a fixed installed recording unit, front teats and ischial tuberosities were marked manually in the recordings. Teat lengths and heights of ischial tuberosities were then calculated from the 3D coordinates. Recorded with cattle standing still and walking, teat lengths showed a standard error range from 0.7 mm to 1.5 mm and 1.8 mm–3.2 mm, respectively. The standard errors regarding the heights of the ischial tuberosities ranged between 2.4 mm and 4.0 mm in standstill and between 14.0 mm and 22.5 mm when measured on a walking cow.

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T08:44:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 157 (2017)
  • Modeling thin layer drying-roasting kinetics of soaked quinoa. Coupled
           mass and energy transfer
    • Authors: Ricardo M. Torrez Irigoyen; Sergio A. Giner
      Pages: 99 - 108
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 157
      Author(s): Ricardo M. Torrez Irigoyen, Sergio A. Giner
      Quinoa has higher protein content (11–16% m/m) and better amino acid profile than most cereals and represents a valuable resource for healthy nutrition. This work studied the kinetics of mass and energy transfer during fluidised thin layer drying-roasting of soaked and washed quinoa, a treatment suitable for preparing a ready-to-eat food. Curves describing moisture content and temperature behaviour with time were obtained for temperatures of 80, 100, 120, and 140 °C and air velocity of 0.8 m s−1. A coupled mass and energy model was proposed to describe the curves mathematically. The model consisted of a pair of ordinary differential equations (ODEs): a transient macroscopic energy balance equation for heat transfer and either a short or a long dimensionless time mass transfer equation. The model was used to determine the effective diffusion coefficient proposed as an Arrhenius function of temperature by utilising the whole dataset. The heat transfer coefficient was estimated from a correlation reported earlier with values ranging from 164 to 179 W m−2 °C−1. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor were fitted using a combined method involving a numerical integration of the ODE system followed by a parameter optimisation algorithm. Values obtained were E a  = 39.9 kJ mol−1 and, D 0  = 2.872 × 10−4 m2 s−1, respectively. Predicted moisture content and temperatures agreed well with experimental values. The present research could be extended to deep fluidised bed models to help optimise existing equipment or design new.

      PubDate: 2017-04-03T09:02:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 157 (2017)
  • Multidimensional analysis model for highly pathogenic avian influenza
           using data cube and data mining techniques
    • Authors: Zhenshun Xu; Jonguk Lee; Daihee Park; Yongwha Chung
      Pages: 109 - 121
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 157
      Author(s): Zhenshun Xu, Jonguk Lee, Daihee Park, Yongwha Chung
      The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viral disease can spread rapidly, resulting in high mortality rates and severe economic damage. To minimize the damage incurred from such diseases, it is necessary to develop technology for collecting and analysing livestock disease data. In this paper, we propose a data cube model with data mining techniques for the analysis of HPAI using livestock disease data accumulated over an extended period. Based on the construction of the data cube model, a multidimensional HPAI analysis is performed using online analytical processing (OLAP) operations to assess the temporal and spatial perspectives of the spread of the disease with varying levels of abstraction. Furthermore, the proposed analysis model provides useful information that generates site connectedness and potential sequential dissemination routes of HPAI outbreaks by applying association rule mining and sequential pattern mining, respectively. We confirm the feasibility and applicability of the proposed HPAI analysis model by implementing and applying an analysis system to HPAI outbreaks in South Korea.

      PubDate: 2017-04-03T09:02:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 157 (2017)
  • Comparison of different uni- and multi-variate techniques for monitoring
           leaf water status as an indicator of water-deficit stress in wheat through
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 160
      Author(s): Bappa Das, Rabi N. Sahoo, Sourabh Pargal, Gopal Krishna, Rakesh Verma, Viswanathan Chinnusamy, Vinay K. Sehgal, Vinod K. Gupta
      Ten different wheat genotypes were studied for understanding their differential behaviour to different water-deficit stress levels. Hyperspectral data (350–2500 nm) and relative water content (RWC) of plants were measured at different stress level for identifying optimal spectral bands, indices and multivariate models to develop non-invasive phenotyping protocols. Evaluation of water sensitive existing spectral indices, proposed indices and band depth analysis at selected wavelengths was done with respect to RWC and prediction models were developed. The prediction models developed were efficient in predicting RWC with the R 2 values ranging from 0.73 to 0.88 for spectral indices and 0.74–0.85 with continuum depth. Then, the ratio spectral indices (RSI) and normalised difference spectral indices (NDSI) were obtained in all possible combinations within 350–2500 nm and their correlations with RWC were quantified to identify the best indices. The best spectral indices for estimating RWC in wheat were RSI (R 1391, R 1830) and NDSI (R 1391, R 1830) with R 2 of 0.86 and 0.81, respectively. Spectral reflectance data were also used to develop partial least squares regression (PLSR) followed by multiple linear regression (MLR), support vector machine regression (SVR), multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS) and random forest (RF) model to calculate plant RWC. Among these multivariate models, PLSR was the best model for prediction of RWC (R 2 and RMSE of 0.96 and 3.88%; 0.91 and 6.52% for calibration and validation, respectively). The methodology developed would help for its further use in high-throughput phenomics of different crops for drought stress.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T01:58:49Z
  • Psychrometer based on a contactless infrared thermometer with a predictive
           model for water evaporation
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 160
      Author(s): Chien Lee, Yu-Jen Wang
      This study developed a novel psychrometer design in which air is pumped by a 0.35-W minifan through a chamber with a hanging wet wick and a single-packaged contactless infrared thermometer aimed at the wick. The thermometer is small sized, low cost, commercially available, and comes factory calibrated with a digital I2C communication port. It can measure the temperatures of the package itself (dry bulb) and the wick surface (wet bulb). For the fast conversions of relative humidity (RH) and vapour pressure deficit Δe from both dry- and wet-bulb temperatures in a low-end microcontroller, a method for deriving a fifth-order polynomial approximation equation for saturation vapour pressure e s is presented. This equation enables the calculation to be rapidly executed on the microcontroller. An error analysis of conversion conducted taking the Goff–Gratch equations as a standard indicates that at temperatures ranging from 0 °C to 55 °C, the computational accuracy for RH reading is within +0.02 to −0.005, compared with ±0.1 derived for the Magnus form; in addition, the accuracy for Δe is within +0.002 to −0.0013 hPa, compared with +0.23 to −0.024 hPa derived for the Magnus form. For predicting the water evaporation of the psychrometer according to its own climate parameters, a model based on the simplified Penman Equation was constructed; the predictive error for water mass loss is within ±2 g for a 325-g evaporation.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T01:58:49Z
  • Effects of landscape positions on soil resistance to rill erosion in a
           small catchment on the Loess Plateau
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 160
      Author(s): Ren Geng, Guang-hui Zhang, Qian-hong Ma, Hao Wang
      Landscape position has significant effects on soil properties and plant roots, and thus probably affects soil resistance to rill erosion, reflected by rill erodibility and critical shear stress. However, the potential effects of landscape positions on soil resistance to rill erosion are still unclear. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the spatial variations in soil resistance to rill erosion under different landscape positions, and to identify the main factors controlling these variations in a small catchment of the Loess Plateau. 540 undisturbed soil samples were collected from 18 typical sampling sites of natural succession grassland under six landscape positions and subjected to scour under different flow shear stresses. The results showed that landscape position significantly affected the spatial variation of rill erodibility. The mean rill erodibility decreased gradually from the top of ridge to footslope and increased linearly with elevation. Significant differences were detected in rill erodibility between three grass species. No significant difference was found in critical shear stress between six landscape positions. Soil erosion and soil water content dominated the regular spatial changes of soil properties and root mass density along six landscape positions. All of these factors collectively resulted in the regular decrease of rill erodibility from the top of ridge to footslope. A negative relationship was identified between critical shear stress and clay content. Rill erodibility could be satisfactorily estimated by the median soil grain size, soil cohesion, water stable aggregate and root mass density.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T01:58:49Z
  • Bridging the gap between reliable data collection and the environmental
           impact for mechanised field operations
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering, Volume 160
      Author(s): Daniela Lovarelli, Jacopo Bacenetti
      Mechanisation is related to an important proportion of the environmental impacts associated with agriculture, mainly due to engine fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions, and materials production, use and disposal. Despite standardised and extensively accepted methods for environmental impact assessment have been developed, their application to mechanical field operations is still limited. In absence of reliable data, the reductions in environmental impact that are achievable cannot be easily evaluated by studying machinery already available on the market and more suitable machinery or by selecting the proper coupling between the implement and the tractor. This study carries out a comparative Life cycle assessment (LCA) of a rotary harrowing operation using different data sources. Data was gathered from: (i) Ecoinvent database, (ii) ENVIAM, a tool developed to support the completion of inventories for agricultural machinery varying the local pedo-climatic, operating and mechanical features, and (iii) primary data directly collected during experimental tests with CAN-bus, GPS and exhaust gases analyser. The analysis showed that using database average data, the resulting environmental load is not always reliable and, in this particular study, it consistently overestimated most outcomes. Moreover, by processing primary data collected using modern technology, the operation could be split in different working phases (effective work, turns, stationary-idling). Thus, specific mechanical features were quantified and this permitted the environmental impact to be evaluated with more detail.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T01:58:49Z
  • Assessing fresh urine puddle physics in commercial dairy cow houses
    • Authors: Dennis J.W. Snoek; Johannes D. Stigter; Sam K. Blaauw; Peter W.G. Groot Koerkamp; Nico W.M. Ogink
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering
      Author(s): Dennis J.W. Snoek, Johannes D. Stigter, Sam K. Blaauw, Peter W.G. Groot Koerkamp, Nico W.M. Ogink
      Ammonia emission from dairy barns can be reduced by measures that improve removal of urine from floors. Information characterizing physical and chemical properties of urine puddles on floors are essential to improve mitigation measures, however information representative for practical barn conditions is scanty. The objective of this paper is to assess the area (A p ) and depth (D p ) of fresh urine puddles in commercial dairy barns, and to investigate the effect of floor type, season and manure scraping on these variables. Sixteen farms were measured in a factorial design of four Floor-Management types (FMTypes). Each farm was measured in two seasons and underwent an intense-floor-cleaning treatment (PREclean) before puddle creation for the D p measurement, which was compared with those created under normal floor conditions with on-farm manure scraping. Overall mean values were 0.83 m2 for A p and 1.0 mm for D p . For both A p and D p the variation within a farm was large but negligible between farms. FMType significantly affected both variables. The V-shaped asphalt floor resulted in larger A p (1.04 m2) and D p (1.5 mm) than those of slatted and grooved floors (mean values 0.76 m2, 0.93 mm). Our study demonstrates that the draining capacity of solid floors is a critical design issue in lowering ammonia emission. The PREclean treatment resulted in D p values that were 3 times lower than values for puddles created under normal floor conditions. We conclude that there is a considerable potential to improve draining of excreted puddles by increasing the cleaning performance of manure scrapers.

      PubDate: 2017-05-12T10:26:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.04.003
  • Assessing fresh urine puddle chemistry in commercial dairy cow houses
    • Authors: Dennis J.W. Snoek; Johannes D. Stigter; Geert C.C. Kupers; Peter W.G. Groot Koerkamp; Nico W.M. Ogink
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering
      Author(s): Dennis J.W. Snoek, Johannes D. Stigter, Geert C.C. Kupers, Peter W.G. Groot Koerkamp, Nico W.M. Ogink
      Ammonia emission mainly originates from urea in urine puddles on floors in dairy cow houses. This emission process can be modelled. However, required model inputs have not been updated recently. In addition, values for the model variables pH, Urinary Urea Nitrogen concentration (UUN), and their relation with farm and feed management are unknown for commercial dairy cow houses. Moreover, their effect on ammonia emission is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this paper was to investigate the pH and UUN in livestock practice. Sixteen commercial farms were measured in a factorial design of four Floor-Management types (FMTypes). Each farm was measured in two seasons and a Diet factor was defined, based on the amount of grass in total roughage. Overall mean values were 4.27 kg m−3 for UUN, an initial pH of 8.3, both in fresh puddles, and a pH(ξ) of 9.0 for random puddles at a random time. For UUN both the variation within and between farms was large, whereas the variation for pH was small. The Diet was the only factor that resulted in a significant effect, with a 0.1 difference in pH(ξ). Compared to the reference values, both the mean UUN and pH showed smaller values. The calculated potential ammonia in kg puddle−1, however, showed a huge range and was considerably larger than the commonly used reference values in the Netherlands.

      PubDate: 2017-05-01T10:04:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.03.013
  • Discrete element simulations and experiments of soil disturbance as
           affected by the tine spacing of subsoiler
    • Authors: Chengguang Hang; Xijie Gao; Mengchan Yuan; Yuxiang Huang; Ruixiang Zhu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 April 2017
      Source:Biosystems Engineering
      Author(s): Chengguang Hang, Xijie Gao, Mengchan Yuan, Yuxiang Huang, Ruixiang Zhu
      Tine spacing is a key parameter for the design of a subsoiler and has a significant effect on soil disturbance, which is a critical performance indicator of subsoiling. In this study, a subsoiling model was developed using the discrete element method (DEM). A subsoiling experiment was also conducted in a field with a loamy clay soil to serve the model development and model validations. In both the simulation and experiment, two V-shaped subsoiling tines were investigated at five different tine spacings (300, 350, 400, 450, and 500 mm), a constant working speed (0.83 m s−1) and a constant working depth (300 mm). The results showed that the 400 mm tine spacing resulted in the highest particle forces in the middle and deep soil layers. The height of the unloosened soil between two adjacent subsoilers increased as tine spacing increased. When the tine spacing was varied from 300 to 500 mm, the undisturbed soil height was changed from 100 to 226 mm in the experiment, and from 79 to 170 mm in the modelling. When the tine spacing was 400 mm, the number of soil particles disturbed in the shallow soil layer accounted for 45.6% of the total soil particles disturbed, which was the least among all the tine spacings. Considering the characteristics of soil disturbance, the tine spacing of 400 mm appeared to outperform the other spacings.

      PubDate: 2017-04-17T09:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.03.008
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